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Sample records for geese anser brachyrhynchus

  1. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, Gitte Høj; Madsen, Jesper; Johnson, Fred A.; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.

    2014-01-01

    The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased during the last decades and is giving rise to agricultural conflicts along their migration route, as well as causing grazing impacts on tundra vegetation. An adaptive flyway management plan has been implemented, which will be based on predictive population models including environmental variables expected to affect goose population development, such as weather conditions on the breeding grounds. A local study in Svalbard showed that snow cover prior to egg laying is a crucial factor for the reproductive output of pink-footed geese, and MODIS satellite images provided a useful estimator of snow cover. In this study, we up-scaled the analysis to the population level by examining various measures of snow conditions and compared them with the overall breeding success of the population as indexed by the proportion of juveniles in the autumn population. As explanatory variables, we explored MODIS images, satellite-based radar measures of onset of snow melt, winter NAO index, and the May temperature sum and May thaw days. To test for the presence of density dependence, we included the number of adults in the population. For 2000–2011, MODIS-derived snow cover (available since 2000) was the strongest indicator of breeding conditions. For 1981–2011, winter NAO and May thaw days had equal weight. Interestingly, there appears to have been a phase shift from density-dependent to density-independent reproduction, which is consistent with a hypothesis of released breeding potential due to the recent advancement of spring in Svalbard.

  2. Regulation of the hunting season as a tool for adaptive harvest management — First results for pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madsen, Jesper; Clausen, Kevin; Christensen, Thomas K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2016-01-01

    Adjustment of hunting season length is often used to regulate harvest of waterbirds but the effects are disputed. We describe the first results of season length extension on the harvest of the pink-footed goose, which has been selected as the first test case of adaptive harvest management of waterbirds in Europe. In Denmark, the season (previously 1 September to 31 December) was extended to include January in 2014-15 with the aim to increase the harvest and, in the longer term, reduce the population size. The total harvest in Denmark increased by 52% compared to previous years, and almost 50% of the Danish harvest was taken in the January extension. In the course of the hunting season, the proportion of adults in the bag increased. In this case, the outcomes from the first extension of season suggest that season length adjustment can be an effective tool to regulate harvest, though dependent on winter weather conditions and hunters’ motivation for shooting geese.

  3. Migration strategies of Swan Geese Anser cygnoides from northeast Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Prosser, Diann J.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Xiao, Xiangming

    2011-01-01

    In 2006–2008, 25 Swan Geese Anser cygnoides were marked with solar-powered GPS satellite transmitters in northeast Mongolia to examine the timing and pathways of their migration. Most geese began their autumn migration in August, flying southeast toward a staging area at the Yalu River Estuary on the China-North Korea border. After staging for several weeks, the Swan Geese continued to their wintering grounds at wetlands along the Yangtze River Basin of eastern China in December. Spring migration commenced in late February, and the birds following either a same-route or loop migration to arrive at the breeding grounds in mid April. Swan Geese used a larger number of staging areas for a longer duration when they were north of 42°N latitude; they seemed to avoid staging for extended periods in the highly urbanised areas of eastern China. Further research should examine threats and disturbances to the geese in relation to human population growth and increasing urbanisation.

  4. Preliminary studies on the reaction of growing geese (Anser anser f. domestica) to the proximity of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, J; Borowski, S; Marć-Pieńkowska, J; Odrowaz-Sypniewska, G; Bernacki, Z; Siódmiak, J; Szterk, P

    2013-01-01

    Wind farms produce electricity without causing air pollution and environmental degradation. Unfortunately, wind turbines are a source of infrasound, which may cause a number of physiological effects, such as an increase in cortisol and catecholamine secretion. The impact of infrasound noise, emitted by wind turbines, on the health of geese and other farm animals has not previously been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of noise, generated by wind turbines, on the stress parameters (cortisol) and the weight gain of geese kept in surrounding areas. The study consisted of 40 individuals of 5-week-old domestic geese Anser anser f domestica, divided into 2 equal groups. The first experimental gaggle (I) remained within 50 m from turbine and the second one (II) within 500 m. During the 12 weeks of the study, noise measurements were also taken. Weight gain and the concentration of cortisol in blood were assessed and significant differences in both cases were found. Geese from gaggle I gained less weight and had a higher concentration of cortisol in blood, compared to individuals from gaggle II. Lower activity and some disturbing changes in behavior of animals from group I were noted. Results of the study suggest a negative effect of the immediate vicinity of a wind turbine on the stress parameters of geese and their productivity.

  5. Effects of avian cholera on survival of Lesser Snow Geese Anser caerulescens: An experimental approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Orthmeyer, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Avian cholera, caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, is one of the most important diseases affecting waterfowl in North America but little is known about the epizootiology of this disease or its impacts on annual survival rates. We ringed Lesser Snow Geese Anser caerulescens nesting at Wrangel Island, Russia and Banks Island, Canada with metal rings and individually coded plastic neck-collars or radio-transmitters to determine survival, movement and cause of death. We vaccinated half of the neck-collared and radiotagged geese to provide protection from avian cholera for up to one year following ringing and thus experimentally determine the impacts of this disease on survival. We found that vaccination did not reduce short-term survival of the experimental birds, compared with control geese. Neck-collared geese vaccinated in 1993 at Wrangel Island had higher survival during winter 1993-94 than control birds. In contrast, we found similar survival during winter 1994-95 between vaccinated and control geese neck-collared in 1994 at Wrangel and Banks Islands. Survival of radiotagged geese on wintering areas during 1994-95 was consistent with the vaccination versus control results for neck-collared geese during the same winter. However, we found that radiotagged geese that were vaccinated had better survival than control geese during winter 1995-96. We believe that harvest and avian cholera are the two principal causes of mortality for Lesser Snow Geese wintering in the Pacific Flyway and that avian cholera may be one of the factors affecting these populations.

  6. Effects of avian cholera on survival of lesser snow geese Anser caerulescens: an experimental approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Orthmeyer, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Avian cholera, caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, is one of the most important diseases affecting waterfowl in North America but little is known about the epizootiology of this disease or its impacts on annual survival rates. We ringed Lesser Snow Geese Anser caerulescens nesting at Wrangel Island, Russia and Banks Island, Canada with metal rings and individually coded plastic neck-collars or radio-transmitters to determine survival, movement and cause of death. We vaccinated half of the neck-collared and radiotagged geese to provide protection from avian cholera for up to one year following ringing and thus experimentally determine the impacts of this disease on survival. We found that vaccination did not reduce short-term survival of the experimental birds, compared with control geese. Neck-collared geese vaccinated in 1993 at Wrangel Island had higher survival during winter 1993-94 than control birds. In contrast, we found similar survival during winter 1994-95 between vaccinated and control geese neck-collared in 1994 at Wrangel and Banks Islands. Survival of radiotagged geese on wintering areas during 1994-95 was consistent with the vaccination versus control results for neck-collared geese during the same winter. However, we found that radiotagged geese that were vaccinated had better survival than control geese during winter 1995-96. We believe that harvest and avian cholera are the two principal causes of mortality for Lesser Snow Geese wintering in the Pacific Flyway and that avian cholera may be one of the factors affecting these populations.

  7. Glucocorticoids enhance and suppress heart rate and behaviour in time dependent manner in greylag geese (Anser anser).

    PubMed

    Kralj-Fiser, Simona; Scheiber, Isabella B R; Kotrschal, Kurt; Weiss, Brigitte M; Wascher, Claudia A F

    2010-06-16

    Stress responses involve autonomic, endocrine and behavioural changes. Each of these responses has been studied thoroughly in avian species, but hardly in an integrative way, in free-living birds. This is necessary to reveal the temporal dynamics of the stress response. Towards that goal, we recorded heart rate (HR) and behaviour in free-ranging male greylag geese (Anser anser) simultaneously over 2h. The geese were subjected to (a) unmanipulated control condition, (b) capture, handling and injection of ACTH, and (c) capture, handling and injection of a saline solution (SHAM). Fecal samples for the non-invasive determination of immuno-reactive glucocorticoid metabolite (BM) concentrations were collected for 7h thereafter. The SHAM control caused a significant BM increase, a transient increase in HR, an initial increase of preening behaviour and a delay in feeding. ACTH treatment, relative to SHAM, produced significantly higher BM concentrations, and activation of "displacement behaviours" such as wing flapping, body shaking and preening. Also, feeding activity as well as resting was postponed and/or lower for a longer period of time after ACTH than after SHAM. ACTH injection had a greater effect than SHAM injection on HR increase in the first hour, but particularly on HR decline in the second hour following the injection. Hence, glucocorticoids had time- and dose-dependent stimulatory and suppressive effects on cardiovascular activity and behaviour. HR dynamics after ACTH actually matched with behavioural dynamics: both were first enhanced and later suppressed, which is in alignment with adaptive stress management involving the fight-flight response and recovery from stress, respectively.

  8. Ambient temperature and air pressure modulate hormones and behaviour in Greylag geese (Anser anser) and Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita).

    PubMed

    Dorn, Sebastian; Wascher, Claudia A F; Möstl, Erich; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2014-10-01

    Ambient temperature and air pressure are relevant stimuli that can elicit hormonal responses in alignment with adjusting individuals' physiology and behaviour. This study investigated possible changes in corticosterone (C) and testosterone (T) and contingencies with behaviour in response to ambient temperature and air pressure, and it evaluated the temporal response dynamics of these hormones in 12 individual Greylag geese (Anser anser) over 26 and 12 individual Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita) over 27 days, during late winter. Immunoreactive metabolites of C and T were analysed non-invasively from 626 fecal samples by means of group-specific antibodies and correlated to behaviour and weather factors. In both species, high C levels correlated with low temperatures 24h before sampling, but low C levels correlated with high air pressure 6-12h before sampling. In both species, C levels and behavioural activity were negatively correlated. In addition, temperature had a positive influence on T levels in both species 12-24h before sampling. The fact that weather conditions influenced changes in levels of C, while social interactions did not, is indicative of a general mechanism of graduated physiological adjustment to environmental variations affecting metabolism, stress responses and behaviour.

  9. Excreted corticosterone metabolites co-vary with ambient temperature and air pressure in male Greylag geese (Anser anser).

    PubMed

    Frigerio, Didone; Dittami, John; Möstl, Erich; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2004-05-15

    In many species, seasonal activities such as reproduction or migration need to be fine-tuned with weather conditions. Air pressure and temperature changes are the best parameters for such conditions. Adapting to climatic changes invariably involves physiological and behavioral reactions associated with the adrenals. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ambient temperature and air pressure on excreted immuno-reactive metabolites of corticosterone (BM) and androgens (AM). Focal individuals were 14 paired male greylag geese (Anser anser) from a semi-tame, unrestrained flock. BM and AM were measured in individual fecal samples over 25 days in November and December. Two different ACTH-validated assays were used for the assessment of BM: the first one cross-reacting with 11beta,21-diol-20-one structures ("old assay") and the second one with 5beta,3alpha,11beta-diol structures ("new assay"). With the "new assay," BM correlated negatively with the minimum ambient temperature of the night before, which may reflect corticosterone involvement in thermoregulation. BM also correlated positively with the minimum air pressure of the previous afternoon, which supports the value of air pressure for predicting weather conditions. Together, these reactions suggest a role of the adrenals in responding behaviorally and physiologically to changes in weather. Preliminary analysis indicated a higher sensitivity to the excreted glucocorticosteroid metabolites in the "new assay." As expected for outside the mating season, no relationships were found between excreted AM and the weather parameters considered. The gradual changes in BM excretion in parallel with weather conditions may be part of the fine-tuning of physiology and behavior by environmental clues.

  10. Social and environmental factors modulate leucocyte profiles in free-living Greylag geese (Anser anser)

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Sonja C.; Hemetsberger, Josef; Kotrschal, Kurt; Wascher, Claudia A.F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood parameters such as haematocrit or leucocyte counts are indicators of immune status and health, which can be affected, in a complex way, by exogenous as well as endogenous factors. Additionally, social context is known to be among the most potent stressors in group living individuals, therefore potentially influencing haematological parameters. However, with few exceptions, this potential causal relationship received only moderate scientific attention. Methods In a free-living and individually marked population of the highly social and long-lived Greylag goose, Anser anser, we relate variation in haematocrit (HCT), heterophils to lymphocytes ratio (H/L) and blood leucocyte counts to the following factors: intrinsic (sex, age, raising condition, i.e. goose- or hand-raised), social (pair-bond status, pair-bond duration and parental experience) and environmental (biologically relevant periods, ambient temperature) factors. Blood samples were collected repeatedly from a total of 105 focal birds during three biologically relevant seasons (winter flock, mating season, summer). Results We found significant relationships between haematological parameters and social as well as environmental factors. During the mating season, unpaired individuals had higher HCT compared to paired and family individuals and this pattern reversed in fall. Similarly, H/L ratio was positively related to pair-bond status in a seasonally dependent way, with highest values during mating and successful pairs had higher H/L ratio than unsuccessful ones. Also, absolute number of leucocytes tended to vary depending on raising condition in a seasonally dependent way. Discussion Haematology bears a great potential in ecological and behavioural studies on wild vertebrates. In sum, we found that HTC, H/L ratio and absolute number of leucocytes are modulated by social factors and conclude that they may be considered valid indicators of individual stress load. PMID:28070455

  11. Comprehensive analysis of Sichuan white geese (Anser cygnoides) transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ning; Han, Qing; Li, Qin; Zhao, Xianzhi; Li, Jing; Su, Jian; Wang, Qigui

    2014-06-01

    High-throughput RNA sequencing was performed for comprehensively analyzing the transcriptome of geese. A total of 28,803,759 bp of raw sequence data was generated by 454 GS Flx+. After removal of adaptor sequences, 28,730,361 bp remained and 117,279 reads were obtained, with an average length of 244 bases. Simultaneously, complementary DNA samples from two different reproductive stages of goose ovarian, hypothalamus and pituitary tissue were sequenced separately using Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 12 688 673 148 bp of raw sequence data were generated by Illumina MiSeq. After removal of adaptor sequences, 8 198 126 562 bp remained and 60 382 786 clean reads were obtained, with an average length of 135 bases. Assembly of all the reads from both 454 Flx+ and Illumina platforms formed 56,839 contigs. The sequence size ranges from 38 to 28,206 bp in size, with an average size of 2584 bp and an N50 of 4624. The assembly produced a substantial number of large contigs: 35,545 (62.5%) were longer than 1 kb, of which 8850 (15.6%) were longer than 5 kb. The sequencing depth was 85 X on average. We performed comprehensive function annotations on unigenes including protein sequence similarity, gene ontology (GO) term classification, and Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. GO analysis showed that approximately 63% of the contigs had annotation information, among the 35,953 annotated isotigs in Nr database, 24,783 (68.9%) sequences were assigned with one or more GO terms. There were 14,634 (40.7%) isotigs for biological processes, 10,557(29.3%) isotigs for cellular component, 22,607 (62.9%) isotigs for molecular function. The result of KEGG pathway mapping 8926 sequences had the pathway annotation, and took part in 477 pathways. Additionally, 10,685 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were identified from the assembled sequences. The most frequent repeat motifs were trinucleotides, which accounted for 53.03% of all SSRs

  12. Chewing Lice of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides): New Host-Parasite Associations

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Smith, Lacy M.; Ely, Craig R.; Fox, Anthony D.; Cao, Lei; Wang, Xin; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Xiao, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution of its wild hosts. To better understand the lice species parasitizing swan geese that are endemic to East Asia, we collected chewing lice from 14 wild geese caught at 3 lakes in northeastern Mongolia. The lice were morphologically identified as 16 Trinoton anserinum (Fabricius, 1805), 11 Ornithobius domesticus Arnold, 2005, and 1 Anaticola anseris (Linnaeus, 1758). These species are known from other geese and swans, but all of them were new to the swan goose. This result also indicates no overlap in lice species between older records and our findings from wild birds. Thus, ectoparasites collected from domestic or captive animals may provide biased information on the occurrence, prevalence, host selection, and host-ectoparasite interactions from those on wild hosts. PMID:27853128

  13. Chewing Lice of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides): New Host-Parasite Associations.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y; Prosser, Diann J; Smith, Lacy M; Ely, Craig R; Fox, Anthony D; Cao, Lei; Wang, Xin; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Xiao, Xiangming

    2016-10-01

    Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution of its wild hosts. To better understand the lice species parasitizing swan geese that are endemic to East Asia, we collected chewing lice from 14 wild geese caught at 3 lakes in northeastern Mongolia. The lice were morphologically identified as 16 Trinoton anserinum (Fabricius, 1805), 11 Ornithobius domesticus Arnold, 2005, and 1 Anaticola anseris (Linnaeus, 1758). These species are known from other geese and swans, but all of them were new to the swan goose. This result also indicates no overlap in lice species between older records and our findings from wild birds. Thus, ectoparasites collected from domestic or captive animals may provide biased information on the occurrence, prevalence, host selection, and host-ectoparasite interactions from those on wild hosts.

  14. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Tseveenmyadag, N.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Wikelski, M.; Bishop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000min 7-8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8-2.2 km??h-1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power.

  15. Protective efficacy of a recombinant subunit West Nile virus vaccine in domestic geese (Anser anser)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Lieberman, M.M.; Hofmeister, E.; Nerurkar, V.R.; Wong, T.; Weeks-Levy, C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction of the West Nile virus (WNV) to Hawai'i will undoubtedly devastate many populations of critically endangered avian species indigenous to Hawai'i. The protective efficacy of a protein-based WNV subunit vaccine formulated with adjuvant was evaluated in domestic geese as a surrogate species for the endangered Ne??ne??, the state bird of Hawai'i. Prevention of viremia following viral infection of vaccinated birds was used as the clinical endpoint of protection. ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization tests demonstrate that significant levels of vaccine antigen-specific antibody were produced in groups of birds vaccinated with 5 or 10 ??g of the WN-80E antigen formulated with ISA720 adjuvant. Moreover, after challenge with WNV, no viremia was detected in vaccinated birds, whereas viremia was detected up to 4 days after and virus was detected by oral swab for 6 days after infection among control groups. Safe and effective vaccination of managed or captive endangered bird populations will protect species with critically low numbers that could not survive the added mortality of introduced disease. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Latitudinal-Related Variation in Wintering Population Trends of Greylag Geese (Anser Anser) along the Atlantic Flyway: A Response to Climate Change?

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Cristina; Amat, Juan A.; Nilsson, Leif; Schricke, Vincent; Rodríguez-Alonso, Mariano; Gómez-Crespo, Enrique; Jubete, Fernando; Navedo, Juan G.; Masero, José A.; Palacios, Jesús; Boos, Mathieu; Green, Andy J.

    2015-01-01

    The unusually high quality of census data for large waterbirds in Europe facilitates the study of how population change varies across a broad geographical range and relates to global change. The wintering population of the greylag goose Anser anser in the Atlantic flyway spanning between Sweden and Spain has increased from 120 000 to 610 000 individuals over the past three decades, and expanded its wintering range northwards. Although population sizes recorded in January have increased in all seven countries in the wintering range, we found a pronounced northwards latitudinal effect in which the rate of increase is higher at greater latitudes, causing a constant shift in the centre of gravity for the spatial distribution of wintering geese. Local winter temperatures have a strong influence on goose numbers but in a manner that is also dependent on latitude, with the partial effect of temperature (while controlling for the increasing population trend between years) being negative at the south end and positive at the north end of the flyway. Contrary to assumptions in the literature, the expansion of crops exploited by greylag geese has made little contribution to the increases in population size. Only in one case (expansion of winter cereals in Denmark) did we find evidence of an effect of changing land use. The expanding and shifting greylag population is likely to have increasing impacts on habitats in northern Europe during the course of this century. PMID:26465601

  17. Applicability of anatid and galliform microsatellite markers to the genetic diversity studies of domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus) through the genotyping of the endangered zatorska breed

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of a sufficient number of molecular markers seriously limits the cognition of genetic relationships within and between populations of many species. Likewise, the genetic diversity of domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus), with a great number of breeds throughout the world, remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Findings Thirty-five goose, seventeen duck and eight chicken microsatellite primer pairs were screened for their utility in the cross-species amplification on DNA from 96 individuals of Zatorska breed of domestic geese. Twenty-seven of 42 amplifying primer pairs revealed length-polymorphic products, but three of them were difficult to score. Fifteen primer pairs amplifying the same length product across all individuals. One polymorphic microsatellite locus was assigned by genotyping of known sex individuals to the Z-chromosome. Conclusions We present a set of 24 polymorphic microsatellite markers useful for population genetic studies of the domestic goose. Another 15 markers were classified as monomorphic, but they might also be suitable for the assessment of genetic diversity in geese. PMID:21410974

  18. Movement patterns of Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus during breeding and post-breeding periods at Qinghai Lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, Peng; Hou, Yuansheng; Tang, Mingjie; Zhang, Haiting; Zuohua, Yuanchun; Yin, Zuohua; Li, Tianxian; Guo, Shan; Xing, Zhi; He, Yubang; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak at Qinghai Lake, China, in 2005 caused the death of over 6,000 migratory birds, half of which were Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus. Understanding the movements of this species may inform monitoring of outbreak risks for HPAI viruses; thus, we investigated the movement patterns of 29 Bar-headed Geese at Qinghai Lake, China during 2007 and 2008 by using high resolution GPS satellite telemetry. We described the movements and distribution of marked Bar-headed Geese during the pre-nesting, nesting, and moulting periods. Of 21 Bar-headed Geese with complete transmission records, 3 moved to other areas during the nesting period: 2 to Jianghe wetland (50 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) and 1 to Cuolongka Lake (220 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) during the nesting period. We identified nesting attempts of 7 of the marked geese at Qinghai Lake. Four completed successful nesting attempts according to our rules of judgment for the breeding status, and 2 geese lost broods soon after hatching (hereafter referred to as unsuccessful breeders). Of 18 geese present at Qinghai Lake during the nesting period, 9 (6 non-breeders, 2 successful breeders and 1 unsuccessful breeder) remained at Qinghai Lake during the moulting period; and 9 (5 non-breeders, 4 unsuccessful breeders) left Qinghai Lake for moulting. Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake, Alake Lake, Zhaling-Eling Lake area and Huangheyuan wetland area were used as moulting sites. Geese that moulted at Qinghai Lake, Cuolongka Lake, Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake and Alake Lake also moved to Zhaling-Eling Lake area or Huangheyuan wetland area and stayed there for several days prior to autumn migration. Mean home range and core area estimates did not differ significantly by sex, year and between breeders and non-breeders.

