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Sample records for geese anser brachyrhynchus

  1. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, Gitte Høj; Madsen, Jesper; Johnson, Fred A.; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.

    2014-01-01

    The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased during the last decades and is giving rise to agricultural conflicts along their migration route, as well as causing grazing impacts on tundra vegetation. An adaptive flyway management plan has been implemented, which will be based on predictive population models including environmental variables expected to affect goose population development, such as weather conditions on the breeding grounds. A local study in Svalbard showed that snow cover prior to egg laying is a crucial factor for the reproductive output of pink-footed geese, and MODIS satellite images provided a useful estimator of snow cover. In this study, we up-scaled the analysis to the population level by examining various measures of snow conditions and compared them with the overall breeding success of the population as indexed by the proportion of juveniles in the autumn population. As explanatory variables, we explored MODIS images, satellite-based radar measures of onset of snow melt, winter NAO index, and the May temperature sum and May thaw days. To test for the presence of density dependence, we included the number of adults in the population. For 2000–2011, MODIS-derived snow cover (available since 2000) was the strongest indicator of breeding conditions. For 1981–2011, winter NAO and May thaw days had equal weight. Interestingly, there appears to have been a phase shift from density-dependent to density-independent reproduction, which is consistent with a hypothesis of released breeding potential due to the recent advancement of spring in Svalbard.

  2. Regulation of the hunting season as a tool for adaptive harvest management — First results for pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madsen, Jesper; Clausen, Kevin; Christensen, Thomas K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2016-01-01

    Adjustment of hunting season length is often used to regulate harvest of waterbirds but the effects are disputed. We describe the first results of season length extension on the harvest of the pink-footed goose, which has been selected as the first test case of adaptive harvest management of waterbirds in Europe. In Denmark, the season (previously 1 September to 31 December) was extended to include January in 2014-15 with the aim to increase the harvest and, in the longer term, reduce the population size. The total harvest in Denmark increased by 52% compared to previous years, and almost 50% of the Danish harvest was taken in the January extension. In the course of the hunting season, the proportion of adults in the bag increased. In this case, the outcomes from the first extension of season suggest that season length adjustment can be an effective tool to regulate harvest, though dependent on winter weather conditions and hunters’ motivation for shooting geese.

  3. Juvenile Greylag Geese (Anser anser) Discriminate between Individual Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Scheiber, Isabella B. R.; Hohnstein, Aileen; Kotrschal, Kurt; Weiß, Brigitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Social species that maintain individualised relationships with certain others despite continuous changes in age, reproductive status and dominance rank between group members ought to be capable of individual recognition. Tests of “true” individual recognition, where an individual recognises unique features of another, are rare, however. Often kinship and/or familiarity suffice to explain dyadic interactions. The complex relationships within a greylag goose flock suggest that they should be able to recognise individuals irrespective of familiarity or kinship. We tested whether six-week-old hand-raised greylags can discriminate between two of their siblings. We developed a new experimental protocol, in which geese were trained to associate social siblings with geometrical symbols. Subsequently, focals were presented with two geometrical symbols in the presence of a sibling associated with one of the symbols. Significant choice of the geometrical symbol associated with the target present indicated that focals were able to distinguish between individual targets. Greylag goslings successfully learned this association-discrimination task, regardless of genetic relatedness or sex of the sibling targets. Social relationships within a goose flock thus may indeed be based on recognition of unique features of individual conspecifics. PMID:21826212

  4. Migration strategies of Swan Geese Anser cygnoides from northeast Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Prosser, Diann J.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Xiao, Xiangming

    2011-01-01

    In 2006–2008, 25 Swan Geese Anser cygnoides were marked with solar-powered GPS satellite transmitters in northeast Mongolia to examine the timing and pathways of their migration. Most geese began their autumn migration in August, flying southeast toward a staging area at the Yalu River Estuary on the China-North Korea border. After staging for several weeks, the Swan Geese continued to their wintering grounds at wetlands along the Yangtze River Basin of eastern China in December. Spring migration commenced in late February, and the birds following either a same-route or loop migration to arrive at the breeding grounds in mid April. Swan Geese used a larger number of staging areas for a longer duration when they were north of 42°N latitude; they seemed to avoid staging for extended periods in the highly urbanised areas of eastern China. Further research should examine threats and disturbances to the geese in relation to human population growth and increasing urbanisation.

  5. Natural induction of spontaneous liver steatosis in Greylag Landaise geese (Anser anser).

    PubMed

    Guy, G; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Bénard, G; Fernandez, X

    2013-01-01

    The present experiment aimed at demonstrating that the Greylag geese (Anser anser), commonly used for the production of foie gras, are able to develop spontaneous hyperphagia and subsequent liver steatosis under specific handling conditions and without overfeeding. One hundred and eighty male geese were used in this experiment. After a period of feed restriction, at the age of 19 wk, corn was provided ad libitum. From wk 21 to 23, the daylight duration was progressively reduced from 10 to 7 h and kept as such until the end of the experiment (wk 31). Thirty birds were slaughtered at wk 19, 23, 25, 27, 29, and 31. During the first 2 wk after corn delivery, the average consumption rose up to 600 g/bird/d and decreased slowly thereafter to reach 270 g at wk 31. The liver weight increased from 95 (wk 19) to 514 g (wk 31), and most of these changes were due to the increase in liver lipid content from 6 to 50% of liver weight. There was no mortality during the experimental period. Histological observations indicate that the accumulation of fat in the livers occurred through a large increase in the size of the hepatocytes without modification of the cell boundaries and without any sign of inflammation or degeneration. Our data clearly show that under specific management conditions of feeding and photoperiod, the geese are able to initiate spontaneous liver steatosis. These results demonstrate their natural ability to store fat in the liver without any visible sign of tissue alteration. However, the variability in the response remains very high (at wk 31, the CV in liver weight was 45%). Further research is needed to better understand the origin of this variability.

  6. Preliminary studies on the reaction of growing geese (Anser anser f. domestica) to the proximity of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, J; Borowski, S; Marć-Pieńkowska, J; Odrowaz-Sypniewska, G; Bernacki, Z; Siódmiak, J; Szterk, P

    2013-01-01

    Wind farms produce electricity without causing air pollution and environmental degradation. Unfortunately, wind turbines are a source of infrasound, which may cause a number of physiological effects, such as an increase in cortisol and catecholamine secretion. The impact of infrasound noise, emitted by wind turbines, on the health of geese and other farm animals has not previously been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of noise, generated by wind turbines, on the stress parameters (cortisol) and the weight gain of geese kept in surrounding areas. The study consisted of 40 individuals of 5-week-old domestic geese Anser anser f domestica, divided into 2 equal groups. The first experimental gaggle (I) remained within 50 m from turbine and the second one (II) within 500 m. During the 12 weeks of the study, noise measurements were also taken. Weight gain and the concentration of cortisol in blood were assessed and significant differences in both cases were found. Geese from gaggle I gained less weight and had a higher concentration of cortisol in blood, compared to individuals from gaggle II. Lower activity and some disturbing changes in behavior of animals from group I were noted. Results of the study suggest a negative effect of the immediate vicinity of a wind turbine on the stress parameters of geese and their productivity. PMID:24597302

  7. Preliminary studies on the reaction of growing geese (Anser anser f. domestica) to the proximity of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, J; Borowski, S; Marć-Pieńkowska, J; Odrowaz-Sypniewska, G; Bernacki, Z; Siódmiak, J; Szterk, P

    2013-01-01

    Wind farms produce electricity without causing air pollution and environmental degradation. Unfortunately, wind turbines are a source of infrasound, which may cause a number of physiological effects, such as an increase in cortisol and catecholamine secretion. The impact of infrasound noise, emitted by wind turbines, on the health of geese and other farm animals has not previously been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of noise, generated by wind turbines, on the stress parameters (cortisol) and the weight gain of geese kept in surrounding areas. The study consisted of 40 individuals of 5-week-old domestic geese Anser anser f domestica, divided into 2 equal groups. The first experimental gaggle (I) remained within 50 m from turbine and the second one (II) within 500 m. During the 12 weeks of the study, noise measurements were also taken. Weight gain and the concentration of cortisol in blood were assessed and significant differences in both cases were found. Geese from gaggle I gained less weight and had a higher concentration of cortisol in blood, compared to individuals from gaggle II. Lower activity and some disturbing changes in behavior of animals from group I were noted. Results of the study suggest a negative effect of the immediate vicinity of a wind turbine on the stress parameters of geese and their productivity.

  8. Effects of avian cholera on survival of lesser snow geese Anser caerulescens: an experimental approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Orthmeyer, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Avian cholera, caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, is one of the most important diseases affecting waterfowl in North America but little is known about the epizootiology of this disease or its impacts on annual survival rates. We ringed Lesser Snow Geese Anser caerulescens nesting at Wrangel Island, Russia and Banks Island, Canada with metal rings and individually coded plastic neck-collars or radio-transmitters to determine survival, movement and cause of death. We vaccinated half of the neck-collared and radiotagged geese to provide protection from avian cholera for up to one year following ringing and thus experimentally determine the impacts of this disease on survival. We found that vaccination did not reduce short-term survival of the experimental birds, compared with control geese. Neck-collared geese vaccinated in 1993 at Wrangel Island had higher survival during winter 1993-94 than control birds. In contrast, we found similar survival during winter 1994-95 between vaccinated and control geese neck-collared in 1994 at Wrangel and Banks Islands. Survival of radiotagged geese on wintering areas during 1994-95 was consistent with the vaccination versus control results for neck-collared geese during the same winter. However, we found that radiotagged geese that were vaccinated had better survival than control geese during winter 1995-96. We believe that harvest and avian cholera are the two principal causes of mortality for Lesser Snow Geese wintering in the Pacific Flyway and that avian cholera may be one of the factors affecting these populations.

  9. Effects of avian cholera on survival of Lesser Snow Geese Anser caerulescens: An experimental approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Orthmeyer, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Avian cholera, caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, is one of the most important diseases affecting waterfowl in North America but little is known about the epizootiology of this disease or its impacts on annual survival rates. We ringed Lesser Snow Geese Anser caerulescens nesting at Wrangel Island, Russia and Banks Island, Canada with metal rings and individually coded plastic neck-collars or radio-transmitters to determine survival, movement and cause of death. We vaccinated half of the neck-collared and radiotagged geese to provide protection from avian cholera for up to one year following ringing and thus experimentally determine the impacts of this disease on survival. We found that vaccination did not reduce short-term survival of the experimental birds, compared with control geese. Neck-collared geese vaccinated in 1993 at Wrangel Island had higher survival during winter 1993-94 than control birds. In contrast, we found similar survival during winter 1994-95 between vaccinated and control geese neck-collared in 1994 at Wrangel and Banks Islands. Survival of radiotagged geese on wintering areas during 1994-95 was consistent with the vaccination versus control results for neck-collared geese during the same winter. However, we found that radiotagged geese that were vaccinated had better survival than control geese during winter 1995-96. We believe that harvest and avian cholera are the two principal causes of mortality for Lesser Snow Geese wintering in the Pacific Flyway and that avian cholera may be one of the factors affecting these populations.

  10. Glucocorticoids enhance and suppress heart rate and behaviour in time dependent manner in greylag geese (Anser anser).

    PubMed

    Kralj-Fiser, Simona; Scheiber, Isabella B R; Kotrschal, Kurt; Weiss, Brigitte M; Wascher, Claudia A F

    2010-06-16

    Stress responses involve autonomic, endocrine and behavioural changes. Each of these responses has been studied thoroughly in avian species, but hardly in an integrative way, in free-living birds. This is necessary to reveal the temporal dynamics of the stress response. Towards that goal, we recorded heart rate (HR) and behaviour in free-ranging male greylag geese (Anser anser) simultaneously over 2h. The geese were subjected to (a) unmanipulated control condition, (b) capture, handling and injection of ACTH, and (c) capture, handling and injection of a saline solution (SHAM). Fecal samples for the non-invasive determination of immuno-reactive glucocorticoid metabolite (BM) concentrations were collected for 7h thereafter. The SHAM control caused a significant BM increase, a transient increase in HR, an initial increase of preening behaviour and a delay in feeding. ACTH treatment, relative to SHAM, produced significantly higher BM concentrations, and activation of "displacement behaviours" such as wing flapping, body shaking and preening. Also, feeding activity as well as resting was postponed and/or lower for a longer period of time after ACTH than after SHAM. ACTH injection had a greater effect than SHAM injection on HR increase in the first hour, but particularly on HR decline in the second hour following the injection. Hence, glucocorticoids had time- and dose-dependent stimulatory and suppressive effects on cardiovascular activity and behaviour. HR dynamics after ACTH actually matched with behavioural dynamics: both were first enhanced and later suppressed, which is in alignment with adaptive stress management involving the fight-flight response and recovery from stress, respectively.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of Sichuan white geese (Anser cygnoides) transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ning; Han, Qing; Li, Qin; Zhao, Xianzhi; Li, Jing; Su, Jian; Wang, Qigui

    2014-06-01

    High-throughput RNA sequencing was performed for comprehensively analyzing the transcriptome of geese. A total of 28,803,759 bp of raw sequence data was generated by 454 GS Flx+. After removal of adaptor sequences, 28,730,361 bp remained and 117,279 reads were obtained, with an average length of 244 bases. Simultaneously, complementary DNA samples from two different reproductive stages of goose ovarian, hypothalamus and pituitary tissue were sequenced separately using Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 12 688 673 148 bp of raw sequence data were generated by Illumina MiSeq. After removal of adaptor sequences, 8 198 126 562 bp remained and 60 382 786 clean reads were obtained, with an average length of 135 bases. Assembly of all the reads from both 454 Flx+ and Illumina platforms formed 56,839 contigs. The sequence size ranges from 38 to 28,206 bp in size, with an average size of 2584 bp and an N50 of 4624. The assembly produced a substantial number of large contigs: 35,545 (62.5%) were longer than 1 kb, of which 8850 (15.6%) were longer than 5 kb. The sequencing depth was 85 X on average. We performed comprehensive function annotations on unigenes including protein sequence similarity, gene ontology (GO) term classification, and Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. GO analysis showed that approximately 63% of the contigs had annotation information, among the 35,953 annotated isotigs in Nr database, 24,783 (68.9%) sequences were assigned with one or more GO terms. There were 14,634 (40.7%) isotigs for biological processes, 10,557(29.3%) isotigs for cellular component, 22,607 (62.9%) isotigs for molecular function. The result of KEGG pathway mapping 8926 sequences had the pathway annotation, and took part in 477 pathways. Additionally, 10,685 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were identified from the assembled sequences. The most frequent repeat motifs were trinucleotides, which accounted for 53.03% of all SSRs

  12. Assortative mating in lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens).

    PubMed

    Cooke, F; Finney, G H; Rockwell, R F

    1976-04-01

    Assortative mating occurs in the dimorphic lesser snow geese in the wild. Mixed matings between the blue and white phases are much less frequent than would be expected by chance. Evidence from marked birds in field conditions indicated that mate choice was correlated with familial color. Birds from white families usually chose white mates, birds from blue families usually chose blue mates, and birds from mixed families chose mates of either color. Similar results were obtained under captive conditions when offspring from foster families with particular parental and offspring color combinations were allowed to choose mates. Both parental color and sibling color appeared to influence mate choice. The bird's own color did not appear to be important in mate choice in either field or experimental conditions, and in those cases where male and female parents differed in color neither parental color was more influential than the other in determining offspring mate choice. The results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that mate selection based on familial appearance operates intraspecifically in the wild. PMID:1267737

  13. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Lucy A.; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Tseveenmyadag, Natsagdorj; Newman, Scott H.; Scott, Graham R.; Sathiyaselvam, Ponnusamy; Takekawa, John Y.; Wikelski, Martin; Bishop, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000 m in 7–8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8–2.2 km·h−1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power. PMID:21628594

  14. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Tseveenmyadag, N.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Wikelski, M.; Bishop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000min 7-8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8-2.2 km??h-1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power.

  15. Protective efficacy of a recombinant subunit West Nile virus vaccine in domestic geese (Anser anser)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Lieberman, M.M.; Hofmeister, E.; Nerurkar, V.R.; Wong, T.; Weeks-Levy, C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction of the West Nile virus (WNV) to Hawai'i will undoubtedly devastate many populations of critically endangered avian species indigenous to Hawai'i. The protective efficacy of a protein-based WNV subunit vaccine formulated with adjuvant was evaluated in domestic geese as a surrogate species for the endangered Ne??ne??, the state bird of Hawai'i. Prevention of viremia following viral infection of vaccinated birds was used as the clinical endpoint of protection. ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization tests demonstrate that significant levels of vaccine antigen-specific antibody were produced in groups of birds vaccinated with 5 or 10 ??g of the WN-80E antigen formulated with ISA720 adjuvant. Moreover, after challenge with WNV, no viremia was detected in vaccinated birds, whereas viremia was detected up to 4 days after and virus was detected by oral swab for 6 days after infection among control groups. Safe and effective vaccination of managed or captive endangered bird populations will protect species with critically low numbers that could not survive the added mortality of introduced disease. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Latitudinal-Related Variation in Wintering Population Trends of Greylag Geese (Anser Anser) along the Atlantic Flyway: A Response to Climate Change?

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Cristina; Amat, Juan A.; Nilsson, Leif; Schricke, Vincent; Rodríguez-Alonso, Mariano; Gómez-Crespo, Enrique; Jubete, Fernando; Navedo, Juan G.; Masero, José A.; Palacios, Jesús; Boos, Mathieu; Green, Andy J.

    2015-01-01

    The unusually high quality of census data for large waterbirds in Europe facilitates the study of how population change varies across a broad geographical range and relates to global change. The wintering population of the greylag goose Anser anser in the Atlantic flyway spanning between Sweden and Spain has increased from 120 000 to 610 000 individuals over the past three decades, and expanded its wintering range northwards. Although population sizes recorded in January have increased in all seven countries in the wintering range, we found a pronounced northwards latitudinal effect in which the rate of increase is higher at greater latitudes, causing a constant shift in the centre of gravity for the spatial distribution of wintering geese. Local winter temperatures have a strong influence on goose numbers but in a manner that is also dependent on latitude, with the partial effect of temperature (while controlling for the increasing population trend between years) being negative at the south end and positive at the north end of the flyway. Contrary to assumptions in the literature, the expansion of crops exploited by greylag geese has made little contribution to the increases in population size. Only in one case (expansion of winter cereals in Denmark) did we find evidence of an effect of changing land use. The expanding and shifting greylag population is likely to have increasing impacts on habitats in northern Europe during the course of this century. PMID:26465601

  17. Latitudinal-Related Variation in Wintering Population Trends of Greylag Geese (Anser Anser) along the Atlantic Flyway: A Response to Climate Change?

    PubMed

    Ramo, Cristina; Amat, Juan A; Nilsson, Leif; Schricke, Vincent; Rodríguez-Alonso, Mariano; Gómez-Crespo, Enrique; Jubete, Fernando; Navedo, Juan G; Masero, José A; Palacios, Jesús; Boos, Mathieu; Green, Andy J

    2015-01-01

    The unusually high quality of census data for large waterbirds in Europe facilitates the study of how population change varies across a broad geographical range and relates to global change. The wintering population of the greylag goose Anser anser in the Atlantic flyway spanning between Sweden and Spain has increased from 120 000 to 610 000 individuals over the past three decades, and expanded its wintering range northwards. Although population sizes recorded in January have increased in all seven countries in the wintering range, we found a pronounced northwards latitudinal effect in which the rate of increase is higher at greater latitudes, causing a constant shift in the centre of gravity for the spatial distribution of wintering geese. Local winter temperatures have a strong influence on goose numbers but in a manner that is also dependent on latitude, with the partial effect of temperature (while controlling for the increasing population trend between years) being negative at the south end and positive at the north end of the flyway. Contrary to assumptions in the literature, the expansion of crops exploited by greylag geese has made little contribution to the increases in population size. Only in one case (expansion of winter cereals in Denmark) did we find evidence of an effect of changing land use. The expanding and shifting greylag population is likely to have increasing impacts on habitats in northern Europe during the course of this century.

  18. Movement patterns of Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus during breeding and post-breeding periods at Qinghai Lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, P.; Hou, Y.; Tang, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Yin, Z.; Li, T.; Guo, S.; Xing, Z.; He, Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Yan, B.; Lei, F.

    2011-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak at Qinghai Lake, China, in 2005 caused the death of over 6,000 migratory birds, half of which were Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus. Understanding the movements of this species may inform monitoring of outbreak risks for HPAI viruses; thus, we investigated the movement patterns of 29 Bar-headed Geese at Qinghai Lake, China during 2007 and 2008 by using high resolution GPS satellite telemetry. We described the movements and distribution of marked Bar-headed Geese during the pre-nesting, nesting, and moulting periods. Of 21 Bar-headed Geese with complete transmission records, 3 moved to other areas during the nesting period: 2 to Jianghe wetland (50 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) and 1 to Cuolongka Lake (220 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) during the nesting period. We identified nesting attempts of 7 of the marked geese at Qinghai Lake. Four completed successful nesting attempts according to our rules of judgment for the breeding status, and 2 geese lost broods soon after hatching (hereafter referred to as unsuccessful breeders). Of 18 geese present at Qinghai Lake during the nesting period, 9 (6 non-breeders, 2 successful breeders and 1 unsuccessful breeder) remained at Qinghai Lake during the moulting period; and 9 (5 non-breeders, 4 unsuccessful breeders) left Qinghai Lake for moulting. Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake, Alake Lake, Zhaling-Eling Lake area and Huangheyuan wetland area were used as moulting sites. Geese that moulted at Qinghai Lake, Cuolongka Lake, Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake and Alake Lake also moved to Zhaling-Eling Lake area or Huangheyuan wetland area and stayed there for several days prior to autumn migration. Mean home range and core area estimates did not differ significantly by sex, year and between breeders and non-breeders. ?? 2010 Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V.

  19. Movement patterns of Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus during breeding and post-breeding periods at Qinghai Lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, Peng; Hou, Yuansheng; Tang, Mingjie; Zhang, Haiting; Zuohua, Yuanchun; Yin, Zuohua; Li, Tianxian; Guo, Shan; Xing, Zhi; He, Yubang; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak at Qinghai Lake, China, in 2005 caused the death of over 6,000 migratory birds, half of which were Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus. Understanding the movements of this species may inform monitoring of outbreak risks for HPAI viruses; thus, we investigated the movement patterns of 29 Bar-headed Geese at Qinghai Lake, China during 2007 and 2008 by using high resolution GPS satellite telemetry. We described the movements and distribution of marked Bar-headed Geese during the pre-nesting, nesting, and moulting periods. Of 21 Bar-headed Geese with complete transmission records, 3 moved to other areas during the nesting period: 2 to Jianghe wetland (50 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) and 1 to Cuolongka Lake (220 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) during the nesting period. We identified nesting attempts of 7 of the marked geese at Qinghai Lake. Four completed successful nesting attempts according to our rules of judgment for the breeding status, and 2 geese lost broods soon after hatching (hereafter referred to as unsuccessful breeders). Of 18 geese present at Qinghai Lake during the nesting period, 9 (6 non-breeders, 2 successful breeders and 1 unsuccessful breeder) remained at Qinghai Lake during the moulting period; and 9 (5 non-breeders, 4 unsuccessful breeders) left Qinghai Lake for moulting. Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake, Alake Lake, Zhaling-Eling Lake area and Huangheyuan wetland area were used as moulting sites. Geese that moulted at Qinghai Lake, Cuolongka Lake, Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake and Alake Lake also moved to Zhaling-Eling Lake area or Huangheyuan wetland area and stayed there for several days prior to autumn migration. Mean home range and core area estimates did not differ significantly by sex, year and between breeders and non-breeders.

  20. Geographic variation in Bar-headed geese Anser indicus: connectivity of wintering and breeding grounds across a broad front

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, John Y.; Heath, Shane R.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Javed, Salim; Newman, Scott H.; Suwal, Rajendra N.; Rahman, Asad R.; Choudhury, Binod C.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Scott, Graham R.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Wikelski, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The connectivity and frequency of exchange between sub-populations of migratory birds is integral to understanding population dynamics over the entire species' range. True geese are highly philopatric and acquire lifetime mates during the winter, suggesting that the number of distinct sub-populations may be related to the number of distinct wintering areas. In the Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, a species found exclusively in Central Asia, the connectivity between breeding and wintering areas is not well known. Their migration includes crossing a broad front of the Himalaya Cordillera, a significant barrier to migration for most birds. Many Bar-headed Geese fly to breeding areas on the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau (TQP), the highest plateau in the world. From 2005-2008, 60 Bar-headed Geese were captured and marked with satellite transmitters in Nepal (n = 2), India (n = 6), China (n = 29), and Mongolia (n = 23) to examine their migration and distribution. Distinct differences were observed in their migration corridors and timing of movements, including an apparent leap-frog migration pattern for geese from Mongolia. Measurements of geese from Mongolia were larger than their counterparts from China, providing some evidence of morphological differences. Alteration of habitats in China, including the warming effects of climate change on glaciers increasing runoff to TQP wetlands, may be changing goose migration patterns and timing. With the exception of one individual, all geese from Qinghai Lake, China wintered in the southern TQP near Lhasa, and their increasing numbers in that region may be related to the effects of climate change and agricultural development. Thus, our findings document both morphological and geographical variation in sub-populations of Bar-headed Geese, but their resilience to environmental change may be lost if migratory short-stopping results in larger congregations restricted to a smaller number of wintering areas.

  1. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, L. A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P. J.; Chua, B.; Douglas, D. C.; Frappell, P. B.; Hou, Y.; Milsom, W. K.; Newman, S. H.; Prosser, D. J.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Scott, G. R.; Takekawa, J. Y.; Natsagdorj, T.; Wikelski, M.; Witt, M. J.; Yan, B.; Bishop, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima. PMID:23118436

  2. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Chua, B.; Douglas, D.C.; Frappell, P.B.; Hou, Y.; Milsom, W.K.; Newman, S.H.; Prosser, D.J.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Scott, G.R.; Takekawam, J.Y.; Natsagdorj, T.; Wikelski, M.; Witt, M.J.; Yan, B.; Bishop, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima.

  3. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, L A; Balachandran, S; Batbayar, N; Butler, P J; Chua, B; Douglas, D C; Frappell, P B; Hou, Y; Milsom, W K; Newman, S H; Prosser, D J; Sathiyaselvam, P; Scott, G R; Takekawa, J Y; Natsagdorj, T; Wikelski, M; Witt, M J; Yan, B; Bishop, C M

    2013-01-01

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima.

  4. Stable Isotopes Suggest Low Site Fidelity in Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) in Mongolia: Implications for Disease Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiao, Xiangming; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2016-01-01

    Population connectivity is an important consideration in studies of disease transmission and biological conservation, especially with regard to migratory species. Determining how and when different subpopulations intermingle during different phases of the annual cycle can help identify important geographical regions or features as targets for conservation efforts and can help inform our understanding of continental-scale disease transmission. In this study, stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon in contour feathers were used to assess the degree of molt-site fidelity among Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) captured in north-central Mongolia. Samples were collected from actively molting Bar-headed Geese (n = 61), and some individual samples included both a newly grown feather (still in sheath) and an old, worn feather from the bird’s previous molt (n = 21). Although there was no difference in mean hydrogen isotope ratios for the old and new feathers, the isotopic variance in old feathers was approximately three times higher than that of the new feathers, which suggests that these birds use different and geographically distant molting locations from year to year. To further test this conclusion, online data and modeling tools from the isoMAP website were used to generate probability landscapes for the origin of each feather. Likely molting locations were much more widespread for old feathers than for new feathers, which supports the prospect of low molt-site fidelity. This finding indicates that population connectivity would be greater than expected based on data from a single annual cycle, and that disease spread can be rapid even in areas like Mongolia where Bar-headed Geese generally breed in small isolated groups.

  5. Stable isotopes suggest low site fidelity in Bar-Headed Geese (Anser indicus) in Mongolia: Implications for disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiangming Xiao,; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Population connectivity is an important consideration in studies of disease transmission and biological conservation, especially with regard to migratory species. Determining how and when different subpopulations intermingle during different phases of the annual cycle can help identify important geographical regions or features as targets for conservation efforts and can help inform our understanding of continental-scale disease transmission. In this study, stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon in contour feathers were used to assess the degree of molt-site fidelity among Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) captured in north-central Mongolia. Samples were collected from actively molting Bar-headed Geese (n = 61), and some individual samples included both a newly grown feather (still in sheath) and an old, worn feather from the bird's previous molt (n = 21). Although there was no difference in mean hydrogen isotope ratios for the old and new feathers, the isotopic variance in old feathers was approximately three times higher than that of the new feathers, which suggests that these birds use different and geographically distant molting locations from year to year. To further test this conclusion, online data and modeling tools from the isoMAP website were used to generate probability landscapes for the origin of each feather. Likely molting locations were much more widespread for old feathers than for new feathers, which supports the prospect of low molt-site fidelity. This finding indicates that population connectivity would be greater than expected based on data from a single annual cycle, and that disease spread can be rapid even in areas like Mongolia where Bar-headed Geese generally breed in small isolated groups.

  6. Stable Isotopes Suggest Low Site Fidelity in Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) in Mongolia: Implications for Disease Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiao, Xiangming; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2016-01-01

    Population connectivity is an important consideration in studies of disease transmission and biological conservation, especially with regard to migratory species. Determining how and when different subpopulations intermingle during different phases of the annual cycle can help identify important geographical regions or features as targets for conservation efforts and can help inform our understanding of continental-scale disease transmission. In this study, stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon in contour feathers were used to assess the degree of molt-site fidelity among Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) captured in north-central Mongolia. Samples were collected from actively molting Bar-headed Geese (n = 61), and some individual samples included both a newly grown feather (still in sheath) and an old, worn feather from the bird’s previous molt (n = 21). Although there was no difference in mean hydrogen isotope ratios for the old and new feathers, the isotopic variance in old feathers was approximately three times higher than that of the new feathers, which suggests that these birds use different and geographically distant molting locations from year to year. To further test this conclusion, online data and modeling tools from the isoMAP website were used to generate probability landscapes for the origin of each feather. Likely molting locations were much more widespread for old feathers than for new feathers, which supports the prospect of low molt-site fidelity. This finding indicates that population connectivity would be greater than expected based on data from a single annual cycle, and that disease spread can be rapid even in areas like Mongolia where Bar-headed Geese generally breed in small isolated groups. PMID:27695389

  7. Circumpolar variation in morphological characteristics of Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Fox, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Andreev, A.; Bromley, R.G.; Degtyarev, A.G.; Ebbinge, B.; Gurtovaya, E.N.; Kerbes, R.; Kondratyev, A.V.; Kostin, I.; Krechmar, A.V.; Litvin, K.E.; Miyabayashi, Y.; Moou, J.H.; Oates, R.M.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Sabano, Yutaka; Simpson, S.G.; Solovieva, D.V.; Spindler, Michael A.; Syroechkovsky, Y.V.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Walsh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Capsule: Greater White-fronted Geese show significant variation in body size from sampling locations throughout their circumpolar breeding range. Aims: To determine the degree of geographical variation in body size of Greater White-fronted Geese and identify factors contributing to any apparent patterns in variation. Methods: Structural measures of >3000 geese from 16 breeding areas throughout the Holarctic breeding range of the species were compared statistically. Results: Palearctic forms varied clinally, and increased in size from the smallest forms on the Kanin and Taimyr peninsulas in western Eurasia to the largest forms breeding in the Anadyr Lowlands of eastern Chukotka. Clinal variation was less apparent in the Nearctic, as both the smallest form in the Nearctic and the largest form overall (the Tule Goose) were from different breeding areas in Alaska. The Tule Goose was 25% larger than the smallest form. Birds from Greenland (A. a. flavirostris) were the second largest, although only slightly larger than geese from several North American populations. Body size was not correlated with breeding latitude but was positively correlated with temperature on the breeding grounds, breeding habitat, and migration distance. Body mass of Greater White-fronted Geese from all populations remained relatively constant during the period of wing moult. Morphological distinctness of eastern and western Palearctic forms concurs with earlier findings of complete range disjunction. Conclusions: Patterns of morphological variation in Greater White-fronted Geese across the Holarctic can be generally attributed to adaptation to variable breeding environments, migration requirements, and phylo-geographical histories. 

  8. A new avian hepadnavirus infecting snow geese (Anser caerulescens) produces a significant fraction of virions containing single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Chang, S F; Netter, H J; Bruns, M; Schneider, R; Frölich, K; Will, H

    1999-09-15

    We describe the identification and functional analysis of an evolutionary distinct new avian hepadnavirus. Infection of snow geese (Anser caerulescens) with a duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV)-related virus, designated SGHBV, was demonstrated by detection of envelope proteins in sera with anti-DHBV preS and S antibodies. Comparative sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified SGHBV genomes revealed unique SGHBV sequence features compared with other avian hepadnaviruses. Unlike DHBV, SGHBV shows an open reading frame in an analogous position to orthohepadnavirus X genes. Four of five cloned genomes were competent in replication, gene expression, and virus particle secretion in chicken hepatoma cells. Primary duck hepatocytes were permissive for infection with SGHBV, suggesting a similar or identical host range. SGHBV was found to secrete a significant fraction of virion-like particles containing single-stranded viral DNA. This was observed both in cell culture medium of SGHBV DNA-transfected LMH cells and in viremic sera of several birds, suggesting that it is a stable trait of SGHBV. Taken together, SGHBV has several unique features that expand the knowledge of the functional and evolutionary diversity of hepadnaviruses and offers new experimental opportunities for studies on the life cycle of hepadnaviruses. PMID:10489339

  9. Evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the specific humoral immune response of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) and domestic geese (Anser anser var. domestica) after vaccination against Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Häuslaigner, Rafaela; Sonnenburg, Jana; Kothlow, Sonja; Kaspers, Bernd; Staubach, Christoph; Grund, Christian

    2009-04-01

    In this study, an indirect Newcastle disease virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for waterfowl was evaluated concerning its efficiency and its suitability to monitor the antibody response in Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) and domestic geese (Anser anser var. domestica) following vaccination with a commercial inactivated NDV vaccine for chickens. Three weeks after vaccination seroconversion was already evident in the ELISA. Comparison of the ELISA results with those of the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test provided a positive linear correlation between both tests (Pearson's product-moment correlation; r=0.652; P<0.001). However, a discrepancy of test results was evident in weeks 7 and 10, with 10 sera of vaccinated birds evaluated negative by HI test but positive by ELISA. Eight of these sera were confirmed to yield avian paramyxovirus specific reactivity by western blot analysis. Relative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined to be 100.0% and 91.7% for the ELISA, compared with 91.1% and 97.2% for the HI test. Thus, the established ELISA represents a suitable alternative to the HI test in the monitoring of the immune response of waterfowl after vaccination, particularly for the analysis of high sample numbers. Further on, the results emphasize the immunogenicity of the inactivated Newcastle disease virus vaccine in domestic geese and Muscovy ducks.

  10. Transcriptome profiling of the hypothalamus during prelaying and laying periods in Sichuan white geese (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Gao, Guangliang; Li, Qin; Zhao, Xianzhi; Ding, Ning; Han, Qing; Su, Jian; Wang, Qigui

    2015-08-01

    The Sichuan White goose is a Chinese breed well known for the quality of its meat. However, reproductive performance in this goose is not ideal, and little information is available regarding the abundance of transcripts. To better understand the molecular mechanism(s) underpinning prelaying and laying periods in the Sichuan white goose, high-throughput RNA sequencing was performed to analyze the transcriptome in the hypothalamus. After sequencing and annotation, 26,921 unigenes were obtained, with 48 transcripts up-regulated in the prelaying period and 180 transcripts up-regulated during the laying period. These transcripts were primarily related to diseases, cancers, signaling molecules and interactions, the nervous system and the immune system. Eight transcripts were selected for further analyses with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were mostly consistent with those from the high-throughput RNA sequencing. Among these transcripts, serine/threonine-protein kinase (AMPK), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) were differentially expressed during the prelaying and laying periods. The results of this study provide a useful resource for future studies examining the hypothalamus in geese. PMID:25601520

  11. Transcriptome profiling of the hypothalamus during prelaying and laying periods in Sichuan white geese (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Gao, Guangliang; Li, Qin; Zhao, Xianzhi; Ding, Ning; Han, Qing; Su, Jian; Wang, Qigui

    2015-08-01

    The Sichuan White goose is a Chinese breed well known for the quality of its meat. However, reproductive performance in this goose is not ideal, and little information is available regarding the abundance of transcripts. To better understand the molecular mechanism(s) underpinning prelaying and laying periods in the Sichuan white goose, high-throughput RNA sequencing was performed to analyze the transcriptome in the hypothalamus. After sequencing and annotation, 26,921 unigenes were obtained, with 48 transcripts up-regulated in the prelaying period and 180 transcripts up-regulated during the laying period. These transcripts were primarily related to diseases, cancers, signaling molecules and interactions, the nervous system and the immune system. Eight transcripts were selected for further analyses with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were mostly consistent with those from the high-throughput RNA sequencing. Among these transcripts, serine/threonine-protein kinase (AMPK), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) were differentially expressed during the prelaying and laying periods. The results of this study provide a useful resource for future studies examining the hypothalamus in geese.

  12. The comprehensive mechanisms underlying nonhierarchical follicular development in geese (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hehe; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Qingqing; Liu, Junying; Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Tianyu; Li, Liang; Wang, Jiwen; Xu, Hengyong; He, Hua

    2015-08-01

    The laying performance of poultry primarily depends on the growth and development of the ovarian follicles. Yet, little is known about the underlying mechanisms responsible for nonhierarchical follicular development in avian species. The aim of the present study is identify genes that are differentially expressed during nonhierarchical follicular development in geese by performing a transcriptome screen. A sequencing depth of 13.9 and 14.9 million mapped tags was obtained in pools of small white follicles (SWF) and small yellow follicles (SYF), respectively, and a total of 160 differentially expressed genes were identified. The fold-changes of eight differentially expressed genes, identified using qRT-PCR, were consistent with the Digital Gene Expression Profiling (DGE) data. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) analyses showed that lipid metabolism, steroid secretion, extracellular ligand reactions, enzyme activities, the cell cycle, ECM-receptor interactions and the extracellular matrix are involved in follicular development. The majority of the newly identified genes could be considered to be new candidate genes with potential roles in regulating follicular development. These results provide useful information for future in-depth studies associated with nonhierarchical follicular development in goose reproduction.

  13. Mating activity of domestic geese ganders (Anser anser f. domesticus) during breeding period in relation to age, testosterone and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Rozenboim, Israel

    2013-11-30

    In breeding geese, natural mating applies. The objective of this study was to determine seasonal- and age-related changes in the sexual activity of ganders. Moreover, T, T4 and T3 plasma levels were evaluated. The study was conducted on 2/3-year-old males (n=15) and 1- or 2/3-year-old females (1♂:4♀). Sexual activity of ganders was characterized through the frequency of: courtship, attempts at and successful copulations and total mating activity (MA). Reproductive results manifested by egg production and fertility were recorded. Laying percentage (January-June) was 37.1 and 28.6% for 1-, and 2/3-year-old geese, respectively. MA was noted before the sexual maturity of females and the T level peak. MA was highest at the onset and during peak production (March) for ganders kept with 1-, and 2/3-year-old geese, respectively. From April to May a decrease in fertility with a reduction of the frequency of copulations was observed. At this time low levels of T were noted. The effect of goose age on the MA was shown, with higher frequency of copulations for ganders kept with 1-year-old geese. We suggest that in the successful seasonal mating in geese, social factors such as the presence of females and female age play an important role. The reduction in fertility during the spring period may be associated with decreases in the efficiency of successive mating sequences. The higher frequency of copulations without affecting fertility, for ganders kept with young geese, may be because of differences in sperm transfer or storage/transport efficiency.

  14. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia psittaci infection in domestic geese Anser domestica, in Hainan province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Ming; Rong, Guang; Zhou, Han-Lin; Hou, Guan-Yu

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of bird species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic geese in China, the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in domestic geese in Hainan province, tropical China was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 25.6% (461/1800; 95% CI: 23.6-27.6). The C. psittaci seroprevalence ranged from 19% (95% CI: 14.6-23.4) to 34% (95% CI: 28.6-39.4) among different regions in Hainan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). The risk factors significantly associated with C. psittaci seroprevalence were the presence of hygiene conditions, age, gender, and environment of geese in the farms. The results of the present investigation indicated the high seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in geese in Hainan province, tropical China. Close contact with these geese is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the occurrence of C. psittaci seroprevalence in geese in China.

  15. The relevance of environmental conditions for departure decision changes en route in migrating geese.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Silke; Gienapp, Phillip; Madsen, Jesper

    2008-07-01

    The timing of life-cycle events crucially influences fitness, particularly in migratory birds, which visit chains of sites with varying seasonality. Here, we used a proportional hazards model to identify local environmental factors, which a long-distance migrant, the Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), uses for departure decisions on multiple sites along its spring flyway from Denmark via Norway to Svalbard. Our results not only identified day length, local accumulated temperature, and their interaction as likely candidates, but also (more importantly) showed for the first time that their relevance changes en route. The results suggest that the birds switch on a "migratory program" in their wintering grounds, with day length providing general information on time of the year and integrated temperatures providing information on larger scale climate trends. Thereafter, on the stopover sites, local accumulated temperatures allow the geese to infer information on the advancement of spring, which is then used to adjust the speed of progressing northward. PMID:18705381

  16. Age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the frequency with which Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) of known age were observed breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. No one- or two-year old geese were observed on nests. Three-year old geese bred at a lower rate than four-year old geese. These data suggest that patterns of age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese are similar to other sympatrically nesting, large bodied geese [Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons)] but delayed relative to smaller bodied geese [Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Pacific Black Brant (B. bernicla nigricans)].

  17. ENERGY SAVINGS IN FORMATION FLIGHT OF PINK-FOOTED GEESE

    PubMed

    Cutts; Speakman

    1994-04-01

    Fifty-four skeins of pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) were photographed from directly underneath to eliminate the effects of perspective distortion, and the wing-tip spacings (the distance between adjacent birds' wing tips perpendicular to the flight path at maximum wingspan) and depths (the distance between adjacent birds' body centres parallel to the flight path) were measured at the same time as local wind speeds. The photographs were used to test for savings in induced power from wing positioning relative to the predicted positions of vortices generated by other wings, using a theoretical model. The mean wing-tip spacing corresponded to a saving in induced power of 14 %, less than one-third of the maximum possible. The saving in total power might be as low as 2.4 %. The high variation in wing-tip spacing suggests that pink-footed geese found difficulty maintaining position and thus adopted a strategy of flying outboard of the optimal position that maximises savings. This may minimise the risk of straying into a zone where savings are negative. There was a significant correlation between depth and wing-tip spacing, supporting an alternative communication hypothesis, whereby the birds position themselves to obtain maximum information on their neighbour's position. In high winds, there was little change in wing-tip spacing variation but a decrease in depth variation, suggesting a shift towards more regularly spaced skeins.

  18. Identification and Differential Expression of microRNAs in Ovaries of Laying and Broody Geese (Anser cygnoides) by Solexa Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yang; Tong, Yi-Yu; Rong, Guang-Hui; Huang, Zheng-Yang; Zhao, Rong-Xue; Zhao, Wen-Ming; Wu, Xin-sheng; Chang, Guo- Bin; Chen, Guo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent functional studies have demonstrated that the microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in ovarian gonadal development, steroidogenesis, apoptosis, and ovulation in mammals. However, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in the ovarian function of fowl. The goose (Anas cygnoides) is a commercially important food that is cultivated widely in China but the goose industry has been hampered by high broodiness and poor egg laying performance, which are influenced by ovarian function. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the miRNA transcriptomes of ovaries from laying and broody geese were profiled using Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics was used to determine differential expression of the miRNAs. As a result, 11,350,396 and 9,890,887 clean reads were obtained in laying and broodiness goose, respectively, and 1,328 conserved known miRNAs and 22 novel potential miRNA candidates were identified. A total of 353 conserved microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between laying and broody ovaries. Compared with miRNA expression in the laying ovary, 127 miRNAs were up-regulated and 126 miRNAs were down-regulated in the ovary of broody birds. A subset of the differentially expressed miRNAs (G-miR-320, G-miR-202, G-miR-146, and G-miR-143*) were validated using real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, 130,458 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative target genes. Gene ontology annotation and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis suggested that the differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in ovarian function, including hormone secretion, reproduction processes and so on. Conclusions The present study provides the first global miRNA transcriptome data in A. cygnoides and identifies novel and known miRNAs that are differentially expressed between the ovaries of laying and broody geese. These findings contribute to our understanding of the functional involvement of miRNAs in the broody

  19. Arctic nesting geese: alaskan populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Stehn, Robert A.; Ely, Craig R.; Derksen, Dirk V.

    1995-01-01

    While data for some areas are lacking, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) and medium-sized Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in interior and northern Alaska appear stable or have increased (King and Derksen 1986). Although only a small number of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nest in Alaska, substantial populations occur in Canada and Russia. Populations of Pacific black brant (B. bernicla nigricans), emperor geese (C. canagica), greater white-fronted geese, and cackling Canada geese (B.c. minima) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) of western Alaska have declined from their historical numbers and are the focus of special management efforts (USFWS 1989). In addition, populations of tule white-fronted geese (A.a. gambeli), Aleutian Canada geese (B.c. leucopareia), Vancouver Canada Geese (B.c. fulva), and dusky Canada geese (B.c. occidentalis) are of special concern because of their limited geographic distributions and small numbers.

  20. Bursal depths of lesser snow and small Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1969-01-01

    Bursa of Fabricius depths of 88 lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens) and 69 small Canada geese (Branta canadensis hutchinsii/parvipes complex) were measured. Bursal depths were unreliable indicators of age-classes of lesser snow geese and small Canada geese; previously, the same had been found to be true for large Canada geese (B. c. interior). Regression in size or closure of the bursa first occurred at 17-20 months of age (yearlings) in lesser snow geese and small Canada geese, but at 29-32 months of age (2-year-olds) in large Canada geese.

  1. Helminths of wintering geese in Texas.

    PubMed

    Purvis, J R; Gawlik, D E; Dronen, N O; Silvy, N J

    1997-07-01

    Ten Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 24 snow geese (Chen caerulescens) and 22 white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) from coastal Texas (USA) were examined for helminths. Three cestode, seven nematode, and three trematode species were collected. Gizzard nematodes (Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum and Epomidiostomum crami) infected 53 of 54 birds. Gross lesions were not attributed to helminth infections and the host population does not appear to be impaired by them. PMID:9249720

  2. Lesser White-fronted (Anser erythropus) and Greater White-fronted (A. albifrons) Geese wintering in Greek wetlands are not threatened by Pb through shot ingestion.

    PubMed

    Aloupi, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Akriotis, Triantaphyllos; Bantikou, Evangelia; Hatzidaki, Victoria-Ourania

    2015-09-15

    Fecal lead (Pb) levels were investigated in the threatened European population of the Lesser White-fronted Goose (LWfG, Anser erythropus) and of the non-threatened Greater White-fronted Goose (GWfG, Anser albifrons) wintering in two wetland areas in northern Greece in order to assess the potential risk from Pb exposure. Fecal, soil and food plant samples were analyzed. Levels of Pb were normalized using Al concentrations in order to separate the effect of possible ingestion of Pb shot from that of soil or sediment accidentally ingested with food. All concentrations are expressed on a dry weight basis. Geometric means of Pb content in the feces of LWfG were 6.24 mg/kg at Evros Delta and 7.34 mg/kg at Lake Kerkini (maximum values of 28.61 mg/kg and 36.68 mg/kg, respectively); for fecal samples of GWfG geometric means were 2.39 mg/kg at Evros Delta and 6.90 mg/kg at Kerkini (corresponding maximum values of 25.09 mg/kg and 42.26 mg/kg). Soil Pb was in the range of 5.2-60.2mg/kg (geometric mean = 22.6 mg/kg) for the Evros Delta and between 13.4 and 64.9 mg/kg (geometric mean=28.1mg/kg) for Kerkini. A general linear model fitted to the data showed that Pb levels were very closely dependent on Al levels in the feces from both species and at both sites indicating soil or sediment were the only significant source of Pb; species and site, as well as their interaction, were not statistically significant factors. For both species and at both sites exposure to Pb was evidently very mild and the observed levels of Pb were well below the proposed thresholds for lethal or sublethal effects of Pb poisoning. Soil ingestion appeared to gradually increase from October to December for LWfG at Kerkini, corresponding to a gradual depletion of their food source. PMID:25965041

  3. Epizootic necrotic enteritis in wild geese.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, G; Rainnie, D J

    1987-07-01

    Outbreaks of a disease characterized by severe necrotic enteritis occurred among Canada geese (Branta canadensis), lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens), Ross' geese (A. rossi), and white-fronted geese (A. albifrons) on lakes in Saskatchewan and Manitoba during the autumn of 1983, 1984 and 1985. Ducks using the lakes were apparently not affected. Lesions in the geese closely resembled those described in enteritides in other species associated with the proliferation of Clostridium perfringens in the small intestine. Clostridium perfringens was present in large numbers in the affected areas of the intestine of the geese; other pathogens were not identified. It is hypothesized that an abrupt change in diet as geese begin to feed on grain disrupts the intestinal microflora, allowing C. perfringens to proliferate in the upper small intestine. Toxins produced by the bacteria then cause mucosal necrosis. Protease-inhibitory substances in some grains might also have a role in the disease. PMID:3625893

  4. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

  5. Latitudinal variability in the seroprevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in non-migrant and Arctic migratory geese.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Cecilia A M; Buma, Anita G J; Hoye, Bethany J; Prop, Jouke; van der Jeugd, Henk; Voslamber, Berend; Madsen, Jesper; Loonen, Maarten J J E

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular coccidian parasite found worldwide and is known to infect virtually all warm-blooded animals. It requires a cat (family Felidae) to complete its full life cycle. Despite the absence of wild felids on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, T. gondii has been found in resident predators such as the arctic fox and polar bear. It has therefore been suggested that T. gondii may enter this ecosystem via migratory birds. The objective of this study was to identify locations where goose populations may become infected with T. gondii, and to investigate the dynamics of T. gondii specific antibodies. Single blood samples of both adults and juveniles were collected from selected goose species (Anser anser, A. brachyrhynchus, Branta canadensis, B. leucopsis) at Arctic brood-rearing areas in Russia and on Svalbard, and temperate wintering grounds in the Netherlands and Denmark (migratory populations) as well as temperate brood-rearing grounds (the Netherlands, non-migratory populations). A modified agglutination test was used on serum, for detection of antibodies against T. gondii. Occasional repeated annual sampling of individual adults was performed to determine the antibody dynamics. Adults were found seropositive at all locations (Arctic and temperate, brood-rearing and wintering grounds) with low seroprevalence in brood-rearing birds on temperate grounds. As no juvenile geese were found seropositive at any brood-rearing location, but nine month old geese were found seropositive during spring migration we conclude that geese, irrespective of species and migration, encounter T. gondii infection in wintering areas. In re-sampled birds on Svalbard significant seroreversion was observed, with 42% of seropositive adults showing no detectable antibodies after 12 months, while the proportion of seroconversion was only 3%. Modelled variation of seroprevalence with field data on antibody longevity and parasite transmission suggests seroprevalence

  6. [The geese who flew home for Christmas].

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Jens H

    2013-12-01

    Gray geese of the bar-headed type (Anser indicus synonym: Eulabeia indica) perform trans-Himalayan migratory flight at extreme altitude. The physiological mechanisms include hyperventilation of cold air, increased lung diffusion capacity, proton gradients, high muscular temperature, amino acid mutation in haemoglobin and cytochrome oxidase, re-location of mitochondria, and extreme shifts in the oxy-haemoglobin dissociation curve due to Bohr- and temperature effects. The second annual migration takes place in late autumn, and the bar-headed geese come home in due time before Christmas.

  7. Tissue tropism of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in naturally infected mute swans (Cygnus Olor ), domestic geese (Aser Anser var. domestica), pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and mulard ducks ( Cairina moschata x anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Szeredi, Levente; Dán, Adám; Pálmai, Nimród; Ursu, Krisztina; Bálint, Adám; Szeleczky, Zsófia; Ivanics, Eva; Erdélyi, Károly; Rigó, Dóra; Tekes, Lajos; Glávits, Róbert

    2010-03-01

    The 2006 epidemic due to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in Hungary caused the most severe losses in waterfowl which were, according to the literature at the time, supposed to be the most resistant to this pathogen. The presence of pathological lesions and the amount of viral antigen were quantified by gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the organs of four waterfowl species [mute swans (n = 10), domestic geese (n = 6), mulard ducks (n = 6) and Pekin ducks (n = 5)] collected during the epidemic. H5N1 subtype HPAIV was isolated from all birds examined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR) was also applied on a subset of samples [domestic geese (n = 3), mulard (n = 4) and Pekin duck (n = 4)] in order to compare its sensitivity with IHC. Viral antigen was detected by IHC in all cases. However, the overall presence of viral antigen in tissue samples was quite variable: virus antigen was present in 56/81 (69%) swan, 22/38 (58%) goose, 28/46 (61%) mulard duck and 5/43 (12%) Pekin duck tissue samples. HPAIV subtype H5N1 was detected by qRRT-PCR in all birds examined, in 19/19 (100%) goose, 7/28 (25%) mulard duck and 12/28 (43%) Pekin duck tissue samples. As compared to qRRTPCR, the IHC was less sensitive in geese and Pekin ducks but more sensitive in mulard ducks. The IHC was consistently positive above 4.31 log10 copies/reaction but it gave very variable results below that level. Neurotropism of the isolated virus strains was demonstrated by finding the largest amount of viral antigen and the highest average RNA load in the brain in all four waterfowl species examined.

  8. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink‐footed geese: 2016 progress summary: Technical Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, No. 86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink‐footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) near their agreed target level (60,000) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark. This report provides an assessment of the most recent monitoring information (1991-2015) and its implications for the harvest management strategy. By combining varying hypotheses about survival and reproduction, a suite of nine models have been developed that represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent. These results suggest that the pink‐footed goose population may have recently experienced a release from density‐dependent mechanisms, corresponding to the period of most rapid growth in population size. Beginning with the 2016 hunting season, harvest quotas will be prescribed on an annual basis rather than every three years because of the potential to better meet population management objectives. Based on updated model weights, the recent observations of population size (74,800), the proportion of the population comprised of one-year-old birds (0.138), and temperature days in Svalbard (20), the optimal harvest quota for the 2016 hunting season is 25,000. The large increase in quota compared to that during first three years of AHM reflects stakeholders’ desire to reduce population size to the goal of 60,000, recognizing that population size remains relatively high and above-average production is expected in 2016 due to a warm spring.

  9. A comparison of methods used to obtain age ratios of snow and Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Linder, R.L.; Springer, P.F.

    1969-01-01

    The validity of group counts, cannon-net catches, and hunter-bag checks for estimating productivity of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and small Canada geese (Branta canadensis hutchinsii-parvipes complex) was studied at Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge during the falls of 1965 and 1966. Age ratios of snow geese obtained from net-trapped samples were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than from group counts at the same site. Immature snow geese were shot in a significantly greater (P < 0.01) proportion than they existed in the population as determined by group counts. Cannon-net catches and hunter-bag checks of snow and Canada geese yielded age ratios which were biased because of behavioral characteristics of the geese. Immatures of both species were less wary of trap equipment and immature snow geese were more vulnerable to the gun than adults. It was believed that age ratios from group counts of snow geese were more representative of the population than those from net catches and hunter-bag checks. Sex ratios of net-trapped geese showed a preponderance of males for adult Canada and adult and immature snow geese, whereas females were predominant in the immature segment of Canada geese. Hunter selectivity of blue- or white-phase snow geese was not observed at Sand Lake Refuge. Differential vulnerability to hunting between snow and Canada geese resulted from differences m feeding-flight behavior.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns distinguish independent origin of Chinese domestic geese and Western domestic geese.

    PubMed

    Shi, X-W; Wang, J-W; Zeng, F-T; Qiu, X-P

    2006-06-01

    It has generally been assumed, based on morphology, that Chinese domestic goose breeds were derived from the swan goose (Anser cygnoides) and that European and American breeds were derived from the graylag goose (Anser anser). To test the validity of this assumption, we investigated the mtDNA cleavage patterns of 16 Chinese breeds and 2 European breeds as well as hybrids produced between a Chinese breed and a European breed. After 224 mtDNAs, isolated from the Chinese and European breeds, were digested by 19 restriction endonucleases, variations of the cleavage patterns were observed for four enzymes (EcoRV, HaeII, HincII, and KpnI). All Chinese breeds and their maternal hybrids except the Yili breed showed an identical haplotype, named haplotype I or the Chinese haplotype; the European breeds and the Yili breed showed another haplotype, named haplotype II or the western haplotype. None of the haplotype found in the Chinese type was detectable in the western type and vice versa. The two haplotypes were found to differ from each other at 8.0% of the sites surveyed and with a 0.72% sequence divergence. Using 2% substitution per million years calibrated from the genera Anser and Branta, the two domestic geese haplotypes were estimated to have diverged approximately 360,000 years ago, well outside the 3000-6000 years in domestic history. Our findings provide the first molecular genetic evidence to support the dual origin assumption of domestic geese in the world. Meanwhile, the four mtDNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms can be used as maternal genetic markers to distinguish the two types of domestic geese.

  11. Habitat suitability index models: greater white-fronted goose (wintering). [Anser albifrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    A review and synthesis of available information were used to develop models for indexing the potential suitability of agricultural and natural wetland habitats for wintering white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons). The model is scaled to produce indices of habitat suitability from 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimal habitat) primarily for wintering habitat in southwest Louisiana and southwest Texas. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with Habitat Evaluations Procedures previously developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  12. Selection of habitats by Emperor Geese during brood rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Although forage quality strongly affects gosling growth and consequently juvenile survival, the relative use of different plant communities by brood rearing geese has been poorly studied. On the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, population growth and juvenile recruitment of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) are comparatively low, and it is unknown whether their selection of habitats during brood rearing differs from other goose species. Radio-telemetry was used to document the use of habitats by 56 families of Emperor Geese in a 70 km2 portion of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta during brood rearing in 1994-1996. When contrasted with available habitats (a set of six habitat classes), as estimated from 398 random sampling locations, Emperor Geese strongly selected Saline Ponds, Mudflat, and Ramenskii Meadow habitats and avoided Levee Meadow, Bog Meadow, and Sedge Meadow. These selected habitats were the most saline, comprised one-third of the study area, and 43% of all locations were in Ramenskii Meadow. I contrasted these Emperor Goose locations with habitats used by the composite goose community, as inferred from the presence of goose feces at random locations. The marked difference between groups in this comparison implied that Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons) collectively selected much different brood rearing habitats than Emperor Geese. Received 20 February 2001, accepted 18 April 2001.

  13. Reproductive strategies of northern geese: Why wait?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Bollinger, K.S.; Densmore, R.V.; Rothe, T.C.; Petrula, M.J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Orthmeyer, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Migration and reproductive strategies in waterbirds are tightly linked, with timing of arrival and onset of nesting having important consequences for reproductive success. Whether migratory waterbirds are capital or income breeders is predicated by their spring migration schedule, how long they are on breeding areas before nesting, and how adapted they are to exploiting early spring foods at northern breeding areas. However, for most species, we know little about individual migration schedules, arrival times, and duration of residence on breeding areas before nesting. To document these relationships in a northern nesting goose, we radiotracked winter-marked Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons elgasi; hereafter “Tule Geese”; n = 116) from the time of their arrival in Alaska through nesting. Tule Geese arrived on coastal feeding areas in mid-April and moved to nesting locations a week later. They initiated nests 15 days (range: 6–24 days) after arrival, a period roughly equivalent to the duration of rapid follicle growth. Tule Geese that arrived the earliest were more likely to nest than geese that arrived later; early arrivals also spent more time on the breeding grounds and nested earlier than geese that arrived later. The length of the prenesting period was comparable to that of other populations of this species, but longer than for goose species that initiate rapid follicle growth before arrival on the breeding grounds. We suggest that Tule Geese nesting in more temperate climates are more likely to delay breeding to exploit local food resources than Arctic-nesting species that may be constrained by short growing seasons.

  14. Trichobilharzia anseri n. sp. (Schistosomatidae: Digenea), a new visceral species of avian schistosomes isolated from greylag goose (Anser anser L.) in Iceland and France.

    PubMed

    Jouet, D; Kolářová, L; Patrelle, C; Ferté, H; Skírnisson, K

    2015-08-01

    Parasitological investigations carried out on birds in Iceland and France highlight the presence of four species of avian schistosomes from greylag geese (Anser anser L.): the european nasal species Trichobilharzia regenti and three visceral species, among which an unknown species isolated from blood vessels of the large intestine and liver. Morphological and molecular analyzes of different parasite stages (eggs, adults) revealed new species of Trichobilharzia genus – Trichobilharzia anseri sp. nov. Studies on host-parasite relationship under natural conditions, showed that the life-cycle includes the snail Radix balthica (syn. R. peregra) as intermediate host. The cercariae, already isolated in Iceland from two ponds of the Reykjavik capital area – the Family park and Tjörnin Lake – are the same as those isolated in 1999 by Kolářová et al. during the first study on Icelandic parasitic agents of cercarial dermatitis.

  15. Trichobilharzia anseri n. sp. (Schistosomatidae: Digenea), a new visceral species of avian schistosomes isolated from greylag goose (Anser anser L.) in Iceland and France.

    PubMed

    Jouet, D; Kolářová, L; Patrelle, C; Ferté, H; Skírnisson, K

    2015-08-01

    Parasitological investigations carried out on birds in Iceland and France highlight the presence of four species of avian schistosomes from greylag geese (Anser anser L.): the european nasal species Trichobilharzia regenti and three visceral species, among which an unknown species isolated from blood vessels of the large intestine and liver. Morphological and molecular analyzes of different parasite stages (eggs, adults) revealed new species of Trichobilharzia genus – Trichobilharzia anseri sp. nov. Studies on host-parasite relationship under natural conditions, showed that the life-cycle includes the snail Radix balthica (syn. R. peregra) as intermediate host. The cercariae, already isolated in Iceland from two ponds of the Reykjavik capital area – the Family park and Tjörnin Lake – are the same as those isolated in 1999 by Kolářová et al. during the first study on Icelandic parasitic agents of cercarial dermatitis. PMID:26070888

  16. Trace element concentrations in two subpopulations of lesser snow geese from Wrangel Island, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Litvin, K.V.

    1998-01-01

    Lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens) from the Wrangel Island, Russia breeding colony spend the winter in two widely separated areas: the northern subpopulation in southern British Columbia and northern Washington and the southern subpopulation in the Central Valley of California. We examined 19 trace elements in the eggs and livers of geese from these two subpopulations to examine whether geese from the different wintering areas have similar trace element burdens. Eggs collected at the breeding colony from geese of the southern subpopulation had slightly higher levels of manganese, an element that can cause neurological damage and behavioral changes in chicks, than geese of the northern subpopulation. Livers from adult geese collected on the two wintering areas showed significant differences in trace elements including copper, iron, magnesium, molybdenum, and zinc. Copper concentrations in the livers of geese from the southern subpopulation were much higher than those from the northern subpopulation (x?? = 116 vs. 46 ppm; dry weight). Elevated levels of copper may induce anemia in birds. The differences in trace element concentrations of these two subpopulations may be related to farming practices in their wintering areas. Geese from the northern subpopulation feed in pastures and coastal marshes and migrate along the coast, but geese from the southern subpopulation feed predominantly in rice fields and migrate over farm land. Copper and manganese are major components of fertilizers and fungicides commonly applied during rice cultivation.