  19. Movement patterns of Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus during breeding and post-breeding periods at Qinghai Lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, P.; Hou, Y.; Tang, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Yin, Z.; Li, T.; Guo, S.; Xing, Z.; He, Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Yan, B.; Lei, F.

    2011-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak at Qinghai Lake, China, in 2005 caused the death of over 6,000 migratory birds, half of which were Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus. Understanding the movements of this species may inform monitoring of outbreak risks for HPAI viruses; thus, we investigated the movement patterns of 29 Bar-headed Geese at Qinghai Lake, China during 2007 and 2008 by using high resolution GPS satellite telemetry. We described the movements and distribution of marked Bar-headed Geese during the pre-nesting, nesting, and moulting periods. Of 21 Bar-headed Geese with complete transmission records, 3 moved to other areas during the nesting period: 2 to Jianghe wetland (50 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) and 1 to Cuolongka Lake (220 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) during the nesting period. We identified nesting attempts of 7 of the marked geese at Qinghai Lake. Four completed successful nesting attempts according to our rules of judgment for the breeding status, and 2 geese lost broods soon after hatching (hereafter referred to as unsuccessful breeders). Of 18 geese present at Qinghai Lake during the nesting period, 9 (6 non-breeders, 2 successful breeders and 1 unsuccessful breeder) remained at Qinghai Lake during the moulting period; and 9 (5 non-breeders, 4 unsuccessful breeders) left Qinghai Lake for moulting. Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake, Alake Lake, Zhaling-Eling Lake area and Huangheyuan wetland area were used as moulting sites. Geese that moulted at Qinghai Lake, Cuolongka Lake, Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake and Alake Lake also moved to Zhaling-Eling Lake area or Huangheyuan wetland area and stayed there for several days prior to autumn migration. Mean home range and core area estimates did not differ significantly by sex, year and between breeders and non-breeders. ?? 2010 Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V.

  20. Geographic variation in Bar-headed geese Anser indicus: connectivity of wintering and breeding grounds across a broad front

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, John Y.; Heath, Shane R.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Javed, Salim; Newman, Scott H.; Suwal, Rajendra N.; Rahman, Asad R.; Choudhury, Binod C.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Scott, Graham R.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Wikelski, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The connectivity and frequency of exchange between sub-populations of migratory birds is integral to understanding population dynamics over the entire species' range. True geese are highly philopatric and acquire lifetime mates during the winter, suggesting that the number of distinct sub-populations may be related to the number of distinct wintering areas. In the Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, a species found exclusively in Central Asia, the connectivity between breeding and wintering areas is not well known. Their migration includes crossing a broad front of the Himalaya Cordillera, a significant barrier to migration for most birds. Many Bar-headed Geese fly to breeding areas on the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau (TQP), the highest plateau in the world. From 2005-2008, 60 Bar-headed Geese were captured and marked with satellite transmitters in Nepal (n = 2), India (n = 6), China (n = 29), and Mongolia (n = 23) to examine their migration and distribution. Distinct differences were observed in their migration corridors and timing of movements, including an apparent leap-frog migration pattern for geese from Mongolia. Measurements of geese from Mongolia were larger than their counterparts from China, providing some evidence of morphological differences. Alteration of habitats in China, including the warming effects of climate change on glaciers increasing runoff to TQP wetlands, may be changing goose migration patterns and timing. With the exception of one individual, all geese from Qinghai Lake, China wintered in the southern TQP near Lhasa, and their increasing numbers in that region may be related to the effects of climate change and agricultural development. Thus, our findings document both morphological and geographical variation in sub-populations of Bar-headed Geese, but their resilience to environmental change may be lost if migratory short-stopping results in larger congregations restricted to a smaller number of wintering areas.

  1. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, L. A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P. J.; Chua, B.; Douglas, D. C.; Frappell, P. B.; Hou, Y.; Milsom, W. K.; Newman, S. H.; Prosser, D. J.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Scott, G. R.; Takekawa, J. Y.; Natsagdorj, T.; Wikelski, M.; Witt, M. J.; Yan, B.; Bishop, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima. PMID:23118436

  2. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, L A; Balachandran, S; Batbayar, N; Butler, P J; Chua, B; Douglas, D C; Frappell, P B; Hou, Y; Milsom, W K; Newman, S H; Prosser, D J; Sathiyaselvam, P; Scott, G R; Takekawa, J Y; Natsagdorj, T; Wikelski, M; Witt, M J; Yan, B; Bishop, C M

    2013-01-07

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima.

  3. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Chua, B.; Douglas, D.C.; Frappell, P.B.; Hou, Y.; Milsom, W.K.; Newman, S.H.; Prosser, D.J.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Scott, G.R.; Takekawam, J.Y.; Natsagdorj, T.; Wikelski, M.; Witt, M.J.; Yan, B.; Bishop, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima.

  4. Stable isotopes suggest low site fidelity in Bar-Headed Geese (Anser indicus) in Mongolia: Implications for disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiangming Xiao,; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Population connectivity is an important consideration in studies of disease transmission and biological conservation, especially with regard to migratory species. Determining how and when different subpopulations intermingle during different phases of the annual cycle can help identify important geographical regions or features as targets for conservation efforts and can help inform our understanding of continental-scale disease transmission. In this study, stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon in contour feathers were used to assess the degree of molt-site fidelity among Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) captured in north-central Mongolia. Samples were collected from actively molting Bar-headed Geese (n = 61), and some individual samples included both a newly grown feather (still in sheath) and an old, worn feather from the bird's previous molt (n = 21). Although there was no difference in mean hydrogen isotope ratios for the old and new feathers, the isotopic variance in old feathers was approximately three times higher than that of the new feathers, which suggests that these birds use different and geographically distant molting locations from year to year. To further test this conclusion, online data and modeling tools from the isoMAP website were used to generate probability landscapes for the origin of each feather. Likely molting locations were much more widespread for old feathers than for new feathers, which supports the prospect of low molt-site fidelity. This finding indicates that population connectivity would be greater than expected based on data from a single annual cycle, and that disease spread can be rapid even in areas like Mongolia where Bar-headed Geese generally breed in small isolated groups.

  5. Circumpolar variation in morphological characteristics of Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Fox, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Andreev, A.; Bromley, R.G.; Degtyarev, Andrei G.; Ebbinge, B.; Gurtovaya, E.N.; Kerbes, R.; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Kostin, I.; Krechmar, A.V.; Litvin, K.E.; Miyabayashi, Y.; Moou, J.H.; Oates, R.M.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Sabano, Yutaka; Simpson, S.G.; Solovieva, D.V.; Spindler, Michael A.; Syroechkovsky, Y.V.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Walsh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Capsule: Greater White-fronted Geese show significant variation in body size from sampling locations throughout their circumpolar breeding range. Aims: To determine the degree of geographical variation in body size of Greater White-fronted Geese and identify factors contributing to any apparent patterns in variation. Methods: Structural measures of >3000 geese from 16 breeding areas throughout the Holarctic breeding range of the species were compared statistically. Results: Palearctic forms varied clinally, and increased in size from the smallest forms on the Kanin and Taimyr peninsulas in western Eurasia to the largest forms breeding in the Anadyr Lowlands of eastern Chukotka. Clinal variation was less apparent in the Nearctic, as both the smallest form in the Nearctic and the largest form overall (the Tule Goose) were from different breeding areas in Alaska. The Tule Goose was 25% larger than the smallest form. Birds from Greenland (A. a. flavirostris) were the second largest, although only slightly larger than geese from several North American populations. Body size was not correlated with breeding latitude but was positively correlated with temperature on the breeding grounds, breeding habitat, and migration distance. Body mass of Greater White-fronted Geese from all populations remained relatively constant during the period of wing moult. Morphological distinctness of eastern and western Palearctic forms concurs with earlier findings of complete range disjunction. Conclusions: Patterns of morphological variation in Greater White-fronted Geese across the Holarctic can be generally attributed to adaptation to variable breeding environments, migration requirements, and phylo-geographical histories. 

  6. Low survival rates of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides) estimated from neck-collar resighting and telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Lee, Ki-Sup; Poyarkov, Nikolay D.; Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Hansoo; Takekawa, John; Smith, Lacy M.; Ely, Craig R.; Wang, Xin; Cao, Lei; Fox, Anthony D.; Goroshko, Oleg; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Prosser, Diann J.; Xiao, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Waterbird survival rates are a key component of demographic modeling used for effective conservation of long-lived threatened species. The Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides) is globally threatened and the most vulnerable goose species endemic to East Asia due to its small and rapidly declining population. To address a current knowledge gap in demographic parameters of the Swan Goose, available datasets were compiled from neck-collar resighting and telemetry studies, and two different models were used to estimate their survival rates. Results of a mark-resighting model using 15 years of neck-collar data (2001–2015) provided age-dependent survival rates and season-dependent encounter rates with a constant neck-collar retention rate. Annual survival rate was 0.638 (95% CI: 0.378–0.803) for adults and 0.122 (95% CI: 0.028–0.286) for first-year juveniles. Known-fate models were applied to the single season of telemetry data (autumn 2014) and estimated a mean annual survival rate of 0.408 (95% CI: 0.152–0.670) with higher but non-significant differences for adults (0.477) vs. juveniles (0.306). Our findings indicate that Swan Goose survival rates are comparable to the lowest rates reported for European or North American goose species. Poor survival may be a key demographic parameter contributing to their declining trend. Quantitative threat assessments and associated conservation measures, such as restricting hunting, may be a key step to mitigate for their low survival rates and maintain or enhance their population.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of the hypothalamus during prelaying and laying periods in Sichuan white geese (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Gao, Guangliang; Li, Qin; Zhao, Xianzhi; Ding, Ning; Han, Qing; Su, Jian; Wang, Qigui

    2015-08-01

    The Sichuan White goose is a Chinese breed well known for the quality of its meat. However, reproductive performance in this goose is not ideal, and little information is available regarding the abundance of transcripts. To better understand the molecular mechanism(s) underpinning prelaying and laying periods in the Sichuan white goose, high-throughput RNA sequencing was performed to analyze the transcriptome in the hypothalamus. After sequencing and annotation, 26,921 unigenes were obtained, with 48 transcripts up-regulated in the prelaying period and 180 transcripts up-regulated during the laying period. These transcripts were primarily related to diseases, cancers, signaling molecules and interactions, the nervous system and the immune system. Eight transcripts were selected for further analyses with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were mostly consistent with those from the high-throughput RNA sequencing. Among these transcripts, serine/threonine-protein kinase (AMPK), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) were differentially expressed during the prelaying and laying periods. The results of this study provide a useful resource for future studies examining the hypothalamus in geese.

  8. The comprehensive mechanisms underlying nonhierarchical follicular development in geese (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hehe; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Qingqing; Liu, Junying; Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Tianyu; Li, Liang; Wang, Jiwen; Xu, Hengyong; He, Hua

    2015-08-01

    The laying performance of poultry primarily depends on the growth and development of the ovarian follicles. Yet, little is known about the underlying mechanisms responsible for nonhierarchical follicular development in avian species. The aim of the present study is identify genes that are differentially expressed during nonhierarchical follicular development in geese by performing a transcriptome screen. A sequencing depth of 13.9 and 14.9 million mapped tags was obtained in pools of small white follicles (SWF) and small yellow follicles (SYF), respectively, and a total of 160 differentially expressed genes were identified. The fold-changes of eight differentially expressed genes, identified using qRT-PCR, were consistent with the Digital Gene Expression Profiling (DGE) data. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) analyses showed that lipid metabolism, steroid secretion, extracellular ligand reactions, enzyme activities, the cell cycle, ECM-receptor interactions and the extracellular matrix are involved in follicular development. The majority of the newly identified genes could be considered to be new candidate genes with potential roles in regulating follicular development. These results provide useful information for future in-depth studies associated with nonhierarchical follicular development in goose reproduction.

  9. Mating activity of domestic geese ganders (Anser anser f. domesticus) during breeding period in relation to age, testosterone and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Rozenboim, Israel

    2013-11-30

    In breeding geese, natural mating applies. The objective of this study was to determine seasonal- and age-related changes in the sexual activity of ganders. Moreover, T, T4 and T3 plasma levels were evaluated. The study was conducted on 2/3-year-old males (n=15) and 1- or 2/3-year-old females (1♂:4♀). Sexual activity of ganders was characterized through the frequency of: courtship, attempts at and successful copulations and total mating activity (MA). Reproductive results manifested by egg production and fertility were recorded. Laying percentage (January-June) was 37.1 and 28.6% for 1-, and 2/3-year-old geese, respectively. MA was noted before the sexual maturity of females and the T level peak. MA was highest at the onset and during peak production (March) for ganders kept with 1-, and 2/3-year-old geese, respectively. From April to May a decrease in fertility with a reduction of the frequency of copulations was observed. At this time low levels of T were noted. The effect of goose age on the MA was shown, with higher frequency of copulations for ganders kept with 1-year-old geese. We suggest that in the successful seasonal mating in geese, social factors such as the presence of females and female age play an important role. The reduction in fertility during the spring period may be associated with decreases in the efficiency of successive mating sequences. The higher frequency of copulations without affecting fertility, for ganders kept with young geese, may be because of differences in sperm transfer or storage/transport efficiency.

  10. Neisseria arctica sp. nov. isolated from nonviable eggs of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Cristina M.; Himschoot, Elizabeth; Hare, Rebekah F.; Meixell, Brandt; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Hueffer, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    During the summers of 2013 and 2014, isolates of a novel Gram-negative coccus in the Neisseria genus were obtained from the contents of nonviable greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) eggs on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. We used a polyphasic approach to determine whether these isolates represent a novel species. 16S rRNA gene sequences, 23S rRNA gene sequences, and chaperonin 60 gene sequences suggested that these Alaskan isolates are members of a distinct species that is most closely related to Neisseria canis, N. animaloris, and N. shayeganii. Analysis of the rplF gene additionally showed that our isolates are unique and most closely related to N. weaveri. Average nucleotide identity of the whole genome sequence of our type strain was between 71.5% and 74.6% compared to close relatives, further supporting designation as a novel species. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis showed a predominance of C14:0, C16:0, and C16:1ω7c fatty acids. Finally, biochemical characteristics distinguished our isolates from other Neisseria species. The name Neisseria arctica (type strain KH1503T = ATCC TSD-57T = DSM 103136T) is proposed.

  11. Age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the frequency with which Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) of known age were observed breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. No one- or two-year old geese were observed on nests. Three-year old geese bred at a lower rate than four-year old geese. These data suggest that patterns of age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese are similar to other sympatrically nesting, large bodied geese [Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons)] but delayed relative to smaller bodied geese [Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Pacific Black Brant (B. bernicla nigricans)].

  12. Arctic nesting geese: alaskan populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Stehn, Robert A.; Ely, Craig R.; Derksen, Dirk V.

    1995-01-01

    While data for some areas are lacking, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) and medium-sized Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in interior and northern Alaska appear stable or have increased (King and Derksen 1986). Although only a small number of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nest in Alaska, substantial populations occur in Canada and Russia. Populations of Pacific black brant (B. bernicla nigricans), emperor geese (C. canagica), greater white-fronted geese, and cackling Canada geese (B.c. minima) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) of western Alaska have declined from their historical numbers and are the focus of special management efforts (USFWS 1989). In addition, populations of tule white-fronted geese (A.a. gambeli), Aleutian Canada geese (B.c. leucopareia), Vancouver Canada Geese (B.c. fulva), and dusky Canada geese (B.c. occidentalis) are of special concern because of their limited geographic distributions and small numbers.

  13. Lesser White-fronted (Anser erythropus) and Greater White-fronted (A. albifrons) Geese wintering in Greek wetlands are not threatened by Pb through shot ingestion.

    PubMed

    Aloupi, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Akriotis, Triantaphyllos; Bantikou, Evangelia; Hatzidaki, Victoria-Ourania

    2015-09-15

    Fecal lead (Pb) levels were investigated in the threatened European population of the Lesser White-fronted Goose (LWfG, Anser erythropus) and of the non-threatened Greater White-fronted Goose (GWfG, Anser albifrons) wintering in two wetland areas in northern Greece in order to assess the potential risk from Pb exposure. Fecal, soil and food plant samples were analyzed. Levels of Pb were normalized using Al concentrations in order to separate the effect of possible ingestion of Pb shot from that of soil or sediment accidentally ingested with food. All concentrations are expressed on a dry weight basis. Geometric means of Pb content in the feces of LWfG were 6.24 mg/kg at Evros Delta and 7.34 mg/kg at Lake Kerkini (maximum values of 28.61 mg/kg and 36.68 mg/kg, respectively); for fecal samples of GWfG geometric means were 2.39 mg/kg at Evros Delta and 6.90 mg/kg at Kerkini (corresponding maximum values of 25.09 mg/kg and 42.26 mg/kg). Soil Pb was in the range of 5.2-60.2mg/kg (geometric mean = 22.6 mg/kg) for the Evros Delta and between 13.4 and 64.9 mg/kg (geometric mean=28.1mg/kg) for Kerkini. A general linear model fitted to the data showed that Pb levels were very closely dependent on Al levels in the feces from both species and at both sites indicating soil or sediment were the only significant source of Pb; species and site, as well as their interaction, were not statistically significant factors. For both species and at both sites exposure to Pb was evidently very mild and the observed levels of Pb were well below the proposed thresholds for lethal or sublethal effects of Pb poisoning. Soil ingestion appeared to gradually increase from October to December for LWfG at Kerkini, corresponding to a gradual depletion of their food source.

  14. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

  15. Latitudinal variability in the seroprevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in non-migrant and Arctic migratory geese.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Cecilia A M; Buma, Anita G J; Hoye, Bethany J; Prop, Jouke; van der Jeugd, Henk; Voslamber, Berend; Madsen, Jesper; Loonen, Maarten J J E

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular coccidian parasite found worldwide and is known to infect virtually all warm-blooded animals. It requires a cat (family Felidae) to complete its full life cycle. Despite the absence of wild felids on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, T. gondii has been found in resident predators such as the arctic fox and polar bear. It has therefore been suggested that T. gondii may enter this ecosystem via migratory birds. The objective of this study was to identify locations where goose populations may become infected with T. gondii, and to investigate the dynamics of T. gondii specific antibodies. Single blood samples of both adults and juveniles were collected from selected goose species (Anser anser, A. brachyrhynchus, Branta canadensis, B. leucopsis) at Arctic brood-rearing areas in Russia and on Svalbard, and temperate wintering grounds in the Netherlands and Denmark (migratory populations) as well as temperate brood-rearing grounds (the Netherlands, non-migratory populations). A modified agglutination test was used on serum, for detection of antibodies against T. gondii. Occasional repeated annual sampling of individual adults was performed to determine the antibody dynamics. Adults were found seropositive at all locations (Arctic and temperate, brood-rearing and wintering grounds) with low seroprevalence in brood-rearing birds on temperate grounds. As no juvenile geese were found seropositive at any brood-rearing location, but nine month old geese were found seropositive during spring migration we conclude that geese, irrespective of species and migration, encounter T. gondii infection in wintering areas. In re-sampled birds on Svalbard significant seroreversion was observed, with 42% of seropositive adults showing no detectable antibodies after 12 months, while the proportion of seroconversion was only 3%. Modelled variation of seroprevalence with field data on antibody longevity and parasite transmission suggests seroprevalence

  16. Tissue tropism of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in naturally infected mute swans (Cygnus Olor ), domestic geese (Aser Anser var. domestica), pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and mulard ducks ( Cairina moschata x anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Szeredi, Levente; Dán, Adám; Pálmai, Nimród; Ursu, Krisztina; Bálint, Adám; Szeleczky, Zsófia; Ivanics, Eva; Erdélyi, Károly; Rigó, Dóra; Tekes, Lajos; Glávits, Róbert

    2010-03-01

    The 2006 epidemic due to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in Hungary caused the most severe losses in waterfowl which were, according to the literature at the time, supposed to be the most resistant to this pathogen. The presence of pathological lesions and the amount of viral antigen were quantified by gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the organs of four waterfowl species [mute swans (n = 10), domestic geese (n = 6), mulard ducks (n = 6) and Pekin ducks (n = 5)] collected during the epidemic. H5N1 subtype HPAIV was isolated from all birds examined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR) was also applied on a subset of samples [domestic geese (n = 3), mulard (n = 4) and Pekin duck (n = 4)] in order to compare its sensitivity with IHC. Viral antigen was detected by IHC in all cases. However, the overall presence of viral antigen in tissue samples was quite variable: virus antigen was present in 56/81 (69%) swan, 22/38 (58%) goose, 28/46 (61%) mulard duck and 5/43 (12%) Pekin duck tissue samples. HPAIV subtype H5N1 was detected by qRRT-PCR in all birds examined, in 19/19 (100%) goose, 7/28 (25%) mulard duck and 12/28 (43%) Pekin duck tissue samples. As compared to qRRTPCR, the IHC was less sensitive in geese and Pekin ducks but more sensitive in mulard ducks. The IHC was consistently positive above 4.31 log10 copies/reaction but it gave very variable results below that level. Neurotropism of the isolated virus strains was demonstrated by finding the largest amount of viral antigen and the highest average RNA load in the brain in all four waterfowl species examined.