  17. Trace Element Concentrations in Two Subpopulations of Lesser Snow Geese from Wrangel Island, Russia

    PubMed

    Hui; Takekawa; Baranyuk; Litvin

    1998-02-01

    Lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens) from the Wrangel Island, Russia breeding colony spend the winter in two widely separated areas: the northern subpopulation in southern British Columbia and northern Washington and the southern subpopulation in the Central Valley of California. We examined 19 trace elements in the eggs and livers of geese from these two subpopulations to examine whether geese from the different wintering areas have similar trace element burdens. Eggs collected at the breeding colony from geese of the southern subpopulation had slightly higher levels of manganese, an element that can cause neurological damage and behavioral changes in chicks, than geese of the northern subpopulation. Livers from adult geese collected on the two wintering areas showed significant differences in trace elements including copper, iron, magnesium, molybdenum, and zinc. Copper concentrations in the livers of geese from the southern subpopulation were much higher than those from the northern subpopulation (&xmacr; = 116 vs. 46 ppm; dry weight). Elevated levels of copper may induce anemia in birds. The differences in trace element concentrations of these two subpopulations may be related to farming practices in their wintering areas. Geese from the northern subpopulation feed in pastures and coastal marshes and migrate along the coast, but geese from the southern subpopulation feed predominantly in rice fields and migrate over farm land. Copper and manganese are major components of fertilizers and fungicides commonly applied during rice cultivation. PMID:9469862

  18. Geographic variation in migration chronology and winter distribution of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Nieman, Daniel J.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Hines, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal differences in migratory behavior among different breeding groups of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) using band-recovery data and observations of neck collared geese during migration and winter. Birds from different breeding areas were initially delineated by geographic distance into 6 banding reference areas (BRAs): 1) interior Alaska, 2) North Slope of Alaska, 3) western Northwest Territories (NWT), 4) western Nunavut, 5) central Nunavut, and 6) eastern Nunavut. The banding groups also differed by breeding habitat, with geese from interior Alaska nesting in the boreal forest (taiga), and all other groups breeding in tundra habitats. Geese from interior Alaska migrated earlier during autumn, and were more likely to winter farther south (in Mexico) than geese from other breeding areas. Geese banded in central and eastern Nunavut (Queen Maud Gulf and Inglis River) wintered farther east (in Louisiana) than geese from other breeding areas. Small-scale (within-state) geographic segregation of wintering flocks was evidenced by the recent (post-1990) nearly exclusive use of a new wintering area in north central Texas by geese from interior Alaska. Segregation among BRAs was also apparent in Mexico, where taiga geese were found predominantly in the central Highlands (states of Zacatecas and Durango), whereas tundra geese mostly used states along the Gulf Coast (primarily Tamaulipas). Interior Alaska birds initiated spring migration earlier than geese from other areas, and were more likely than others to stop in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska, a region where cholera outbreaks periodically kill thousands of geese. Geese from interior Alaska were the first to arrive at spring staging areas in prairie Canada where BRAs exhibited spatial delineation (a longitudinal cline) in relation to breeding areas. Our results show significant geographic and temporal variation among taiga and tundra breeding cohorts during

  19. Morphological differences in Pacific Coast populations of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orthmeyer, D.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ely, C.R.; Wege, M.; Newton, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    We examined morphological relationships of three Pacific coast populations of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons). Adult geese were captured and measured at three breeding areas in Alaska and two wintering areas in California, 1980-1991. A two-step discriminant function analysis examined morphological differences among the three populations. Stepwise discriminant function procedures created the simplest measurement models. Each sex was analyzed separately since multivariate analysis of variance indicated that males were significantly larger than females for all three populations. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. gambelli) were significantly larger than Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. frontalis), hereafter Pacific Geese. The first step of discriminant function analysis created models to differentiate Tule Geese from the Pacific Geese. Bivariate stepwise discriminant function models consisting of only two measurements correctly classified 92% of males (bill height, bill width) and 96% of females (bill height, culmen) of these subspecies. The second step of discriminant function analysis compared a small population of Pacific Geese from the Bristol Bay Lowlands (BBL) of southwestern Alaska with the large population of Pacific Geese that breed on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD) of westcentral Alaska. We developed models with three (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe) and five (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe, total tarsus, bill height) measurements from stepwise discriminant function analyses to correctly classify 72% of males and 74% of females of these populations. Thus, morphology of Tule Geese differed highly significantly from Pacific Geese, as expected but differences between populations from the BBL and YKD areas were also significant. Morphometric analyses as these provided supporting evidence for clinal variation in populations of Greater White-fronted Geese. They also underscore a need for further studies of differences among

  20. Relationship between wild greylag and European domestic geese based on mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, M E; Ruokonen, M; Alexander, M; Aspi, J; Pyhäjärvi, T; Searle, J B

    2015-10-01

    The origins of the European domestic goose are uncertain. The available information comes from archaeological findings and historical literature, but genetic evidence has hitherto been scarce. The domestic goose in Europe is derived from the greylag goose (Anser anser), but it is not known where the initial domestication took place and which of the two subspecies of greylag goose was ancestral. We aimed to determine the amount and geographical distribution of genetic diversity in modern populations of greylag geese as well as in different breeds of the domestic goose to make inferences about goose domestication. We studied DNA sequence variation in the mitochondrial control region of greylag geese from multiple populations across Europe and western Asia as well as specimens of domestic geese representing 18 modern breeds and individuals not belonging to any recognised breed. Our results show notable differences in genetic diversity between different greylag goose populations and the presence of six mitochondrial haplogroups which show a degree of geographical partitioning. The genetic diversity of the domestic goose is low, with 84% of sampled individuals having one of two major closely related haplotypes, suggesting that modern European domestic geese may derive from a narrow genetic base. The site of domestication remains unresolved, but domestic geese in Turkey were unusually diverse, indicating the importance of further sampling in the vicinity of the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East. There appears to be past or ongoing hybridisation between greylags and domestic geese in particular areas, consistent with field observations.

  1. Nesting habitat of the Tule Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons elgasi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.; Ely, C.R.; Bollinger, K.S.; Kratzer, S.; Udevitz, M.S.; Fehringer, D.J.; Rothe, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the first information on the availability and use of nesting habitat by the rare Tule Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons elgasi. The breeding range was sampled by marking geese with radio transmitters on wintering and moulting areas, and tracking them to nest sites in Alaska. Nesting habitat was described at the scales of ecoregion, wetland ecosystem (National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps), vegetation type within wetland (Alaska Vegetation Classification (AVC) maps based on satellite imagery), and nest site. Tule Greater White-fronted Goose nests were located in boreal forest wetlands in the upper Cook Inlet Basin ecoregion. Nesting Tule Greater White-fronted Geese selected NWT Palustrine Seasonally Flooded wetlands and used NWI Palustrine Saturated wetlands in proportion to availability. Within these wetlands, Tule Greater White-fronted Geese used Needleleaf Forest, Low Shrub and Herbaceous (mostly graminoid) AVC classes for nest sites in proportion to availability Most (93%) Tule Greater White-fronted Geese nested > 75 m from open water ponds or lakes, and many nested in wetlands with little or no open water. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese nest only in a small breeding area near the most human-impacted area of the state, and continued development may limit the use of suitable nesting habitat.

  2. A tree of geese: A phylogenomic perspective on the evolutionary history of True Geese.

    PubMed

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Kraus, Robert H S; Madsen, Ole; van Hooft, Pim; van Wieren, Sipke E; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Groenen, Martien A M; Prins, Herbert H T

    2016-08-01

    Phylogenetic incongruence can be caused by analytical shortcomings or can be the result of biological processes, such as hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting and gene duplication. Differentiation between these causes of incongruence is essential to unravel complex speciation and diversification events. The phylogeny of the True Geese (tribe Anserini, Anatidae, Anseriformes) was, until now, contentious, i.e., the phylogenetic relationships and the timing of divergence between the different goose species could not be fully resolved. We sequenced nineteen goose genomes (representing seventeen species of which three subspecies of the Brent Goose, Branta bernicla) and used an exon-based phylogenomic approach (41,736 exons, representing 5887 genes) to unravel the evolutionary history of this bird group. We thereby provide general guidance on the combination of whole genome evolutionary analyses and analytical tools for such cases where previous attempts to resolve the phylogenetic history of several taxa could not be unravelled. Identical topologies were obtained using either a concatenation (based upon an alignment of 6,630,626 base pairs) or a coalescent-based consensus method. Two major lineages, corresponding to the genera Anser and Branta, were strongly supported. Within the Branta lineage, the White-cheeked Geese form a well-supported sub-lineage that is sister to the Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis). In addition, two main clades of Anser species could be identified, the White Geese and the Grey Geese. The results from the consensus method suggest that the diversification of the genus Anser is heavily influenced by rapid speciation and by hybridization, which may explain the failure of previous studies to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this genus. The majority of speciation events took place in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene (between 4 and 2millionyears ago), conceivably driven by a global cooling trend that led to the

  3. A tree of geese: A phylogenomic perspective on the evolutionary history of True Geese.

    PubMed

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Kraus, Robert H S; Madsen, Ole; van Hooft, Pim; van Wieren, Sipke E; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Groenen, Martien A M; Prins, Herbert H T

    2016-08-01

    Phylogenetic incongruence can be caused by analytical shortcomings or can be the result of biological processes, such as hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting and gene duplication. Differentiation between these causes of incongruence is essential to unravel complex speciation and diversification events. The phylogeny of the True Geese (tribe Anserini, Anatidae, Anseriformes) was, until now, contentious, i.e., the phylogenetic relationships and the timing of divergence between the different goose species could not be fully resolved. We sequenced nineteen goose genomes (representing seventeen species of which three subspecies of the Brent Goose, Branta bernicla) and used an exon-based phylogenomic approach (41,736 exons, representing 5887 genes) to unravel the evolutionary history of this bird group. We thereby provide general guidance on the combination of whole genome evolutionary analyses and analytical tools for such cases where previous attempts to resolve the phylogenetic history of several taxa could not be unravelled. Identical topologies were obtained using either a concatenation (based upon an alignment of 6,630,626 base pairs) or a coalescent-based consensus method. Two major lineages, corresponding to the genera Anser and Branta, were strongly supported. Within the Branta lineage, the White-cheeked Geese form a well-supported sub-lineage that is sister to the Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis). In addition, two main clades of Anser species could be identified, the White Geese and the Grey Geese. The results from the consensus method suggest that the diversification of the genus Anser is heavily influenced by rapid speciation and by hybridization, which may explain the failure of previous studies to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this genus. The majority of speciation events took place in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene (between 4 and 2millionyears ago), conceivably driven by a global cooling trend that led to the

  4. Mortality of geese as a result of collision with the ground.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, G; Gillespie, M; Wyatt, T

    2005-04-01

    Two incidents are reported in which groups of migrating wild geese were found dead in agricultural fields in southern Manitoba during spring. In each case, the birds died overnight and poisoning was suspected; however, the birds had lesions of severe traumatic injury. The first incident, in 1985, involved about 150 lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens); the second, in 2003, involved 62 Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Both incidents occurred on dark, moonless nights. One possible explanation is that the birds became disoriented in a manner analogous to spatial disorientation described in aircraft pilots and flew as a flock directly into the earth. In the first incident, geese might have been frightened by sonic booms from aircraft; in the second, there was a thunderstorm with strong gusty winds in the area.

  5. Mortality of geese as a result of collision with the ground.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, G; Gillespie, M; Wyatt, T

    2005-04-01

    Two incidents are reported in which groups of migrating wild geese were found dead in agricultural fields in southern Manitoba during spring. In each case, the birds died overnight and poisoning was suspected; however, the birds had lesions of severe traumatic injury. The first incident, in 1985, involved about 150 lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens); the second, in 2003, involved 62 Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Both incidents occurred on dark, moonless nights. One possible explanation is that the birds became disoriented in a manner analogous to spatial disorientation described in aircraft pilots and flew as a flock directly into the earth. In the first incident, geese might have been frightened by sonic booms from aircraft; in the second, there was a thunderstorm with strong gusty winds in the area. PMID:16107686

  6. [Variability of the mtDNA Control Region in Goose Anser albifrons Scopoli, 1769].

    PubMed

    Volkovsky, D V; Fisenko, P V; Gerasimov, Yu N; Zhuravlev, Yu N

    2016-03-01

    Sequence variation of the mtDNA (D loop) control region was examined in greater white-fronted goose Anser albifrons Scopoli, 1769 individuals (n = 71). The obtained sequences were compared with those from the NCBI GenBank database. The high level of similarity of the sample from Primorye (A. albifrons) with the sample from Japan (A. a. frontalis) at the level of molecular variation, genetic distance, phylogenetic reconstruction, and haplotype network was demonstrated. A hypothesis on the ways of spring goose migration in the Far East was made. It was confirmed that white-fronted geese wintering in Japan fly to their breeding grounds through Kamchatka. PMID:27281856

  7. Citizen Science Based Monitoring of Greylag goose (Anser anser) in Bavaria (Germany): Combining Count Data and Bag Data to Estimate Long-Term Trends between 1988/89 and 2010/11

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction, Material and Methods Numbers of large grazing bird (geese, swans, cranes) have increased all over Europe, but monitoring these species, e.g. for management purposes, can be time consuming and costly. In Bavaria, sedentary Greylag geese (Anser anser) are monitored during the winter by two different citizen-based monitoring schemes: the International Waterbird Census [IWC] and hunting bag statistics. We compared the results of both schemes for the seasons 1988/89 to 2010/11 by analysing annual indices calculated using the software TRends and Indices for Monitoring Data—TRIM. Results and Discussion We identified similar, highly significant rates of increase in both data sets for the entire region of Bavaria (IWC 14% [13–15%], bag 13% [12–14%]). Furthermore, in all of the seven Bavarian regions, trends in annual indices of both data sets correlated significantly. The quality of both datasets as indicators of abundances in Greylag geese populations in Bavaria was not undermined by either weaknesses typically associated with citizen based monitoring or problems generally assumed for IWC and bag data. We also show that bag data are, under the German system of collecting bag statistics, a reliable indicator of species’ distribution, especially for detecting newly colonized areas. Therefore, wildlife managers may want to consider bag data from citizen science led monitoring programmes as evidence supporting the decision making processes. We also discuss requirements for any bag monitoring schemes being established to monitor trends in species’ distribution and abundance. PMID:26107952

  8. Heart rate modulation in bystanding geese watching social and non-social events

    PubMed Central

    Wascher, Claudia A.F; Scheiber, Isabella B.R; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Simply observing other individuals interacting has been shown to affect subsequent behaviour and also hormones in ‘bystander’ individuals. However, immediate physiological responses of an observer have been hardly investigated. Here we present results on individuals' heart rate (HR) responses during various situations, which occur regularly in a flock of greylag geese (Anser anser, e.g. agonistic encounters, vehicles passing by). We recorded simultaneously HR and behaviour of 21 semi-tame free-roaming geese, equipped with fully implanted transmitters. We considered 304 social and 81 non-social events during which the focal individuals did not respond behaviourally. Independent of the spatial distance to the event, these HR responses were significantly greater in social contexts (e.g. departing or landing geese, agonistic interactions) than in non-social situations (e.g. vehicles passing by, thunder). Focal individuals showed a significantly higher maximum HR as well as a greater HR increase in response to agonistic interactions, in which the pair partner or a family member was involved, as compared with a non-affiliated goose. Also, HR was significantly higher when the bystander watched non-affiliated geese interacting, which were higher ranking than the focal. We conclude that these differences are due to different relevance of the recorded events for the focal individual, depending on the individuals involved in the observed interaction. PMID:18430645

  9. Comparative spring-staging ecology of sympatric arctic-nesting geese in south-central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    The Rainwater Basin in Nebraska has been a historic staging area for midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) since the 1950s and, in the mid-1990s, millions of midcontinent lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) expanded their spring migration route to include this region. In response to speculation that snow geese may be in direct competition with white-fronted geese, we compared staging ecology by quantifying diet, habitat use, movement patterns, and time budgets during springs 1998–1999. Collected white-fronted geese (n  =  190) and snow geese (n  =  203) consumed primarily corn (Zea mays; 97–98% aggregate dry mass) while staging in Nebraska; thus, diet overlap was nearly complete. Both species used cornfields most frequently during the morning (54–55%) and wetlands more during the afternoon (51–65%). When found grouped together, snow goose abundance was greater than white-fronted goose abundance by an average of 57 times (se  =  11, n  =  131 groups) in crop fields and 28 times (se  =  9, n  =  84 groups) in wetlands. Snow geese and white-fronted geese flew similar distances between roosting and feeding sites, leaving and returning to wetland roost sties at similar times in mornings and afternoons. Overlap in habitat-specific time budgets was high; resting was the most common behavior on wetlands, and foraging was a common behavior in fields. We observed 111 interspecific agonistic interactions while observing white-fronted and snow geese. White-fronted geese initiated and dominated more interactions with other waterfowl species than did snow geese (32 vs. 14%). Certain aspects of spring-staging niches (i.e., diet, habitat use, movement patterns, and habitat-specific behavior) of white-fronted and snow geese overlapped greatly at this mid-latitude staging site, creating opportunity for potential food- and habitat-based competition between species. Snow geese did not consistently dominate

  10. Energy dynamics, foraging ecology, and behavior of prenesting greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budeau, D.A.; Ratti, J.T.; Ely, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    We collected greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) on their nesting grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, when they arrived and again before incubation during 1986 and 1987. Body mass, water content, crude fat, and crude protein increased in female geese between arrival and incubation onset in 1986 and 1987 (P = 0.0001, 0.0002, 0.0329, and 0.0003, respectively). Body mass of male geese during prenesting did not change, but total fat content decreased by about 30%. Crude protein of males was different between years (P = 0.0014). Female geese spent more time feeding than did males (P < 0.001). Primary foods during the prenesting period were pendent grass (Arctophila fulva) shoots and arrowgrass (Triglochin palustris) bulbs. Gizzard contents and orifice staining indicated crowberries (Empetrum nigrum) also were consumed. Of the commonly consumed food items, arrowgrass bulbs had the greatest protein content (21%), and crowberries had the greatest lipid content (10%). Unlike other medium-sized, northern-nesting geese, food (energy) acquired on the nesting grounds by white-fronted geese before incubation increased endogenous reserves necessary for reproduction.

  11. Development of adrenergic and cholinergic receptor cardiovascular regulatory capacity in the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus).

    PubMed

    Swart, Justin; Tate, Kevin; Crossley, Dane A

    2014-01-01

    Adrenergic control of cardiovascular function is a common component of regulation in embryonic birds studied to date. Our goal was to investigate adrenergic and cholinergic cardiovascular regulation in two goose species, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and the related domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus) to determine if these species possess similar regulation during embryonic development. We determined mean arterial pressure (Pm) and heart rate (fH) responses to serial blockade of cholinergic, β-adrenergic and α-adrenergic receptors in B. canadensis and A. domesticus at 70 and 90% of total incubation (28days). Both species possessed cholinergic and β-adrenergic tone on fH at 70% of incubation that increased in intensity with development. In addition, a constant α-adrenergic tone on Pm was present in both species. Our findings indicate that these geese species possess both cholinergic and adrenergic cardiovascular regulation providing information needed for speculation regarding the commonalities in the ontogeny of these cardiovascular regulatory elements in birds.

  12. An isotopic assessment of protein from diet and endogenous stores: Effects on egg production and incubation behaviour of geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Hobson, K.A.; Morse, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Little empirical information exists to assess to what degree geese use a capital versus income breeding strategy for investing nutrients into eggs. We used stable isotope methods to directly estimate the sources of protein deposited into egg yolks of Brent Branta bernicla and Emperor Geese Anser canagicus on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, USA. Approximately 59 and 45% of protein in egg yolks of Brent and Emperor Geese, respectively, was derived from exogenous sources (i.e. food plants on the local breeding area). Within clutches of Brent Goose eggs, first-laid eggs exhibited slightly higher contributions from endogenous reserves than last-laid eggs. This pattern was less clear for Emperor Geese, which may have been a consequence of possibly analysing eggs that were laid by intraspecific nest parasites rather than by hosts. For both these species, individuals exhibited large variability in the percent contribution of exogenous versus endogenous stores to eggs, and future studies should identify ecological factors related to this variation. Those Emperor Geese in poor body condition incubated their nests less constantly, and based on ??13C values, they fed on terrestrial foods while, off their nests. Although not a pure capital breeder, Emperor Geese used nutrients garnered on spring staging areas to fuel virtually all their own maintenance during incubation and to contribute half or more of the nutrients in eggs. These results highlight the ecological importance of these spring staging habitats to geese.

  13. Changes in nutrient dynamics of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl and other migratory birds commonly store nutrients at traditional staging areas during spring for later use during migration and reproduction. We investigated nutrient-storage dynamics in the midcontinent population of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons; hereafter white-fronted geese) at spring staging sites in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska during February-April and in southern Saskatchewan during April-May, 1998 and 1999. In Nebraska, lipid content of white-fronted geese did not increase, and protein content changed little over time for most age and sex categories. In Saskatchewan, lipids increased 11.4 g/day (SE = 1.7) and protein content increased 1.6 g/day (SE = 0.6) in the sample of adult geese collected over a 3-week period. A study conducted during 1979-1980 in the Rainwater Basin reported that white-fronted geese gained 8.8-17.7 g of lipids per day during spring, differing greatly from our results 2 decades later. In addition, lipid levels were less in the 1990s compared to spring 1980 for adult geese nearing departure from staging sites in Saskatchewan. This shift in where geese acquired nutrient stores from Nebraska to more northern staging sites coincided with a decrease in availability of waste corn in Nebraska, their primary food source while staging at that stopover site, and an increase in cultivation of high-energy pulse crops in Saskatchewan. White-fronted geese exhibited flexibility in nutrient dynamics during spring migration, likely in response to landscape-level variation in food availability caused by changes in agricultural trends and practices. Maintaining a wide distribution of wetlands in the Great Plains may allow springstaging waterfowl to disperse across the region and facilitate access to high-energy foods over a larger cropland base.

  14. Visual detection of goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus in geese and ducks by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Tarasiuk, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) is an aetiological agent of haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of geese occurring in geese (Anser anser). GHPV may also infect Muscovy ducks (Carina mochata) and mule ducks. Early detection of GHPV is important to isolate the infected birds from the rest of the flock thus limiting infection transmission. The current diagnosis of haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of geese is based on virus isolation, histopathological examination, haemagglutination inhibition assay, ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Recently, real-time PCR assay was developed which considerably improved detection of GHPV. In spite of many advantages, these methods are still time-consuming and inaccessible for laboratories with limited access to ELISA plate readers or PCR thermocyclers. The aim of our study was to develop loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) that may be conducted in a water bath. Two pairs of specific primers complementary to VP1 gene of GHPV were designed. The results of GHPV LAMP were recorded under ultraviolet light. Our study showed LAMP was able to specifically amplify VP1 fragment of a GHPV without cross-reactivity with other pathogens of geese and ducks. LAMP detected as little as 1.5 pg of DNA extracted from a GHPV standard strain (150 pg/µl). The optimized LAMP was used to examine 18 field specimens collected from dead and clinically diseased geese and ducks aged from 1 to 12 weeks. The positive signal for GHPV was detected in three out of 18 (16.6%) specimens. These results were reproducible and consistent with those of four real-time PCR. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on LAMP application for the GHPV detection.

  15. Avian cholera exposure and carriers in greater white-fronted geese breeding in Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study (2001a??03) on greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) breeding in Alaska, USA, to determine the exposure of this population to Pasteurella multocida and the potential role of these birds as disease carriers. We tested sera from nearly 600 adult geese for antibodies to P. multocida serotype 1. We found a low prevalence (<5%) of positive antibodies in adult geese, and based on the short duration of detectable antibodies, these findings indicate recent infection with P. multocida. Prevalence was similar to serologic results from both breeding and wintering lesser snow geese. We also collected oral (n=1,035), nasal (n=102), and cloacal (n=90) swab samples to determine the presence of avian cholera carriers in this population. We were unable to isolate P. multocida serotype 1 from any of the birds sampled. Based on comparison with other waterfowl species, we concluded that these geese may be exposed to avian cholera during the winter or spring migration but are unlikely to play a significant role as carriers of the bacterium causing avian cholera.

  16. Recovery of tall cotton-grass following real and simulated feeding by snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Robertson, Donna G.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Lesser snow geese Anser caerulescens caerulescens from the western Canadian Arctic feed on underground parts of tall cotton-grass Eriophorum angustifolium during autumn staging on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea in Canada and Alaska. We studied revegetation of sites where cotton-grass had been removed either by human-imprinted snow geese or by hand to simulate snow goose feeding. Aerial cover of cotton-grass at sites (n = 4) exploited by human-imprinted snow geese averaged 60 and 39% lower than in undisturbed control plots during the first and second year after feeding, respectively. Underground biomass of cotton-grass stembases and rhizomes in hand-treated plots was 80 and 62% less than in control plots 2 and 4 yr after removal, respectively (n = 10 yr-1). Aerial cover and biomass of common non-forage species such as Carex aquatilis did not increase on treated areas. Removal of cotton-grass by geese likely reduces forage availability at exploited sites for at least 2-4 yr after feeding but probably does not affect long-term community composition. Temporal heterogeneity in forage abundance likely contributes to the large spatial requirement of snow geese during staging.

  17. Avian cholera exposure and carriers in greater white-fronted geese breeding in Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Michael D; Shadduck, Daniel J; Goldberg, Diana R

    2005-07-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study (2001-03) on greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) breeding in Alaska, USA, to determine the exposure of this population to Pasteurella multocida and the potential role of these birds as disease carriers. We tested sera from nearly 600 adult geese for antibodies to P. multocida serotype 1. We found a low prevalence (<5%) of positive antibodies in adult geese, and based on the short duration of detectable antibodies, these findings indicate recent infection with P. multocida. Prevalence was similar to serologic results from both breeding and wintering lesser snow geese. We also collected oral (n=1,035), nasal (n=102), and cloacal (n=90) swab samples to determine the presence of avian cholera carriers in this population. We were unable to isolate P. multocida serotype 1 from any of the birds sampled. Based on comparison with other waterfowl species, we concluded that these geese may be exposed to avian cholera during the winter or spring migration but are unlikely to play a significant role as carriers of the bacterium causing avian cholera. PMID:16244059

  18. Detection of the virulent Marek's disease virus genome from feather tips of wild geese in Japan and the Far East region of Russia.

    PubMed

    Murata, S; Chang, K-S; Yamamoto, Y; Okada, T; Lee, S-I; Konnai, S; Onuma, M; Osa, Y; Asakawa, M; Ohashi, K

    2007-01-01

    Marek's disease (MD) virus (MDV) is known to cause malignant lymphomas in chickens. In 2001, we first reported an MD case in a white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) in Japan. Therefore, the prevalence of MDV in the wild geese was surveyed by nested PCR using feather-tip samples in Japan and the Far East region of Russia, breeding habitats of geese migrating to Japan. MDV was detected in about 30% of analyzed white-fronted geese. Furthermore, by nucleotide sequence analysis, we confirmed that this MDV shows high homology to very virulent MDV, suggesting that highly virulent MDV is widespread in white-fronted geese migrating between Japan and Far East region of Russia. PMID:17497232

  19. Influenza in Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Winkler, W G; Trainer, D O; Easterday, B C

    1972-01-01

    The role of wild avian species in the natural history of influenza is unknown. A serological study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence, distribution, and types of influenza antibody in several wild Canada goose populations. Geese were trapped and blood samples were obtained in each of 4 consecutive years, 1966-69. Antibody to influenzavirus was found in 66 (4.7%) of the 1 401 Canada geese tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antiribonucleoprotein antibody was found in 8 of 1 359 sera tested by the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. An increase in the percentage of reactors was seen each year. This increase was greater in two refuges with nonmigratory flocks. HI antibody was found against the turkey/Wisconsin/66, turkey/Wisconsin/68, turkey/Canada/63, and turkey/Alberta/6962/66, or closely related viruses. No antibody was found against duck/Ukraine/1/63 or human A/Hong Kong/68 virus at a time when the latter was prevalent in human populations, suggesting that Canada geese played no direct role in spreading the virus.Canada geese were experimentally exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 and turkey/Wisconsin/68 viruses; mallard ducks were exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 virus. HI antibody developed in 75% of the geese and 40% of the ducks but was generally short-lived. Anti-RNP antibody was detected in 15% of the exposed geese but in none of the ducks. Virus was recovered from 3 of 10 adult ducks but not from geese. None of the birds showed signs of disease.

  20. Brachyrhynchus membranaceus (Fabricius), an Old World flat bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) newly discovered in the Western Hemisphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Old World aradid Brachyrhynchus membranaceus (Fabricius), belonging to the subfamily Mezirinae, is reported for the first time from the Western Hemisphere. Since 2005, eight specimens have been intercepted at United States ports-of-entry in international commerce from Costa Rica, Dominican Repub...

  1. Seasonal variation in nutritional characteristics of the diet of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Raveling, Dennis G.

    2011-01-01

    We studied diet and habitat use of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) from autumn through spring on their primary staging and wintering areas in the Pacific Flyway, 1979-1982. There have been few previous studies of resource use and forage quality of wintering greater white-fronted geese in North America, and as a consequence there has been little empirical support for management practices pertaining to habitat conservation of this broadly distributed species. Observations of >2,500 flocks of geese and collections of foraging birds revealed seasonal and geographic variation in resource use reflective of changes in habitat availability, selection, and fluctuating physiological demands. Autumn migrants from Alaska arrived first in the Klamath Basin of California and southern Oregon, where they fed on barley, oats, wheat, and potatoes. Geese migrated from the Klamath Basin into the Central Valley of California in late autumn where they exploited agricultural crops rich in soluble carbohydrates, with geese in the Sacramento Valley feeding almost exclusively on rice and birds on the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta primarily utilizing corn. White-fronted geese began their northward migration in late winter, and by early spring most had returned to the Klamath Basin where 37% of flocks were found in fields of new growth cultivated and wild grasses. Cereal grains and potatoes ingested by geese were low in protein (7-14%) and high in soluble nutrients (17-47% neutral detergent fiber [NDF]), whereas grasses were low in available energy (47-49% NDF) but high in protein (26-42%). Greater white-fronted geese are generalist herbivores and can exploit a variety of carbohydrate-rich cultivated crops, likely making these geese less susceptible to winter food shortages than prior to the agriculturalization of the North American landscape. However, agricultural landscapes can be extremely dynamic and may be less predictable in the long-term than the historic environments to

  2. Seasonal variation in nutritional characteristics of the diet of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Raveling, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    We studied diet and habitat use of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) from autumn through spring on their primary staging and wintering areas in the Pacific Flyway, 1979-1982. There have been few previous studies of resource use and forage quality of wintering greater white-fronted geese in North America, and as a consequence there has been little empirical support for management practices pertaining to habitat conservation of this broadly distributed species. Observations of >2,500 flocks of geese and collections of foraging birds revealed seasonal and geographic variation in resource use reflective of changes in habitat availability, selection, and fluctuating physiological demands. Autumn migrants from Alaska arrived first in the Klamath Basin of California and southern Oregon, where they fed on barley, oats, wheat, and potatoes. Geese migrated from the Klamath Basin into the Central Valley of California in late autumn where they exploited agricultural crops rich in soluble carbohydrates, with geese in the Sacramento Valley feeding almost exclusively on rice and birds on the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta primarily utilizing corn. White-fronted geese began their northward migration in late winter, and by early spring most had returned to the Klamath Basin where 37% of flocks were found in fields of new growth cultivated and wild grasses. Cereal grains and potatoes ingested by geese were low in protein (7-14%) and high in soluble nutrients (17-47% neutral detergent fiber [NDF]), whereas grasses were low in available energy (47-49% NDF) but high in protein (26-42%). Greater white-fronted geese are generalist herbivores and can exploit a variety of carbohydrate-rich cultivated crops, likely making these geese less susceptible to winter food shortages than prior to the agriculturalization of the North American landscape. However, agricultural landscapes can be extremely dynamic and may be less predictable in the long-term than the historic environments to

  3. Five novel variants of GPR103 and their expression in different tissues of goose (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qihai; Liu, Dandan; Li, Liang; Wang, Jiwen; Huang, Kailiang; Liu, Hehe; Han, Chunchun; Pan, Zhixiong; Dong, Xia; Lu, Kai; Li, Le; Zhang, Rongping

    2014-05-01

    GPR103 plays an important role in various tissues, while little information is available about the alternative splicing (AS) of its mRNA. In the present study, we used genomic PCR to identify the partial genomic locus of goose (Anser cygnoides) GPR103 and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to identify five GPR103 variants, including the full-length variant (aGPR103-n) and four alternatively spliced variants (aGPR103-va, -vb, -vc and -vd). Sequence analysis showed that aGPR103-va and -vd are less likely to undergo nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, suggesting that they may be translated into truncated proteins. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that the five variants are widely distributed in the brain and peripheral tissues of geese and show specific expression patterns. Thus, we here provide the first account of the GPR103 genomic locus and illustrate its transcriptional diversity and widespread distribution in geese.

  4. Traversing a boreal forest landscape: Summer movements of Tule Greater White-fronted Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Bollinger, K.S.; Hupp, J.W.; Derksen, D.V.; Terenzi, J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Rothe, T.C.; Petrula, M.J.; Yparraguirre, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    We monitored the movement, distribution and site affinities of radio-marked Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons elgasi) during spring and summer in Alaska, 1994-1997 and 2004. Our assessment of summer movements was comprehensive, as locations were obtained during prenesting, nesting, and molt for over 90% of geese with active radios captured during winter or the previous summer in Alaska. Geese arrived to coastal and interior marshes in the Cook Inlet Basin (CIB) from mid April to early May, after which they moved to nesting areas in the upper CIB. Nesting birds used coastal staging areas in close proximity to eventual nest site location. Molting sites included a sub-glacial lake system in the upper CIB, although up to 50% of geese underwent a molt migration to wetlands across the Alaska Range, 400-600 km west of the CIB. Geese that molted at distant sites returned to the CIB before autumn migration. Length of stay in the CIB varied among years from 108-119 days, and averaged 116 days. Summer home-range sizes, exclusive of molting areas, averaged >273,000 ha, and were substantially larger than reported for other northern-nesting waterfowl. No radio-marked geese were found nesting in the vicinity of Redoubt Bay on the west side of Cook Inlet, and few nested near the Susitna Flats, the only other previously known nesting areas. The absence of nesting geese from Redoubt Bay corroborates aerial survey data showing a precipitous decline in the use of the west side of Cook Inlet between the early 1980s and early 1990s. The change in distribution of geese is likely related to a major eruption of Redoubt Volcano in 1989 that significantly altered landscapes used by nesting, brood rearing, and molting geese in the vicinity of Redoubt Bay. High inter-site movements of Greater White-fronted Geese throughout summer in south central Alaska likely increases exposure to predation, but also promotes social interactions and facilitates pioneering of distant, and

  5. Spring-staging ecology of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Reinecke, K.J.; Jorde, D.G.; Simpson, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    A major part of the midcontinent greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stages for several weeks in spring in the Rainwater Basin Area (RBA) of south-central Nebraska where substantial mortality from disease occurs periodically. Effective management of this population requires better data on use of habitat, vulnerability to disease, and the role of staging areas in migration and reproduction. We studied use of habitat, foods, nutrient dynamics, and effect of changes in agriculture on food availability and habitat needs in spring 1979-80. During daylight, geese were observed primarily in harvested cornfields (76%) and growing winter wheat (23%). Corn grain and winter wheat shoots composed 90 and 9%, respectively, of foods consumed by collected geese (n = 42). Feeding activity did not vary among post-harvest cornfield treatments except that little feeding occurred (P 0.05) of temporal variation in calcium content. Adult geese storing 14.2 g of fat per day deposited approximately 582 g of fat between 22 February and 8 April. Energy requirements for thermal regulation were small compared with requirements for fat synthesis and probably had little effect on nutrient deposition. The 34,000 white-fronted geese present on the Harvard Marsh and Prairie Dog Marsh study areas in March 1980 probably used <20% of the corn available within a 5-km radius. We believe that midcontinent white-fronted geese arrive on Arctic breeding grounds with larger and less variable fat reserves than prior to modern agricultural development. We attribute this response to increased food availability on staging areas where the net effect of agricultural changes has been an increase in corn availability. Waterfowl managers can increase dispersion of geese and provide favorable foraging conditions by maintaining well-distributed wetland roosting habitat and by working with private landowners to ensure access to grain in the vicinity of wetlands.

  6. Effects of migratory geese on plant communities of an Alaskan salt marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zacheis, A.; Hupp, J.W.; Ruess, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    1. We studied the effects of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on two salt marsh plant communities in Cook Inlet, Alaska, a stopover area used during spring migration. From 1995 to 1997 we compared plant species composition and biomass on plots where geese were excluded from feeding with paired plots where foraging could occur. 2. Foraging intensity was low (650-1930 goose-days km-2) compared to other goose-grazing systems. 3. Canada geese fed mainly on above-ground shoots of Triglochin maritimum, Puccinellia spp. and Carex ramenskii, whereas the majority of the snow goose diet consisted of below-ground tissues of Plantago maritima and Triglochin maritimum. 4. Plant communities responded differently to goose herbivory. In the sedge meadow community, where feeding was primarily on above-ground shoots, there was no effect of grazing on the dominant species Carex ramenskii and Triglochin maritimum. In the herb meadow community, where snow geese fed on Plantago maritima roots and other below-ground tissues, there was a difference in the relative abundance of plant species between treatments. Biomass of Plantago maritima and Potentilla egedii was lower on grazed plots compared with exclosed, whereas biomass of Carex ramenskii was greater on grazed plots. There was no effect of herbivory on total standing crop biomass in either community. The variable effect of herbivory on Carex ramenskii between communities suggests that plant neighbours and competitive interactions are important factors in a species' response to herbivory. In addition, the type of herbivory (above- or below-ground) was important in determining plant community response to herbivory. 5. Litter accumulation was reduced in grazed areas compared with exclosed in both communities. Trampling of the previous year's litter into the soil surface by geese incorporated more litter into soils in grazed areas. 6. This study illustrates that even light herbivore

  7. Changes in abundance and spatial distribution of geese molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska: Interspecific competition or ecological change?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Mallek, E.J.; King, R.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2008-01-01

    Goose populations molting in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska have changed in size and distribution over the past 30 years. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) are relatively stable in numbers but are shifting from large, inland lakes to salt marshes. Concurrently, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) have increased seven fold. Populations of Canada geese (Branta canadensis and/or B. hutchinsii) are stable with little indication of distributional shifts. The lesser snow goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) population is proportionally small, but increasing rapidly. Coastline erosion of the Beaufort Sea has altered tundra habitats by allowing saltwater intrusion, which has resulted in shifts in composition of forage plant species. We propose two alternative hypotheses for the observed shift in black brant distribution. Ecological change may have altered optimal foraging habitats for molting birds, or alternatively, interspecific competition between black brant and greater white-fronted geese may be excluding black brant from preferred habitats. Regardless of the causative mechanism, the observed shifts in species distributions are an important consideration for future resource planning. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Coccidia of Aleutian Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greiner, E.C.; Forrester, Donald J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Yparraguirre, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fecal samples from 122 captive and 130 free-ranging Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were examined for oocysts of coccidia. Freeranging geese sampled on the spring staging ground near Crescent City, California were infected with Eimeria hermani, E. truncata, E. magnalabia, E. fulva, E. clarkei and Tyzzeria parvula. Except for E. clarkei, the same species of coccidia were found in geese on their breeding grounds in Alaska. Most of the coccidial infections in captive geese from Amchitka Island, Alaska and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland, consisted of Tyzzeria.

  9. Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese.

    PubMed

    Williams, Byron K; Johnson, Fred A

    2015-01-01

    The "value of information" (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004; 24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration. PMID:25691972

  10. Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese.

    PubMed

    Williams, Byron K; Johnson, Fred A

    2015-01-01

    The "value of information" (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004; 24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration.

  11. Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    The “value of information” (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004;24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration.

  12. Altitude matters: differences in cardiovascular and respiratory responses to hypoxia in bar-headed geese reared at high and low altitudes.

    PubMed

    Lague, Sabine L; Chua, Beverly; Farrell, Anthony P; Wang, Yuxiang; Milsom, William K

    2016-07-01

    Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) fly at high altitudes during their migration across the Himalayas and Tibetan plateau. However, we know relatively little about whether rearing at high altitude (i.e. phenotypic plasticity) facilitates this impressive feat because most of what is known about their physiology comes from studies performed at sea level. To provide this information, a comprehensive analysis of metabolic, cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to progressive decreases in the equivalent fractional composition of inspired oxygen (FiO2 : 0.21, 0.12, 0.09, 0.07 and 0.05) was made on bar-headed geese reared at either high altitude (3200 m) or low altitude (0 m) and on barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis), a low-altitude migrating species, reared at low altitude (0 m). Bar-headed geese reared at high altitude exhibited lower metabolic rates and a modestly increased hypoxic ventilatory response compared with low-altitude-reared bar-headed geese. Although the in vivo oxygen equilibrium curves and blood-oxygen carrying capacity did not differ between the two bar-headed goose study groups, the blood-oxygen carrying capacity was higher than that of barnacle geese. Resting cardiac output also did not differ between groups and increased at least twofold during progressive hypoxia, initially as a result of increases in stroke volume. However, cardiac output increased at a higher FiO2  threshold in bar-headed geese raised at high altitude. Thus, bar-headed geese reared at high altitude exhibited a reduced oxygen demand at rest and a modest but significant increase in oxygen uptake and delivery during progressive hypoxia compared with bar-headed geese reared at low altitude. PMID:27385754

  13. Location and agricultural practices influence spring use of harvested cornfields by cranes and geese in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, M.J.; Sherfy, M.H.; Bishop, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes) stop in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska to store nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming corn remaining in fields after harvest. We examined factors that influence use of cornfields by cranes and geese (all mid-continent species combined; e.g., Anser, Chen, and Branta spp.) because it is a key step to efficient conservation planning aimed at ensuring that adequate food resources are available to migratory birds stopping in the CPRV. Distance to night-time roost site, segment of the CPRV (west to east), and agricultural practices (post-harvest treatment of cornfields: idle, grazed, mulched, mulched and grazed, and tilled) were the most important and influential variables in our models for geese and cranes. Probability of cornfield use by geese and cranes decreased with increasing distance from the closest potential roosting site. The use of cornfields by geese increased with the density of corn present there during the early migration period, but field use by cranes appeared not to be influenced by early migration corn density. However, probability of cornfield use by cranes did increase with the amount of wet grassland habitat within 4.8 km of the field. Geese were most likely to use fields that were tilled and least likely to use fields that were mulched and grazed. Cranes were most likely to use fields that were mulched and least likely to use fields that were tilled, but grazing appeared not to influence the likelihood of field use by cranes. Geese were more likely to use cornfields in western segments of the CPRV, but cranes were more likely to use cornfields in eastern segments. Our data suggest that managers could favor crane use of fields and reduce direct competition with geese by reducing fall and spring tilling and increasing mulching. Moreover, crane conservation efforts would be most beneficial if they were focused in the eastern portions

  14. Location and agricultural practices influence spring use of harvested cornfields by cranes and geese in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Bishop, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes) stop in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska to store nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming corn remaining in fields after harvest. We examined factors that influence use of cornfields by cranes and geese (all mid-continent species combined; e.g., Anser, Chen, and Branta spp.) because it is a key step to efficient conservation planning aimed at ensuring that adequate food resources are available to migratory birds stopping in the CPRV. Distance to night-time roost site, segment of the CPRV (west to east), and agricultural practices (post-harvest treatment of cornfields: idle, grazed, mulched, mulched and grazed, and tilled) were the most important and influential variables in our models for geese and cranes. Probability of cornfield use by geese and cranes decreased with increasing distance from the closest potential roosting site. The use of cornfields by geese increased with the density of corn present there during the early migration period, but field use by cranes appeared not to be influenced by early migration corn density. However, probability of cornfield use by cranes did increase with the amount of wet grassland habitat within 4.8 km of the field. Geese were most likely to use fields that were tilled and least likely to use fields that were mulched and grazed. Cranes were most likely to use fields that were mulched and least likely to use fields that were tilled, but grazing appeared not to influence the likelihood of field use by cranes. Geese were more likely to use cornfields in western segments of the CPRV, but cranes were more likely to use cornfields in eastern segments. Our data suggest that managers could favor crane use of fields and reduce direct competition with geese by reducing fall and spring tilling and increasing mulching. Moreover, crane conservation efforts would be most beneficial if they were focused in the eastern portions

  15. Hybridization in geese: a review.

    PubMed

    Ottenburghs, Jente; van Hooft, Pim; van Wieren, Sipke E; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Prins, Herbert H T

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large knowledge gap in geese. In this review, we assemble the available information on hybrid geese by focusing on three main themes: (1) incidence and frequency, (2) behavioural mechanisms leading to hybridization, and (3) hybrid fertility. Hybridization in geese is common on a species-level, but rare on a per-individual level. An overview of the different behavioural mechanisms indicates that forced extra-pair copulations and interspecific nest parasisitm can both lead to hybridization. Other sources of hybrids include hybridization in captivity and vagrant geese, which may both lead to a scarcity of conspecifics. The different mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and it is currently not possible to discriminate between the different mechanisms without quantitative data. Most hybrid geese are fertile; only in crosses between distantly related species do female hybrids become sterile. This fertility pattern, which is in line with Haldane's Rule, may facilitate interspecific gene flow between closely related species. The knowledge on hybrid geese should be used, in combination with the information available on hybridization in ducks, to study the process of avian speciation. PMID:27182276

  16. Microbial Infections Are Associated with Embryo Mortality in Arctic-Nesting Geese

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Cristina M.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Van Hemert, Caroline; Hare, Rebekah F.

    2015-01-01

    To address the role of bacterial infection in hatching failure of wild geese, we monitored embryo development in a breeding population of Greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. During 2013, we observed mortality of normally developing embryos and collected 36 addled eggs for analysis. We also collected 17 infertile eggs for comparison. Using standard culture methods and gene sequencing to identify bacteria within collected eggs, we identified a potentially novel species of Neisseria in 33 eggs, Macrococcus caseolyticus in 6 eggs, and Streptococcus uberis and Rothia nasimurium in 4 eggs each. We detected seven other bacterial species at lower frequencies. Sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the Neisseria isolates most closely matched sequences from N. animaloris and N. canis (96 to 97% identity), but phylogenetic analysis suggested substantial genetic differentiation between egg isolates and known Neisseria species. Although definitive sources of the bacteria remain unknown, we detected Neisseria DNA from swabs of eggshells, nest contents, and cloacae of nesting females. To assess the pathogenicity of bacteria identified in contents of addled eggs, we inoculated isolates of Neisseria, Macrococcus, Streptococcus, and Rothia at various concentrations into developing chicken eggs. Seven-day mortality rates varied from 70 to 100%, depending on the bacterial species and inoculation dose. Our results suggest that bacterial infections are a source of embryo mortality in wild geese in the Arctic. PMID:26048928

  17. Nitrogen dynamics in an Alaskan salt marsh following spring use by geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zacheis, A.; Ruess, R.W.; Hupp, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) use several salt marshes in Cook Inlet, Alaska, as stopover areas for brief periods during spring migration. We investigated the effects of geese on nitrogen cycling processes in Susitna Flats, one of the marshes. We compared net nitrogen mineralization, organic nitrogen pools and production in buried bags, nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria, and soil and litter characteristics on grazed plots versus paired plots that had been exclosed from grazing for 3 years. Grazed areas had higher rates of net nitrogen mineralization in the spring and there was no effect of grazing on organic nitrogen availability. The increased mineralization rates in grazed plots could not be accounted for by alteration of litter quality, litter quantity, microclimate, or root biomass, which were not different between grazed and exclosed plots. In addition, fecal input was very slight in the year that we studied nitrogen cycling. We propose that trampling had two effects that could account for greater nitrogen availability in grazed areas: litter incorporation into soil, resulting in increased rates of decomposition and mineralization of litter material, and greater rates of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria on bare, trampled soils. A path analysis indicated that litter incorporation by trampling played a primary role in the nitrogen dynamics of the system, with nitrogen fixation secondary, and that fecal input was of little importance.

  18. Life cycle and ultrastructure of Eimeria stigmosa, the intranuclear coccidian of the goose (Anser anser domesticus).

    PubMed

    Pecka, Z

    1992-01-01

    The oocyst morphology and endogenous development of Eimeria stigmosa Klimes, 1963 in a domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus L.) was studied using light and electron microscopy. The oocyst wall consisted of two layers. The outer layer formed densely accumulated protrusions, whilst the inner layer was smooth and formed a collar structure around the micropyle. Meronts were observed in the posterior part of the jejunum, along the whole length of the ileum and in Meckel's diverticulum within 1-4 days post infection (DPI). Sexual generation was found in the caecum and colon 4-5 DPI. All endogenous stages were located intranuclearly in enterocytes, predominantly in the apical part of the villi in distinct parasitophorous vacuoles. Numerous different developmental stages were frequently found in one nucleus. Current evidence indicates the existence of only one asexual generation formed by ectomerogony. During the development of asexual stages, invaginations into the body of a meront by the host cell nucleoplasm were observed. PMID:1644357

  19. Serological survey and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in domestic ducks and geese in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, P; Buschtöns, S; Herrmann, D C; Conraths, F J; Görlich, K; Tenter, A M; Dubey, J P; Nagel-Kohl, U; Thoms, B; Bötcher, L; Kühne, M; Schares, G

    2011-12-15

    To obtain estimates for the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ducks and geese in Germany, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were established based on affinity-purified T. gondii tachyzoite surface antigen 1 (TgSAG1) and used to examine duck and goose sera for T. gondii-specific antibodies. The results of 186 sera from 60 non-infected ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and 101 sera from 36 non-infected geese (Anser anser) as well as 72 sera from 11 ducks and 89 sera from 12 geese inoculated experimentally with T. gondii tachyzoites (intravenously) or oocysts (orally) and positive in a T. gondii immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) were used to select a cut-off value for the TgSAG1-ELISA. Sera obtained by serial bleeding of experimentally inoculated ducks and geese were tested to analyze the time course of anti-TgSAG1 antibodies after inoculation and to assess the sensitivity of the assays in comparison with IFAT. In ducks, IFAT titres and ELISA indices peaked 2 and 5 weeks p.i with tachyzoites, respectively. Only three of six geese inoculated with tachyzoites at the same time as the ducks elicited a low and non-permanent antibody response as detected by the IFAT. In the TgSAG1-ELISA, only a slight increase of the ELISA indices was observed in four of six tachyzoite-inoculated geese. By contrast, inoculation of ducks and geese with oocysts led to an increase in anti-TgSAG1 antibodies within 1 or 2 weeks, which were still detectable at the end of the observation period, i.e. 11 weeks p.i. Inoculation of three ducks and three geese with oocysts of Hammondia hammondi, a protozoon closely related to T. gondii, resulted in a transient seroconversion in ducks and geese as measured by IFAT or TgSAG1-ELISA. Using the newly established TgSAG1-ELISA, sera from naturally exposed ducks and geese sampled in the course of a monitoring program for avian influenza were examined for antibodies to T. gondii; 145/2534 (5.7%) of the ducks and 94/373 (25.2%) of the geese

  20. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of LGP2 cDNA from goose, Anser cygnoides.

    PubMed

    Wei, L; Song, Y; Cui, J; Qu, N; Wang, N; Ouyang, G; Liao, M; Jiao, P

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 ( LGP2: ) is a homologue of the retinoic acid inducible gene-I and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 that lacks the caspase activation and recruitment domain required for signaling. It plays a pivotal role in host immune response. In this study, we cloned and characterized the full-length open reading frame ( ORF: ) sequence of LGP2 in the Qingyuan goose (Anser cygnoides) and evaluated the mRNA expression of this gene post infection with an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus ( HPAIV: ). The full-length goose LGP2 ORF (2,028 bp) encoded a polypeptide of 675 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contained 5 main overlapping structural domains-2 DEAD/DEAH box helicase domains, one conserved restriction domain of bacterial type III restriction enzyme, one helicase superfamily C-terminal domain and one C-terminal regulatory domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that goose LGP2 was constitutively expressed in all 19 investigated tissues, but the expression level was different among them. It was high expressed in the trachea, jejunum, bursa, kidney and heart, but low in the glandular stomach, lung, liver, spleen, crop and muscular stomach. A significant increase in the transcription of LGP2 was detected in the brain, spleen and lungs of geese post infection with H5N1 HPAIV versus uninfected tissues. These findings indicated that goose LGP2 was an important receptor that is involved in the host antiviral innate immune defense to H5N1 HPAIV in geese. PMID:27143779

  1. Breeding dispersal in a heterogeneous landscape: the influence of habitat and nesting success in greater snow geese.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Nicolas; Gauthier, Gilles; Giroux, Jean-François

    2008-02-01

    Despite numerous studies on breeding dispersal, it is still unclear how habitat heterogeneity and previous nesting success interact to determine nest-site fidelity at various spatial scales. In this context, we investigated factors affecting breeding dispersal in greater snow geese (Anser caerulescens atlanticus), an Arctic breeding species nesting in two contrasting habitats (wetlands and mesic tundra) with variable pattern of snowmelt at the time of settlement in spring. From 1994 to 2005, we monitored the nesting success and breeding dispersal of individually marked females. We found that snow geese showed a moderate amount of nest-site fidelity and considerable individual variability in dispersal distance over consecutive nesting attempts. This variability can be partly accounted for by the annual timing of snowmelt. Despite this environmental constraint, habitat differences at the colony level consistently affected nesting success and settlement patterns. Females nesting in wetlands had higher nesting success than those nesting in mesic tundra. Moreover, geese responded adaptively to spatial heterogeneity by showing fidelity to their nesting habitat, independently of snowmelt pattern. From year to year, geese were more likely to move from mesic to high-quality wetland habitat, regardless of previous nesting success and without cost on their subsequent nesting performance. The unpredictability of snowmelt and the low cost of changing site apparently favour breeding-site dispersal although habitat quality promotes fidelity at the scale of habitat patches. PMID:17938972

  2. Spring-staging ecology of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Reinecke, K.J.; Jorde, D.G.; Simpson, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    A major part of the midcontinent greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stages for several weeks in spring in the Rainwater Basin Area (RBA) of south-central Nebraska where substantial mortality from disease occurs periodically. Effective management of this population requires better data on use of habitat, vulnerability to disease, and the role of staging areas in migration and reproduction, We studied use of habitat, foods, nutrient dynamics, and effect of changes in agriculture on food availability and habitat needs in spring 1979-80. During daylight, geese were observed primarily in harvested cornfields (76%) and growing winter wheat (23%). Corn grain and winter wheat shoots composed 90 and 9%, respectively, of foods consumed by collected geese (n = 42). Feeding activity did not vary among post-harvest cornfield treatments except that little feeding occurred (P lt 0.05) in moldboard-plowed fields ( lt 1%). Fat content for all geese increased (P ltoreq 0.01) with Julian date; protein content increased (P = 0.03) only among adult females, and there was no evidence (P gt 0.05) of temporal variation in calcium content. Adult geese storing 14.2 g of fat per day deposited approximately 582 g of fat between 22 February and 3 April. Energy requirements for thermal regulation were small compared with requirements for fat synthesis and probably had little effect on nutrient deposition. The 34,000 white-fronted geese present on the Harvard Marsh and Prairie Dog Marsh study areas in March 1980 probably used lt 20% of the corn available within a 5-km radius. We believe that midcontinent white-fronted geese arrive on Arctic breeding grounds with larger and less variable fat reserves than prior to modern agricultural development. We attribute this response to increased food availability on staging areas where the net effect of agricultural changes has been an increase in corn availability. Waterfowl managers can increase dispersion of geese and provide

  3. Changes in agriculture and abundance of snow geese affect carrying capacity of sandhill cranes in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, A.T.; Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Kinzel, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The central Platte River valley (CPRV) in Nebraska, USA, is a key spring-staging area for approximately 80 of the midcontinent population of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes). Evidence that staging cranes acquired less lipid reserves during the 1990s compared to the late 1970s and increases in use of the CPRV by snow geese (Chen caerulescens) prompted us to investigate availability of waste corn and quantify spatial and temporal patterns of crane and waterfowl use of the region. We developed a predictive model to assess impacts of changes in availability of corn and snow goose abundance under past, present, and potential future conditions. Over a hypothetical 60-day staging period, predicted energy demand of cranes and waterfowl increased 87 between the late 1970s and 19982007, primarily because peak abundances of snow geese increased by 650,000 and cranes by 110,000. Compared to spring 1979, corn available when cranes arrived was 20 less in 1998 and 68 less in 1999; consequently, the area of cornfields required to meet crane needs increased from 14,464 ha in 1979 to 32,751 ha in 1998 and 90,559 ha in 1999. Using a pooled estimate of 88 kg/ha from springs 19981999 and 20052007, the area of cornfields needed to supply food requirements of cranes and waterfowl increased to 65,587 ha and was greatest in the eastern region of the CPRV, where an estimated 54 of cranes, 47 of Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 45 of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and 46 of snow geese occurred during ground surveys. We estimated that a future reduction of 25 in available corn or cornfields would increase daily foraging flight distances of cranes by 2738. Crane use and ability of cranes to store lipid reserves in the CPRV could be reduced substantially if flight distance required to locate adequate corn exceeded a physiological maximum distance cranes could fly in search of food. Options to increase carrying capacity for cranes include increasing

  4. Spring hunting changes the regional movements of migrating greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bechet, A.; Giroux, J.-F.; Gauthier, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    1. Human-induced disturbance such as hunting may influence the migratory behaviour of long-distance migrants. In 1999 and 2000 a spring hunt of greater snow geese Anser caerulescens atlanticus occurred for the first time in North America since 1916, aimed at stopping population growth to protect natural habitats. 2. We evaluated the impact of this hunt on the staging movements of geese along a 600-km stretch of the St. Lawrence River in southern Quebec, Canada. 3. We tracked radio-tagged female geese in three contiguous regions of the staging area from the south-west to the north-east: Lake St Pierre, Upper Estuary and Lower Estuary, in spring 1997 (n = 37) and 1998 (n = 70) before the establishment of hunting, and in 1999 (n = 60) and 2000 (n = 59) during hunting. 4. We used multi-state capture-recapture models to estimate the movement probabilities of radio-tagged females among these regions. To assess disturbance level, we tracked geese during their feeding trips and estimated the probability of completing a foraging bout without being disturbed. 5. In the 2 years without hunting, migration was strongly unidirectional from the south-west to the north-east, with very low westward movement probabilities. Geese gradually moved from Lake St Pierre to Upper Estuary and then from Upper Estuary to Lower Estuary. 6. In contrast, during the 2 years with hunting westward movement was more than four times more likely than in preceding years. Most of these backward movements occurred shortly after the beginning of the hunt, indicating that geese moved back to regions where they had not previously experienced hunting. 7. Overall disturbance level increased in all regions in years with hunting relative to years without hunting. 8. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that spring hunting changed the stopover scheduling of this long-distance migrant and might further impact population dynamics by reducing prenuptial fattening. The spring hunt may also have increased crop

  5. Spatial use by wintering greater white-fronted geese relative to a decade of habitat change in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Fleskes, J.P.; Yee, J.L.; Kruse, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of recent habitat changes in California's Central Valley on wintering Pacific greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) by comparing roost-to-feed distances, distributions, population range sizes, and habitat use during 1987-1990 and 1998-2000. These habitat changes included wetland restoration and agricultural land enhancement due to the 1990 implementation of the Central Valley Joint Venture, increased land area used for rice (Oryza sativa) production, and the practice of flooding, rather than burning, rice straw residues for decomposition because of burning restrictions enacted in 1991. Using radiotelemetry, we tracked 192 female geese and recorded 4,516 locations. Geese traveled shorter distances between roosting and feeding sites during 1998-2000 (24.2 ?? 2.2 km) than during 1987-1990 (32.5 ?? 3.4 km); distance traveled tended to decline throughout winter during both decades and varied among watershed basins. Population range size was smaller during 1998-2000 (3,367 km2) than during 1987-1990 (5,145 km2), despite a 2.2-fold increase in the size of the Pacific Flyway population of white-fronted geese during the same time period. The population range size also tended to increase throughout winter during both decades. Feeding and roosting distributions of geese also differed between decades; geese shifted into basins that had the greatest increases in the amount of area in rice production (i.e., American Basin) and out of other basins (i.e., Delta Basin). The use of rice habitat for roosting (1987-1990: 40%, 1998-2000: 54%) and feeding (1987-1990: 57%, 1998-2000: 72%) increased between decades, whereas use of wetlands declined for roosting (1987-1990: 36%, 1998-2000: 31%) and feeding (1987-1990: 22%, 1998-2000: 12%). Within postharvested rice habitats, geese roosted and fed primarily in burned rice fields during 1987-1990 (roost: 43%, feed: 34%), whereas they used flooded rice fields during 1998-2000 (roost: 78%, feed: 64

  6. Use of supplemental food by breeding Ross's Geese and Lesser Snow Geese: Evidence for variable anorexia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Hobson, K.A.; Afton, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Recent research suggests that foods eaten during laying and incubation play a greater role in supplying energy and nutrients to arctic-nesting geese than previously believed. We conducted food-supplementation experiments with Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens) geese to evaluate: (1) if supplemental food was consumed by laying and incubating geese, (2) how food consumption influenced mass dynamics of somatic tissues of breeding geese, (3) if patterns of mass loss were consistent with fasting adaptations, and (4) whether energetic constraints would cause smaller Ross's Geese to consume more food relative to their body size than would larger Snow Geese. Quantity of supplemental food eaten by both species during laying and incubation was highly variable among individuals. Consumption of supplemental food during laying resulted in differences in overall body composition between control and treatment females. Treatment female Ross's Geese completed laying at a higher mass and with more abdominal fat than controls, whereas treatment female Snow Geese completed laying with heavier breast muscles and hearts. Overall body composition did not differ between control and treatment geese (both sexes and species) at the end of incubation, but treatment geese had heavier hearts than control geese. This suggests that treatment females did not rely to the same extent on metabolic adaptations associated with anorexia to meet energetic costs of incubation as did controls. Stable-nitrogen isotope analysis revealed patterns of protein maintenance during incubation consistent with metabolic adaptations to prolonged fasting. Our prediction that energetic constraints would cause smaller Ross's Geese to consume more food relative to their size than would Snow Geese was not supported. Mass-specific food consumption by Ross's Geese was 30% lower than that of Snow Geese during laying and 48% higher during incubation.

  7. Serial agonistic attacks by greylag goose families, Anser anser, against the same opponent

    PubMed Central

    Scheiber, Isabella B.R.; Kotrschal, Kurt; Weiß, Brigitte M.

    2011-01-01

    It is known from primates that alliance partners may support each other’s interests in competition with others, for example, through repeated agonistic attacks against a particular individual. We examined serial aggressive interactions between greylag goose families and other flock members. We found that repeated attacks towards the same individual were common and that up to five serial attacks by family members followed an initial attack. Family size did not affect the frequency of such serial attacks. Juvenile geese evidently benefited most from active social support through serial attacks. About 60% of the juveniles’ lost primary interactions were subsequently reversed by another family member. This may be one of the reasons why juveniles rank higher in the social hierarchy than would be expected from their age and size alone. Losses in serial attacks predominantly occurred against other, presumably higher-ranking, family geese and ganders. We propose three major functions/consequences of serial attacks. Analogous to primates, serial attacks in greylag geese may serve to reinforce a losing experience of an opponent defeated in a preceding attack. On the side of the winning family, serial attacks may reinforce the experience of winning. Both winning and losing experiences are linked with physiological consequences in higher vertebrates, affecting the future social performance of winners or losers. Finally, serial attacks may signal the agonistic potential of a family to other flock members. This is supported by heart rate data, which indicate that greylags are competent to interpret third-party relationships. PMID:21984838

  8. Spatial dynamics of bar-headed geese migration in the context of H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Bourouiba, L.; Wu, Jianhong; Newman, S.; Takekawa, J.; Natdorj, T.; Batbayar, N.; Bishop, C. M.; Hawkes, L. A.; Butler, P. J.; Wikelski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Virulent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) since 2005 have raised the question about the roles of migratory and wild birds in the transmission of HPAI. Despite increased monitoring, the role of wild waterfowl as the primary source of the highly pathogenic H5N1 has not been clearly established. The impact of outbreaks of HPAI among species of wild birds which are already endangered can nevertheless have devastating consequences for the local and non-local ecology where migratory species are established. Understanding the entangled dynamics of migration and the disease dynamics will be key to prevention and control measures for humans, migratory birds and poultry. Here, we present a spatial dynamic model of seasonal migration derived from first principles and linking the local dynamics during migratory stopovers to the larger scale migratory routes. We discuss the effect of repeated epizootic at specific migratory stopovers for bar-headed geese (Anser indicus). We find that repeated deadly outbreaks of H5N1 on stopovers during the autumn migration of bar-headed geese could lead to a larger reduction in the size of the equilibrium bird population compared with that obtained after repeated outbreaks during the spring migration. However, the opposite is true during the first few years of transition to such an equilibrium. The age-maturation process of juvenile birds which are more susceptible to H5N1 reinforces this result. PMID:20472636

  9. Spatial dynamics of bar-headed geese migration in the context of H5N1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bourouiba, L.; Wu, Jianhong; Newman, S.; Takekawa, J.; Natdorj, T.; Batbayar, N.; Bishop, C.M.; Hawkes, L.A.; Butler, P.J.; Wikelski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Virulent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) since 2005 have raised the question about the roles of migratory and wild birds in the transmission of HPAI. Despite increased monitoring, the role of wild waterfowl as the primary source of the highly pathogenic H5N1 has not been clearly established. The impact of outbreaks of HPAI among species of wild birds which are already endangered can nevertheless have devastating consequences for the local and non-local ecology where migratory species are established. Understanding the entangled dynamics of migration and the disease dynamics will be key to prevention and control measures for humans, migratory birds and poultry. Here, we present a spatial dynamic model of seasonal migration derived from first principles and linking the local dynamics during migratory stopovers to the larger scale migratory routes. We discuss the effect of repeated epizootic at specific migratory stopovers for bar-headed geese (Anser indicus). We find that repeated deadly outbreaks of H5N1 on stopovers during the autumn migration of bar-headed geese could lead to a larger reduction in the size of the equilibrium bird population compared with that obtained after repeated outbreaks during the spring migration. However, the opposite is true during the first few years of transition to such an equilibrium. The age-maturation process of juvenile birds which are more susceptible to H5N1 reinforces this result.

  10. Behavioral correlates of heart rates of free-living Greater White-fronted Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Ward, D.H.; Bollinger, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    We simultaneously monitored the heart rate and behavior of nine free-living Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons) on their wintering grounds in northern California. Heart rates of wild geese were monitored via abdominally-implanted radio transmitters with electrodes that received electrical impulses of the heart and emitted a radio signal with each ventricular contraction. Post-operative birds appeared to behave normally, readily rejoining flocks and flying up to 15 km daily from night-time roost sites to feed in surrounding agricultural fields. Heart rates varied significantly among individuals and among behaviors, and ranged from less than 100 beats per minute (BPM) during resting, to over 400 BPM during flight. Heart rates varied from 80 to 140 BPM during non-strenuous activities such as walking, feeding, and maintenance activities, to about 180 BPM when birds became alert, and over 400 BPM when birds were startled, even if they did not take flight. Postflight heart rate recovery time averaged < 10 sec. During agonistic encounters, heart rate exceeded 400 BPM; heart rates during social interactions were not predictable solely from postures, as heart rates were context-dependent, and were highest in initial encounters among individuals. Instantaneous measures of physiological parameters, such as heart rate, are often better indicators of the degree of response to external stimuli than visual observations and can be used to improve estimates of energy expenditure based solely on activity data.

  11. Microbial infections are associated with embryo mortality in Arctic-nesting geese.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Cristina M.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Hare, Rebekah F.; Hueffer, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    To address the role of bacterial infection in hatching failure of wild geese, we monitored embryo development in a breeding population of Greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. During 2013, we observed mortality of normally developing embryos and collected 36 addled eggs for analysis. We also collected 17 infertile eggs for comparison. Using standard culture methods and gene sequencing to identify bacteria within collected eggs, we identified a potentially novel species of Neisseria in 33 eggs, Macrococcus caseolyticus in 6 eggs, and Streptococcus uberis and Rothia nasimurium in 4 eggs each. We detected seven other bacterial species at lower frequencies. Sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the Neisseria isolates most closely matched sequences from N. animaloris and N. canis (96 to 97% identity), but phylogenetic analysis suggested substantial genetic differentiation between egg isolates and known Neisseria species. Although definitive sources of the bacteria remain unknown, we detected Neisseria DNA from swabs of eggshells, nest contents, and cloacae of nesting females. To assess the pathogenicity of bacteria identified in contents of addled eggs, we inoculated isolates of Neisseria, Macrococcus, Streptococcus, and Rothia at various concentrations into developing chicken eggs. Seven-day mortality rates varied from 70 to 100%, depending on the bacterial species and inoculation dose. Our results suggest that bacterial infections are a source of embryo mortality in wild geese in the Arctic.    

  12. Canada geese in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rusch, Donald H.; Malecki, Richard E.; Trost, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    Market hunting and poor stewardship led to record low numbers of geese in the early 1900's, but regulated seasons including closures, refuges, and law enforcement led to restoration of most populations. Winter surveys were begun to study population trends and set responsible harvest regulations for these long-lived and diverse birds. Winter surveys begun in 1936-37 probably represent the oldest continuing index of migratory birds in North America.

  13. Site selection and nest survival of the Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) on the Mongolian Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Spragens, Kyle A.; Xiao, Xiamgming

    2014-01-01

    Waterbirds breeding on the Mongolian Plateau in Central Asia must find suitable wetland areas for nesting in a semiarid region characterized by highly variable water conditions. The first systematic nesting study of a waterbird dependent on this region for breeding was conducted on the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus). The purpose of this study was to document Bar-headed Goose nesting locations, characterize nests and nesting strategies, and estimate daily nest survival (n = 235 nests) from eight areas of west-central Mongolia across three summers (2009–2011) using a modified Mayfield estimator. Bar-headed Goose daily nest survival ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, with a 3-year average nest success of 42.6% during incubation. Bar-headed Geese were found to primarily nest on isolated pond and lake islands as previously reported, but were also documented regularly, though less frequently, along rocky cliffs in several regions of west-central Mongolia. Daily nest survival was higher for cliff nests than for island nests. Information-theoretic models indicated that nest survival decreased with nest age and varied annually with changing environmental conditions. Results of this study suggest that while Bar-headed Geese primarily rely on nesting island sites these sites may be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance and predation events influenced by seasonal variation in environmental conditions, and that higher daily nest survival values documented for the less frequent cliff nest strategy may provide an important alternative strategy during poor island nest success years. Thus, conservation efforts for this and other waterbird species in the semiarid region should be focused on conserving nesting islands and protecting them from disturbance in areas of high livestock densities experiencing a rapidly warming climate.

  14. Nest morphology and body size of Ross' Geese and Lesser Snow Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    Arctic-nesting geese build large, insulated nests to protect developing embryos from cold ambient temperatures. Ross' Geese (Chen rossii) are about two-thirds the mass of Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens), have higher mass-specific metabolic rate, and maintain lower nest attentiveness, yet they hatch goslings with more functionally mature gizzards and more protein for their size than do Lesser Snow Geese. We compared nest size (a reflection of nest insulation) in four distinct habitats in a mixed breeding colony of Ross' Geese and Lesser Snow Geese at Karrak Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada. After adjusting measurements for nest-specific egg size and clutch size, we found that overall nest morphology differed between species and among habitats. Nest size increased progressively among heath, rock, mixed, and moss habitats. When nesting materials were not limiting, nests were smaller in habitats that provided cover from wind and precipitation than in habitats that did not provide cover. Ross' Geese constructed relatively larger, more insulated nests than did Lesser Snow Geese, which may hasten embryonic development, minimize energy expenditure during incubation, and minimize embryonic cooling during recesses. We suggest that relative differences in nest morphology reflect greater selection for Ross' Geese to improve nest insulation because of their smaller size (adults and embryos), higher mass-specific metabolic rate, and lower incubation constancy.

  15. Application of a computer simulation model to migrating white-fronted geese in the Klamath Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, R.B.; Clark, W.R.; Takekawa, J.Y.; McCullough, D.R.; Barrett, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Pacific greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population has declined precipitously over the past 20 years. Loss of wetland habitat in California wintering areas has had a significant effect on the population, so recovery of the population may depend on innovative management of the few remaining wetlands. A computer simulation model, REFMOD, was applied to greater white-fronted geese in the Klamath Basin, northern California, to investigate the importance of food availability and hunting disturbance to migrating and wintering populations. Time spent flying and feeding was simulated during fall and early winter, and the resulting energy expenditure was compared with energy consumed to calculate an overall energy balance. This energy balance and the ease with which waterfowl acquired needed food affected emigration rate, and thus, the waterfowl population level was directly tied to availability and distribution of food. The model validly described distances moved by geese from their Tule Lake Refuge roosting site (core) to feeding sites within the surrounding Klamath Basin arena, and exhibited a capability to simulate observed time spent feeding. Based on 25 stochastic simulations, greater white-fronted goose population dynamics were validly simulated over the fall and early-winter (P>0.8). When food was removed from the Tule Lake Refuge, simulated geese had to fly farther (P0.05). The elimination did cause an increase in the distance traveled to feed (P0.05) on the distance traveled to feed or on goose numbers. A 10-fold increase in disturbance hastened emigration and reduced population levels (P<0.0001) during the season by about 30%; a 100-fold increase in disturbance reduced population levels (P<0.0001) by 85%. When goose immigration was increased to simulate an average peak population of approximately 500 000 geese, population levels remained high throughout the fall, indicating the Klamath Basin can sustain a population much larger than currently

  16. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  17. Aging small Canada geese by neck plumage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Schoonover, L.J.

    1969-01-01

    The neck plumage method, a new technique for separating immature from adult Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in the hand, was evaluated by comparison with the notched tail feather and cloacal examination methods. Two (1.4 percent) of 141 geese examined were misaged, resulting in a 6 percent error in the immature-adult ratio obtained by the neck plumage method. The neck plumage method is a rapid aging method and reasonable accuracy (94 percent) can be obtained. It can also be used to differentiate immatures from adults on the ground at distances up to 175 yards, but was almost impossible to use when geese were in flight. As yet, the neck plumage method has only been tested on the subspecies (B. c. hutchinsii-parvipes complex) in the Tall-Grass Prairie population of small Canada geese.

  18. Rigid plastic collars for marking geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballou, R.M.; Martin, F.W.

    1964-01-01

    Rigid plastic collars of one to three colors proved useful for recognition of individual Canada geese (Branta canadensis). The collars did not seem to affect the behavior of the geese, and there was little mortality caused by their use. In good light, bright colors are visible through a 20-power spotting scope for more than 1 mile. Retention of collars was about 90 percent for 1 year and more than 80 percent for 2 years.

  19. Canada geese in the Atlantic Flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, Jay B.

    1995-01-01

    Overall, the total number of wintering geese reaching a peak of 955,000 in 1981 and has since declined 40% to 569,000 in 1993. Compounding these distributional changes in wintering numbers, the subspecies composition has also changed. The Canada goose population is composed of migrant geese (primarily B.c. canadensis and B.c. interior) that breed in the subarctic regions of Canada and resident geese (primarily B.c. maxima and B.c. moffitti) that breed in southern Canada and the United States (Stotts 1983). The number of resident geese in Maine to Virginia has increased considerable from maybe 50,000 to 100,000 in 1981 (Conover and Chasko 1985) to an average of 560,000 in 1992-93 (H. Heusman, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, personal communication). This rapid increase in resident geese suggests that the migrant population has declined more than the 40% decline observed in total wintering geese from 1981 to 1993.

  20. Light and electron microscopic studies of the Harderian gland in Bilgorajska goose (Anser anser).

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, Joanna; Chęć, Aleksandra; Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina; Nowaczyk, Renata; Barszcz, Karolina

    2015-09-01

    The Harderian gland (HG) in birds is the dominant orbital gland, which plays an important role in immunological response. Tissue sections taken from adult females of Bilgorajska goose were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Azan, PAS, AB pH 2.5, AF and HDI. Based on the histological structure the HG in Bilgorajska geese had compound tubular structure with multiple lobules and two types of epithelial cells lining the tubules. Epithelial cells in the central part of the lobes were dark in color and contained serous fluid, while in the deeper layers, epithelial cells were lightly coloured and contained mucous fluid. Histochemical studies showed the presence of neutral mucopolysaccharides and carboxylated acid mucopolysaccharides in the secretory cells. The small number of single plasma cells were present in HDI staining below the basement membrane of the secondary and primary ducts, near the crypts of the main duct. TEM study demonstrated that plasma cells had a large nucleus with condensed heterochromatin and were rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum. The knowledge of gland's structure, and above all an analysis of the immune system components may affect clinical practice and properly conducted immunization of birds.

  1. Effects of pesticides on Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Rusch, Donald H.; Samuel, Michael D.; Humburg, Dale D.; Sullivan, Brian D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes published and unpublished sources relating to exposure of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) to pesticides, emphasizing documented episodes of poisoning by organochlorine (OC), organophosphorus (OP), and carbamate compounds. Canada geese accumulate the lipid-soluble OC compounds, although they have a lower potential for biomagnification of these pesticides than animals at higher trophic levels in food webs. Low residues of p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE were frequently found in tissues and eggs of Canada geese, but they had no apparent adverse effects on reproductive success or eggshell thickness. Likewise, in an orchard system in central Washington state, the OC rodenticide endrin accumulated in tissues and eggs of Canada geese without apparent adverse effect. In contrast, ingestion of seeds treated with the OC heptachlor caused mortality, lowered reproductive success, and caused a local population decline of geese in Oregon and Washington. In recent years, the most persistent OC's have been banned by law and replaced with less persistent carbamate and OP compounds that do not readily accumulate in animal tissues. However, many of these compounds are acutely toxic and have caused numerous die-offs of Canada geese. Among OP compounds, diazinon was responsible for most reported die-offs (41 incidents involving >535 geese), whereas parathion applied alone or jointly with methyl parathion accounted for most reported mortalities (8 incidents involving >3,000 geese). Three other OP's, a carbamate (carbofuran), zinc phosphide, and strychnine also caused goose die-offs. Mortality from anticholinesterase (antiChE) compounds occurs relatively soon after exposure and death can usually be diagnosed by evaluation of brain cholinesterase (thE) activity. Because geese are primarily grazers, the main route of exposure to antiChE's is apparently ingestion of contaminated grasses and forbs; dermal absorption and inhalation are other routes. Despite the

  2. Lesser snow geese and ross's geese form mixed flocks during winter but differ in family maintenance and social status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Smaller species are less likely to maintain families (or other forms of social groups) than larger species and are more likely to be displaced in competition with larger species. We observed mixed-species flocks of geese in southwest Louisiana and compared frequencies of social groups and success in social encounters of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter Snow Geese) with that of the smaller, closely- related Ross's Geese (C. rossii). Less than 7% of adult and Geese were in families, whereas 10-22% of adult and 12-15% of juvenile Snow Geese were in families. Snow Geese won 70% of interspecific social encounters and had higher odds of success against Ross's Geese than against individuals of their own species. The larger Snow Geese maintain families longer than Ross's Geese, which probably contributes to their dominance over Ross's Geese during winter. Predator vigilance probably is an important benefit of mixed flocking for both species. We suggest the long-standing association with Snow Geese (along with associated subordinate social status) has selected against family maintenance in Ross's Geese.

  3. Using body mass dynamics to examine long-term habitat shifts of arctic-molting geese: Evidence for ecological change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Tyler L.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Taylor, Eric J.; Bollinger, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    From 1976 onward, molting brant geese (Branta bernicla) within the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, Alaska, shifted from inland, freshwater lakes toward coastal wetlands. Two hypotheses explained this redistribution: (1) ecological change: redistribution of molting brant reflects improvements in coastal foraging habitats, which have undergone a succession toward salt-tolerant plants due to increased coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion as induced by climate change or (2) interspecific competition: greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) populations increased 12-fold at inland lakes, limiting food availability and forcing brant into coastal habitats. Both hypotheses presume that brant redistributions were driven by food availability; thus, body mass dynamics may provide insight into the relevance of these hypotheses. We compared body mass dynamics of molting brant across decades (1978, 1987–1992, 2005–2007) and, during 2005–2007, across habitats (coastal vs. inland). Brant lost body mass during molt in all three decades. At inland habitats, rates of mass loss progressively decreased by decade despite the increased number of greater white-fronted geese. These results do not support an interspecific competition hypothesis, instead suggesting that ecological change enhanced foraging habitats for brant. During 2005–2007, rates of mass loss did not vary by habitat. Thus, while habitats have improved from earlier decades, our results cannot distinguish between ecological changes at inland versus coastal habitats. However, we speculate that coastal forage quality has improved beyond that of inland habitats and that the body mass benefits of these higher quality foods are offset by the disproportionate number of brant now molting coastally.

  4. Flexible plastic collars compared to nasal discs for marking geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, G.A.

    1966-01-01

    Construction of a flexible plastic collar for marking geese is described. The usefulness of the collars, tried on 468 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge from 1963 to 1965, was compared with that of nasal discs attached to 361 Canada geese at Seney in 1961 and 1962. The collars were superior to the discs in visibility, retention, and ease of placement, and injury to the geese was eliminated. There was no evidence that the collars affected breeding behavior.

  5. Validation of the i-STAT and HemoCue systems for the analysis of blood parameters in the bar-headed goose, Anser indicus

    PubMed Central

    Harter, T. S.; Reichert, M.; Brauner, C. J.; Milsom, W. K.

    2015-01-01

    Every year, bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) perform some of the most remarkable trans-Himalayan migrations, and researchers are increasingly interested in understanding the physiology underlying their high-altitude flight performance. A major challenge is generating reliable measurements of blood parameters on wild birds in the field, where established analytical techniques are often not available. Therefore, we validated two commonly used portable clinical analysers (PCAs), the i-STAT and the HemoCue systems, for the analysis of blood parameters in bar-headed geese. The pH, partial pressures of O2 and CO2 (PO2 and PCO2), haemoglobin O2 saturation (sO2), haematocrit (Hct) and haemoglobin concentration [Hb] were simultaneously measured with the two PCA systems (i-STAT for all parameters; HemoCue for [Hb]) and with conventional laboratory techniques over a physiological range of PO2, PCO2 and Hct. Our results indicate that the i-STAT system can generate reliable values on bar-headed goose whole blood pH, PO2, PCO2 and Hct, but we recommend correcting the obtained values using the linear equations determined here for higher accuracy. The i-STAT is probably not able to produce meaningful measurements of sO2 and [Hb] over a range of physiologically relevant environmental conditions. However, we can recommend the use of the HemoCue to measure [Hb] in the bar-headed goose, if results are corrected. We emphasize that the equations that we provide to correct PCA results are applicable only to bar-headed goose whole blood under the conditions that we tested. We encourage researchers to validate i-STAT or HemoCue results thoroughly for their specific study conditions and species in order to yield accurate results. PMID:27293706

  6. Factors influencing wetland use by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naugle, D.E.; Gleason, J.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Higgins, K.F.; Mammenga, P.W.; Nusser, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal and semi-permanent wetlands in eastern South Dakota were surveyed in 1995 and 1996 to identify habitat characteristics influencing wetland use by Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima). Position of a wetland within the landscape and its area were important landscape-scale features influencing wetland use by geese. Our delineation of potential Canada goose habitat using a wetland geographic information system indicated that distribution and area of semi-permanent wetlands likely limit Canada goose occurrence in regions outside the Prairie Coteau. Periodicity in hydrologic cycles within landscapes also may influence goose use of wetlands in eastern South Dakota.

  7. Can hunting of translocated nuisance Canada geese reduce local conflicts?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holevinski, R.A.; Malecki, R.A.; Curtis, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis) nest or reside in the temperate latitudes of North America. In past years, translocation-the capture and subsequent release of geese at distant locations-has been used to establish resident goose populations and to reduce nuisance problems. However, with new special hunting seasons designed to target resident Canada geese, we can now evaluate translocation as a management tool when hunting is allowed at release sites. We selected 2 study sites, representative of urban and suburban locations with nuisance resident geese, in central and western New York, USA. In June 2003, we translocated 80 neck-banded adult geese, 14 radiomarked adult females, and 83 juveniles 150 km east and southwest from urban and suburban problem sites in western New York to state-owned Wildlife Management Areas. At these same capture sites, we used 151 neck-banded adult geese, 12 radiomarked females, and 100 juveniles as controls to compare dispersal movements and harvest vulnerability to translocated geese. All observations (n = 45) of translocated radiomarked geese were <20 km from release sites, in areas where hunting was permitted. Only 25 of 538 observations (4.6%) of radiomarked geese at control sites were in areas open to hunting. The remainder of observations occurred at nonhunting locations within 10 km of control sites. More translocated adult geese (23.8%) were harvested than control geese (6.6%; ??2 = 72.98, P = 0.0009). More translocated juvenile geese were harvested (22.9%) than juvenile controls (5.0%; ??2 = 72.30, P = 0.0005). Only 7 (8.8%) translocated adult geese returned to the original capture sites during Canada goose hunting seasons. Translocation of adult and juvenile geese in family groups may alleviate nuisance problems at conflict sites through increased harvest, reducing the number of birds returning in subsequent years.

  8. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  9. Three species of Plasmodium from Canada geese, Branta canadensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Barrow, J.H.

    1967-01-01

    Studies on Canada geese at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge in northern Michigan during the past few years have uncovered at least three species of Plasmodium: P circumflexum, P. relictum, and P. vaughani. Although rarely observed in direct blood smears from the wild hosts, isodiagnosis, using primarily domestic geese as recipients, revealed a prevalence of 60 percent in random samplings of the population. P. circumflexum is the most prevalent and mixed infections have been noted. In experimental infections, induced by blood inoculation, the malaria produced by P. circumflexum produces about a 70 percent mortality in Canada geese and about a 10 percent mortality in domestic geese.

  10. HARV ANSER Flight Test Data Retrieval and Processing Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Jessie C.

    1997-01-01

    Under the NASA High-Alpha Technology Program the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was used to conduct flight tests of advanced control effectors, advanced control laws, and high-alpha design guidelines for future super-maneuverable fighters. The High-Alpha Research Vehicle is a pre-production F/A-18 airplane modified with a multi-axis thrust-vectoring system for augmented pitch and yaw control power and Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) to augment body-axis yaw control power. Flight testing at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) began in July 1995 and continued until May 1996. Flight data will be utilized to evaluate control law performance and aircraft dynamics, determine aircraft control and stability derivatives using parameter identification techniques, and validate design guidelines. To accomplish these purposes, essential flight data parameters were retrieved from the DFRC data system and stored on the Dynamics and Control Branch (DCB) computer complex at Langley. This report describes the multi-step task used to retrieve and process this data and documents the results of these tasks. Documentation includes software listings, flight information, maneuver information, time intervals for which data were retrieved, lists of data parameters and definitions, and example data plots.

  11. Do geese fully develop brood patches? A histological analysis of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (C. rossii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Homberger, D.G.; Henk, W.G.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    Most birds develop brood patches before incubation; epidermis and dermis in the brood patch region thicken, and the dermal connective tissue becomes increasingly vascularized and infiltrated by leukocytes. However, current dogma states that waterfowl incubate without modifications of skin within the brood patch region. The incubation periods of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter called snow geese) and Ross's geese (C. rossii) are 2-6 days shorter than those of other goose species; only females incubate. Thus, we hypothesized that such short incubation periods would require fully developed brood patches for sufficient heat transfer from incubating parents to eggs. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the skin histology of abdominal regions of snow and Ross's geese collected at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. For female snow geese, we found that epidermis and dermis had thickened and vascularization of dermis was 14 times greater, on average, than that observed in males (n=5 pairs). Our results for Ross's geese (n=5 pairs) were more variable, wherein only one of five female Ross's geese fully developed a brood patch. Our results are consistent with three hypotheses about brood patch development and its relationship with different energetic cost-benefit relationships, resulting from differences in embryonic development and body size. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  12. Do geese fully develop brood patches? A histological analysis of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (C. rossii).

    PubMed

    Jónsson, Jón Einar; Afton, Alan D; Homberger, Dominique G; Henk, William G; Alisauskas, Ray T

    2006-06-01

    Most birds develop brood patches before incubation; epidermis and dermis in the brood patch region thicken, and the dermal connective tissue becomes increasingly vascularized and infiltrated by leukocytes. However, current dogma states that waterfowl incubate without modifications of skin within the brood patch region. The incubation periods of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter called snow geese) and Ross's geese (C. rossii) are 2-6 days shorter than those of other goose species; only females incubate. Thus, we hypothesized that such short incubation periods would require fully developed brood patches for sufficient heat transfer from incubating parents to eggs. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the skin histology of abdominal regions of snow and Ross's geese collected at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. For female snow geese, we found that epidermis and dermis had thickened and vascularization of dermis was 14 times greater, on average, than that observed in males (n=5 pairs). Our results for Ross's geese (n=5 pairs) were more variable, wherein only one of five female Ross's geese fully developed a brood patch. Our results are consistent with three hypotheses about brood patch development and its relationship with different energetic cost-benefit relationships, resulting from differences in embryonic development and body size. PMID:16432729

  13. Performance validation of the ANSER control laws for the F-18 HARV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messina, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    The ANSER control laws were implemented in Ada by NASA Dryden for flight test on the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The Ada implementation was tested in the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, and results were compared to those obtained with the NASA Langley batch Fortran implementation of the control laws which are considered the 'truth model.' This report documents the performance validation test results between these implementations. This report contains the ANSER performance validation test plan, HIL versus batch time-history comparisons, simulation scripts used to generate checkcases, and detailed analysis of discrepancies discovered during testing.

  14. Performance validation of the ANSER Control Laws for the F-18 HARV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messina, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    The ANSER control laws were implemented in Ada by NASA Dryden for flight test on the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The Ada implementation was tested in the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, and results were compared to those obtained with the NASA Langley batch Fortran implementation of the control laws which are considered the 'truth model'. This report documents the performance validation test results between these implementations. This report contains the ANSER performance validation test plan, HIL versus batch time-history comparisons, simulation scripts used to generate checkcases, and detailed analysis of discrepancies discovered during testing.

  15. 50 CFR 21.60 - Conservation order for light geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... persons who pursued light geese with the aid of a shotgun capable of holding more than three shells; (iv... shotgun shell; (ix) The number of light geese taken during the period one-half hour after sunset; and (x... in question may warrant reinstatement of the conservation order to control the population....

  16. Dieldrin mortality of lesser snow geese in Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Babcock, K.M.; Flickinger, Edward L.

    1977-01-01

    In March and April 1974, 157 lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens) died from dieldrin poisoning during northward migration through western Missouri. Evidence strongly suggested that the mortality in Missouri resulted from delayed effects upon geese exposed to aldrin-treated rice seed on wintering areas in southeast Texas.

  17. Towards a solution to the goose-agriculture conflict in North Norway, 1988-2012: the interplay between policy, stakeholder influence and goose population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tombre, Ingunn M; Eythórsson, Einar; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988-2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics. PMID:23977175

  18. Towards a Solution to the Goose-Agriculture Conflict in North Norway, 1988–2012: The Interplay between Policy, Stakeholder Influence and Goose Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Tombre, Ingunn M.; Eythórsson, Einar; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988–2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics. PMID:23977175

  19. Towards a solution to the goose-agriculture conflict in North Norway, 1988-2012: the interplay between policy, stakeholder influence and goose population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tombre, Ingunn M; Eythórsson, Einar; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988-2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics.

  20. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  1. Lead poisoning in Canada geese on Plum Island, Massachusetts (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hinds, L. S.

    1987-01-01

    During December 1983 and early January 1984, about 200 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) died of lead poisoning at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge on Plum Island, Massachusetts. In an effort to determine the source of lead, 100 bottom samples were taken from a refuge impoundment where much of the mortality/morbidity occurred. An average of 157,150 pellets/ha was found with a range of 64,582 to 322,910 pellets/ha. Water levels in this impoundment were low when Canada geese arrived, making shot more readily available to the geese and contributing to the outbreak. To minimize the risk of Canada geese being exposed to lead shot poisoning at this location in the future, we recommend several corrective manipulations of habitat.

  2. Seasonal ingestion of toxic and nontoxic shot by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Samuel, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We used rates of ingested shot and elevated blood-lead levels (≥0.18 ppm) to estimate the proportion of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) exposed to lead on 3 study areas in Manitoba, Minnesota, and Missouri. Lead exposure was prevalent on all areas and was common after the hunting season closed, when up to 15% of geese could have been exposed to lead shot. However, the proportion of steel shot ingested by geese has increased during the past 2 decades. We suggest that lead exposure is still a source of indirect hunting mortality in Canada geese but project that the prevalence of lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population and other waterfowl populations will decrease as nontoxic shot regulations persist and hunters use steel or other nontoxic shot.

  3. The occurrence of gizzard worms in Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Wehr, E.E.

    1954-01-01

    Amidostomum anseris, a roundworm which occurs under the horny lining of the gizzard in birds, is a widely distributed parasite in Canada geese. It is also reported from snow geese (Chen hyperborea). Although the extent of erosion of the gizzard wall by these worms is not precisely correlated with the number of worms present, it is usually severe in Canada geese when 150 or more worms are present. Gizzard worm infection is considered a contributing factor to low weights, poor condition and to losses among the Canada geese which winter at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge in North Carolina. The mean number of gizzard worms per bird is considerably higher for Pea Island than for areas where winter losses have not been reported.

  4. Aquatic Bird Bornavirus 1 in Wild Geese, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Anders F.; Nielsen, Jesper B.; Hjulsager, Charlotte K.; Chriél, Mariann; Smith, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate aquatic bird bornavirus 1 in Europe, we examined 333 brains from hunter-killed geese in Denmark in 2014. Seven samples were positive by reverse transcription PCR and were 98.2%–99.8% identical; they were also 97.4%–98.1% identical to reference strains of aquatic bird bornavirus 1 from geese in North America. PMID:26584356

  5. Changes in distribution of Canada geese nesting in Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, David G.; Ronke, M. Eliese

    2015-01-01

    The reintroduced Canada goose (Branta canadensis) population in Arkansas has grown in range and abundance in recent decades. We determined the geographic range of Arkansas resident Canada geese from 2004 to 2012 using volume contour maps from citizen science observations using eBird, a citizen science website, and hunter recovery locations from the U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory. Resulting maps indicate an increase in Canada goose encounters toward northwestern and southwestern Arkansas from the original relocations in the Arkansas River valley. We examined movement of Canada geese banded and recovered in Arkansas by determining the distance and angle of movement between initial and final encounter locations; 25% moved east, and 17% went west. The average distance moved from banding to recovery was 50 km (SE = 1 km). Recoveries of Canada geese banded in Arkansas were greatest in the Mississippi Flyway (58% of all geese) followed by the Central Flyway (37%) with some representation in both the Atlantic (4%) and Pacific flyways (0.9%). Movement from Arkansas to other states and Canada was influenced by goose age and sex. Older individuals traveled longer distances than younger ones, and females traveled longer distances than males. Our findings suggest that recently established Canada geese in Arkansas have slowly expanded within the state to the northwest and southwest with the expansion to the east being important now. Movement of Arkansas resident Canada geese on molt-migration can contribute to management issues in other states and provinces.

  6. Neckband retention for lesser snow geese in the western Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Smith, A.E.; Baranyuk, W.; Cooch, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Neckbands are commonly used in waterfowl studies (especially geese) to identify individuals for determination of movement and behavior and to estimate population parameters. Substantial neckband loss can adversely affect these research objectives and produce biased survival estimates. We used capture, recovery, and observation histories for lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) banded in the western Arctic, 1993-1996, to estimate neckband retention. We found that neckband retention differed between snow goose breeding colonies at Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Male snow geese had higher neckband loss than females, a pattern similar to that found for Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and lesser snow geese in Alaska. We found that the rate of neckband loss increased with time, suggesting that neckbands are lost as the plastic deteriorates. Survival estimates for geese based on resighting neckbands will be biased unless estimates are corrected for neckband loss. We recommend that neckband loss be estimated using survival estimators that incorporate recaptures, recoveries, and observations of marked birds. Research and management studies using neckbands should be designed to improve neckband retention and to include the assessment of neckband retention.

  7. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter "Snow Geese") and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006. Printed in USA.

  8. Optimal control of Atlantic population Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauser, C.E.; Runge, M.C.; Cooch, E.G.; Johnson, F.A.; Harvey, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Management of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) can be a balance between providing sustained harvest opportunity while not allowing populations to become overabundant and cause damage. In this paper, we focus on the Atlantic population of Canada geese and use stochastic dynamic programming to determine the optimal harvest strategy over a range of plausible models for population dynamics. There is evidence to suggest that the population exhibits significant age structure, and it is possible to reconstruct age structure from surveys. Consequently the harvest strategy is a function of the age composition, as well as the abundance, of the population. The objective is to maximize harvest while maintaining the number of breeding adults in the population between specified upper and lower limits. In addition, the total harvest capacity is limited and there is uncertainty about the strength of density-dependence. We find that under a density-independent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at the highest acceptable abundance. However if harvest capacity is limited, then the optimal long-term breeding population size is lower than the highest acceptable level, to reduce the risk of the population growing to an unacceptably large size. Under the proposed density-dependent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at an intermediate level between the bounds on acceptable population size; limits to harvest capacity have little effect on the optimal long-term population size. It is clear that the strength of density-dependence and constraints on harvest significantly affect the optimal harvest strategy for this population. Model discrimination might be achieved in the long term, while continuing to meet management goals, by adopting an adaptive management strategy.

  9. 76 FR 30188 - Proposed Information Collection; Conservation Order for Light Geese

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Light Geese AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The number of light geese (lesser snow, greater snow, and Ross' geese) in... adult mortality and an increase in winter survival. We refer to these species and subspecies as...

  10. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  11. Autumn diet of lesser snow geese staging in northeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brackney, Alan W.; Hupp, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is used by lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) in autumn for premigratory staging. To better understand the potential impacts of human disturbance on snow geese, we investigated species composition of, and temporal and age-related variation in, their diet during staging. Depending on age and time of collection, between 35.2 and 94.1% of the diet (aggregate percent wet mass, n = 75) consisted of 2 species of plants; underground stems of tall cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium), and aerial shoots of northern scouring rush (Equisetum variegatum). The diet varied between August and September (P = 0.0089), morning and afternoon (P < 0.0001), but not between age classes (P = 0.066). Throughout staging, snow geese consumed more tall cotton-grass during the afternoon than during the morning (P < 0.05). Tall cotton-grass was a larger component of the afternoon diet in September than in August (P < 0.05). In September, snow geese consumed more northern scouring rush in the mornings than in the afternoon (P < 0.05). Nighttime freezing, interspecific differences in nutritional quality, and plant senescence likely constrained the diet of snow geese to a small number of food items. Because alternative foods may not be available, human disturbance should be minimized in areas that provide these forage species.

  12. Does body size influence nest attendance? A comparison of Ross's geese (Chen rossii) and the larger, sympatric lesser snow geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    The body-size hypothesis predicts that nest attendance is positively related to body size among waterfowl and that recess duration is inversely related to body size. Several physiological and behavioral characteristics of Ross's geese (Chen rossii) suggest that females of this species should maintain high nest attendance despite their relatively small body size. Accordingly, we used 8-mm films to compare the incubation behavior of Ross's geese to that of the larger, closely-related lesser snow geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter, snow geese) nesting sympatrically at Karrak lake, Nunavut, Canada in 1993. We found that nest attendance averaged 99% for both species. Our results offer no support for the body-size hypothesis. We suggest that temperature requirements of embryos in relation to short incubation duration and a low foraging efficiency of females select for high nest attendance in both snow geese and Ross's geese. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2007.

  13. Organophosphate insecticide poisoning of Canada geese in the Texas panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Wynn, L.D.; Flickinger, Edward L.; Kolbe, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen hundred waterfowl, mostly Canada Geese, died near Etter, Texas, in late January 1981 from anticholinesterase poisoning. Winter wheat in the area of the die-off had been treated with organophosphate insecticides to control greenbugs. Cholinesterase (ChE) levels in brains of a sample of geese found dead were 75% below normal, enough to account for death (Ludke et al. 1975). The gastrointestinal (G I) tracts of geese found dead were packed with winter wheat; gas chromatography techniques identified parathion and methyl parathion in the GI tract contents. Residues of both chemicals were confirmed by mass spectrometry. We recommend that less toxic materials, such as malathion, be used on grain crops when waterfowl are in the vicinity of treatment.

  14. Survival of cackling Canada geese, 1982-1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raveling, D.G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Zezulak, D.S.; Silveira, J.G.; Johnson, J.C.; Aldrich, T.W.; Weldon, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    We estimated seasonal and annual survival rates of cackling Canada geese (Branta canadensis minima ) for the period 1982-1989 to identify periods of high mortality and assess effects of harvest management decisions. We tested hypotheses about age- and sex-specific variation in survival, seasonal variation in survival rates, and variation in survival between years in which hunting seasons were open and closed. Geese were marked with individually identifiable neckbands and observed from autumn through spring. We used these data to estimate survival rates for 3-month periods in early (EW) and late (LW) winter and a 6-month period in summer (SU). Mean annual survival rates of immature females were lower than those of adults over the entire study. Survival rates of immature males were lower than those of adults during the 2 years with sport hunting seasons. We found no evidence of sex-specific differences in seasonal or annual survival rates of immature geese.

  15. Using radiotelemetry to monitor cardiac response of free-living tule greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons elgasi) to human disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Kruse, K.L.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Yee, J.L.; Ely, C.R.; Ward, D.H.; Bollinger, K.S.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 1939 four experiments were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to determine the protein requirements of bobwhite chicks. A total of 816 chicks were used to compare six levels of protein, namely, 22,24,26, 28, 30, and 32 per cent.....From the three standpoints of survival, rate of growth, and efficiency of feed utilization for the first ten weeks of life, the 28 per cent level of protein gave the best results. During the ninth and tenth weeks, the highest efficiency of feed utilization was obtained on the 22 per cent level. The results indicate that after the birds have reached about twothirds of their mature weight, the difference in efficiency between a diet containing 28 per cent of protein and one containing 22 per cent may be small enough to justify, in the interest of economy, the use of a diet containing the lower percentage of protein.

  16. Silent Partners: Actor and Audience in Geese Theatre's "Journey Woman"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers the performance context and aesthetics of "Journey Woman", a play devised to initiate a week-long rehabilitative groupwork programme for female prisoners. Although Geese Theatre UK are one of the country's longest-established companies specialising in drama work within the criminal justice sector, this 2006 piece is their…

  17. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  18. Case report: Coccidiosis and lead poisoning in Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.

    1967-01-01

    Four dead Canada geese (Branta canadensis L.) collected at the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Delaware were found to have both marked duodenal lesions of coccidiosis and high levels of lead in the liver. Although only one goose had lead shot in the gizzard, all four had levels of lead in the liver suggestive of lead poisoning.

  19. Contaminants in greater snow geese and their eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Heyland, J.D.; Reed, A.; Laporte, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and mercury residues in eggs and tissues of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) and provides data on egg length and width, egg and shell weight, shell thickness, and the index of thickness.

  20. Resource protection. Mississippi Valley Canada Geese: flyway management obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service's legislation, regulations, and various documents and statistics were examined regarding federal migratory bird and Canada goose protection and management. The service's legal authority to take action to require states to limit harvests of Canada geese was also reviewed. (ACR)

  1. Fifty years of research on serotypes and mating types in Dileptus anser: A review.

    PubMed

    Uspenskaya, Zoya I; Yudin, Alexander L

    2016-04-01

    The ciliate Dileptus anser is increasingly used as a laboratory model not only in protozoological research sensu stricto, but also in general biology. However, genetic studies of this ciliate have never been carried out, and this species is new to the comparative genetics of ciliates. This review describes the genetic experiments conducted at the Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences for the last 50 years. Two characters that are classical for the genetics of ciliates, serotypes and mating types were selected for analysis. The results presented do not fit into conventional genetic schemes and may have epigenetic nature. Features of this model that were revealed earlier (the simplest possible system of multiple mating types, full serial dominance of the alleles in the mat locus, the excretion of pheromones, etc.) are promising with regard to interesting comparisons of breeding systems in ciliates. The results obtained in studies of mating pheromones in D. anser have demonstrated that this model is a perspective one for further exploration of intercellular recognition in lower eukaryotes and of other related issues.

  2. Fall and winter distribution of Canada geese in the Mississippi flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Rusch, D.H.; Abraham, K.F.; Gillespie, M.M.; Prevett, J.P.; Swenson, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from northern Manitoba and northern Ontario were marked with leg bands and neck bands and observed throughout the Mississippi flyway from 1978 to 1989. We used observations of neck-banded geese within each state to determine the relative fall/winter distribution of the Eastern Prairie Population (EPP) and the Mississippi Valley Population (MVP). Mississippi Valley geese were affiliated with states east of the Mississippi River; EPP geese were affiliated with states west of the Mississippi River. However, we found geographic differences in population distribution within several states. Significant annual changes in distribution also occurred in most states. Management of Mississippi flyway geese should consider the differences in both population dynamics and spatial and temporal distributions of MVP and EPP geese in determining state and flyway harvest objectives.

  3. Lead concentrations in liver and kidneys of snow geese during an avian cholera epizootic in California.

    PubMed

    Gordus, A G

    1993-10-01

    During an avian cholera epornitic, between December 1982 and January 1983, 58 dead, 23 sick, and 106 hunter-killed lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) were collected at Delevan National Wildlife Refuge, Colusa County, California, USA. Fifty-one of the dead and sick geese were infected with Pasteurella multocida. Lead concentrations in the livers ranged from < 1 to 253 parts per million (ppm) (dry weight). Lead concentrations in the kidneys ranged from < 1 ppm to 547 ppm (dry weight). Snow geese with > 30 ppm lead, considered diagnostic of acute lead poisoning, had significantly (P < 0.05) lower heart weights and a smaller band of heart fat, compared to geese with tissue lead concentrations of < 30 ppm. Tissue lead concentrations in geese dying from avian cholera generally were lower than concentrations in hunter-killed geese, but the differences were not significant for either kidney (P = 0.08) or liver (P = 0.30) tissue. PMID:8258858

  4. Changing number of Canada geese wintering in different regions of the Atlantic Flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 40 years, profound changes have occurred in the number of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in different regions of the Atlantic Flyway. To explain the declining number of wintering geese in the Chesapeake and Carolina regions and the increasing number in the mid-Atlantic region from 1984 to 1989, I tested several hypotheses concerning regional differences in production, survival, and movement. The observation of migratory geese neckbanded in northern Quebec and throughout the winter grounds, and the lack of a regional difference in the proportion of young in the harvest, indicated that regional differences in production on the breeding grounds was unlikely to explain the observed changes in mid-winter number. Average annual survival rates were highest for geese in the Chesapeake and lowest for geese in the mid-Atlantic indicating that differential survival between regions did not cause the large changes in mid-winter numbers between regions. Geese were more likely to move to, and remain in, the Chesapeake than any other region. Estimated movement patterns did not match observed changes in mid-winter counts. Consequently, the observed changes in number of wintering geese from 1984 to 1989 could not be explained by my analyses of differential production, survival, or movement. The survival and movement analyses, however, were based largely on data from migratory, northern breeding geese. In the aerial Midwinter Waterfowl Survey, migratory, northern-breeding geese cannot be distinguished from local, southern-breeding geese. The changes in mid-winter numbers may result from declining numbers of migratory, northern-breeding geese wintering in the Chesapeake and Carolinas and increasing numbers of local, southem-breeding geese remaining in the mid-Atlantic.

  5. Estradiol concentration and the expression of estrogen receptors in the testes of the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica) during the annual reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Leska, A; Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Dusza, L

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in the activity of bird testes are regulated by a complex mechanism where androgens play a key role. Until recently, the role played by estrogens in males has been significantly underestimated. However, there is growing evidence that the proper functioning of the testes is associated with optimal estradiol (E2) concentration in both the plasma and testes of many mammalian species. Estrogens are gradually emerging as very important players in hormonal regulation of reproductive processes in male mammals. Despite the previously mentioned, it should be noted that estrogenic action is limited by the availability of specific receptors--estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Interestingly, there is a general scarcity of information concerning the estrogen responsive system in the testes of male birds, which is of particular interest in exploring the phenomenon of seasonality of reproduction. To address this question, we have investigated for the first time the simultaneous expression of testicular ERα and ERβ genes and proteins with the accompanying plasma and testicular E2 concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of male bird. The research model was the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica), a species whose annual reproductive cycle can be divided into 3 distinct phases characterized by changes in testicular activity. It has been revealed that the stable plasma E2 profile did not correspond to changing intratesticular E2 profile throughout the experiment. The expression of ERα and ERβ genes and proteins was detected in gander testes and it fluctuated on a seasonal basis with lower level in breeding and sexual reactivation stages and higher level during the nonbreeding stage. Our results demonstrated changes in testicular sensitivity to estrogens in male domestic goose during the annual reproductive cycle. The seasonal pattern of estrogen receptors (ERs) expression was analyzed against the hormonal

  6. Observations of geese foraging for clam shells during spring on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Fowler, A.C.; Bottitta, G.E.; Schamber, J.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the behavior of geese on exposed river ice during spring on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. The predominant behavior while on the ice for both sexes was foraging; however, females foraged more than males. Visual inspection of the ice revealed no potential plant or animal food items. However, numerous small (<20 man) clam shells (Macoma balthica) and pieces of shell were noted. It appeared that geese were foraging on empty clam shells. This potential source of calcium was available to breeding geese just prior to egg formation and geese likely stored this calcium in the form of medullary bone for use during egg formation.

  7. How Bar-Headed Geese Fly Over the Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Lucy A.; Frappell, Peter B.; Butler, Patrick J.; Bishop, Charles M.; Milsom, William K.

    2015-01-01

    Bar-headed geese cross the Himalayas on one of the most iconic high-altitude migrations in the world. Heart rates and metabolic costs of flight increase with elevation and can be near maximal during steep climbs. Their ability to sustain the high oxygen demands of flight in air that is exceedingly oxygen-thin depends on the unique cardiorespiratory physiology of birds in general along with several evolved specializations across the O2 transport cascade. PMID:25729056

  8. [Hemoglobins, XLVII. Hemoglobins of the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus): primary structure and physiology of respiration, systematic and evolution].

    PubMed

    Oberthür, W; Braunitzer, G; Würdinger, I

    1982-06-01

    The primary structures of the alpha- and beta-chains of the main component of Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus) are given. By homologous comparison with the hemoglobin of the Grey-Lag Goose (Anser anser) 3 differences were found in the alpha-chains, 1 difference in the beta-chains. In position alpha 119 H2Ala and beta 125 H3Asp alpha 1 beta 2-contact points are changed. The mutation alpha 63 E12Val brings a drastic change in tertiary structure of the alpha-chains of Bar-headed Goose: the helices E and B are moved apart by 1.5 A as there is no room for the larger side chain. This is probably the reason for a slightly higher intrinsic oxygen affinity of Bar-headed Goose hemoglobin. The bindings of inositol pentaphosphate on hemoglobin are identical in Grey-Lag Goose and Bar-headed Goose (contact points are not mutated). The reason for the increased difference in oxygen affinity by binding of inositol pentaphosphate is probably caused by two mutations in alpha 1 beta 2-contact points. It suggests that these two mutations are the reason for a different interaction between alpha- and beta-chains under the influence of inositol pentaphosphate by Grey-Lag and Bar-headed Goose hemoglobins. The difference in the primary structure of the Grey-Lag and Bar-headed Goose hemoglobins suggests that the Bar-headed Goose is not the genus of anser. Unfinished experiments (about 80% of the sequences) of White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons a.) and Snow Goose (Anser caerulescens c.) show no exchanges with Grey-Lag Goose hemoglobin. The Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), however, which belongs to the genus Branta, has a number of substitutions similar to the Bar-headed Goose hemoglobin. These changes in primary structure suggest that Grey-Lag Goose and Bar-headed Goose are separated by a period of 9-15 Million years. This would support the hypothesis that the two species of goose became geographically separated by the elevation of the Himalayas. PMID:7106705

  9. Time budgets of Snow Geese Chen caerulescens and Ross's Geese Chen rossii in mixed flocks: Implications of body size, ambient temperature and family associations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Body size affects foraging and forage intake rates directly via energetic processes and indirectly through interactions with social status and social behaviour. Ambient temperature has a relatively greater effect on the energetics of smaller species, which also generally are more vulnerable to predator attacks than are larger species. We examined variability in an index of intake rates and an index of alertness in Lesser Snow Geese Chen caerulescens caerulescens and Ross's Geese Chen rossii wintering in southwest Louisiana. Specifically we examined variation in these response variables that could be attributed to species, age, family size and ambient temperature. We hypothesized that the smaller Ross's Geese would spend relatively more time feeding, exhibit relatively higher peck rates, spend more time alert or raise their heads up from feeding more frequently, and would respond to declining temperatures by increasing their proportion of time spent feeding. As predicted, we found that Ross's Geese spent more time feeding than did Snow Geese and had slightly higher peck rates than Snow Geese in one of two winters. Ross's Geese spent more time alert than did Snow Geese in one winter, but alert rates differed by family size, independent of species, in contrast to our prediction. In one winter, time spent foraging and walking was inversely related to average daily temperature, but both varied independently of species. Effects of age and family size on time budgets were generally independent of species and in accordance with previous studies. We conclude that body size is a key variable influencing time spent feeding in Ross's Geese, which may require a high time spent feeding at the expense of other activities. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  10. Factors influencing reporting and harvest probabilities in North American geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, G.S.; Moser, T.J.; Kendall, W.L.; Doherty, P.F.; White, Gary C.; Caswell, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed variation in reporting probabilities of standard bands among species, populations, harvest locations, and size classes of North American geese to enable estimation of unbiased harvest probabilities. We included reward (US10,20,30,50, or100) and control (0) banded geese from 16 recognized goose populations of 4 species: Canada (Branta canadensis), cackling (B. hutchinsii), Ross's (Chen rossii), and snow geese (C. caerulescens). We incorporated spatially explicit direct recoveries and live recaptures into a multinomial model to estimate reporting, harvest, and band-retention probabilities. We compared various models for estimating harvest probabilities at country (United States vs. Canada), flyway (5 administrative regions), and harvest area (i.e., flyways divided into northern and southern sections) scales. Mean reporting probability of standard bands was 0.73 (95 CI 0.690.77). Point estimates of reporting probabilities for goose populations or spatial units varied from 0.52 to 0.93, but confidence intervals for individual estimates overlapped and model selection indicated that models with species, population, or spatial effects were less parsimonious than those without these effects. Our estimates were similar to recently reported estimates for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We provide current harvest probability estimates for these populations using our direct measures of reporting probability, improving the accuracy of previous estimates obtained from recovery probabilities alone. Goose managers and researchers throughout North America can use our reporting probabilities to correct recovery probabilities estimated from standard banding operations for deriving spatially explicit harvest probabilities.

  11. Phylogeography of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Talbot, S.L.; Pearce, J.M.; Pierson, B. J.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2003-01-01

    Using molecular genetic markers that differ in mode of inheritance and rate of evolution, we examined levels and partitioning of genetic variation for seven nominal subspecies (11 breeding populations) of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America. Gene trees constructed from mtDNA control region sequence data show that subspecies of Canada Geese do not have distinct mtDNA. Large- and small-bodied forms of Canada Geese were highly diverged (0. 077 average sequence divergence) and represent monophyletic groups. A majority (65%) of 20 haplotypes resolved were observed in single breeding locales. However, within both large- and small-bodied forms certain haplotypes occurred across multiple subspecies. Population trees for both nuclear (microsatellites) and mitochondrial markers were generally concordant and provide resolution of population and subspecific relationships indicating incomplete lineage sorting. All populations and subspecies were genetically diverged, but to varying degrees. Analyses of molecular variance, nested-clade and coalescence-based analyses of mtDNA suggest that both historical (past fragmentation) and contemporary forces have been important in shaping current spatial genetic distributions. Gene flow appears to be ongoing though at different rates, even among currently recognized subspecies. The efficacy of current subspecific taxonomy is discussed in light of hypothesized historical vicariance and current demographic trends of management and conservation concern.

  12. Canada geese of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: family relationships, behavior and productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rummel, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Geese described are non-migratory, free-flying Todd's Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior). The genealogy of 261 of these geese was traced by archival research and three years of field observations. Nest locations and densities, preferences for various types of artificial nest structures, clutch sizes, hatching success, brood survival to flight stage, and food habits were recorded. Resul ts indicate geese may:,pair as yearlings, but these bonds may be broken and re-formed before breeding. Pair bonding generally resulted in geese of similar ages remaining together until the death of one partner, although re-pairing, polygamy, and pairing between broodmates also occurred. The dominance hierarchy of related birds strongly influenced the position of 'outsiders' pairing with indigenous females. Dominant status passed not only from male to male, but, upon the death of the dominant male, in at least one instance, the surviving female retained dominant status. Gang broods were composed of progeny of the rearing pair, plus goslings relinquished by female offspring or siblings of the rearing pair. Among indentifiable geese, gang broods were reared by the dominant pair on each impoundment. Geese retained their family integrity both in flight and during the post-molt dispersion. Female and males paired with local females, nested in their natal areas. No significant relationship (P < 0.05) was found between clutch size and age of the female. Twelve-year productivity of the Patuxent geese appeared related to the reproductive success of a specific resident family. Collars, legbands, and telemetry were initially used to distinguish conspecifics. It was subsequently discovered that individual geese could be recognized by cheek-patch patterns, unusual plumage, or mannerisms. It is suggested that cheek-patch similarities in related Canada geese might be used to trace gene flow within flocks, and may be used for individual recognition by other Canada geese.

  13. Maximum Running Speed of Captive Bar-Headed Geese Is Unaffected by Severe Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Lucy A.; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Meir, Jessica U.; Milsom, William K.; Scott, Graham R.; Bishop, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    While bar-headed geese are renowned for migration at high altitude over the Himalayas, previous work on captive birds suggested that these geese are unable to maintain rates of oxygen consumption while running in severely hypoxic conditions. To investigate this paradox, we re-examined the running performance and heart rates of bar-headed geese and barnacle geese (a low altitude species) during exercise in hypoxia. Bar-headed geese (n = 7) were able to run at maximum speeds (determined in normoxia) for 15 minutes in severe hypoxia (7% O2; simulating the hypoxia at 8500 m) with mean heart rates of 466±8 beats min−1. Barnacle geese (n = 10), on the other hand, were unable to complete similar trials in severe hypoxia and their mean heart rate (316 beats.min−1) was significantly lower than bar-headed geese. In bar-headed geese, partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in both arterial and mixed venous blood were significantly lower during hypoxia than normoxia, both at rest and while running. However, measurements of blood lactate in bar-headed geese suggested that anaerobic metabolism was not a major energy source during running in hypoxia. We combined these data with values taken from the literature to estimate (i) oxygen supply, using the Fick equation and (ii) oxygen demand using aerodynamic theory for bar-headed geese flying aerobically, and under their own power, at altitude. This analysis predicts that the maximum altitude at which geese can transport enough oxygen to fly without environmental assistance ranges from 6,800 m to 8,900 m altitude, depending on the parameters used in the model but that such flights should be rare. PMID:24710001

  14. Maximum running speed of captive bar-headed geese is unaffected by severe hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Lucy A; Butler, Patrick J; Frappell, Peter B; Meir, Jessica U; Milsom, William K; Scott, Graham R; Bishop, Charles M

    2014-01-01

    While bar-headed geese are renowned for migration at high altitude over the Himalayas, previous work on captive birds suggested that these geese are unable to maintain rates of oxygen consumption while running in severely hypoxic conditions. To investigate this paradox, we re-examined the running performance and heart rates of bar-headed geese and barnacle geese (a low altitude species) during exercise in hypoxia. Bar-headed geese (n = 7) were able to run at maximum speeds (determined in normoxia) for 15 minutes in severe hypoxia (7% O2; simulating the hypoxia at 8500 m) with mean heart rates of 466±8 beats min-1. Barnacle geese (n = 10), on the other hand, were unable to complete similar trials in severe hypoxia and their mean heart rate (316 beats.min-1) was significantly lower than bar-headed geese. In bar-headed geese, partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in both arterial and mixed venous blood were significantly lower during hypoxia than normoxia, both at rest and while running. However, measurements of blood lactate in bar-headed geese suggested that anaerobic metabolism was not a major energy source during running in hypoxia. We combined these data with values taken from the literature to estimate (i) oxygen supply, using the Fick equation and (ii) oxygen demand using aerodynamic theory for bar-headed geese flying aerobically, and under their own power, at altitude. This analysis predicts that the maximum altitude at which geese can transport enough oxygen to fly without environmental assistance ranges from 6,800 m to 8,900 m altitude, depending on the parameters used in the model but that such flights should be rare.

  15. A genetic evaluation of morphology used to identify harvested Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, J.M.; Pierson, B. J.; Talbot, S.L.; Derksen, D.V.; Kraege, Donald K.; Scribner, K.T.

    2000-01-01

    Using maximum likelihood estimators (in genetic stock identification), we used genetic markers to evaluate the utility of 2 morphological measures (culmen length and plumage color) to correctly identify groups of hunter-harvested dusky (Branta canadensis occidentalis) and dusky-like Canada geese on the wintering grounds within the Pacific Flyway. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were observed across all sampled breeding sites for both nuclear microsatellite loci and mtDNA when analyzed at the sequence level. The ability to discriminate among geese from these sites using genetic markers was further demonstrated using computer simulations. We estimated contributions from the Copper River Delta, the primary breeding area of dusky Canada geese, to groups of hunter-harvested geese classified as dusky Canada geese on the basis of morphology as 50.6 ?? 10.1(SE)% for females and 50.3 ?? 13.0% for males. We also estimated that 16 ?? 8.1% of females classified as dusky Canada geese on the basis of morphology originated from Middleton Island, Alaska; a locale currently managed as a subpopulation of dusky Canada geese, even though the majority of geese from this area possess a unique mtdna haplotype not found on the Copper River Delta. The use of culmen length and plumage color to identify the origin of breeding populations in the harvest provides conservative criteria for management of dusky Canada geese as individuals of other breeding populations are misassigned as dusky Canada geese and birds of the lighter-plumaged dusky-like group did not appear to originate from, breeding sites of the dusky Canada goose. Our analyses demonstrate that genetic markers can accurately estimate the proportion of genetically differentiated areas that comprise an admixed group, but they also raise questions about the management scale of Pacific Flyway Canada geese (e.g., at the subspecies or breeding population level) and the use of morphological and genetic characteristics to

  16. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Bean Goose (Anser fabalis) and Implications for Anseriformes Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Zhou, Lizhi; Zhang, Lili; Luo, Zijun; Xu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in living organisms, and has been used as a powerful molecular marker in a variety of evolutionary studies. In this study, we determined the complete mtDNA of Bean goose (Anser fabalis), which is 16,688 bp long and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region. The arrangement is similar to that of typical Anseriform species. All protein-coding genes, except for Cyt b, ND5, COI, and COII, start with an ATG codon. The ATG start codon is also generally observed in the 12 other Anseriform species, including 2 Anser species, with sequenced mitochondrial genomes. TAA is the most frequent stop codon, one of three–TAA, TAG, and T- –commonly observed in Anseriformes. All tRNAs could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structures except for tRNASer(AGY) and tRNALeu(CUN), which are missing the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The control region of Bean goose mtDNA, with some conserved sequence boxes, such as F, E, D, and C, identified in its central domain. Phylogenetic analysis of complete mtDNA data for 13 Anseriform species supports the classification of them into four major branches: Anatinae, Anserinae, Dendrocygninae and Anseranatidae. Phylogenetic analyses were also conducted on 36 Anseriform birds using combined Cyt b, ND2, and COI sequences. The results clearly support the genus Somateria as an independent lineage classified in its own tribe, the Somaterini. Recovered topologies from both complete mtDNA and combined DNA sequences strongly indicate that Dendrocygninae is an independent subfamily within the family Anatidae and Anseranatidae represents an independent family. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that combining ND2, Cyt b, and COI sequence data is a workable solution at present for resolving phylogenetic relationships among Anseriform species in the absence of sufficient complete mtDNA data. PMID:23717412

  17. Supplementary artificial light to increase egg production of geese under natural lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-Meng; Chen, Lih-Ren; Lee, Shuen-Rong; Jea, Yu-Shine; Kao, Jung-Yie

    2009-07-01

    A new supplementary lighting program was designed to increase the egg production of geese under natural light conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the supplementary lighting program on egg production of White Roman geese in an open housing system at the Tropic of Cancer. Forty mature White Roman geese were randomly allocated into two groups (male:female=1:4). The supplementary lighting program with a total daily photoperiod of between 12.0 h and 13.5 h was initiated on 1 November and withdrawn from the experimental group on 30 January. In contrast, the geese in the control group were kept under natural lighting conditions throughout this study. The results showed that the laying peak of the experimental group occurred earlier than normal in the reproductive season and the geese continued laying throughout the breeding season. The geese in the experimental group had 47.6 eggs/goose which was significantly (P<0.05) more than that of the control group having 26.4 eggs/goose. We can conclude that the supplemental lighting method will result in an earlier laying peak of the geese in the breeding season and higher egg production. The supplementary lighting program was able to maximize egg production in geese at the Tropic of Cancer.

  18. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Canada goose population in question. However, resumption of injuries caused by growth of the population... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Population control of resident Canada... Populations § 21.61 Population control of resident Canada geese. (a) Which Canada geese are covered by...

  19. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., resumption of injuries caused by growth of the population and not otherwise addressable by the methods... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Population control of resident Canada... Populations § 21.61 Population control of resident Canada geese. (a) Which Canada geese are covered by...

  20. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., resumption of injuries caused by growth of the population and not otherwise addressable by the methods... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Population control of resident Canada... Populations § 21.61 Population control of resident Canada geese. (a) Which Canada geese are covered by...

  1. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., resumption of injuries caused by growth of the population and not otherwise addressable by the methods... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Population control of resident Canada... Populations § 21.61 Population control of resident Canada geese. (a) Which Canada geese are covered by...

  2. Effects of aldrin exposure on snow geese in Texas rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.

    1979-01-01

    In 1972 and 1974, 112 dead or moribund snow geese (Chen c. caerulescens), mostiy immature white-phase males, were found in a 'study area on the Garwood Prairie, Texas. Dying geese were observed within 2 days after rice fields planted with aldrin-treated seed were flooded by heavy tains6n 21 March 1972 and 25 March 1974. Brains from 8 snow geese that were moribund when found contained an average of 8.2 ppm (4.9-14.0 ppm) of dieldrin (a metabolite of aldrin); brains of 14 geese found dead contained an average of 14.1ppm (2.1-31 ppm). Because no mortalities occurred in 1973 when aldrin-treated rice seed was flooded after all geese had migrated or in 1975 and 1976 after the treatrnent of rice seed with aldrin was suspended, it appears certain that aldrin caused the mortalities.

  3. Avian cholera mortality in lesser snow geese nesting on Banks Island, Northwest Territories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Samelius, G.; Goldberg, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Avian cholera is one of the most important diseases affecting waterfowl in North America, but little is known about its ecology and its impact on waterfowl populations. We documented avian cholera mortality in breeding lesser snow geese (Chen c. caerulescens) at the Egg River colony on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, in 1995 and 1996. Area of the breeding colony, core nesting area, and number of nesting geese were greater in 1996 (colony=7,537 ha, core area=1,581 ha, 401,000 nesting geese) than in 1995 (colony=6,637 ha, core area=996 ha, 318,000 nesting geese). Density of nesting geese also was greater in the core area during 1995 (120 geese/ha) than in 1996 (90 geese/ha). Pasteurella multocida (serotype 1) was cultured from the leg bones of adult snow goose carcasses collected after outbreaks. Mortality from avian cholera began during nesting and continued until birds dispersed at hatch. Mortality appeared to be in foci scattered throughout the nesting colony, but generally was greater where there were greater densities of nesting geese. We estimated that 30,000 and 20,000 geese died in 1995 and 1996, respectively, about 5-9% of the nesting colony. Between 1991 and 1997, at least 4 avian cholera outbreaks occurred at Banks Island. It appears that avian cholera has become endemic in this population of snow geese, and these birds have the potential to transmit the disease to other waterfowl, especially on wintering areas where waterfowl are very concentrated.

  4. Winter distribution, movements, and annual survival of radiomarked Vancouver Canada geese in southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Hodges, John I.; Conant, Bruce P.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Groves, Debbie J.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Pacific Flyway Canada geese (Branta canadensis) requires information on winter distribution of different populations. Recoveries of tarsus bands from Vancouver Canada geese (B. canadensis fulva) marked in southeast Alaska, USA, ≥4 decades ago suggested that ≥83% of the population was non-migratory and that annual adult survival was high (Ŝ = 0.836). However, recovery distribution of tarsus bands was potentially biased due to geographic differences in harvest intensity in the Pacific Flyway. Also, winter distribution of Vancouver Canada geese could have shifted since the 1960s, as has occurred for some other populations of Canada geese. Because winter distribution and annual survival of this population had not recently been evaluated, we surgically implanted very high frequency radiotransmitters in 166 adult female Canada geese in southeast Alaska. We captured Vancouver Canada geese during molt at 2 sites where adults with goslings were present (breeding areas) and 2 sites where we observed nonbreeding birds only. During winter radiotracking flights in southeast Alaska, we detected 98% of 85 females marked at breeding areas and 83% of 70 females marked at nonbreeding sites, excluding 11 females that died prior to the onset of winter radiotracking. We detected no radiomarked females in coastal British Columbia, or western Washington and Oregon, USA. Most (70%) females moved ≤30 km between November and March. Our model-averaged estimate of annual survival (Ŝ = 0.844, SE = 0.050) was similar to the estimate of annual survival of geese marked from 1956 to 1960. Likely <2% of Vancouver Canada geese that nest in southeast Alaska migrate to winter areas in Oregon or Washington where they could intermix with Canada geese from other populations in the Pacific Flyway. Because annual survival of adult Vancouver Canada geese was high and showed evidence of long-term consistency, managers should examine how reproductive success and recruitment may affect

  5. Could Have Gone Wrong: Effects of Abrupt Changes in Migratory Behaviour on Harvest in a Waterbird Population.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jesper; Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Balsby, Thorsten J S; Tombre, Ingunn M

    2015-01-01

    To sustainably exploit a population, it is crucial to understand and reduce uncertainties about population processes and effects of harvest. In migratory species, management is challenged by geographically separated changing environmental conditions, which may cause unexpected changes in species distribution and harvest. We describe the development in the harvest of Svalbard-breeding pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) in relation to the observed trajectory and migratory behaviour of the population. In autumn, geese migrate via stopover sites in Norway and Denmark (where they are hunted) to wintering grounds in the Netherlands and Belgium (where they are protected). In Denmark and Norway harvesting increased stepwise during the 2000s. The increase in the population size only partly explained the change. The change corresponded to a simultaneous stepwise increase in numbers of geese staging in Denmark throughout autumn and winter; geese also moved further inland to feed which collectively increased their exposure to hunting. In Norway the increase in harvest reflected greater utilisation of lowland farmland areas by geese, increasing their hunting exposure. The study demonstrates how changes in migratory behaviour can abruptly affect exposure to hunting, which showed a functional response to increased temporal and spatial availability of geese. The harvest has now reached a level likely to cause a population decline. It highlights the need for flexible, internationally coordinated hunting regulations and reliable up-to-date population estimates and hunting bag statistics, which are rare in European management of migratory waterbirds. Without such information decisions are left with judgments based on population estimates, which often have time lags of several years between recording and reporting, hampering possibilities for the timely adjustment of management actions. PMID:26247849

  6. Could Have Gone Wrong: Effects of Abrupt Changes in Migratory Behaviour on Harvest in a Waterbird Population

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Jesper; Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Balsby, Thorsten J. S.; Tombre, Ingunn M.