  17. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink‐footed geese: 2016 progress summary: Technical Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, No. 86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink‐footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) near their agreed target level (60,000) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark. This report provides an assessment of the most recent monitoring information (1991-2015) and its implications for the harvest management strategy. By combining varying hypotheses about survival and reproduction, a suite of nine models have been developed that represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent. These results suggest that the pink‐footed goose population may have recently experienced a release from density‐dependent mechanisms, corresponding to the period of most rapid growth in population size. Beginning with the 2016 hunting season, harvest quotas will be prescribed on an annual basis rather than every three years because of the potential to better meet population management objectives. Based on updated model weights, the recent observations of population size (74,800), the proportion of the population comprised of one-year-old birds (0.138), and temperature days in Svalbard (20), the optimal harvest quota for the 2016 hunting season is 25,000. The large increase in quota compared to that during first three years of AHM reflects stakeholders’ desire to reduce population size to the goal of 60,000, recognizing that population size remains relatively high and above-average production is expected in 2016 due to a warm spring.

  18. A comparison of methods used to obtain age ratios of snow and Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Linder, R.L.; Springer, P.F.

    1969-01-01

    The validity of group counts, cannon-net catches, and hunter-bag checks for estimating productivity of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and small Canada geese (Branta canadensis hutchinsii-parvipes complex) was studied at Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge during the falls of 1965 and 1966. Age ratios of snow geese obtained from net-trapped samples were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than from group counts at the same site. Immature snow geese were shot in a significantly greater (P < 0.01) proportion than they existed in the population as determined by group counts. Cannon-net catches and hunter-bag checks of snow and Canada geese yielded age ratios which were biased because of behavioral characteristics of the geese. Immatures of both species were less wary of trap equipment and immature snow geese were more vulnerable to the gun than adults. It was believed that age ratios from group counts of snow geese were more representative of the population than those from net catches and hunter-bag checks. Sex ratios of net-trapped geese showed a preponderance of males for adult Canada and adult and immature snow geese, whereas females were predominant in the immature segment of Canada geese. Hunter selectivity of blue- or white-phase snow geese was not observed at Sand Lake Refuge. Differential vulnerability to hunting between snow and Canada geese resulted from differences m feeding-flight behavior.

  19. Habitat suitability index models: greater white-fronted goose (wintering). [Anser albifrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    A review and synthesis of available information were used to develop models for indexing the potential suitability of agricultural and natural wetland habitats for wintering white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons). The model is scaled to produce indices of habitat suitability from 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimal habitat) primarily for wintering habitat in southwest Louisiana and southwest Texas. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with Habitat Evaluations Procedures previously developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  20. Selection of habitats by Emperor Geese during brood rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Although forage quality strongly affects gosling growth and consequently juvenile survival, the relative use of different plant communities by brood rearing geese has been poorly studied. On the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, population growth and juvenile recruitment of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) are comparatively low, and it is unknown whether their selection of habitats during brood rearing differs from other goose species. Radio-telemetry was used to document the use of habitats by 56 families of Emperor Geese in a 70 km2 portion of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta during brood rearing in 1994-1996. When contrasted with available habitats (a set of six habitat classes), as estimated from 398 random sampling locations, Emperor Geese strongly selected Saline Ponds, Mudflat, and Ramenskii Meadow habitats and avoided Levee Meadow, Bog Meadow, and Sedge Meadow. These selected habitats were the most saline, comprised one-third of the study area, and 43% of all locations were in Ramenskii Meadow. I contrasted these Emperor Goose locations with habitats used by the composite goose community, as inferred from the presence of goose feces at random locations. The marked difference between groups in this comparison implied that Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons) collectively selected much different brood rearing habitats than Emperor Geese. Received 20 February 2001, accepted 18 April 2001.

  1. Trichobilharzia anseri n. sp. (Schistosomatidae: Digenea), a new visceral species of avian schistosomes isolated from greylag goose (Anser anser L.) in Iceland and France.

    PubMed

    Jouet, D; Kolářová, L; Patrelle, C; Ferté, H; Skírnisson, K

    2015-08-01

    Parasitological investigations carried out on birds in Iceland and France highlight the presence of four species of avian schistosomes from greylag geese (Anser anser L.): the european nasal species Trichobilharzia regenti and three visceral species, among which an unknown species isolated from blood vessels of the large intestine and liver. Morphological and molecular analyzes of different parasite stages (eggs, adults) revealed new species of Trichobilharzia genus – Trichobilharzia anseri sp. nov. Studies on host-parasite relationship under natural conditions, showed that the life-cycle includes the snail Radix balthica (syn. R. peregra) as intermediate host. The cercariae, already isolated in Iceland from two ponds of the Reykjavik capital area – the Family park and Tjörnin Lake – are the same as those isolated in 1999 by Kolářová et al. during the first study on Icelandic parasitic agents of cercarial dermatitis.

  2. Reproductive strategies of northern geese: Why wait?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Bollinger, K.S.; Densmore, R.V.; Rothe, T.C.; Petrula, M.J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Orthmeyer, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Migration and reproductive strategies in waterbirds are tightly linked, with timing of arrival and onset of nesting having important consequences for reproductive success. Whether migratory waterbirds are capital or income breeders is predicated by their spring migration schedule, how long they are on breeding areas before nesting, and how adapted they are to exploiting early spring foods at northern breeding areas. However, for most species, we know little about individual migration schedules, arrival times, and duration of residence on breeding areas before nesting. To document these relationships in a northern nesting goose, we radiotracked winter-marked Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons elgasi; hereafter “Tule Geese”; n = 116) from the time of their arrival in Alaska through nesting. Tule Geese arrived on coastal feeding areas in mid-April and moved to nesting locations a week later. They initiated nests 15 days (range: 6–24 days) after arrival, a period roughly equivalent to the duration of rapid follicle growth. Tule Geese that arrived the earliest were more likely to nest than geese that arrived later; early arrivals also spent more time on the breeding grounds and nested earlier than geese that arrived later. The length of the prenesting period was comparable to that of other populations of this species, but longer than for goose species that initiate rapid follicle growth before arrival on the breeding grounds. We suggest that Tule Geese nesting in more temperate climates are more likely to delay breeding to exploit local food resources than Arctic-nesting species that may be constrained by short growing seasons.

  3. Trace element concentrations in two subpopulations of lesser snow geese from Wrangel Island, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Litvin, K.V.

    1998-01-01

    Lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens) from the Wrangel Island, Russia breeding colony spend the winter in two widely separated areas: the northern subpopulation in southern British Columbia and northern Washington and the southern subpopulation in the Central Valley of California. We examined 19 trace elements in the eggs and livers of geese from these two subpopulations to examine whether geese from the different wintering areas have similar trace element burdens. Eggs collected at the breeding colony from geese of the southern subpopulation had slightly higher levels of manganese, an element that can cause neurological damage and behavioral changes in chicks, than geese of the northern subpopulation. Livers from adult geese collected on the two wintering areas showed significant differences in trace elements including copper, iron, magnesium, molybdenum, and zinc. Copper concentrations in the livers of geese from the southern subpopulation were much higher than those from the northern subpopulation (x?? = 116 vs. 46 ppm; dry weight). Elevated levels of copper may induce anemia in birds. The differences in trace element concentrations of these two subpopulations may be related to farming practices in their wintering areas. Geese from the northern subpopulation feed in pastures and coastal marshes and migrate along the coast, but geese from the southern subpopulation feed predominantly in rice fields and migrate over farm land. Copper and manganese are major components of fertilizers and fungicides commonly applied during rice cultivation.

  4. Relationship between wild greylag and European domestic geese based on mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, M E; Ruokonen, M; Alexander, M; Aspi, J; Pyhäjärvi, T; Searle, J B

    2015-10-01

    The origins of the European domestic goose are uncertain. The available information comes from archaeological findings and historical literature, but genetic evidence has hitherto been scarce. The domestic goose in Europe is derived from the greylag goose (Anser anser), but it is not known where the initial domestication took place and which of the two subspecies of greylag goose was ancestral. We aimed to determine the amount and geographical distribution of genetic diversity in modern populations of greylag geese as well as in different breeds of the domestic goose to make inferences about goose domestication. We studied DNA sequence variation in the mitochondrial control region of greylag geese from multiple populations across Europe and western Asia as well as specimens of domestic geese representing 18 modern breeds and individuals not belonging to any recognised breed. Our results show notable differences in genetic diversity between different greylag goose populations and the presence of six mitochondrial haplogroups which show a degree of geographical partitioning. The genetic diversity of the domestic goose is low, with 84% of sampled individuals having one of two major closely related haplotypes, suggesting that modern European domestic geese may derive from a narrow genetic base. The site of domestication remains unresolved, but domestic geese in Turkey were unusually diverse, indicating the importance of further sampling in the vicinity of the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East. There appears to be past or ongoing hybridisation between greylags and domestic geese in particular areas, consistent with field observations.

  5. Morphological differences in Pacific Coast populations of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orthmeyer, D.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ely, C.R.; Wege, M.; Newton, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    We examined morphological relationships of three Pacific coast populations of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons). Adult geese were captured and measured at three breeding areas in Alaska and two wintering areas in California, 1980-1991. A two-step discriminant function analysis examined morphological differences among the three populations. Stepwise discriminant function procedures created the simplest measurement models. Each sex was analyzed separately since multivariate analysis of variance indicated that males were significantly larger than females for all three populations. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. gambelli) were significantly larger than Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. frontalis), hereafter Pacific Geese. The first step of discriminant function analysis created models to differentiate Tule Geese from the Pacific Geese. Bivariate stepwise discriminant function models consisting of only two measurements correctly classified 92% of males (bill height, bill width) and 96% of females (bill height, culmen) of these subspecies. The second step of discriminant function analysis compared a small population of Pacific Geese from the Bristol Bay Lowlands (BBL) of southwestern Alaska with the large population of Pacific Geese that breed on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD) of westcentral Alaska. We developed models with three (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe) and five (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe, total tarsus, bill height) measurements from stepwise discriminant function analyses to correctly classify 72% of males and 74% of females of these populations. Thus, morphology of Tule Geese differed highly significantly from Pacific Geese, as expected but differences between populations from the BBL and YKD areas were also significant. Morphometric analyses as these provided supporting evidence for clinal variation in populations of Greater White-fronted Geese. They also underscore a need for further studies of differences among

  6. Geographic variation in migration chronology and winter distribution of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Nieman, Daniel J.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Hines, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal differences in migratory behavior among different breeding groups of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) using band-recovery data and observations of neck collared geese during migration and winter. Birds from different breeding areas were initially delineated by geographic distance into 6 banding reference areas (BRAs): 1) interior Alaska, 2) North Slope of Alaska, 3) western Northwest Territories (NWT), 4) western Nunavut, 5) central Nunavut, and 6) eastern Nunavut. The banding groups also differed by breeding habitat, with geese from interior Alaska nesting in the boreal forest (taiga), and all other groups breeding in tundra habitats. Geese from interior Alaska migrated earlier during autumn, and were more likely to winter farther south (in Mexico) than geese from other breeding areas. Geese banded in central and eastern Nunavut (Queen Maud Gulf and Inglis River) wintered farther east (in Louisiana) than geese from other breeding areas. Small-scale (within-state) geographic segregation of wintering flocks was evidenced by the recent (post-1990) nearly exclusive use of a new wintering area in north central Texas by geese from interior Alaska. Segregation among BRAs was also apparent in Mexico, where taiga geese were found predominantly in the central Highlands (states of Zacatecas and Durango), whereas tundra geese mostly used states along the Gulf Coast (primarily Tamaulipas). Interior Alaska birds initiated spring migration earlier than geese from other areas, and were more likely than others to stop in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska, a region where cholera outbreaks periodically kill thousands of geese. Geese from interior Alaska were the first to arrive at spring staging areas in prairie Canada where BRAs exhibited spatial delineation (a longitudinal cline) in relation to breeding areas. Our results show significant geographic and temporal variation among taiga and tundra breeding cohorts during

  7. Nesting habitat of the Tule Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons elgasi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.; Ely, C.R.; Bollinger, K.S.; Kratzer, S.; Udevitz, M.S.; Fehringer, D.J.; Rothe, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the first information on the availability and use of nesting habitat by the rare Tule Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons elgasi. The breeding range was sampled by marking geese with radio transmitters on wintering and moulting areas, and tracking them to nest sites in Alaska. Nesting habitat was described at the scales of ecoregion, wetland ecosystem (National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps), vegetation type within wetland (Alaska Vegetation Classification (AVC) maps based on satellite imagery), and nest site. Tule Greater White-fronted Goose nests were located in boreal forest wetlands in the upper Cook Inlet Basin ecoregion. Nesting Tule Greater White-fronted Geese selected NWT Palustrine Seasonally Flooded wetlands and used NWI Palustrine Saturated wetlands in proportion to availability. Within these wetlands, Tule Greater White-fronted Geese used Needleleaf Forest, Low Shrub and Herbaceous (mostly graminoid) AVC classes for nest sites in proportion to availability Most (93%) Tule Greater White-fronted Geese nested > 75 m from open water ponds or lakes, and many nested in wetlands with little or no open water. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese nest only in a small breeding area near the most human-impacted area of the state, and continued development may limit the use of suitable nesting habitat.

  8. Snow cover and snow goose Anser caerulescens caerulescens distribution during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Zacheis, Amy B.; Anthony, R. Michael; Robertson, Donna G.; Erickson, Wallace P.; Palacios, Kelly C.

    2001-01-01

    Arctic geese often use spring migration stopover areas when feeding habitats are partially snow covered. Melting of snow during the stopover period causes spatial and temporal variability in distribution and abundance of feeding habitat. We recorded changes in snow cover and lesser snow goose Anser caerulescens caerulescens distribution on a spring migration stopover area in south-central Alaska during aerial surveys in 1993-1994. Our objectives were to determine whether geese selected among areas with different amounts of snow cover and to assess how temporal changes in snow cover affected goose distribution. We also measured temporal changes in chemical composition of forage species after snow melt. We divided an Arc/Info coverage of the approximately 210 km2 coastal stopover area into 2-km2 cells, and measured snow cover and snow goose use of cells. Cells that had 10-49.9% snow cover were selected by snow geese, whereas cells that lacked snow cover were avoided. In both years, snow cover diminished along the coast between mid-April and early May. Flock distribution changed as snow geese abandoned snow-free areas in favour of cells where snow patches were interspersed with bare ground. Snow-free areas may have been less attractive to geese because available forage had been quickly exploited as bare ground was exposed, and because soils became drier making extraction of underground forage more difficult. Fiber content of two forage species increased whereas non-structural carbohydrate concentrations of forage plants appeared to diminish after snow melt, but changes in nutrient concentrations likely occurred too slowly to account for abandonment of snow-free areas by snow geese.

  9. Molecular tools for species and sex identification in the mixed-species flocks of bean geese and white-fronted geese.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-kyung; Lee, Sang-im; Lee, Hang; Lee, Sangdon

    2012-11-01

    Genetic studies on protected species can be difficult, particularly when they form a mixed-species flock with other species. The bean goose (Anser fabalis), which is internationally recognized as a threatened species, was observed to form overwintering foraging flocks with white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) at agricultural lands to feed on the grains in Korea. Non-invasive samples such as feces and feather that are readily available in their foraging ground can be useful for understanding the structure and composition of populations, but they often require specific experimental conditions due to small amount or low quality of DNA. In this study, we designed sets of primers that would allow efficient molecular identification of species and sex of individuals of bean geese and white-fronted geese. Species-specific primers (WFG-F/BG-F and G-R), developed from ND2 region of mitochondrial DNA, produced PCR products with different sizes which allow easy species identification without further sequencing. Based on published CHD 1 sequences, we designed internal primers (Gsex-F and Gsex-R) for sex determination that can be used in nested PCR after applying P2/P8 primers, and our methods clearly showed high success rate of molecular sexing from non-invasive samples. These molecular tools open the possibilities for genetic studies using non-invasive samples collected from a mixed-species aggregation containing bean geese and white-fronted geese.

  10. Citizen Science Based Monitoring of Greylag goose (Anser anser) in Bavaria (Germany): Combining Count Data and Bag Data to Estimate Long-Term Trends between 1988/89 and 2010/11

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction, Material and Methods Numbers of large grazing bird (geese, swans, cranes) have increased all over Europe, but monitoring these species, e.g. for management purposes, can be time consuming and costly. In Bavaria, sedentary Greylag geese (Anser anser) are monitored during the winter by two different citizen-based monitoring schemes: the International Waterbird Census [IWC] and hunting bag statistics. We compared the results of both schemes for the seasons 1988/89 to 2010/11 by analysing annual indices calculated using the software TRends and Indices for Monitoring Data—TRIM. Results and Discussion We identified similar, highly significant rates of increase in both data sets for the entire region of Bavaria (IWC 14% [13–15%], bag 13% [12–14%]). Furthermore, in all of the seven Bavarian regions, trends in annual indices of both data sets correlated significantly. The quality of both datasets as indicators of abundances in Greylag geese populations in Bavaria was not undermined by either weaknesses typically associated with citizen based monitoring or problems generally assumed for IWC and bag data. We also show that bag data are, under the German system of collecting bag statistics, a reliable indicator of species’ distribution, especially for detecting newly colonized areas. Therefore, wildlife managers may want to consider bag data from citizen science led monitoring programmes as evidence supporting the decision making processes. We also discuss requirements for any bag monitoring schemes being established to monitor trends in species’ distribution and abundance. PMID:26107952

  11. Effects of neck bands on the behavior of wintering greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.

    1990-01-01

    Activity budgets of adult Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) with and without neck bands during the non-breeding season revealed that geese with neck bands spent more time preening than geese without neck bands while at foraging sites, but not while at roosting sites. Neck-banded and control geese spent equal time in other important activities (alert, feeding, sleeping, locomotor activities, flying, or social interactions) while at both foraging and roosting sites. Neck-banded geese apparently compensated for the increase in preening activity by reducing the amount of time spent in alert postures relative to control geese (23.9 vs. 28.6%), although the decrease was not significant (P = 0.106). There was a significant negative relationship (P = 0.038) between the length of time a goose had worn a neck band and the amount of time spent preening while at roost sites. After a short acclimation period, neck bands probably have minimal effect on the activity of wintering Greater White-fronted Geese.

  12. Development of adrenergic and cholinergic receptor cardiovascular regulatory capacity in the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus).

    PubMed

    Swart, Justin; Tate, Kevin; Crossley, Dane A

    2014-01-01

    Adrenergic control of cardiovascular function is a common component of regulation in embryonic birds studied to date. Our goal was to investigate adrenergic and cholinergic cardiovascular regulation in two goose species, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and the related domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus) to determine if these species possess similar regulation during embryonic development. We determined mean arterial pressure (Pm) and heart rate (fH) responses to serial blockade of cholinergic, β-adrenergic and α-adrenergic receptors in B. canadensis and A. domesticus at 70 and 90% of total incubation (28days). Both species possessed cholinergic and β-adrenergic tone on fH at 70% of incubation that increased in intensity with development. In addition, a constant α-adrenergic tone on Pm was present in both species. Our findings indicate that these geese species possess both cholinergic and adrenergic cardiovascular regulation providing information needed for speculation regarding the commonalities in the ontogeny of these cardiovascular regulatory elements in birds.

  13. Comparative spring-staging ecology of sympatric arctic-nesting geese in south-central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    The Rainwater Basin in Nebraska has been a historic staging area for midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) since the 1950s and, in the mid-1990s, millions of midcontinent lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) expanded their spring migration route to include this region. In response to speculation that snow geese may be in direct competition with white-fronted geese, we compared staging ecology by quantifying diet, habitat use, movement patterns, and time budgets during springs 1998–1999. Collected white-fronted geese (n  =  190) and snow geese (n  =  203) consumed primarily corn (Zea mays; 97–98% aggregate dry mass) while staging in Nebraska; thus, diet overlap was nearly complete. Both species used cornfields most frequently during the morning (54–55%) and wetlands more during the afternoon (51–65%). When found grouped together, snow goose abundance was greater than white-fronted goose abundance by an average of 57 times (se  =  11, n  =  131 groups) in crop fields and 28 times (se  =  9, n  =  84 groups) in wetlands. Snow geese and white-fronted geese flew similar distances between roosting and feeding sites, leaving and returning to wetland roost sties at similar times in mornings and afternoons. Overlap in habitat-specific time budgets was high; resting was the most common behavior on wetlands, and foraging was a common behavior in fields. We observed 111 interspecific agonistic interactions while observing white-fronted and snow geese. White-fronted geese initiated and dominated more interactions with other waterfowl species than did snow geese (32 vs. 14%). Certain aspects of spring-staging niches (i.e., diet, habitat use, movement patterns, and habitat-specific behavior) of white-fronted and snow geese overlapped greatly at this mid-latitude staging site, creating opportunity for potential food- and habitat-based competition between species. Snow geese did not consistently dominate

  14. Energy dynamics, foraging ecology, and behavior of prenesting greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budeau, D.A.; Ratti, John T.; Ely, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    We collected greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) on their nesting grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, when they arrived and again before incubation during 1986 and 1987. Body mass, water content, crude fat, and crude protein increased in female geese between arrival and incubation onset in 1986 and 1987 (P = 0.0001, 0.0002, 0.0329, and 0.0003, respectively). Body mass of male geese during prenesting did not change, but total fat content decreased by about 30%. Crude protein of males was different between years (P = 0.0014). Female geese spent more time feeding than did males (P < 0.001). Primary foods during the prenesting period were pendent grass (Arctophila fulva) shoots and arrowgrass (Triglochin palustris) bulbs. Gizzard contents and orifice staining indicated crowberries (Empetrum nigrum) also were consumed. Of the commonly consumed food items, arrowgrass bulbs had the greatest protein content (21%), and crowberries had the greatest lipid content (10%). Unlike other medium-sized, northern-nesting geese, food (energy) acquired on the nesting grounds by white-fronted geese before incubation increased endogenous reserves necessary for reproduction.

  15. Body composition and weight dynamics of wintering greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Raveling, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    Adult greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) wintering in southern Oregon and California increased or maintained body weight in autumn, lost weight from autumn through winter, and rapidly increased in weight before spring migration in late April. We documented significant annual differences in body weights for both sexes. We related seasonal changes in body weight to changes in lipid levels, which were lowest (12-13% of wet wt in M and F) in mid-March and highest in late April (24% in F). Greater white-fronted geese maintained lipid levels during winter similar to those reported for large subspecies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis), and greater than those reported for small subspecies of Canada geese and other small species of geese. Protein content of carcasses varied significantly in females; i.e., lowest in early October and highest in late October and late April. Differences among species in patterns of weight change and body composition during winter seem to be related to social organization, body size, food type, and foraging behavior. Females left spring staging areas weighing relatively less than most other species of geese and may have benefited from foraging opportunities on the nesting grounds.