    2015-01-01

    To sustainably exploit a population, it is crucial to understand and reduce uncertainties about population processes and effects of harvest. In migratory species, management is challenged by geographically separated changing environmental conditions, which may cause unexpected changes in species distribution and harvest. We describe the development in the harvest of Svalbard-breeding pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) in relation to the observed trajectory and migratory behaviour of the population. In autumn, geese migrate via stopover sites in Norway and Denmark (where they are hunted) to wintering grounds in the Netherlands and Belgium (where they are protected). In Denmark and Norway harvesting increased stepwise during the 2000s. The increase in the population size only partly explained the change. The change corresponded to a simultaneous stepwise increase in numbers of geese staging in Denmark throughout autumn and winter; geese also moved further inland to feed which collectively increased their exposure to hunting. In Norway the increase in harvest reflected greater utilisation of lowland farmland areas by geese, increasing their hunting exposure. The study demonstrates how changes in migratory behaviour can abruptly affect exposure to hunting, which showed a functional response to increased temporal and spatial availability of geese. The harvest has now reached a level likely to cause a population decline. It highlights the need for flexible, internationally coordinated hunting regulations and reliable up-to-date population estimates and hunting bag statistics, which are rare in European management of migratory waterbirds. Without such information decisions are left with judgments based on population estimates, which often have time lags of several years between recording and reporting, hampering possibilities for the timely adjustment of management actions. PMID:26247849

  7. Impact of special early harvest seasons on subarctic-nesting and temperate-nesting Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheaffer, S.E.; Kendall, W.L.; Bowers, E. Frank

    2005-01-01

    Dramatic changes in wintering distributions of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have occurred over the past 50 years in eastern North America. Declines in numbers of subarctic-nesting geese wintering in southern states, and increases in numbers wintering in northern regions, have resulted in a northern shift in winter distributions. In contrast, numbers of temperate-nesting geese have increased throughout eastern North America. Management efforts to control overabundant temperate-nesting flocks have included the establishment of special early harvest seasons in September. However, the effect of early seasons on survival and harvest of subarctic-nesting populations has not been documented. Understanding the timing of migration movements and the fidelity of subarctic-nesting flocks to terminal winter refuges in the Southeast also is necessary to design early harvest seasons that target temperate-nesting flocks and protect subarctic-nesting populations. We used recoveries of marked geese to estimate survival and harvest rates before and after implementation of early harvest seasons within the Mississippi Flyway during 1976-1999. In addition, we used observations of neck-banded geese from the Southern James Bay Population (SJBP) to evaluate the hypothesis that subarctic-nesting geese arriving prior to mid-December on several key terminal winter refuges in the Southeast (early arriving migrants) were more likely to return to those refuges in subsequent years than were migrants, arriving after mid-December (late arriving migrants). September seasons during 1987-1994 were a minor source of mortality for subarctic-nesting populations and accounted for < 10% of their annual harvest mortality. The effectiveness of early seasons for increasing mortality of temperate-nesting flocks varied among the states we examined and was tempered by concurrent changes in state-specific harvest regulations during the regular harvest season. For SJBP Canada geese, annual fidelity to

  8. Analysis of growth curves of fowl. III. Geese.

    PubMed

    Knízetová, H; Hyánek, J; Veselský, A

    1994-07-01

    1. Growth curves of two lines (S,D) and their reciprocal hybrids (in total,. n = 344) were evaluated by the Richards function. Geese were weighed at 7 d intervals to the ninth week, and then at 92, 154, 192 and 217 d of age. Food and water were supplied ad libitum. 2. The accuracy of curve fit measured by the coefficient of determination (R2) for different genetic groups ranged from 0.9840 to 0.9918. The highest percentage deviations between observed and estimated live weights were recorded at hatching (on average 15.1%), while at the others points of curve they were significantly lower (from 0.6 to 6.8%). 3. The geese are characterised by an early maturing rate. The peak of the absolute growth rate (the inflection point of the curve) occurred at 18.7 to 23.5 d of age (t+). The degree of maturity at a slaughter age of 63 d (u63 = y63/A) ranged from 0.69 to 0.76. Fitting the inflection point at the beginning of the linear growth phase significantly affects the maturing rate (k) and the ratio between the inflection (y+) and the asymptotic (A) weights. The values of these correlated parameters were very low (y+/A = 0.233 to 0.294, k = 0.0281 to 0.0373 ln theta/d). 4. The live weights of geese from 28 d of age and the parameters of the Richards function were significantly higher (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) in th sire line (S) than in the dam line (D). A low negative heterosis was observed at all points of the growth curves (-0.01 to -9.7%). The results indicated the effect of sex-linked growth genes. 5. The phenotypic correlations between parameters of the Richards function within genetic groups are discussed. PMID:7953778

  9. The annual migration cycle of emperor geese in Western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Most emperor geese (Chen canagica) nest in a narrow coastal region of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, but their winter distribution extends more than 3000 km from Kodiak Island, Alaska, to the Commander Islands, Russia. We marked 53 adult female emperor geese with satellite transmitters on the YKD in 1999, 2002, and 2003 to examine whether chronology of migration or use of seasonal habitats differed among birds that wintered in different regions. Females that migrated relatively short distances (650-1010 km) between the YKD and winter sites on the south side of the Alaska Peninsula bypassed autumn staging areas on the Bering Sea coast of the Alaska Peninsula or used them for shorter periods (mean = 57 days) than birds that made longer migrations (1600-2640 km) to the western Aleutian Islands (mean = 97 days). Alaska Peninsula migrants spent more days at winter sites (mean =172 days, 95% CI: 129-214 days) than western Aleutian Island migrants (mean = 91 days, 95% CI: 83-99 days). Birds that migrated 930-1610 km to the eastern Aleutian Islands spent intermediate intervals at fall staging (mean = 77 days) and wintering areas (mean = 108 days, 95% CI: 95-119 days). Return dates to the YKD did not differ among birds that wintered in different regions. Coastal staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula may be especially important in autumn to prepare Aleutian migrants physiologically for long-distance migration to winter sites, and in spring to enable emperor geese that migrate different distances to reach comparable levels of condition before nesting. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  10. Winter losses of Canada geese at Pea Island, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowan, A.B.; Herman, C.M.

    1955-01-01

    Report of research and findings to date. Topics discussed include: studies on life history and biology of gizzard worm; results of autopsies; experiments on survival and transmission of gizzard worm eggs and larvae in both field and laboratory; persistence of infections; and results of infections in geese of different ages. Cause of deaths has not been finally determined, but indications are that gizzard worm is an important contributing factor and that poor physical condition, brought about at least partially by malnutrition, also contributes to the losses.

  11. Forced copulation results in few extrapair fertilizations in Ross's and lesser snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunn, P.O.; Afton, A.D.; Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    Extrapair paternity varies from 0 to over 70% of young among various populations of birds. Comparative studies have suggested that this variation is related to nesting density, breeding synchrony and the proportion of extrapair copulations. We used minisatellite DNA fingerprinting to examine levels of extrapair paternity in Ross's geese, Chen rossi, and lesser snow geese, C. caerulescens c. (hereafter snow geese) nesting in the largest known goose colony in the world. These geese have one of the highest known percentages of extrapair copulation (46-56% of all attempted copulations), and all of these appeared to be forced. Among all successful copulations, 33 and 38% were extrapair in Ross's and snow geese, respectively. Despite the high percentage of extrapair copulations, extrapair paternity was low in both Ross's and snow geese (2-5% of young). Extrapair paternity was not related to nest density in either species. However, in snow geese, extrapair paternity was more likely to occur in nests of females that nested asynchronously, either early or late in the season. This is one of a few reported examples of a negative relationship between extrapair paternity and breeding synchrony. Extrapair young also tended to come from eggs laid later in the clutch. Although forced extrapair copulations appear to be a relatively inefficient reproductive tactic for males, they may provide a reproductive advantage for some males.

  12. Forced copulation results in few extrapair fertilizations in Ross's and lesser snow geese.

    PubMed

    Dunn; Afton; Gloutney; Alisauskas

    1999-05-01

    Extrapair paternity varies from 0 to over 70% of young among various populations of birds. Comparative studies have suggested that this variation is related to nesting density, breeding synchrony and the proportion of extrapair copulations. We used minisatellite DNA fingerprinting to examine levels of extrapair paternity in Ross's geese, Chen rossi, and lesser snow geese, C. caerulescens c. (hereafter snow geese) nesting in the largest known goose colony in the world. These geese have one of the highest known percentages of extrapair copulation (46-56% of all attempted copulations), and all of these appeared to be forced. Among all successful copulations, 33 and 38% were extrapair in Ross's and snow geese, respectively. Despite the high percentage of extrapair copulations, extrapair paternity was low in both Ross's and snow geese (2-5% of young). Extrapair paternity was not related to nest density in either species. However, in snow geese, extrapair paternity was more likely to occur in nests of females that nested asynchronously, either early or late in the season. This is one of a few reported examples of a negative relationship between extrapair paternity and breeding synchrony. Extrapair young also tended to come from eggs laid later in the clutch. Although forced extrapair copulations appear to be a relatively inefficient reproductive tactic for males, they may provide a reproductive advantage for some males. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10328793

  13. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site – Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2010-05-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  14. Wild geese do not increase flight behaviour prior to migration.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Steven J; Green, Jonathan A; White, Craig R; Guillemette, Magella; Butler, Patrick J

    2012-06-23

    Hypertrophy of the flight muscles is regularly observed in birds prior to long-distance migrations. We tested the hypothesis that a large migratory bird would increase flight behaviour prior to migration, in order to cause hypertrophy of the flight muscles, and upregulate key components of the aerobic metabolic pathways. Implantable data loggers were used to record year-round heart rate in six wild barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis), and the amount of time spent in flight each day was identified. Time in flight per day did not significantly increase prior to either the spring or the autumn migration, both between time periods prior to migration (5, 10 and 15 days), or when compared with a control period of low activity during winter. The lack of significant increase in flight prior to migration suggests that approximately 22 min per day is sufficient to maintain the flight muscles in condition for prolonged long-distance flight. This apparent lack of a requirement for increased flight activity prior to migration may be attributable to pre-migratory mass gains in the geese increasing workload during short flights, potentially prompting hypertrophy of the flight muscles.

  15. Sarcocystis sp. from white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons): cyst morphology and life cycle studies.

    PubMed

    Kutkiene, L; Sruoga, A; Butkauskas, D

    2006-10-01

    An experiment was carried out using three cubs of the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus). Twenty-five-day-old cubs were infected by feeding them with the leg muscles of the white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) containing Sarcocystis sp. (cyst type III) cysts. Under the light microscope, the cysts were ribbon-shaped up to 4 mm long and up to 750 microm wide. On the surface of the wall (up to 2.4 microm), they had teat- or finger-like villar protrusions. Ultrastructurally, the cyst wall was a type-9 with villar protrusions (up to 2.3 microm long) different in size. The 11.4x1.7 (10.0-13.5x1.5-2.5)microm cystozoites were almost straight and shuttle-shaped. The fox cubs started shedding typical 12.0x8.0 (10.0-12.8x6.8-8.6)microm Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts on the 13th-14th days post-infection. The patent period lasted 19 days. The conclusion drawn was that the arctic fox (A. lagopus) can be one of the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sp. (cyst type III) from the white-fronted goose. PMID:16649036

  16. Breeding period-associated changes in semen quality, concentrations of LH, PRL, gonadal steroid and thyroid hormones in domestic goose ganders (Anser anser f. domesticus).

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Rozenboim, Israel

    2015-03-01

    In flocks of geese fertility decreases in the second half of the breeding season. The reasons for this reduction in reproduction ability are still unclear. This study measured changes in semen quality variables throughout the period of intensive breeding in relation to hormonal concentrations associated with the sexual activity of ganders. Semen was collected (2×/week) from 2-year-old ganders in the period February-June. Standard ejaculation parameters and spermatozoa (spz) membrane integrity after E/N and SYBR-14/PI staining were evaluated. The DNA Fragmentation Index was measured by flow cytometry and sperm quality factors (SQF). The plasma levels of T, E2, P4, LH, PRL, THs in relation to semen parameters were evaluated. In ejaculate collected at the onset of the second half of breeding (April - spring period), a reduction in sperm concentration and % of liveE/N and liveSYBR-14+/PI- spz was shown. At this time, decrease in concentrations of LH and T and increase in PRL were found as well as moderate changes in THs were observed. However, in May a second peak in T and sperm production occurred. The DFI-% was higher in the middle part of breeding. Gonadal steroids concentration were not good prognostic marker of the reproductive potential of ganders. We suggest that a marked decline in LH and T in the spring period indicated the onset of endocrine changes mediated by PRL and THs resulting in progressive regression of testis functions. The lowest SQF in the spring/summer period coincided with the highest PRL suggesting an anti-spermatogenic action of PRL in ganders. PMID:25600146

  17. Breeding period-associated changes in semen quality, concentrations of LH, PRL, gonadal steroid and thyroid hormones in domestic goose ganders (Anser anser f. domesticus).

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Rozenboim, Israel

    2015-03-01

    In flocks of geese fertility decreases in the second half of the breeding season. The reasons for this reduction in reproduction ability are still unclear. This study measured changes in semen quality variables throughout the period of intensive breeding in relation to hormonal concentrations associated with the sexual activity of ganders. Semen was collected (2×/week) from 2-year-old ganders in the period February-June. Standard ejaculation parameters and spermatozoa (spz) membrane integrity after E/N and SYBR-14/PI staining were evaluated. The DNA Fragmentation Index was measured by flow cytometry and sperm quality factors (SQF). The plasma levels of T, E2, P4, LH, PRL, THs in relation to semen parameters were evaluated. In ejaculate collected at the onset of the second half of breeding (April - spring period), a reduction in sperm concentration and % of liveE/N and liveSYBR-14+/PI- spz was shown. At this time, decrease in concentrations of LH and T and increase in PRL were found as well as moderate changes in THs were observed. However, in May a second peak in T and sperm production occurred. The DFI-% was higher in the middle part of breeding. Gonadal steroids concentration were not good prognostic marker of the reproductive potential of ganders. We suggest that a marked decline in LH and T in the spring period indicated the onset of endocrine changes mediated by PRL and THs resulting in progressive regression of testis functions. The lowest SQF in the spring/summer period coincided with the highest PRL suggesting an anti-spermatogenic action of PRL in ganders.

  18. Poisoning of Canada geese in Texas by parathion sprayed for control of Russian wheat aphid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Juenger, Gary; Roffe, Thomas J.; Smith, Milton R.; Irwin, Roy J.

    1991-01-01

    Approximately 200 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) died at a playa lake in the Texas Panhandle shortly after a winter wheat field in the basin adjacent to the lake was treated with parathion to control newly invading Russian wheat aphids (Diuraphis noxia). No evidence of infectious disease was diagnosed during necropsies of geese. Brain ChE activities were depressed up to 77% below normal. Parathion residues in GI tract contents of geese ranged from 4 to 34 ppm. Based on this evidence, parathion was responsible for the goose mortalities. Parathion applications to winter wheat will undoubtedly increase if parathion is applied for control of both Russian wheat aphids and greenbugs (Schizaphis graminum). Geese may potentially be exposed to widespread applications of parathion from fall to spring, essentially their entire wintering period.

  19. Regional management of farmland feeding geese using an ecological prioritization tool.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jesper; Bjerrum, Morten; Tombre, Ingunn M

    2014-10-01

    Wild geese foraging on farmland cause increasing conflicts with agricultural interests, calling for a strategic approach to mitigation. In central Norway, conflicts between farmers and spring-staging pink-footed geese feeding on pastures have escalated. To alleviate the conflict, a scheme by which farmers are subsidized to allow geese to forage undisturbed was introduced. To guide allocation of subsidies, an ecological-based ranking of fields at a regional level was recommended and applied. Here we evaluate the scheme. On average, 40 % of subsidized fields were in the top 5 % of the ranking, and 80 % were within the top 20 %. Goose grazing pressure on subsidized pastures was 13 times higher compared to a stratified random selection of non-subsidized pastures, capturing 67 % of the pasture feeding geese despite that subsidized fields only comprised 13 % of the grassland area. Close dialogue between scientists and managers is regarded as a key to the success of the scheme.

  20. Goose Hemorrhagic polyomavirus detection in geese using real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Leon, Olivier; Corrand, Léni; Bich, Tran Ngoc; Le Minor, Odile; Lemaire, Mylène; Guérin, Jean-Luc

    2013-12-01

    Goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) is the viral agent of hemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese (HNEG), a lethal disease of goslings. Although death is the most common outcome, geese that recover from HNEG are persistently infected. Here, we present the development of real-time SYBR Green real-time PCR targeted to GHPV and its use to assess the prevalence of GHPV infection in French geese flocks. When compared with classical end-point PCR, real-time PCR revealed a much better sensitivity and equivalent specificity. Real-time PCR could, therefore, be considered a gold standard for the detection of GHPV. Results of field investigations evidenced a very high prevalence of GHPV infections in French geese, largely associated with healthy carriage.

  1. Subtype-specific influenza A virus antibodies in Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Kistler, Whitney M; Stallknecht, David E; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Van Why, Kyle; Yabsley, Michael J

    2015-06-12

    Historically, surveillance for influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds has relied on viral detection assays. This was largely due to poor performance of serological assays in wild birds; however, recently developed commercial serological assays have improved the ability to detect IAV antibodies in wild birds. Serological surveillance for IAV antibodies in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) has shown that, despite a low prevalence of virus isolations, Canada geese are frequently exposed to IAVs and that exposure increases with latitude, which follows virus isolation prevalence patterns observed in dabbling ducks. The objectives of this study were to further evaluate IAV antibodies in Canada geese using a subtype-specific serological assay to determine if Canada geese are exposed to subtypes that commonly circulate in dabbling ducks. We collected serum samples from Canada geese in Minnesota, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin and tested for antibodies to IAVs using a blocking ELISA. Positive samples were further tested by hemagglutination inhibition for 10 hemagglutinin IAV subtypes (H1-H10). Overall, we detected antibodies to NP in 24% (714/2919) of geese. Antibodies to H3, H4, H5, and H6 subtypes predominated, with H5 being detected most frequently. A decrease in H5 HI antibody prevalence and titers was observed from 2009 to 2012. We also detected similar exposure pattern in Canada geese from New Jersey, Minnesota, Washington and Wisconsin. Based on the published literature, H3, H4, and H6 viruses are the most commonly reported IAVs from dabbling ducks. These results indicate that Canada geese also are frequently exposed to viruses of the same HA subtypes; however, the high prevalence of antibodies to H5 viruses was not expected as H5 IAVs are generally not well represented in reported isolates from ducks.

  2. Annual contribution of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus by migrant Canada geese to a hardwater lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Wetzel, Robert G.; Johnson, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    Each year more than 6,000 migrant Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior Todd) rest for 3 to 10 days during the months of March, October, November, and December on Wintergreen Lake, a productive 15 ha (33 acre) hardwater lake in the W. K. Kellogg Bird Sanctuary of Michigan State University in southwestern Michigan. For the past six years accurate weekly counts have been made of resident and migrant waterfowl using Wintergreen Lake. During the past four years Wintergreen Lake has been the site of extensive limnological investigations relating nutrient dynamics and primary productivity. These limnological investigations suggested nutrients contributed by migrant Canada geese were the chief cause of hypereutrophic primary productivity conditions in Wintergreen Lake. Until January 1970, the unpredictable habits of wild Canada geese using Wintergreen Lake prevented accurate estimation of nutrients contributed ton the lake in the form of goose feces. An opportunity to measure this source of nutrients was presented on 9 to 11 January 1970 when about 600 late fall migrant Canada geese rested part of three days in a clearly defined area on newly fallen snow covering frozen Wintergreen Lake. During their stay on the lake accurate records were kept of goose numbers, their location on the lake surface, hours spent on the ice and hours spent feeding off the lake. After the geese left on 11 January 1970, a random sampling procedure was used to measure the density of droppings deposited within the area used by the geese on the lake surface.

  3. Factors Affecting the Incidence of Angel Wing in White Roman Geese: Stocking Density and Genetic Selection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, M. J.; Chang, S. C.; Lin, T. Y.; Cheng, Y. S.; Lee, Y. P.; Fan, Y. K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated stocking density and genetic lines, factors that may alter the severity and incidence of angel wing (AW), in White Roman geese. Geese (n = 384) from two genetically selected lines (normal- winged line, NL, and angel-winged line, AL, respectively) and one commercial line (CL) were raised in four pens. Following common commercial practice, low-stocking-density (LD), medium-stocking-density, and high-stocking-density treatments were respectively administered to 24, 32, and 40 geese per pen at 0 to 3 weeks (1.92 m2/pen) and 4 to 6 weeks (13.2 m2/pen) of age and to 24, 30, and 36 geese at 7 to 14 weeks (20.0 m2/pen) of age. The results revealed that stocking density mainly affected body weight gain in geese younger than 4 weeks, and that geese subjected to LD had a high body weight at 2 weeks of age. However, the effect of stocking density on the severity score of AW (SSAW) and incidence of AW (IAW) did not differ significantly among the treatments. Differences were observed among the genetic stocks; that is, SSAW and IAW were significantly higher in AL than in NL and CL. Genetic selection generally aggravates AW, complicating its elimination. To effectively reduce IAW, stocking density, a suspected causal factor, should be lower than that presently applied commercially. PMID:26954185

  4. Estimating population parameters for northern and southern breeding populations of Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Rusch, Donald H.; Samuel, Michael D.; Humburg, Dale D.; Sullivan, Brian D.

    1998-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have been managed largely as a migratory resource. In the 1960's, Canada goose flocks were restored to historic breeding ranges in the United States and southern Canada to enhance recreational opportunity for observation and harvest. These populations of southern breeding geese have rapidly expanded, increasing conflicts with social and economic interests and causing the Midwinter Waterfowl Survey to be less effective as a management tool to monitor migrant populations. Wildlife agencies need methods to control local, southern breeding geese that reduce conflicts while providing adequate protection to populations of northern breeding geese. New techniques have been developed using mark-resight data from neck-banded geese to estimate distribution and population size during the late summer, fall, and mid-winter. Survival and movement rates can be estimated over special early or late hunting seasons, traditional fall-winter hunting season, and nonharvest periods. Direct recovery rates can be estimated for special and traditional harvest periods and these recovery rates can be related to survival and movement rates. Changes in harvest regulations can be related to changes in recovery, survival, and movement rates for specific cohorts of Canada geese. These techniques can be used to monitor population status and determine more appropriate harvest strategies.

  5. Antibodies to avian influenza viruses in Canada geese (Branta canadensis): a potential surveillance tool?

    PubMed

    Kistler, Whitney M; Stallknecht, David E; Deliberto, Thomas J; Swafford, Seth; Pedersen, Kerri; Van Why, Kyle; Wolf, Paul C; Hill, Jerry A; Bruning, Darren L; Cumbee, James C; Mickley, Randall M; Betsill, Carl W; Randall, Adam R; Berghaus, Roy D; Yabsley, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Traditionally, the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds has been defined by detection of virus or viral RNA through virus isolation or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our goals were to estimate AIV antibody prevalence in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and measure effects of age and location on these estimates. We collected 3,205 samples from nine states during June and July 2008 and 2009: Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Washington, and West Virginia. Serum samples were tested for AIV antibodies with the use of a commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 483 (15%) Canada geese had detectable antibodies to AIV. Significantly higher prevalences were detected in geese collected from northeastern and upper midwestern states compared with southeastern states. This trend is consistent with results from virus isolation studies reporting AIV prevalence in North American dabbling ducks. Within Pennsylvania, significantly higher antibody prevalences were detected in goose flocks sampled in urban locations compared to flocks sampled in rural areas. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in after-hatch-year geese compared to hatch-year geese. No significant differences in prevalence were detected from 10 locations sampled during both years. Results indicate that Canada geese are frequently exposed to AIVs and, with resident populations, may potentially be useful as sentinels to confirm regional AIV transmission within wild bird populations.

  6. Factors Affecting the Incidence of Angel Wing in White Roman Geese: Stocking Density and Genetic Selection.

    PubMed

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Lin, T Y; Cheng, Y S; Lee, Y P; Fan, Y K

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated stocking density and genetic lines, factors that may alter the severity and incidence of angel wing (AW), in White Roman geese. Geese (n = 384) from two genetically selected lines (normal- winged line, NL, and angel-winged line, AL, respectively) and one commercial line (CL) were raised in four pens. Following common commercial practice, low-stocking-density (LD), medium-stocking-density, and high-stocking-density treatments were respectively administered to 24, 32, and 40 geese per pen at 0 to 3 weeks (1.92 m(2)/pen) and 4 to 6 weeks (13.2 m(2)/pen) of age and to 24, 30, and 36 geese at 7 to 14 weeks (20.0 m(2)/pen) of age. The results revealed that stocking density mainly affected body weight gain in geese younger than 4 weeks, and that geese subjected to LD had a high body weight at 2 weeks of age. However, the effect of stocking density on the severity score of AW (SSAW) and incidence of AW (IAW) did not differ significantly among the treatments. Differences were observed among the genetic stocks; that is, SSAW and IAW were significantly higher in AL than in NL and CL. Genetic selection generally aggravates AW, complicating its elimination. To effectively reduce IAW, stocking density, a suspected causal factor, should be lower than that presently applied commercially.

  7. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel flavivirus isolated from geese in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinmei; Han, Kaikai; Zhao, Dongmin; Liu, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Jingfeng; Niu, Huimin; Zhang, Kangning; Zhu, Jiangning; Wu, Dongming; Gao, Lei; Li, Yin

    2013-06-01

    Since April 2010, a novel contagious disease in ducks and geese, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and neurological signs, caused by a newly emerged virus has spread around Eastern China. Dissection conducted on the dead geese demonstrated hemorrhage in brain, lung, liver, heart, ovary, and enlarged and necrotic spleen. A new virus, named Goose/Jiangsu/804/2010 (JS804) virus, was isolated in Jiangsu area from geese. Then the virus was re-isolated from the affected geese and replicated well in duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 40-60 nm in diameter. The full-length genome of this isolated virus was determined, showing that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus) than other members of the Flaviviridae based on the data of phylogenetic analyses. Our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates precisely, and therefore, the causative agent of geese occurring in Eastern China is a new flavivirus. This is the first report that flavivirus infects not only egg-laying and breeder ducks but also geese. The findings extend our understanding of how the virus spreads and causes disease.

  8. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  9. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

  10. Modelling the distribution of chickens, ducks, and geese in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prosser, Diann J.; Wu, Junxi; Ellis, Erie C.; Gale, Fred; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Global concerns over the emergence of zoonotic pandemics emphasize the need for high-resolution population distribution mapping and spatial modelling. Ongoing efforts to model disease risk in China have been hindered by a lack of available species level distribution maps for poultry. The goal of this study was to develop 1 km resolution population density models for China's chickens, ducks, and geese. We used an information theoretic approach to predict poultry densities based on statistical relationships between poultry census data and high-resolution agro-ecological predictor variables. Model predictions were validated by comparing goodness of fit measures (root mean square error and correlation coefficient) for observed and predicted values for 1/4 of the sample data which were not used for model training. Final output included mean and coefficient of variation maps for each species. We tested the quality of models produced using three predictor datasets and 4 regional stratification methods. For predictor variables, a combination of traditional predictors for livestock mapping and land use predictors produced the best goodness of fit scores. Comparison of regional stratifications indicated that for chickens and ducks, a stratification based on livestock production systems produced the best results; for geese, an agro-ecological stratification produced best results. However, for all species, each method of regional stratification produced significantly better goodness of fit scores than the global model. Here we provide descriptive methods, analytical comparisons, and model output for China's first high resolution, species level poultry distribution maps. Output will be made available to the scientific and public community for use in a wide range of applications from epidemiological studies to livestock policy and management initiatives.

  11. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuggle, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell

  12. Evidence of territoriality and species interactions from spatial point-pattern analyses of subarctic-nesting geese.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Matthew E; Andersen, David E

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of bird nests and nest fate provides insights into processes influencing a species' distribution. At Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, recent declines in breeding Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) has coincided with increasing populations of nesting lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (Chen rossii). We conducted a spatial analysis of point patterns using Canada goose nest locations and nest fate, and lesser snow goose nest locations at two study areas in northern Manitoba with different densities and temporal durations of sympatric nesting Canada and lesser snow geese. Specifically, we assessed (1) whether Canada geese exhibited territoriality and at what scale and nest density; and (2) whether spatial patterns of Canada goose nest fate were associated with the density of nesting lesser snow geese as predicted by the protective-association hypothesis. Between 2001 and 2007, our data suggest that Canada geese were territorial at the scale of nearest neighbors, but were aggregated when considering overall density of conspecifics at slightly broader spatial scales. The spatial distribution of nest fates indicated that lesser snow goose nest proximity and density likely influence Canada goose nest fate. Our analyses of spatial point patterns suggested that continued changes in the distribution and abundance of breeding lesser snow geese on the Hudson Bay Lowlands may have impacts on the reproductive performance of Canada geese, and subsequently the spatial distribution of Canada goose nests. PMID:24312520

  13. Evidence of territoriality and species interactions from spatial point-pattern analyses of subarctic-nesting geese.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Matthew E; Andersen, David E

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of bird nests and nest fate provides insights into processes influencing a species' distribution. At Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, recent declines in breeding Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) has coincided with increasing populations of nesting lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (Chen rossii). We conducted a spatial analysis of point patterns using Canada goose nest locations and nest fate, and lesser snow goose nest locations at two study areas in northern Manitoba with different densities and temporal durations of sympatric nesting Canada and lesser snow geese. Specifically, we assessed (1) whether Canada geese exhibited territoriality and at what scale and nest density; and (2) whether spatial patterns of Canada goose nest fate were associated with the density of nesting lesser snow geese as predicted by the protective-association hypothesis. Between 2001 and 2007, our data suggest that Canada geese were territorial at the scale of nearest neighbors, but were aggregated when considering overall density of conspecifics at slightly broader spatial scales. The spatial distribution of nest fates indicated that lesser snow goose nest proximity and density likely influence Canada goose nest fate. Our analyses of spatial point patterns suggested that continued changes in the distribution and abundance of breeding lesser snow geese on the Hudson Bay Lowlands may have impacts on the reproductive performance of Canada geese, and subsequently the spatial distribution of Canada goose nests.

  14. Search for the ANSER (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum

    ScienceCinema

    Wasielewski, Michael R. (Director, Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center); ANSER Staff

    2016-07-12

    'Search for the ANSER' was submitted by the Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center (ANSER) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. ANSER, an EFRC directed by Michael Wasielewski at Argonne National Laboratory is a partnership of scientists from five institutions: Argonne National Laboratory, Northwestern University, University of Chicago, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Yale. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. At ANSER, the mission is 'to revolutionize our understanding of molecules, materials and methods necessary to create dramatically more efficient technologies for solar fuels and electricity production.' Research topics are: catalysis (water), electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis, solar photovoltaic, solar fuels, solar electrodes, photosynthesis, transportation fuels, bio-inspired, spin dynamics, hydrogen (fuel), ultrafast physics, interfacial characterization, matter by design, novel materials synthesis, charge transport, and self-assembly.

  15. Foraging time and dietary intake by breeding ross's and lesser snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Afton, A.D.; Slattery, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    We compared foraging times of female Ross's (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding at Karrak Lake, NT, Canada and examined variation due to time of day and reproductive stage. We subsequently collected female geese that had foraged for known duration and we estimated mass of foods consumed during foraging bouts. Female Ross's Geese spent more time foraging (mean % ?? SE = 28.4 ?? 1.3%; P = 0.0002), on average, than did female Lesser Snow Geese (21.5 ?? 1.4%). Foraging time by female geese differed among reproductive stages, but differences were not consistent among time periods (stage-by-time block interaction, P=0.0003). Females spent considerably more time foraging during prelaying and laying than during incubation. Ross's Geese also spent a greater percent of time feeding (83.0??2.8%) during incubation recesses than did Lesser Snow Geese (60.9??3.6%). Consumption of organic matter during foraging bouts was minimal; estimated consumption averaged 9.6??4.0 and 12.4??4.6 g (mean ?? SE) dry mass/day before incubation and 5.9??2.0 and 5.7??2.1 g dry mass/day during incubation for Lesser Snow and Ross's Geese, respectively. Diets consisted primarily of mosses (bryophytes), Chickweed (Stellaria spp.) and Sedges (Carex spp.). Before incubation, eggshell consumption was estimated as 4.3??3.2 and 0.4??0.3 g dry mass/day for Lesser Snow and Ross's Geese, respectively; neither species consumed eggshell during incubation. We conclude that eggshell from nests of previous years is likely an important source of dietary calcium used to meet mineral demands of eggshell formation at Karrak Lake. Our findings of wide disparities between foraging time and food intake indicate that results from studies that do not directly measure intake rates remain equivocal. Finally, we propose four hypotheses accounting for foraging effort that evidently yields little nutritional or energetic benefit to geese nesting at Karrak Lake.

  16. Tracking the autumn migration of the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) with satellite telemetry and relationship to environmental conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Yaonan; Hao, Meiyu; Takekawa, John Y.; Lei, Fumin; Yan, Baoping; Prosser, Diann J.; Douglas, David C.; Xing, Zhi; Newman, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    The autumn migration routes of bar-headed geese captured before the 2008 breeding season at Qinghai Lake, China, were documented using satellite tracking data. To assess how the migration strategies of bar-headed geese are influenced by environmental conditions, the relationship between migratory routes, temperatures, and vegetation coverage at stopovers sites estimated with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were analyzed. Our results showed that there were four typical migration routes in autumn with variation in timing among individuals in start and end times and in total migration and stopover duration. The observed variation may be related to habitat type and other environmental conditions along the routes. On average, these birds traveled about 1300 to 1500 km, refueled at three to six stopover sites and migrated for 73 to 83 days. The majority of the habitat types at stopover sites were lake, marsh, and shoal wetlands, with use of some mountainous regions, and farmland areas.

  17. Characterization of HSP70 and its expression in tissue: correlation with physiological and immune indices in goose (Anser cygnoides) serum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W W; Xiao, X; Gan, J K; Zhang, X Q; Kong, L N; Luo, Q B

    2015-01-01

    We cloned the goose heat shock protein 70 gene (HSP70), to determine its sequence variation and elucidate its mRNA expression. We designed primers to amplify the entire goose HSP70 sequence. We used 10 commercial Wuzong goslings in a heat-stress experiment. We collected tissue samples for RNA extraction and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We analyzed the variation in expression of goose HSP70 before and after heat stress. We constructed a DNA pool from six different species, for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) screening. We detected 18 SNPs and selected three of these SNPs for correlation analysis with biological and immune traits in 200 Wuzong geese. We showed that T+237C was significantly correlated with the serum corticosterone level, whereas T+1122C was significantly correlated with the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Goose HSP70 contained no introns. The results of qRT-PCR analysis revealed significant gender differences in the expression of goose HSP70 at 40°C but not at 25°C; moreover, in general, expression was significantly higher at 40°C than at 25°C. With the exception of the leg muscle and cerebellum, HSP70 expression was significantly higher in male geese than in female geese. Our results indicate that goose HSP70 plays an important role in response to severe heat stress. PMID:26505377

  18. Characterization of HSP70 and its expression in tissue: correlation with physiological and immune indices in goose (Anser cygnoides) serum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W W; Xiao, X; Gan, J K; Zhang, X Q; Kong, L N; Luo, Q B

    2015-10-09

    We cloned the goose heat shock protein 70 gene (HSP70), to determine its sequence variation and elucidate its mRNA expression. We designed primers to amplify the entire goose HSP70 sequence. We used 10 commercial Wuzong goslings in a heat-stress experiment. We collected tissue samples for RNA extraction and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We analyzed the variation in expression of goose HSP70 before and after heat stress. We constructed a DNA pool from six different species, for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) screening. We detected 18 SNPs and selected three of these SNPs for correlation analysis with biological and immune traits in 200 Wuzong geese. We showed that T+237C was significantly correlated with the serum corticosterone level, whereas T+1122C was significantly correlated with the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Goose HSP70 contained no introns. The results of qRT-PCR analysis revealed significant gender differences in the expression of goose HSP70 at 40°C but not at 25°C; moreover, in general, expression was significantly higher at 40°C than at 25°C. With the exception of the leg muscle and cerebellum, HSP70 expression was significantly higher in male geese than in female geese. Our results indicate that goose HSP70 plays an important role in response to severe heat stress.

  19. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica: Large-scale effects of interspecific densities and food availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lake, B.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Lindberg, M.S.; Ely, C.R.; Eldridge, W.D.; Broerman, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica at three locations across the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, during 1990-2004 to investigate whether large-scale variation in body mass was related to interspecific competition for food. From 1990 to 2004, densities of Cackling Geese Branta hutchinsii minima more than doubled and were c. 2-5?? greater than densities of Emperor Geese, which were relatively constant over time. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese was strongly related (negatively) to interspecific densities of geese (combined density of Cackling and Emperor Geese) and positively related to measures of food availability (grazing lawn extent and net above-ground primary productivity (NAPP)). Grazing by geese resulted in consumption of ??? 90% of the NAPP that occurred in grazing lawns during the brood-rearing period, suggesting that density-dependent interspecific competition was from exploitation of common food resources. Efforts to increase the population size of Emperor Geese would benefit from considering competitive interactions among goose species and with forage plants. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  20. Different time and energy budgets of Lesser Snow Geese in rice-prairies and coastal marshes in southwest Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    Many bird species use human-made habitats and an important issue is whether these are equally suitable foraging habitats as are historical, natural habitats. Historically, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens, hereafter Snow Geese) wintered in coastal marshes in Louisiana but began using rice-prairies within the last 60 years. Time spent feeding was used as an indicator of habitat suitability and time and energy budgets of Snow Geese were compared between rice-prairies and coastal marshes in southwest Louisiana. Composite diets of Snow Geese have a lower energy density in the rice-prairies than in coastal marshes; thus, we predicted that Snow Geese would spend relatively more time feeding in rice-praires to obtain existence energy. However, time spent feeding was higher in coastal marshes and thus, not proportional to energy density of composite diets. Snow Geese in coastal marshes ingested less apparent metabolizable energy than did Snow Geese in rice-prairies. In rice-prairies, juveniles spent more time feeding than did adults; however, time spent feeding was similar between age classes in coastal marshes. Undeveloped foraging skills probably cause juvenile Snow Geese to forage less efficiently in coastal marshes than in rice-prairies. These findings are consistent with recent trends in Snow Goose numbers, which increased in rice-prairies but remained stable in coastal marshes.

  1. Antibodies against Pasteurella multocida in snow geese in the western arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Baranyuk, V.; Sileo, L.; Price, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    To determine if lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) are a potential reservoir for the Pasteurella multocida bacterium that causes avian cholera, serum samples and/or pharyngeal swabs were collected from > 3,400 adult geese breeding on Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) during 1993-1996. Pharyngeal swab sampling rarely (> 0.1%) detected birds that were exposed to P. multocida in these populations. Geese with serum antibody levels indicating recent infection with P. multocida were found at both breeding colonies. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 3.5% at Wrangel Island, an area that has no recorded history of avian cholera epizootics. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 2.8% at Banks Island in 1994, but increased to 8.2% during 1995 and 1996 when an estimated 40,000-60,000 snow geese were infected. Approximately 50% of the infected birds died during the epizootic and a portion of the surviving birds may have become carriers of the disease. This pattern of prevalence indicated that enzootic levels of infection with P. multocida occurred at both breeding colonies. When no avian cholera epizootics occurred (Wrangel Island, Banks Island in 1994), female snow geese (4.7%) had higher antibody prevalence than males (2.0%).

  2. Evidence for a role of ferritin heavy chain in mediating reproductive processes of geese.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bo; Jiang, Dongmei; Ma, Rong; He, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Ferritin heavy chain (FHC), which exhibits ferroxidase activity and mediates the primary functions of ferritin, plays a role in regulating reproduction in animals. However, the changes in the FHC mRNA and protein levels in the HPG axis of geese remain to be determined. In the current study, FHC mRNA expression level was quantitatively monitored in the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and ovary stroma in prelaying and laying geese. In addition, the levels of FHC mRNA and protein were determined in follicles and ovarian stroma of laying geese. In comparison to prelaying geese, the FHC mRNA expression were 2.4, 1.8, and 13 times higher in the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and ovarian stroma of laying geese, respectively (p<0.05). FHC mRNA and protein were detected in all examined follicles and ovarian stroma. FHC mRNA expression was higher in postovulatory follicles (POFs) and atretic follicles than in developing follicles and ovarian stroma. Furthermore, the FHC protein concentration in POF3 and atretic follicles were, respectively, 1.45 and 1.7 times higher compared with that of F1 (p<0.05). In conclusion, the presented results provided evidence of a link between FHC and goose reproduction, and supplied a theoretical foundation and a new approach for studying reproduction, in particular ovarian follicular development in birds.

  3. Do Arctic breeding geese track or overtake a green wave during spring migration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Yali; Xin, Qinchuan; de Boer, Willem F.; Gong, Peng; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H. T.

    2015-03-01

    Geese breeding in the Arctic have to do so in a short time-window while having sufficient body reserves. Hence, arrival time and body condition upon arrival largely influence breeding success. The green wave hypothesis posits that geese track a successively delayed spring flush of plant development on the way to their breeding sites. The green wave has been interpreted as representing either the onset of spring or the peak in nutrient biomass. However, geese tend to adopt a partial capital breeding strategy and might overtake the green wave to accomplish a timely arrival on the breeding site. To test the green wave hypothesis, we link the satellite-derived onset of spring and peak in nutrient biomass with the stopover schedule of individual Barnacle Geese. We find that geese track neither the onset of spring nor the peak in nutrient biomass. Rather, they arrive at the southernmost stopover site around the peak in nutrient biomass, and gradually overtake the green wave to match their arrival at the breeding site with the local onset of spring, thereby ensuring gosling benefit from the peak in nutrient biomass. Our approach for estimating plant development stages is critical in testing the migration strategies of migratory herbivores.

  4. Do Arctic breeding geese track or overtake a green wave during spring migration?

    PubMed

    Si, Yali; Xin, Qinchuan; de Boer, Willem F; Gong, Peng; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Prins, Herbert H T

    2015-03-04

    Geese breeding in the Arctic have to do so in a short time-window while having sufficient body reserves. Hence, arrival time and body condition upon arrival largely influence breeding success. The green wave hypothesis posits that geese track a successively delayed spring flush of plant development on the way to their breeding sites. The green wave has been interpreted as representing either the onset of spring or the peak in nutrient biomass. However, geese tend to adopt a partial capital breeding strategy and might overtake the green wave to accomplish a timely arrival on the breeding site. To test the green wave hypothesis, we link the satellite-derived onset of spring and peak in nutrient biomass with the stopover schedule of individual Barnacle Geese. We find that geese track neither the onset of spring nor the peak in nutrient biomass. Rather, they arrive at the southernmost stopover site around the peak in nutrient biomass, and gradually overtake the green wave to match their arrival at the breeding site with the local onset of spring, thereby ensuring gosling benefit from the peak in nutrient biomass. Our approach for estimating plant development stages is critical in testing the migration strategies of migratory herbivores.

  5. Genetic differentiation between sympatric and allopatric wintering populations of Snow Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Humphries, E.M.; Peters, J.L.; Jonsson, J.E.; Stone, R.; Afton, A.D.; Omland, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge on the Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland, USA has been the wintering area of a small population of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; LSGO) since the 1930s. Snow Geese primarily pair in wintering areas and gene flow could be restricted between this and other LSGO wintering populations. Winter pair formation also could facilitate interbreeding with sympatric but morphologically differentiated Greater Snow Geese (C. c. atlantica; GSGO).We sequenced 658 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region for 68 Snow Geese from East Coast and Louisiana wintering populations to examine the level of genetic differentiation among populations and subspecies. We found no evidence for genetic differentiation between LSGO populations but, consistent with morphological differences, LSGO and GSGO were significantly differentiated. We also found a lack of genetic differentiation between different LSGO morphotypes from Louisiana. We examined available banding data and found the breeding range of Delmarva LSGO overlaps extensively with LSGO that winter in Louisiana, and documented movements between wintering populations. Our results suggest the Delmarva population of LSGO is not a unique population unit apart from Mid-Continent Snow Geese. ?? 2009 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  6. Antibodies against Pasteurella multocida in snow geese in the western Arctic.

    PubMed

    Samuel, M D; Shadduck, D J; Goldberg, D R; Baranyuk, V; Sileo, L; Price, J I

    1999-07-01

    To determine if lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) are a potential reservoir for the Pasteurella multocida bacterium that causes avian cholera, serum samples and/or pharyngeal swabs were collected from > 3,400 adult geese breeding on Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) during 1993-1996. Pharyngeal swab sampling rarely (> 0.1%) detected birds that were exposed to P. multocida in these populations. Geese with serum antibody levels indicating recent infection with P. multocida were found at both breeding colonies. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 3.5% at Wrangel Island, an area that has no recorded history of avian cholera epizootics. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 2.8% at Banks Island in 1994, but increased to 8.2% during 1995 and 1996 when an estimated 40,000-60,000 snow geese were infected. Approximately 50% of the infected birds died during the epizootic and a portion of the surviving birds may have become carriers of the disease. This pattern of prevalence indicated that enzootic levels of infection with P. multocida occurred at both breeding colonies. When no avian cholera epizootics occurred (Wrangel Island, Banks Island in 1994), female snow geese (4.7%) had higher antibody prevalence than males (2.0%). PMID:10479077

  7. Do Arctic breeding geese track or overtake a green wave during spring migration?

    PubMed

    Si, Yali; Xin, Qinchuan; de Boer, Willem F; Gong, Peng; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Prins, Herbert H T

    2015-01-01

    Geese breeding in the Arctic have to do so in a short time-window while having sufficient body reserves. Hence, arrival time and body condition upon arrival largely influence breeding success. The green wave hypothesis posits that geese track a successively delayed spring flush of plant development on the way to their breeding sites. The green wave has been interpreted as representing either the onset of spring or the peak in nutrient biomass. However, geese tend to adopt a partial capital breeding strategy and might overtake the green wave to accomplish a timely arrival on the breeding site. To test the green wave hypothesis, we link the satellite-derived onset of spring and peak in nutrient biomass with the stopover schedule of individual Barnacle Geese. We find that geese track neither the onset of spring nor the peak in nutrient biomass. Rather, they arrive at the southernmost stopover site around the peak in nutrient biomass, and gradually overtake the green wave to match their arrival at the breeding site with the local onset of spring, thereby ensuring gosling benefit from the peak in nutrient biomass. Our approach for estimating plant development stages is critical in testing the migration strategies of migratory herbivores. PMID:25735996

  8. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathera??molting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  9. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  10. Pathological observations of an experimental infection of geese with goose circovirus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Tian, Jing; Tan, Xun; Yu, Hongtao; Ding, Shouqiang; Sun, Hongxia; Yu, Xuping

    2011-02-01

    There is so far no report describing the pathogenicity of goose circovirus (GoCV) following experimental infection. We report here an experimental inoculation of 21-day-old geese with a GoCV polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive sample of bursa of Fabricius (BF) homogenate, and the results of clinicopathological changes. Forty geese were randomly assigned to two groups: the inoculated group (n=30) receiving tissue homogenate and the uninoculated group (n=10) receiving a placebo (physiological saline). Tissue samples were collected for histopathological examination and GoCV detection. The main clinical signs in the GoCV-inoculated geese included diarrhoea at 17 to 30 days post inoculation, marked differences of growth rate and feather disorders in three of the geese. Viraemia was detected by PCR only at 14 days post inoculation. The BF, thymus, spleen, duodenum and liver of some inoculated geese were also PCR-positive. Real-time PCR showed that there was relatively more viral load in the BF. Histological examination revealed lymphocytic depletion and histiocytosis in the BF and inflammation characterized by lymphatic infiltration in the lung, liver and kidney. Immunohistochemistry applied to PCR-positive samples showed that in only three BF samples was GoCV antigen detected in lymphocytes in both the cortex and medulla. In situ apoptosis detection of all BF samples indicated that GoCV inoculation was associated with an increase in bursal lymphocytic apoptotic events.

  11. Mortality patterns in endangered Hawaiian geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Rameyer, Robert; Breeden, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Understanding causes of death can aid management and recovery of endangered bird populations. Toward those ends, we systematically examined 300 carcasses of endangered Hawaiian Geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis) from Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai between 1992 and 2013. The most common cause of death was emaciation, followed by trauma (vehicular strikes and predation), and infectious/inflammatory diseases of which toxoplasmosis (infection with Toxoplasma gondii) predominated. Toxicoses were less common and were dominated by lead poisoning or botulism. For captive birds, inflammatory conditions predominated, whereas emaciation, trauma, and inflammation were common in free-ranging birds. Mortality patterns were similar for males and females. Trauma predominated for adults, whereas emaciation was more common for goslings. Causes of death varied among islands, with trauma dominating on Molokai, emaciation and inflammation on Kauai, emaciation on Hawaii, and inflammation and trauma on Maui. Understanding habitat or genetic-related factors that predispose Nene (particularly goslings) to emaciation might reduce the impact of this finding. In addition, trauma and infection with T. gondii are human-related problems that may be attenuated if effectively managed (e.g., road signs, enforcement of speed limits, feral cat [Felis catus] control). Such management actions might serve to enhance recovery of this endangered species.

  12. MORTALITY PATTERNS IN ENDANGERED HAWAIIAN GEESE (NENE; BRANTA SANDVICENSIS).

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Dagenais, Julie; Rameyer, Robert; Breeden, Renee

    2015-07-01

    Understanding causes of death can aid management and recovery of endangered bird populations. Toward those ends, we systematically examined 300 carcasses of endangered Hawaiian Geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis) from Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai between 1992 and 2013. The most common cause of death was emaciation, followed by trauma (vehicular strikes and predation), and infectious/inflammatory diseases of which toxoplasmosis (infection with Toxoplasma gondii) predominated. Toxicoses were less common and were dominated by lead poisoning or botulism. For captive birds, inflammatory conditions predominated, whereas emaciation, trauma, and inflammation were common in free-ranging birds. Mortality patterns were similar for males and females. Trauma predominated for adults, whereas emaciation was more common for goslings. Causes of death varied among islands, with trauma dominating on Molokai, emaciation and inflammation on Kauai, emaciation on Hawaii, and inflammation and trauma on Maui. Understanding habitat or genetic-related factors that predispose Nene (particularly goslings) to emaciation might reduce the impact of this finding. In addition, trauma and infection with T. gondii are human-related problems that may be attenuated if effectively managed (e.g., road signs, enforcement of speed limits, feral cat [Felis catus] control). Such management actions might serve to enhance recovery of this endangered species. PMID:26161721

  13. Variation in foraging behavior and body mass in broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica): Evidence for interspecific density dependence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Laing, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    Broods of geese spend time feeding according to availability and quality of food plants, subject to inherent foraging and digestive constraints. We studied behavioral patterns of broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, and examined how feeding and alert behavior varied in relation to habitat and goose density. During 1994-1996, time spent feeding by Emperor Goose goslings and adult females was positively related to multispecies goose densities near observation blinds, and not to just Emperor Goose density. Similarly, body mass of Emperor Goose goslings was more strongly related (negatively) to multispecies goose densities than intraspecific densities. A grazing experiment in 1995 indicated that most above ground primary production by Carex subspathacea, a preferred food plant, was consumed by grazing geese. Those results demonstrate that interspecific competition for food occurred, with greatest support for goslings whose behavioral repertoire is limited primarily to feeding, digesting, and resting. Although the more abundant Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) differed from Emperor Geese in their preferred use of habitats during brooding rearing (Schmutz 2001), the two species occurred in equal abundance in habitats preferred by Emperor Goose broods. Thus, Cackling Canada Geese were a numerically significant competitor with Emperor Geese. Comparing these results to an earlier study, time spent feeding by goslings, adult females, and adult males were greater during 1993-1996 than during 1985-1986. During the interval between those studies, densities of Cackling Canada Geese increased two to three times whereas Emperor Goose numbers remained approximately stable, which implies that interspecific competition affected foraging behavior over a long time period. These density-dependent changes in foraging behavior and body mass indicate that interspecific competition affects nutrient acquisition and gosling growth

  14. Bald Eagles consume Emperor Geese during late-winter in the Aleutian Archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Anthony, Robert G.; Williams, Jeffrey C.

    2004-01-01

    Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) are a species of concern because their population has declined rapidly since the mid-1960s and continues to remain below management objectives (Petersen et al. 1994). Emperor Geese are restricted primarily to Alaska and exhibit an east-west migration pattern, whereby most birds begin breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta by mid-May, stage on the Alaska Peninsula by late September, and migrate westward to winter in the Aleutian Archipelago from late November to mid-April (Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977, Petersen et al. 1994). Demographic and movement studies have been conducted on breeding grounds and stagmg areas (e.g., Schmutz et al. 1994, 1997); however, the winter ecology of Emperor Geese is poorly understood due in part to the extremely remote nature of the Aleutian Archipelago (Petersen et al. 1994). 

  15. Erysipelas Outbreaks in Flocks of Geese in Poland--Biochemical and Genetic Analyses of the Isolates.

    PubMed

    Bobrek, Kamila; Gaweł, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causes erysipelas in many vertebrate species. Severe disease outbreaks have been noted in many poultry species--chickens, ducks, emus, pheasants, pigeons, and geese. This article describes the biochemical and genetic analyses of six E. rhusiopathiae strains isolated from geese for meat production. The isolates came from birds kept in different poultry houses on one farm, and were collected during two erysipelas outbreaks. We analyzed and compared the isolates by random amplified polymorphic DNA with the use of NK6 primer and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with the restriction enzyme SmaI. Biochemical examination was performed with API Coryne test. Analyses showed that the three strains isolated during the first outbreak differed, whereas the three isolates from the second outbreak were identical to one another, but distinct from the isolates from the first outbreak. The results of biochemical and genetic analyses of E. rhusiopathiae strains isolated from geese suggest different sources of infection for the erysipelas outbreaks. PMID:26478164

  16. Erysipelas Outbreaks in Flocks of Geese in Poland--Biochemical and Genetic Analyses of the Isolates.

    PubMed

    Bobrek, Kamila; Gaweł, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causes erysipelas in many vertebrate species. Severe disease outbreaks have been noted in many poultry species--chickens, ducks, emus, pheasants, pigeons, and geese. This article describes the biochemical and genetic analyses of six E. rhusiopathiae strains isolated from geese for meat production. The isolates came from birds kept in different poultry houses on one farm, and were collected during two erysipelas outbreaks. We analyzed and compared the isolates by random amplified polymorphic DNA with the use of NK6 primer and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with the restriction enzyme SmaI. Biochemical examination was performed with API Coryne test. Analyses showed that the three strains isolated during the first outbreak differed, whereas the three isolates from the second outbreak were identical to one another, but distinct from the isolates from the first outbreak. The results of biochemical and genetic analyses of E. rhusiopathiae strains isolated from geese suggest different sources of infection for the erysipelas outbreaks.

  17. Identification of restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms in genomic DNA of the lesser snow goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens).

    PubMed

    Quinn, T W; White, B N

    1987-03-01

    A genomic library of partially EcoRI-digested DNA from the lesser snow goose, Anser caerulescens caerulescens, was constructed in the phage vector Charon 4. Phage containing only unique sequences were identified by screening plaques with 32P-labeled genomic DNA. Restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were identified by probing DNA from 11-13 male birds from the breeding colony at La Perouse Bay. Of the 17 probes examined, all detected RFLPs with at least one of EcoRi, HindIII, Msp1, and Taq1. Several of them identified highly variable regions with multiple alleles. These RFLPs are valuable DNA markers that can be used for (1) the examination of DNA variation, relatedness, and genetic distance and (2) assessing paternity and maternity. These data suggest that there are higher levels of variation of DNA sequence in birds than had previously been thought to exist. PMID:2895887

  18. Differences in oxidative stress between young Canada geese and mallards exposed to lead-contaminated sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure causes an increase in tissue lipid peroxides and variation in glutathione (GSH) concentration, which can be related to peroxidative damage of cell membranes in Pb poisoned animals. Species and individual variation in sensitivity to Pb poisoning among animals may be due to differential resistance to oxidative stress. We compared the effects of oxidative stress caused by Pb exposure (1.7, 414 and 828 ig/g of diet) for the first six weeks in growing young of two species of waterfowl, Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), with the first species being possibly more sensitive to Pb poisoning based on previous field and laboratory observations. Blood and liver Pb concentrations increased more in mallards than in geese; this may be explained on the basis of body weight, being 3.2 times higher in geese, and hepatic metabolism where GSH-S-transferase activity is 2.9 fold higher in geese and presumably has a role in the binding of Pb to GSH and subsequent biliary excretion. In contrast, mallards showed higher hepatic levels of GSH and activities of GSH peroxidase (GPX) and GSH reductase (GR). Although both species showed an increase in hepatic GSH concentration with Pb exposure, the increase of lipid peroxidation with Pb exposure was more significant in geese. Within treatment groups, hepatic GSH concentrations were inversely related to liver Pb concentration in both species, which may correspond to the role of GSH in Pb excretion. Hepatic GSH was also inversely related to hepatic lipid peroxidation, but only in mallards and in agreement with the differences observed in GPX and GR activities. The lower resistance to lipid peroxidation of Canada geese may explain why birds of this species found dead in the field by Pb shot ingestion often have a lower number of shot in the gizzard and lower liver Pb concentrations than mallards.

  19. Effects of heptachlor-treated cereal grains on Canada geese in the Columbia Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Lenhart, D.J.; Cromartie, E.; Jarvis, Robert L.; Bartonek, James C.

    1979-01-01

    In 1976 and 1977, die-offs of birds of several species occurred in Umatilla and Morrow counties, Oregon. Detection of high levels of heptachlor epoxide (HE) in tissues of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) prompted this study to determine the extent and impact of heptachlor contamination on geese on two study areas on the Columbia River--the Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge (Umatilla) in Oregon and Washington and on the McNary Recreation Area (McNary) about 65 km upstream in Washington. Nest success of Great Basin Canada geese (B. c. moffitti) at McNary was 90.2 percent compared to 5I.7 percent at Umatilla. HE in eggs was correlated with nest success--95 percent of the nests from which sample eggs contained 10 ug/g. Eggs from McNary were essentially clean of organochlorine pollutants, while eggs from Umatilla contained an average of 2.93 ?g/g of HE and a maximum of 24.29 ug/g. Lethal levels of HE were detected in brains of resident Great Basin Canada geese and over-wintering Taverner's geese (B. c. taverneri) that were found dead on or near Umatilla: The source of HE in geese appeared to be ingestion of seeds treated with heptachlor for wireworm control. The small population of moffitti is in danger of extirpation from heptachlor. Recommendations for minimizing the heptachlor problem include: (1) improved handling of treated grain to decrease its availability to wildlife, (2) use of treated seed only in areas requiring wireworm control, and cessation of prophylactic use, particularly on wheat planted in irrigated circles immediately following potatoes, and (3) replacement of heptachlor with a safer chemicaL

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility of Lactobacillus strains isolated from domestic geese.

    PubMed

    Dec, M; Wernicki, A; Puchalski, A; Urban-Chmiel, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of 93 Lactobacillus strains isolated from domestic geese raised on Polish farms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 13 antimicrobial substances was determined by the broth microdilution method. All strains were sensitive to the cell wall inhibitors ampicillin and amoxicillin (MIC ≤ 8 μg/ml). Resistance to inhibitors of protein synthesis and to fluoroquinolone inhibitors of replication was found in 44.1% and 60.2% of isolates, respectively; 26.9% strains were resistant to neomycin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), 23.6% to tetracycline (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 15% to lincomycin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), 18.3% to doxycycline (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 9.7% to tylosin (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 56% to flumequine (MIC ≥ 256 μg/ml) and 22.6% to enrofloxacin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml). Bimodal distribution of MICs indicative of acquired resistance and unimodal distribution of the high MIC values indicative of intrinsic resistance were correlated with Lactobacillus species. Eleven (11.8%) strains displayed multiple resistance for at least three classes of antibiotics. Data derived from this study can be used as a basis for reviewing current microbiological breakpoints for categorisation of susceptible and resistant strains of Lactobacillus genus and help to assess the hazards associated with the occurrence of drug resistance among natural intestinal microflora. PMID:26105622

  1. Response of cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii taverneri to spatial and temporal variation in production of crowberries on the Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Safine, David E.; Nielson, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic geese often feed on berries during premigratory fattening. We hypothesized that during autumn staging on the Alaska Peninsula, the distribution of Taverne's cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii taverneri) would be correlated with spatial variation in crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) abundance. We also predicted that daily rates of fat increase among cackling geese would be higher in years when crowberries were abundant, compared to years when the crowberry crop was poor. Apparent distribution of geese based on fecal densities mirrored patterns of berry abundance, with areas that had highest densities of crowberries being used most heavily by geese. In areas where apparent use was greatest, geese consumed approximately 30 % of the berry crop between early September and mid-October. From 1999 to 2002, annual mean crowberry density in early September ranged from 205 berries m-2 (1999) to 12 berries m-2 (2002). Daily rates of lipid increase averaged 7.6 g day-1 for juvenile and 11.4 g-1 day for adult cackling geese and did not differ among years despite a >90 % difference in annual berry abundance. Although cackling geese used areas with higher densities of berries and apparently consumed a relatively large percentage of the crowberry crop, we could not detect an effect of annual variation in berry abundance on rates of fattening. Berries may have provided relatively little metabolizable biomass due to their high (90 %) water content. However, consumption of crowberries may provide geese with other physiological benefits such as water for osmoregulation or antioxidants and fatty acids that contribute to metabolic performance during migration.

  2. DHEA levels and social dominance relationships in wintering brent geese (Branta bernicla bernicla).

    PubMed

    Poisbleau, Maud; Lacroix, André; Chastel, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    After testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the main hormone involved in aggressive behaviour in birds. While the role of DHEA has been verified for wintering territorial passerines, it has not been shown for gregarious species. In wintering geese species, both sexes present very low testosterone levels and aggression in a non-sexual context is not testosterone-related. Therefore, testosterone does not seem to be responsible for aggressive behaviour by geese during winter and the role of DHEA must be explored. We used brent geese (Branta bernicla bernicla) to examine the roles of testosterone and DHEA in dominance relationships. For the first time, we highlighted the presence of plasma DHEA in free-living geese. As the level of DHEA was lower than that of testosterone, and there was no obvious impact of DHEA level on dominance status, our results failed to confirm the role of plasma DHEA in the social hierarchies of this species during winter. Nevertheless, because DHEA levels were greater in singletons than in paired birds, we discuss the need to explore hormonal and/or behavioural mechanisms implicated within dominance status acquisition and maintenance within each reproductive status class, to underline the role of the presence of relatives as a signal of dominance abilities. We also acknowledge and discuss the possibility that the long handling time may have affected DHEA levels and masked subtle differences between individuals.

  3. Serology and genetics of Toxoplasma gondii in endangered Hawaiian (Nene) geese (Branta sandvicensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is parasite transmitted by feral cats that has historically caused mortality in native Hawaiian birds. A recent study revealed that this parasite accounts for ca. 4% of causes of mortality in native Hawaiian geese (nene-Branta sandvicensis). To know how widespread exposure to the...

  4. Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing the Cellulase Gene Increases Digestibility of Fiber in Geese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haizhu; Gao, Yunhang; Gao, Guang; Lou, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Enhancing cellulose digestibility in animals is important for improving the utilization of forage, which can decrease the amount of food used in animal production. The aim of the present study was to achieve recombinant expression of the cellulase gene in Lactococcus lactis and evaluate the effects of oral administration of the recombinant L. lactis on fiber digestibility in geese. Cellulase (Cell) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes were cloned into a L. lactis expression vector (pNZ8149) to construct the recombinant expression plasmid (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell). Then, the recombinant expression plasmid was transformed into L. lactis (NZ3900) competent cells by electroporation to obtain recombinant L. lactis (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900) in which protein expression was induced by Nisin. Expression of GFP and Cell by the recombinant L. lactis was confirmed using SDS-PAGE, fluorescence detection, and Congo red assays. A feeding experiment showed that oral administration of pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900 significantly increased the digestibility of dietary fiber in geese fed either a maize stalk diet or a rice chaff diet. Therefore, oral administration of recombinant L. lactis cells expressing the cellulase gene increases fiber digestibility in geese, offering a way to increase the utilization of dietary fiber in geese.

  5. Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing the Cellulase Gene Increases Digestibility of Fiber in Geese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haizhu; Gao, Yunhang; Gao, Guang; Lou, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Enhancing cellulose digestibility in animals is important for improving the utilization of forage, which can decrease the amount of food used in animal production. The aim of the present study was to achieve recombinant expression of the cellulase gene in Lactococcus lactis and evaluate the effects of oral administration of the recombinant L. lactis on fiber digestibility in geese. Cellulase (Cell) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes were cloned into a L. lactis expression vector (pNZ8149) to construct the recombinant expression plasmid (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell). Then, the recombinant expression plasmid was transformed into L. lactis (NZ3900) competent cells by electroporation to obtain recombinant L. lactis (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900) in which protein expression was induced by Nisin. Expression of GFP and Cell by the recombinant L. lactis was confirmed using SDS-PAGE, fluorescence detection, and Congo red assays. A feeding experiment showed that oral administration of pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900 significantly increased the digestibility of dietary fiber in geese fed either a maize stalk diet or a rice chaff diet. Therefore, oral administration of recombinant L. lactis cells expressing the cellulase gene increases fiber digestibility in geese, offering a way to increase the utilization of dietary fiber in geese. PMID:26341925

  6. Renal coccidiosis in interior Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior Todd, of the Mississippi Valley population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuggle, Benjamin N.; Crites, John L.

    1984-01-01

    Kidneys from 309 Interior Canada geese from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway were examined for renal coccidia. Oocysts and/or young zygotes of Eimeria sp. were found in 6.8% of goose kidneys sampled. Only one type of renal coccidian oocyst was observed. Significantly more immature geese were infected than adults; however, there was no significant difference observed between the prevalences of infection in male and female birds. A host cellular response to zygotes and oocysts was noted in the majority of infected adult geese. Heavily infected kidneys were hypertrophic with minute foci on the surface of the organ. Histological examinations showed large numbers of unsporulated oocysts accumulated in distended collecting tubules, resulting in pressure necrosis to adjacent tissue and urate retention. Zygotes were observed in the cytoplasm of tubule cells and extracellularly in interstitial tissue. Infected tubule cells were characterized by the peripheral location of the nuclei, cytoplasmic basophilia, and cellular hypertrophy. This is the first report of an Eimeria sp. in the kidneys of Canada geese of the Mississippi Valley population.

  7. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming may implement the... the person a means of concealment beneath the surface of the water. (iii) From or by means, aid, or... birds from the sight of resident Canada geese. (vi) By means or aid of any motor-driven land, water,...