  16. An isotopic assessment of protein from diet and endogenous stores: Effects on egg production and incubation behaviour of geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Hobson, K.A.; Morse, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Little empirical information exists to assess to what degree geese use a capital versus income breeding strategy for investing nutrients into eggs. We used stable isotope methods to directly estimate the sources of protein deposited into egg yolks of Brent Branta bernicla and Emperor Geese Anser canagicus on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, USA. Approximately 59 and 45% of protein in egg yolks of Brent and Emperor Geese, respectively, was derived from exogenous sources (i.e. food plants on the local breeding area). Within clutches of Brent Goose eggs, first-laid eggs exhibited slightly higher contributions from endogenous reserves than last-laid eggs. This pattern was less clear for Emperor Geese, which may have been a consequence of possibly analyzing eggs that were laid by intraspecific nest parasites rather than by hosts. For both these species, individuals exhibited large variability in the percent contribution of exogenous versus endogenous stores to eggs, and future studies should identify ecological factors related to this variation. Those Emperor Geese in poor body condition incubated their nests less constantly, and based on δ13C values, they fed on terrestrial foods while off their nests. Although not a pure capital breeder, Emperor Geese used nutrients garnered on spring staging areas to fuel virtually all their own maintenance during incubation and to contribute half or more of the nutrients in eggs. These results highlight the ecological importance of these spring staging habitats to geese.

  17. Changes in nutrient dynamics of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl and other migratory birds commonly store nutrients at traditional staging areas during spring for later use during migration and reproduction. We investigated nutrient-storage dynamics in the midcontinent population of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons; hereafter white-fronted geese) at spring staging sites in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska during February-April and in southern Saskatchewan during April-May, 1998 and 1999. In Nebraska, lipid content of white-fronted geese did not increase, and protein content changed little over time for most age and sex categories. In Saskatchewan, lipids increased 11.4 g/day (SE = 1.7) and protein content increased 1.6 g/day (SE = 0.6) in the sample of adult geese collected over a 3-week period. A study conducted during 1979-1980 in the Rainwater Basin reported that white-fronted geese gained 8.8-17.7 g of lipids per day during spring, differing greatly from our results 2 decades later. In addition, lipid levels were less in the 1990s compared to spring 1980 for adult geese nearing departure from staging sites in Saskatchewan. This shift in where geese acquired nutrient stores from Nebraska to more northern staging sites coincided with a decrease in availability of waste corn in Nebraska, their primary food source while staging at that stopover site, and an increase in cultivation of high-energy pulse crops in Saskatchewan. White-fronted geese exhibited flexibility in nutrient dynamics during spring migration, likely in response to landscape-level variation in food availability caused by changes in agricultural trends and practices. Maintaining a wide distribution of wetlands in the Great Plains may allow springstaging waterfowl to disperse across the region and facilitate access to high-energy foods over a larger cropland base.

  18. Time allocation by Greater White-fronted Geese: Influence of diet, energy reserves and predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.

    1992-01-01

    I determined the amount of time Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) allocated to various activities from September to May, 1980-1982 at their primary wintering areas in the Pacific Flyway of North America. The length of time spent on roosts during the day was positively correlated to day length. Geese at roost sites spent the majority of their time sleeping (24-46%), alert (17-40%), walking or swimming (6-24%), and in comfort behaviors (3-25%). The amount of time geese fed each day varied little from early autumn to late spring (4.5-4.9 hr), except during mid-winter when minimum temperatures were below freezing (3.9 hr), and immediately before migration in spring (6.3 hr). The proportion of time devoted to feeding and alert behavior, the two most dominant activities at field sites, varied significantly among seasons and locations. The amount of time geese were actively engaged in foraging each season was more dependent on feeding intensity than the amount of time spent at foraging sites (fields), and varied almost three-fold, from 1.8 hr during late winter to 5.1 hr during late spring. Geese fed in closer proximity to conspecifics, were more frequently disturbed, and spent less time feeding during the hunting season. Exploitation of high energy foods and catabolism of substantial energy reserves probably enabled geese to minimize foraging time during periods of harsh weather and high predation pressure. Seasonal variation in the proportion of time spent feeding corresponded closely to changes in body mass. Greater White-fronted Geese wintering in the Pacific Flyway spent substantially less time feeding than they do in Europe, as geese in California fed primarily on high energy cereal grains, while in Europe they subsist on green vegetation which has relatively less digestible energy than cereal grains.

  19. Visual detection of goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus in geese and ducks by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Tarasiuk, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) is an aetiological agent of haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of geese occurring in geese (Anser anser). GHPV may also infect Muscovy ducks (Carina mochata) and mule ducks. Early detection of GHPV is important to isolate the infected birds from the rest of the flock thus limiting infection transmission. The current diagnosis of haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of geese is based on virus isolation, histopathological examination, haemagglutination inhibition assay, ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Recently, real-time PCR assay was developed which considerably improved detection of GHPV. In spite of many advantages, these methods are still time-consuming and inaccessible for laboratories with limited access to ELISA plate readers or PCR thermocyclers. The aim of our study was to develop loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) that may be conducted in a water bath. Two pairs of specific primers complementary to VP1 gene of GHPV were designed. The results of GHPV LAMP were recorded under ultraviolet light. Our study showed LAMP was able to specifically amplify VP1 fragment of a GHPV without cross-reactivity with other pathogens of geese and ducks. LAMP detected as little as 1.5 pg of DNA extracted from a GHPV standard strain (150 pg/µl). The optimized LAMP was used to examine 18 field specimens collected from dead and clinically diseased geese and ducks aged from 1 to 12 weeks. The positive signal for GHPV was detected in three out of 18 (16.6%) specimens. These results were reproducible and consistent with those of four real-time PCR. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on LAMP application for the GHPV detection.

  20. Population and status of Emperor Geese along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Margaret R.; Gill, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    We gathered information on the timing of spring and autumn migration of Emperor Geese Anser canagicus from Nelson Lagoon, the age ratios of geese during autumn migration, and the numbers of geese in estuaries along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula and Bristol Bay during spring and autumn migration. Birds staged in most of the lagoons and bays along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula, but Nelson Lagoon and Seal Islands Lagoon were the most heavily used. Geese concentrated in Nelson Lagoon for about six to eight weeks in both spring and autumn. We suspect that the population of Emperor Geese in Alaska may have declined by as much as 34% between the 1960's and 1981. Although the average number of young per successful breeding pair has remained high during this period, the overall proportion of young in the population has been extremely low, at least during the past five years. More studies are necessary to determine factors influencing the status of this species.

  1. Recovery of tall cotton-grass following real and simulated feeding by snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Robertson, Donna G.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Lesser snow geese Anser caerulescens caerulescens from the western Canadian Arctic feed on underground parts of tall cotton-grass Eriophorum angustifolium during autumn staging on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea in Canada and Alaska. We studied revegetation of sites where cotton-grass had been removed either by human-imprinted snow geese or by hand to simulate snow goose feeding. Aerial cover of cotton-grass at sites (n = 4) exploited by human-imprinted snow geese averaged 60 and 39% lower than in undisturbed control plots during the first and second year after feeding, respectively. Underground biomass of cotton-grass stembases and rhizomes in hand-treated plots was 80 and 62% less than in control plots 2 and 4 yr after removal, respectively (n = 10 yr-1). Aerial cover and biomass of common non-forage species such as Carex aquatilis did not increase on treated areas. Removal of cotton-grass by geese likely reduces forage availability at exploited sites for at least 2-4 yr after feeding but probably does not affect long-term community composition. Temporal heterogeneity in forage abundance likely contributes to the large spatial requirement of snow geese during staging.

  2. Avian cholera exposure and carriers in greater white-fronted geese breeding in Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study (2001a??03) on greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) breeding in Alaska, USA, to determine the exposure of this population to Pasteurella multocida and the potential role of these birds as disease carriers. We tested sera from nearly 600 adult geese for antibodies to P. multocida serotype 1. We found a low prevalence (<5%) of positive antibodies in adult geese, and based on the short duration of detectable antibodies, these findings indicate recent infection with P. multocida. Prevalence was similar to serologic results from both breeding and wintering lesser snow geese. We also collected oral (n=1,035), nasal (n=102), and cloacal (n=90) swab samples to determine the presence of avian cholera carriers in this population. We were unable to isolate P. multocida serotype 1 from any of the birds sampled. Based on comparison with other waterfowl species, we concluded that these geese may be exposed to avian cholera during the winter or spring migration but are unlikely to play a significant role as carriers of the bacterium causing avian cholera.

  3. Influenza in Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Winkler, W G; Trainer, D O; Easterday, B C

    1972-01-01

    The role of wild avian species in the natural history of influenza is unknown. A serological study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence, distribution, and types of influenza antibody in several wild Canada goose populations. Geese were trapped and blood samples were obtained in each of 4 consecutive years, 1966-69. Antibody to influenzavirus was found in 66 (4.7%) of the 1 401 Canada geese tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antiribonucleoprotein antibody was found in 8 of 1 359 sera tested by the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. An increase in the percentage of reactors was seen each year. This increase was greater in two refuges with nonmigratory flocks. HI antibody was found against the turkey/Wisconsin/66, turkey/Wisconsin/68, turkey/Canada/63, and turkey/Alberta/6962/66, or closely related viruses. No antibody was found against duck/Ukraine/1/63 or human A/Hong Kong/68 virus at a time when the latter was prevalent in human populations, suggesting that Canada geese played no direct role in spreading the virus.Canada geese were experimentally exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 and turkey/Wisconsin/68 viruses; mallard ducks were exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 virus. HI antibody developed in 75% of the geese and 40% of the ducks but was generally short-lived. Anti-RNP antibody was detected in 15% of the exposed geese but in none of the ducks. Virus was recovered from 3 of 10 adult ducks but not from geese. None of the birds showed signs of disease.

  4. Distinctive gut microbial community structure in both the wild and farmed Swan goose (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Zheng, Sisi; Sharshov, Kirill; Cao, Jian; Sun, Hao; Yang, Fang; Wang, Xuelian; Li, Laixing

    2016-11-01

    Swan goose (Anser cygnoides) is currently one of the most popular economic wildfowl for rare birds breeding industries in several provinces of China. However, the farmed Swan geese, reared in artificial environment and fed on both natural and artificial diets, display a reduced reproductive rate compared to wild species. Little is known about the gut microbiota of this species, which could play a role in nutrient and energy metabolism, immune homeostasis and reproduction. The present comparative study was designed to provide a first characterization of gut microbial communities related to both wild and farmed Swan geese by 16 S rRNA sequences using the Illumina HiSeq platform. The results showed that dominant microbial components in both groups consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The abundances of these four phyla were not statistically different between the groups. At the genus level, significantly decreased abundance of Clostridium and increased abundance of SMB53, Enterococcus and Paenibacillus were observed in farmed group compared to wild group. The marked differences of genus level group-specific microbes create a baseline for future Swan goose microbiology research and make a valuable contribution to forming relationships between gut microbiota and domestic bird reproduction.

  5. Seasonal variation in nutritional characteristics of the diet of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Raveling, Dennis G.

    2011-01-01

    We studied diet and habitat use of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) from autumn through spring on their primary staging and wintering areas in the Pacific Flyway, 1979-1982. There have been few previous studies of resource use and forage quality of wintering greater white-fronted geese in North America, and as a consequence there has been little empirical support for management practices pertaining to habitat conservation of this broadly distributed species. Observations of >2,500 flocks of geese and collections of foraging birds revealed seasonal and geographic variation in resource use reflective of changes in habitat availability, selection, and fluctuating physiological demands. Autumn migrants from Alaska arrived first in the Klamath Basin of California and southern Oregon, where they fed on barley, oats, wheat, and potatoes. Geese migrated from the Klamath Basin into the Central Valley of California in late autumn where they exploited agricultural crops rich in soluble carbohydrates, with geese in the Sacramento Valley feeding almost exclusively on rice and birds on the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta primarily utilizing corn. White-fronted geese began their northward migration in late winter, and by early spring most had returned to the Klamath Basin where 37% of flocks were found in fields of new growth cultivated and wild grasses. Cereal grains and potatoes ingested by geese were low in protein (7-14%) and high in soluble nutrients (17-47% neutral detergent fiber [NDF]), whereas grasses were low in available energy (47-49% NDF) but high in protein (26-42%). Greater white-fronted geese are generalist herbivores and can exploit a variety of carbohydrate-rich cultivated crops, likely making these geese less susceptible to winter food shortages than prior to the agriculturalization of the North American landscape. However, agricultural landscapes can be extremely dynamic and may be less predictable in the long-term than the historic environments to

  6. Seasonal variation in nutritional characteristics of the diet of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Raveling, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    We studied diet and habitat use of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) from autumn through spring on their primary staging and wintering areas in the Pacific Flyway, 1979-1982. There have been few previous studies of resource use and forage quality of wintering greater white-fronted geese in North America, and as a consequence there has been little empirical support for management practices pertaining to habitat conservation of this broadly distributed species. Observations of >2,500 flocks of geese and collections of foraging birds revealed seasonal and geographic variation in resource use reflective of changes in habitat availability, selection, and fluctuating physiological demands. Autumn migrants from Alaska arrived first in the Klamath Basin of California and southern Oregon, where they fed on barley, oats, wheat, and potatoes. Geese migrated from the Klamath Basin into the Central Valley of California in late autumn where they exploited agricultural crops rich in soluble carbohydrates, with geese in the Sacramento Valley feeding almost exclusively on rice and birds on the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta primarily utilizing corn. White-fronted geese began their northward migration in late winter, and by early spring most had returned to the Klamath Basin where 37% of flocks were found in fields of new growth cultivated and wild grasses. Cereal grains and potatoes ingested by geese were low in protein (7-14%) and high in soluble nutrients (17-47% neutral detergent fiber [NDF]), whereas grasses were low in available energy (47-49% NDF) but high in protein (26-42%). Greater white-fronted geese are generalist herbivores and can exploit a variety of carbohydrate-rich cultivated crops, likely making these geese less susceptible to winter food shortages than prior to the agriculturalization of the North American landscape. However, agricultural landscapes can be extremely dynamic and may be less predictable in the long-term than the historic environments to

  7. Traversing a boreal forest landscape: Summer movements of Tule Greater White-fronted Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Bollinger, K.S.; Hupp, J.W.; Derksen, D.V.; Terenzi, J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Rothe, T.C.; Petrula, M.J.; Yparraguirre, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    We monitored the movement, distribution and site affinities of radio-marked Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons elgasi) during spring and summer in Alaska, 1994-1997 and 2004. Our assessment of summer movements was comprehensive, as locations were obtained during prenesting, nesting, and molt for over 90% of geese with active radios captured during winter or the previous summer in Alaska. Geese arrived to coastal and interior marshes in the Cook Inlet Basin (CIB) from mid April to early May, after which they moved to nesting areas in the upper CIB. Nesting birds used coastal staging areas in close proximity to eventual nest site location. Molting sites included a sub-glacial lake system in the upper CIB, although up to 50% of geese underwent a molt migration to wetlands across the Alaska Range, 400-600 km west of the CIB. Geese that molted at distant sites returned to the CIB before autumn migration. Length of stay in the CIB varied among years from 108-119 days, and averaged 116 days. Summer home-range sizes, exclusive of molting areas, averaged >273,000 ha, and were substantially larger than reported for other northern-nesting waterfowl. No radio-marked geese were found nesting in the vicinity of Redoubt Bay on the west side of Cook Inlet, and few nested near the Susitna Flats, the only other previously known nesting areas. The absence of nesting geese from Redoubt Bay corroborates aerial survey data showing a precipitous decline in the use of the west side of Cook Inlet between the early 1980s and early 1990s. The change in distribution of geese is likely related to a major eruption of Redoubt Volcano in 1989 that significantly altered landscapes used by nesting, brood rearing, and molting geese in the vicinity of Redoubt Bay. High inter-site movements of Greater White-fronted Geese throughout summer in south central Alaska likely increases exposure to predation, but also promotes social interactions and facilitates pioneering of distant, and

  8. Brachyrhynchus membranaceus (Fabricius), an Old World flat bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) newly discovered in the Western Hemisphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Old World aradid Brachyrhynchus membranaceus (Fabricius), belonging to the subfamily Mezirinae, is reported for the first time from the Western Hemisphere. Since 2005, eight specimens have been intercepted at United States ports-of-entry in international commerce from Costa Rica, Dominican Repub...

  9. Relatedness and nesting dispersion within breeding populations of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, A.C.; Eadie, J.M.; Ely, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    We studied patterns of relatedness and nesting dispersion in female Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) in Alaska. Female Greater White-fronted Geese are thought to be strongly philopatric and are often observed nesting in close association with other females. Analysis of the distribution of nests on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in 1998 indicated that nests were significantly clumped. We tested the hypothesis that females in the same nest cluster would be closely related using estimates of genetic relatedness based on six microsatellite DNA loci. There was no difference in the mean relatedness of females in the same cluster compared to females found in different clusters. However, relatedness among females was negatively correlated with distance between their nests, and geese nesting within 50 m of one another tended to be more closely related than those nesting farther apart. Randomization tests revealed that pairs of related individuals (R > 0.45) were more likely to occur in the same cluster when analyzed at the scale of the entire study site. However, the pattern did not hold when restricted to pairs found within 500 m of each other. Our results indicate that nest clusters are not composed primarily of closely related females, but Greater White-fronted Geese appear to be sufficiently philopatric to promote nonrandom patterns of relatedness at a local scale.

  10. Effect of different fibre sources on performance, carcass characteristics and gastrointestinal tract development of growing Greylag geese.

    PubMed

    He, L W; Meng, Q X; Li, D Y; Zhang, Y W; Ren, L P

    2015-01-01

    1. The effects of different fibre sources on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and gastrointestinal tract development were studied in growing Greylag geese (Anser anser). 2. Four experimental diets were formulated with corn (maize) straw silage (CSS), steam-exploded corn (maize) straw, steam-exploded wheat straw, and steam-exploded rice straw as fibre sources. A total of 224 male Greylag geese at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to one of the 4 experimental diets. 3. The birds fed on the CSS diets had higher average daily feed intakes than those fed on the steam-exploded straws. However, the 4 treatments had similar average daily gain, which contributed to significant differences in feed conversion ratios. The different fibre sources had no significant effects on the carcass characteristics. 4. The CSS-fed birds had larger gizzards and lower relative length of the caeca than the other three groups. However, the relative weights and lengths of the other gut segments, the relative weights of major organs and the pH values of the gastrointestinal contents were similar between the 4 treatments. It was concluded that straw fibres with different physico-chemical properties exerted an effect on daily feed intake and gastrointestinal development, especially for the gizzard. The pretreatment of straw had a large effect on utilisation efficiency and animal performance. Steam explosion is a promising straw pretreatment for inclusion in diets for geese.

  11. Changes in abundance and spatial distribution of geese molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska: Interspecific competition or ecological change?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Mallek, E.J.; King, R.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2008-01-01

    Goose populations molting in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska have changed in size and distribution over the past 30 years. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) are relatively stable in numbers but are shifting from large, inland lakes to salt marshes. Concurrently, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) have increased seven fold. Populations of Canada geese (Branta canadensis and/or B. hutchinsii) are stable with little indication of distributional shifts. The lesser snow goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) population is proportionally small, but increasing rapidly. Coastline erosion of the Beaufort Sea has altered tundra habitats by allowing saltwater intrusion, which has resulted in shifts in composition of forage plant species. We propose two alternative hypotheses for the observed shift in black brant distribution. Ecological change may have altered optimal foraging habitats for molting birds, or alternatively, interspecific competition between black brant and greater white-fronted geese may be excluding black brant from preferred habitats. Regardless of the causative mechanism, the observed shifts in species distributions are an important consideration for future resource planning. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Effects of migratory geese on plant communities of an Alaskan salt marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zacheis, Amy B.; Hupp, J.W.; Ruess, Roger W.

    2001-01-01

    1. We studied the effects of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on two salt marsh plant communities in Cook Inlet, Alaska, a stopover area used during spring migration. From 1995 to 1997 we compared plant species composition and biomass on plots where geese were excluded from feeding with paired plots where foraging could occur. 2. Foraging intensity was low (650-1930 goose-days km-2) compared to other goose-grazing systems. 3. Canada geese fed mainly on above-ground shoots of Triglochin maritimum, Puccinellia spp. and Carex ramenskii, whereas the majority of the snow goose diet consisted of below-ground tissues of Plantago maritima and Triglochin maritimum. 4. Plant communities responded differently to goose herbivory. In the sedge meadow community, where feeding was primarily on above-ground shoots, there was no effect of grazing on the dominant species Carex ramenskii and Triglochin maritimum. In the herb meadow community, where snow geese fed on Plantago maritima roots and other below-ground tissues, there was a difference in the relative abundance of plant species between treatments. Biomass of Plantago maritima and Potentilla egedii was lower on grazed plots compared with exclosed, whereas biomass of Carex ramenskii was greater on grazed plots. There was no effect of herbivory on total standing crop biomass in either community. The variable effect of herbivory on Carex ramenskii between communities suggests that plant neighbours and competitive interactions are important factors in a species' response to herbivory. In addition, the type of herbivory (above- or below-ground) was important in determining plant community response to herbivory. 5. Litter accumulation was reduced in grazed areas compared with exclosed in both communities. Trampling of the previous year's litter into the soil surface by geese incorporated more litter into soils in grazed areas. 6. This study illustrates that even light herbivore

  13. Spring-staging ecology of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Reinecke, K.J.; Jorde, D.G.; Simpson, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    A major part of the midcontinent greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stages for several weeks in spring in the Rainwater Basin Area (RBA) of south-central Nebraska where substantial mortality from disease occurs periodically. Effective management of this population requires better data on use of habitat, vulnerability to disease, and the role of staging areas in migration and reproduction. We studied use of habitat, foods, nutrient dynamics, and effect of changes in agriculture on food availability and habitat needs in spring 1979-80. During daylight, geese were observed primarily in harvested cornfields (76%) and growing winter wheat (23%). Corn grain and winter wheat shoots composed 90 and 9%, respectively, of foods consumed by collected geese (n = 42). Feeding activity did not vary among post-harvest cornfield treatments except that little feeding occurred (P 0.05) of temporal variation in calcium content. Adult geese storing 14.2 g of fat per day deposited approximately 582 g of fat between 22 February and 8 April. Energy requirements for thermal regulation were small compared with requirements for fat synthesis and probably had little effect on nutrient deposition. The 34,000 white-fronted geese present on the Harvard Marsh and Prairie Dog Marsh study areas in March 1980 probably used <20% of the corn available within a 5-km radius. We believe that midcontinent white-fronted geese arrive on Arctic breeding grounds with larger and less variable fat reserves than prior to modern agricultural development. We attribute this response to increased food availability on staging areas where the net effect of agricultural changes has been an increase in corn availability. Waterfowl managers can increase dispersion of geese and provide favorable foraging conditions by maintaining well-distributed wetland roosting habitat and by working with private landowners to ensure access to grain in the vicinity of wetlands.