  8. Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukona??Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid-June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

  9. Teaching migration routes to canada geese and trumpeter swans using ultralight aircraft, 1990-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sladen, William J. L.; Lishman, W.A.; Ellis, D.H.; Shire, G.G.; Rininger, D.L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes eleven years (1990-2001) of experiments to teach Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) and Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) pre-selected migration routes using ultralight aircraft. When Canada Geese were trained to follow an ultralight aircraft for southward autumn migrations of 680 or 1,320 km, 81% (83/103) returned on their own in the next spring to near their place of training. In contrast, none returned of 21 similarly raised geese that were transported south in a closed truck over a route of 680 km. Trumpeter Swans have proven more difficult to train. However, in two experiments in which Trumpeter Swans followed an ultralight for the entire pre-selected route, one of three and two of four returned close to their training area. A stage-by-stage method, in which swans were transported in trucks between stops, flown in the vicinity and penned with a view of the night sky, has shown some promise. So far an established migration route (north and south twice) has been confirmed in only two geese

  10. A Novel Polyomavirus (Goose Hemorrhagic Polyomavirus) Is the Agent of Hemorrhagic Nephritis Enteritis of Geese

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Jean-Luc; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Dubois, Luc; Vuillaume, Aimé; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Pingret, Jean-Luc

    2000-01-01

    We have identified the etiological agent of hemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese (HNEG), a fatal disease of European geese. HNEG has been recognized in almost all goose breeding areas, with an epizootic pattern, and up to now, the infectious agent has remained unknown. In order to identify the causative agent, infected tissues from HNEG-affected geese were inoculated to 1-day-old goslings, which then developed clinical signs typical of HNEG. Tissue homogenates from these birds were subjected to Freon extraction followed by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. The resulting main band was examined by electron microscopy and consisted of spherical, naked, papovavirus-like particles approximately 45 nm in diameter. The virus was isolated and propagated in goose kidney cell primary culture. Tissue- or culture-purified virus allowed the experimental reproduction of the disease in goslings. Random PCR amplification of viral nucleic acid produced a 1,175-bp fragment which was shown to be associated with field samples collected from geese affected by HNEG on commercial farms in France. Sequence analysis of the PCR product revealed a unique open reading frame, showing 63 to 72% amino acid similarity with the major capsid protein (VP1) of several polyomaviruses. Finally, based on phylogenetic analysis, we conclude that the causative agent of HNEG is closely related to but clearly distinct from other polyomaviruses; we thus have named this newly identified virus Goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus. PMID:10775588

  11. Experimental infection of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea) with a clade 2.3.2 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2005, clade 2.2 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused infections and disease involving numerous species of wild waterfowl in Eurasia and Africa. However, outbreaks associated with clade 2.3.2 viruses have increased since 2009, and viruses within this clade have beco...

  12. Characterization of a herpes virus isolated from domestic geese in Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, R.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    A herpesvirus (GHV 552/89) associated with high mortality in a flock of domestic geese in Australia was compared with duck virus enteritis (DVE) herpesvirus by cross-protection studies in domestic geese, Muscovy ducks and commercial Pekin ducks. In DVE-vaccinated geese, Muscovy ducks and Pekin ducks, mortality levels of 100, 50 and 0%, respectively, were recorded following challenge with GHV 552/89. Conversely, in geese, Muscovy ducks and Pekin ducks immunized with inactivated GHV 552/89, 100% mortality was observed in the geese and Muscovy ducks, and 80% in the Pekin ducks following challenge with DVE virus. The isolate was also compared with six other avian herpesviruses using cross-neutralization tests in cell cultures. No detectable cross-neutralization occurred with any of the avian herpesviruses tested. Further characterization of GHV 552/89 was undertaken by comparing its genome with strains of DVE herpesvirus using restriction endonuclease analysis of the viral DNA and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Following digestion with HindIII, the DNA fragment pattern of GHV 552/89 was found to be completely different from the DVE viruses. Similarities were found between the digestion patterns of a UK and a US DVE isolate, but both were distinguishable from a UK vaccine strain. The results of the PCR analysis and comparison using two DVE-specific primer sets did not produce specific amplification products of expected molecular weights (603 and 446 base pairs) from the GHV 552/89 genome. The PCR products derived from the DVE strains were similar to those derived from the DVE control DNA. From the results of this study, it is concluded that the goose herpesvirus GHV 552/89 is antigenically and genomically distinct from DVE herpesvirus.

  13. Effects of heptachlor- and lindane-treated seed on Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Lenhart, D.J.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    A study of Canada geese (B. canadensis) was conducted in the Pacific Northwest from 1978 through 1981. Lowered reproductive success, mortality of adults, and a population decline of resident western Canada geese (B. c. moffitti) at the Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge (Umatilla NWR) Oregon and Washington [USA] were associated with the use of heptachlor-treated wheat. Analyses of eggs and tissues from dead geese provided strong evidence that heptachlor was responsible for the mortality and decreased production. Residues of heptachlor epoxide (HE) in brains of B. c. moffitti found dead in 1978 and 1979 equalled or exceeded the lethal hazard zone of 8-9 .mu.g/g in experimental passerine birds; HE residues of > 10 .mu.g/g in sample eggs were associated with low nest success. The breeding population of Canada geese at Umatilla decreased from 129 pairs in 1974 to about 100 pairs in 1979. The heptachlor problem was restricted to the Umatilla area; HE residues were low in tissues and eggs collected at other sites in Oregon, Washington and Idaho. In Sept., 1979, the use of heptachlor-treated seed was banned in a 1700-km2 area that encompassed both sides of the Columbia River near Umatilla. Lindane was substituted for heptachlor in the restricted area in 1979, and its use was extended to much of the Columbia Basin in 1981. Concurrently, reproductive success of geese increased, mortality decreased, and the nesting population increased to 170 pairs by 1983. There was no evidence for either biomagnification of lindance residues from treated seed to goose tissues or eggs or for induction of adverse effects by this compound.

  14. Associations between body composition and helminths of lesser snow geese during winter and spring migration.

    PubMed

    Shutler, Dave; Alisauskas, Ray T; Daniel McLaughlin, J

    2012-07-01

    Costs of parasitism are predicted to be higher with greater parasite intensities and higher inter-parasite competition (diversity). We tested whether greater helminth intensities and diversity were associated with poorer body composition (whole-body fat, protein, mineral and true body mass) in lesser snow geese, Chen caerulescens caerulescens. As part of a larger study on nutritional ecology, 828 wintering or migrating geese were shot between January and May 1983 in 27 different date-locations (samples) during their northward migration through mid-continental North America. A large proportion of overall variation in body composition and parasite communities was among samples, so we analyzed data within each of the 27 samples, controlling for structural body size (the first principal component of 10 body size measurements), sex and the age of geese. There was no compelling evidence that cestodes, trematodes or helminth diversity were associated with variation in body composition but nematodes had several negative associations with fat reserves. However, negative associations between fat reserves and nematodes occurred most often in geese collected between March and May when nematode prevalences and intensities were relatively low. This suggests several possibilities: that the most common nematodes (Heterakis dispar and Trichostrongylus tenuis) were more virulent at this time, that infected individuals had been chronically infected and suffered cumulative nutrient deficits that lasted until late in the spring migration, or that geese became more vulnerable to the effects of parasites at this time of year, possibly because they redirected resources away from immunity toward fat storage in preparation for reproduction. PMID:22713759

  15. Comparative analysis of the gastrointestinal microbial communities of bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) in different breeding patterns by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Cao, Jian; Li, Ji-Rong; Yang, Fang; Li, Zhuo; Li, Lai-Xing

    2016-01-01

    The bar-headed goose is currently one of the most popular species for rare birds breeding in China. However, bar-headed geese in captivity display a reduced reproductive rate. The gut microbiome has been shown to influence host factors such as nutrient and energy metabolism, immune homeostasis and reproduction. It is therefore of great scientific and agriculture value to analyze the microbial communities associated with bar-headed geese in order to improve their reproductive rate. Here we describe the first comparative study of the gut microbial communities of bar-headed geese in three different breeding pattern groups by 16SrRNA sequences using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The results showed that Firmicutes predominated (58.33%) among wild bar-headed geese followed by Proteobacteria (30.67%), Actinobacteria (7.33%) and Bacteroidetes (3.33%). In semi-artificial breeding group, Firmicutes was also the most abundant bacteria (62.00%), followed by Bacteroidetes (28.67%), Proteobacteria (4.20%), Actinobacteria (3.27%) and Fusobacteria (1.51%). The microbial communities of artificial breeding group were dominated by Firmicutes (60.67%), Fusobacteria (29.67%) and Proteobacteria (9.33%). Wild bar-headed geese had a significant higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while semi-artificial breeding bar-headed geese had significantly more Bacteroidetes. The semi-artificial breeding group had the highest microbial community diversity and richness, followed by wild group, and then the artificial breeding group. The marked differences of genus level group-specific microbes create a baseline for future bar-headed goose microbiology research.

  16. Comparative analysis of the gastrointestinal microbial communities of bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) in different breeding patterns by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Cao, Jian; Li, Ji-Rong; Yang, Fang; Li, Zhuo; Li, Lai-Xing

    2016-01-01

    The bar-headed goose is currently one of the most popular species for rare birds breeding in China. However, bar-headed geese in captivity display a reduced reproductive rate. The gut microbiome has been shown to influence host factors such as nutrient and energy metabolism, immune homeostasis and reproduction. It is therefore of great scientific and agriculture value to analyze the microbial communities associated with bar-headed geese in order to improve their reproductive rate. Here we describe the first comparative study of the gut microbial communities of bar-headed geese in three different breeding pattern groups by 16SrRNA sequences using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The results showed that Firmicutes predominated (58.33%) among wild bar-headed geese followed by Proteobacteria (30.67%), Actinobacteria (7.33%) and Bacteroidetes (3.33%). In semi-artificial breeding group, Firmicutes was also the most abundant bacteria (62.00%), followed by Bacteroidetes (28.67%), Proteobacteria (4.20%), Actinobacteria (3.27%) and Fusobacteria (1.51%). The microbial communities of artificial breeding group were dominated by Firmicutes (60.67%), Fusobacteria (29.67%) and Proteobacteria (9.33%). Wild bar-headed geese had a significant higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while semi-artificial breeding bar-headed geese had significantly more Bacteroidetes. The semi-artificial breeding group had the highest microbial community diversity and richness, followed by wild group, and then the artificial breeding group. The marked differences of genus level group-specific microbes create a baseline for future bar-headed goose microbiology research. PMID:26686614

  17. Toxoplasma gondii exposure in arctic-nesting geese: A multi-state occupancy framework and comparison of serological assays

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Stacey A.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Milhous, Jared; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Gajadhar, Alvin A.; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    The zoonotic parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, has a worldwide distribution and a cosmopolitan suite of hosts. In arctic tundra regions, the definitive felid hosts are rare to absent and, while the complete transmission routes in such regions have yet to be fully elucidated, trophic and vertical routes are likely to be important. Wild birds are common intermediate hosts of T. gondii, and in the central Canadian arctic, geese are probable vectors of the parasite from temperate latitudes to the arctic regions. Our objective was to estimate seroprevalence of T. gondii in Ross’s and Lesser Snow Geese from the Karrak Lake ecosystem in Nunavut, Canada. After harvesting geese by shotgun, we collected blood on filter paper strips and tested the eluate for T. gondii antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and direct agglutination test (DAT). We estimated seroprevalence using a multi-state occupancy model, which reduced bias by accounting for imperfect detection, and compared these estimates to a naïve estimator. Ross’s Geese had a 0.39 probability of seropositivity, while for Lesser Snow Geese the probability of positive for T. gondii antibodies was 0.36. IFAT had a higher antibody detection probability than DAT, but IFAT also had a higher probability of yielding ambiguous or unclassifiable results. The results of this study indicate that Ross’s Geese and Lesser Snow Geese migrating to the Karrak Lake region of Nunavut are routinely exposed to T. gondii at some point in their lives and that they are likely intermediate hosts of the parasite. Also, we were able to enhance our estimation of T. gondii seroprevalence by using an occupancy approach that accounted for both false-negative and false-positive detections and by using multiple diagnostic tests in the absence of a gold standard serological assay for wild geese. PMID:25161913

  18. Toxoplasma gondii exposure in arctic-nesting geese: A multi-state occupancy framework and comparison of serological assays.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Stacey A; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Bailey, Larissa L; Milhous, Jared; Alisauskas, Ray T; Gajadhar, Alvin A; Jenkins, Emily J

    2014-08-01

    The zoonotic parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, has a worldwide distribution and a cosmopolitan suite of hosts. In arctic tundra regions, the definitive felid hosts are rare to absent and, while the complete transmission routes in such regions have yet to be fully elucidated, trophic and vertical routes are likely to be important. Wild birds are common intermediate hosts of T. gondii, and in the central Canadian arctic, geese are probable vectors of the parasite from temperate latitudes to the arctic regions. Our objective was to estimate seroprevalence of T. gondii in Ross's and Lesser Snow Geese from the Karrak Lake ecosystem in Nunavut, Canada. After harvesting geese by shotgun, we collected blood on filter paper strips and tested the eluate for T. gondii antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and direct agglutination test (DAT). We estimated seroprevalence using a multi-state occupancy model, which reduced bias by accounting for imperfect detection, and compared these estimates to a naïve estimator. Ross's Geese had a 0.39 probability of seropositivity, while for Lesser Snow Geese the probability of positive for T. gondii antibodies was 0.36. IFAT had a higher antibody detection probability than DAT, but IFAT also had a higher probability of yielding ambiguous or unclassifiable results. The results of this study indicate that Ross's Geese and Lesser Snow Geese migrating to the Karrak Lake region of Nunavut are routinely exposed to T. gondii at some point in their lives and that they are likely intermediate hosts of the parasite. Also, we were able to enhance our estimation of T. gondii seroprevalence by using an occupancy approach that accounted for both false-negative and false-positive detections and by using multiple diagnostic tests in the absence of a gold standard serological assay for wild geese.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii exposure in arctic-nesting geese: A multi-state occupancy framework and comparison of serological assays.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Stacey A; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Bailey, Larissa L; Milhous, Jared; Alisauskas, Ray T; Gajadhar, Alvin A; Jenkins, Emily J

    2014-08-01

    The zoonotic parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, has a worldwide distribution and a cosmopolitan suite of hosts. In arctic tundra regions, the definitive felid hosts are rare to absent and, while the complete transmission routes in such regions have yet to be fully elucidated, trophic and vertical routes are likely to be important. Wild birds are common intermediate hosts of T. gondii, and in the central Canadian arctic, geese are probable vectors of the parasite from temperate latitudes to the arctic regions. Our objective was to estimate seroprevalence of T. gondii in Ross's and Lesser Snow Geese from the Karrak Lake ecosystem in Nunavut, Canada. After harvesting geese by shotgun, we collected blood on filter paper strips and tested the eluate for T. gondii antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and direct agglutination test (DAT). We estimated seroprevalence using a multi-state occupancy model, which reduced bias by accounting for imperfect detection, and compared these estimates to a naïve estimator. Ross's Geese had a 0.39 probability of seropositivity, while for Lesser Snow Geese the probability of positive for T. gondii antibodies was 0.36. IFAT had a higher antibody detection probability than DAT, but IFAT also had a higher probability of yielding ambiguous or unclassifiable results. The results of this study indicate that Ross's Geese and Lesser Snow Geese migrating to the Karrak Lake region of Nunavut are routinely exposed to T. gondii at some point in their lives and that they are likely intermediate hosts of the parasite. Also, we were able to enhance our estimation of T. gondii seroprevalence by using an occupancy approach that accounted for both false-negative and false-positive detections and by using multiple diagnostic tests in the absence of a gold standard serological assay for wild geese. PMID:25161913

  20. Phylogenetic and structural analysis of the HbA (alphaA/betaA) and HbD (alphaD/betaA) hemoglobin genes in two high-altitude waterfowl from the Himalayas and the Andes: Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) and Andean goose (Chloephaga melanoptera).

    PubMed

    McCracken, Kevin G; Barger, Christopher P; Sorenson, Michael D

    2010-08-01

    Two species of waterfowl living at high altitude provide a prominent example of parallel adaptation at the molecular level. The bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) breeds at high elevations in central Asia and migrates across the Himalayas, where the partial pressure of oxygen (O(2)) is one-third of sea level. In South America, the distantly related Andean goose (Chloephaga melanoptera) is endemic to the high Andes. Both species exhibit increased blood-O(2) affinity, which has been attributed to the effects of single amino acid substitutions in the major hemoglobin. Here we present phylogenetic analyses of the swans and geese (Anserinae) and South American sheldgeese (Anatinae) using the three genes that encode the major (HbA) and minor (HbD) hemoglobin isoforms. We sought to determine whether two amino acid substitutions that have been the focus of extensive biochemical analysis (Ala-alpha(A)119 and Ser-beta(A)55) are uniquely derived in bar-headed goose and Andean goose, respectively, and to examine evidence of molecular adaptation at other positions in hemoglobin genes by comparing these two high-altitude taxa to their closest relatives. Bayesian analysis of the alpha(A)-, alpha(D)-, and beta(A)-subunit genes produced well-resolved phylogenies, with high posterior probabilities and bootstrap values for most genera. The bar-headed goose is likely sister to all other Anser species. Andean goose, the sole highland representative of the South American sheldgeese is either sister to the other Chloephaga species or sister to Neochen. In the bar-headed goose, four derived substitutions were observed in HbA (alpha(A)12, 18, 63, 119) and two in HbD (alpha(D)2, 47). Four derived substitutions in Andean goose include three in HbA (alpha(A)8, 77; beta(A)86) and two in HbD (alpha(D)9; beta(A)86). Considering both highland species, four substitutions (Ala-alpha(A)8, Ala-alpha(A)12, Ser-alpha(A)18, Leu-alpha(D)9) were located at adjacent positions on the A helix (or AB corner) of

  1. Effects of implanted radio transmitters with percutaneous antennas on the behavior of Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Ruhl, G.A.; Pearce, J.M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Tomeo, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We examined whether surgically-implanted radio transmitters with percutaneous antennas affected behavior of Lesser Canada Geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) in Anchorage, Alaska. We implanted either a 26-g VHF radio transmitter or a larger VHF radio that was the same mass (35 g) and shape as a satellite transmitter in the coelom of adult females captured during molt in 2000. A control group of females was marked with leg bands. We simultaneously observed behavior of radio-marked and control females from 4-62 d following capture. We observed no differences in the proportion of time birds in different treatments allocated among grazing, resting, comfort, walking, and alert behavior. Females in different treatments spent a similar proportion of time in the water. Implantation of radio transmitters did not affect the frequency of agonistic interactions. We conclude that coelomic radio transmitters with percutaneous antennas had minimal effects on the behavior of Canada Geese.

  2. Temporal patterns of apparent leg band retention in North American geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Guthrie; Kendall, William L.; Moser, Timothy J.; White, Gary C.; Doherty, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    An important assumption of mark?recapture studies is that individuals retain their marks, which has not been assessed for goose reward bands. We estimated aluminum leg band retention probabilities and modeled how band retention varied with band type (standard vs. reward band), band age (1-40 months), and goose characteristics (species and size class) for Canada (Branta canadensis), cackling (Branta hutchinsii), snow (Chen caerulescens), and Ross?s (Chen rossii) geese that field coordinators double-leg banded during a North American goose reward band study (N = 40,999 individuals from 15 populations). We conditioned all models in this analysis on geese that were encountered with >1 leg band still attached (n = 5,747 dead recoveries and live recaptures). Retention probabilities for standard aluminum leg bands were high (estimate of 0.9995, SE = 0.001) and constant over 1-40 months. In contrast, apparent retention probabilities for reward bands demonstrated an interactive relationship between 5 size and species classes (small cackling, medium Canada, large Canada, snow, and Ross?s geese). In addition, apparent retention probabilities for each of the 5 classes varied quadratically with time, being lower immediately after banding and at older age classes. The differential retention probabilities among band type (reward vs. standard) that we observed suggests that 1) models estimating reporting probability should incorporate differential band loss if it is nontrivial, 2) goose managers should consider the costs and benefits of double-banding geese on an operational basis, and 3) the United States Geological Survey Bird Banding Lab should modify protocols for receiving recovery data.

  3. Effect of feeding green onions (Allium ascalonicum) to White Chinese geese (Threskiornis spinicollis).

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rocio; Chin, R P

    2004-07-01

    Sudden increase in mortality was observed in 2 different flocks of mature breeder geese fed green onions. At necropsy, birds had pale epicardium with random petechiation, sanguinous fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac, and mild swelling of the liver and spleen. Histologically, there was accumulation of hemosiderin in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells of the liver, macrophages, and renal tubules. There was also moderate to severe hepatic necrosis, vacuolation of hepatocytes, splenitis, and renal tubular nephrosis. To assess the effects of green onion ingestion, 2 feeding trials were carried out in 3 mature White Chinese geese. In the first trial, onions were thoroughly mixed with pellet maintenance ration. In the second trial, onions were offered in a separate trough from the pelleted diet. During the 21 days of experiments, the red blood cell count and hematocrit decreased, whereas the polychromasia and reticulocyte estimate increased. The blood changes were more marked in birds from the second feeding trial. Gross and histologic changes were similar in both trials. Mild swelling and severe darkening of the liver were the only significant findings at necropsy. Histologically, the liver looked similar to that seen from the field outbreak. The liver contained moderate amounts of hemosiderin in the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, and had centrolobular necrosis and vacuolation of hepatocytes. This experimental study demonstrated that anemia and liver pathology could be caused by ingestion of onions. Furthermore, Heinz bodies are not a consistent finding in the blood of geese fed onions.

  4. Response of fall-staging brant and Canada geese to aircraft overflights in southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, D.H.; Stehn, R.A.; Erickson, W.P.; Derksen, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    Because much of the information concerning disturbance of waterfowl by aircraft is anecdotal, we examined behavioral responses of Pacific brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and Canada geese (B. canadensis taverneri) to experimental overflights during fall staging at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. These data were used to develop predictive models of brant and Canada goose response to aircraft altitude, type, noise, and lateral distance from flocks. Overall, 75% of brant flocks and 9% of Canada goose flocks flew in response to overflights. Mean flight and alert responses of both species were greater for rotary-wing than for fixed-wing aircraft and for high-noise than for low-noise aircraft. Increased lateral distance between an aircraft and a flock was the most consistent predictive parameter associated with lower probability of a response by geese. Altitude was a less reliable predictor because of interaction effects with aircraft type and noise. Although mean response of brant and Canada geese generally was inversely proportional to aircraft altitude, greatest response occurred at intermediate (305-760 m) altitudes. At Izembek Lagoon and other areas where there are large concentrations of waterfowl, managers should consider lateral distance from the birds as the primary criterion for establishing local flight restrictions, especially for helicopters.

  5. Nesting biology of Lesser Canada Geese, Branta canadensis parvipes, along the Tanana River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Pearce, J.M.; Ruess, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Lesser Canada Geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) are widespread throughout interior regions of Alaska and Canada, yet there have been no published studies documenting basic aspects of their nesting biology. We conducted a study to determine reproductive parameters of Lesser Canada Geese nesting along the Tanana River near the city of Fairbanks, in interior Alaska. Fieldwork was conducted in May of 2003, and consisted of locating nests along the riparian corridor between Fairbanks and Northpole, Alaska. Nests were found on gravel islands and shore habitats along the Tanana River, and were most commonly observed among driftwood logs associated with patches of alder (Alnus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.). Peak of nest initiation was 3-8 May, with a range from 27 April to 20 May; renesting was likely. Clutches ranged in size from 2 to 7 eggs and averaged 4.6 eggs. There was a negative correlation between clutch size and date of nest initiation. Egg size (X?? mass = 128 g) was similar to other medium-sized Canada Geese. A positive correlation between egg size and clutch size was likely related to female age. Nineteen of 28 nests (68%) were active when visited; nests located on islands with nesting Mew Gulls (Larus canus) were more likely to be active than nests located elsewhere. Evidence at nest sites implicated Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as nest predators.

  6. The effect of boldness on decision-making in barnacle geese is group-size-dependent.

    PubMed

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Adamczyk, Vena M A P; van Wieren, Sipke E; Prins, Herbert H T

    2011-07-01

    In group-living species, decisions made by individuals may result in collective behaviours. A central question in understanding collective behaviours is how individual variation in phenotype affects collective behaviours. However, how the personality of individuals affects collective decisions in groups remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of boldness on the decision-making process in different-sized groups of barnacle geese. Naive barnacle geese, differing in boldness score, were introduced in a labyrinth in groups with either one or three informed demonstrators. The demonstrators possessed information about the route through the labyrinth. In pairs, the probability of choosing a route prior to the informed demonstrator increased with increasing boldness score: bolder individuals decided more often for themselves where to go compared with shyer individuals, whereas shyer individuals waited more often for the demonstrators to decide and followed this information. In groups of four individuals, however, there was no effect of boldness on decision-making, suggesting that individual differences were less important with increasing group size. Our experimental results show that personality is important in collective decisions in pairs of barnacle geese, and suggest that bolder individuals have a greater influence over the outcome of decisions in groups.

  7. Diurnal flight time of wintering Canada geese: consideration of refuges and flight energetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Humburg, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    We monitored individual radio-equipped Canada geese (Branta canadensis) associated with a federal refuge to assess flight activities from late fall through spring. The number of flights per day was lowest in late fall when most geese remained within the refuge and highest in spring when they moved increasingly beyond the refuge area. The only significant seasonal difference in flight time occurred between late fall and late winter 1986. Over all seasons, diurnal flight time averaged 9.4 i?? 2.4 min (SE) and ranged from 0 to 33 min. Geese spent more time flying in afternoon periods during late winter 1986 and early winter 1987. Because of low goose populations on the refuge and abundant food resources in 1986-87, flight activity was probably lower than in most other years. Conservative estimates of average daily energy expenditures for flight ranged from 65 kJ/day in late fall to 200 kJ/day in early winter and were as high as 450 kJ/day. Additional energy costs for flight, when expressed as a percentage of daily energy expenditures, increased from fall (3%) to spring (10%). Highest estimates total daily energy costs (2987 kJ/day, equivalent to 178 g corn) appear to be within reasonable estimates of daily energy consumption. During periods of severe cold or limited food availability, however, additional energy demands for flight (e.g., due to disturbances or long foraging flights) may become important in the daily energy balance of individuals.

  8. Effects of neck collars and radiotransmitters on survival and reproduction of emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Morse, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck collars have been used widely for studies of goose population biology. Despite concerns about their negative impacts, few studies have employed designs capable of clearly demonstrating these effects. During a 1993-98 study of emperor geese (Chen canagica), we contrasted survival and reproduction of geese marked with tarsal bands to those marked with either small neck collars, large neck collars, or small neck collars with attached radiotransmitters. Annual survival of adult females marked with tarsal bands varied among years and averaged 0.807 ?? 0.140 (v?? ?? SE). Survival of geese with other types of markers also varied among years but was lower (0.640 ?? 0.198). Collars with radiotransmitters lowered breeding propensity, as indexed by resighting rates. Although clutch sizes of tarsal banded birds were similar to those for unmarked birds, other markers reduced clutch sizes by about 1 egg. Egg mass and hatch date were not affected by marker type. Future studies of goose demographics should seriously consider use of alternative markers.

  9. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  10. The dynamics of avian influenza in Lesser Snow Geese: implications for annual and migratory infection patterns.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Michael D; Hall, Jeffrey S; Brown, Justin D; Goldberg, Diana R; Ip, Hon; Baranyuk, Vasily V

    2015-10-01

    Wild water birds are the natural reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, our ability to investigate the epizootiology of AIV in these migratory populations is challenging and, despite intensive worldwide surveillance, remains poorly understood. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis in Pacific Flyway Lesser Snow Geese, Chen caerulescens, to investigate AIV serology and infection patterns. We collected nearly 3000 sera samples from Snow Geese at two breeding colonies in Russia and Canada during 1993-1996 and swab samples from >4000 birds at wintering and migration areas in the United States during 2006-2011. We found seroprevalence and annual seroconversion varied considerably among years. Seroconversion and infection rates also differed between Snow Goose breeding colonies and wintering areas, suggesting that AIV exposure in this gregarious waterfowl species is likely occurring during several phases (migration, wintering, and potentially breeding areas) of the annual cycle. We estimated AIV antibody persistence was longer (14 months) in female geese compared to males (6 months). This relatively long period of AIV antibody persistence suggests that subtype-specific serology may be an effective tool for detection of exposure to subtypes associated with highly pathogenic AIV. Our study provides further evidence of high seroprevalence in Arctic goose populations, and estimates of annual AIV seroconversion and antibody persistence for North American waterfowl. We suggest future AIV studies include serology to help elucidate the epizootiological dynamics of AIV in wild bird populations. PMID:26591451

  11. Antibodies to Influenza A Viruses in Wintering Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens) in Texas.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessica K; Wilcox, Benjamin R; Fojtik, Alinde; Poulson, Rebecca L; Stallknecht, David E

    2016-05-01

    Wild waterfowl in the order Anseriformes are recognized reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAVs); however, prevalence of infection can vary greatly by species. Few isolates of IAVs have been reported from snow geese (Chen caerulescens), and generally they have not been regarded as an important component of this reservoir. In February 2013, 151 combined cloacal and oropharangeal swabs and 147 serum samples were collected from snow geese wintering on the Gulf coast of Texas. None of the swab samples tested positive by virus isolation, but antibodies to IAVs were detected in 87 (59%) birds tested by competitive blocking ELISA (bELISA). To further characterize these detected antibodies, positive samples were tested by virus microneutralization (MN) for antibodies to viruses representing 14 hemagglutinin subtypes (HA1-HA12, H14, and H15). By MN, antibodies to H1 (n = 41; 47%), H5 (n = 32; 37%), H6 (n = 49; 56%), H9 (n = 50; 57%), and H12 (n = 24; 28%) were detected. Snow goose populations have increased in North America since the 1960s, and their association with agricultural lands provides a potential indirect source of IAV infection for domestic poultry. This potential, as well as the detection of antibodies to HA subtypes H5, H9, and H12 that are not well represented in other waterfowl species, suggests that further snow geese surveillance is indicated. PMID:27309076

  12. The dynamics of avian influenza in Lesser Snow Geese: implications for annual and migratory infection patterns.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Michael D; Hall, Jeffrey S; Brown, Justin D; Goldberg, Diana R; Ip, Hon; Baranyuk, Vasily V

    2015-10-01

    Wild water birds are the natural reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, our ability to investigate the epizootiology of AIV in these migratory populations is challenging and, despite intensive worldwide surveillance, remains poorly understood. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis in Pacific Flyway Lesser Snow Geese, Chen caerulescens, to investigate AIV serology and infection patterns. We collected nearly 3000 sera samples from Snow Geese at two breeding colonies in Russia and Canada during 1993-1996 and swab samples from >4000 birds at wintering and migration areas in the United States during 2006-2011. We found seroprevalence and annual seroconversion varied considerably among years. Seroconversion and infection rates also differed between Snow Goose breeding colonies and wintering areas, suggesting that AIV exposure in this gregarious waterfowl species is likely occurring during several phases (migration, wintering, and potentially breeding areas) of the annual cycle. We estimated AIV antibody persistence was longer (14 months) in female geese compared to males (6 months). This relatively long period of AIV antibody persistence suggests that subtype-specific serology may be an effective tool for detection of exposure to subtypes associated with highly pathogenic AIV. Our study provides further evidence of high seroprevalence in Arctic goose populations, and estimates of annual AIV seroconversion and antibody persistence for North American waterfowl. We suggest future AIV studies include serology to help elucidate the epizootiological dynamics of AIV in wild bird populations.

  13. Pathogen Loading From Canada Geese Faeces in Freshwater: Potential Risks to Human Health Through Recreational Water Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gorham, T J; Lee, J

    2016-05-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) faeces have been shown to contain pathogenic protozoa and bacteria in numerous studies over the past 15 years. Further, increases in both the Canada geese populations and their ideal habitat requirements in the United States (US) translate to a greater presence of these human pathogens in public areas, such as recreational freshwater beaches. Combining these factors, the potential health risk posed by Canada geese faeces at freshwater beaches presents an emerging public health issue that warrants further study. Here, literature concerning human pathogens in Canada geese faeces is reviewed and the potential impacts these pathogens may have on human health are discussed. Pathogens of potential concern include Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Helicobacter canadensis, Arcobacter spp., Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli pathogenic strains, Chlamydia psitacci, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. Scenarios presenting potential exposure to pathogens eluted from faeces include bathers swimming in lakes, children playing with wet and dry sand impacted by geese droppings and other common recreational activities associated with public beaches. Recent recreational water-associated disease outbreaks in the US support the plausibility for some of these pathogens, including Cryptosporidium spp. and C. jejuni, to cause human illness in this setting. In view of these findings and the uncertainties associated with the real health risk posed by Canada geese faecal pathogens to users of freshwater lakes, it is recommended that beach managers use microbial source tracking and conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment to analyse the local impact of Canada geese on microbial water quality during their decision-making process in beach and watershed management. PMID:26414207

  14. Efficacy study and field application of an inactivated new type gosling viral enteritis virus vaccine for domestic geese.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Ma, G P; Wang, M S; Cheng, A C; Zhu, D K; Luo, Q H; Jia, R Y; Liu, F; Chen, X Y; Han, X F; Bo, Y; Zhou, D C

    2011-04-01

    New type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) caused a serious disease in naive juvenile goslings. In the described studies the performance of 2 vaccines was analyzed: a vaccine containing adjuvanted inactivated NGVEV and a vaccine containing adjuvanted inactivated NGVEV and recombinant goose IL-2. Breeder geese were subcutaneously vaccinated at the beginning of the egg production period with the vaccines. Breeder geese sham vaccinated with PBS served as control. The cellular and humoral immune responses of the vaccinated breeder geese, as well as the presence of maternally derived antibody to NGVEV, were investigated by ELISA, virus neutralization test, and lymphocyte proliferation assay, respectively. A significantly higher immunogenicity (P < 0.05) was induced by the inactivated NGVEV-recombinant goose IL-2 adjuvant vaccine compared with the inactivated NGVEV vaccine. The offspring of the vaccinated birds were challenged with virulent NGVEV (100 50% lethal dose) and the protective efficacy of the vaccines was determined. Furthermore, in a field trial the efficacy of the inactivated NGVEV vaccine was recorded from years 2003 to 2007. No clinical signs or abnormal health status were observed in the vaccinated breeder geese and the progeny. After a single application, >80% protection was shown in the progeny of geese vaccinated against NGVEV challenge for approximately 5 mo. The extensive field trials further demonstrated that vaccination of breeder geese with the inactivated NGVEV vaccine could be a safe and efficacious means to control NGVE disease. Moreover, the level of maternally derived NGVEV antibody titer in the egg yolk reflected the level of NGVEV antibodies in the breeder geese, suggesting that the egg yolk could be used to monitor the vaccination efficacy in commercial goose breeder flocks.

  15. Estimates of movement and site fidelity using mark-resight data of wintering Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Malecki, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Population ecologists have devoted disproportionate attention to the estimation and study of birth and death rates and far less effort to rates of movement. Movement and fidelity to wintering areas have important ecological and evolutionary implications for avian populations. Previous inferences about movement among and fidelity to wintering areas have been restricted by limitations of data and methodology. We use multiple observation data from a large-scale capture-resighting study of Canada Geese in the Atlantic flyway to estimate probabilities of returning to previous wintering locations and moving to new locations. Mark-resight data from 28,849 Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) banded woth individually coded neck bands in the mid-Atlantic (New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey), Chesapeake (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia), and Carolinas (North and South Carolina) were used to estimate movement and site-fidelity. Two three-sample mark-resight models were developed and programmed using SURVIV to estimate the probability of moving among or remaining within these three wintering regions. The model (MV2) that incorporated tradition' or memory of previous wintering regions fit the data better than the model (MV1) that assumes that a first-order Markov chain described movement among regions. Considerable levels of movement occured among regions of the Atlantic flyway. The annual probability of remaining in the same region for two successive winters, used as a measure of site fidelity, was 0.710 plus or minus 0.016 (estimated mean plus or minus SE, 0.889 plus or minus 0.006, and 0.562 plus or minus 0.025, for the mid-Atlantic, Chesapeake, and Carolinas, respectively. The estimated probability of moving between years corresponded to changes in winter harshness. In warm years, geese moved north and in cold years, they moved south. Geese had a high probability of moving to and remaining in the Chesapeake. Annual changes in the movement probabilities did not correspond to annual

  16. Identification of Laying-Related SNP Markers in Geese Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, ShiGang; Chu, WeiWei; Zhang, LiFan; Han, HouMing; Zhao, RongXue; Wu, Wei; Zhu, JiangNing; Dodson, Michael V.; Wei, Wei; Liu, HongLin; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Laying performance is an important economical trait of goose production. As laying performance is of low heritability, it is of significance to develop a marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategy for this trait. Definition of sequence variation related to the target trait is a prerequisite of quantitating MAS, but little is presently known about the goose genome, which greatly hinders the identification of genetic markers for the laying traits of geese. Recently developed restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing is a possible approach for discerning large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and reducing the complexity of a genome without having reference genomic information available. In the present study, we developed a pooled RAD sequencing strategy for detecting geese laying-related SNP. Two DNA pools were constructed, each consisting of equal amounts of genomic DNA from 10 individuals with either high estimated breeding value (HEBV) or low estimated breeding value (LEBV). A total of 139,013 SNP were obtained from 42,291,356 sequences, of which 18,771,943 were for LEBV and 23,519,413 were for HEBV cohorts. Fifty-five SNP which had different allelic frequencies in the two DNA pools were further validated by individual-based AS-PCR genotyping in the LEBV and HEBV cohorts. Ten out of 55 SNP exhibited distinct allele distributions in these two cohorts. These 10 SNP were further genotyped in a goose population of 492 geese to verify the association with egg numbers. The result showed that 8 of 10 SNP were associated with egg numbers. Additionally, liner regression analysis revealed that SNP Record-111407, 106975 and 112359 were involved in a multiplegene network affecting laying performance. We used IPCR to extend the unknown regions flanking the candidate RAD tags. The obtained sequences were subjected to BLAST to retrieve the orthologous genes in either ducks or chickens. Five novel genes were cloned for geese which harbored the candidate laying

  17. Identification of Laying-Related SNP Markers in Geese Using RAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yu, ShiGang; Chu, WeiWei; Zhang, LiFan; Han, HouMing; Zhao, RongXue; Wu, Wei; Zhu, JiangNing; Dodson, Michael V; Wei, Wei; Liu, HongLin; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Laying performance is an important economical trait of goose production. As laying performance is of low heritability, it is of significance to develop a marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategy for this trait. Definition of sequence variation related to the target trait is a prerequisite of quantitating MAS, but little is presently known about the goose genome, which greatly hinders the identification of genetic markers for the laying traits of geese. Recently developed restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing is a possible approach for discerning large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and reducing the complexity of a genome without having reference genomic information available. In the present study, we developed a pooled RAD sequencing strategy for detecting geese laying-related SNP. Two DNA pools were constructed, each consisting of equal amounts of genomic DNA from 10 individuals with either high estimated breeding value (HEBV) or low estimated breeding value (LEBV). A total of 139,013 SNP were obtained from 42,291,356 sequences, of which 18,771,943 were for LEBV and 23,519,413 were for HEBV cohorts. Fifty-five SNP which had different allelic frequencies in the two DNA pools were further validated by individual-based AS-PCR genotyping in the LEBV and HEBV cohorts. Ten out of 55 SNP exhibited distinct allele distributions in these two cohorts. These 10 SNP were further genotyped in a goose population of 492 geese to verify the association with egg numbers. The result showed that 8 of 10 SNP were associated with egg numbers. Additionally, liner regression analysis revealed that SNP Record-111407, 106975 and 112359 were involved in a multiplegene network affecting laying performance. We used IPCR to extend the unknown regions flanking the candidate RAD tags. The obtained sequences were subjected to BLAST to retrieve the orthologous genes in either ducks or chickens. Five novel genes were cloned for geese which harbored the candidate laying

  18. Identification of Laying-Related SNP Markers in Geese Using RAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yu, ShiGang; Chu, WeiWei; Zhang, LiFan; Han, HouMing; Zhao, RongXue; Wu, Wei; Zhu, JiangNing; Dodson, Michael V; Wei, Wei; Liu, HongLin; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Laying performance is an important economical trait of goose production. As laying performance is of low heritability, it is of significance to develop a marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategy for this trait. Definition of sequence variation related to the target trait is a prerequisite of quantitating MAS, but little is presently known about the goose genome, which greatly hinders the identification of genetic markers for the laying traits of geese. Recently developed restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing is a possible approach for discerning large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and reducing the complexity of a genome without having reference genomic information available. In the present study, we developed a pooled RAD sequencing strategy for detecting geese laying-related SNP. Two DNA pools were constructed, each consisting of equal amounts of genomic DNA from 10 individuals with either high estimated breeding value (HEBV) or low estimated breeding value (LEBV). A total of 139,013 SNP were obtained from 42,291,356 sequences, of which 18,771,943 were for LEBV and 23,519,413 were for HEBV cohorts. Fifty-five SNP which had different allelic frequencies in the two DNA pools were further validated by individual-based AS-PCR genotyping in the LEBV and HEBV cohorts. Ten out of 55 SNP exhibited distinct allele distributions in these two cohorts. These 10 SNP were further genotyped in a goose population of 492 geese to verify the association with egg numbers. The result showed that 8 of 10 SNP were associated with egg numbers. Additionally, liner regression analysis revealed that SNP Record-111407, 106975 and 112359 were involved in a multiplegene network affecting laying performance. We used IPCR to extend the unknown regions flanking the candidate RAD tags. The obtained sequences were subjected to BLAST to retrieve the orthologous genes in either ducks or chickens. Five novel genes were cloned for geese which harbored the candidate laying

  19. The possibility of obtaining intergeneric hybrids via White Kołuda (Anser anser L.) goose insemination with fresh and frozen-thawed Canada goose (Branta canadensis L.) gander semen.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Artur; Łukaszewicz, Ewa

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the present experiments was to produce the intergeneric hybrids of domesticated and wild goose via artificial insemination with fresh and frozen-thawed semen. The experiments were carried out during two successive goose reproductive seasons, on eight five-year-old Canada Goose (Branta canadensis L.) males used as semen donors and 16 two-year-old White Kołuda geese designated to fertility tests. Pooled semen was collected twice a week by the dorso-abdominal massage. In freshly collected semen, ejaculate volume, color, consistency, degree of fecal or blood contamination, spermatozoa concentration, motility, and morphology were evaluated. Part of the semen collected in the first year of the experiment (Experiment 1) was used for geese insemination with fresh semen, while the remainder was frozen. In Experiment 2 all samples were subjected exclusively to freezing procedure. Geese were inseminated once a week with fresh semen in a dose of 80 μl or 160 μl, and twice a week with frozen-thawed semen in a dose of 80 μl (160 μl per wk) or 100 μl (200 μl per wk). Eggs were set weekly and incubated up to hatching. The volume of ejaculates varied from 0.100 to 0.470 ml; spermatozoa concentration from 140 to 310 million ml(-1); progressive movement was observed in 40 to 60% of spermatozoa; the percentage of total live spermatozoa ranged from 69.3 to 92.0%, the highest percentage (34.0-68.3) was represented by live normal spermatozoa and those with bulb-head (13.3-41.0). Cryopreservation caused a decrease in percentage of motile cells to 30%; total live spermatozoa contribution by 27.2%p, including those live normal by 15.9%p (in relation to the fresh semen), bulb-head spermatozoa by 10.9%p, and increase (by 5.9%p) in number of spermatozoa with other deformations. Goose insemination 1×/week with fresh semen containing about 10.3 million live normal spermatozoa resulted in 66.7% of fertile eggs and with dose higher by 2.8 million spermatozoa (on average

  20. A kinetic study of the natural induction of liver steatosis in Greylag Landaise geese: the role of hyperphagia.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, X; Guy, G; Laverze, J B; Bonnefont, C; Knudsen, C; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2016-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a sharp rise in feed intake (hyperphagia) and spontaneous liver steatosis could be experimentally induced in domestic Greylag geese by combining a short photoperiod and a sequence of feed restriction followed by ad libitum corn feeding during the fall and the winter. In this previous work, however, individual feed intake could not be recorded. The present study aimed at evaluating the relationship between level and pattern of hyperphagia and liver weight with an individual control of feed intake in individually housed (IH) geese, while comparing the performances with group housed (GH) geese. A total of 300 male geese of 19 weeks of age, were provided with corn ad libitum after an initial feed restriction period. From 21 to 23 weeks of age, the daylight duration was progressively reduced from 10 to 7 h and kept as such until the end of the experiment (week 36). In all, 30 GH and 30 IH geese were slaughtered at 19, 27, 30, 32 and 36 weeks of age. Feed intake was measured per group in GH geese and individually in IH geese. During the 1st week of corn feeding, the average feed intake rose up to 600 g/goose per day in GH geese but not in IH geese where the feed intake rose gradually from 300 to 400 g/day. The liver weight increased from 93 g (week 19) to 497 g (week 32; P<0.05) in GH birds. In IH birds, liver weights were, on average, much lower (ranging from 220 to 268 g) than in GH birds (P<0.05). In GH and IH bird, the variability in the individual response to corn feeding was very high (liver weight cv ranging from 63% to 83% depending on slaughter age). A close correlation between corn consumption and liver weight was evidenced in IH birds at each slaughter age (R 2 ranging from 0.62 to 0.79), except at 36 weeks of age where this correlation was weak (R 2=0.14). The variability in the extent of liver steatosis is very high and our results in IH birds clearly point out the major role of hyperphagia, mainly at the beginning of the

  1. Effect of different managerial systems on productive and reproductive traits, blood plasma hormones and serum biochemical constituents of geese.

    PubMed

    El-Hanoun, A M; Attia, Y A; Gad, H A M; Abdella, M M

    2012-11-01

    A flock of 117, 10-month-old Egyptian geese consisting of 90 females and 27 males were utilized in this investigation. Birds were randomly divided into three equal groups, each made up of three replicates of 10 females and 3 males each. The first group was kept under a pasture system (PS) and allowed to swim in water ducts during the daytime (PS) and kept inside the house during the night. The second group of birds were kept in confinement in a house and fed ad libitum on a commercial feed (intensive system (IS)). Birds in the third group (semi-intensive system (SIS)) were released from the house for 6 h a day and given access to the pasture and water ducts. Each group was housed in three pens (replicates) in the SIS. They were given ad libitum access to the commercial feed when in the house. Each pen measured (2 × 3 m2). Natural mating was practiced during the period from November to the end of May. BW of geese under ISS was significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) higher than those under PS and SIS. Egg number, weight and mass of geese in the SIS system were significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) greater than those of geese in the PS and IS systems. Fertility and hatchability percentages were significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) greater in the PS (84.2% and 88.6%) than in the IS (77.5% and 82.8%) and SIS systems (80.7% and 85.5%). Shell weight and thickness were significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) better in the IS and SIS systems than in the PS system. Geese in the PS and SIS systems exhibited significantly higher plasma estradiol-17 and progesterone than those in the IS. Testosterone was significantly higher in IS than in the other systems. Semen quality factor was significantly higher in the PS and SIS systems than in the IS system. Carcass weight was significantly greater in IS and SIS geese than in PS geese, but the PS system resulted in a decreased percentage skin, abdominal fat and liver. Total amount of meat produced per geese was significantly greater in the SIS than in the IS system and greater in

  2. Effect of different managerial systems on productive and reproductive traits, blood plasma hormones and serum biochemical constituents of geese.

    PubMed

    El-Hanoun, A M; Attia, Y A; Gad, H A M; Abdella, M M

    2012-11-01

    A flock of 117, 10-month-old Egyptian geese consisting of 90 females and 27 males were utilized in this investigation. Birds were randomly divided into three equal groups, each made up of three replicates of 10 females and 3 males each. The first group was kept under a pasture system (PS) and allowed to swim in water ducts during the daytime (PS) and kept inside the house during the night. The second group of birds were kept in confinement in a house and fed ad libitum on a commercial feed (intensive system (IS)). Birds in the third group (semi-intensive system (SIS)) were released from the house for 6 h a day and given access to the pasture and water ducts. Each group was housed in three pens (replicates) in the SIS. They were given ad libitum access to the commercial feed when in the house. Each pen measured (2 × 3 m2). Natural mating was practiced during the period from November to the end of May. BW of geese under ISS was significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) higher than those under PS and SIS. Egg number, weight and mass of geese in the SIS system were significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) greater than those of geese in the PS and IS systems. Fertility and hatchability percentages were significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) greater in the PS (84.2% and 88.6%) than in the IS (77.5% and 82.8%) and SIS systems (80.7% and 85.5%). Shell weight and thickness were significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) better in the IS and SIS systems than in the PS system. Geese in the PS and SIS systems exhibited significantly higher plasma estradiol-17 and progesterone than those in the IS. Testosterone was significantly higher in IS than in the other systems. Semen quality factor was significantly higher in the PS and SIS systems than in the IS system. Carcass weight was significantly greater in IS and SIS geese than in PS geese, but the PS system resulted in a decreased percentage skin, abdominal fat and liver. Total amount of meat produced per geese was significantly greater in the SIS than in the IS system and greater in

  3. Developmental toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment in Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, David J.; Heinz, Gary H.; Sileo, Louis; Audet, Daniel J.; Campbell, Juile K.; Obrecht, Holly H.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has recently been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The effects of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho on posthatching development of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were examined for 6 wk. Day-old goslings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (48%) supplemented control diet, or CDARB sediment (3449 mug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12%, 24%, or 48%. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 0.68 ppm (ww), with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over fourfold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 1.61 ppm with decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma protein in addition to the effects just described. The 48% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.52 ppm with 22% mortality, decreased growth, and elevated plasma lactate dehydrogenase-L (LDH-L) activity. In this group the liver lead concentration was 6.57 ppm (ww), with twofold increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS) and in reduced glutathione concentration; associated effects included elevated glutathione reductase activity but lower protein-bound thiols concentration and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 14.93 ppm with subacute renal tubular nephrosis in one of the surviving goslings. Three other geese in this treatment group exhibited calcified areas of marrow, and one of these displayed severe chronic fibrosing pancreatitis. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated less readily in gosling blood and tissues than reported in ducklings but at given concentrations was generally more toxic to goslings. Many of these effects were similar to those reported in wild geese and mallards within the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  4. Analysis of meat flavor compounds in pedigree and two-strain Yangzhou geese.

    PubMed

    Cui, L L; Wang, J F; Xie, K Z; Li, A H; Geng, T Y; Sun, L R; Liu, J Y; Zhao, M; Zhang, G X; Dai, G J; Wang, J Y

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the meat flavor compounds of Yangzhou geese, including one group of pedigree strain (AA group) and 4 groups of 2-strain crossbreds (KA, KB, CA, and SA). Each group consisted of 100 geese comprised of 5 replicates of 10 males and 10 females each. Inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), amino acid (AA), and fatty acid (FA) levels in breast and thigh muscle were determined. Results showed that AA group had the highest levels of total amino acid (TAA) and dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) in breast muscle and of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in thigh muscle (P<0.05). In SA group, the levels of C17:1, C22:0, C22:1, C20:4, and C24:1 in breast muscle were significantly higher in SA than in other groups (P<0.05). KB group had the lowest glycine levels in breast muscle (P<0.05) while MUFA levels were significantly higher in KB than in other groups (P<0.05). In KA, the levels of C18:3 in breast muscle in were higher than in CA and KB (P<0.05). CA had relevant higher IMPc levels in breast muscle than SA (P<0.05) and other groups (P>0.05); however, no significant differences were obtained in thigh muscle (P>0.05). In conclusion, Yangzhou AA goose has high levels of meat flavor compounds than its crossbreeds. Future efforts should focus on assessing meat flavor through measurement of sensory characteristics of Yangzhou geese.

  5. Effect of Two-step Time-restricted Feeding on the Fattening Traits in Geese.

    PubMed

    Lui, Zhen-Jia; Chu, Hung-Hsin; Wu, Yun-Chu; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether the two-step time-restricted feeding improves the fattening traits of one-step time-restricted feeding in geese. Thirty-six 8-wk-old geese were allotted into one of three groups. Group R1 (the 1-step restricted feeding group) was allowed access to feed for 2 h in the morning from 8 wk to 14 wk of age. Group R2 (the 2-step restricted feeding group) was treated as Group R1, but was additionally fed for 2 h in the afternoon from 12 wk to 14 wk of age. Group C (the control group) was fed ad libitum from 8 wk to 14 wk of age. Feed intake and body weight (BW) were recorded daily and weekly, respectively. At 14 wk of age, the blood samples were collected to determine the fasting plasma levels of glucose, triacylglycerols and uric acid before sacrifice. The results showed that daily feed intake (DFI) was lower, feed efficiency (FE) was higher in both Groups R1 and R2 than in Group C, and daily gain (DG) in Group R2 was higher than in Group R1 during the whole experimental period (p<0.05). Group R1 exhibited lower abdominal and visceral fat weights in carcass than did Group C (p<0.05), and Group R2 was in intermediate. The fasting plasma glucose levels in Group C were higher, and triacylglycerol levels in Group R1 were higher, compared with the other groups (p<0.05). It is concluded that time-restricted feeding in the fattening period not only increases FE but reduces DFI, and the additional meal during the late fattening period improves the DG without the expense of FE in geese.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Goose Tembusu Virus, Isolated from Jiangnan White Geese in Jiangsu, China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kaikai; Huang, Xinmei; Zhao, Dongmin; Liu, Yuzhuo; Zhou, Xiaobo; You, Yuan; Xie, Xingxing

    2013-01-01

    Avian tembusu virus (TMUV), which was first identified in eastern China, is an emerging virus causing serious economic losses in the Chinese poultry industry. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of goose tembusu virus strain JS804, isolated from Jiangnan white geese with severe neurological signs. The genome of JS804 is 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and contains a single open reading frame encoding a putative polyprotein of 3,425 amino acids. Research of the whole sequence of tembusu virus will help us to understand further the molecular and evolutionary characteristics and pathogenesis of this virus. PMID:23516233

  7. Invasive herbivory: resident Canada geese and the decline of wild rice along the tidal Patuxent River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    While concern grows over the increasing numbers of exotic mute swans (Cygnus olor) on the Chesapeake Bay, less attention seems to be given to the highly familiar and native Canada goose (Branta canadensis) which has over time developed unprecedented nonmigratory, or resident, populations. Although nuisance flocks of Canada geese have been well advertised at city parks, athletic fields, and golf courses over the past three decades, recent expansion of populations to an estimated one million birds in the Atlantic Flyway, and to over 100,000 in Maryland, carries a threat of broader ecological consequences.

  8. Effects of male removal on female reproductive biology in Ross' and Lesser Snow Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leschack, C.R.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    We studied effects of mate removal on nesting and hatching success, incubation behavior, body mass, and post-hatch dispersal distance of female Ross' (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens) at Karrak Lake. N.W.T., Canada. Male ge and widowed and paired control females were monitored through post-hatch dispersal. Nesting and hatching success did not differ between species or treatments (widowed vs paired) and averaged 77.5 ?? 3.8% and 64.0 ?? 3.6% (??SE), respectively. Paired females spent more time with their bills tucked (23.7 ?? 3.3% vs 9.1 ?? 4.0%) and less time alert (8.6 ?? 2.9% vs 22.9 ?? 3.5%) while on nests than did widowed females. Snow widowed females (31.1 ?? 4.7%) and Ross' widowed females (20.6 ?? 6.0%) generally spent more time each day in head-up alert than did Snow paired females (7.1 ?? 3.8%). Snow paired maleS (11.8 ?? 3.8%), Ross' paired females (9.4 ?? 3.6%), and Ross' paired males (7.9 ?? 3.6%). Body mass of paired and widowed female Ross' Geese did not differ at hatch or at time of post-hatch recapture; however, mean distance recaptured from the breeding colony was greater for paired (50.9 ?? 6.1 km) than for widowed females (27.3 ?? 6.6 km). Total mass gain (276 ?? 19 g) and rate of mass gain (8.4 ?? 0.5 g/day), from hatch until post-hatch recapture (33.1 ?? 1.2 days), were similar for widowed and paired female Ross' Geese. Male removal experiments in monogamous, precocial species generally have produced few effects on female nesting success or incubation behavior. We suggest that male parental care in arctic-nesting geese is more critical during laying and the post-hatch period than during incubation.

  9. Age as a factor in acquisition of parasites by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehr, E.E.; Herman, C.M.

    1954-01-01

    Examination of 46 Canada goose goslings yielded 14 species of parasites, including five Protozoa, four Nematoda, two Cestoda, and three Trematoda. Evidence indicates that goslings acquired most of these infections during their first week of life. Some parasites, Prosthogonimus sp., occurred only in younger birds. Others, Leucocytozoon simondi, were evident only during the initial course of infection, while still others remained evident in older geese. Parasites with a direct life cycle appeared to be more prevalent than those requiring intermediate hosts. Among 29 birds from a refuge in Michigan, 14 species of parasites were found; while in 17 goslings from a Utah refuge, only five species occurred.

  10. Forage site selection by lesser snow geese during autumn staging on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Robertson, Donna G.

    1998-01-01

    Lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) of the Western Canadian Arctic Population feed intensively for 2-4 weeks on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea in Canada and Alaska at the beginning of their autumn migration. Petroleum leasing proposed for the Alaskan portion of the staging area on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) could affect staging habitats and their use by geese. Therefore we studied availability, distribution, and use by snow geese of tall and russett cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium and E. russeolum, respectively) feeding habitats on the ANWR. We studied selection of feeding habitats at 3 spatial scales (feeding sites [0.06 m2], feeding patches [ca. 100 m2], and feeding areas [>1 ha]) during 1990-93. We used logistic regression analysis to discriminate differences in soil moisture and vegetation between 1,548 feeding sites where snow geese exploited individual cotton-grass plants and 1,143 unexploited sites at 61 feeding patches in 1990. Feeding likelihood increased with greater soil moisture and decreased where nonforage species were present. We tested the logistic regression model in 1991 by releasing human-imprinted snow geese into 4 10 ?? 20-m enclosed plots where plant communities had been mapped, habitats sampled, and feeding probabilities calculated. Geese selected more feeding sites per square meter in areas of predicted high quality feeding habitat (feeding probability ??? 0.6) than in medium (feeding probability = 0.3-0.59) or poor (feeding probability < 0.3) quality habitat (P < 0.0001). Geese increasingly used medium quality areas and spent more time feeding as trials progressed and forage was presumably reduced in high quality habitats. We examined relationships between underground biomass of plants, feeding probability, and surface microrelief at 474 0.06-m2 sites in 20 thermokarst pits in 1992. Feeding probability was correlated with the percentage of underground biomass composed of cotton-grass (r = 0

  11. Long-term effects of grazing and global warming on the composition and carrying capacity of graminoid marshes for moulting geese in east Greenland.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jesper; Jaspers, Cornelia; Tamstorf, Mikkel; Mortensen, Christian Ebbe; Rigét, Frank

    2011-09-01

    Greening of the Arctic due to climate warming may provide herbivores with richer food supplies, resulting in higher herbivore densities. In turn, this may cause changes in vegetation composition and ecosystem function. In 1982-1984, we studied the ecology of non-breeding moulting geese in Jameson Land, low Arctic East Greenland. By then, geese consumed most of the graminoid production in available moss fens, and it appeared that the geese had filled up the available habitat. In 2008, we revisited the area and found that the number of moulting geese and the temperature sum for June-July had tripled, while the above-ground biomass in a moss fen ungrazed by geese had more than doubled. In a goose-grazed fen, the overall plant composition was unchanged, but the frequency of graminoids had decreased and the area with dead vegetation and open spots had increased. We suggest that climate warming has lead to increased productivity, allowing for higher numbers of moulting geese. However, the reduction of vegetation cover by grazing may have longer term negative consequences for the number of geese the habitat can sustain.

  12. Spring migratory pathways and migration chronology of Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) wintering at the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giles, Molly M.; Jodice, Patrick G.; Baldwin, Robert F.; Stanton, John D.; Epstein, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the migratory pathways, migration chronology, and breeding ground affiliation of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) that winter in and adjacent to the Santee National Wildlife Refuge in Summerton, South Carolina, United States. Satellite transmitters were fitted to eight Canada Geese at Santee National Wildlife Refuge during the winter of 2009–2010. Canada Geese departed Santee National Wildlife Refuge between 5 and 7 March 2010. Six Canada Geese followed a route that included stopovers in northeastern North Carolina and western New York, with three of those birds completing spring migration to breeding grounds associated with the Atlantic Population (AP). The mean distance between stopover sites along this route was 417 km, the mean total migration distance was 2838 km, and the Canada Geese arrived on AP breeding grounds on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay between 20 and 24 May 2010. Two Canada Geese followed a different route from that described above, with stopovers in northeastern Ohio, prior to arriving on the breeding grounds on 9 June 2010. Mean distance between stopover sites was 402 and 365 km for these two birds, and total migration distance was 4020 and 3650 km. These data represent the first efforts to track migratory Canada Geese from the southernmost extent of their current wintering range in the Atlantic Flyway. We did not track any Canada Geese to breeding grounds associated with the Southern James Bay Population. Caution should be used in the interpretation of this finding, however, because of the small sample size. We demonstrated that migratory Canada Geese wintering in South Carolina use at least two migratory pathways and that an affiliation with the Atlantic Population breeding ground exists.

  13. Prevalence, transmission, and genetic diversity of blood parasites infecting tundra-nesting geese in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John A.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fondell, Tom F.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Terenzi, John; Ely, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 842 blood samples collected from five species of tundra-nesting geese in Alaska was screened for haemosporidian parasites using molecular techniques. Parasites of the generaLeucocytozoon Danilewsky, 1890, Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890, and Plasmodium Marchiafava and Celli, 1885 were detected in 169 (20%), 3 (<1%), and 0 (0%) samples, respectively. Occupancy modeling was used to estimate prevalence of Leucocytozoon parasites and assess variation relative to species, age, sex, geographic area, year, and decade. Species, age, and decade were identified as important in explaining differences in prevalence of Leucocytozoonparasites. Leucocytozoon parasites were detected in goslings sampled along the Arctic Coastal Plain using both historic and contemporary samples, which provided support for transmission in the North American Arctic. In contrast, lack of detection of Haemoproteus and Plasmodiumparasites in goslings (n = 238) provided evidence to suggest that the transmission of parasites of these genera may not occur among waterfowl using tundra habitats in Alaska, or alternatively, may only occur at low levels. Five haemosporidian genetic lineages shared among different species of geese sampled from two geographic areas were indicative of interspecies parasite transmission and supported broad parasite or vector distributions. However, identicalLeucocytozoon and Haemoproteus lineages on public databases were limited to waterfowl hosts suggesting constraints in the range of parasite hosts.

  14. Identification of Type II Interferon Receptors in Geese: Gene Structure, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Qi, Yulin; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-01-01

    Interferon γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1) and IFNGR2 are two cell membrane molecules belonging to class II cytokines, which play important roles in the IFN-mediated antiviral signaling pathway. Here, goose IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 were cloned and identified for the first time. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that relatively high levels of goose IFNγ mRNA transcripts were detected in immune tissues, including the harderian gland, cecal tonsil, cecum, and thymus. Relatively high expression levels of both IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 were detected in the cecal tonsil, which implicated an important role of IFNγ in the secondary immune system of geese. No specific correlation between IFNγ, IFNGR1, and IFNGR2 expression levels was observed in the same tissues of healthy geese. IFNγ and its cognate receptors showed different expression profiles, although they appeared to maintain a relatively balanced state. Furthermore, the agonist R848 led to the upregulation of goose IFNγ but did not affect the expression of goose IFNGR1 or IFNGR2. In summary, trends in expression of goose IFNγ and its cognate receptors showed tissue specificity, as well as an age-related dependency. These findings may help us to better understand the age-related susceptibility to pathogens in birds. PMID:26345454

  15. Intercontinental gene flow among western arctic populations of lesser snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shorey, R.I.; Scribner, K.T.; Kanefsky, J.; Samuel, M.D.; Libants, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial genetic structure of highly vagile species of birds is important in predicting their degree of population demographic and genetic independence during changing environmental conditions, and in assessing their abundance and distribution. In the western Arctic, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) provide an example useful for evaluating spatial population genetic structure and the relative contribution of male and female philopatry to breeding and wintering locales. We analyzed biparentally inherited microsatellite loci and maternally inherited mtDNA sequences from geese breeding at Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) to estimate gene flow among populations whose geographic overlap during breeding and winter differ. Significant differences in the frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes contrast with the homogeneity of allele frequencies for microsatellite loci. Coalescence simulations revealed high variability and asymmetry between males and females in rates and direction of gene flow between populations. Our results highlight the importance of wintering areas to demographic independence and spatial genetic structure of these populations. Male-mediated gene flow among the populations on northern Wrangel Island, southern Wrangel Island, and Banks Island has been substantial. A high rate of female-mediated gene flow from southern Wrangel Island to Banks Island suggests that population exchange can be achieved when populations winter in a common area. Conversely, when birds from different breeding populations do not share a common wintering area, the probability of population exchange is likely to be dramatically reduced. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  16. Identification of Type II Interferon Receptors in Geese: Gene Structure, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Expression Patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Qi, Yulin; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-01-01

    Interferon γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1) and IFNGR2 are two cell membrane molecules belonging to class II cytokines, which play important roles in the IFN-mediated antiviral signaling pathway. Here, goose IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 were cloned and identified for the first time. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that relatively high levels of goose IFNγ mRNA transcripts were detected in immune tissues, including the harderian gland, cecal tonsil, cecum, and thymus. Relatively high expression levels of both IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 were detected in the cecal tonsil, which implicated an important role of IFNγ in the secondary immune system of geese. No specific correlation between IFNγ, IFNGR1, and IFNGR2 expression levels was observed in the same tissues of healthy geese. IFNγ and its cognate receptors showed different expression profiles, although they appeared to maintain a relatively balanced state. Furthermore, the agonist R848 led to the upregulation of goose IFNγ but did not affect the expression of goose IFNGR1 or IFNGR2. In summary, trends in expression of goose IFNγ and its cognate receptors showed tissue specificity, as well as an age-related dependency. These findings may help us to better understand the age-related susceptibility to pathogens in birds.