  14. Family stability in greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.

    1993-01-01

    I investigated the stability of parent-offspring bonds, and sibling-sibling bonds of neck-banded Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) during winters (September-May) in California and southern Oregon from 1979 to 1989. Geese captured at feeding sites were more likely to be in social groups than those captured at roosting sites. Offspring remained associated with their parents longer than reported for other geese, as 69% of yearlings, 39% of two-year-olds, and 38% of three-year-olds and older were observed with their parents during winter. The proportion of time offspring spent with their parents declined as they grew older, being 76% for juveniles, 32% for yearlings, and 15% for two-year-olds and older. The prevalence of extended family groups was corroborated by counts of landing groups of unmarked geese. Sibling bonds also persisted after the first year of life, with 74%, 50%, and 39% of siblings maintaining some degree of social contact at ages of one, two and three years or older, respectively. Older offspring were more likely to associate with brood mates than with parents. Intensive observations ended when the oldest known-age geese were 34 months old. Incidental sightings in subsequent years revealed that some offspring up to eight years of age still associated with their parents and/or siblings. The benefits of maintaining long-term family bonds were not readily apparent, as there was no difference in the reproductive success of parents with and without attendant offspring, and yearlings that associated with parents were not more likely to survive than yearlings that did not associate with parents. However, older offspring and their parents may benefit by remaining together if extended families are more dominant and have better access to limited food and safe roost sites. Parents benefit if their fitness is enhanced due to nest defense provided by older offspring, and subadults probably benefit from staying with their parents by learning

  15. Coccidia of Aleutian Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greiner, E.C.; Forrester, Donald J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Yparraguirre, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fecal samples from 122 captive and 130 free-ranging Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were examined for oocysts of coccidia. Freeranging geese sampled on the spring staging ground near Crescent City, California were infected with Eimeria hermani, E. truncata, E. magnalabia, E. fulva, E. clarkei and Tyzzeria parvula. Except for E. clarkei, the same species of coccidia were found in geese on their breeding grounds in Alaska. Most of the coccidial infections in captive geese from Amchitka Island, Alaska and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland, consisted of Tyzzeria.

  16. Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Byron K; Johnson, Fred A

    2015-01-01

    The “value of information” (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004; 24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration. PMID:25691972

  17. Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese.

    PubMed

    Williams, Byron K; Johnson, Fred A

    2015-01-01

    The "value of information" (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004; 24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration.

  18. Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    The “value of information” (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004;24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration.

  19. Implementation of the first adaptive management plan for a European migratory waterbird population: The case of the Svalbard pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madsen, Jesper; Williams, James Henty; Johnson, Fred A.; Tombre, Ingunn M.; Dereliev, Sergey; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2017-01-01

    An International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose was adopted under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds in 2012, the first case of adaptive management of a migratory waterbird population in Europe. An international working group (including statutory agencies, NGO representatives and experts) agreed on objectives and actions to maintain the population in favourable conservation status, while accounting for biodiversity, economic and recreational interests. Agreements include setting a population target to reduce agricultural conflicts and avoid tundra degradation, and using hunting in some range states to maintain stable population size. As part of the adaptive management procedures, adjustment to harvest is made annually subject to population status. This has required streamlining of monitoring and assessment activities. Three years after implementation, indicators suggest the attainment of management results. Dialogue, consensus-building and engagement among stakeholders represent the major process achievements.

  20. Implementation of the first adaptive management plan for a European migratory waterbird population: The case of the Svalbard pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jesper; Williams, James Henty; Johnson, Fred A; Tombre, Ingunn M; Dereliev, Sergey; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2017-03-01

    An International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose was adopted under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds in 2012, the first case of adaptive management of a migratory waterbird population in Europe. An international working group (including statutory agencies, NGO representatives and experts) agreed on objectives and actions to maintain the population in favourable conservation status, while accounting for biodiversity, economic and recreational interests. Agreements include setting a population target to reduce agricultural conflicts and avoid tundra degradation, and using hunting in some range states to maintain stable population size. As part of the adaptive management procedures, adjustment to harvest is made annually subject to population status. This has required streamlining of monitoring and assessment activities. Three years after implementation, indicators suggest the attainment of management results. Dialogue, consensus-building and engagement among stakeholders represent the major process achievements.

  1. Location and agricultural practices influence spring use of harvested cornfields by cranes and geese in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Bishop, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes) stop in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska to store nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming corn remaining in fields after harvest. We examined factors that influence use of cornfields by cranes and geese (all mid-continent species combined; e.g., Anser, Chen, and Branta spp.) because it is a key step to efficient conservation planning aimed at ensuring that adequate food resources are available to migratory birds stopping in the CPRV. Distance to night-time roost site, segment of the CPRV (west to east), and agricultural practices (post-harvest treatment of cornfields: idle, grazed, mulched, mulched and grazed, and tilled) were the most important and influential variables in our models for geese and cranes. Probability of cornfield use by geese and cranes decreased with increasing distance from the closest potential roosting site. The use of cornfields by geese increased with the density of corn present there during the early migration period, but field use by cranes appeared not to be influenced by early migration corn density. However, probability of cornfield use by cranes did increase with the amount of wet grassland habitat within 4.8 km of the field. Geese were most likely to use fields that were tilled and least likely to use fields that were mulched and grazed. Cranes were most likely to use fields that were mulched and least likely to use fields that were tilled, but grazing appeared not to influence the likelihood of field use by cranes. Geese were more likely to use cornfields in western segments of the CPRV, but cranes were more likely to use cornfields in eastern segments. Our data suggest that managers could favor crane use of fields and reduce direct competition with geese by reducing fall and spring tilling and increasing mulching. Moreover, crane conservation efforts would be most beneficial if they were focused in the eastern portions

  2. Location and agricultural practices influence spring use of harvested cornfields by cranes and geese in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, M.J.; Sherfy, M.H.; Bishop, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes) stop in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska to store nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming corn remaining in fields after harvest. We examined factors that influence use of cornfields by cranes and geese (all mid-continent species combined; e.g., Anser, Chen, and Branta spp.) because it is a key step to efficient conservation planning aimed at ensuring that adequate food resources are available to migratory birds stopping in the CPRV. Distance to night-time roost site, segment of the CPRV (west to east), and agricultural practices (post-harvest treatment of cornfields: idle, grazed, mulched, mulched and grazed, and tilled) were the most important and influential variables in our models for geese and cranes. Probability of cornfield use by geese and cranes decreased with increasing distance from the closest potential roosting site. The use of cornfields by geese increased with the density of corn present there during the early migration period, but field use by cranes appeared not to be influenced by early migration corn density. However, probability of cornfield use by cranes did increase with the amount of wet grassland habitat within 4.8 km of the field. Geese were most likely to use fields that were tilled and least likely to use fields that were mulched and grazed. Cranes were most likely to use fields that were mulched and least likely to use fields that were tilled, but grazing appeared not to influence the likelihood of field use by cranes. Geese were more likely to use cornfields in western segments of the CPRV, but cranes were more likely to use cornfields in eastern segments. Our data suggest that managers could favor crane use of fields and reduce direct competition with geese by reducing fall and spring tilling and increasing mulching. Moreover, crane conservation efforts would be most beneficial if they were focused in the eastern portions

  3. Microbial Infections Are Associated with Embryo Mortality in Arctic-Nesting Geese.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Cristina M; Meixell, Brandt W; Van Hemert, Caroline; Hare, Rebekah F; Hueffer, Karsten

    2015-08-15

    To address the role of bacterial infection in hatching failure of wild geese, we monitored embryo development in a breeding population of Greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. During 2013, we observed mortality of normally developing embryos and collected 36 addled eggs for analysis. We also collected 17 infertile eggs for comparison. Using standard culture methods and gene sequencing to identify bacteria within collected eggs, we identified a potentially novel species of Neisseria in 33 eggs, Macrococcus caseolyticus in 6 eggs, and Streptococcus uberis and Rothia nasimurium in 4 eggs each. We detected seven other bacterial species at lower frequencies. Sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the Neisseria isolates most closely matched sequences from N. animaloris and N. canis (96 to 97% identity), but phylogenetic analysis suggested substantial genetic differentiation between egg isolates and known Neisseria species. Although definitive sources of the bacteria remain unknown, we detected Neisseria DNA from swabs of eggshells, nest contents, and cloacae of nesting females. To assess the pathogenicity of bacteria identified in contents of addled eggs, we inoculated isolates of Neisseria, Macrococcus, Streptococcus, and Rothia at various concentrations into developing chicken eggs. Seven-day mortality rates varied from 70 to 100%, depending on the bacterial species and inoculation dose. Our results suggest that bacterial infections are a source of embryo mortality in wild geese in the Arctic.

  4. Microbial Infections Are Associated with Embryo Mortality in Arctic-Nesting Geese

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Cristina M.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Van Hemert, Caroline; Hare, Rebekah F.

    2015-01-01

    To address the role of bacterial infection in hatching failure of wild geese, we monitored embryo development in a breeding population of Greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. During 2013, we observed mortality of normally developing embryos and collected 36 addled eggs for analysis. We also collected 17 infertile eggs for comparison. Using standard culture methods and gene sequencing to identify bacteria within collected eggs, we identified a potentially novel species of Neisseria in 33 eggs, Macrococcus caseolyticus in 6 eggs, and Streptococcus uberis and Rothia nasimurium in 4 eggs each. We detected seven other bacterial species at lower frequencies. Sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the Neisseria isolates most closely matched sequences from N. animaloris and N. canis (96 to 97% identity), but phylogenetic analysis suggested substantial genetic differentiation between egg isolates and known Neisseria species. Although definitive sources of the bacteria remain unknown, we detected Neisseria DNA from swabs of eggshells, nest contents, and cloacae of nesting females. To assess the pathogenicity of bacteria identified in contents of addled eggs, we inoculated isolates of Neisseria, Macrococcus, Streptococcus, and Rothia at various concentrations into developing chicken eggs. Seven-day mortality rates varied from 70 to 100%, depending on the bacterial species and inoculation dose. Our results suggest that bacterial infections are a source of embryo mortality in wild geese in the Arctic. PMID:26048928

  5. Nitrogen dynamics in an Alaskan salt marsh following spring use by geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zacheis, Amy B.; Ruess, Roger W.; Hupp, Jerry W.

    2002-01-01

    Lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) use several salt marshes in Cook Inlet, Alaska, as stopover areas for brief periods during spring migration. We investigated the effects of geese on nitrogen cycling processes in Susitna Flats, one of the marshes. We compared net nitrogen mineralization, organic nitrogen pools and production in buried bags, nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria, and soil and litter characteristics on grazed plots versus paired plots that had been exclosed from grazing for 3 years. Grazed areas had higher rates of net nitrogen mineralization in the spring and there was no effect of grazing on organic nitrogen availability. The increased mineralization rates in grazed plots could not be accounted for by alteration of litter quality, litter quantity, microclimate, or root biomass, which were not different between grazed and exclosed plots. In addition, fecal input was very slight in the year that we studied nitrogen cycling. We propose that trampling had two effects that could account for greater nitrogen availability in grazed areas: litter incorporation into soil, resulting in increased rates of decomposition and mineralization of litter material, and greater rates of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria on bare, trampled soils. A path analysis indicated that litter incorporation by trampling played a primary role in the nitrogen dynamics of the system, with nitrogen fixation secondary, and that fecal input was of little importance.

  6. Serological survey and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in domestic ducks and geese in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, P; Buschtöns, S; Herrmann, D C; Conraths, F J; Görlich, K; Tenter, A M; Dubey, J P; Nagel-Kohl, U; Thoms, B; Bötcher, L; Kühne, M; Schares, G

    2011-12-15

    To obtain estimates for the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ducks and geese in Germany, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were established based on affinity-purified T. gondii tachyzoite surface antigen 1 (TgSAG1) and used to examine duck and goose sera for T. gondii-specific antibodies. The results of 186 sera from 60 non-infected ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and 101 sera from 36 non-infected geese (Anser anser) as well as 72 sera from 11 ducks and 89 sera from 12 geese inoculated experimentally with T. gondii tachyzoites (intravenously) or oocysts (orally) and positive in a T. gondii immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) were used to select a cut-off value for the TgSAG1-ELISA. Sera obtained by serial bleeding of experimentally inoculated ducks and geese were tested to analyze the time course of anti-TgSAG1 antibodies after inoculation and to assess the sensitivity of the assays in comparison with IFAT. In ducks, IFAT titres and ELISA indices peaked 2 and 5 weeks p.i with tachyzoites, respectively. Only three of six geese inoculated with tachyzoites at the same time as the ducks elicited a low and non-permanent antibody response as detected by the IFAT. In the TgSAG1-ELISA, only a slight increase of the ELISA indices was observed in four of six tachyzoite-inoculated geese. By contrast, inoculation of ducks and geese with oocysts led to an increase in anti-TgSAG1 antibodies within 1 or 2 weeks, which were still detectable at the end of the observation period, i.e. 11 weeks p.i. Inoculation of three ducks and three geese with oocysts of Hammondia hammondi, a protozoon closely related to T. gondii, resulted in a transient seroconversion in ducks and geese as measured by IFAT or TgSAG1-ELISA. Using the newly established TgSAG1-ELISA, sera from naturally exposed ducks and geese sampled in the course of a monitoring program for avian influenza were examined for antibodies to T. gondii; 145/2534 (5.7%) of the ducks and 94/373 (25.2%) of the geese

  7. Response of a subarctic salt marsh plant community to grubbing and grazing by captive lesser snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zacheis, Amy B.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Ruess, Roger W.

    2002-01-01

    Foraging intensity and faecal inputs are important determinants of plant community response to herbivory. We used captive adult lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens), which feed on both above- and below-ground plant tissues, to manipulate foraging intensity and faecal inputs to plots in a sedge meadow in spring, 1996. We measured plant and soil characteristics throughout the growing season of 1996 and in August 1997. We analysed three contrasts: grazed plots versus ungrazed controls, plots with a short period of feeding (3 goose-hours) versus plots with a long period of feeding (6 goose-hours), and grazed plots with faeces versus grazed plots without faeces. Although grazed plots had an order of magnitude higher foraging intensity than that imposed by wild geese in the marsh, there was no effect of feeding on biomass or nitrogen concentration in the dominant species, Carex ramenskii and Triglochin maritimum, after one and two growing seasons. The amount of forage removed by geese did not differ between plots grazed for long and short periods, indicating that geese were able to remove little additional biomass after 3 hours due to low availability. Therefore, the amount of biomass removed by geese was a better indicator of foraging intensity than the time geese fed on plots. The presence of faeces had no effect on biomass or nitrogen concentration in Carex ramenskii or Triglochin maritimum, or on rates of net nitrogen mineralization in soils. Thus, faeces did not appear to increase nitrogen availability for plants in this marsh, probably because faecal density was low.

  8. Spring-staging ecology of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Reinecke, K.J.; Jorde, D.G.; Simpson, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    A major part of the midcontinent greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stages for several weeks in spring in the Rainwater Basin Area (RBA) of south-central Nebraska where substantial mortality from disease occurs periodically. Effective management of this population requires better data on use of habitat, vulnerability to disease, and the role of staging areas in migration and reproduction, We studied use of habitat, foods, nutrient dynamics, and effect of changes in agriculture on food availability and habitat needs in spring 1979-80. During daylight, geese were observed primarily in harvested cornfields (76%) and growing winter wheat (23%). Corn grain and winter wheat shoots composed 90 and 9%, respectively, of foods consumed by collected geese (n = 42). Feeding activity did not vary among post-harvest cornfield treatments except that little feeding occurred (P lt 0.05) in moldboard-plowed fields ( lt 1%). Fat content for all geese increased (P ltoreq 0.01) with Julian date; protein content increased (P = 0.03) only among adult females, and there was no evidence (P gt 0.05) of temporal variation in calcium content. Adult geese storing 14.2 g of fat per day deposited approximately 582 g of fat between 22 February and 3 April. Energy requirements for thermal regulation were small compared with requirements for fat synthesis and probably had little effect on nutrient deposition. The 34,000 white-fronted geese present on the Harvard Marsh and Prairie Dog Marsh study areas in March 1980 probably used lt 20% of the corn available within a 5-km radius. We believe that midcontinent white-fronted geese arrive on Arctic breeding grounds with larger and less variable fat reserves than prior to modern agricultural development. We attribute this response to increased food availability on staging areas where the net effect of agricultural changes has been an increase in corn availability. Waterfowl managers can increase dispersion of geese and provide

  9. Aggressive encounters between tundra swans and greater white-fronted geese during brood rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Budeau, David A.; Swain, Una G.

    1987-01-01

    Interspecific aggression in waterfowl (Anatidae) is relatively common (McKinney 1965; Kear 1972; Savard 1982, 1984), but interactions leading to mortality of one of the combatants are rarely-observed in the wild. A recent debate (Livezey and Humphrey 1985a, 1985b; Nuechterlein and Storer 1985a, 1985b; Murray 1985) has centered on the proximate and ultimate causes of interspecific territoriality and killing in steamer-ducks (Tachyeres spp.), a group of large-bodies antids. We report here aggressive encounters between Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons) and Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) during brood rearing on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, which on two occasions resulted in the death of a White-fronted Goose gosling.

  10. Serial agonistic attacks by greylag goose families, Anser anser, against the same opponent

    PubMed Central

    Scheiber, Isabella B.R.; Kotrschal, Kurt; Weiß, Brigitte M.

    2011-01-01

    It is known from primates that alliance partners may support each other’s interests in competition with others, for example, through repeated agonistic attacks against a particular individual. We examined serial aggressive interactions between greylag goose families and other flock members. We found that repeated attacks towards the same individual were common and that up to five serial attacks by family members followed an initial attack. Family size did not affect the frequency of such serial attacks. Juvenile geese evidently benefited most from active social support through serial attacks. About 60% of the juveniles’ lost primary interactions were subsequently reversed by another family member. This may be one of the reasons why juveniles rank higher in the social hierarchy than would be expected from their age and size alone. Losses in serial attacks predominantly occurred against other, presumably higher-ranking, family geese and ganders. We propose three major functions/consequences of serial attacks. Analogous to primates, serial attacks in greylag geese may serve to reinforce a losing experience of an opponent defeated in a preceding attack. On the side of the winning family, serial attacks may reinforce the experience of winning. Both winning and losing experiences are linked with physiological consequences in higher vertebrates, affecting the future social performance of winners or losers. Finally, serial attacks may signal the agonistic potential of a family to other flock members. This is supported by heart rate data, which indicate that greylags are competent to interpret third-party relationships. PMID:21984838

  11. Changes in agriculture and abundance of snow geese affect carrying capacity of sandhill cranes in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, A.T.; Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Kinzel, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The central Platte River valley (CPRV) in Nebraska, USA, is a key spring-staging area for approximately 80 of the midcontinent population of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes). Evidence that staging cranes acquired less lipid reserves during the 1990s compared to the late 1970s and increases in use of the CPRV by snow geese (Chen caerulescens) prompted us to investigate availability of waste corn and quantify spatial and temporal patterns of crane and waterfowl use of the region. We developed a predictive model to assess impacts of changes in availability of corn and snow goose abundance under past, present, and potential future conditions. Over a hypothetical 60-day staging period, predicted energy demand of cranes and waterfowl increased 87 between the late 1970s and 19982007, primarily because peak abundances of snow geese increased by 650,000 and cranes by 110,000. Compared to spring 1979, corn available when cranes arrived was 20 less in 1998 and 68 less in 1999; consequently, the area of cornfields required to meet crane needs increased from 14,464 ha in 1979 to 32,751 ha in 1998 and 90,559 ha in 1999. Using a pooled estimate of 88 kg/ha from springs 19981999 and 20052007, the area of cornfields needed to supply food requirements of cranes and waterfowl increased to 65,587 ha and was greatest in the eastern region of the CPRV, where an estimated 54 of cranes, 47 of Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 45 of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and 46 of snow geese occurred during ground surveys. We estimated that a future reduction of 25 in available corn or cornfields would increase daily foraging flight distances of cranes by 2738. Crane use and ability of cranes to store lipid reserves in the CPRV could be reduced substantially if flight distance required to locate adequate corn exceeded a physiological maximum distance cranes could fly in search of food. Options to increase carrying capacity for cranes include increasing