  17. A review of episodes of zinc phosphide toxicosis in wild geese (Branta spp.) in Oregon (2004−2011)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bildfell, Rob J.; Rumbeiha, Wilson K.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Gillin, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    Epizootic mortality in several geese species, including cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis), has been recognized in the Willamette Valley of Oregon for over a decade. Birds are generally found dead on a body of water or are occasionally observed displaying neurologic clinical signs such as an inability to raise or control the head prior to death. Investigation of these epizootic mortality events has revealed the etiology to be accidental poisoning with the rodenticide zinc phosphide (Zn3P2). Gross and histologic changes are restricted to acute pulmonary congestion and edema, sometimes accompanied by distension of the upper alimentary tract by fresh grass. Geese are unusually susceptible to this pesticide; when combined with an epidemiologic confluence of depredation of specific agricultural crops by rodents and seasonal avian migration pathways, epizootic toxicosis may occur. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, appropriate sample collection and handling, plus specific test calibration for this toxicant. Interagency cooperation, education of farmers regarding pesticide use, and enforcement of regulations has been successful in greatly decreasing these mortality events since 2009.

  18. Using videography to quantify landscape-level availability of habitat for grazers: An example with emperor geese in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lake, B.C.; Lindberg, M.S.; Schmutz, J.A.; Anthony, R.M.; Broerman, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a videography approach to estimating large-scale availability of grazing lawns, an important food resource used by broods of emperor geese (Chen canagica) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Sampling was conducted in 1999, 2003, and 2004 at six locations that encompassed ???40% of the North American population of breeding emperor geese. We conducted ground truthing in 2003 and 2004 to estimate how accurately grazing lawn was classified. Overall, classification accuracy for grazing lawn and non-grazing lawn habitat was greater than 91%. Availability of grazing lawns was stable among years, but varied both among and within locations. Some locations have up to three times as much available grazing lawn, which in combination with densities of geese, likely represents dramatic variation in per capita food availability. Our results suggest that videography is a useful way to sample quickly across a large region and accurately identify fine-scale habitats. We present its use for estimating the availability of a preferred food resource for emperor geese, but the method could be applied to many other cases.

  19. Serological survey and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in domestic ducks and geese in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To obtain estimates for the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ducks and geese in Germany, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were established based on affinity-purified T. gondii tachyzoite surface antigen 1 (TgSAG1) and used to examine duck and goose sera for T. gondii -specific ...

  20. Immunobiological activity and antiviral regulation efforts of Chinese goose (Anser cygnoides) CD8α during NGVEV and GPV infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun; Zhao, Qiurong; Qi, Yulin; Liu, Fei; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-01-01

    The CD8 molecule is a cell membrane glycoprotein expressed on cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which are involved in the clearance of viruses. However, the functional characterization of goose CD8α is still unclear. The immunobiological characterization of goose CD8α in goose spleen mononuclear cells (MNCs) was examined by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). It was shown that CD8α mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by in vitro treatment of MNCs with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (ConA), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) in a dose-dependent way, but lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) did not have this same effect. Moreover, the time-course effect of CD8α expression in response to mitogens (PHA, ConA, and poly I:C) was evaluated in MNCs. A significant increase in the transcriptional levels of CD8α was detected in new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV)-infected goose MNCs at 48 h postinfection (PI) and in goose parvovirus (GPV)-infected MNCs at 72 h PI. Also, the number of CD8α+ cells was significantly increased during viral infection from 72 h on. The seminal changes in mRNA profiles of antiviral cytokines (IFN-α, IFN-γ, and IL-18) were observed and were significantly increased during late phases of NGVEV and GPV infection. Accordingly, our data not only contribute to the understanding of the immune characteristics of goose CD8α, but they also provide new insight into the innate antiviral immunity of geese.

  1. Humoral and cellular immune responses in adult geese induced by an inactivated vaccine against new type gosling viral enteritis virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Cheng, A C; Wang, M S; Zhu, D K; Jia, R Y; Luo, Q H; Liu, F; Chen, X Y; Yang, J L

    2010-11-01

    To assess the immunogenicity of an inactivated new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) vaccine, we investigated 3 different doses of the inactivated vaccine and the inactivated vaccine in conjunction with 3 different doses of recombinant goose interleukin-2 (rGoIL-2) adjuvant. A virus concentration of 10(5) 50% embryo infective dose/mL was subcutaneously inoculated into adult geese divided into 6 groups. The dynamic changes of the humoral and cellular immunity responses elicited by the vaccines in the adult geese postvaccination (PV) were investigated using ELISA, virus neutralization test, and lymphocyte proliferation assay. The clearance of virus from the intestines of geese (175 d PV) was studied by histopathological examination and indirect immunofluorescence assay after virulent NGVEV challenge. This study showed that the inactivated NGVEV vaccine elicits strong humoral and cellular responses in the vaccinated adult geese. The absorbance values of specific anti-NGVEV antibodies, the neutralization antibody titer, and the lymphocyte proliferation index rapidly increased, peaked at about 28 d PV, progressed to the plateau stage, and then decreased slightly. The rGoIL-2 adjuvant enhanced the immune response, and this adjuvant in conjunction with the inactivated NGVEV vaccine induces a significantly higher specific anti-NGVEV antibody absorbance value, neutralization antibody titer, and lymphocyte proliferation index than the non-adjuvant-inactivated NGVEV vaccine (P < 0.05). The inactivated NGVEV vaccine conferred adequate efficient ability to clear NGVEV in vaccinated geese even in the last phase of the vaccination period (175 d PV). The inactivated NGVEV vaccine (0.5 mL/goose) with 1,000 units of rGoIL-2 adjuvant/goose is the most effective dose, thereby eliciting the strongest humoral and cellular immunity responses and providing the most efficacious clearance of NGVEV in vivo.

  2. Effects of dietary garlic scape meal on the growth and meat characteristics of geese.

    PubMed

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Jea, Y S; Chen, W S; Lee, T T

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth performance and meat characteristics of grower geese whose diets included garlic scape meal (GSM), a by-product of garlic production. Scape is the leaf-less flower stem of garlic. Garlic scape (GS) extracts contained 84.7 ± 3.8 μg/g dry weight (DW), 81.4 ± 8.2 μg/g DW, 0.78 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW and 31.67 ± 2.25 μg/g DW of allicin, alliin, total phenolics and flavonoid contents, respectively. In total, 120 White Roman geese aged 5 weeks were randomly distributed among 12 pens and fed on a grower diet ad libitum during the growth period. Employing a completely random design, 5 males and 5 females were placed in each pen. Each treatment was applied to three pens (in total 30 birds) and the treatments comprised the following: 1) control (maize-soybean meal), 2) 5% of maize replaced with 5% of GSM (5% GSM), 3) 10% of maize replaced with 10% of GSM (10% GSM) and 4) 15% of maize replaced with 15% of GSM (15% GSM). Each group of 30 birds was treated for 8 weeks. The results revealed that the 15% GSM group was characterised by a lower feed conversion ratio than the control group; however, these groups did not differ significantly in their body weights (BWs). In addition, the 10% GSM group did not differ in both the feed conversion ratio and consumption. The flavour intensity score of meats in the 10% GSM group was significantly lower than those of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups. The general acceptability scores of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups were higher than those of meat in the 10% GSM group. The study concluded that 5% dietary GSM in the feed did not adversely affect the growth performance, meat characteristics or sensory evaluation of grower geese. Hence, the environment can be protected by including agricultural waste in goose diets. PMID:26445200

  3. Effects of dietary garlic scape meal on the growth and meat characteristics of geese.

    PubMed

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Jea, Y S; Chen, W S; Lee, T T

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth performance and meat characteristics of grower geese whose diets included garlic scape meal (GSM), a by-product of garlic production. Scape is the leaf-less flower stem of garlic. Garlic scape (GS) extracts contained 84.7 ± 3.8 μg/g dry weight (DW), 81.4 ± 8.2 μg/g DW, 0.78 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW and 31.67 ± 2.25 μg/g DW of allicin, alliin, total phenolics and flavonoid contents, respectively. In total, 120 White Roman geese aged 5 weeks were randomly distributed among 12 pens and fed on a grower diet ad libitum during the growth period. Employing a completely random design, 5 males and 5 females were placed in each pen. Each treatment was applied to three pens (in total 30 birds) and the treatments comprised the following: 1) control (maize-soybean meal), 2) 5% of maize replaced with 5% of GSM (5% GSM), 3) 10% of maize replaced with 10% of GSM (10% GSM) and 4) 15% of maize replaced with 15% of GSM (15% GSM). Each group of 30 birds was treated for 8 weeks. The results revealed that the 15% GSM group was characterised by a lower feed conversion ratio than the control group; however, these groups did not differ significantly in their body weights (BWs). In addition, the 10% GSM group did not differ in both the feed conversion ratio and consumption. The flavour intensity score of meats in the 10% GSM group was significantly lower than those of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups. The general acceptability scores of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups were higher than those of meat in the 10% GSM group. The study concluded that 5% dietary GSM in the feed did not adversely affect the growth performance, meat characteristics or sensory evaluation of grower geese. Hence, the environment can be protected by including agricultural waste in goose diets.

  4. Field evaluation of lead effects on Canada geese and mallards in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Blus, L.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, Daniel J.; Snyder, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    Hatch year (HY) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River Basin had higher concentrations of lead in their blood than HY Western Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) (geometric means 0.98 versus 0.28 I?g/g, wet weight). The pattern for adults of both species was similar, although geometric means (1.77 versus 0.41 I?g/g) were higher than in HY birds. HY mallards captured in the CDA River Basin in 1987 contained significantly lower lead concentrations in their blood than in 1994a??95 (0.36 versus 0.98 I?g/g); however, some very young mallards were sampled in 1987, and concentrations in adults were not significantly different in 1987, 1994, or 1995 (1.52, 2.07, 1.55 I?g/g, respectively). Both species in the CDA River Basin in 1994a??95 showed significantly reduced red blood cell delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity compared to the reference areas: Canada geese (HY a??65.4 to a??86.0%, adults a??82.3%), and mallards (HY a??90.7 to a??95.5%, adults a??94.1%). Canada goose goslings were divided into size classes, and the two smaller classes from the CDA River Basin had significantly elevated free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (protoporphyrin) levels compared to the reference area (15.2?? and 6.9??). HY and adult mallards both had significantly elevated protoporphyrin (5.9?? and 7.5??). Recognizing that interspecific differences exist in response and sensitivity to lead, it appears (at least for hemoglobin and hematocrit) that Canada geese were more sensitive to lead than mallards, i.e., adverse hematologic effects occur at lower blood lead concentrations. Only Canada geese from the CDA River Basin, in spite of lower blood lead concentrations, had significantly reduced mean hemoglobin and hematocrit values. No euthanized Canada geese (all HYs) from CDA River Basin were classified as clinically lead poisoned, but 38 Canada geese found dead in the CDA River Basin during a concurrent study succumbed to lead poisoning between 1992 and

  5. [White-fronted and bean geese breeding near snowy owls, peregrine falcons, and rough-legged buzzards at the Taimyr Peninsula].

    PubMed

    Kharitonov, S P; Novak, D E; Novak, A I; Egorova, N A; Korkina, S A; Osipov, D V; Natal'skaia, O V

    2009-01-01

    Studies were carried out in 2000-2007 near Medusa Bay (73.21' N, 80.32' E) and along the Agapa River (from 70 degrees 11', 86 degrees 15' E. down to the mouth 71 degrees 26' N, 89 degrees 13' E), in the northwestern and central parts of the Taimyr Peninsula. White-fronted goose nests are usually spread in the tundra or placed in 1-3 nest colonies near nests or staging points of snowy owls, peregrine falcons, or rough-legged buzzards. The intent of white-fronted geese to breed near birds of prey or owls increases sharply when arctic fox numbers are high. In the area near Medusa Bay, white-fronted geese nest much closer to peregrine falcon nests than in the area along the Agapa River. At the latter location, white-fronted geese lose the competition to red-breasted geese, which are more numerous here. Bean geese, in spite of their greater size and ability to protect their nests against arctic foxes, really tend to breed near peregrine falcons or buzzards, where they manage to compete with red-breasted geese.

  6. The roller coaster flight strategy of bar-headed geese conserves energy during Himalayan migrations.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C M; Spivey, R J; Hawkes, L A; Batbayar, N; Chua, B; Frappell, P B; Milsom, W K; Natsagdorj, T; Newman, S H; Scott, G R; Takekawa, J Y; Wikelski, M; Butler, P J

    2015-01-16

    The physiological and biomechanical requirements of flight at high altitude have been the subject of much interest. Here, we uncover a steep relation between heart rate and wingbeat frequency (raised to the exponent 3.5) and estimated metabolic power and wingbeat frequency (exponent 7) of migratory bar-headed geese. Flight costs increase more rapidly than anticipated as air density declines, which overturns prevailing expectations that this species should maintain high-altitude flight when traversing the Himalayas. Instead, a "roller coaster" strategy, of tracking the underlying terrain and discarding large altitude gains only to recoup them later in the flight with occasional benefits from orographic lift, is shown to be energetically advantageous for flights over the Himalayas. PMID:25593180

  7. Neck-band retention for Canada geese in the Mississippi (USA) flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Weiss, N.T.; Rusch, D.H.; Craven, S.R.; Trost, R.E.; Caswell, F.D.

    1990-01-01

    We used capture, harvest, and observation histories of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) banded in the Mississippi flyway, 1974-88, to examine the problem of neck-band retention. Methods for the analysis of survival data were used to estimate rates of neck-band retention and to evaluate factors associated with neck-band loss. Sex, age of bird at banding, rivet use, and neck-band type significantly influenced neck-band retention. For most of the resulting cohorts (e.g., sex, age, rivet, and neck-band type categories), neck-band retention rates decreased through time. We caution against using small samples or data collected during short-term studies to determine retention rates. We suggest that observation data be used in neck-band retention studies to increase the efficiency of estimating retention time.

  8. Changing arctic ecosystems—What is causing the rapid increase of snow geese in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Whalen, Mary E.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-09-10

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) informs key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is a key study area within the USGS CAE initiative. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past decades, leading to decreased sea ice, permafrost thaw, and an advancement of spring phenology. The number of birds on the ACP also is changing, marked by increased populations of the four species of geese that nest in the region. The Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) is the most rapidly increasing of these species. USGS CAE research is quantifying these changes and their implications for management agencies.

  9. GPS location history data mining and anomalous detection: the scenario of bar-headed geese migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Ze; Xiong, Yan; Yan, Baoping; Prosser, Diann J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Lu, W.; Cai, G.; Liu, W.; Xing, W.

    2013-01-01

    It is important to discover common movement sequences and uncommon behaviors during the migration of wild birds. In this paper, we propose a new approach to analyze the GPS location history data of migratory birds. The stopover sites are first extracted from the location history data of birds, and their movement sequences are generated automatically. Then, a consistency calculation method is introduced for calculating the movement sequence consistency degrees among the birds. The common movement sequences and uncommon behaviors can be recognized on the basis of consistency. We conducted experiments on the data collected from bar-headed geese captured in the Qinghai Lake region. The experiment results indicate the correctness of our approach.

  10. Species differences in hematological values of captive cranes, geese, raptors, and quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Hensler, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Hematological and serum chemical constituents of blood were determined for 12 species, including 7 endangered species, of cranes, geese, raptors, and quail in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Means, standard deviations, analysis of variance by species and sex, and a series of multiple comparisons of means were derived for each parameter investigated. Differences among some species means were observed in all blood parameters except gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Although sampled during the reproductively quiescent period, an influence of sex was noted in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, Ca, and P. Our data and values reported in literature indicate that most hematological parameters vary among species and, in some cases, according to methods used to determine them. Therefore, baseline data for captive and wild birds should be established by using standard methods, and should be made available to aid others for use in assessing physiological and pathological conditions of these species.

  11. Changing Arctic ecosystems: sea ice decline, permafrost thaw, and benefits for geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul; Whalen, Mary; Pearce, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strives to inform resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. A key area for the USGS CAE initiative has been the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past 30 years, leading to reductions in sea ice and thawing of permafrost. Loss of sea ice has increased ocean wave action, leading to erosion and salt water inundation of coastal habitats. Saltwater tolerant plants are now thriving in these areas and this appears to be a positive outcome for geese in the Arctic. This finding is contrary to the deleterious effects that declining sea ice is having on habitats of ice-dependent animals, such as polar bear and walrus.

  12. Changing arctic ecosystems—What is causing the rapid increase of snow geese in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Whalen, Mary E.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) informs key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is a key study area within the USGS CAE initiative. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past decades, leading to decreased sea ice, permafrost thaw, and an advancement of spring phenology. The number of birds on the ACP also is changing, marked by increased populations of the four species of geese that nest in the region. The Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) is the most rapidly increasing of these species. USGS CAE research is quantifying these changes and their implications for management agencies.

  13. The roller coaster flight strategy of bar-headed geese conserves energy during Himalayan migrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, C.M.; Spivey, R.J.; Hawkes, L. A.; Batbayar, N.; Chua, B.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Natsagdorj, T.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Takekawa, John Y.; Wikelski, Martin; Butler, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and biomechanical requirements of flight at high altitude have been the subject of much interest. Here, we uncover a steep relation between heart rate and wingbeat frequency (raised to the exponent 3.5) and estimated metabolic power and wingbeat frequency (exponent 7) of migratory bar-headed geese. Flight costs increase more rapidly than anticipated as air density declines, which overturns prevailing expectations that this species should maintain high-altitude flight when traversing the Himalayas. Instead, a "roller coaster" strategy, of tracking the underlying terrain and discarding large altitude gains only to recoup them later in the flight with occasional benefits from orographic lift, is shown to be energetically advantageous for flights over the Himalayas.

  14. The aerodynamics of avian take-off from direct pressure measurements in Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Usherwood, James R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Biewener, Andrew A

    2003-11-01

    Direct pressure measurements using electronic differential pressure transducers along bird wings provide insight into the aerodynamics of these dynamically varying aerofoils. Acceleration-compensated pressures were measured at five sites distributed proximally to distally from the tertials to the primaries along the wings of Canada geese. During take-off flight, ventral-to-dorsal pressure is maintained at the proximal wing section throughout the wingstroke cycle, whereas pressure sense is reversed at the primaries during upstroke. The distal sites experience double pressure peaks during the downstroke. These observations suggest that tertials provide weight-support throughout the wingbeat, that the wingtip provides thrust during upstroke and that the kinetic energy of the rapidly flapping wings may be dissipated via retarding aerodynamic forces (resulting in aerodynamic work) at the end of downstroke.

  15. Safety and efficacy of an inactivated Carbopol-adjuvanted goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus vaccine for domestic geese.

    PubMed

    Gelfi, Jacqueline; Pappalardo, Michael; Claverys, Carine; Peralta, Brigitte; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2010-04-01

    Haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of the goose (HNEG) is an epizootic viral disease in domestic geese. The causal agent is a polyomavirus, namely goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus. To help control the disease, an inactivated vaccine was developed, based on viral particles produced in goose kidney cells. Viral material was quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, inactivated with beta-propiolactone and adjuvanted with Carbopol, an acrylic acid polymer. Carbopol proved to be more immunogenic than aluminium hydroxide and was totally safe when administered to young goslings and breeders alike. Carbopol-adjuvanted vaccine induced a high serological response. Moreover, goslings hatched from vaccinated breeders were protected against viral challenge, indicating that maternally-derived neutralizing antibodies (MDA) were efficiently transferred. MDA were still detectable 15 days post-hatch. Clinical trials will be necessary to accurately evaluate a vaccine-based HNEG control strategy under field conditions.

  16. The effects of feeding time and time-restricted feeding on the fattening traits of White Roman geese.

    PubMed

    Ho, S-Y; Wu, Y-C; Chen, Y-H; Yang, S-K

    2014-03-01

    This study comprises two trials that investigated the effects of feeding time and time-restricted feeding on the fattening traits and plasma metabolite levels of White Roman geese. In Trial I, 24 geese aged 8 weeks of each sex were allowed free access to a fattening diet for 1 h either in the morning (morning-feeding group) or afternoon (afternoon-feeding group). At 12 weeks of age, blood samples were collected hourly for 4 h, beginning 1 h after feeding to determine the plasma levels of glucose, triacylglycerols and uric acid. The results showed a lower (P<0.05) daily feed intake (DFI) and daily gain (DG) and higher (P<0.05) feed efficiency (FE) for the morning-feeding group compared with those of the afternoon-feeding group. In addition, the postprandial plasma levels of glucose, triacylglycerols and uric acid did not differ (P>0.05) between groups. In Trial II, 12 geese aged 8 weeks of each sex were randomly assigned to either the ad libitum feeding group (control group) or time-restricted feeding group (restricted group). The geese in the control group were fed a fattening diet ad libitum, whereas those in the restricted group were allowed access to the diet for 2 h every morning. All geese were killed at 13 weeks of age and their carcass traits were evaluated. The results showed a lower DFI and DG and higher FE for the restricted group compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). In addition, the restricted group exhibited lower visceral and abdominal fat and higher empty digestive tract and liver weights than those of the control group (P<0.05). The results showed that time-restricted feeding in the morning resulted in superior DG and FE compared with feeding in the afternoon. Moreover, time-restricted feeding implemented in the morning during the fattening period reduced DFI and increased FE in geese compared with ad libitum feeding.

  17. Effects of abdominally implanted radiotransmitters with percutaneous antennas on migration, reproduction, and survival of Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Pearce, J.M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Miller, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Abdominally implanted radiotransmitters with percutaneous antennas are increasingly used to monitor movements, survival, and reproduction of waterbirds. However, there has been relatively little assessment of the effects of such radios on avian demographic parameters or migration. We implanted either a 26- or 35-g abdominal transmitter with percutaneous antenna in 198 adult female lesser Canada geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) in Anchorage, Alaska during 2000 and 2001. We compared migration chronology, reproductive effort, and survival of radiomarked females to 118 control females marked with leg bands. Arrival dates following spring migration were similar among females in different treatments in 2001. However, in 2002, wind direction during late migration was less favorable, and arrival of females with 35-g radiotransmitters lagged 1–2 days behind that of control females. Nest initiation dates, clutch size, and mean egg volume were similar for 152 nests of females that lacked radios and 62 nests of radiomarked females. Estimated nesting propensity for females with operable radiotransmitters was 61% and 72% in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Apparent annual survival (ϕ = 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.76 to 0.87) was similar among treatments in the first year after geese were marked. In the second and third years after marking, model-averaged estimates for survival of females with large radiotransmitters were 10% lower than estimates for control females. However, the effect of large radios on long-term survival was equivocal because of uncertainty surrounding treatment estimates. We conclude that abdominally implanted radiotransmitters with percutaneous antennas had small effects on migration chronology but no apparent effects on fecundity. Abdominal transmitters can provide unbiased estimates of anserine survival in the first year after deployment. Because of the potentially greater effects of larger transmitters on migration and long-term survival, we

  18. Optimizing nest survival and female survival: Consequences of nest site selection for Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Grand, J.B.; Fondell, T.F.; Anthony, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between attributes of nest sites used by Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in the Copper River Delta, Alaska, and patterns in nest and female survival. We aimed to determine whether nest site attributes related to nest and female survival differed and whether nest site attributes related to nest survival changed within and among years. Nest site attributes that we examined included vegetation at and surrounding the nest, as well as associations with other nesting birds. Optimal nest site characteristics were different depending on whether nest survival or female survival was examined. Prior to 25 May, the odds of daily survival for nests in tall shrubs and on islands were 2.92 and 2.26 times greater, respectively, than for nests in short shrub sites. Bald Eagles (Halieaeetus leucocephalus) are the major predator during the early breeding season and their behavior was likely important in determining this pattern. After 25 May, when eagle predation is limited due to the availability of alternative prey, no differences in nest survival among the nest site types were found. In addition, nest survival was positively related to the density of other Canada Goose nests near the nest site. Although the number of detected mortalities for females was relatively low, a clear pattern was found, with mortality three times more likely at nest sites dominated by high shrub density within 50 m than at open sites dominated by low shrub density. The negative relationship of nest concealment and adult survival is consistent with that found in other studies of ground-nesting birds. Physical barriers that limited access to nest sites by predators and sites that allowed for early detection of predators were important characteristics of nest site quality for Canada Geese and nest site quality shifted within seasons, likely as a result of shifting predator-prey interactions.

  19. Experimental transmission of duck hepatitis B virus to Pekin ducks and to domestic geese.

    PubMed

    Marion, P L; Cullen, J M; Azcárraga, R R; Van Davelaar, M J; Robinson, W S

    1987-01-01

    We investigated experimental transmission of duck hepatitis B virus to its original host, the domestic Pekin duck, and to three other avian species. Intramuscular injection of a standard inoculum of duck hepatitis B virus into 2- to 5-day-old Pekin ducklings hatched from a duck hepatitis B virus-free flock resulted in viremia in 100% of 107 animals, indicating that duck hepatitis B virus infection of young progeny of a defined duck hepatitis B virus-free flock occurs reproducibly. When the same inoculum was injected into chicks and Muscovy ducklings of the same age, no evidence of viral infection was detectable. In contrast, hatchlings of two domestic breeds of geese were readily infected by duck hepatitis B virus, developing viremia at a slower rate than Pekin ducklings, but a higher average titer of viremia 4 weeks or more after injection. Neither the pattern of restriction enzyme sites in the viral DNA nor the susceptibility of ducklings to the virus were detectably altered after passage in geese. As in duck hepatitis B virus-infected young ducklings, most of the experimentally infected goslings appeared to be persistently infected and those eventually laying eggs transmitted virus to the progeny. While ducklings exhibited a fairly uniform inflammatory response to the virus, duck hepatitis B virus inoculation of the goslings resulted in both inflammation and an altered hepatocellular morphology not seen in uninjected controls. The host range of duck hepatitis B virus appears to be limited to the primary host and a close taxonomic relative, similar to other members of the hepadnavirus family, hepatitis B virus and ground squirrel hepatitis virus.

  20. The prelaying interval of emperor geese on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    We marked 136 female Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) in western Alaska with VHF or satellite (PTT) transmitters from 1999 to 2003 to monitor their spring arrival and nest initiation dates on the Yukon Delta, and to estimate prelaying interval lengths once at the nesting area. Ninety-two females with functional transmitters returned to the Yukon Delta in the spring after they were marked, and we located the nests of 35 of these individuals. Prelaying intervals were influenced by when snow melted in the spring and individual arrival dates on the Yukon Delta. The median prelaying interval was 15 days (range = 12-19 days) in a year when snow melted relatively late, and 11 days (range = 4-16 days) in two warmer years when snow melted earlier. In years when snow melted earlier, prelaying intervals of <12 days for 11 of 15 females suggested they initiated rapid follicle development on spring staging areas. The prelaying interval declined by approximately 0.4 days and nest initiation date increased approximately 0.5 days for each day a female delayed her arrival. Thus, females that arrived first on the Yukon Delta had prelaying intervals up to four days longer, yet they nested up to five days earlier, than females that arrived last. The proximity of spring staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula to nesting areas on the Yukon Delta may enable Emperor Geese to alter timing of follicle development depending on annual conditions, and to invest nutrients acquired from both areas in eggs during their formation. Plasticity in timing of follicle development is likely advantageous in a variable environment where melting of snow cover in the spring can vary by 2-3 weeks annually. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  1. Remote sensing for monitoring of wildlife habitat: Lesser snow geese and sub-Arctic coastal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadallah, Fawziah L.

    Human environmental impact has occurred on a global scale. Effective management of problems occurring over broad regions requires monitoring and intervention over large extents of space and time. Remote sensing provides an attractive data source, particularly as satellite data have been consistently collected over both space and time and present a readily available, inexpensive archive. At best, however, remote sensing provides proxy data for the underlying variables of interest. Here remotely sensed data are used to measure habitat degradation at a lesser snow goose colony. An increase in goose numbers has led to a loss of forage vegetation in the arctic and sub-arctic marshes where the geese nest and raise their young. In particular, isostatic rebound has generated extensive coastal marshes along the west coast of Hudson Bay, and lesser snow geese colonized such a marsh at La Perouse Bay in the late 1950's. This well-studied colony is used to assess the feasibility of mapping decadal change with Landsat imagery. A baseline map is developed using satellite data, aerial photography, and a knowledge of vegetation dynamics at the site. Calibration equations, relating the quantity of above-ground vegetation and its reflectance, are developed using cross-validation and goodness-of-prediction measures for field data collected on-site. To detect changes in vegetation state, tree-classification and cross-validation were applied to ground data. Using satellite imagery, changes in vegetation quantity and type could be detected against a background of mineral soil, but not against a background of mosses. Even in this site with low topographic variability, few species and few strong driving forces (i.e. isostatic rebound and herbivory), multiple change trajectories are possible. As different trajectories have different influences on both the reflectance of the surface and the expected behaviour and functioning of the system, each must be accounted for separately. Failure to

  2. Delayed flood recession in central Yangtze floodplains can cause significant food shortages for wintering geese: results of inundation experiment.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lei; Wen, Li; Feng, Duoduo; Zhang, Hong; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-12-01

    Carex meadows are critical habitat for wintering geese in the floodplains of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. These meadows follow a growth cycle closely tied to the seasonal hydrological fluctuation: as water levels recede in the fall, exposed mudflats provide habitat for Carex spp. growth. The seasonal growth of Carex overlaps the arrival of wintering geese and provides an important food source for the migrants. Recent alterations to the Yangtze's hydrology, however, have disrupted the synchronous relationship between water levels, Carex growth and wintering geese at Dongting Lake. In October 2012, we carried out an outdoor mesocosm experiment to investigate potential impacts of delayed water recession on the germination and growth of Carex heterolepis, the dominant Carex species at Dongting Lake, to understand how changes in hydrology might impact wintering goose habitat. Results showed that the delayed flood recession exerted significant impact on the first growth cycle of Carex growth. Prolonged inundation significantly lowered the intrinsic growth rate (P = 0.03) and maximum growth rates (P = 0.02). It also took significantly longer time to reach the peak growth rate (P = 0.04 and 0.05 for number of shoot and biomass, respectively). As a result, biomass accumulation was reduced by 45, 62 and 90 % for 10-day, 20-day and 30-day inundation treatments, respectively. These results indicate a severe risk of food shortage for wintering geese when water recession delayed. This potential risk should be taken into consideration when operating any hydrological control structures that alter the flood regimes in Dongting Lake.

  3. Delayed Flood Recession in Central Yangtze Floodplains Can Cause Significant Food Shortages for Wintering Geese: Results of Inundation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Lei; Wen, Li; Feng, Duoduo; Zhang, Hong; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-12-01

    Carex meadows are critical habitat for wintering geese in the floodplains of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. These meadows follow a growth cycle closely tied to the seasonal hydrological fluctuation: as water levels recede in the fall, exposed mudflats provide habitat for Carex spp. growth. The seasonal growth of Carex overlaps the arrival of wintering geese and provides an important food source for the migrants. Recent alterations to the Yangtze's hydrology, however, have disrupted the synchronous relationship between water levels, Carex growth and wintering geese at Dongting Lake. In October 2012, we carried out an outdoor mesocosm experiment to investigate potential impacts of delayed water recession on the germination and growth of Carex heterolepis, the dominant Carex species at Dongting Lake, to understand how changes in hydrology might impact wintering goose habitat. Results showed that the delayed flood recession exerted significant impact on the first growth cycle of Carex growth. Prolonged inundation significantly lowered the intrinsic growth rate ( P = 0.03) and maximum growth rates ( P = 0.02). It also took significantly longer time to reach the peak growth rate ( P = 0.04 and 0.05 for number of shoot and biomass, respectively). As a result, biomass accumulation was reduced by 45, 62 and 90 % for 10-day, 20-day and 30-day inundation treatments, respectively. These results indicate a severe risk of food shortage for wintering geese when water recession delayed. This potential risk should be taken into consideration when operating any hydrological control structures that alter the flood regimes in Dongting Lake.

  4. Climate change, phenology, and habitat degradation: drivers of gosling body condition and juvenile survival in lesser snow geese.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Lise M; Rockwell, Robert F; Cooch, Evan G; Brook, Rodney W; Mulder, Christa P H; Koons, David N

    2013-01-01

    Nesting migratory geese are among the dominant herbivores in (sub) arctic environments, which have undergone unprecedented increases in temperatures and plant growing days over the last three decades. Within these regions, the Hudson Bay Lowlands are home to an overabundant breeding population of lesser snow geese that has dramatically damaged the ecosystem, with cascading effects at multiple trophic levels. In some areas the overabundance of geese has led to a drastic reduction in available forage. In addition, warming of this region has widened the gap between goose migration timing and plant green-up, and this 'mismatch' between goose and plant phenologies could in turn affect gosling development. The dual effects of climate change and habitat quality on gosling body condition and juvenile survival are not known, but are critical for predicting population growth and related degradation of (sub) arctic ecosystems. To address these issues, we used information on female goslings marked and measured between 1978 and 2005 (4125 individuals). Goslings that developed within and near the traditional center of the breeding colony experienced the effects of long-term habitat degradation: body condition and juvenile survival declined over time. In newly colonized areas, however, we observed the opposite pattern (increase in body condition and juvenile survival). In addition, warmer than average winters and summers resulted in lower gosling body condition and first-year survival. Too few plant 'growing days' in the spring relative to hatch led to similar results. Our assessment indicates that geese are recovering from habitat degradation by moving to newly colonized locales. However, a warmer climate could negatively affect snow goose populations in the long-run, but it will depend on which seasons warm the fastest. These antagonistic mechanisms will require further study to help predict snow goose population dynamics and manage the trophic cascade they induce. PMID

  5. Delayed flood recession in central Yangtze floodplains can cause significant food shortages for wintering geese: results of inundation experiment.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lei; Wen, Li; Feng, Duoduo; Zhang, Hong; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-12-01

    Carex meadows are critical habitat for wintering geese in the floodplains of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. These meadows follow a growth cycle closely tied to the seasonal hydrological fluctuation: as water levels recede in the fall, exposed mudflats provide habitat for Carex spp. growth. The seasonal growth of Carex overlaps the arrival of wintering geese and provides an important food source for the migrants. Recent alterations to the Yangtze's hydrology, however, have disrupted the synchronous relationship between water levels, Carex growth and wintering geese at Dongting Lake. In October 2012, we carried out an outdoor mesocosm experiment to investigate potential impacts of delayed water recession on the germination and growth of Carex heterolepis, the dominant Carex species at Dongting Lake, to understand how changes in hydrology might impact wintering goose habitat. Results showed that the delayed flood recession exerted significant impact on the first growth cycle of Carex growth. Prolonged inundation significantly lowered the intrinsic growth rate (P = 0.03) and maximum growth rates (P = 0.02). It also took significantly longer time to reach the peak growth rate (P = 0.04 and 0.05 for number of shoot and biomass, respectively). As a result, biomass accumulation was reduced by 45, 62 and 90 % for 10-day, 20-day and 30-day inundation treatments, respectively. These results indicate a severe risk of food shortage for wintering geese when water recession delayed. This potential risk should be taken into consideration when operating any hydrological control structures that alter the flood regimes in Dongting Lake. PMID:25164981

  6. Climate change, phenology, and habitat degradation: drivers of gosling body condition and juvenile survival in lesser snow geese.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Lise M; Rockwell, Robert F; Cooch, Evan G; Brook, Rodney W; Mulder, Christa P H; Koons, David N

    2013-01-01

    Nesting migratory geese are among the dominant herbivores in (sub) arctic environments, which have undergone unprecedented increases in temperatures and plant growing days over the last three decades. Within these regions, the Hudson Bay Lowlands are home to an overabundant breeding population of lesser snow geese that has dramatically damaged the ecosystem, with cascading effects at multiple trophic levels. In some areas the overabundance of geese has led to a drastic reduction in available forage. In addition, warming of this region has widened the gap between goose migration timing and plant green-up, and this 'mismatch' between goose and plant phenologies could in turn affect gosling development. The dual effects of climate change and habitat quality on gosling body condition and juvenile survival are not known, but are critical for predicting population growth and related degradation of (sub) arctic ecosystems. To address these issues, we used information on female goslings marked and measured between 1978 and 2005 (4125 individuals). Goslings that developed within and near the traditional center of the breeding colony experienced the effects of long-term habitat degradation: body condition and juvenile survival declined over time. In newly colonized areas, however, we observed the opposite pattern (increase in body condition and juvenile survival). In addition, warmer than average winters and summers resulted in lower gosling body condition and first-year survival. Too few plant 'growing days' in the spring relative to hatch led to similar results. Our assessment indicates that geese are recovering from habitat degradation by moving to newly colonized locales. However, a warmer climate could negatively affect snow goose populations in the long-run, but it will depend on which seasons warm the fastest. These antagonistic mechanisms will require further study to help predict snow goose population dynamics and manage the trophic cascade they induce.

  7. The dynamics of avian influenza in western Arctic snow geese: implications for annual and migratory infection patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Brown, Justin D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Ip, Hon S.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.

    2015-01-01

    Wild water birds are the natural reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, our ability to investigate the epizootiology of AIV in these migratory populations is challenging, and despite intensive worldwide surveillance, remains poorly understood. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis in Pacific Flyway lesser snow geese Chen caerulescens to investigate AIV serology and infection patterns. We collected nearly 3,000 sera samples from snow geese at 2 breeding colonies in Russia and Canada during 1993-1996 and swab samples from > 4,000 birds at wintering and migration areas in the United States during 2006-2011. We found seroprevalence and annual seroconversion varied considerably among years. Seroconversion and infection rates also differed between snow goose breeding colonies and wintering areas, suggesting that AIV exposure in this gregarious waterfowl species is likely occurring during several phases (migration, wintering and potentially breeding areas) of the annual cycle. We estimated AIV antibody persistence was longer (14 months) in female geese compared to males (6 months). This relatively long period of AIV antibody persistence suggests that subtype-specific serology may be an effective tool for detection of exposure to subtypes associated with highly-pathogenic AIV. Our study provides further evidence of high seroprevalence in Arctic goose populations, and estimates of annual AIV seroconversion and antibody persistence for North American waterfowl. We suggest future AIV studies include serology to help elucidate the epizootiological dynamics of AIV in wild bird populations.

  8. Isolation and characterization of Brachyspira spp. including "Brachyspira hampsonii" from lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Joseph E; Harms, N Jane; Fernando, Champika; Soos, Catherine; Detmer, Susan E; Harding, John C S; Hill, Janet E

    2013-11-01

    Brachyspira is associated with diarrhea and colitis in pigs, and control of these pathogens is complicated by their complex ecology. Identification of wildlife reservoirs of Brachyspira requires the discrimination of colonized animals and those simply contaminated through environmental exposure. Lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) were sampled in the Canadian arctic during the summer of 2011, and cloacal swabs were cultured on selective media. Brachyspira isolates were obtained from 15/170 (8.8 %) samples, and 12/15 isolates were similar to isolates previously recovered from pigs, including "Brachyspira hampsonii", a recently characterized species associated with dysentery-like disease in pigs in North America. A pilot inoculation study with one strongly β-hemolytic B. hampsonii isolate resulted in fecal shedding of the isolate by inoculated pigs for up to 14 days post-inoculation, but no severe clinical disease. Results of this study indicate that lesser snow geese can be colonized by Brachyspira strains that can also colonize pigs. Millions of lesser snow geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens) travel through the major pork-producing areas of Canada and the USA during their annual migration, making them a potential factor in the continental distribution of these bacteria.

  9. Molecular characterization, tissue expression, and polymorphism analysis of liver-type fatty acid binding protein in Landes geese.

    PubMed

    Song, Z; Shao, D; Sun, X X; Niu, J W; Gong, D Q

    2015-01-01

    Liver weight is an important economic trait in the fatty goose liver industry. Liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is involved in the formation and metabolism of fatty acids. Thus, we hypothesized that sequence polymorphisms in L-FABP were associated with fatty liver weight in goose. We first isolated, sequenced, and characterized the goose L-FABP gene, which had not been previously reported. The goose L-FABP gene was 2490 bp and included 4 exons coding for a 126-amino acid protein. Analysis of expression levels of the goose L-FABP gene in different tissues showed that the expression level in the liver tissue was higher than in other tissues, and was significantly higher in the liver tissue of overfed geese than in control geese. Moreover, a single nucleotide polymorphism located at 774 bp in the gene was identified in a Landes goose population. To test whether this single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with fatty liver production, liver weight and the ratio of liver to carcass weights were determined for the 3 genotypes with this single nucleotide polymorphism (TT, TG, GG) in overfed Landes geese. Our data indicate that individuals with the GG genotype had higher values for the variables measured than those with the other 2 genotypes, suggesting that L-FABP can be a selection marker for the trait of fatty liver production in goose. PMID:25729971

  10. Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence and two new genotypes of the parasite in endangered Hawaiian Geese (nene: Branta sandvicensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Verma, Shiv K.; Su, Chunlei; Medeiros, John; Kaiakapu, Thomas; Kwok, Oliver C.; Dubey, Jitender P.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite transmitted by domestic cats (Felis catus) that has historically caused mortality in native Hawaiian birds. To estimate how widespread exposure to the parasite is in nene (Hawaiian Geese, Branta sandvicensis), we did a serologic survey for T. gondii antibody and genetically characterized parasite DNA from the tissues of dead birds that had confirmed infections by immunohistochemistry. Of 94 geese sampled, prevalence on the island of Kauai, Maui, and Molokai was 21% (n=42), 23% (n=31), and 48% (n=21), respectively. Two new T. gondii genotypes were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism from four geese, and these appeared segregated geographically. Exposure to T. gondii in wild nene is widespread and, while the parasite is not a major cause of death, it could have sublethal or behavioral effects. How to translate such information to implement effective ways to manage feral cats in Hawaii poses challenges.

  11. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  12. Isolation and characterization of Brachyspira spp. including "Brachyspira hampsonii" from lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Joseph E; Harms, N Jane; Fernando, Champika; Soos, Catherine; Detmer, Susan E; Harding, John C S; Hill, Janet E

    2013-11-01

    Brachyspira is associated with diarrhea and colitis in pigs, and control of these pathogens is complicated by their complex ecology. Identification of wildlife reservoirs of Brachyspira requires the discrimination of colonized animals and those simply contaminated through environmental exposure. Lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) were sampled in the Canadian arctic during the summer of 2011, and cloacal swabs were cultured on selective media. Brachyspira isolates were obtained from 15/170 (8.8 %) samples, and 12/15 isolates were similar to isolates previously recovered from pigs, including "Brachyspira hampsonii", a recently characterized species associated with dysentery-like disease in pigs in North America. A pilot inoculation study with one strongly β-hemolytic B. hampsonii isolate resulted in fecal shedding of the isolate by inoculated pigs for up to 14 days post-inoculation, but no severe clinical disease. Results of this study indicate that lesser snow geese can be colonized by Brachyspira strains that can also colonize pigs. Millions of lesser snow geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens) travel through the major pork-producing areas of Canada and the USA during their annual migration, making them a potential factor in the continental distribution of these bacteria. PMID:23933825

  13. Molecular characterization, tissue expression, and polymorphism analysis of liver-type fatty acid binding protein in Landes geese.

    PubMed

    Song, Z; Shao, D; Sun, X X; Niu, J W; Gong, D Q

    2015-01-23

    Liver weight is an important economic trait in the fatty goose liver industry. Liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is involved in the formation and metabolism of fatty acids. Thus, we hypothesized that sequence polymorphisms in L-FABP were associated with fatty liver weight in goose. We first isolated, sequenced, and characterized the goose L-FABP gene, which had not been previously reported. The goose L-FABP gene was 2490 bp and included 4 exons coding for a 126-amino acid protein. Analysis of expression levels of the goose L-FABP gene in different tissues showed that the expression level in the liver tissue was higher than in other tissues, and was significantly higher in the liver tissue of overfed geese than in control geese. Moreover, a single nucleotide polymorphism located at 774 bp in the gene was identified in a Landes goose population. To test whether this single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with fatty liver production, liver weight and the ratio of liver to carcass weights were determined for the 3 genotypes with this single nucleotide polymorphism (TT, TG, GG) in overfed Landes geese. Our data indicate that individuals with the GG genotype had higher values for the variables measured than those with the other 2 genotypes, suggesting that L-FABP can be a selection marker for the trait of fatty liver production in goose.

  14. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  15. Prevalence of lead exposure among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of lead exposure from ingestion of waste lead shot among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and < 1 % of adults showed evidence of recent exposure to lead shot (i.e., concentrations in the blood elevated above the threshold value of 0. 18 ppm lead). However, median background blood lead concentrations (i.e., blood samples with < 0.18 ppm lead) were higher in adults than goslings, indicating that exposure of adults to lead had occurred during previous seasons. Waste lead shot was available on the migration and wintering grounds, where a larger proportion of the blood samples from immatures (< 1 year old) than adults (> 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez

  16. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; McKernan, M.A.; Eisenreich, K.M.; Link, W.A.; Olsen, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Knowles, K.A.; McGowan, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was Iympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 :g/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 ug/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 ug/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney <5 ug/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  17. Renesting by dusky Canada geese on the Copper River Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Grand, James B.; Miller, David A.W.; Anthony, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The population of dusky Canada geese (Branta canadensis occidentalis; hereafter duskies) breeding on the Copper River Delta (CRD), Alaska, USA, has been in long-term decline, largely as a result of reduced productivity. Estimates of renesting rates by duskies may be useful for adjusting estimates of the size of the breeding population derived from aerial surveys and for understanding population dynamics. We used a marked population of dusky females to obtain estimates of renesting propensity and renesting interval on the CRD, 1999–2000. Continuation nests, replacement nests initiated without a break in the laying sequence, resulted only after first nests were destroyed in the laying stage with ≤4 eggs laid. Renesting propensity declined with nest age from 72% in mid-laying to 30% in early incubation. Between first nests and renests, mean interval was 11.9 ± 0.6 days, mean distance was 74.5 m (range 0–214 m), and clutch size declined 0.9 ± 0.4 eggs. We incorporated our renesting estimates and available estimates of other nesting parameters into an individual-based model to predict the proportion of first nests, continuation nests, and renests, and to examine female success on the CRD, 1997–2000. Our model predicted that 19–36% of nests each year were continuation nests and renests. Also, through 15 May (the approx. date of breeding ground surveys), 1.1–1.3 nests were initiated per female. Thus, the number of nests per female would have a significant, though relatively consistent, effect on adjusting the relation between numbers of nests found on ground surveys versus numbers of birds seen during aerial surveys. We also suggest a method that managers could use to predict nests per female using nest success of early nests. Our model predicted that relative to observed estimates of nest success, female success was 32–100% greater, due to replacement nests. Thus, although nest success remains low, production for duskies was higher than previously thought

  18. Ecological implications of reduced forage quality on growth and survival of sympatric geese.

    PubMed

    Richman, Samantha E; Leafloor, James O; Karasov, William H; McWilliams, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Allometric constraints associated with digesting leaves require relatively small avian herbivores to consume high-quality forage. How such constraints are overcome during ontogeny when energy and nutrient requirements are relatively high has not been adequately explored. We compared growth trajectories of Canada and lesser snow goose goslings raised on grass-based diets that differed in protein (10%, 14% or 18%) and fibre (30% or 45%) with those of free-living goslings on Akimiski Island, Canada. This common-garden experiment allowed us to test the hypotheses that (i) smaller-bodied geese are more negatively affected by reduced forage quality than larger-bodied geese, and (ii) goslings from subarctic brood-rearing areas have a limited capacity to slow growth in response to reduced forage quality. Canada goose goslings fed low-protein (10%) diets were on average 44% lighter in body mass, had slower growth rates and were delayed >20 days in reaching 90% of asymptotic size compared with Canada goose goslings fed 18% protein. In contrast, snow goose goslings were unable to survive on the low-protein diets, and those fed high- or medium-protein diets grew at a similar rate and achieved similar asymptotic size. Canada and snow goose goslings fed low-protein diets had reduced growth rates of the tarsus and delayed emergence of the 9th primary. Free-ranging Canada goslings on Akimiski Island were similar in mass and structural size to captive-reared goslings fed low-protein diets. In contrast, snow goslings were similar in mass and structural size to the captive-reared goslings fed the high- and medium-protein diets. This suggests that degraded habitats with mostly low-protein forage may be able to support Canada goslings better than snow goslings which require higher-quality forage to survive. Size-related differences in gosling growth and survival in response to diminished diet quality may influence population size when available food reaches a lower threshold in

  19. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; McKernan, Moira A; Eisenreich, Karen M; Link, William A; Olsen, Glenn H; Hoffman, David J; Knowles, Kathy A; McGowan, Peter C

    2006-02-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was lympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 microg/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 microg/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 microg/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney (<5 microg/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  20. Ecological implications of reduced forage quality on growth and survival of sympatric geese.

    PubMed

    Richman, Samantha E; Leafloor, James O; Karasov, William H; McWilliams, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Allometric constraints associated with digesting leaves require relatively small avian herbivores to consume high-quality forage. How such constraints are overcome during ontogeny when energy and nutrient requirements are relatively high has not been adequately explored. We compared growth trajectories of Canada and lesser snow goose goslings raised on grass-based diets that differed in protein (10%, 14% or 18%) and fibre (30% or 45%) with those of free-living goslings on Akimiski Island, Canada. This common-garden experiment allowed us to test the hypotheses that (i) smaller-bodied geese are more negatively affected by reduced forage quality than larger-bodied geese, and (ii) goslings from subarctic brood-rearing areas have a limited capacity to slow growth in response to reduced forage quality. Canada goose goslings fed low-protein (10%) diets were on average 44% lighter in body mass, had slower growth rates and were delayed >20 days in reaching 90% of asymptotic size compared with Canada goose goslings fed 18% protein. In contrast, snow goose goslings were unable to survive on the low-protein diets, and those fed high- or medium-protein diets grew at a similar rate and achieved similar asymptotic size. Canada and snow goose goslings fed low-protein diets had reduced growth rates of the tarsus and delayed emergence of the 9th primary. Free-ranging Canada goslings on Akimiski Island were similar in mass and structural size to captive-reared goslings fed low-protein diets. In contrast, snow goslings were similar in mass and structural size to the captive-reared goslings fed the high- and medium-protein diets. This suggests that degraded habitats with mostly low-protein forage may be able to support Canada goslings better than snow goslings which require higher-quality forage to survive. Size-related differences in gosling growth and survival in response to diminished diet quality may influence population size when available food reaches a lower threshold in

  1. Distribution of autumn-staging Lesser Snow Geese on the northeast coastal plain of Alaska [Distribución de chen caerulescens a través de su congregación otonal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Donna G.; Brackney, Alan W.; Spindler, Michael A.; Hupp, Jerry W.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted aerial surveys of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) during autumn staging on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northeast Alaska from late August through September, 1982 - 1993. We evaluated numbers and distribution of Snow Geese that staged on the ANWR, compared abundance of birds among 5 x 5-km cells used frequently (5 - 8 yr), periodically (3 - 4 yr), or infrequently (1 - 2 yr), and examined distribution changes within years. Maximum numbers of Snow Geese observed annually were highly variable (range 12,828 - 309,225). Snow Goose flocks occurred across 605,000 ha of the coastal plain, but used some areas more frequently than others. Frequently used cells (38 of 363 cells in the study area) were non-randomly distributed and primarily occurred on the central coastal plain between the wet coastal and steep foothills regions. Abundance of geese was greatest in frequently used, intermediate in periodically used, and lowest in infrequently used cells. Within years, Snow Goose numbers and flock locations varied between surveys, possibly because geese moved to different foraging areas during staging. The widespread distribution and annual variability in numbers of Snow Geese on the coastal plain was likely because birds used foraging habitats that were spatially and temporally heterogeneous. The ANWR coastal plain is an important component of the fall-staging area used by Snow Geese that nest in the western Canadian Arctic. Management decisions that affect the region should reflect its value to migrating Snow Geese.

  2. Decline of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) associated with a collapse of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in a Nova Scotia estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Norman R.; Miller, Anthony G.; Garbary, David J.

    2002-09-01

    Mean numbers of migrant Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in Antigonish Harbour in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada) during October to December were similar (approx. 450-500 birds) for the period 1998-2000. Similarly, during this period, geese used two foraging sites. However, in 2001, the average number of birds decreased by half and the primary foraging sites were used only rarely. This coincided with a decline of about 95% in the biomass of roots and rhizomes of eelgrass (Zostera marina) that occurred between October 2000 and 2001. Eelgrass is the principal food of geese in this estuary. In addition, there was a reduction of around 50% in the numbers of common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), which feed on invertebrates associated with eelgrass. Lower than usual weekly abundances of geese and goldeneye are probably the result of an unusually short residence time in the estuary, rather than a decline in the total number of visiting migrants. We attribute these changes in the distribution and abundance of geese and goldeneyes to the dramatic decline in eelgrass.

  3. Correlations between body measurements and tissue composition of oat-fattened White Kołuda geese at 17 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Lukaszewicz, E; Adamski, M; Kowalczyk, A

    2008-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the yield and tissue composition of carcases from White Kołuda ganders (males) and geese (females), and to determine the relationships between body measurements and carcase tissue composition. 2. The experiment was carried out on 200 geese (100 males and 100 females) reared to 14 weeks of age and then fed with oats for the next 3 weeks. Live body weight and body dimensions, slaughter yield, weight and percentage of muscles and skin with fat in carcase were measured and correlation coefficients were calculated between body measurements and slaughter values and carcase tissue composition. 3. White Kołuda geese reared to 17 weeks of age were characterised by high body weight (6705 g) and good muscle yield (29.9%). Males had greater body weight, musculature and fatness than females. Sternum length and breast circumference, width and depth were good indicators of carcase muscle weight in 17-week-old geese. 4. Negative coefficients of correlation between sternum length and weight of skin with subcutaneous fat indicate that increased selection pressure in pedigree flocks of geese on sternum length should be paralleled by reduced carcase fatness in these birds. PMID:18210286

  4. The origin of the white Roman goose.

    PubMed

    Wang, C M; Way, T D; Chang, Y C; Yen, N T; Hu, C L; Nien, P C; Jea, Y S; Chen, L R; Kao, J Y

    2010-12-01

    In order to avoid interference from nuclear copies of mitochondrial DNA (numts), mtDNA of the white Roman goose (domestic goose) was extracted from liver mitochondria. The mtDNA control region was amplified using a long PCR strategy and then sequenced. Neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum-likelihood approaches were implemented using the 1,177 bp mtDNA control region sequences to compute the phylogenetic relationships of the domestic goose with other geese. The resulting identity values for the white Roman geese were 99.1% (1,166/1,177) with western graylag geese and 98.8% (1,163/1,177) with eastern graylag geese. In molecular phylogenetic trees, the white Roman goose was grouped in the graylag lineage, indicating that the white Roman goose came from the graylag goose (Anser anser). Thus, the scientific name of the white Roman goose should be Anser anser 'White Roman.'

  5. Susceptibility of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1).

    PubMed

    Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Copps, John; Kehler, Helen; Handel, Katherine; Babiuk, Shawn; Hooper-McGrevy, Kathleen; Li, Yan; Mai Le, Quynh; Lien Phuong, Song

    2007-12-01

    Migratory birds have been implicated in the long-range spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus (H5N1) from Asia to Europe and Africa. Although sampling of healthy wild birds representing a large number of species has not identified possible carriers of influenza virus (H5N1) into Europe, surveillance of dead and sick birds has demonstrated mute (Cygnus olor) and whooper (C. cygnus) swans as potential sentinels. Because of concerns that migratory birds could spread H5N1 subtype to the Western Hemisphere and lead to its establishment within free-living avian populations, experimental studies have addressed the susceptibility of several indigenous North American duck and gull species. We examined the susceptibility of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) to HPAI virus (H5N1). Large populations of this species can be found in periagricultural and periurban settings and thus may be of potential epidemiologic importance if H5N1 subtype were to establish itself in North American wild bird populations.

  6. Filling a void: abundance estimation of North American populations of arctic geese using hunter recoveries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alisauskas, R.T.; Drake, K.L.; Nichols, J.D.; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    We consider use of recoveries of marked birds harvested by hunters, in conjunction with continental harvest estimates, for drawing inferences about continental abundance of a select number of goose species. We review assumptions of this method, a version of the Lincoln?Petersen approach, and consider its utility as a tool for making decisions about harvest management in comparison to current sources of information. Finally, we compare such estimates with existing count data, photographic estimates, or other abundance estimates. In most cases, Lincoln estimates are far higher than abundances assumed or perhaps accepted by many waterfowl biologists and managers. Nevertheless, depending on the geographic scope of inference, we suggest that this approach for abundance estimation of arctic geese may have usefulness for retrospective purposes or to assist with harvest management decisions for some species. Lincoln?s estimates may be as close or closer to truth than count, index, or photo data, and can be used with marking efforts currently in place for estimation of survival and harvest rates. Although there are bias issues associated with estimates of both harvest and harvest rate, some of the latter can be addressed with proper allocation of marks to spatially structured populations if subpopulations show heterogeneity in harvest rates.

  7. Evaluation of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program: addressing resettlement issues in prison.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Leigh; Pritchard, Cecilia; Haskayne, Donna; Watson, Andy; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the impact of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program on a sample of offenders who attended it. This program used theatre performance, experiential exercises, skills practice role-plays, and metaphors such as the masks to invite a group of offenders to consider and explore issues connected with their release and reconnecting with a life outside prison. Pre- and postprogram psychometric tests, behavior ratings, and interviews were completed to assess the effectiveness of the program. Significant changes were observed from pre- to posttreatment in terms of self-efficacy, motivation to change, and improved confidence in skills (i.e., social and friendship, occupational, family and intimacy, dealing with authority, alternatives to aggression or offending, and self-management and self-control skills). Improved behavior and engagement within the program was observed over the 3 days of the program. Interviews also revealed the positive impact the program had on the participants. This provides evidence supporting the short-term effectiveness of the Re-Connect program.

  8. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid and choline requirements of young Embden geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined.

  9. "My goose child Martina": the multiple uses of geese in the writings of Konrad Lorenz.

    PubMed

    Munz, Tania

    2011-01-01

    In 1935, the graylag goose Martina (1935-?) hatched from an egg in the home of the zoologist Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989). Martina imprinted on Lorenz, slept in his bedroom, mated with the gander Martin, and flew off in 1937. Over the following decades, Konrad Lorenz helped to establish the discipline of ethology, received a share of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and continued to write about his famous goose Martina. This essay examines the different instantiations of the geese in general, and Martina in particular, in Lorenz's writings aimed at readerships that included prewar zoologists, National Socialist psychologists, and popular audiences from the 1930s to 1980s. By developing an animal with her own biography, Lorenz created an individual whose lived and rhetorical agency made her especially well suited to perform widely divergent aspects of his evolving science. While a significant literature in the history of science has explored the standardization and stabilization of animals in science, I show how Lorenz's creation of a highly protean and increasingly public Martina was co-constitutive of the establishment of the science and public persona.

  10. Seasonal enumeration of fecal coliform bacteria from the feces of ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Alderisio, K A; DeLuca, N

    1999-12-01

    Water suppliers have often implicated roosting birds for fecal contamination of their surface waters. Geese and gulls have been the primary targets of this blame although literature documenting the fecal coliform content of these birds is quite limited. To determine the actual fecal coliform concentrations of these birds, fecal samples from 249 ring-billed gulls and 236 Canada geese in Westchester County, N.Y., were analyzed over a 2-year period. Results indicate that gull feces contain a greater average concentration of fecal coliform bacteria per gram (3.68 x 10(8)) than do goose feces (1.53 x 10(4)); however, average fecal sample weights of the geese were more than 15 times higher than those of the gulls.

  11. Complete genome sequence of a natural reassortant H9N2 avian influenza virus found in bean goose (Anser fabalis): direct evidence for virus exchange between Korea and China via wild birds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Chang-Seon

    2014-08-01

    In 2011, we isolated a natural recombinant H9N2 avian influenza virus from fecal droppings of bean goose (Anser fabalis) in Korea. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the A/bean goose/Korea/220/2011(H9N2) isolate is a reassortant of Eurasian and North American lineages of avian influenza virus. In addition, the complete genome sequence, including all 8 gene segments, was associated with Chinese H9N2 viruses isolated from wild birds in the Hunan East Dongting Lake National Nature Reserve. These data provide direct evidence for the exchange of avian influenza viruses between Korea and China via wild birds.

  12. Effects of short light regimes and lower dietary protein content on the reproductive performance of White Roman geese in an environment-controlled house.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shen-Chang; Chiang, Hsin-I; Lin, Min-Jung; Jea, Yu-Shine; Chen, Lih-Ren; Fan, Yang-Kwang; Lee, Tzu-Tai

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of short light regimes and lower dietary protein content on the reproductive performance of White Roman geese in an environment- controlled house. Thirty-two ganders and 80 geese during the third laying period were allotted into 16 pens, randomly assigned into a split-plot design with two different lighting regimes: (1) short light regimes (SL) with 6.5h of light and 17.5h of dark (6.5L:17.5D), and (2) long light regimes (LL) with 19L:5D during the 6-wk prelaying period, followed by two different levels of protein diets (Low CP: 15% vs. High CP: 18%) for the laying period. The results showed that birds treated with the SL light regime had a heavier body weight compared to those treated with LL at the arrival of the peak period of egg production (6.19 vs. 5.87kg, P<0.05). Geese under LL had a longer laying period than those under SL treatment (277 vs. 175day, P<0.05), while the geese under SL treatment had a higher laying intensity (15.4% vs. 12.6%, P<0.05), fertility and hatchability than those under LL treatment. Our results suggest that the White Roman geese treated with 6-wk short light regime during the prelaying period and on the low CP diet during the laying period found conditions sufficient to sustain their regular reproduction performance, which would benefit geese farmers in the perspectives of energy saving and prolonged laying period. PMID:27211279

  13. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and the Methodology for Mitigation and Enhancement in the Flathead Drainage, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, Dennis L.

    1985-01-01

    The lower Flathead System Canada Goose Study was initiated to determine population trends and the effects of water level fluctuations on nest and brood habitat on the southern half of Flathead Lake and the lower Flathead River as a result of the operations of Kerr Dam. This report presents data collected during the 1984 field season as part of an ongoing project. Geese used Pablo, Kicking Horse, Ninepipe Reservoirs heavily during late summer and fall. Use of the river by geese was high during the winter, when the reservoirs were frozen, and during the breeding period. Most breeding geese left the river after broods fledged. Thirteen percent of the artificial tree nest structures on the river were used by nesting geese. Goose nest initiation on the river peaked the last week in March through the first week in April, and hatching peaked the first week in May. Predation was the most significant cause of nest loss on the river, and nest loss by flooding was not observed. Avian predation was the single largest factor contributing to nest loss on the lake. Habitat use was studied in 4 brood areas on the river and 8 brood areas on the lake, and available habitat was assessed for 2 portions of both the lake and the river. Brood habitat use was significantly different from the available habitat in all areas studied. On the lower river, broods used wheat fields, gravel bars, and shrub habitats. On the upper river, coniferous forest and shrub habitats were preferred. On the West Bay of the lake, brood areas consisted primarily of lawns and tall herbaceous habitat, while on the South Bay, marshes dominated the brood areas studied. Water levels on the river and lake affect both accessibility of these areas to brooding geese, and the ecology of the habitats preferred by geese. 43 refs., 24 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Variability in pathobiology of South Korean H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus infection for 5 species of migratory waterfowl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological outcome of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection in wild waterfowl is poorly understood. This study examined infectivity and pathobiology of A/chicken/Korea/IS/06 (H5N1) HPAI virus infection in Mute swans (Cygnus olor), Greylag geese (Anser anser), Ruddy Sheld...

  15. Description of the larva of Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus (Siphonaptera:Ceratophyllidae) from nests of Ross's and lesser snow geese in Nunavut, Canada.

    PubMed

    Harriman, Vanessa B; Galloway, Terry D; Alisauskas, Ray T; Wobeser, Gary A

    2011-04-01

    Adults of the flea, Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus , were present in the hundreds in nests of Ross's (Chen rossii) and lesser snow (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) geese in the Arctic goose colony at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. Ceratophyllus v. vagabundus had not been previously recorded in association with Ross's or snow geese. Large numbers of C. v. vagabundus adults and larvae were collected and a description of the larva is provided for the first time. On the basis of external characters, larvae were indistinguishable from those of a number of other Ceratophyllus spp. previously described from North America, i.e., Ceratophyllus idius, Ceratophyllus niger, and Ceratophyllus lari. PMID:21506868

  16. Effect of Monochromic Light-emitting Diode Light with Different Color on the Growth and Reproductive Performances of Breeder Geese

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C.; Lin, M. J.; Zhuang, Z. X.; Huang, S. Y.; Lin, T. Y.; Jea, Y. S.; Fan, Y. K.; Lee, T. T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of monochromic light-emitting diode (LED) light with different color on the growth and reproductive performances of white Roman breeder geese. A randomized complete batch design was utilized for the trial, and the replicate was regarded as one batch. Twenty ganders and fifty-five dames were used in batch 1 (started on 2011/6/17 and ended on 2012/1/31), thirty ganders and eighty-four dames were used in batch 2 (started on 2012/3/23 and ended on 2012/10/26), and thirty ganders and seventy-two dames were used in batch 3 (started on 2013/3/12 and ended on 2013/12/20). Two hundred and ninety-one geese were randomly assigned to 6 rooms in an environmentally controlled house. They were randomly allotted into one of three monochromatic light treatments: Blue, red, or white. The results showed that there was no significant difference in body weight among the three lighting groups at any point throughout the experimental period. However, compared to the blue light group, significantly more eggs were produced by the red and white light groups (p<0.05). Furthermore, the laying period of the red light group was significantly longer than that of other two groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that red LED-light has the best effect on reproductive performance (i.e. longer laying period and higher total eggs number) at 30 lux light intensity, and is therefore a better choice for the management of breeding geese than blue or white LED-light. PMID:26954165

  17. Fidelity and breeding probability related to population density and individual quality in black brent geese Branta bernicla nigricans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, J.S.; Chelgren, N.D.; Ward, D.H.; Lindberg, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    1. Patterns of temporary emigration (associated with non-breeding) are important components of variation in individual quality. Permanent emigration from the natal area has important implications for both individual fitness and local population dynamics. 2. We estimated both permanent and temporary emigration of black brent geese (Branta bernicla nigricans Lawrence) from the Tutakoke River colony, using observations of marked brent geese on breeding and wintering areas, and recoveries of ringed individuals by hunters. We used the likelihood developed by Lindberg, Kendall, Hines & Anderson 2001 (Combining band recovery data and Pollock's robust design to model temporary and permanent emigration. Biometrics, 57, 273-281) to assess hypotheses and estimate parameters. 3. Temporary emigration (the converse of breeding) varied among age classes up to age 5, and differed between individuals that bred in the previous years vs. those that did not. Consistent with the hypothesis of variation in individual quality, individuals with a higher probability of breeding in one year also had a higher probability of breeding the next year. 4. Natal fidelity of females ranged from 0.70 ?? 0.07-0.96 ?? 0.18 and averaged 0.83. In contrast to Lindberg et al. (1998), we did not detect a relationship between fidelity and local population density. Natal fidelity was negatively correlated with first-year survival, suggesting that competition among individuals of the same age for breeding territories influenced dispersal. Once females nested at the Tutakoke River, colony breeding fidelity was 1.0. 5. Our analyses show substantial variation in individual quality associated with fitness, which other analyses suggest is strongly influenced by early environment. Our analyses also suggest substantial interchange among breeding colonies of brent geese, as first shown by Lindberg et al. (1998).