  12. Spring hunting changes the regional movements of migrating greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bechet, A.; Giroux, J.-F.; Gauthier, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    1. Human-induced disturbance such as hunting may influence the migratory behaviour of long-distance migrants. In 1999 and 2000 a spring hunt of greater snow geese Anser caerulescens atlanticus occurred for the first time in North America since 1916, aimed at stopping population growth to protect natural habitats. 2. We evaluated the impact of this hunt on the staging movements of geese along a 600-km stretch of the St. Lawrence River in southern Quebec, Canada. 3. We tracked radio-tagged female geese in three contiguous regions of the staging area from the south-west to the north-east: Lake St Pierre, Upper Estuary and Lower Estuary, in spring 1997 (n = 37) and 1998 (n = 70) before the establishment of hunting, and in 1999 (n = 60) and 2000 (n = 59) during hunting. 4. We used multi-state capture-recapture models to estimate the movement probabilities of radio-tagged females among these regions. To assess disturbance level, we tracked geese during their feeding trips and estimated the probability of completing a foraging bout without being disturbed. 5. In the 2 years without hunting, migration was strongly unidirectional from the south-west to the north-east, with very low westward movement probabilities. Geese gradually moved from Lake St Pierre to Upper Estuary and then from Upper Estuary to Lower Estuary. 6. In contrast, during the 2 years with hunting westward movement was more than four times more likely than in preceding years. Most of these backward movements occurred shortly after the beginning of the hunt, indicating that geese moved back to regions where they had not previously experienced hunting. 7. Overall disturbance level increased in all regions in years with hunting relative to years without hunting. 8. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that spring hunting changed the stopover scheduling of this long-distance migrant and might further impact population dynamics by reducing prenuptial fattening. The spring hunt may also have increased crop

  13. Spatial use by wintering greater white-fronted geese relative to a decade of habitat change in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Fleskes, J.P.; Yee, J.L.; Kruse, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of recent habitat changes in California's Central Valley on wintering Pacific greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) by comparing roost-to-feed distances, distributions, population range sizes, and habitat use during 1987-1990 and 1998-2000. These habitat changes included wetland restoration and agricultural land enhancement due to the 1990 implementation of the Central Valley Joint Venture, increased land area used for rice (Oryza sativa) production, and the practice of flooding, rather than burning, rice straw residues for decomposition because of burning restrictions enacted in 1991. Using radiotelemetry, we tracked 192 female geese and recorded 4,516 locations. Geese traveled shorter distances between roosting and feeding sites during 1998-2000 (24.2 ?? 2.2 km) than during 1987-1990 (32.5 ?? 3.4 km); distance traveled tended to decline throughout winter during both decades and varied among watershed basins. Population range size was smaller during 1998-2000 (3,367 km2) than during 1987-1990 (5,145 km2), despite a 2.2-fold increase in the size of the Pacific Flyway population of white-fronted geese during the same time period. The population range size also tended to increase throughout winter during both decades. Feeding and roosting distributions of geese also differed between decades; geese shifted into basins that had the greatest increases in the amount of area in rice production (i.e., American Basin) and out of other basins (i.e., Delta Basin). The use of rice habitat for roosting (1987-1990: 40%, 1998-2000: 54%) and feeding (1987-1990: 57%, 1998-2000: 72%) increased between decades, whereas use of wetlands declined for roosting (1987-1990: 36%, 1998-2000: 31%) and feeding (1987-1990: 22%, 1998-2000: 12%). Within postharvested rice habitats, geese roosted and fed primarily in burned rice fields during 1987-1990 (roost: 43%, feed: 34%), whereas they used flooded rice fields during 1998-2000 (roost: 78%, feed: 64

  14. Combining modelling tools to evaluate a goose management scheme.

    PubMed

    Baveco, Johannes M; Bergjord, Anne-Kari; Bjerke, Jarle W; Chudzińska, Magda E; Pellissier, Loïc; Simonsen, Caroline E; Madsen, Jesper; Tombre, Ingunn M; Nolet, Bart A

    2017-03-01

    Many goose species feed on agricultural land, and with growing goose numbers, conflicts with agriculture are increasing. One possible solution is to designate refuge areas where farmers are paid to leave geese undisturbed. Here, we present a generic modelling tool that can be used to designate the best locations for refuges and to gauge the area needed to accommodate the geese. With a species distribution model, locations are ranked according to goose suitability. The size of the area to be designated as refuge can be chosen by including more or less suitable locations. A resource depletion model is then used to estimate whether enough resources are available within the designated refuge to accommodate all geese, taking into account the dynamics of food resources, including depletion by geese. We illustrate this with the management scheme for pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus implemented in Norway. Here, all geese can be accommodated, but damage levels appear to depend on weather, land use and refuge size.

  15. Use of supplemental food by breeding Ross's Geese and Lesser Snow Geese: Evidence for variable anorexia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Hobson, K.A.; Afton, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Recent research suggests that foods eaten during laying and incubation play a greater role in supplying energy and nutrients to arctic-nesting geese than previously believed. We conducted food-supplementation experiments with Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens) geese to evaluate: (1) if supplemental food was consumed by laying and incubating geese, (2) how food consumption influenced mass dynamics of somatic tissues of breeding geese, (3) if patterns of mass loss were consistent with fasting adaptations, and (4) whether energetic constraints would cause smaller Ross's Geese to consume more food relative to their body size than would larger Snow Geese. Quantity of supplemental food eaten by both species during laying and incubation was highly variable among individuals. Consumption of supplemental food during laying resulted in differences in overall body composition between control and treatment females. Treatment female Ross's Geese completed laying at a higher mass and with more abdominal fat than controls, whereas treatment female Snow Geese completed laying with heavier breast muscles and hearts. Overall body composition did not differ between control and treatment geese (both sexes and species) at the end of incubation, but treatment geese had heavier hearts than control geese. This suggests that treatment females did not rely to the same extent on metabolic adaptations associated with anorexia to meet energetic costs of incubation as did controls. Stable-nitrogen isotope analysis revealed patterns of protein maintenance during incubation consistent with metabolic adaptations to prolonged fasting. Our prediction that energetic constraints would cause smaller Ross's Geese to consume more food relative to their size than would Snow Geese was not supported. Mass-specific food consumption by Ross's Geese was 30% lower than that of Snow Geese during laying and 48% higher during incubation.

  16. Site selection and nest survival of the Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) on the Mongolian Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Spragens, Kyle A.; Xiao, Xiamgming

    2014-01-01

    Waterbirds breeding on the Mongolian Plateau in Central Asia must find suitable wetland areas for nesting in a semiarid region characterized by highly variable water conditions. The first systematic nesting study of a waterbird dependent on this region for breeding was conducted on the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus). The purpose of this study was to document Bar-headed Goose nesting locations, characterize nests and nesting strategies, and estimate daily nest survival (n = 235 nests) from eight areas of west-central Mongolia across three summers (2009–2011) using a modified Mayfield estimator. Bar-headed Goose daily nest survival ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, with a 3-year average nest success of 42.6% during incubation. Bar-headed Geese were found to primarily nest on isolated pond and lake islands as previously reported, but were also documented regularly, though less frequently, along rocky cliffs in several regions of west-central Mongolia. Daily nest survival was higher for cliff nests than for island nests. Information-theoretic models indicated that nest survival decreased with nest age and varied annually with changing environmental conditions. Results of this study suggest that while Bar-headed Geese primarily rely on nesting island sites these sites may be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance and predation events influenced by seasonal variation in environmental conditions, and that higher daily nest survival values documented for the less frequent cliff nest strategy may provide an important alternative strategy during poor island nest success years. Thus, conservation efforts for this and other waterbird species in the semiarid region should be focused on conserving nesting islands and protecting them from disturbance in areas of high livestock densities experiencing a rapidly warming climate.

  17. Behavioral correlates of heart rates of free-living Greater White-fronted Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Ward, D.H.; Bollinger, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    We simultaneously monitored the heart rate and behavior of nine free-living Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons) on their wintering grounds in northern California. Heart rates of wild geese were monitored via abdominally-implanted radio transmitters with electrodes that received electrical impulses of the heart and emitted a radio signal with each ventricular contraction. Post-operative birds appeared to behave normally, readily rejoining flocks and flying up to 15 km daily from night-time roost sites to feed in surrounding agricultural fields. Heart rates varied significantly among individuals and among behaviors, and ranged from less than 100 beats per minute (BPM) during resting, to over 400 BPM during flight. Heart rates varied from 80 to 140 BPM during non-strenuous activities such as walking, feeding, and maintenance activities, to about 180 BPM when birds became alert, and over 400 BPM when birds were startled, even if they did not take flight. Postflight heart rate recovery time averaged < 10 sec. During agonistic encounters, heart rate exceeded 400 BPM; heart rates during social interactions were not predictable solely from postures, as heart rates were context-dependent, and were highest in initial encounters among individuals. Instantaneous measures of physiological parameters, such as heart rate, are often better indicators of the degree of response to external stimuli than visual observations and can be used to improve estimates of energy expenditure based solely on activity data.

  18. Spatial dynamics of bar-headed geese migration in the context of H5N1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bourouiba, L.; Wu, Jianhong; Newman, S.; Takekawa, J.; Natdorj, T.; Batbayar, N.; Bishop, C.M.; Hawkes, L.A.; Butler, P.J.; Wikelski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Virulent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) since 2005 have raised the question about the roles of migratory and wild birds in the transmission of HPAI. Despite increased monitoring, the role of wild waterfowl as the primary source of the highly pathogenic H5N1 has not been clearly established. The impact of outbreaks of HPAI among species of wild birds which are already endangered can nevertheless have devastating consequences for the local and non-local ecology where migratory species are established. Understanding the entangled dynamics of migration and the disease dynamics will be key to prevention and control measures for humans, migratory birds and poultry. Here, we present a spatial dynamic model of seasonal migration derived from first principles and linking the local dynamics during migratory stopovers to the larger scale migratory routes. We discuss the effect of repeated epizootic at specific migratory stopovers for bar-headed geese (Anser indicus). We find that repeated deadly outbreaks of H5N1 on stopovers during the autumn migration of bar-headed geese could lead to a larger reduction in the size of the equilibrium bird population compared with that obtained after repeated outbreaks during the spring migration. However, the opposite is true during the first few years of transition to such an equilibrium. The age-maturation process of juvenile birds which are more susceptible to H5N1 reinforces this result.

  19. Role of hepatic lipogenesis in the susceptibility to fatty liver in the goose (Anser anser).

    PubMed

    Mourot, J; Guy, G; Lagarrigue, S; Peiniau, P; Hermier, D

    2000-05-01

    In response to overfeeding, the Landes goose develops a fatty liver that is twice as large as that of the Poland goose, despite similar food intake. The role of hepatic lipogenesis in the genetic susceptibility to fatty liver was assessed in male overfed geese of the two breeds. For a similar hepatic protein content, total activities of malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, acetyl-Coa-carboxylase and fatty acid synthase, and specific activity and mRNA level of malic enzyme were about two-fold higher in the Landes goose. In the Poland goose, the weight of the fatty liver was correlated positively with the specific activity of ME and the VLDL concentration, which was not the case in the Landes breed. These results show that: (1) hepatic lipogenesis remains very active until the end of the overfeeding period; (2) the pentose-phosphate pathway may function in birds, contrary to what is assumed usually; (3) the level of hepatic lipogenesis is a major factor in the susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in different breeds of geese; and (4) ME activity may be a limiting factor of lipid synthesis in the less susceptible Poland breed.

  20. Survival of greater white-fronted geese: Effects of year, season, sex, and body condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Information regarding the magnitude and variation in survival rates is necessary for understanding the causes of large changes in population size. We examined survival of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) in the Pacific Flyway during 1979-82. The population declined by 75% in the decade preceding our study but was stable during our investigation. Annual survival of adults (0.749, SE = 0.045) was 7% higher than during an earlier study. We developed a simple population model which suggests that recent (1985-96) survival rates may be as much as 10% higher in adults than the 1979-82 rate, which corresponds to population increases observed since 1985. Survival of adult females varied seasonally; monthly survival during a period of winter when no hunting or migration occurred was higher (0.986, SE = 0.015) than monthly survival at other times (0.964, SE = 0.006). Survival of adult males varied among years and with a general seasonal trend inverse to that for females. An index of body condition was positively related to survival of adult females in fall and spring, but not for adult males or immature geese. Monthly survival of immatures was lower during their first hunting season (0.886, SE = 0.026) than during all subsequent seasons (0.963, SE = 0.007). Annual survival of immatures beginning 1 October, immediately before the hunting season, was 0.471. Corresponding variations in survival rates, population numbers, and hunting regulations suggest that hunting may have influenced survival in this population of greater white-fronted geese.

  1. Microbial infections are associated with embryo mortality in Arctic-nesting geese.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Cristina M.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Hare, Rebekah F.; Hueffer, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    To address the role of bacterial infection in hatching failure of wild geese, we monitored embryo development in a breeding population of Greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. During 2013, we observed mortality of normally developing embryos and collected 36 addled eggs for analysis. We also collected 17 infertile eggs for comparison. Using standard culture methods and gene sequencing to identify bacteria within collected eggs, we identified a potentially novel species of Neisseria in 33 eggs, Macrococcus caseolyticus in 6 eggs, and Streptococcus uberis and Rothia nasimurium in 4 eggs each. We detected seven other bacterial species at lower frequencies. Sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the Neisseria isolates most closely matched sequences from N. animaloris and N. canis (96 to 97% identity), but phylogenetic analysis suggested substantial genetic differentiation between egg isolates and known Neisseria species. Although definitive sources of the bacteria remain unknown, we detected Neisseria DNA from swabs of eggshells, nest contents, and cloacae of nesting females. To assess the pathogenicity of bacteria identified in contents of addled eggs, we inoculated isolates of Neisseria, Macrococcus, Streptococcus, and Rothia at various concentrations into developing chicken eggs. Seven-day mortality rates varied from 70 to 100%, depending on the bacterial species and inoculation dose. Our results suggest that bacterial infections are a source of embryo mortality in wild geese in the Arctic.    

  2. Lead poisoning in Canada geese in Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagley, George E.; Locke, Louis N.; Nightingale, Gordon T.

    1967-01-01

    Trainer and Hunt (9) stated that lead poisoning of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) had been reported from three states: North Carolina, Indiana, and Wisconsin. More recently, the Mississippi Flyway Council (8) cited suspected cases of lead poisoning of Canada geese in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, and Maryland. Hanson and Smith (6) also cited cases in widely separated areas of the country, including Texas and Michigan. this paper reports lead poisoning among Canada geese in Delaware, and presents evidence that it is a recurring problem among wintering flocks of Canada geese along the Middle Atlantic Coast.

  3. Canada geese in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rusch, Donald H.; Malecki, Richard E.; Trost, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    Market hunting and poor stewardship led to record low numbers of geese in the early 1900's, but regulated seasons including closures, refuges, and law enforcement led to restoration of most populations. Winter surveys were begun to study population trends and set responsible harvest regulations for these long-lived and diverse birds. Winter surveys begun in 1936-37 probably represent the oldest continuing index of migratory birds in North America.

  4. Breeding biology of Pacific white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Raveling, Dennis G.

    1984-01-01

    Nesting ecology of Pacific white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) was studied on a 9.9-km2 area on the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta, Alaska, during 1977-79. Availability of nesting habitat varied considerably among years because of differences in time of snow- and icemelt. Mean clutch size was 3.7 eggs in the late spring thaw year and 5.2 and 5.7 eggs in early snowmelt years. Peak (and duration) of nest initiation was 1-2 June (16 days) in the late spring and 15-18 May (20-21 days) during early springs. When nest sites were available early, the time interval between arrival and date of nest initiation closely approximated the time required for rapid yolk development. This suggests that whitefronts may be physiologically prevented from nesting earlier in such years. The duration of nest initiation was comparable to that of other goose species nesting on the Y-K Delta, but longer than for goose populations of several species nesting farther north or in the midcontinent. Overall, 68% of whitefront nests were in lowland habitat, 23% in intermediate habitat, and 10% in upland habitat, but habitat use varied significantly between early and late years. Whitefronts most commonly nested on slough banks (55%), lake shores (23%), and grass-sedge meadows (11%). A quantitative description of vegetation associated with nest sites is given. Major causes of nest destruction were flooding (28%) and predation (9%). Nesting success over the 3-year period averaged 62%.

  5. Light and electron microscopic studies of the Harderian gland in Bilgorajska goose (Anser anser).

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, Joanna; Chęć, Aleksandra; Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina; Nowaczyk, Renata; Barszcz, Karolina

    2015-09-01

    The Harderian gland (HG) in birds is the dominant orbital gland, which plays an important role in immunological response. Tissue sections taken from adult females of Bilgorajska goose were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Azan, PAS, AB pH 2.5, AF and HDI. Based on the histological structure the HG in Bilgorajska geese had compound tubular structure with multiple lobules and two types of epithelial cells lining the tubules. Epithelial cells in the central part of the lobes were dark in color and contained serous fluid, while in the deeper layers, epithelial cells were lightly coloured and contained mucous fluid. Histochemical studies showed the presence of neutral mucopolysaccharides and carboxylated acid mucopolysaccharides in the secretory cells. The small number of single plasma cells were present in HDI staining below the basement membrane of the secondary and primary ducts, near the crypts of the main duct. TEM study demonstrated that plasma cells had a large nucleus with condensed heterochromatin and were rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum. The knowledge of gland's structure, and above all an analysis of the immune system components may affect clinical practice and properly conducted immunization of birds.

  6. Application of a computer simulation model to migrating white-fronted geese in the Klamath Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, R.B.; Clark, W.R.; Takekawa, J.Y.; McCullough, D.R.; Barrett, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Pacific greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population has declined precipitously over the past 20 years. Loss of wetland habitat in California wintering areas has had a significant effect on the population, so recovery of the population may depend on innovative management of the few remaining wetlands. A computer simulation model, REFMOD, was applied to greater white-fronted geese in the Klamath Basin, northern California, to investigate the importance of food availability and hunting disturbance to migrating and wintering populations. Time spent flying and feeding was simulated during fall and early winter, and the resulting energy expenditure was compared with energy consumed to calculate an overall energy balance. This energy balance and the ease with which waterfowl acquired needed food affected emigration rate, and thus, the waterfowl population level was directly tied to availability and distribution of food. The model validly described distances moved by geese from their Tule Lake Refuge roosting site (core) to feeding sites within the surrounding Klamath Basin arena, and exhibited a capability to simulate observed time spent feeding. Based on 25 stochastic simulations, greater white-fronted goose population dynamics were validly simulated over the fall and early-winter (P>0.8). When food was removed from the Tule Lake Refuge, simulated geese had to fly farther (P0.05). The elimination did cause an increase in the distance traveled to feed (P0.05) on the distance traveled to feed or on goose numbers. A 10-fold increase in disturbance hastened emigration and reduced population levels (P<0.0001) during the season by about 30%; a 100-fold increase in disturbance reduced population levels (P<0.0001) by 85%. When goose immigration was increased to simulate an average peak population of approximately 500 000 geese, population levels remained high throughout the fall, indicating the Klamath Basin can sustain a population much larger than currently

  7. Nest morphology and body size of Ross' Geese and Lesser Snow Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    Arctic-nesting geese build large, insulated nests to protect developing embryos from cold ambient temperatures. Ross' Geese (Chen rossii) are about two-thirds the mass of Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens), have higher mass-specific metabolic rate, and maintain lower nest attentiveness, yet they hatch goslings with more functionally mature gizzards and more protein for their size than do Lesser Snow Geese. We compared nest size (a reflection of nest insulation) in four distinct habitats in a mixed breeding colony of Ross' Geese and Lesser Snow Geese at Karrak Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada. After adjusting measurements for nest-specific egg size and clutch size, we found that overall nest morphology differed between species and among habitats. Nest size increased progressively among heath, rock, mixed, and moss habitats. When nesting materials were not limiting, nests were smaller in habitats that provided cover from wind and precipitation than in habitats that did not provide cover. Ross' Geese constructed relatively larger, more insulated nests than did Lesser Snow Geese, which may hasten embryonic development, minimize energy expenditure during incubation, and minimize embryonic cooling during recesses. We suggest that relative differences in nest morphology reflect greater selection for Ross' Geese to improve nest insulation because of their smaller size (adults and embryos), higher mass-specific metabolic rate, and lower incubation constancy.

  8. Aging small Canada geese by neck plumage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Schoonover, L.J.

    1969-01-01

    The neck plumage method, a new technique for separating immature from adult Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in the hand, was evaluated by comparison with the notched tail feather and cloacal examination methods. Two (1.4 percent) of 141 geese examined were misaged, resulting in a 6 percent error in the immature-adult ratio obtained by the neck plumage method. The neck plumage method is a rapid aging method and reasonable accuracy (94 percent) can be obtained. It can also be used to differentiate immatures from adults on the ground at distances up to 175 yards, but was almost impossible to use when geese were in flight. As yet, the neck plumage method has only been tested on the subspecies (B. c. hutchinsii-parvipes complex) in the Tall-Grass Prairie population of small Canada geese.

  9. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  10. Female-specific DNA sequences in geese.

    PubMed

    Huang, M C; Lin, W C; Horng, Y M; Rouvier, R; Huang, C W

    2003-07-01

    1. The OPAE random primers (Operon Technologies, Inc., CA) were used for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting in Chinese, White Roman and Landaise geese. One of these primers, OPAE-06, produced a 938-bp sex-specific fragment in all females and in no males of Chinese geese only. 2. A novel female-specific DNA sequence in Chinese goose was cloned and sequenced. Two primers, CGSex-F and CGSex-R, were designed in order to amplify a 912-bp sex-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment on genomic DNA from female geese. 3. It was shown that a simple and effective PCR-based sexing technique could be used in the three goose breeds studied. 4. Nucleotide sequencing of the sex-specific fragments in White Roman and Landaise geese was performed and sequence differences were observed among these three breeds.

  11. The influence of loose-mix feeding on behavior, feed intake, and body weight of growing geese.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J; Auvergne, A; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Bijja, M; Bannelier, C; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the influence of loose-mix feeding on behavior, feed intake, and BW of growing geese. In total, 252 one-day-old geese (Anser anser) were divided into 2 groups differing in the form of diet they received between 42 and 98 d of age (AMEn 11.55 MJ/kg, CP 16%): a complete pelleted diet containing 500 g of sorghum/kg (control group) or a mixture containing 500 g of protein-rich pellets and 500 g of sorghum whole seeds/kg (mixed group). Feed intake was measured daily from 42 to 48 d and every 3 d from 49 to 98 d. Individual BW was measured weekly from 42 to 98 d. Goose behavior was monitored by the scan sampling method throughout the experiment, which was divided into 5 periods according to the timing of access to feed: period 1 from 42 to 55 d (ad libitum feeding access), period 2 from 56 to 62 d (2 + 2 h feeding access), period 3 from 63 to 70 d (2 h feeding access), period 4 from 71 to 94 d (1 h feeding access), and period 5 from 95 to 97 d (3 h feeding access). Over the whole period, the feed intake (13,968 and 14,480 g) and the feed conversion ratio (8.53 and 8.15) were similar in both groups (P = 0.112 and P = 0.168; respectively). Body weight was similar in both groups from 42 to 91 d of age, but at 98 d of age, BW was 3.7% lower in the control than in the mixed group (P = 0.006). Goose behavior was influenced by period, because the percentage of birds feeding increased when the daily access time to the feed decreased (P < 0.001), but not by group (P > 0.05). The results suggest that a loose-mix feeding could be recommended in feeding of growing geese because it weakly influences their feed behavior but slightly increases their weight at the end of the growing period.

  12. Rigid plastic collars for marking geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballou, R.M.; Martin, F.W.

    1964-01-01

    Rigid plastic collars of one to three colors proved useful for recognition of individual Canada geese (Branta canadensis). The collars did not seem to affect the behavior of the geese, and there was little mortality caused by their use. In good light, bright colors are visible through a 20-power spotting scope for more than 1 mile. Retention of collars was about 90 percent for 1 year and more than 80 percent for 2 years.

  13. Canada geese in the Atlantic Flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, Jay B.

    1995-01-01

    Overall, the total number of wintering geese reaching a peak of 955,000 in 1981 and has since declined 40% to 569,000 in 1993. Compounding these distributional changes in wintering numbers, the subspecies composition has also changed. The Canada goose population is composed of migrant geese (primarily B.c. canadensis and B.c. interior) that breed in the subarctic regions of Canada and resident geese (primarily B.c. maxima and B.c. moffitti) that breed in southern Canada and the United States (Stotts 1983). The number of resident geese in Maine to Virginia has increased considerable from maybe 50,000 to 100,000 in 1981 (Conover and Chasko 1985) to an average of 560,000 in 1992-93 (H. Heusman, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, personal communication). This rapid increase in resident geese suggests that the migrant population has declined more than the 40% decline observed in total wintering geese from 1981 to 1993.

  14. Using body mass dynamics to examine long-term habitat shifts of arctic-molting geese: Evidence for ecological change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Tyler L.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Taylor, Eric J.; Bollinger, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    From 1976 onward, molting brant geese (Branta bernicla) within the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, Alaska, shifted from inland, freshwater lakes toward coastal wetlands. Two hypotheses explained this redistribution: (1) ecological change: redistribution of molting brant reflects improvements in coastal foraging habitats, which have undergone a succession toward salt-tolerant plants due to increased coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion as induced by climate change or (2) interspecific competition: greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) populations increased 12-fold at inland lakes, limiting food availability and forcing brant into coastal habitats. Both hypotheses presume that brant redistributions were driven by food availability; thus, body mass dynamics may provide insight into the relevance of these hypotheses. We compared body mass dynamics of molting brant across decades (1978, 1987–1992, 2005–2007) and, during 2005–2007, across habitats (coastal vs. inland). Brant lost body mass during molt in all three decades. At inland habitats, rates of mass loss progressively decreased by decade despite the increased number of greater white-fronted geese. These results do not support an interspecific competition hypothesis, instead suggesting that ecological change enhanced foraging habitats for brant. During 2005–2007, rates of mass loss did not vary by habitat. Thus, while habitats have improved from earlier decades, our results cannot distinguish between ecological changes at inland versus coastal habitats. However, we speculate that coastal forage quality has improved beyond that of inland habitats and that the body mass benefits of these higher quality foods are offset by the disproportionate number of brant now molting coastally.

  15. Validation of the i-STAT and HemoCue systems for the analysis of blood parameters in the bar-headed goose, Anser indicus

    PubMed Central

    Harter, T. S.; Reichert, M.; Brauner, C. J.; Milsom, W. K.

    2015-01-01

    Every year, bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) perform some of the most remarkable trans-Himalayan migrations, and researchers are increasingly interested in understanding the physiology underlying their high-altitude flight performance. A major challenge is generating reliable measurements of blood parameters on wild birds in the field, where established analytical techniques are often not available. Therefore, we validated two commonly used portable clinical analysers (PCAs), the i-STAT and the HemoCue systems, for the analysis of blood parameters in bar-headed geese. The pH, partial pressures of O2 and CO2 (PO2 and PCO2), haemoglobin O2 saturation (sO2), haematocrit (Hct) and haemoglobin concentration [Hb] were simultaneously measured with the two PCA systems (i-STAT for all parameters; HemoCue for [Hb]) and with conventional laboratory techniques over a physiological range of PO2, PCO2 and Hct. Our results indicate that the i-STAT system can generate reliable values on bar-headed goose whole blood pH, PO2, PCO2 and Hct, but we recommend correcting the obtained values using the linear equations determined here for higher accuracy. The i-STAT is probably not able to produce meaningful measurements of sO2 and [Hb] over a range of physiologically relevant environmental conditions. However, we can recommend the use of the HemoCue to measure [Hb] in the bar-headed goose, if results are corrected. We emphasize that the equations that we provide to correct PCA results are applicable only to bar-headed goose whole blood under the conditions that we tested. We encourage researchers to validate i-STAT or HemoCue results thoroughly for their specific study conditions and species in order to yield accurate results. PMID:27293706

  16. Lesser snow geese and ross's geese form mixed flocks during winter but differ in family maintenance and social status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Smaller species are less likely to maintain families (or other forms of social groups) than larger species and are more likely to be displaced in competition with larger species. We observed mixed-species flocks of geese in southwest Louisiana and compared frequencies of social groups and success in social encounters of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter Snow Geese) with that of the smaller, closely- related Ross's Geese (C. rossii). Less than 7% of adult and Geese were in families, whereas 10-22% of adult and 12-15% of juvenile Snow Geese were in families. Snow Geese won 70% of interspecific social encounters and had higher odds of success against Ross's Geese than against individuals of their own species. The larger Snow Geese maintain families longer than Ross's Geese, which probably contributes to their dominance over Ross's Geese during winter. Predator vigilance probably is an important benefit of mixed flocking for both species. We suggest the long-standing association with Snow Geese (along with associated subordinate social status) has selected against family maintenance in Ross's Geese.

  17. Effects of pesticides on Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Rusch, Donald H.; Samuel, Michael D.; Humburg, Dale D.; Sullivan, Brian D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes published and unpublished sources relating to exposure of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) to pesticides, emphasizing documented episodes of poisoning by organochlorine (OC), organophosphorus (OP), and carbamate compounds. Canada geese accumulate the lipid-soluble OC compounds, although they have a lower potential for biomagnification of these pesticides than animals at higher trophic levels in food webs. Low residues of p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE were frequently found in tissues and eggs of Canada geese, but they had no apparent adverse effects on reproductive success or eggshell thickness. Likewise, in an orchard system in central Washington state, the OC rodenticide endrin accumulated in tissues and eggs of Canada geese without apparent adverse effect. In contrast, ingestion of seeds treated with the OC heptachlor caused mortality, lowered reproductive success, and caused a local population decline of geese in Oregon and Washington. In recent years, the most persistent OC's have been banned by law and replaced with less persistent carbamate and OP compounds that do not readily accumulate in animal tissues. However, many of these compounds are acutely toxic and have caused numerous die-offs of Canada geese. Among OP compounds, diazinon was responsible for most reported die-offs (41 incidents involving >535 geese), whereas parathion applied alone or jointly with methyl parathion accounted for most reported mortalities (8 incidents involving >3,000 geese). Three other OP's, a carbamate (carbofuran), zinc phosphide, and strychnine also caused goose die-offs. Mortality from anticholinesterase (antiChE) compounds occurs relatively soon after exposure and death can usually be diagnosed by evaluation of brain cholinesterase (thE) activity. Because geese are primarily grazers, the main route of exposure to antiChE's is apparently ingestion of contaminated grasses and forbs; dermal absorption and inhalation are other routes. Despite the

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of Swan goose Anser cygnoides (Anseriformes: Anatidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongyu; Li, Bo; Li, Lunyue; Zhou, Lizhi

    2016-09-01

    The Swan goose Anser cygnoides is a large threatened goose species in the IUCN Red List, with a natural breeding range in East Asia, migratory and wintering mainly in central and eastern China. In this study, we used PCR-based method to determine the complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of this Anatidae species. The complete mtDNA is a 16,740 bp circular molecule containing 37 typical genes. The gene order is identical with that of the standard avian gene order. All protein-coding genes start with a typical ATG codon except ND5, COI and COII. The termination codon is usually the standard TAA. The non-coding region contains some inter-genic spacers and a control region.

  19. Can hunting of translocated nuisance Canada geese reduce local conflicts?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holevinski, R.A.; Malecki, R.A.; Curtis, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis) nest or reside in the temperate latitudes of North America. In past years, translocation-the capture and subsequent release of geese at distant locations-has been used to establish resident goose populations and to reduce nuisance problems. However, with new special hunting seasons designed to target resident Canada geese, we can now evaluate translocation as a management tool when hunting is allowed at release sites. We selected 2 study sites, representative of urban and suburban locations with nuisance resident geese, in central and western New York, USA. In June 2003, we translocated 80 neck-banded adult geese, 14 radiomarked adult females, and 83 juveniles 150 km east and southwest from urban and suburban problem sites in western New York to state-owned Wildlife Management Areas. At these same capture sites, we used 151 neck-banded adult geese, 12 radiomarked females, and 100 juveniles as controls to compare dispersal movements and harvest vulnerability to translocated geese. All observations (n = 45) of translocated radiomarked geese were <20 km from release sites, in areas where hunting was permitted. Only 25 of 538 observations (4.6%) of radiomarked geese at control sites were in areas open to hunting. The remainder of observations occurred at nonhunting locations within 10 km of control sites. More translocated adult geese (23.8%) were harvested than control geese (6.6%; ??2 = 72.98, P = 0.0009). More translocated juvenile geese were harvested (22.9%) than juvenile controls (5.0%; ??2 = 72.30, P = 0.0005). Only 7 (8.8%) translocated adult geese returned to the original capture sites during Canada goose hunting seasons. Translocation of adult and juvenile geese in family groups may alleviate nuisance problems at conflict sites through increased harvest, reducing the number of birds returning in subsequent years.

  20. HARV ANSER Flight Test Data Retrieval and Processing Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Jessie C.

    1997-01-01

    Under the NASA High-Alpha Technology Program the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was used to conduct flight tests of advanced control effectors, advanced control laws, and high-alpha design guidelines for future super-maneuverable fighters. The High-Alpha Research Vehicle is a pre-production F/A-18 airplane modified with a multi-axis thrust-vectoring system for augmented pitch and yaw control power and Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) to augment body-axis yaw control power. Flight testing at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) began in July 1995 and continued until May 1996. Flight data will be utilized to evaluate control law performance and aircraft dynamics, determine aircraft control and stability derivatives using parameter identification techniques, and validate design guidelines. To accomplish these purposes, essential flight data parameters were retrieved from the DFRC data system and stored on the Dynamics and Control Branch (DCB) computer complex at Langley. This report describes the multi-step task used to retrieve and process this data and documents the results of these tasks. Documentation includes software listings, flight information, maneuver information, time intervals for which data were retrieved, lists of data parameters and definitions, and example data plots.

  1. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  2. Performance validation of the ANSER Control Laws for the F-18 HARV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messina, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    The ANSER control laws were implemented in Ada by NASA Dryden for flight test on the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The Ada implementation was tested in the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, and results were compared to those obtained with the NASA Langley batch Fortran implementation of the control laws which are considered the 'truth model'. This report documents the performance validation test results between these implementations. This report contains the ANSER performance validation test plan, HIL versus batch time-history comparisons, simulation scripts used to generate checkcases, and detailed analysis of discrepancies discovered during testing.

  3. Performance validation of the ANSER control laws for the F-18 HARV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messina, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    The ANSER control laws were implemented in Ada by NASA Dryden for flight test on the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The Ada implementation was tested in the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, and results were compared to those obtained with the NASA Langley batch Fortran implementation of the control laws which are considered the 'truth model.' This report documents the performance validation test results between these implementations. This report contains the ANSER performance validation test plan, HIL versus batch time-history comparisons, simulation scripts used to generate checkcases, and detailed analysis of discrepancies discovered during testing.

  4. Performance Validation of Version 152.0 ANSER Control Laws for the F-18 HARV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messina, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    The Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) Control Laws were modified as a result of Phase 3 F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) flight testing. The control law modifications for the next software release were designated version 152.0. The Ada implementation was tested in the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation and results were compared to those obtained with the NASA Langley batch Fortran implementation of the control laws which are considered the 'truth model.' This report documents the performance validation test results between these implementations for ANSER control law version 152.0.

  5. Are Bald Eagles important predators of Emperor Geese?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, Robert E.; Kincheloe, Karen L.

    1993-01-01

    Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and geese often occur together, especially at sites used by geese for migrational staging and wintering. Although numerous studies have been directed at these taxa, there are only anecdotal accounts (Parris et al. 1980, Bennett and Klaas 1986, Bartley 1988) of Bald Eagles killing healthy geese at any time of the year (but see Raveling and Zezulak 1991). Most species of geese may be too large, as suggested by Shetrod et al. (1976) and Palmer (1988), or they may not regularly allow eagles an advantageous attack position (J.M. Gerrard in litt.).Here we report observations of attacks on Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) by Bald Eagles on the Alaska Peninsula in autumn. We discuss these and other observations of eagle-goose interactions vis-a-vis the role of Bald Eagles as predators of Emperor Geese.

  6. Three species of Plasmodium from Canada geese, Branta canadensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Barrow, J.H.

    1967-01-01

    Studies on Canada geese at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge in northern Michigan during the past few years have uncovered at least three species of Plasmodium: P circumflexum, P. relictum, and P. vaughani. Although rarely observed in direct blood smears from the wild hosts, isodiagnosis, using primarily domestic geese as recipients, revealed a prevalence of 60 percent in random samplings of the population. P. circumflexum is the most prevalent and mixed infections have been noted. In experimental infections, induced by blood inoculation, the malaria produced by P. circumflexum produces about a 70 percent mortality in Canada geese and about a 10 percent mortality in domestic geese.

  7. Goose management schemes to resolve conflicts with agriculture: Theory, practice and effects.

    PubMed

    Eythórsson, Einar; Tombre, Ingunn M; Madsen, Jesper

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, the four countries hosting the Svalbard population of pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus along its flyway launched an International Species Management Plan for the population. One of the aims was to reduce conflicts between geese and agriculture to an acceptable level. Since 2006, Norway has offered subsidies to farmers that provide refuge areas for geese on their land. We evaluate the mid-Norwegian goose management subsidy scheme, with a view to its adjustment to prevailing ecological and socio-economic parameters. The analysis indicates that the legitimacy of the scheme is highly dependent on transparency of knowledge management and accountability of management scheme to the farming community. Among farmers, as well as front-line officials, outcomes of prioritisation processes within the scheme are judged unfair when there is an evident mismatch between payments and genuine damage. We suggest how the scheme can be made more fair and responsive to ecological changes, within a framework of adaptive management.

  8. Mycoplasma infection of ducks and geese.

    PubMed

    Stipkovits, L; Szathmary, S

    2012-11-01

    Production of ducks and geese in certain parts of the world is very important. Mycoplasma diseases cause significant losses to the duck and goose industry. This review summarizes the epidemiological, clinical, and pathomorphological characteristics of mycoplasma diseases of ducks and geese and the involvement of the various mycoplasma species in their pathogenesis. The role of mycoplasma infections in the development of clinical signs, pathological lesions, and mortality of challenged birds is demonstrated in challenge experiments. Transmission of mycoplasma in the ovary and eggs resulting in the reduction of egg production and an increase of embryo mortality has been shown in challenge experiments as well as in field studies. The susceptibility of many mycoplasma isolates of the most important mycoplasma species of duck and goose origin were tested and showed relatively high average minimum inhibitory concentrations of lincomycin, tilosin, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and enrofloxacin but not for tiamulin. The successful treatment of mycoplasma infections with antibiotics in ducks and geese should be selected based on the minimum inhibitory concentration values against the mycoplasmas isolated from the flock.

  9. Do geese fully develop brood patches? A histological analysis of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (C. rossii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Homberger, D.G.; Henk, W.G.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    Most birds develop brood patches before incubation; epidermis and dermis in the brood patch region thicken, and the dermal connective tissue becomes increasingly vascularized and infiltrated by leukocytes. However, current dogma states that waterfowl incubate without modifications of skin within the brood patch region. The incubation periods of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter called snow geese) and Ross's geese (C. rossii) are 2-6 days shorter than those of other goose species; only females incubate. Thus, we hypothesized that such short incubation periods would require fully developed brood patches for sufficient heat transfer from incubating parents to eggs. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the skin histology of abdominal regions of snow and Ross's geese collected at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. For female snow geese, we found that epidermis and dermis had thickened and vascularization of dermis was 14 times greater, on average, than that observed in males (n=5 pairs). Our results for Ross's geese (n=5 pairs) were more variable, wherein only one of five female Ross's geese fully developed a brood patch. Our results are consistent with three hypotheses about brood patch development and its relationship with different energetic cost-benefit relationships, resulting from differences in embryonic development and body size. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  10. Do geese fully develop brood patches? A histological analysis of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (C. rossii).

    PubMed

    Jónsson, Jón Einar; Afton, Alan D; Homberger, Dominique G; Henk, William G; Alisauskas, Ray T

    2006-06-01

    Most birds develop brood patches before incubation; epidermis and dermis in the brood patch region thicken, and the dermal connective tissue becomes increasingly vascularized and infiltrated by leukocytes. However, current dogma states that waterfowl incubate without modifications of skin within the brood patch region. The incubation periods of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter called snow geese) and Ross's geese (C. rossii) are 2-6 days shorter than those of other goose species; only females incubate. Thus, we hypothesized that such short incubation periods would require fully developed brood patches for sufficient heat transfer from incubating parents to eggs. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the skin histology of abdominal regions of snow and Ross's geese collected at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. For female snow geese, we found that epidermis and dermis had thickened and vascularization of dermis was 14 times greater, on average, than that observed in males (n=5 pairs). Our results for Ross's geese (n=5 pairs) were more variable, wherein only one of five female Ross's geese fully developed a brood patch. Our results are consistent with three hypotheses about brood patch development and its relationship with different energetic cost-benefit relationships, resulting from differences in embryonic development and body size.

  11. Towards a solution to the goose-agriculture conflict in North Norway, 1988-2012: the interplay between policy, stakeholder influence and goose population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tombre, Ingunn M; Eythórsson, Einar; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988-2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics.

  12. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  13. The occurrence of gizzard worms in Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Wehr, E.E.

    1954-01-01

    Amidostomum anseris, a roundworm which occurs under the horny lining of the gizzard in birds, is a widely distributed parasite in Canada geese. It is also reported from snow geese (Chen hyperborea). Although the extent of erosion of the gizzard wall by these worms is not precisely correlated with the number of worms present, it is usually severe in Canada geese when 150 or more worms are present. Gizzard worm infection is considered a contributing factor to low weights, poor condition and to losses among the Canada geese which winter at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge in North Carolina. The mean number of gizzard worms per bird is considerably higher for Pea Island than for areas where winter losses have not been reported.

  14. Lead poisoning in Canada geese on Plum Island, Massachusetts (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hinds, L. S.

    1987-01-01

    During December 1983 and early January 1984, about 200 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) died of lead poisoning at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge on Plum Island, Massachusetts. In an effort to determine the source of lead, 100 bottom samples were taken from a refuge impoundment where much of the mortality/morbidity occurred. An average of 157,150 pellets/ha was found with a range of 64,582 to 322,910 pellets/ha. Water levels in this impoundment were low when Canada geese arrived, making shot more readily available to the geese and contributing to the outbreak. To minimize the risk of Canada geese being exposed to lead shot poisoning at this location in the future, we recommend several corrective manipulations of habitat.

  15. Seasonal ingestion of toxic and nontoxic shot by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Samuel, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We used rates of ingested shot and elevated blood-lead levels (≥0.18 ppm) to estimate the proportion of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) exposed to lead on 3 study areas in Manitoba, Minnesota, and Missouri. Lead exposure was prevalent on all areas and was common after the hunting season closed, when up to 15% of geese could have been exposed to lead shot. However, the proportion of steel shot ingested by geese has increased during the past 2 decades. We suggest that lead exposure is still a source of indirect hunting mortality in Canada geese but project that the prevalence of lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population and other waterfowl populations will decrease as nontoxic shot regulations persist and hunters use steel or other nontoxic shot.

  16. Changes in distribution of Canada geese nesting in Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, David G.; Ronke, M. Eliese

    2015-01-01

    The reintroduced Canada goose (Branta canadensis) population in Arkansas has grown in range and abundance in recent decades. We determined the geographic range of Arkansas resident Canada geese from 2004 to 2012 using volume contour maps from citizen science observations using eBird, a citizen science website, and hunter recovery locations from the U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory. Resulting maps indicate an increase in Canada goose encounters toward northwestern and southwestern Arkansas from the original relocations in the Arkansas River valley. We examined movement of Canada geese banded and recovered in Arkansas by determining the distance and angle of movement between initial and final encounter locations; 25% moved east, and 17% went west. The average distance moved from banding to recovery was 50 km (SE = 1 km). Recoveries of Canada geese banded in Arkansas were greatest in the Mississippi Flyway (58% of all geese) followed by the Central Flyway (37%) with some representation in both the Atlantic (4%) and Pacific flyways (0.9%). Movement from Arkansas to other states and Canada was influenced by goose age and sex. Older individuals traveled longer distances than younger ones, and females traveled longer distances than males. Our findings suggest that recently established Canada geese in Arkansas have slowly expanded within the state to the northwest and southwest with the expansion to the east being important now. Movement of Arkansas resident Canada geese on molt-migration can contribute to management issues in other states and provinces.