  18. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brook, Rodney W.; Leafloor, James O.; Douglas, David C.; Abraham, Kenneth F.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  19. Dynamics of yolk sac resorption and post-hatching development of the gastrointestinal tract in chickens, ducks and geese.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, D; Wertelecki, T; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J

    2004-06-01

    Under similar environmental conditions, 100 male Shaver-Starbro hybrid chickens, 100 male Mulard cross-line ducklings and 100 male Landaise goslings kept in 30 metabolic cages from the first day of life (10 birds of each species separately per cage) were chosen for the study. The animals were fed semi ad libitum diets with crude protein content and energy density similar to that used for poultry species, avoiding feed residues. During the first 21 days of life they received starter diets and from day 22 to 42 grower diets. Maize accounted for 23-40% and barley constituted 10-18%. Wheat accounted for 20.0% in starter diets and 10-18% in grower diets. Resorption of yolk sac residues, performance, development of the intestinal tract in young chickens, ducklings and goslings were assessed. During the first 5 days of life intensive absorption of yolk sac ingredients was observed. On day 7, residues of the yolk sac were found in more than 30% of chickens compared with approximately 10% in geese. In ducklings residues of the yolk sac were not found. On day 16 unabsorbed yolk sacs were found in approximately 10% of chickens. Liver and pancreas weighed the highest in geese and in ducks; in chickens the weight of these organs was significantly lower (p < 0.01). The relative values calculated to 100 g of metabolic body weight show that the average small intestine in chickens was significantly longer (p < 0.01) than in ducks or geese. The intestinal tract developed earlier in the chicken than in the water fowl.

  20. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 2 in ovarian follicles of the Sichuan white goose (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    He, Hui; Kang, Bo; Jiang, Dongmei; Ma, Rong; Bai, Lin

    2014-07-25

    The ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 2 (OAZ2) gene is a member of the antizyme gene family. Antizymes play pivotal roles in various cellular pathways, including polyamine anabolism and apoptosis. The molecular structure and expression profile of the OAZ2 in goose ovarian follicles have not been reported. In this study, the OAZ2 cDNA sequence of the Sichuan white goose was cloned (Anser cygnoides), and phylogenetic and structural analyses of the OAZ2 were performed. The expression profiling of OAZ2 mRNA in goose ovarian follicles was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The sequence analysis showed that the 756 bp OAZ2 sequence contained two overlapping open reading frames (ORF). ORF1 was 99 bp in length, and encoded a 32 aa polypeptide. ORF2 was 477 bp in length, and encoded a 158 aa polypeptide. The frameshift site that initiates the translation of ORF2 was located at nucleotide position 97 in the OAZ2. The analysis of OAZ2 mRNA expression in hierarchical follicles showed that the level of OAZ2 mRNA was higher in the SWF and F2 follicular stages than that in the ovarian stroma (P<0.05). The lowest level of OAZ2 expression was detected in the ovarian stroma. These results suggest that the highly conserved frameshift region plays an important role in sustaining the function of OAZs. Furthermore, the significantly higher level of OAZ2 mRNA in the SWF stage indicates that OAZ2 may be involved in recruiting hierarchical follicles. Our results also suggest that OAZ2 may augment the effects of OAZ1 in follicle development.

  1. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands.

    PubMed

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-01

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  2. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands.

    PubMed

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-01

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  3. Enumeration and antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal indicator organisms isolated from migratory Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Middleton, J H; Ambrose, A

    2005-04-01

    Thermotolerant fecal indicator organisms carried by migratory waterfowl may serve as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance. To determine the extent to which such antibiotic resistance markers were present in migratory Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the Maryland Eastern Shore, we isolated Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli from fresh feces and examined the antibiotic resistance profiles of these bacteria. Samples were obtained in October 2002, January 2003, and March 2003. Thermotolerant E. coli counts ranged from 0 to 1.0x10(7) colony forming units (CFU)/0.1g (g-1) wet weight of feces, whereas Enterococcus spp. counts ranged from 1.0x10(2)-1.0x10(7) CFU g-1 wet weight of feces. Primary isolates of each indicator organism were tested against a panel of 10 antibiotics. Greater than 95% of E. coli isolates were resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin, cephalothin, and sulfathiazole; no E. coli were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Enterococcal isolates showed highest resistance to cephalothin, streptomycin, and sulfathiazole; no enterococci were resistant to chloramphenicol. The tetracyclines, streptomycin, and gentamycin provided the greatest discrimination among E. coli isolates; chlortetracycline, cephalothin, and gentamycin resistance patterns provided the greatest discrimination between enterococcal strains. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) profiles were calculated: fall (E. coli=0.499; enterococci=0.234), winter (E. coli=0.487; enterococci=0.389), and spring (E. coli=0.489; enterococci=0.348). E. faecalis and E. faecium, which are recognized human nosocomial pathogens, were cultured from winter (44 and 56%, respectively) and spring (13 and 31%, respectively) fecal samples.

  4. Multicomponent blood lipid analysis by means of near infrared spectroscopy, in geese.

    PubMed

    Bazar, George; Eles, Viktoria; Kovacs, Zoltan; Romvari, Robert; Szabo, Andras

    2016-08-01

    This study provides accurate near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic models on some laboratory determined clinicochemical parameters (i.e. total lipid (5.57±1.95 g/l), triglyceride (2.59±1.36 mmol/l), total cholesterol (3.81±0.68 mmol/l), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (2.45±0.58 mmol/l)) of blood serum samples of fattened geese. To increase the performance of multivariate chemometrics, samples significantly deviating from the regression models implying laboratory error were excluded from the final calibration datasets. Reference data of excluded samples having outlier spectra in principal component analysis were not marked as false. Samples deviating from the regression models but having non outlier spectra in PCA were identified as having false reference constituent values. Based on the NIR selection methods, 5% of the reference measurement data were rated as doubtful. The achieved models reached R(2) of 0.864, 0.966, 0.850, 0.793, and RMSE of 0.639 g/l, 0.232 mmol/l, 0.210 mmol/l, 0.241 mmol/l for total lipid, triglyceride, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, respectively, during independent validation. Classical analytical techniques focus on single constituents and often require chemicals, time-consuming measurements, and experienced technicians. NIR technique provides a quick, cost effective, non-hazardous alternative method for analysis of several constituents based on one single spectrum of each sample, and it also offers the possibility for looking at the laboratory reference data critically. Evaluation of reference data to identify and exclude falsely analyzed samples can provide warning feedback to the reference laboratory, especially in the case of analyses where laboratory methods are not perfectly suited to the subjected material and there is an increased chance of laboratory error. PMID:27216674

  5. Source tracking identifies deer and geese as vectors of human-infectious Cryptosporidium genotypes in an urban/suburban watershed.

    PubMed

    Jellison, Kristen L; Lynch, Amy E; Ziemann, Joseph M

    2009-06-15

    This study identified Cryptosporidium genotypes in the Wissahickon watershed from May 2005 to April 2008. We analyzed 129 samples from Wissahickon Creek, 83 effluent samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and 240 fecal droppings. Genotyping was based on the hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene. Oocysts were detected year-round, independent of wet weather events, in 22% of Wissahickon Creek samples, 5% of WWTP effluents, and 7% of fecal samples. Of the genotypes detected, 67% were human-infectious: 30% C. hominis or C. hominis-like, 12% C. parvum, 14% cervine genotype, 9% skunk genotype, and 1% chipmunk I genotype. Similar genotype profiles were detected in Wissahickon Creek each year, and human-infectious genotypes were detected year-round. Unusual genotypes detected in a deer (a C. hominis-like genotype) and geese (C. hominis-like genotypes, C. parvum, and muskrat genotype I) show that these animals are vectors of human-infectious genotypes in this watershed. Results suggest that deer, geese, and WWTPs are appropriate targets for source water protection in the Wissahickon watershed.

  6. Immunopotentiators Improve the Efficacy of Oil-Emulsion-Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine in Chickens, Ducks and Geese.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jihu; Wu, Peipei; Zhang, Xuehua; Feng, Lei; Dong, Bin; Chu, Xuan; Liu, Xiufan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Huailiang; Hou, Jibo; Tang, Yinghua

    2016-01-01

    Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI) vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection. PMID:27232188

  7. High-throughput sequencing reveals differential expression of miRNAs in prehierarchal follicles of laying and brooding geese.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; He, Ke; Ren, Ting; Lou, Yaping; Zhao, Ayong

    2016-07-01

    Broodiness is the primary factor influencing egg production in geese, in which several genes and miRNAs participate. Detailed spatiotemporal profiles of miRNAs encompassing follicle development levels, however, are lacking. In this study, we collected preovulatory follicles (classified as small white follicles, large white follicles, and small yellow follicles) from brooding and laying geese and aimed to analyze microRNA (miRNA or miR) during folliculogenesis. High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were used to identify the miRNAs involved in follicle development. The let7 family, miR-10 family, and miR-143 family were abundant in these libraries, and they have been suggested to play a housekeeping role during folliculogenesis. Joint comparisons revealed 23 upregulated and 21 downregulated miRNAs (in at least two comparisons of follicles during brooding and laying, P < 0.1) in the laying stage. Unlike reproduction pathways reported for ovaries, GO and KEGG analysis suggested pathways for cell apoptosis and proliferation, such as the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, endocytosis, axon guidance, pathways in cancer, tight junctions, focal adhesion, the MAPK signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, and the Wnt signaling pathway in folliculogenesis. This study revealed the miRNAs that were directly involved in follicular atresia, and our results added to the understanding of the functional involvement of miRNAs during specific stages of follicle development. PMID:27199452

  8. High-throughput sequencing reveals differential expression of miRNAs in prehierarchal follicles of laying and brooding geese

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; He, Ke; Ren, Ting; Lou, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Broodiness is the primary factor influencing egg production in geese, in which several genes and miRNAs participate. Detailed spatiotemporal profiles of miRNAs encompassing follicle development levels, however, are lacking. In this study, we collected preovulatory follicles (classified as small white follicles, large white follicles, and small yellow follicles) from brooding and laying geese and aimed to analyze microRNA (miRNA or miR) during folliculogenesis. High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were used to identify the miRNAs involved in follicle development. The let7 family, miR-10 family, and miR-143 family were abundant in these libraries, and they have been suggested to play a housekeeping role during folliculogenesis. Joint comparisons revealed 23 upregulated and 21 downregulated miRNAs (in at least two comparisons of follicles during brooding and laying, P < 0.1) in the laying stage. Unlike reproduction pathways reported for ovaries, GO and KEGG analysis suggested pathways for cell apoptosis and proliferation, such as the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, endocytosis, axon guidance, pathways in cancer, tight junctions, focal adhesion, the MAPK signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, and the Wnt signaling pathway in folliculogenesis. This study revealed the miRNAs that were directly involved in follicular atresia, and our results added to the understanding of the functional involvement of miRNAs during specific stages of follicle development. PMID:27199452

  9. Source tracking identifies deer and geese as vectors of human-infectious Cryptosporidium genotypes in an urban/suburban watershed.

    PubMed

    Jellison, Kristen L; Lynch, Amy E; Ziemann, Joseph M

    2009-06-15

    This study identified Cryptosporidium genotypes in the Wissahickon watershed from May 2005 to April 2008. We analyzed 129 samples from Wissahickon Creek, 83 effluent samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and 240 fecal droppings. Genotyping was based on the hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene. Oocysts were detected year-round, independent of wet weather events, in 22% of Wissahickon Creek samples, 5% of WWTP effluents, and 7% of fecal samples. Of the genotypes detected, 67% were human-infectious: 30% C. hominis or C. hominis-like, 12% C. parvum, 14% cervine genotype, 9% skunk genotype, and 1% chipmunk I genotype. Similar genotype profiles were detected in Wissahickon Creek each year, and human-infectious genotypes were detected year-round. Unusual genotypes detected in a deer (a C. hominis-like genotype) and geese (C. hominis-like genotypes, C. parvum, and muskrat genotype I) show that these animals are vectors of human-infectious genotypes in this watershed. Results suggest that deer, geese, and WWTPs are appropriate targets for source water protection in the Wissahickon watershed. PMID:19603633

  10. Avian cholera in waterfowl: the role of lesser snow and ross's geese as disease carriers in the Playa Lakes Region.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Michael D; Shadduck, Daniel J; Goldberg, Diana R; Johnson, William P

    2005-01-01

    We collected samples from apparently healthy geese in the Playa Lakes Region (USA) during the winters of 2000-01 and 2001-02 to determine whether carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, were present in wild populations. With the use of methods developed in laboratory challenge trials (Samuel et al., 2003a) and a serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction method for identification of P. multocida serotype 1, we found that a small proportion of 322 wild birds (<5%) were carriers of pathogenic P. multocida. On the basis of serology, an additional group of these birds (<10%) were survivors of recent avian cholera infection. Our results confirm the hypothesis that wild waterfowl are carriers of avian cholera and add support for the hypothesis that wild birds are a reservoir for this disease. In concert with other research, this work indicates that enzootic infection with avian cholera occurs in lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) populations throughout their annual cycle. Although fewer Ross's geese (Chen rossii) were sampled, we also found these birds were carriers of P. multocida. Even in the absence of disease outbreaks, serologic evidence indicates that chronic disease transmission and recent infection are apparently occurring year-round in these highly gregarious birds and that a small portion of these populations are potential carriers with active infection. PMID:15827210

  11. Protective efficacy of commercial Newcastle disease vaccines against challenge of goose origin virulent Newcastle disease virus in geese.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yabin; Liu, Mei; Li, Wenliang

    2008-09-01

    Since 1997, severe outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) in geese in many regions throughout China have resulted in high morbidity and mortality, and great economic loss to farmers; however, no licensed, specific vaccine is yet available for this disease in China. In this study, goslings were immunized with different combinations and dosages of several commercial ND vaccines including La Sota vaccine, Mukteswar vaccine, recombinant live vaccine against avian influenza (AI) and ND (rL-H5 strain), and inactivated ND oil-emulsion vaccine (La Sota strain). The protective effects were evaluated based upon the level of antibody response and the degree of protection against the goose-origin virulent NDV strain. The result showed that two doses (i.e., one more than that for chicken) of La Sota vaccine priming, followed by 2-5 doses of Mukteswar vaccine boosting 2-3 weeks later, not only induced higher HI antibody levels, but also conferred longer-lasting protection. This immunization procedure can be recommended for prevention of ND in geese.

  12. Immunopotentiators Improve the Efficacy of Oil-Emulsion-Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine in Chickens, Ducks and Geese

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuehua; Feng, Lei; Dong, Bin; Chu, Xuan; Liu, Xiufan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Huailiang; Hou, Jibo; Tang, Yinghua

    2016-01-01

    Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI) vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection. PMID:27232188

  13. Dynamics of parasitic infections at four sites within lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) from the breeding colony at La Pérouse Bay, Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Clinchy, M; Barker, I K

    1994-08-01

    We enumerated parasite burdens within the blood, gizzard, ceca, and kidneys of adult female lesser snow geese Chen caerulescens caerulescens collected from the breeding colony at La Pérouse Bay, Manitoba, Canada, in 1989. We observed 5 species of nematodes, 1 species of digenean, 1 species of protozoan, and an unidentified microfilaria in these geese. We compared parasite burdens between geese collected during the incubation (2-14 June) and brood-rearing (1-5 August) periods. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence and intensity of the gizzard nematode Amidostomum spatulatum and a significant increase in the prevalence of the renal coccidium Eimeria truncata between the 2 collection periods. We suggest that the changes concerning A. spatulatum reflect transmission conditions some 6 months earlier when the geese were on the wintering grounds. Changes involving E. truncata reflected transmission conditions within the previous month. Consequently, it would appear that breeding colonies are the foci for transmission of E. truncata, a significant pathogen of adults and goslings. PMID:8064540

  14. Analysis of 16S rDNA and Metagenomic Sequences Revealed Microbial Community and Host-Specific Sequences of Canadian Geese Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increasing concern regarding the public health risks associated with waterfowl fecal pollution as a result of the increase in geese populations (Branta canadensis) in or near U.S. and Canadian recreational waters. Currently, there are no methods that can be used to de...

  15. Effect of corn silage and quantitative feed restriction on growth performance, body measurements, and carcass tissue composition in White Kołuda W31 geese.

    PubMed

    Kokoszyński, D; Bernacki, Z; Grabowicz, M; Stańczak, K

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of corn silage and quantitative feed restriction on BW, ADG, feed conversion, and carcass composition of White Kołuda W31 geese. Two diets were fed during the rearing period from 22 to 98 d of age: 1) a commercial diet ad libitum, and 2) restricted amounts of a commercial diet and corn silage ad libitum. Each treatment had 2 replicates of 16 birds each. From 99 to 119 d of age, all birds were fattened with whole oat grain alone. Incorporation of corn silage reduced weight gains and caused statistically significant differences in BW at the end of the rearing period (14 wk, 6,625.0 vs. 6,050.0 g; P < 0.05). Experimental geese showed compensatory growth during the oat fattening period and the BW of geese from both groups was similar at the end of the study (17 wk, 7,675.1 vs. 7,467.9 g; P > 0.05). Daily weight gains varied with week of growth, being lowest at 12 wk of age. Birds fed the commercial diet and corn silage had a significantly longer trunk (29.2 vs. 31.0 cm, P < 0.05) and shorter shanks (10.0 vs. 9.4 cm, P < 0.05) at 8 wk, and significantly smaller chest circumference (54.7 vs. 51.9 cm, P < 0.05) at the end of 14 wk. At the end of oat feeding (17 wk), geese receiving silage had significantly longer trunk and drumstick compared with geese fed commercial diets alone. The carcasses of 17-wk-old experimental geese contained more breast and leg muscles (%), and less skin with subcutaneous fat from breast and legs compared with control birds. Significant differences were only noted between the groups in dressing percentage (65.0 vs. 74.7%, P < 0.05) and proportion of skin with subcutaneous fat from breast (8.9 vs. 7.8%, P < 0.05). Dilution of the diet for young fattening geese with whole-crop corn silage had a positive effect on production economics and carcass composition.

  16. Effects of substituting yellow corn for sorghum in geese diets on magret and foie gras quality.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J; Auvergne, A; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Bijja, M; Bannelier, C; Manse, H; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the effects of substitution of yellow corn with sorghum during the growing-finishing (G period), overfeeding (O period), or both periods on magret and foie gras quality in geese. In total, 260 ganders were divided into 4 groups (65 birds in each) differing in the cereal (yellow corn or sorghum) included in the diet given during the G and the O periods, using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The groups differed in the nature of the cereal in the diet offered to birds between 44 and 104 d of age (G period: a diet containing 500 g of sorghum/kg (SS and SC groups) or a diet containing 500 g of yellow corn/kg (CS and CC groups). The groups differed also in the diet offered to birds between 105 and 120 d of age (O period): 967 g of yellow corn/kg (SC and CC groups) or 965 g of sorghum/kg (SS and CS groups). At the end of the O period, the birds were slaughtered after 10 h of fasting to measure foie gras and breast muscle weight, color, and chemical composition. The mortality in the SC group was higher (P < 0.05) than in the other 3 groups (14.29 vs. 3.58%, average of the 3 groups). After overfeeding, birds fed with sorghum had foie gras that were heavier 984 vs. 885 g, in CS+SS vs. CC+SC groups, respectively; P < 0.001) and less yellow (18.03 vs. 23.97 for b*, in CS+SS vs. CC+SC groups, respectively, P < 0.001) than birds fed with corn. The substitution of yellow corn with sorghum during the G and O periods (SS group) increased the weight of the foie gras, but altered its color to a paler yellow. In contrast, a substitution during the G period only (SC group) resulted in increased mortality during the O period.

  17. Effect of incorporating sugar beet pulp in the finisher diet on performance of geese.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J; Brachet, M; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Molette, C; Bannelier, C; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of incorporating sugar beet pulp (SBP) into the diet on the development of the crop and performance of geese. A total of 480 1-day-old ganders were divided into three groups differing in the composition and mode of distribution of the diet offered from day 56 to 89. The following two diets were used: a standard diet (nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, AMEn 11.44 MJ/kg; 160 g/kg CP) or a diet containing 10% of SBP (SBP diet; AMEn 11.47 MJ/kg; 160 g/kg CP). The swelling capacity (SC) hydration was higher for SBP than for the standard diet (3.62 v. 2.72 ml of H2O/g of dry matter at 60 min; P<0.05). In the Control group, birds were fed with a controlled time of access to a standard diet. Other birds were fed the SBP diet with a controlled time of access (SBPt group) or a controlled quantity offered (SBPq). From day 90 to 104, 88 birds/group were overfed with a mixture containing mainly corn. Body traits including volume of the crop were measured at day 89. Fatty liver weight and commercial grading were measured at d 104. Feed intake from day 56 to 89 was higher in the Control group than in the SBPt group (8097 v. 7545 g; P<0.05), feed intake in the SBPq group being intermediate (7801 g); however, live weights (LW) of the birds were similar in the three groups measured at day 89 (5746 g; P>0.05). At day 89, the volume of the crop tended to be higher in the SBPt compared with the Control group (52.8 v. 48.8 ml/kg of LW; P=0.101). After overfeeding, feed intake (12 922 g), weight gain (2412 g), LW (8170 g), fatty liver weight (875 g) and commercial grading of the fatty liver were similar (P>0.1) for all the three groups. Therefore, SBP could help adapt the digestive tract of waterfowl to high feed intake through an increase in the crop volume, but its method of use - that is, level of incorporation and mode of distribution - should continue to be investigated. PMID:25434525

  18. Effects of sequential feeding with low- and high-protein diets on growth performances and plasma metabolite levels in geese.

    PubMed

    Ho, S-Y; Chen, Y-H; Yang, S-K

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted by two trials to investigate effects of sequential feeding with low- and high-protein diets on growth traits and plasma metabolites in geese. In Trial I, the effect of sequential feeding under time-restricted feeding system was investigated. Seventy-two White Roman goslings were randomly allotted into either sequential feeding (S1) or control feeding (C1) group. All goslings were fed for 1 h at morning and at evening, respectively, from 2 to 8 weeks of age. S1 group was offered 13% CP diet at morning and 19% CP diet at evening. C1 group was offered the same diet (16% CP; mixed equally with the two diets mentioned above) at both morning and evening. Blood samples were hourly collected for 4 h after feeding at both morning and evening for the determination of the postprandial plasma levels of glucose, triacylglycerol and uric acid at the end of experiment. Results showed that BW, average daily gain (ADG), and daily feed intake (FI) were not different between groups, but the feed efficiency (FE) in S1 group was significantly higher than that in C1 group (P<0.05). The areas under curve (AUC) of plasma postprandial levels of glucose, triacylglycerol and uric acid were not affected by treatment, but the AUC of triacylglycerol and uric acid in morning were lower than those in evening (P<0.05). In Trial II, the effect of sequential feeding under ad libitum feeding system was investigated. Twenty-four goslings were randomly allotted into either sequential feeding (S2) or control feeding (C2) group. Diets were altered at 0600 and 1800 h, respectively, and geese were fed ad libitum from 4 to 8 weeks of age. S2 group was offered 14% CP diet at morning and 20% CP diet at evening. C2 group was supplied the same diet (mixed with the two diets according to the ratio of diets consumed by S2 group on the preceded day) at both morning and evening. Results showed that the ADG in S2 group was higher than those in C2 group (P<0.05). Summarized data from both

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Flavivirus, Duck Tembusu Virus, Isolated from Ducks and Geese in China

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Tao; Zhang, Dabing; Ma, Xuejun; Cao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Liu; Ni, Zheng; Ye, Weicheng; Yu, Bin; Hua, Jionggang; Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) is an emerging agent that causes a severe disease in ducks. We report herein the first complete genome sequences of duck tembusu virus strains YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2, isolated from Shaoxing ducks, breeder ducks, and geese, respectively, in China. The genomes of YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2 are all 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and encode a putative polyprotein of 3,426 amino acids. It is flanked by a 5′ and a 3′ noncoding region (NCR) of 94 and 618 nt, respectively. Knowledge of the whole sequence of DTMUV will be useful for further studies of the mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenesis. PMID:22354945

  20. Complete genome sequence of a novel flavivirus, duck tembusu virus, isolated from ducks and geese in china.

    PubMed

    Yun, Tao; Zhang, Dabing; Ma, Xuejun; Cao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Liu; Ni, Zheng; Ye, Weicheng; Yu, Bin; Hua, Jionggang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cun

    2012-03-01

    Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) is an emerging agent that causes a severe disease in ducks. We report herein the first complete genome sequences of duck tembusu virus strains YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2, isolated from Shaoxing ducks, breeder ducks, and geese, respectively, in China. The genomes of YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2 are all 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and encode a putative polyprotein of 3,426 amino acids. It is flanked by a 5' and a 3' noncoding region (NCR) of 94 and 618 nt, respectively. Knowledge of the whole sequence of DTMUV will be useful for further studies of the mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenesis.

  1. Pathology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in Canada geese (Branta canadensis): preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, J L; Embury-Hyatt, C; Berhane, Y; Manning, L; Ganske, S; Pasick, J

    2009-09-01

    Susceptibility of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus (H5N1) infection was studied by inoculating 10 naïve (antibody-negative) animals (5 adults and 5 juveniles) with A/chicken/Vietnam/14/05 (H5N1) virus. In the adults, 1 of 5 became infected, and 4 of 5 remained normal; in the juvenile group, 5 of 5 became infected. The pathology observed in the affected animals was similar to that reported in natural occurrences. Peripheral and parasympathetic nervous systems were examined and found infected, as well as cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons. In some locations with significant virus infection in cells, the expected inflammatory reaction was absent or very mild. Immunohistochemistry was used to locate influenza A virus nucleoprotein in brain, spinal cord, respiratory and digestive systems, pancreas, heart, and peripheral and parasympathetic nervous systems. Further studies are needed to explain age-related differences in susceptibility.

  2. Meat quality, oxidative stability and blood parameters from Graylag geese offered alternative fiber sources in growing period.

    PubMed

    He, L W; Meng, Q X; Li, D Y; Zhang, Y W; Ren, L P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of dietary fiber sources on the meat quality, oxidative stability, and blood parameters of growing Graylag geese (28-112d) were investigated. The birds were randomly allocated into 4 treatments, of which dietary fiber was mainly from corn straw silage (CSS), steam-exploded corn straw (SECS), steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS), and steam-exploded rice straw (SERS). No influence (P>0.05) on the basic chemical components, oxidative stability, or organoleptic traits of muscle were observed, except that birds fed SECS had a higher (P<0.05) protein proportion than those fed CSS or SERS, and CSS increased (P<0.01) the cholesterol content when compared to SEWS or SERS. Regarding fatty acid profile in meat, CSS and SECS increased (P<0.01) the proportion of C18:2n6t and decreased that of C21:0 and C22:0 when compared to the others. The birds fed SERS had a higher (P<0.05) proportion of C20:0 and C22:0 than the others, a higher proportion of C20:5n3, n-3 fatty acids, Δ-9 desaturase (18) index compared to those fed CSS or SECS, and a lower (P<0.01) proportion of C20:1n9 than those fed SECS or SEWS. Additionally, SEWS resulted in a higher (P<0.01) proportion of C20:2 when compared to the others. In conclusion, these fibers affect just the protein proportion, cholesterol content, and fatty acid profile of breast muscle, along with the concentration of TG and MDA in blood, but not the other characteristics. No superior fiber source exists with respect to meat quality, suggesting that Graylag geese feeding should make the most economically of the convenient fiber source with appropriate pretreatment. PMID:25717090

  3. Do glucocorticoids in droppings reflect baseline level in birds captured in the wild? A case study in snow geese.

    PubMed

    Legagneux, Pierre; Gauthier, Gilles; Chastel, Olivier; Picard, Gérald; Bêty, Joël

    2011-07-01

    Baseline glucocorticoid (CORT) levels in plasma are increasingly used as physiological indices of the relative condition or health of individuals and populations. The major limitation is that CORT production is stimulated by the stress associated with capture and handling. Measuring fecal CORT is one way to solve this problem because elevation of fecal CORT usually does not occur before 1-12h after a stressful event in captive animals. However, the effect of capture and handling on fecal CORT levels has seldom been investigated in the wild. In a first experiment, we validated that fecal CORT levels starts to increase in droppings (a mixture of fecal and urinary material) about 1-2h following injection of CORT-release hormone (ACTH) in captive greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica). In a second experiment, we investigated whether dropping and plasma CORT were related and if the capture affected fecal CORT levels in wild birds. Baseline CORT was obtained by bleeding individuals within 4 min after capture. No relationship was found between baseline and CORT in droppings shortly after capture (<4 min). In addition, CORT levels in droppings increased linearly with time after capture and was already elevated by a factor two 40 min after capture. The different turnover time of CORT between urine and feces could explain such results. We conclude that droppings cannot provide an index of basal CORT levels in snow geese captured in the wild. Such a result contrast with previous studies conducted on habituated, captive animals. We thus recommend that use of droppings as a non-invasive technique to measure baseline CORT be restricted to non-manipulated individuals in the wild. PMID:21510949

  4. Meat quality, oxidative stability and blood parameters from Graylag geese offered alternative fiber sources in growing period.

    PubMed

    He, L W; Meng, Q X; Li, D Y; Zhang, Y W; Ren, L P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of dietary fiber sources on the meat quality, oxidative stability, and blood parameters of growing Graylag geese (28-112d) were investigated. The birds were randomly allocated into 4 treatments, of which dietary fiber was mainly from corn straw silage (CSS), steam-exploded corn straw (SECS), steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS), and steam-exploded rice straw (SERS). No influence (P>0.05) on the basic chemical components, oxidative stability, or organoleptic traits of muscle were observed, except that birds fed SECS had a higher (P<0.05) protein proportion than those fed CSS or SERS, and CSS increased (P<0.01) the cholesterol content when compared to SEWS or SERS. Regarding fatty acid profile in meat, CSS and SECS increased (P<0.01) the proportion of C18:2n6t and decreased that of C21:0 and C22:0 when compared to the others. The birds fed SERS had a higher (P<0.05) proportion of C20:0 and C22:0 than the others, a higher proportion of C20:5n3, n-3 fatty acids, Δ-9 desaturase (18) index compared to those fed CSS or SECS, and a lower (P<0.01) proportion of C20:1n9 than those fed SECS or SEWS. Additionally, SEWS resulted in a higher (P<0.01) proportion of C20:2 when compared to the others. In conclusion, these fibers affect just the protein proportion, cholesterol content, and fatty acid profile of breast muscle, along with the concentration of TG and MDA in blood, but not the other characteristics. No superior fiber source exists with respect to meat quality, suggesting that Graylag geese feeding should make the most economically of the convenient fiber source with appropriate pretreatment.

  5. Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in an Embden×Toulouse Goose Cross Raised in Organic Dehesa

    PubMed Central

    Solé, M.; Peña, F.; Domenech, V.; Clemente, I.; Polvillo, O.; Valera, M.; Verona, J. C.; Rubí, M.; Molina, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET) for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles), of domestic geeseAnser anser domesticus” raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (p<0.01) were greater for the ET group at the same live weight. None of the groups showed differences in the production of fatty liver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner–Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and 8.87 kg/cm2), which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (p<0.001), reflecting the optimum nutritional values as a component of a healthy consumer diet. PMID:26954156

  6. Influence of feeding alternative fiber sources on the gastrointestinal fermentation, digestive enzyme activities and mucosa morphology of growing Greylag geese.

    PubMed

    He, L W; Meng, Q X; Li, D Y; Zhang, Y W; Ren, L P

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the influence of dietary fiber sources on the gastrointestinal fermentation, digestive enzyme activity, and mucosa morphology of growing Greylag geese. In total, 240 Greylag geese (28-day-old) were allocated to 4 treatments (15 pens/treatment) differing in dietary fiber source: corn straw silage (CSS group), steam-exploded corn straw (SECS group), steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS group), or steam-exploded rice straw (SERS group). At 112 days of age, 15 birds per group were euthanized to collect samples. No difference (P > 0.05) was found on all the gastrointestinal pH values and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations between the groups. The CSS and SERS groups had a lower (P < 0.05) proportion of acetic acid in the gizzard than the SECS and SEWS groups. The CSS group had a higher VFA concentration in the jejunum (P < 0.05) and acetic acid proportion (P < 0.01) in the ceca, and a lower (P < 0.01) butyric acid proportion than the other groups except for the SECS group. The SECS group had a higher (P < 0.01) acetic acid proportion and lower (P < 0.05) proportions of propionic acid and valeric acid in the ceca than the SEWS and SERS groups. Different fiber sources resulted in different VFA profiles, especially in the gizzard and ceca. Almost all gastrointestinal protease activities of the CSS group were higher (P < 0.05) than the other groups, along with lower (P < 0.01) amylase activities in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca. Lipase activity in proventriculus was highest (P < 0.01) in the SEWS group and its cecal activity was lower (P < 0.01) in the SECS and SEWS groups than the CSS and SERS groups with a higher (P < 0.01) lipase activity in the CSS group than the SERS group. The SECS and SERS groups had a higher cellulase activity in the ceca than the CSS and SEWS groups, with a higher (P < 0.01) rectal cellulase activity in the SERS group than the other groups. There was no

  7. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: assessment for the 2013-2015 hunting seasons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This report describes progress on the development of an adaptive harvestmanagement strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese near their agreed target level (60,000) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark. Specifically, this report provides an optimal harvest quota for the 2013-2015 hunting seasons and describes a process for evaluating whether emergency hunting closures would be needed during that period. By combining varying hypotheses about survival and reproduction, a suite of nine models have been developed that represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent, and the extent to which spring temperatures are important. The most current set of monitoring information was used to update model weights for the 1991 – 2012 period. Current model weights suggest no evidence for density-dependent survival. These results suggest that the pink-footed goose population may have recently experienced a release from density-dependent mechanisms, corresponding to the period of most rapid growth in population size. There was equivocal evidence for the effect of May temperature days (number of days with temperatures above freezing) on survival and on reproduction. The optimal harvest strategy suggests that the appropriate annual harvest quota for the 20132015 period is 15,000; hence there is no need to take emergency measures to close the upcoming hunting season. For comparison, the estimated harvest in 2012 was 11,000. If the harvest quota of 15,000 were met, the autumn 2013 population count is expected to be 76,000. If only the most recent 3-year mean harvest were realized (11,500), an autumn population size of 80,000 thousand is expected. Thus, it may be that harvest is approaching the magnitude needed to stabilize the population.

  8. Avian cholera in waterfowl: the role of lesser snow and Ross's geese as carriers of avian cholera in the Playa Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    We collected samples from apparently healthy geese in the Playa Lakes Region (USA) during the winters of 2000a??01 and 2001a??02 to determine whether carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, were present in wild populations. With the use of methods developed in laboratory challenge trials (Samuel et al., 2003a) and a serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction method for identification of P. multocida serotype 1, we found that a small proportion of 322 wild birds (<5%) were carriers of pathogenic P. multocida. On the basis of serology, an additional group of these birds (<10%) were survivors of recent avian cholera infection. Our results confirm the hypothesis that wild waterfowl are carriers of avian cholera and add support for the hypothesis that wild birds are a reservoir for this disease. In concert with other research, this work indicates that enzootic infection with avian cholera occurs in lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) populations throughout their annual cycle. Although fewer Rossa??s geese (Chen rossii) were sampled, we also found these birds were carriers of P. multocida. Even in the absence of disease outbreaks, serologic evidence indicates that chronic disease transmission and recent infection are apparently occurring year-round in these highly gregarious birds and that a small portion of these populations are potential carriers with active infection.

  9. Pathogenicity and transmission of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza clade 2.3.4.4 viruses (H5N8 and H5N2) in domestic waterfowl (Pekin ducks and Chinese geese)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks and geese are common backyard poultry in many countries, frequently in contact with wild waterfowl, which are natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses and have played a key role in the spread of Asian-lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). In late 2014, a reassor...

  10. Avian cholera in waterfowl in Saskatchewan, spring 1977.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, G; Hunter, D B; Wright, B; Nieman, D J; Isbister, R

    1979-01-01

    Avian cholera was diagnosed in lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens), Ross' geese (Anser rossii) and individuals of several other waterfowl species in a small area of south-western Saskatchewan over a 1 month period during the 1977 spring migration. Approximately 250 dead birds were found. This is apparently the first time avian cholera has been reported in migrating waterfowl in Canada. The site of the mortality was midway between the wintering and nesting areas of the two principal species, and the significance of the occurrence of the disease this far north is discussed. PMID:459043

  11. Effect of flaxseed on the fatty acid profile of egg yolk and antioxidant status of their neonatal offspring in Huoyan geese.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Jiang, Y Y; Wang, J P; Yan, B X; Huang, Y Q; Wang, Z X

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of geese's maternal diet supplemented with flaxseed on the fatty acid profiles of egg yolks and the antioxidant status of their offspring. A total of 288 female Huoyan geese (42 weeks old) were randomly allotted to four experimental groups in this 56-day experiment and fed on diets containing flaxseed at 0% (control), 5%, 10% and 15%, respectively. There were nine replicate pens per treatment, with eight geese per replicate pen. The concentration of α-linolenic acid (linear, P<0.01), EPA (20:5n-3; linear, P<0.01), DHA (22:6n-3; quadratic, P=0.03) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (linear, P<0.01) levels in the yolk lipids increased with increasing dietary flaxseed levels. Yolk palmitic acid (16:0, linear, P=0.05), saturated fatty acid (linear, P=0.04) level and total n-6/n-3 ratio (P<0.01) decreased in a linear fashion as dietary flaxseed levels increased. Increasing dietary flaxseed levels linearly decreased (P=0.01) the total cholesterol in egg yolks. After hatching, three 1-day-old gosling were selected randomly from each replicate to determine blood characteristics and liver antioxidant status. Aspartate aminotransferase activity (linear, P=0.03), total triglycerides (linear, P=0.02) and total cholesterol (linear, P=0.05) contents in blood linearly decreased as the levels of flaxseed increased. A linear dose response to maternal dietary flaxseed was detected for the activities of the goslings' liver enzymes catalase (linear, P=0.01), superoxide dismutase (linear, P<0.01) and glutathione peroxidase (linear, P<0.01). The malondialdehyde (quadratic, P=0.03) and alkaline phosphatase content in the livers of goslings decreased as flaxseed supplementation levels increased. In conclusion, the dietary addition of flaxseed up to 15%, in the maternal diet resulted in increased n-3 PUFA levels in egg yolks and improved the antioxidant status of offspring in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26173627

  12. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and Methods for Mitigation and Management in the Southern Flathead Valley, Montana, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, Dennis L.; Gregory, Shari K.; Matthews, William C. Jr.; Claar, James J.; Ball, I. Joseph

    1987-11-01

    Kerr Hydroelectric Dam is located at the south end of Flathead Lake, controls water levels on the lake and the Flathead River below the dam, and is currently operated as a load control facility. Current operation of Kerr Dam creates the greatest yearly water level fluctuations on both the lake and river during the Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) brood and nesting period. Data collected from 1980-1982 indicated that goose nest numbers on the river were lower than during the 1950's, and that brood habitat on the lake may be limiting the goose population there. Our study was conducted from 1983-1987 to determine the effects of Kerr Dam operation on Canada goose populations and habitat on the south half of Flathead Lake and the Flathead River, and to formulate management and mitigation recommendations. Nesting geese on the river appeared to be negatively affected by a lack of nest sites free from predators, and responded to available artificial nest structures with an increase in nest numbers and nesting success. Under current dam operation, river channel depths and widths do not discourage access to nesting islands by mammalian predators during some years and high predation on ground nests occurs. Intensively used brood areas on the lake and river were identified and described. Brood habitat on the lake was lower in quality and quantity than on the river due to dam operations. Gosling mortality on the lake was high, almost 2 times higher than on the river. Lake broods expended more energy obtaining food than river broods. Losses of brood habitat in the form of wet meadow marshes were documented and mitigation options developed. Management/mitigation alternatives and monitoring methods for nesting and brooding geese were identified.

  13. Pre-exposing Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) to a low-pathogenic H1N1 avian influenza virus protects them against H5N1 HPAI virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Yohannes; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Leith, Marsha; Kehler, Helen; Suderman, Matthew; Pasick, John

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies we examined the role of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in the epidemiology of Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. To expand on this and better understand how pre-exposure to heterosubtypic low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses might influence the outcome of H5N1 HPAI infection, we pre-exposed naïve juvenile Canada Geese to different North American wild-bird-origin LPAI viruses. We selected H1, H2, and H6 hemagglutinin subtype viruses based on their higher-order evolutionary relatedness to the H5 hemagglutinin. Pre-exposing Canada Geese to either H2N3 or H6N5 viruses did not protect them against a lethal H5N1 HPAI virus challenge. In addition, H5N1 was transmitted to naïve control birds that were placed among both groups resulting in death by 5 days postcontact. In contrast, Canada Geese that were pre-exposed to H1N1 were protected against a lethal H5N1 challenge, shed minimal amounts of the virus into the environment, and did not transmit the infection to naïve contact birds. None of the H1N1, H2N3, or H6N5 pre-exposure sera neutralized H5N1 in vitro; however, sera from H1N1-infected birds reduced virus plaque size but not number when compared with H2N3, H6N5, or negative sera, suggesting that antibodies directed against the neuraminidase may have had a role in the protective effects observed.

  14. Description of the goose coccidium Eimeria stigmosa (Klimes, 1963), with evidence of intranuclear development.

    PubMed

    Gajadhar, A A; Rainnie, D J; Cawthorn, R J

    1986-08-01

    Oocysts of Eimeria stigmosa isolated from a wild juvenile lesser snow goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) were used in experimental infections of laboratory-reared geese. The structure of oocysts is described; a peculiar bumpy surface and a calyx-like thickening around the micropyle are illustrated by scanning electron microscopy. Experimentally infected geese had reduced feed intake and passed blood in their feces. Six days post-inoculation (p.i.) oocysts were passed for about 24 hr. Oocyst production was not increased in dexamethasone-treated geese. Complete sporulation of oocysts occurred after about 3.5 days. Developmental stages in lesser snow geese were occasionally present throughout the intestine, but were concentrated at Meckel's diverticulum, and at foci in the ileum and colon. Meronts were found 2, 3 and 4 days p.i. and gamonts and developing oocysts were observed 4, 5 and 5.5 days p.i. All endogenous stages of E. stigmosa were present in the nucleoplasm of enterocytes, primarily at the apical half of villi. Nuclear hypertrophy occurred in infected cells and nuclei containing gamonts were enlarged up to 4 times their normal size. Mild lesions were observed in the intestine of infected geese. Patent infections were established in lesser snow, Canada (Branta canadensis) and domestic (Anser anser domesticus) geese, but oocysts were not passed by inoculated ducks. PMID:3783353

  15. The effect of age on the growth rate of tissues and organs and the percentage content of edible and inedible components in Koluda White geese.

    PubMed

    Murawska, Daria

    2013-05-01

    The parts of carcasses of slaughtered animals that are not intended for human consumption are referred to as inedible components. The total percentage of edible to inedible components in the carcasses of different poultry species is an important economic consideration. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age on the growth rate of tissues and organs and the percentage change in edible to inedible components in geese. A flock of 240 Polish Koluda White geese was raised to 12 wk of age. The percentage content of edible components increased (P < 0.001) and the percentage content of inedible parts decreased (P < 0.001) as the birds grew older. Among edible components, the most considerable changes were noted in the growth rates of muscle tissue (10.5% increase; P < 0.001) and giblets (5.1% decrease; P < 0.001). The percentage share of muscle tissue increased to 10 wk of age. Lean meat weight increased from 175 g in wk 2 to 1,482 g in wk 12. The increase in lean meat weight varied considerably between body parts. The proportion of breast muscles in total meat weight increased substantially (by 26%), whereas the proportion of leg muscles decreased (by 34%). An increase in the weight of skin with subcutaneous fat was observed until the end of the rearing period, but the percentage content of this component remained at a similar level throughout the experiment (19.1 to 19.6%). The decrease in the percentage content of inedible components was mostly due to a decrease in the share of slaughter offal (by approximately 6.5%) because the proportion of bones remained at a stable level (approximately 11.9 to 11.5%). The weight of abdominal fat, which can be classified as edible or inedible, increased significantly with age, from 15.1 g in wk 2 to 205.1 g in wk 12, accounting for 1.6% and 4.0% total BW, respectively.

  16. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... autumnalis) (b) Swans. (1) Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) (2) Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus) (c) Geese. (1) Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) (2) Snow Goose (including “white” and “blue” morphs) (Chen caerulescens) (3) Ross's Goose (Chen rossii) (4) Emperor Goose (Chen canagica) (5) Canada...

  17. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... autumnalis) (b) Swans. (1) Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) (2) Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus) (c) Geese. (1) Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) (2) Snow Goose (including “white” and “blue” morphs) (Chen caerulescens) (3) Ross's Goose (Chen rossii) (4) Emperor Goose (Chen canagica) (5) Canada...

  18. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... autumnalis) (b) Swans. (1) Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) (2) Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus) (c) Geese. (1) Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) (2) Snow Goose (including “white” and “blue” morphs) (Chen caerulescens) (3) Ross's Goose (Chen rossii) (4) Emperor Goose (Chen canagica) (5) Canada...

  19. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... autumnalis) (b) Swans. (1) Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) (2) Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus) (c) Geese. (1) Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) (2) Snow Goose (including “white” and “blue” morphs) (Chen caerulescens) (3) Ross's Goose (Chen rossii) (4) Emperor Goose (Chen canagica) (5) Canada...

  20. Two maternal origins of Chinese domestic goose.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Zhu, W Q; Chen, K W; H, Y; Xu, W J; Song, W

    2011-12-01

    China is particularly rich in goose genetic resources. Systematic study of the genetic diversity and origin of Chinese domestic geese will provide an important scientific basis for the conservation and utilization of these resources and for human history. The 521-bp control region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA from 26 goose breeds and 6 Landaise geese were sequenced. The results showed that the average haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of Chinese domestic geese were 0.1384 and 0.00029, respectively. Shared haplotype analysis and systematic evolution analysis revealed that Chinese domestic geese had 2 maternal origins. The Yili goose breed originated from the Greylag goose (Anser anser), and the other 25 domestic goose breeds originated from the swan goose (Anser cygnoides). An interesting finding was that 1 Linxian white goose and 1 Wanxi white goose shared the same H4 haplotype with the Rhine goose and the Landaise goose, which originated from the Greylag goose (A. anser). Further research on this finding is planned.

  1. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... autumnalis) (b) Swans. (1) Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) (2) Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus) (c) Geese. (1) Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) (2) Snow Goose (including “white” and “blue” morphs) (Chen caerulescens) (3) Ross's Goose (Chen rossii) (4) Emperor Goose (Chen canagica) (5) Canada...

  2. A novel SMAD family protein, SMAD9 is involved in follicular initiation and changes egg yield of geese via synonymous mutations in exon1 and intron2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Li, Jun; Wang, Haosen; Wang, Guanglin; Chen, Jie; Huang, Pin; Cheng, Jienan; Gan, Lu; Wang, Zhao; Cai, Yafei

    2015-01-01

    Elevation of egg performance is vital to goose farming. Many poultry scientists are seeking for efficient molecular genetic markers associated with egg yield. In this study, mRNA differential display was adopted to investigate gene expression profiling in the follicular development of goose. For the first time, a novel SMAD family protein SMAD9 (EST CJ111007) was found to be involved in follicular initiation and used to be a candidate gene. Functional regions analysis of Smad9 indicated that SMAD9 protein is highly conserved in MH1 and MH2 domains, and the connection area is highly variable region. 6 pairs of primers (p1-p6) were designed to detect the SNPs of Smad9 by PCR-SSCP method. The results revealed that polymorphisms were discovered in the PCR products amplified with P1 primers in exon1 and P3 primers in intron2. In Smad9 exon1, 5 genotypes were found: FK, FF, JJ, JK and KK, including 2 SNPs: 243 bp G → A, 309 bp T → G, the mutations did not result in amino acid mutations; In intron2, 3 genotypes were found: AA, BB and AB, only 1 SNP (C → T). The annual egg yield of FK genotype geese or allele gene A in intron2 are significantly more than those of other genotypes on the average (p < 0.05). Taken together, it is suggested that Smad9 is a promising candidate gene affecting egg performance in goose.

  3. Body condition, migration, and timing of reproduction in snow geese: a test of the condition-dependent model of optimal clutch size.

    PubMed

    Bêty, Joël; Gauthier, Gilles; Jean-François, Giroux

    2003-07-01

    The seasonal decline of avian clutch size may result from the conflict between the advantage of early breeding (greater offspring value) and the advantage of a delay in lay date (improved body condition and hence clutch size). We tested predictions of a condition-dependent individual optimization model based on this trade-off (Rowe et al. 1994) in a long-distance migrant, the greater snow goose (Chen caerulescens atlantica), using data on condition, migration, and reproductive decisions of individuals. We closely tracked radio-marked females at their main spring staging area and on their breeding grounds. Our results were consistent with predictions of the model. Early-arriving females had a longer prelaying period and initiated their nests earlier than late arrivals. After controlling statistically for arrival date, we determined that females with high premigration condition had an earlier lay date than those in low condition. After controlling for the seasonal decline (i.e., lay date), we observed that clutch size was not related to premigration condition. Moreover, we took advantage of an unplanned manipulation of the prebreeding condition that occurred during our long-term study. We found that a reduction in condition caused a delay in lay date. However, after controlling for the seasonal decline, it did not affect clutch size. Our study indicates that geese simultaneously adjust their lay date and clutch size according to their premigration condition and migratory behavior as predicted by the condition-dependent optimization model. PMID:12856240

  4. Lack of genetic structure in greylag goose (Anser anser) populations along the European Atlantic flyway

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Irene; Follestad, Arne; Boos, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Greylag goose populations are steadily increasing in north-western Europe. Although individuals breeding in the Netherlands have been considered mainly sedentary birds, those from Scandinavia or northern Germany fly towards their winter quarters, namely over France as far as Spain. This study aimed to determine the genetic structure of these birds, and to evaluate how goose populations mix. We used mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites from individuals distributed throughout the European Atlantic flyway, from breeding sites in Norway and the Netherlands to stopover and wintering sites in northern and south-western France. The mtDNA marker (CR1 D-Loop, 288 bp sequence, 144 ind.) showed 23 different haplotypes. The genetic distances amongst individuals sampled in Norway, northern France and the Netherlands were low (range 0.012–0.013). Individuals in south-western France showed a slightly higher genetic distance compared to all other sampling areas (ranges 0.018–0.022). The NJ tree does not show evidence of any single clades grouping together all individuals from the same geographic area. Besides, individuals from each site are found in different branches. Bayesian clustering procedures on 14 microsatellites (169 individuals) did not detect any geographically distinct cluster, and a high genetic admixture was recorded in all studied areas except for the individuals from the breeding sites in Norway, which were genetically very close. Estimation of migration rates through Bayesian inference confirms the scenario for the current mixing of goose populations. PMID:26339543

  5. Conserved genetic basis of a quantitative plumage trait involved in mate choice.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Nicholas I; Badcock, Nichola S; Hart, Tom; Scribner, Kim; Janssen, Kirstin; Nadeau, Nicola J

    2004-03-19

    A key question in evolutionary genetics is whether shared genetic mechanisms underlie the independent evolution of similar phenotypes across phylogenetically divergent lineages. Here we show that in two classic examples of melanic plumage polymorphisms in birds, lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens) and arctic skuas (Stercorarius parasiticus), melanism is perfectly associated with variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene. In both species, the degree of melanism correlates with the number of copies of variant MC1R alleles. Phylogenetic reconstructions of variant MC1R alleles in geese and skuas show that melanism is a derived trait that evolved in the Pleistocene. PMID:15031505

  6. A hypothesis: the conjunction of soldiers, gas, pigs, ducks, geese and horses in northern France during the Great War provided the conditions for the emergence of the "Spanish" influenza pandemic of 1918-1919.

    PubMed

    Oxford, J S; Lambkin, R; Sefton, A; Daniels, R; Elliot, A; Brown, R; Gill, D

    2005-01-01

    The Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 was a cataclysmic outbreak of infection wherein over 50 million people died worldwide within 18 months. The question of the origin is important because most influenza surveillance at present is focussed on S.E. Asia. Two later pandemic viruses in 1957 and 1968 arose in this region. However we present evidence that early outbreaks of a new disease with rapid onset and spreadability, high mortality in young soldiers in the British base camp at Etaples in Northern France in the winter of 1917 is, at least to date, the most likely focus of origin of the pandemic. Pathologists working at Etaples and Aldershot barracks later agreed that these early outbreaks in army camps were the same disease as the infection wave of influenza in 1918. The Etaples camp had the necessary mixture of factors for emergence of pandemic influenza including overcrowding (with 100,000 soldiers daily changing), live pigs, and nearby live geese, duck and chicken markets, horses and an additional factor 24 gases (some of them mutagenic) used in large 100 ton quantities to contaminate soldiers and the landscape. The final trigger for the ensuing pandemic was the return of millions of soldiers to their homelands around the entire world in the autumn of 1918. PMID:15603896

  7. Vulnerability of nontarget goose species to hunting with electronic snow goose calls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caswell, J.H.; Afton, A.D.; Caswell, F.D.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1999, use of electronic calls has been legal for hunting lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter snow geese) during special seasons or times of day when other waterfowl species could not be hunted in prairie Canada. Prior to expanding the use of electronic calls for hunting snow geese during fall hunting seasons, effects of these calls on nontarget goose species must be examined. Accordingly, we examined the vulnerability of Canada (Branta canadensis) and white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) (dark geese) to electronic snow goose calls and 3 goose decoy sets (dark, mixed, and white) during the 1999 fall hunting seasons in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Canada geese were 2.3 times more likely to fly within gun range (P<0.001) and the mean number killed/hour/hunter was 2.5 times greater (P=0.043) during control periods when hunters were silent or used traditional calling methods (i.e., hand-held and voice calls) than when hunters used electronic snow goose calls. Flock response and kill rate for Canada geese declined as proportions of white decoys increased in decoy sets (P<0.001). White-fronted geese were 1.8 times more likely to fly within gun range (P=0.050) and the mean number killed/hour/hunter was 5.0 times greater (P=0.022) during control periods than during periods when electronic snow goose calls were used. Flock response for white-fronted geese also declined as the proportion of white decoys increased in decoy sets (P<0.001). The legalization of electronic snow goose calls during fall hunting seasons in prairie Canada should not result in increased harvest of nontarget dark geese.

  8. Identification of three novel avian beta-defensins from goose and their significance in the pathogenesis of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Ma, Deying; Zhang, Mingyue; Zhang, Kexin; Liu, Xiaoli; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Liu, Shengwang

    2013-12-01

    Here, we report the characterization of three avian β-defensins (AvBDs) from the goose, named anser_AvBD1, AvBD3, and AvBD6, respectively. All of anser_AvBDs exhibited broad antibacterial activity. In addition, the antibacterial activity of all of the AvBDs against Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis decreased significantly in the presence of 100mM NaCl (P<0.01). None of the AvBDs showed hemolytic activity. In order to assess the significance of these anser_AvBDs in the infection of Salmonella enteritidis, mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and anser_AvBDs in tissues of both control and infected geese was evaluated. We observed a significant up-regulation of TLR4, anser_AvBD1, 3, and 6 in some immune tissues evaluated, in response to S. enteritidis infection. These data demonstrated that TLR4 may serve a possible role in eliciting host immune responses to pathogens, and β-defensins may play a pivotal role in the host defense mechanisms of the goose.

  9. An analysis of sexual size dimorphism in goose.

    PubMed

    Parés-Casanova, P M

    2014-01-01

    1. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a common phenomenon in animals. Rensch's rule states that larger species generally exhibit a higher male to female body size ratio than smaller ones. 2. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of the functional explanations of Rensch's rule and this was tested in a meta-analysis of SSD in 38 breeds of domestic geese compared among themselves and with their wild relatives (subfamily Anserinae, 35 species). 3. Domestic geese and wild Anser species taken together supported Rench's rule but the wild species did not. 4. The non-targeted sex selection hypothesis seems to provide the best intuitive explanation for the lack of SSD in geese.

  10. Studying possible cross-protection of Canada geese preexposed to North American low pathogenicity avian influenza virus strains (H3N8, H4N6, and H5N2) against an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza challenge.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Y; Leith, M; Embury-Hyatt, C; Neufeld, J; Babiuk, S; Hisanaga, T; Kehler, H; Hooper-McGrevy, K; Pasick, J

    2010-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infections have caused unprecedented morbidity and mortality in different species of domestic and wild birds in Asia, Europe, and Africa. In our previous study, we demonstrated the susceptibility and potential epidemiologic importance of H5N1 HPAI virus infections in Canada geese. In this study, we investigated the potential of preexposure with North American lineage H3N8, H4N6, and H5N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses to cross-protect Canada geese against a lethal H5N1 HPAI virus challenge. Based on our results, birds that were primed and boosted with an H5N2 LPAI virus survived a lethal H5N1 challenge. In contrast, only two of five birds from the H3N8 group and none of the birds preexposed to H4N6 survived a lethal H5N1 challenge. In vitro cell proliferation assays demonstrated that peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from each group were no better stimulated by homologous vs. heterologous antigens.

  11. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection rates and exposure to influenza A viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S.; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006–2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1–3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40–60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  12. Outbreak of duck plague (duck herpesvirus enteritis) in numerous species of captive ducks and geese in temporal conjunction with enforced biosecurity (in-house keeping) due to the threat of avian influenza A virus of the subtype Asia H5N1.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Kuczka, A; Kühnhold, A; Bunzenthal, C; Bönner, B M; Hanka, K; Redmann, T; Yilmaz, A

    2007-01-01

    The continuing westward spread of avian influenza A virus of the subtype H5N1 in free-living and domestic birds forced the European Union and the German federal government to enhance all biosecurity measures including in-house keeping of all captive birds from October 20 to December 15, 2005. Movement of captive ducks and geese of many different species from a free-range system to tight enclosures and maintenance for prolonged times in such overcrowded sheds resulted in pronounced disturbance of natural behaviour, interruption of mating and breeding activities and possibly additional stress. Under these conditions the birds developed signs of severe disease and enhanced mortality twentyfour days later. A total of 17 out of 124 (14%) adult birds and 149 out of 184 year-old birds (81 %) died during the outbreak. A herpesvirus was isolated from many organs of succumbed ducks and geese that was identified as a duck plague herpesvirus by cross neutralization test using known antisera against duck plague virus. The published host range of duck plague comprises 34 species within the order Anseriformes. We report here on additional 14 species of this order that were found to be susceptible to duck plague virus. The exact source of the herpesvirus could not identified. However, low antibody titres in some ducks at day of vaccination indicate that at least some of the birds were latently infected with a duck plague herpesvirus. The remaining healthy appearing birds were subcutaneously vaccinated with a modified live duck plague vaccine (Intervet, Boxmeer, NL) that stopped losses and resulted in seroconversion in most of the vaccinated birds.

  13. Comprehensive Achievements: All Our Geese Are Swans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imison, Tamsyn, Ed.; Heilbronn, Ruth, Ed.; Williams, Liz, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schools in England are radically changing their organization and governance, casting aside the founding principle of the 1944 Education Act that education is a public service and abandoning the ideal of education as nurturing a sense of community. This book presents a portrait of a successful comprehensive school, between the years 1980 and 2000.…

  14. Uncertainty, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Jensen, Gitte H.; Madsen, Jesper; Williams, Byron K.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the application of dynamic-optimization methods to the problem of pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) management in western Europe. We were especially concerned with the extent to which uncertainty in population dynamics influenced an optimal management strategy, the gain in management performance that could be expected if uncertainty could be eliminated or reduced, and whether an adaptive or robust management strategy might be most appropriate in the face of uncertainty. We combined three alternative survival models with three alternative reproductive models to form a set of nine annual-cycle models for pink-footed geese. These models represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent, and the extent to which they are influenced by spring temperatures. We calculated state-dependent harvest strategies for these models using stochastic dynamic programming and an objective function that maximized sustainable harvest, subject to a constraint on desired population size. As expected, attaining the largest mean objective value (i.e., the relative measure of management performance) depended on the ability to match a model-dependent optimal strategy with its generating model of population dynamics. The nine models suggested widely varying objective values regardless of the harvest strategy, with the density-independent models generally producing higher objective values than models with density-dependent survival. In the face of uncertainty as to which of the nine models is most appropriate, the optimal strategy assuming that both survival and reproduction were a function of goose abundance and spring temperatures maximized the expected minimum objective value (i.e., maxi–min). In contrast, the optimal strategy assuming equal model weights minimized the expected maximum loss in objective value. The expected value of eliminating model uncertainty was an increase in objective value

  15. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection and exposure to influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Ely, Craig R; Hall, Jeffrey S; Schmutz, Joel A; Pearce, John M; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S; Ip, Hon S

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006-2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1-3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (<0.70%). Contrary to findings in ducks, the highest incidence of infected birds was in late spring when birds first arrived from staging and wintering areas. Despite low prevalence, most geese were previously exposed to AI viruses, as indicated by high levels of seroprevalence during late summer (47%-96% across species; n = 541). Seroprevalence was >95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40-60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age. PMID:23469210

  16. Spring snow goose hunting influences body composition of waterfowl staging in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    A spring hunt was instituted in North America to reduce abundance of snow geese (Chen caerulescens) by increasing mortality of adults directly, yet disturbance from hunting activities can indirectly influence body condition and ultimately, reproductive success. We estimated effects of hunting disturbance by comparing body composition of snow geese and non-target species, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) and northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected in portions of south-central Nebraska that were open (eastern Rainwater Basin, ERB) and closed (western Rainwater Basin, WRB; and central Platte River Valley, CPRV) to snow goose hunting during springs 1998 and 1999. Lipid content of 170 snow geese was 25% (57 g) less in areas open to hunting compared to areas closed during hunting season but similar in all areas after hunting was concluded in the ERB. Protein content of snow geese was 3% (14 g) less in the region open to hunting. Greater white-fronted geese had 24% (76 g; n = 129) less lipids in the hunted portion of the study area during hunting season, and this difference persisted after conclusion of hunting season. We found little difference in lipid or protein content of northern pintails in relation to spring hunting. Indirect effects of spring hunting may be considered a collateral benefit regarding efforts to reduce overabundant snow goose populations. Disrupted nutrient storage observed in greater white-fronted geese represents an unintended consequence of spring hunting that has potential to adversely affect reproduction for this and other species of waterbirds staging in the region.

  17. Waterfowl mortality caused by aflatoxicosis in Texas.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R M; Ray, A C; Reagor, J C; Holland, L A

    1982-07-01

    Waterfowl mortality caused by aflatoxicosis occurred in two separate areas in Texas during the 1977-78 wintering season. The first outbreak occurred in snow geese (Anser caerulescens) on the Gulf Coast prairies, followed by an outbreak in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in the north-central portion of the state. Aflatoxin B1 levels in geese were 500 ng/g (dry weight). Aflatoxin B1 levels in the second mortality were 10-250 ng/g (dry weight). The exact source of the toxin was not demonstrated in the first outbreak, but in the second outbreak was traced to waste peanuts, which constituted a major portion of the diet of wintering waterfowl in north-central Texas. Aflatoxin B1 levels in the field peanuts collected in the general areas were 110 ng/g. PMID:6813512

  18. Snow goose migration phenology is related to extratropical storm climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. J.; Hayden, B. P.

    1984-09-01

    The phenologies of autumn and spring migrations by greater snow geese ( Anser caerulescens atlantica) are shown to be statistically independent. Spring and fall migration phenologies are demonstrated to be significantly related to synoptic scale atmospheric circulation systems (extratropical storms) rather than a factor such as temperature. Interannual variation in the timing of migratory movements by snow geese reflect interannual variation in the climatology of extratropical storms. Early fall migration is significantly related to an increased frequency of cyclonic disturbances off the United States east and gulf coasts. Years in which autumn migration is delayed occur when the Atlantic coast storm track is displaced northward. Late spring migrations are related to extratropical storms being more frequent over the Great Plains, along the gulf coast, and over the northern Gulf of Mexico. Increased cyclone activity through the Ohio River valley and over the Great Lakes tends to advance the onset of spring migrations.

  19. Geese Are Swans and Swans Are Geese or Selecting Unripe Fruits Instead of Ripe Fruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    Procedural evaluations of limits of functions provide invariably better understanding of the limits than the approximations using a calculator. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that better understanding can be promoted if mathematical understanding precedes the impulse to use calculators. The note clarifies the stages when the…

  20. Glaucous gull predation of goslings on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, T.D.; Stehn, R.A.; Scribner, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus) nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta frequently prey on juvenile waterfowl. We collected 434 Glaucous Gulls from late June to early August 1994 to examine diet. Identification of undigested prey tissue, based on DNA microsatellite loci, showed three species of goslings in gull stomachs: Emperor Goose (Chen canagica), White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), and Cackling Canada Goose (Branta canadensis minima). Gulls that nested inland and were collected > 1.6 km from the coast accounted for approximately 70% of the total gull predation on Emperor and Canada Geese, and 96% on White-fronted Geese. Our stratified sample of gull stomachs and aerial survey estimates of population size and distribution of gulls and juvenile geese enabled extrapolation of species-specific predation rates to the entire Y-K Delta. We estimated that a minimum of 21 000 Emperor Goose, 34 000 Canada Goose, and 16 000 White-fronted Goose goslings were consumed by 12 600 Glaucous Gulls during the brood-rearing period on the Y-K Delta in 1994. Minimum estimated take by gulls represented 33% of Cackling Canada Goose, 47% of Emperor Goose, and 39% of White-fronted Goose eggs estimated to have hatched in the same area as gull collections. Gulls selected the three species of geese approximately in proportion to their abundance. Although gull predation caused significant gosling mortality, its role in regulating goose populations on Y-K Delta remains unresolved.

  1. Have wing morphology or flight kinematics evolved for extreme high altitude migration in the bar-headed goose?

    PubMed

    Lee, Stella Y; Scott, Graham R; Milsom, William K

    2008-11-01

    Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) migrate over the Himalayan mountains, at altitudes up to 9000 m above sea level, where air density and oxygen availability are extremely low. This study determined whether alterations in wing morphology or wingbeat frequency during free flight have evolved in this species to facilitate extreme high altitude migration, by comparing it to several closely related goose species. Wingspan and wing loading scaled near isometrically with body mass across all species (with power scaling exponents of 0.22 and 0.47, respectively), and wingbeat frequency scaled negatively to mass (scaling exponent of -0.167). Bar-headed geese had the largest wingspan residual and smallest wing loading residual from these allometric relationships, suggesting that they are at the top end of the wing size distribution. These morphological characters of bar-headed geese were not outside the normal variation exhibited by low altitude species, however, being within the prediction intervals of the regression. This was particularly true after the data were corrected for phylogeny using the independent contrasts method. Wingbeat frequencies of bar-headed geese during steady flight were the same as low altitude geese, both with and without correcting for phylogeny. Without adjusting other kinematic features (e.g., wing motion and generated wake structure) to supplement lift generation in low air densities, the metabolic costs of flight in bar-headed geese at high altitude could exceed the already high costs at sea level. The apparent lack of morphological and kinematic adaptation emphasizes the importance of physiological adaptations for enhancing oxygen transport and utilization in this species.

  2. Seroprevalence of paramyxoviruses in synanthropic and semi-free-range birds.

    PubMed

    Esperón, Fernando; Vázquez, Belén; Sánchez, Azucena; Fernández-Piñero, Jovita; Yuste, María; Neves, Elena; Nogal, Verónica; Muñoz, María Jesús

    2014-06-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) are classified into nine different serotypes (APMV 1-9). Virulent strains of APMV-1 are already well characterized as the etiologic agent of Newcastle disease (ND), an important disease in poultry that is potentially capable of infecting all orders of avian species. However, very little is known about the other eight serotypes, the majority of which can cause disease in domestic birds. The role of synanthropic and semi-free-range birds as reservoirs of avian paramyxoviruses is not well understood and the main objective of this work was to evaluate the seroprevalence of APMV 1-9 in these kind of birds. A total of 296 sera, oropharyngeal swabs, and cloacal enemas were collected from semi-free-range birds belonging to four different species: feral pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica), hybrid ducks (Anas sp.), domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus), and white storks (Ciconia ciconia). Antibodies against NDV were found in 56.3% of domestic geese, 42.9% of feral pigeons, and 30.4% of hybrid ducks. Antibodies for other APMVs (-3, -4, -6, -7, -8, -9) were also found. Seven positive individuals were positive to real-time RT-PCR detection, all of them feral pigeons captured in 2006 and 2007. The results obtained reinforce the idea that semi-free-range birds may be good sentinels for the detection of NDV and other avian paramyxoviruses. PMID:25055638

  3. Identification of goose (Anser anser) and mule duck (Anasplatyrhynchos x Cairina moschata) foie gras by multiplex polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 5S RDNA gene.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M A; García, T; González, I; Asensio, L; Fernández, A; Lobo, E; Hernández, P E; Martín, R

    2001-06-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the nuclear 5S rDNA gene has been used for the identification of goose and mule duck foie gras. Two species-specific reverse primers were designed and used in a multiplex reaction, together with a forward universal primer, to amplify specific fragments of the 5S rDNA in each species. The different sizes of the species-specific amplicons, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, allowed clear identification of goose and mule duck foie gras samples. This genetic marker can be useful for detecting fraudulent substitution of the duck liver for the more expensive goose liver.

  4. Changing patterns of goose harvest on California public hunting areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, J.P.; Hicks, J.M.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    We summarized hunter visits, success, and the magnitude and species-subspecies composition of tho goose harvest recorded on California public hunting areas (PHAs) during 1950-89. Of six geographic regions, the Northeast accounted for the largest portion of the PHA harvest (55%); most of the remainder occurred in the Sacramento (30%) and Imperial (10%) Valley regions. Harvest, hunter visits, and success were low during the 1950s, but increased during the 1960s as new PHAs were added and data from Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs), where about half of California's PHA goose harvest occurs, became available. Success and harvest reflected declining goose abundance during the 1970s; however, hunter visits remained high on most PHAs because ducks were abundant. During the 1980s, declining populations of greater white-fronted geese, Anser albifrons frontalis, and cackling Canada geese, Branta canadensis minima, prompted restrictive regulations resulting in low harvest and success. Hunter visits were further reduced because of declining duck abundance and overall declines in hunter numbers. White-fronted geese were most prominent in the Northeast and Suisun Marsh harvest, but the lesser snow goose, Chen caerulescens caerulescens, was more important in other regions. Overall, the cackling Canada goose was the third most common goose harvested. The harvest of most geese peaked during 1965-74, coinciding with a peak in hunter visits, and then declined. However, the harvest of Canada geese (includes unknown proportions of western, B. c. moffitti, Taverner's, B. c. taverneri, and lesser, B. c. parvipes) and Ross' geese, Chen rossi, increased slightly throughout the study period. PHA harvest averaged 9-15% of the total state goose harvest during 1960-89. Success on PHAs was greater than statewide success until the 1980's, when restrictive regulations were imposed in zones encompassing many Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Basin PHAs. White

  5. An implantable instrument for studying the long-term flight biology of migratory birds

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, Robin J. E-mail: c.bishop@bangor.ac.uk; Bishop, Charles M. E-mail: c.bishop@bangor.ac.uk

    2014-01-15

    The design of an instrument deployed in a project studying the high altitude Himalayan migrations of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) is described. The electronics of this archival datalogger measured 22 × 14 × 6.5 mm, weighed 3 g, was powered by a ½AA-sized battery weighing 10 g and housed in a transparent biocompatible tube sealed with titanium electrodes for electrocardiography (ECG). The combined weight of 32 g represented less than 2% of the typical bodyweight of the geese. The primary tasks of the instrument were to continuously record a digitised ECG signal for heart-rate determination and store 12-bit triaxial accelerations sampled at 100 Hz with 15% coverage over each 2 min period. Measurement of atmospheric pressure provided an indication of altitude and rate of ascent or descent during flight. Geomagnetic field readings allowed for latitude estimation. These parameters were logged twice per minute along with body temperature. Data were stored to a memory card of 8 GB capacity. Instruments were implanted in geese captured on Mongolian lakes during the breeding season when the birds are temporarily flightless due to moulting. The goal was to collect data over a ten month period, covering both southward and northward migrations. This imposed extreme constraints on the design's power consumption. Raw ECG can be post-processed to obtain heart-rate, allowing improved rejection of signal interference due to strenuous activity of locomotory muscles during flight. Accelerometry can be used to monitor wing-beat frequency and body kinematics, and since the geese continued to flap their wings continuously even during rather steep descents, act as a proxy for biomechanical power. The instrument enables detailed investigation of the challenges faced by the geese during these arduous migrations which typically involve flying at extreme altitudes through cold, low density air where oxygen availability is significantly reduced compared to sea level.

  6. An implantable instrument for studying the long-term flight biology of migratory birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivey, Robin J.; Bishop, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    The design of an instrument deployed in a project studying the high altitude Himalayan migrations of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) is described. The electronics of this archival datalogger measured 22 × 14 × 6.5 mm, weighed 3 g, was powered by a ½AA-sized battery weighing 10 g and housed in a transparent biocompatible tube sealed with titanium electrodes for electrocardiography (ECG). The combined weight of 32 g represented less than 2% of the typical bodyweight of the geese. The primary tasks of the instrument were to continuously record a digitised ECG signal for heart-rate determination and store 12-bit triaxial accelerations sampled at 100 Hz with 15% coverage over each 2 min period. Measurement of atmospheric pressure provided an indication of altitude and rate of ascent or descent during flight. Geomagnetic field readings allowed for latitude estimation. These parameters were logged twice per minute along with body temperature. Data were stored to a memory card of 8 GB capacity. Instruments were implanted in geese captured on Mongolian lakes during the breeding season when the birds are temporarily flightless due to moulting. The goal was to collect data over a ten month period, covering both southward and northward migrations. This imposed extreme constraints on the design's power consumption. Raw ECG can be post-processed to obtain heart-rate, allowing improved rejection of signal interference due to strenuous activity of locomotory muscles during flight. Accelerometry can be used to monitor wing-beat frequency and body kinematics, and since the geese continued to flap their wings continuously even during rather steep descents, act as a proxy for biomechanical power. The instrument enables detailed investigation of the challenges faced by the geese during these arduous migrations which typically involve flying at extreme altitudes through cold, low density air where oxygen availability is significantly reduced compared to sea level.

  7. Cloning and expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) in the liver of the Sichuan white goose and landes goose responding to overfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-Xiong; Han, Chun-Chun; Wang, Ji-Wen; Li, Liang; Tang, Hui; Lv, Jia; Lu, Lizhi; Xu, Feng

    2011-06-01

    The EST sequence of goose (Anser cygnoides) Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1(SCD-1) was obtained from a subtractive cDNA library. To further investigate the role of SCD-1 in lipid metabolism in geese, 5'-RACE and 3'-RACE were carried out in this study to obtain the complete cDNA sequence of goose SCD-1, which contained a 29-bp 5' UTR, a 1074-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 357 amino acids, and a 125-bp 3' UTR. The expression of SCD-1 was measured in several tissues, and the effects of overfeeding on the expression of SCD-1 were studied. The results of real time RT-PCR demonstrated that, compared to the brain, goose SCD-1 mRNA was more abundant in the liver. Overfeeding markedly increased the mRNA expression of SCD-1 in the liver of Sichuan White and Landes geese, and gene expression was markedly higher in the Sichuan White goose than in the landes goose. The mRNA abundance of SCD-1 in the liver had significant positive correlations with triacylglycerol (TG) content in liver lipids and in the levels of plasma insulin and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) levels in Sichuan white geese. However, the mRNA abundance of SCD-1 in the livers of Landes geese had only significant positive correlations with the TG content in liver lipids. In conclusion, SCD-1 is not only critical for hepatic steatosis in geese but is also important for the difference in lipid deposition in the livers of the two breeds.

  8. An implantable instrument for studying the long-term flight biology of migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Spivey, Robin J; Bishop, Charles M

    2014-01-01

    The design of an instrument deployed in a project studying the high altitude Himalayan migrations of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) is described. The electronics of this archival datalogger measured 22 × 14 × 6.5 mm, weighed 3 g, was powered by a ½AA-sized battery weighing 10 g and housed in a transparent biocompatible tube sealed with titanium electrodes for electrocardiography (ECG). The combined weight of 32 g represented less than 2% of the typical bodyweight of the geese. The primary tasks of the instrument were to continuously record a digitised ECG signal for heart-rate determination and store 12-bit triaxial accelerations sampled at 100 Hz with 15% coverage over each 2 min period. Measurement of atmospheric pressure provided an indication of altitude and rate of ascent or descent during flight. Geomagnetic field readings allowed for latitude estimation. These parameters were logged twice per minute along with body temperature. Data were stored to a memory card of 8 GB capacity. Instruments were implanted in geese captured on Mongolian lakes during the breeding season when the birds are temporarily flightless due to moulting. The goal was to collect data over a ten month period, covering both southward and northward migrations. This imposed extreme constraints on the design's power consumption. Raw ECG can be post-processed to obtain heart-rate, allowing improved rejection of signal interference due to strenuous activity of locomotory muscles during flight. Accelerometry can be used to monitor wing-beat frequency and body kinematics, and since the geese continued to flap their wings continuously even during rather steep descents, act as a proxy for biomechanical power. The instrument enables detailed investigation of the challenges faced by the geese during these arduous migrations which typically involve flying at extreme altitudes through cold, low density air where oxygen availability is significantly reduced compared to sea level. PMID:24517787

  9. Isoenzyme status and genetic variability of serum esterases in the lesser snow goose, Anser caerulescens caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Bargiello, T A; Grossfield, J; Steele, R W; Cooke, F

    1977-08-01

    A maximum of 22 bands comprising four esterase subgroups--acetylesterase, carboxylesterase, cholinesterase, and acetylcholinesterase--were detected following electrophoresis of lesser snow goose sera on polyacrylamide gels. A minimum of seven structural genes was surmised to be involved in the biosynthesis of these enzymes following physiochemical characterizations. The genetic variability of these loci was calculated to be 1.25% average heterozygosity, while 14.3% of the loci were polymorphic. These estimates of genetic variability were substantially lower than those reported for other vertebrate species. The low degree of genetic variability found in snow goose serum esterases coupled with the extensive protein multiplicity observed may possibly reflect an adaptive strategy based on "biochemical plasticity" rather than genic heterozygosity for this species. The nature of evolutionary forces acting upon multiple enzyme systems such as esterases is discussed. The concept of "conditional neutrality" is introduced and defined within this context. PMID:921742

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of CD3ε in Chinese domestic goose (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuelian; Wei, Shuangshi; Shao, Jianwei; Zhang, Shudong; Gao, Mingchun; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2015-06-15

    CD3 is one of the most important cell surface markers of T lymphocytes which play an important role in signal transmission of antigen recognition. In this study, goose CD3ε gene was cloned by touchdown PCR with the template of goose thymus cDNA. The complete open reading frame of goose CD3ε encoded 178 amino acid residues with a 21 signal peptide. Sequence alignments showed that goose CD3ε had an amino acid sequence similarity to duck (80.3%) and chicken (66.3%). The extracellular domain of goose CD3ε was efficiently expressed as fusion protein in Escherichia coli, purified by a Ni-NTA agarose column, and the purified recombinant protein was used to produce anti-GoCD3εex polyclonal antibodies. The characteristics of PAb were identified by Western blot, cellular ELISA, IFA, FCM, and LSCM analysis. These results may be useful for a better understanding of goose CD3ε and have a foundation for the study of T cell mediated immune mechanism in waterfowl.

  11. Chinese goose (Anser cygnoides) CD8a: cloning, tissue distribution and immunobiological in splenic mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiurong; Liu, Fei; Chen, Shun; Yan, Xiaoling; Qi, Yulin; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2013-10-25

    CD8 molecule is a cell membrane glycoprotein, which plays an important role in cell-mediated immunity. Here, we identified Chinese goose CD8α (goCD8α) gene for the first time. The full-length cDNA of goCD8α is 1459bp in length and contains a 711bp open reading frame. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the waterfowl CD8α formed a monophyletic group. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that transcripts of goCD8α mRNA were high in the immune-related organs and mucosal immune system in gosling, and high in thymus and spleen comparing to other immune-related tissues in goose. The obvious increase of CD8α expression was observed in spleen of acute new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) infected bird, while the increase of CD8α were observed in the thymus, bursa of fabricius, and cecum of chronic infected bird. The CD8α mRNA transcription level in spleen mononuclear cells was significantly up-regulated when stimulated by phytohemagglutinin, but not by lipopolysaccharide in vitro.

  12. Of trees, geese and cirripedes: man's quest for understanding.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John

    2011-03-01

    At least zoologists know that barnacles are arthropods rather than mollusks. However, this knowledge is surprisingly new, for it was as recent as 1830 before J. Vaughan Thompson showed, through a careful study of barnacle larvae, that they were crustaceans. In the 1850s, Charles Darwin unraveled much of the taxonomy of barnacles, and, significantly, his observations and classification of them follow the structure that was to be published later as his evolutionary theory. Irrespective of these works, knowledge of the systematic placement of barnacles remains surprisingly poor in the wider population today, with most non-biologists viewing barnacles as shallow-water fouling organisms related to oysters and limpets. The present paper reviews the way humans have perceived barnacles for at least a millennium; it evaluates why they were thought to have grown from trees and to have been part of the life cycle of birds; it concludes by contemplating the manner in which we perceive our environment and by doing so try to make sense of our world. PMID:21392358

  13. 50 CFR 21.60 - Conservation order for light geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... trajectory of population growth, anticipated harvest that would result from implementation of the... which the management goal has been exceeded, the trajectory of population growth, anticipated harvest... publication of a notice in the Federal Register. However, resumption of growth by the light goose...

  14. 50 CFR 21.60 - Conservation order for light geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... trajectory of population growth, anticipated harvest that would result from implementation of the... which the management goal has been exceeded, the trajectory of population growth, anticipated harvest... publication of a notice in the Federal Register. However, resumption of growth by the light goose...

  15. 50 CFR 21.60 - Conservation order for light geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... trajectory of population growth, anticipated harvest that would result from implementation of the... which the management goal has been exceeded, the trajectory of population growth, anticipated harvest... publication of a notice in the Federal Register. However, resumption of growth by the light goose...

  16. 50 CFR 21.60 - Conservation order for light geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... trajectory of population growth, anticipated harvest that would result from implementation of the... which the management goal has been exceeded, the trajectory of population growth, anticipated harvest... publication of a notice in the Federal Register. However, resumption of growth by the light goose...

  17. Brood ecology of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.E.

    1983-12-01

    The objective was to examine the ecology of broods of the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River in southcentral Washington. Broods were captured and equipped with radio transmitters and their movements tracked. Major brood rearing areas were identified. 5 references, 2 tables. (ACR)

  18. Of trees, geese and cirripedes: man's quest for understanding.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John

    2011-03-01

    At least zoologists know that barnacles are arthropods rather than mollusks. However, this knowledge is surprisingly new, for it was as recent as 1830 before J. Vaughan Thompson showed, through a careful study of barnacle larvae, that they were crustaceans. In the 1850s, Charles Darwin unraveled much of the taxonomy of barnacles, and, significantly, his observations and classification of them follow the structure that was to be published later as his evolutionary theory. Irrespective of these works, knowledge of the systematic placement of barnacles remains surprisingly poor in the wider population today, with most non-biologists viewing barnacles as shallow-water fouling organisms related to oysters and limpets. The present paper reviews the way humans have perceived barnacles for at least a millennium; it evaluates why they were thought to have grown from trees and to have been part of the life cycle of birds; it concludes by contemplating the manner in which we perceive our environment and by doing so try to make sense of our world.

  19. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  20. Effects of the light goose conservation order on non-target waterfowl distribution during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinges, Andrew J.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Vrtiska, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Light Goose Conservation Order (LGCO) was initiated in 1999 to reduce mid-continent populations of light geese (lesser snow geese Chen caerulescens and Ross's geese C. rossi). However, concern about potential for LGCO activities (i.e. hunting activities) to negatively impact non-target waterfowl species during spring migration in the Rainwater Basin (RWB) of Nebraska prompted agency personnel to limit the number of hunt days each week and close multiple public wetlands to LGCO activities entirely. To evaluate the effects of the LGCO in the RWB, we quantified waterfowl density at wetlands open and closed to LGCO hunting and recorded all hunter encounters during springs 2011 and 2012. We encountered a total of 70 hunting parties on 22 study wetlands, with over 90% of these encounters occurring during early season when the majority of waterfowl used the RWB region. We detected greater overall densities of dabbling ducks Anas spp., as well as for mallards A. platyrhynchos and northern pintails A. acuta on wetlands closed to the LGCO. We detected no effects of hunt day in the analyses of dabbling duck densities. We detected no differences in mean weekly dabbling duck densities among wetlands open to hunting, regardless of weekly or cumulative hunting encounter frequency throughout early season. Additionally, hunting category was not a predictor for the presence of greater white-fronted geese Anser albifronsin a logistic regression model. Given that dabbling duck densities were greater on wetlands closed to hunting, providing wetlands free from hunting disturbance as refugia during the LGCO remains an important management strategy at migration stopover sites. However, given that we did not detect an effect of hunt day or hunting frequency on dabbling duck density, our results suggest increased hunting frequency at sites already open to hunting would likely have minimal impacts on the distribution of non-target waterfowl species using the region for spring

  1. Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus-AI Vaccine Virus Replication in Different Species of Waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Palya, Vilmos; Kovács, Edit Walkóné; Tatár-Kis, Tímea; Felföldi, Balázs; Homonnay, Zalán G; Mató, Tamás; Sato, Takanori; Gardin, Yannick

    2016-05-01

    Waterfowl play a key role in the epidemiology of the H5N1 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus; therefore, efficient immunization of domesticated ducks and geese to maximize the impact of other control measures is of great importance. A recombinant (r)HVT-AI, expressing the HA gene of a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain had been developed and proved to be efficient against different clades of H5N1 HPAI virus in chickens after a single vaccination at 1 day old and could provide long-term immunity. We investigated whether rHVT-AI applied at 1 day old is able to replicate in different species and crossbreeds of ducks and in geese with the aim of collecting data on the possible application of rHVT-AI vaccine in different species of waterfowl for the control of H5N1 HPAI. We tested the possible differences among different waterfowl species, i.e., between geese (Anser anser, domesticated greylag goose), Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata forma domestica), Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos forma domestica), and mule ducks (Muscovy duck × Pekin duck), in their susceptibility to support the replication of rHVT-AI. Vaccine virus replication was followed by real-time PCR in spleen, bursa, and feather tip samples. Humoral immune response to vaccination was tested using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and H5-specific commercial ELISA. Significant differences among the different waterfowl species regarding the rate of rHVT-AI replication was detected that were not reflected by the same difference in the immune response to vaccination. Replication of the rHVT-AI vaccine was very limited in Pekin ducks, somewhat better in mule ducks, and the vaccine virus was replicating significantly better in Muscovy ducks and geese, reaching 100% detectability at certain time points after administration at 1 day old. Results indicated that the vaccine virus could establish different levels of persistent infection in these species of waterfowl. No humoral immune response

  2. Ultrastructural studies of the zygote and oocyst wall formation of Eimeria truncata of the lesser snow goose.

    PubMed

    Gajadhar, A A; Stockdale, P H; Cawthorn, R J

    1986-08-01

    Zygote development and oocyst wall formation of Eimeria truncata occurred in epithelial cells in renal tubules and ducts of experimentally infected lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens). Post-fertilization stages were present throughout the kidneys beginning nine days post-inoculation. Initially, a single plasmalemma enclosed the zygote, and type 1 wall-forming bodies (WF1) became labyrinthine and moved toward the surface. There, WF1 degranulated and formed the outer layer of the oocyst wall between the plasmalemma and a newly formed second subpellicular membrane. Several WF2 fused and formed the inner layer of the oocyst wall between the third and fourth subpellicular membranes. Six subpellicular membranes were observed during wall formation. Other features of oocyst development were similar to those of other eimerian species. PMID:3746720

  3. Seasonal dynamics of wintering waterbirds in two shallow lakes along Yangtze River in Anhui Province.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Yun; Zhou, Li-Zhi; Zhou, Bo; Xu, Ren-Xin; Zhu, Wen-Zhong; Xu, Wen-Bin

    2011-10-01

    The shallow lake wetlands in the middle and lower Yangtze River floodplain are important wintering and stopover habitats for migratory waterbirds on the East Asia-Australia Flyway. With increasing fishery practices in recent years, however, the wetlands have deteriorated significantly and now threaten wintering waterbirds. To gain insight into the influence of deteriorating wetlands on waterbirds, we conducted a survey of wintering waterbird species, population size, and distribution across 11 belt transects in Caizi Lake and Shengjin Lake, two shallow lakes along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province from November 2007-April 2008 and from November 2008-April 2009, respectively. The impacts of different fishery patterns on the distribution of waterbirds were also analyzed. A total of 43 waterbirds species belong to 7 orders of 12 families were counted during the surveys, of which 38 were found in Caizi Lake with a density of 8.2 ind./hm(2), and 42 in Shengjin Lake with a density of 3.5 ind./hm(2). Geese (Anser cygnoides), bean geese (Anser fabalis), tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus), and dunlin (Calidris alpina) were the dominant species in the two shallow lakes. Species number and individual assemble reached maximum at the end of December and in early January of the following year, without coincidence of the largest flock for different ecological groups. Based on waterbird diversity across the 11 belt transects and the fishery patterns, habitats could be divided into three groups. Gruiformes, Anseriformes and Charadriiformes had relatively higher densities in the natural fishery zones and lower densities in the cage fishery zones; whereas, the density of Ardeidae showed little change across all lake zones. It is important to develop sustainable fishery patterns in shallow lakes along the middle and lower Yangtze River floodplain to better protect resources of wintering waterbirds. PMID:22006808

  4. Monitoring of Pb Exposure in Waterfowl Ten Years after a Mine Spill through the Use of Noninvasive Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Haro, Monica; Taggart, Mark A.; Lefranc, Hugues; Martín-Doimeadiós, Rosa C.; Green, Andy J.; Mateo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Lead exposure in waterfowl was studied using noninvasive fecal sampling in the Guadalquivir Marshes in Spain, an area affected by the 1998 Aznalcóllar mine disaster. Feces of greylag geese (Anser anser, n = 191) and purple gallinule (Porphyrio porphyrio, n = 91) were collected from three different impacted sites (Entremuros, Caracoles and Cerro de los Ánsares) during the winters of 2004 to 2008. Lead and aluminium (an indicator of sediment ingestion) and Pb isotope signatures (to discriminate between sources of Pb exposure) were analyzed in freeze-dried, acid digested samples. The concentrations of fecal porphyrins and biliverdin were determined as noninvasive biomarkers to study Pb exposure effects. Results showed a decrease in Pb exposure over time in wintering greylag geese. In contrast, for purple gallinule resident in the Entremuros a clear trend was not evident. For both species, sediment ingestion appeared to be the main source of exposure to Pb. In the Entremuros, some samples from purple gallinule were detected with higher Pb levels than expected for simple soil ingestion, and these had Pb isotopic profiles compatible with mining sludge or Pb shot. Whilst fecal Pb isotopic profiles were effective in differentiating between samples from sites with different levels and sources of pollution, the combined use of element ratios (such as Pb/Al) and other non-traditional stable isotope signatures may also prove worthwhile. Overall, the fecal Pb levels detected were below those described in feces for waterfowl from other uncontaminated areas(<10 µg/g d.w.). Despite this, for both species fecal Pb levels were positively correlated with porphyrin excretion, and for purple gallinule, with the coproporphyrin III/I ratio, suggesting some subtle effects on heme synthesis in birds. Ten years after the mine spill, Pb contamination in birds by this pollution source was still detectable and subtlethal effects may persist. PMID:23437364

  5. Seasonal dynamics of wintering waterbirds in two shallow lakes along Yangtze River in Anhui Province.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Yun; Zhou, Li-Zhi; Zhou, Bo; Xu, Ren-Xin; Zhu, Wen-Zhong; Xu, Wen-Bin

    2011-10-01

    The shallow lake wetlands in the middle and lower Yangtze River floodplain are important wintering and stopover habitats for migratory waterbirds on the East Asia-Australia Flyway. With increasing fishery practices in recent years, however, the wetlands have deteriorated significantly and now threaten wintering waterbirds. To gain insight into the influence of deteriorating wetlands on waterbirds, we conducted a survey of wintering waterbird species, population size, and distribution across 11 belt transects in Caizi Lake and Shengjin Lake, two shallow lakes along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province from November 2007-April 2008 and from November 2008-April 2009, respectively. The impacts of different fishery patterns on the distribution of waterbirds were also analyzed. A total of 43 waterbirds species belong to 7 orders of 12 families were counted during the surveys, of which 38 were found in Caizi Lake with a density of 8.2 ind./hm(2), and 42 in Shengjin Lake with a density of 3.5 ind./hm(2). Geese (Anser cygnoides), bean geese (Anser fabalis), tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus), and dunlin (Calidris alpina) were the dominant species in the two shallow lakes. Species number and individual assemble reached maximum at the end of December and in early January of the following year, without coincidence of the largest flock for different ecological groups. Based on waterbird diversity across the 11 belt transects and the fishery patterns, habitats could be divided into three groups. Gruiformes, Anseriformes and Charadriiformes had relatively higher densities in the natural fishery zones and lower densities in the cage fishery zones; whereas, the density of Ardeidae showed little change across all lake zones. It is important to develop sustainable fishery patterns in shallow lakes along the middle and lower Yangtze River floodplain to better protect resources of wintering waterbirds.

  6. Pathobiological Characterization of a Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Virus Isolated in British Columbia, Canada, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Yohannes; Kobasa, Darwyn; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Pickering, Brad; Babiuk, Shawn; Joseph, Tomy; Bowes, Victoria; Suderman, Mathew; Leung, Anders; Cottam-Birt, Colleen; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Pasick, John

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we describe the pathobiologic characteristics of a novel reassortant virus - A/chicken/BC/FAV-002/2015 (H5N1) belonging to clade 2.3.4.4 that was isolated from backyard chickens in British Columbia, Canada. Sequence analyses demonstrate PB1, PA, NA and NS gene segments were of North American lineage while PB2, HA, NP and M were derived from a Eurasian lineage H5N8 virus. This novel virus had a 19 amino acid deletion in the neuraminidase stalk. We evaluated the pathogenic potential of this isolate in various animal models. The virus was highly pathogenic to mice with a LD50 of 10 plaque forming units (PFU), but had limited tissue tropism. It caused only subclinical infection in pigs which did result in seroconversion. This virus was highly pathogenic to chickens, turkeys, juvenile Muscovy ducks (Cairnia moschata foma domestica) and adult Chinese geese (Anser cynoides domesticus) causing a systemic infection in all species. The virus was also efficiently transmitted and resulted in mortality in naïve contact ducks, geese and chickens. Our findings indicate that this novel H5N1 virus has a wide host range and enhanced surveillance of migratory waterfowl may be necessary in order to determine its potential to establish itself in the wild bird reservoir. PMID:26988892

  7. Pathobiological Characterization of a Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Virus Isolated in British Columbia, Canada, 2015.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Yohannes; Kobasa, Darwyn; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Pickering, Brad; Babiuk, Shawn; Joseph, Tomy; Bowes, Victoria; Suderman, Mathew; Leung, Anders; Cottam-Birt, Colleen; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Pasick, John

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we describe the pathobiologic characteristics of a novel reassortant virus - A/chicken/BC/FAV-002/2015 (H5N1) belonging to clade 2.3.4.4 that was isolated from backyard chickens in British Columbia, Canada. Sequence analyses demonstrate PB1, PA, NA and NS gene segments were of North American lineage while PB2, HA, NP and M were derived from a Eurasian lineage H5N8 virus. This novel virus had a 19 amino acid deletion in the neuraminidase stalk. We evaluated the pathogenic potential of this isolate in various animal models. The virus was highly pathogenic to mice with a LD50 of 10 plaque forming units (PFU), but had limited tissue tropism. It caused only subclinical infection in pigs which did result in seroconversion. This virus was highly pathogenic to chickens, turkeys, juvenile Muscovy ducks (Cairnia moschata foma domestica) and adult Chinese geese (Anser cynoides domesticus) causing a systemic infection in all species. The virus was also efficiently transmitted and resulted in mortality in naïve contact ducks, geese and chickens. Our findings indicate that this novel H5N1 virus has a wide host range and enhanced surveillance of migratory waterfowl may be necessary in order to determine its potential to establish itself in the wild bird reservoir. PMID:26988892

  8. Pathobiological Characterization of a Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Virus Isolated in British Columbia, Canada, 2015.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Yohannes; Kobasa, Darwyn; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Pickering, Brad; Babiuk, Shawn; Joseph, Tomy; Bowes, Victoria; Suderman, Mathew; Leung, Anders; Cottam-Birt, Colleen; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Pasick, John

    2016-03-18

    In the current study, we describe the pathobiologic characteristics of a novel reassortant virus - A/chicken/BC/FAV-002/2015 (H5N1) belonging to clade 2.3.4.4 that was isolated from backyard chickens in British Columbia, Canada. Sequence analyses demonstrate PB1, PA, NA and NS gene segments were of North American lineage while PB2, HA, NP and M were derived from a Eurasian lineage H5N8 virus. This novel virus had a 19 amino acid deletion in the neuraminidase stalk. We evaluated the pathogenic potential of this isolate in various animal models. The virus was highly pathogenic to mice with a LD50 of 10 plaque forming units (PFU), but had limited tissue tropism. It caused only subclinical infection in pigs which did result in seroconversion. This virus was highly pathogenic to chickens, turkeys, juvenile Muscovy ducks (Cairnia moschata foma domestica) and adult Chinese geese (Anser cynoides domesticus) causing a systemic infection in all species. The virus was also efficiently transmitted and resulted in mortality in naïve contact ducks, geese and chickens. Our findings indicate that this novel H5N1 virus has a wide host range and enhanced surveillance of migratory waterfowl may be necessary in order to determine its potential to establish itself in the wild bird reservoir.

  9. High thermal sensitivity of blood enhances oxygen delivery in the high-flying bar-headed goose.

    PubMed

    Meir, Jessica U; Milsom, William K

    2013-06-15

    The bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) crosses the Himalaya twice a year at altitudes where oxygen (O2) levels are less than half those at sea level and temperatures are below -20°C. Although it has been known for over three decades that the major hemoglobin (Hb) component of bar-headed geese has an increased affinity for O2, enhancing O2 uptake, the effects of temperature and interactions between temperature and pH on bar-headed goose Hb-O2 affinity have not previously been determined. An increase in breathing of the hypoxic and extremely cold air experienced by a bar-headed goose at altitude (due to the enhanced hypoxic ventilatory response in this species) could result in both reduced temperature and reduced levels of CO2 at the blood-gas interface in the lungs, enhancing O2 loading. In addition, given the strenuous nature of flapping flight, particularly in thin air, blood leaving the exercising muscle should be warm and acidotic, facilitating O2 unloading. To explore the possibility that features of blood biochemistry in this species could further enhance O2 delivery, we determined the P50 (the partial pressure of O2 at which Hb is 50% saturated) of whole blood from bar-headed geese under conditions of varying temperature and [CO2]. We found that blood-O2 affinity was highly temperature sensitive in bar-headed geese compared with other birds and mammals. Based on our analysis, temperature and pH effects acting on blood-O2 affinity (cold alkalotic lungs and warm acidotic muscle) could increase O2 delivery by twofold during sustained flapping flight at high altitudes compared with what would be delivered by blood at constant temperature and pH.

  10. Transcription Factors GATA-4 and GATA-6: Molecular Characterization, Expression Patterns and Possible Functions During Goose (Anser cygnoides) Follicle Development

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, Xin; XIA, Lu; DONG, Xia; HU, Shenqiang; ZHANG, Yingying; DING, Fang; LIU, Hehe; LI, Liang; WANG, Jiwen

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6, members of the GATA family, play an important role in ovarian cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, the full-length coding sequences of goose GATA-4 and GATA-6 were cloned and characterized. GATA-4 and GATA-6 consist of 1236 and 1104 nucleotides encoding proteins with 411 and 367 amino acids, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins include two adjacent zinc finger domains with the distinctive form (CVNC-X17-CNAC)-X29-(CANC-X17-CNAC) and share 84.76% identity within this domain. In silico prediction together with matching of the high affinity RRXS(T)Y motif revealed that the GATA-4 protein might be phosphorylated predominantly at S233, but no phosphorylation site was found in the GATA-6 protein. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that GATA-4 and GATA-6 mRNAs were co-expressed in goose follicles, moderately expressed in granulosa cells and weakly expressed in theca cells. The expression level of GATA-4 mRNA in healthy follicles was significantly higher than in atretic follicles or postovulatory follicles (P<0.01), and the expression level of GATA-6 mRNA in healthy follicles was significantly lower than in atretic follicles or postovulatory follicles (P<0.01). The expression level of GATA-4 mRNA in granulosa cells was downregulated during follicle development; the peak of expression occurred in the 8-10 mm follicles, and the lowest expression was in the F1 follicles. GATA-6 was upregulated and reached its peak expression in the F1 follicles. These results indicate that the molecular structural differences in goose GATA-4 and GATA-6 may be related to their different roles during follicle development. PMID:24531706

  11. Tracking the spring migration of a bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) across the Himalaya with satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Javed, Salim; Takekawa, John Y.; Douglas, David C.; Rahmani, Asad R.; Kanai, Yutaka; Nagendran, Meenakshi; Choudhury, Binod C.; Sharma, Shruti

    2000-01-01

    Soil-food-chain-pesticide wildlife relationships were investigated to learn the concentration of pesticide residues present in soils, macro-invertebrates, vertebrates, and seeds as a result of annual applications of aldrin at recommended rates for pest control. Two central Missouri cornfields treated witb aldrin at 1 lb/acre, for 16 and 15 of the past 17 years, were selected for study during 1965-67. Primary samples collected for residue analyses included soils, earthworms (Lumbricidae), crickets (GryIlidae), and two kinds of ground beetles (Carabidae) obtained during early April, June, August, and October. Vertebrates and plant seeds collected during 1967 included white-footed mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), toads (Bufo americanus), snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and Pituophis sayi), corn (Zea Mays), foxtail (Setaria Faberii), and annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Pesticide residues consisted primarily of dieldrin, the degradation product of aldrin. Combined aldrin and dieldrin residues, as two field all-season averages, wet weight basis, were: soils, 0.31 ppm; earthworms, 1.49 ppm; crickets, 0.23 ppm; Harpalus ground beetles, 1.10 ppm; Poecilus ground beetles, 9.67 ppm; white-footed mice, 0.98 ppm; toads, 3.53 ppm; garter snakes, 12.35 ppm; and corn, foxtail, and sunflower seeds less than 0.02 ppm each. Unusually high average residues (37.48 ppm) in Poecilus beetles during June, 1967, were attributed to abnormally high soil moisture and predacious feeding habits of these insects.

  12. 50 CFR 20.21 - What hunting methods are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... apply during: (1) A light-goose-only season (greater and lesser snow geese and Ross' geese) when all... lesser snow geese and Ross' geese) when all other waterfowl and crane hunting seasons, excluding...

  13. Accumulation of As, Cd and selected trace elements in tubers of Scirpus aritimus L. from Doñana marshes (South Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madejon, P.; Murillo, J.M.; Maranon, T.; Espinar, J.L.; Cabrera, F.

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of a pyrite-mining, tailing dam on 1998 contaminated an area of 4286 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar river valleys in southern Spain. Over 2700 ha of the Doñana marshes, an important wintering area for wetland European birds, were contaminated. This study reports analyses of the tubers of Scirpus maritimus (an important food for greylag geese, Anser anser) collected in 2000 in the “Entremuros” (spill-affected area) and in nearby unaffected Doñana marshes (control areas). In the spill-affected area mean tuber tissue concentrations of Cd (0.25 mg kg−1) and Zn (61 mg kg−1) were greater than in those tubers from the control area (0.02 mg kg−1 for Cd, and 22 mg kg−1 for Zn); values of Cd and Zn in “Entremuros” (samples collected two years after the mine spill) were much smaller than those reported only a few months after the accident. Trace elements (As, Fe, Mn and Tl, and to a lesser extent Cd and Pb) showed a preferential accumulation in the outer skin of tubers. Surprisingly, concentrations of As and Fe were greater in tubers from some marsh sites not affected by the mine-spill than in tubers from the “Entremuros”. We suggest that relic river channels within the Doñana marshes may be contaminated by trace elements from historic mining activities. An exhaustive study of macrophytes and other plant species in this area is recommended to identify potential risks to wildlife.

  14. A Conserved Epitope Mapped with a Monoclonal Antibody against the VP3 Protein of Goose Parvovirus by Using Peptide Screening and Phage Display Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenxi; Liu, Hongyu; Li, Jinzhe; Liu, Dafei; Meng, Runze; Zhang, Qingshan; Shaozhou, Wulin; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background Waterfowl parvovirus (WPV) infection causes high mortality and morbidity in both geese (Anser anser) and Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata), resulting in significant losses to the waterfowl industries. The VP3 protein of WPV is a major structural protein that induces neutralizing antibodies in the waterfowl. However, B-cell epitopes on the VP3 protein of WPV have not been characterized. Methods and Results To understand the antigenic determinants of the VP3 protein, we used the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4A6 to screen a set of eight partially expressed overlapping peptides spanning VP3. Using western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we localized the VP3 epitope between amino acids (aa) 57 and 112. To identify the essential epitope residues, a phage library displaying 12-mer random peptides was screened with mAb 4A6. Phage clone peptides displayed a consensus sequence of YxRFHxH that mimicked the sequence 82Y/FNRFHCH88, which corresponded to amino acid residues 82 to 88 of VP3 protein of WPVs. mAb 4A6 binding to biotinylated fragments corresponding to amino acid residues 82 to 88 of the VP3 protein verified that the 82FxRFHxH88 was the VP3 epitope and that amino acids 82F is necessary to retain maximal binding to mAb 4A6. Parvovirus-positive goose and duck sera reacted with the epitope peptide by dot blotting assay, revealing the importance of these amino acids of the epitope in antibody-epitope binding reactivity. Conclusions and Significance We identified the motif FxRFHxH as a VP3-specific B-cell epitope that is recognized by the neutralizing mAb 4A6. This finding might be valuable in understanding of the antigenic topology of VP3 of WPV. PMID:27191594

  15. Effect of storage duration on the rheological properties of goose liquid egg products and eggshell membranes.

    PubMed

    Kumbar, V; Nedomova, S; Trnka, J; Buchar, J; Pytel, R

    2016-07-01

    In practice, goose eggs are increasingly used and, therefore, the rheological properties have to be known for processing. The eggs of geese (Landes Goose, Anser anser f. domestica) were stored for one, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 wk at a constant temperature 4°C. First of all, the egg quality parameters were described in terms of egg weight, egg weight loss, egg shape index, yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh units. In the next step the rheological behavior of liquid egg products (egg yolk, albumen, and whole liquid egg) was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Flow curves of all liquid egg products exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. This behavior can be described using the Herschel-Bulkley model and for technical application using the Ostwald-de Waele model. The effect of the storage duration on the rheological behavior is different for the different liquid egg products. With the exception of very low shear rates, the viscosity of the egg yolk as well as of the whole liquid egg decreases with storage time. At lower shear rates there is a tendency toward increased albumen viscosity with storage duration. The storage duration also affects the mechanical properties of the eggshell membrane. This effect has been evaluated in terms of the ultimate tensile strength, fracture strain, and fracture toughness. All these parameters increased with the loading rate, but decreased during the egg storage. These mechanical phenomena should be respected, namely in the design of the egg model for the numerical simulation of the egg behavior under different kinds of the mechanical loading.

  16. Benefiting from a migratory prey: spatio-temporal patterns in allochthonous subsidization of an Arctic predator.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Berteaux, Dominique; Lecomte, Nicolas; Gauthier, Gilles; Szor, Guillaume; Bêty, Joël

    2012-05-01

    1. Flows of nutrients and energy across ecosystem boundaries have the potential to subsidize consumer populations and modify the dynamics of food webs, but how spatio-temporal variations in autochthonous and allochthonous resources affect consumers' subsidization remains largely unexplored. 2. We studied spatio-temporal patterns in the allochthonous subsidization of a predator living in a relatively simple ecosystem. We worked on Bylot Island (Nunavut, Canada), where arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus L.) feed preferentially on lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus and Dicrostonyx groenlandicus Traill), and alternatively on colonial greater snow geese (Anser caerulescens atlanticus L.). Geese migrate annually from their wintering grounds (where they feed on farmlands and marshes) to the Canadian Arctic, thus generating a strong flow of nutrients and energy across ecosystem boundaries. 3. We examined the influence of spatial variations in availability of geese on the diet of fox cubs (2003-2005) and on fox reproductive output (1996-2005) during different phases of the lemming cycle. 4. Using stable isotope analysis and a simple statistical routine developed to analyse the outputs of a multisource mixing model (SIAR), we showed that the contribution of geese to the diet of arctic fox cubs decreased with distance from the goose colony. 5. The probability that a den was used for reproduction by foxes decreased with distance from the subsidized goose colony and increased with lemming abundance. When lemmings were highly abundant, the effect of distance from the colony disappeared. The goose colony thus generated a spatial patterning of reproduction probability of foxes, while the lemming cycle generated a strong temporal variation of reproduction probability of foxes. 6. This study shows how the input of energy owing to the large-scale migration of prey affects the functional and reproductive responses of an opportunistic consumer, and how this input is spatially and

  17. Benefiting from a migratory prey: spatio-temporal patterns in allochthonous subsidization of an Arctic predator.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Berteaux, Dominique; Lecomte, Nicolas; Gauthier, Gilles; Szor, Guillaume; Bêty, Joël

    2012-05-01

    1. Flows of nutrients and energy across ecosystem boundaries have the potential to subsidize consumer populations and modify the dynamics of food webs, but how spatio-temporal variations in autochthonous and allochthonous resources affect consumers' subsidization remains largely unexplored. 2. We studied spatio-temporal patterns in the allochthonous subsidization of a predator living in a relatively simple ecosystem. We worked on Bylot Island (Nunavut, Canada), where arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus L.) feed preferentially on lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus and Dicrostonyx groenlandicus Traill), and alternatively on colonial greater snow geese (Anser caerulescens atlanticus L.). Geese migrate annually from their wintering grounds (where they feed on farmlands and marshes) to the Canadian Arctic, thus generating a strong flow of nutrients and energy across ecosystem boundaries. 3. We examined the influence of spatial variations in availability of geese on the diet of fox cubs (2003-2005) and on fox reproductive output (1996-2005) during different phases of the lemming cycle. 4. Using stable isotope analysis and a simple statistical routine developed to analyse the outputs of a multisource mixing model (SIAR), we showed that the contribution of geese to the diet of arctic fox cubs decreased with distance from the goose colony. 5. The probability that a den was used for reproduction by foxes decreased with distance from the subsidized goose colony and increased with lemming abundance. When lemmings were highly abundant, the effect of distance from the colony disappeared. The goose colony thus generated a spatial patterning of reproduction probability of foxes, while the lemming cycle generated a strong temporal variation of reproduction probability of foxes. 6. This study shows how the input of energy owing to the large-scale migration of prey affects the functional and reproductive responses of an opportunistic consumer, and how this input is spatially and

  18. Selection of a marker gene to construct a reference library for wetland plants, and the application of metabarcoding to analyze the diet of wintering herbivorous waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuzhan; Zhan, Aibin; Meng, Fanjuan; Xu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Food availability and diet selection are important factors influencing the abundance and distribution of wild waterbirds. In order to better understand changes in waterbird population, it is essential to figure out what they feed on. However, analyzing their diet could be difficult and inefficient using traditional methods such as microhistologic observation. Here, we addressed this gap of knowledge by investigating the diet of greater white-fronted goose Anser albifrons and bean goose Anser fabalis, which are obligate herbivores wintering in China, mostly in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River floodplain. First, we selected a suitable and high-resolution marker gene for wetland plants that these geese would consume during the wintering period. Eight candidate genes were included: rbcL, rpoC1, rpoB, matK, trnH-psbA, trnL (UAA), atpF-atpH, and psbK-psbI. The selection was performed via analysis of representative sequences from NCBI and comparison of amplification efficiency and resolution power of plant samples collected from the wintering area. The trnL gene was chosen at last with c/h primers, and a local plant reference library was constructed with this gene. Then, utilizing DNA metabarcoding, we discovered 15 food items in total from the feces of these birds. Of the 15 unique dietary sequences, 10 could be identified at specie level. As for greater white-fronted goose, 73% of sequences belonged to Poaceae spp., and 26% belonged to Carex spp. In contrast, almost all sequences of bean goose belonged to Carex spp. (99%). Using the same samples, microhistology provided consistent food composition with metabarcoding results for greater white-fronted goose, while 13% of Poaceae was recovered for bean goose. In addition, two other taxa were discovered only through microhistologic analysis. Although most of the identified taxa matched relatively well between the two methods, DNA metabarcoding gave taxonomically more detailed information. Discrepancies were likely due to

  19. Selection of a marker gene to construct a reference library for wetland plants, and the application of metabarcoding to analyze the diet of wintering herbivorous waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuzhan; Zhan, Aibin; Cao, Lei; Meng, Fanjuan; Xu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Food availability and diet selection are important factors influencing the abundance and distribution of wild waterbirds. In order to better understand changes in waterbird population, it is essential to figure out what they feed on. However, analyzing their diet could be difficult and inefficient using traditional methods such as microhistologic observation. Here, we addressed this gap of knowledge by investigating the diet of greater white-fronted goose Anser albifrons and bean goose Anser fabalis, which are obligate herbivores wintering in China, mostly in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River floodplain. First, we selected a suitable and high-resolution marker gene for wetland plants that these geese would consume during the wintering period. Eight candidate genes were included: rbcL, rpoC1, rpoB, matK, trnH-psbA, trnL (UAA), atpF-atpH, and psbK-psbI. The selection was performed via analysis of representative sequences from NCBI and comparison of amplification efficiency and resolution power of plant samples collected from the wintering area. The trnL gene was chosen at last with c/h primers, and a local plant reference library was constructed with this gene. Then, utilizing DNA metabarcoding, we discovered 15 food items in total from the feces of these birds. Of the 15 unique dietary sequences, 10 could be identified at specie level. As for greater white-fronted goose, 73% of sequences belonged to Poaceae spp., and 26% belonged to Carex spp. In contrast, almost all sequences of bean goose belonged to Carex spp. (99%). Using the same samples, microhistology provided consistent food composition with metabarcoding results for greater white-fronted goose, while 13% of Poaceae was recovered for bean goose. In addition, two other taxa were discovered only through microhistologic analysis. Although most of the identified taxa matched relatively well between the two methods, DNA metabarcoding gave taxonomically more detailed information. Discrepancies were likely due to

  20. Selection of a marker gene to construct a reference library for wetland plants, and the application of metabarcoding to analyze the diet of wintering herbivorous waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuzhan; Zhan, Aibin; Meng, Fanjuan; Xu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Food availability and diet selection are important factors influencing the abundance and distribution of wild waterbirds. In order to better understand changes in waterbird population, it is essential to figure out what they feed on. However, analyzing their diet could be difficult and inefficient using traditional methods such as microhistologic observation. Here, we addressed this gap of knowledge by investigating the diet of greater white-fronted goose Anser albifrons and bean goose Anser fabalis, which are obligate herbivores wintering in China, mostly in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River floodplain. First, we selected a suitable and high-resolution marker gene for wetland plants that these geese would consume during the wintering period. Eight candidate genes were included: rbcL, rpoC1, rpoB, matK, trnH-psbA, trnL (UAA), atpF-atpH, and psbK-psbI. The selection was performed via analysis of representative sequences from NCBI and comparison of amplification efficiency and resolution power of plant samples collected from the wintering area. The trnL gene was chosen at last with c/h primers, and a local plant reference library was constructed with this gene. Then, utilizing DNA metabarcoding, we discovered 15 food items in total from the feces of these birds. Of the 15 unique dietary sequences, 10 could be identified at specie level. As for greater white-fronted goose, 73% of sequences belonged to Poaceae spp., and 26% belonged to Carex spp. In contrast, almost all sequences of bean goose belonged to Carex spp. (99%). Using the same samples, microhistology provided consistent food composition with metabarcoding results for greater white-fronted goose, while 13% of Poaceae was recovered for bean goose. In addition, two other taxa were discovered only through microhistologic analysis. Although most of the identified taxa matched relatively well between the two methods, DNA metabarcoding gave taxonomically more detailed information. Discrepancies were likely due to

  1. Less waste corn, more land in soybeans, and the switch to genetically modified crops: Trends with important implications for wildlife management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Cox, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    American agriculture has provided abundant high-energy foods for migratory and resident wildlife populations since the onset of modern wildlife management. Responding to anecdotal evidence that corn residues are declining in cropland, we remeasured waste corn post-harvest in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska during 1997 and 1998 to compare with 1978. Post-harvest waste corn averaged 2.6% and 1.8% of yield in 1997 and 1998, respectively. After accounting for a 20% increase in yield, waste corn in 1997 and 1998 was reduced 24% and 47% from 1978. We also evaluated use of soybeans by spring-staging sandhill cranes (Crus canadensis) and waterfowl during spring 1998 and 1999. Despite being widely available in the CPRV, soybeans did not occur in esophageal contents of sandhill cranes (n=174), northern pintails (Anas acuta, n=139), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons, n=198), or lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens, n=208) collected with food in their esophagi. Lack of soybean consumption by cranes and waterfowl in Nebraska in early spring builds upon previously published findings, suggesting that soybeans are poorly suited for meeting nutrient needs of wildlife requiring a high-energy diet. Given evidence that high-energy food and numerous populations of seed-eating species found on farmland are declining, and the enormous potential risk to game and nongame wildlife populations if high-energy foods were to become scarce, a comprehensive research effort to study the problem appears warranted. Provisions under the Conservation Security subtitle of The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 offer a potential mechanism to encourage producers to manage cropland in ways that would replace part of the high-energy foods that have been lost to increasing efficiency of production agriculture.

  2. 50 CFR 21.52 - Public health control order for resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... elderberry longhorn beetle and delta green ground beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp. (E) Plants: Butte County meadowfoam, large-flowered wooly meadowfoam,...

  3. 50 CFR 21.52 - Public health control order for resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... elderberry longhorn beetle and delta green ground beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp. (E) Plants: Butte County meadowfoam, large-flowered wooly meadowfoam,...

  4. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and delta green ground beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp....

  5. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and delta green ground beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp....

  6. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp. (E) Plants: Butte...

  7. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp. (E) Plants: Butte...

  8. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... address provided at 50 CFR 2.1(b). ... beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp. (E) Plants: Butte...

  9. 50 CFR 21.52 - Public health control order for resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... address provided at 50 CFR 2.1(b). ... elderberry longhorn beetle and delta green ground beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp,...

  10. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and delta green ground beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp....

  11. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and delta green ground beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp....

  12. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp. (E) Plants: Butte...

  13. 50 CFR 21.52 - Public health control order for resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... elderberry longhorn beetle and delta green ground beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp. (E) Plants: Butte County meadowfoam, large-flowered wooly meadowfoam,...

  14. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... address provided at 50 CFR 2.1(b). ... and delta green ground beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp....

  15. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp. (E) Plants: Butte...

  16. 50 CFR 21.52 - Public health control order for resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... elderberry longhorn beetle and delta green ground beetle. (D) Crustaceans: Vernal pool fairy shrimp, conservancy fairy shrimp, longhorn fairy shrimp, vernal pool tadpole shrimp, San Diego fairy shrimp, and Riverside fairy shrimp. (E) Plants: Butte County meadowfoam, large-flowered wooly meadowfoam,...

  17. 50 CFR 21.51 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... magnitude, its impact to current operations, and the appropriate control method to be used. (ii) Base control methods on sound biological, environmental, social, and cultural factors. (iii) Formulate appropriate methods into a control strategy that uses the approach/concept that encourages the use of...

  18. Three geese resembling Gray-Bellied Brant/Lawrence's Brant from Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, P.A.; Mitra, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Three oddly plumaged brant, intermediate in several respects between 'Atlantic' or 'Pale-bellied Brant' (hrota) and ?Black Brant? (nigricans) were photographed and described on western Long Island, New York during 2002 (two in March, the third in October). Their plumage corresponded to that of the little-studied, and apparently genetically distinctive small population known among goose biologists as 'Gray-bellied Brant,' which breeds only on a few islands in the western Canadian High Arctic, stages in migration in the inner Aleutians, and winters in a small portion of the Greater Puget Sound area. But Gray-bellied Brant also wander, having recently been found in winter as far from Puget Sound as Baja California in the west, and Iceland and the British Isles to the east?these strays presumably having migrated southwest with Pacific-wintering nigricans and southeast with Atlantic-wintering hrota, respectively. Despite their tendency to associate with locally wintering hrota and nigricans, mixed pairs or hybrid young involving these vagrants have never been demonstrated in North America?nor have mixed pairs or hybrid young between hrota and nigricans, despite widespread belief to the contrary. Complicating the picture is that the type specimen of nigricans, a distinctive New Jersey specimen collected in 1846, also differs from 'true' Pacific Coast Black Brant in several respects, in a manner qualitatively similar to the LI birds described herein. The appearance of the type, often referred to informally as 'Lawrence?s Brant,' differs from typical Black Brant to such an extent that Delacour and Zimmer (1952) rejected application of nigricans to Pacific Black Brant, to which the name orientalis would have to be applied instead. Recent examination of museum specimens of breeding- and winter-area Gray-bellies confirms that Lawrence?s Brant closely resembles some of them?as do these three Long Island birds. Whatever the ultimate statuses of Gray-bellied and Lawrence's Brant prove to be?and however the relationships among them and the three currently recognized other taxa of brant eventually play out?birds resembling Gray-bellied/Lawrence?s are occurring on both Atlantic and Pacific coasts and perhaps also in interior North America, so knowledge of their plumage variation should now be factored into the identification of all oddly-plumaged or out-of-range brant, but especially of putative 'nigricans' inland or on the Atlantic Coast.

  19. PHYLOGENETIC AND FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY OF SEAGULL AND CANADIAN GEESE FECAL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In spite of increasing public health concerns on the risks associated with swimming in waters contaminated with waterfowl feces, there is little information on the gut microbial communities of aquatic birds. To address the molecular microbial diversity of waterfowl, 16S rDNA and ...

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia species isolates in ducks and geese.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Hossein; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. isolated from duck and goose intestinal contents. A total of 471 samples, including 291 duck and 180 goose intestinal contents, were purchased from wet markets between November 2008 and July 2010. Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. were isolated from 58 (12.3%), 107 (22.7%), and 80 (17%) of the samples, respectively. It was concluded that Listeria ivanovii, Salmonella Thompson, and Yersinia enterocolitica were the predominant serovars among Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp., respectively. Moreover, resistance to tetracycline was common in Listeria (48.3%) and Salmonella spp. (63.6%), whereas 51.3% of the Yersinia spp. isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Therefore, continued surveillance of the prevalence of the pathogens and also of emerging antibiotic resistance is needed to render possible the recognition of foods that may represent risks and also ensure the effective treatment of listeriosis, salmonellosis, and yersiniosis.

  1. Mate loss affects survival but not breeding in black brant geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicolai, Christopher A.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.; Boyd, W. Sean

    2012-01-01

    For birds maintaining long-term monogamous relationships, mate loss might be expected to reduce fitness, either through reduced survival or reduced future reproductive investment. We used harvest of male brant during regular sport hunting seasons as an experimental removal to examine effects of mate loss on fitness of female black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans; hereafter brant). We used the Barker model in program MARK to examine effects of mate loss on annual survival, reporting rate, and permanent emigration. Survival rates decreased from 0.847 ± 0.004 for females who did not lose their mates to 0.690 ± 0.072 for birds who lost mates. Seber ring reporting rate for females that lost their mates were 2 times higher than those that did not lose mates, 0.12 ± 0.086 and 0.06 ± 0.006, respectively, indicating that mate loss increased vulnerability to harvest and possibly other forms of predation. We found little support for effects of mate loss on fidelity to breeding site and consequently on breeding. Our results indicate substantial fitness costs to females associated with mate loss, but that females who survived and were able to form new pair bonds may have been higher quality than the average female in the population.

  2. 50 CFR 21.51 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... used must be in accordance with other Federal, State, Tribal, and local laws, and their use must comply....21(j) of this subchapter. (v) Persons using egg oiling must use 100 percent corn oil, a substance... destruction of their nests and eggs contrary to the laws or regulations of any State or Tribe, and none of...

  3. 50 CFR 21.51 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... used must be in accordance with other Federal, State, Tribal, and local laws, and their use must comply....21(j) of this subchapter. (v) Persons using egg oiling must use 100 percent corn oil, a substance... destruction of their nests and eggs contrary to the laws or regulations of any State or Tribe, and none of...

  4. 50 CFR 21.51 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... used must be in accordance with other Federal, State, Tribal, and local laws, and their use must comply....21(j) of this subchapter. (v) Persons using egg oiling must use 100 percent corn oil, a substance... destruction of their nests and eggs contrary to the laws or regulations of any State or Tribe, and none of...

  5. 50 CFR 21.51 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... used must be in accordance with other Federal, State, Tribal, and local laws, and their use must comply....21(j) of this subchapter. (v) Persons using egg oiling must use 100 percent corn oil, a substance... destruction of their nests and eggs contrary to the laws or regulations of any State or Tribe, and none of...

  6. Occlusion of the syrinx as a manifestation of aspergillosis in Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Duncan, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Aspergillosis has been described in many species of wild waterfowl, primarily as a disease of the respiratory tract. Typically, mycotic granulomas are found in the lungs. Air sacs may be thickened and contain discoid individual or coalescing greenish or bluish plaques resembling bread mold. Occasionally, there is systemic involvement, with granulomas in multiple organs. Carcasses often are emaciated, indicating a long-term course. In the present report, we describe a fatal acute manifestation of Aspergillus fumigatus infection that easily may be overlooked when examining wild waterfowl.

  7. Population growth in snow geese: a modeling approach integrating demographic and survey information.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Gilles; Besbeas, Panagiotis; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Morgan, Byron J T

    2007-06-01

    There are few analytic tools available to formally integrate information coming from population surveys and demographic studies. The Kalman filter is a procedure that facilitates such integration. Based on a state-space model, we can obtain a likelihood function for the survey data using a Kalman filter, which we may then combine with a likelihood for the demographic data. In this paper, we used this combined approach to analyze the population dynamics of a hunted species, the Greater Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens atlantica), and to examine the extent to which it can improve previous demographic population models. The state equation of the state-space model was a matrix population model with fecundity and regression parameters relating adult survival and harvest rate estimated in a previous capture-recapture study. The observation equation combined the output from this model with estimates from an annual spring photographic survey of the population. The maximum likelihood estimates of the regression parameters from the combined analysis differed little from the values of the original capture-recapture analysis, though their precision improved. The model output was found to be insensitive to a wide range of coefficient of variation (CV) in fecundity parameters. We found a close match between the surveyed and smoothed population size estimates generated by the Kalman filter over an 18-year period, and the estimated CV of the survey (0.078-0.150) was quite compatible with its assumed value (approximately 0.10). When we used the updated parameter values to predict future population size, the model underestimated the surveyed population size by 18% over a three-year period. However, this could be explained by a concurrent change in the survey method. We conclude that the Kalman filter is a promising approach to forecast population change because it incorporates survey information in a formal way compared with ad hoc approaches that either neglect this information or require some parameter or model tuning. PMID:17601135

  8. Industrial halide wastes cause acute mortality of snow geese in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andreasen, J.K.; Stroud, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    An examination of 97 dead migratory waterfowl collected at an industrial facility showed that the birds had had severe gastric and intestinal hemorrhaging. Water samples taken at on-site waste lagoons contained 6,750 mg/L fluoride, 4,500 mg/L bromine and 1,500 mg/L boron. Brain and liver tissues contained high levels of fluoride, as compared with tissues of birds collected at a control site. From the necropsy results, the high concentration of fluoride in the water samples and the elevated tissue residues, we conclude that the birds died from acute fluoride poisoning.

  9. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Daniel

    1987-08-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council calls for wildlife mitigation at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River System. Beginning April, 1984, the Bonneville Power Administration funded a study of the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse and Kerr Dams on the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffittii) inhabitating the Flathead Valley of northwest Montana. The study was conducted by personnel of the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP), to: (1) identify the size and productivity of this population, (2) identify current habitat conditions and losses of nesting and brood-rearing areas, (3) describe the effects of water level fluctuations on nesting and brood-rearing, and (4) identify mitigation alternatives to offset these effects. Annual pair and nest surveys were used to document the location and fate of goose nests. The number of known nesting attempts varied from 44 in 1984 to 108 in 1985, to 136 in 1986 and 134 in 1987. Fifty-four percent of the annual meeting nesting effort took place on elevated sites which were secure from the flooding and dewatering effects of fluctuating water levels. An average of 15 nests were found on stumps in the remnant Flathead River delta, however, an area strongly influenced by the operation of Kerr Dam. Annual nest losses to flooding and predation attributable to fluctuations caused by the dam were recorded. 53 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  10. Constraints on productivity of wild Nene or Hawaiian geese Branta sandvicensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    I investigated constraints on the productivity of wild Nene on Hawaii and Maui during 1978-81. These populations were composed largely of captive-reared birds. Recruitment of young was low. Of 140 breeding attempts, 36% resulted in successful nests and 7% produced fledglings. Annual productivity was limited because: 1) relatively few available pairs attempted to breed (58% on Hawaii; 46% on Maui), 2) average rate of nest success was low (44%), and 3) gosling survival was low <39%). Low incidence of nesting suggests that many females could not accumulate sufficient body reserves for egg-laying and incubation due to poor foraging conditions or poorly developed foraging skills. Nest failure was high due to predation on eggs and incubating females by the introduced mongoose. Gosling mortality was high because of poor foraging conditions near many nests, forcing broods to travel over rugged, volcanic terrain to distant rearing areas. In addition, some goslings were killed by predators. Nene populations would benefit most from improved foraging opportunities for adult females and goslings and from reduced predator populations.

  11. 77 FR 26032 - Proposed Information Collection; Control and Management of Resident Canada Geese

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... privileges of the order must submit an annual report with the date, numbers, and locations of birds, nests, and eggs taken. Depredation order for nests and eggs. 50 CFR 21.50 allows private landowners and managers of public lands to