  17. Neckband retention for lesser snow geese in the western Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Smith, A.E.; Baranyuk, W.; Cooch, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Neckbands are commonly used in waterfowl studies (especially geese) to identify individuals for determination of movement and behavior and to estimate population parameters. Substantial neckband loss can adversely affect these research objectives and produce biased survival estimates. We used capture, recovery, and observation histories for lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) banded in the western Arctic, 1993-1996, to estimate neckband retention. We found that neckband retention differed between snow goose breeding colonies at Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Male snow geese had higher neckband loss than females, a pattern similar to that found for Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and lesser snow geese in Alaska. We found that the rate of neckband loss increased with time, suggesting that neckbands are lost as the plastic deteriorates. Survival estimates for geese based on resighting neckbands will be biased unless estimates are corrected for neckband loss. We recommend that neckband loss be estimated using survival estimators that incorporate recaptures, recoveries, and observations of marked birds. Research and management studies using neckbands should be designed to improve neckband retention and to include the assessment of neckband retention.

  18. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter "Snow Geese") and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006. Printed in USA.

  19. Optimal control of Atlantic population Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauser, C.E.; Runge, M.C.; Cooch, E.G.; Johnson, F.A.; Harvey, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Management of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) can be a balance between providing sustained harvest opportunity while not allowing populations to become overabundant and cause damage. In this paper, we focus on the Atlantic population of Canada geese and use stochastic dynamic programming to determine the optimal harvest strategy over a range of plausible models for population dynamics. There is evidence to suggest that the population exhibits significant age structure, and it is possible to reconstruct age structure from surveys. Consequently the harvest strategy is a function of the age composition, as well as the abundance, of the population. The objective is to maximize harvest while maintaining the number of breeding adults in the population between specified upper and lower limits. In addition, the total harvest capacity is limited and there is uncertainty about the strength of density-dependence. We find that under a density-independent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at the highest acceptable abundance. However if harvest capacity is limited, then the optimal long-term breeding population size is lower than the highest acceptable level, to reduce the risk of the population growing to an unacceptably large size. Under the proposed density-dependent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at an intermediate level between the bounds on acceptable population size; limits to harvest capacity have little effect on the optimal long-term population size. It is clear that the strength of density-dependence and constraints on harvest significantly affect the optimal harvest strategy for this population. Model discrimination might be achieved in the long term, while continuing to meet management goals, by adopting an adaptive management strategy.

  20. 76 FR 30188 - Proposed Information Collection; Conservation Order for Light Geese

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... geese because of their light coloration as opposed to dark geese, such as white-fronted or Canada... you submit in response to this notice are a matter of public record. We will include or summarize...

  1. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  2. Anserobilharzia gen. n. (Digenea, Schistosomatidae) and redescription of A. brantae (Farr & Blankemeyer, 1956) comb. n. (syn. Trichobilharzia brantae), a parasite of geese (Anseriformes).

    PubMed

    Brant, Sara V; Jouet, Damien; Ferte, Hubert; Loker, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    A new genus, Anserobilharzia, is proposed to accommodate Anserobilharzia brantae n. comb. (syn. Trichobilharzia bran- tae Farr & Blankemeyer, 1956), a species of avian schistosome thus far found exclusively in anserini geese (Anser, Branta, Chen) from Europe and North America, and Gyraulus snails. Recent collections and subsequent molecular analyses showed that A. brantae was distinct from Allobilharzia and Trichobilharzia and grouped basal to Trichobilharzia. Using nuclear 28S, ITS and mitochondrial cox1 as genetic yardsticks, samples of A. brantae from North America and Europe were each other's closest relative and distinct from Allobilharzia and Trichobilharzia. Anserobilharzia brantae was also distinct when compared morphologically with other species of closely related avian schistosomes. The following descrip- tion is based on males, females, eggs, and cercariae. The new genus is characterized by a) ovoid egg (72-145µm x 44- 89 µm) with spine, b) male with > 500 testes and caecal reunion anteriad to seminal vesicle, c) cercariae with 5+1 flame cells, and d) intermediate hosts are planorbid snails. The only confirmed species of snail host is Gyraulus parvus in North America. Based on presented data, we propose a new genus and new combination for A. brantae justified by morpholog- ical, host use, and molecular characteristics.

  3. Using radiotelemetry to monitor cardiac response of free-living tule greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons elgasi) to human disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Kruse, K.L.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Yee, J.L.; Ely, C.R.; Ward, D.H.; Bollinger, K.S.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 1939 four experiments were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to determine the protein requirements of bobwhite chicks. A total of 816 chicks were used to compare six levels of protein, namely, 22,24,26, 28, 30, and 32 per cent.....From the three standpoints of survival, rate of growth, and efficiency of feed utilization for the first ten weeks of life, the 28 per cent level of protein gave the best results. During the ninth and tenth weeks, the highest efficiency of feed utilization was obtained on the 22 per cent level. The results indicate that after the birds have reached about twothirds of their mature weight, the difference in efficiency between a diet containing 28 per cent of protein and one containing 22 per cent may be small enough to justify, in the interest of economy, the use of a diet containing the lower percentage of protein.

  4. Autumn diet of lesser snow geese staging in northeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brackney, Alan W.; Hupp, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is used by lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) in autumn for premigratory staging. To better understand the potential impacts of human disturbance on snow geese, we investigated species composition of, and temporal and age-related variation in, their diet during staging. Depending on age and time of collection, between 35.2 and 94.1% of the diet (aggregate percent wet mass, n = 75) consisted of 2 species of plants; underground stems of tall cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium), and aerial shoots of northern scouring rush (Equisetum variegatum). The diet varied between August and September (P = 0.0089), morning and afternoon (P < 0.0001), but not between age classes (P = 0.066). Throughout staging, snow geese consumed more tall cotton-grass during the afternoon than during the morning (P < 0.05). Tall cotton-grass was a larger component of the afternoon diet in September than in August (P < 0.05). In September, snow geese consumed more northern scouring rush in the mornings than in the afternoon (P < 0.05). Nighttime freezing, interspecific differences in nutritional quality, and plant senescence likely constrained the diet of snow geese to a small number of food items. Because alternative foods may not be available, human disturbance should be minimized in areas that provide these forage species.

  5. Response of geese to aircraft disturbances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David; Stehn, Robert A.; Derksen, Dirk V.

    2000-01-01

    Low-flying aircraft can affect behavior, physiology, and distribution of wildlife (Manci et al., 1988), and over time, may impact a population by reducing survival and reproductive performance. Thus, it is important to identify the particular aspects of overflights that affect animals so that management strategies can be developed to minimize adverse effects.Waterfowl are particularly sensitive to low-flying aircraft (Manci et al., 1988) and respond at all stages of their annual cycle, including breeding (Gollop et al., 1974a; Laing, 1991), molting (Derksen et al., 1979; Mosbech and Glahder, 1991), migration (Jones and Jones, 1966; Belanger and Bedard, 1989), and wintering (Owens, 1977; Kramer et al., 1979; Henry, 1980). Waterfowl response can be quite variable both within and among species (Fleming et al., 1996). For example, response can vary with age, sex, and body condition of individual, habitat type and quality, and previous exposure to aircraft (Dahlgren and Korshgen, 1992). However, the most important factors influencing a response are aircraft type (Davis and Wiseley, 1974; Jensen, 1990), noise (Mosbech and Glahder, 1991; Temple, 1993), and proximity to the birds, as measured in altitude and lateral distance (Derksen et al., 1979; Belanger and Bedard, 1989; Ward et al., 1994). Wildlife managers can reduce impacts on a population by controlling or modifying these factors.In an experimental study conducted at Izembek Lagoon in southwestern Alaska in 1985-1988 (Ward and Stehn, 1989), we conducted planned aircraft overflights with control of aircraft type, noise, altitude, and lateral distance to flocks (hereafter called lateral distance) to measure behavioral response of fall-staging Pacific brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and Canada geese (B. canadensis taverneri) to fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft. These data were then used to develop predictive models of the relationship between aircraft type, noise, altitude, and lateral distance and the response of

  6. Does body size influence nest attendance? A comparison of Ross's geese (Chen rossii) and the larger, sympatric lesser snow geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    The body-size hypothesis predicts that nest attendance is positively related to body size among waterfowl and that recess duration is inversely related to body size. Several physiological and behavioral characteristics of Ross's geese (Chen rossii) suggest that females of this species should maintain high nest attendance despite their relatively small body size. Accordingly, we used 8-mm films to compare the incubation behavior of Ross's geese to that of the larger, closely-related lesser snow geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter, snow geese) nesting sympatrically at Karrak lake, Nunavut, Canada in 1993. We found that nest attendance averaged 99% for both species. Our results offer no support for the body-size hypothesis. We suggest that temperature requirements of embryos in relation to short incubation duration and a low foraging efficiency of females select for high nest attendance in both snow geese and Ross's geese. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2007.

  7. Survival of cackling Canada geese, 1982-1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raveling, D.G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Zezulak, D.S.; Silveira, J.G.; Johnson, J.C.; Aldrich, T.W.; Weldon, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    We estimated seasonal and annual survival rates of cackling Canada geese (Branta canadensis minima ) for the period 1982-1989 to identify periods of high mortality and assess effects of harvest management decisions. We tested hypotheses about age- and sex-specific variation in survival, seasonal variation in survival rates, and variation in survival between years in which hunting seasons were open and closed. Geese were marked with individually identifiable neckbands and observed from autumn through spring. We used these data to estimate survival rates for 3-month periods in early (EW) and late (LW) winter and a 6-month period in summer (SU). Mean annual survival rates of immature females were lower than those of adults over the entire study. Survival rates of immature males were lower than those of adults during the 2 years with sport hunting seasons. We found no evidence of sex-specific differences in seasonal or annual survival rates of immature geese.

  8. Organophosphate insecticide poisoning of Canada geese in the Texas panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Wynn, L.D.; Flickinger, Edward L.; Kolbe, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen hundred waterfowl, mostly Canada Geese, died near Etter, Texas, in late January 1981 from anticholinesterase poisoning. Winter wheat in the area of the die-off had been treated with organophosphate insecticides to control greenbugs. Cholinesterase (ChE) levels in brains of a sample of geese found dead were 75% below normal, enough to account for death (Ludke et al. 1975). The gastrointestinal (G I) tracts of geese found dead were packed with winter wheat; gas chromatography techniques identified parathion and methyl parathion in the GI tract contents. Residues of both chemicals were confirmed by mass spectrometry. We recommend that less toxic materials, such as malathion, be used on grain crops when waterfowl are in the vicinity of treatment.

  9. Comparison of nicarbazin absorption in chickens, mallards, and Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Yoder, C A; Miller, L A; Bynum, K S

    2005-09-01

    Nicarbazin (NCZ), a coccidiostat commonly used in the poultry industry, causes reduced hatchability and egg quality in layer hens at a concentration of 125 ppm (8.4 mg/kg) in the feed. Although this effect is undesirable in the poultry industry, NCZ could provide a useful wildlife contraception tool for waterfowl, particularly urban geese. We tested the absorption of NCZ in chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) gavaged with 8.4 mg of NCZ/kg per bird each day for 8 d. Plasma levels of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) differed significantly among species. Peak plasma DNC levels were 2.87 +/- 0.15 microg/mL, 2.39 +/- 0.15 microg/mL, and 1.53 +/- 0.15 microg/ mL in chickens, mallards, and Canada geese respectively. It took 6 d to obtain peak DNC levels in chickens as opposed to 8 d in mallards and Canada geese. The half life of DNC in plasma was 1.43 d in chickens, 0.72 d in mallards, and 1.26 d in Canada geese. Mallards eliminated 100% of plasma DNC 4 d post-treatment, whereas Canada geese eliminated 100% of plasma DNC 8 d post-treatment. Chickens had only eliminated 99% of plasma DNC 8 d post-treatment. Mallard plasma DNC levels were highly correlated with Canada goose plasma DNC levels. This research showed mallards are an ideal model species for the Canada goose for future reproductive studies on NCZ in a laboratory setting. However, levels higher than 8.4 mg/kg must be fed to waterfowl in order to obtain a plasma level comparable to chickens.

  10. Seasonal survival of radiomarked emperor geese in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    The population of emperor geese (Chen canagica) in western Alaska, USA, declined by >50% from the 1960s to the mid-1980s and has increased only slightly since. Rates of population increase among arctic geese are especially sensitive to changes in adult survival. Improving adult survival in seasons or geographic areas where survival is low may be the best means of increasing the emperor goose population. We monitored fates of 133 adult female emperor geese that were radiomarked with surgically implanted very high frequency or satellite radiotransmitters from 1999 to 2004 to assess whether monthly survival varied among years, seasons, or geographic areas. Because of uncertainties in determining whether a bird had died based on the radio signal, we analyzed 2 versions of the data. One version used conservative criteria to identify which birds had died based on radio signals and the other used more liberal criteria. In the conservative version of the data we detected 12 mortalities of emperor geese, whereas in the liberal interpretation there were 18 mortalities. In both versions, the models with greatest support indicated that monthly survival varied seasonally and that compared to most seasons estimated monthly survival was lower (?? -0.95-0.98) in May and August when emperor geese were mainly on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. From 44% to 47% of annual mortality occurred in those months. Estimated monthly survival was higher (?? = 0.98-1.0) from September through March when emperor geese were at autumn staging or wintering areas and in June and July when birds were nesting, rearing broods, or molting. Estimated annual survival was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.77-0.92) in the best-supported model when we used conservative criteria to identify mortalities and 0.79 (95%o CI = 0.74-0.85) under the best model using liberal mortality criteria. Lower survival in August and May corresponded to periods when subsistence harvest of emperor geese was likely highest. Managers may be able to most

  11. Canada geese and the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) are numerous, highly visible, and widely distributed in both migratory and resident populations in North America; as a member of the Order Anseriformes, they are often suggested as a potential reservoir and source for avian influenza (AI) viruses. To further examine...

  12. Resource protection. Mississippi Valley Canada Geese: flyway management obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service's legislation, regulations, and various documents and statistics were examined regarding federal migratory bird and Canada goose protection and management. The service's legal authority to take action to require states to limit harvests of Canada geese was also reviewed. (ACR)

  13. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  14. The greater snow goose Anser caerulescens atlanticus: Managing an overabundant population.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Josée; Gauthier, Gilles; Giroux, Jean-François; Reed, Austin; Reed, Eric T; Bélanger, Luc

    2017-03-01

    Between the early 1900s and the 1990s, the greater snow goose Anser caerulescens atlanticus population grew from 3000 individuals to more than 700 000. Because of concerns about Arctic degradation of natural habitats through overgrazing, a working group recommended the stabilization of the population. Declared overabundant in 1998, special management actions were then implemented in Canada and the United States. Meanwhile, a cost-benefit socioeconomic analysis was performed to set a target population size. Discussions aiming towards attaining a common vision were undertaken with stakeholders at multiple levels. The implemented measures have had varying success; but population size has been generally stable since 1999. To be effective and meet social acceptance, management actions must have a scientific basis, result from a consensus among stakeholders, and include an efficient monitoring programme. In this paper, historical changes in population size and management decisions along with past and current challenges encountered are discussed.

  15. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Bean Goose (Anser fabalis) and Implications for Anseriformes Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Zhou, Lizhi; Zhang, Lili; Luo, Zijun; Xu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in living organisms, and has been used as a powerful molecular marker in a variety of evolutionary studies. In this study, we determined the complete mtDNA of Bean goose (Anser fabalis), which is 16,688 bp long and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region. The arrangement is similar to that of typical Anseriform species. All protein-coding genes, except for Cyt b, ND5, COI, and COII, start with an ATG codon. The ATG start codon is also generally observed in the 12 other Anseriform species, including 2 Anser species, with sequenced mitochondrial genomes. TAA is the most frequent stop codon, one of three–TAA, TAG, and T- –commonly observed in Anseriformes. All tRNAs could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structures except for tRNASer(AGY) and tRNALeu(CUN), which are missing the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The control region of Bean goose mtDNA, with some conserved sequence boxes, such as F, E, D, and C, identified in its central domain. Phylogenetic analysis of complete mtDNA data for 13 Anseriform species supports the classification of them into four major branches: Anatinae, Anserinae, Dendrocygninae and Anseranatidae. Phylogenetic analyses were also conducted on 36 Anseriform birds using combined Cyt b, ND2, and COI sequences. The results clearly support the genus Somateria as an independent lineage classified in its own tribe, the Somaterini. Recovered topologies from both complete mtDNA and combined DNA sequences strongly indicate that Dendrocygninae is an independent subfamily within the family Anatidae and Anseranatidae represents an independent family. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that combining ND2, Cyt b, and COI sequence data is a workable solution at present for resolving phylogenetic relationships among Anseriform species in the absence of sufficient complete mtDNA data. PMID:23717412

  16. Observations of geese foraging for clam shells during spring on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Fowler, A.C.; Bottitta, G.E.; Schamber, J.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the behavior of geese on exposed river ice during spring on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. The predominant behavior while on the ice for both sexes was foraging; however, females foraged more than males. Visual inspection of the ice revealed no potential plant or animal food items. However, numerous small (<20 man) clam shells (Macoma balthica) and pieces of shell were noted. It appeared that geese were foraging on empty clam shells. This potential source of calcium was available to breeding geese just prior to egg formation and geese likely stored this calcium in the form of medullary bone for use during egg formation.

  17. Leucocytozoonosis in Canada Geese at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Barrow, J.H.; Tarshis, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    A history is given of the Seney National Wildlife Refuge and the losses of goslings of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) recorded since inception of the refuge in 1935. Since 1960, when more reliable data became available, losses have been extensive every 4 years. Gosling deaths are attributed to the infection with Leucocytozoon simondi. The blackfly (Simulium innocens) is considered to be the prime vector in the transmission of this blood parasite to goslings.

  18. Epizootiology of Leucocytozoon in Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Barrow, J.H.; Tarshis, I.B.

    1970-01-01

    Studies have been conducted over the past 20 years, mainly at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge in northern Michigan. Losses in goslings occur every year. Every fourth year these losses are severe, approaching 80% of the gosling crop. Lesser losses occur during the fifth year, in 1969 these losses were about 50%. In the two intervening years losses were in the range of 17 to 27%. It is assumed that the losses in these off-years are due to predation, weather, and other habitat-related factors. In the years of severe losses we attribute the cause largely to Leucocytozoon. Although most of the goslings sampled each year demonstrate a parasitemia with Leucocytozoon, in the years of severe losses the parasitemia is much higher and accompanying characteristic pathological findings are much in evidence. The main vector of Leucocytozoon in ducks in the area is Simulium rugglesi which has been implicated in the transmission in ducks in Wisconsin and Ontario as well as in Michigan. However, the losses in the geese occur in early June before S. ruggIesi makes its appearance in any numbers. Field and laboratory studies implicate S. innocens as the most important vector in early transmission to the geese. This species of fly is most abundant in late May when the geese are hatching. Adult geese have been observed to have a relapse of parasitemia when they arrive at the nesting area in late April and during the egg-laying period. Experiments on captive birds indicate relapse parasitemia can be increased by various stress factors. It is hyposthesized that unattached adults, which remain more aggressive during the nesting season, are the chief source of parasites for the vector blackflies.

  19. Time budgets of Snow Geese Chen caerulescens and Ross's Geese Chen rossii in mixed flocks: Implications of body size, ambient temperature and family associations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Body size affects foraging and forage intake rates directly via energetic processes and indirectly through interactions with social status and social behaviour. Ambient temperature has a relatively greater effect on the energetics of smaller species, which also generally are more vulnerable to predator attacks than are larger species. We examined variability in an index of intake rates and an index of alertness in Lesser Snow Geese Chen caerulescens caerulescens and Ross's Geese Chen rossii wintering in southwest Louisiana. Specifically we examined variation in these response variables that could be attributed to species, age, family size and ambient temperature. We hypothesized that the smaller Ross's Geese would spend relatively more time feeding, exhibit relatively higher peck rates, spend more time alert or raise their heads up from feeding more frequently, and would respond to declining temperatures by increasing their proportion of time spent feeding. As predicted, we found that Ross's Geese spent more time feeding than did Snow Geese and had slightly higher peck rates than Snow Geese in one of two winters. Ross's Geese spent more time alert than did Snow Geese in one winter, but alert rates differed by family size, independent of species, in contrast to our prediction. In one winter, time spent foraging and walking was inversely related to average daily temperature, but both varied independently of species. Effects of age and family size on time budgets were generally independent of species and in accordance with previous studies. We conclude that body size is a key variable influencing time spent feeding in Ross's Geese, which may require a high time spent feeding at the expense of other activities. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  20. A genetic evaluation of morphology used to identify harvested Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, J.M.; Pierson, Barbara J.; Talbot, S.L.; Derksen, D.V.; Kraege, Donald K.; Scribner, K.T.

    2000-01-01

    Using maximum likelihood estimators (in genetic stock identification), we used genetic markers to evaluate the utility of 2 morphological measures (culmen length and plumage color) to correctly identify groups of hunter-harvested dusky (Branta canadensis occidentalis) and dusky-like Canada geese on the wintering grounds within the Pacific Flyway. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were observed across all sampled breeding sites for both nuclear microsatellite loci and mtDNA when analyzed at the sequence level. The ability to discriminate among geese from these sites using genetic markers was further demonstrated using computer simulations. We estimated contributions from the Copper River Delta, the primary breeding area of dusky Canada geese, to groups of hunter-harvested geese classified as dusky Canada geese on the basis of morphology as 50.6 ?? 10.1(SE)% for females and 50.3 ?? 13.0% for males. We also estimated that 16 ?? 8.1% of females classified as dusky Canada geese on the basis of morphology originated from Middleton Island, Alaska; a locale currently managed as a subpopulation of dusky Canada geese, even though the majority of geese from this area possess a unique mtdna haplotype not found on the Copper River Delta. The use of culmen length and plumage color to identify the origin of breeding populations in the harvest provides conservative criteria for management of dusky Canada geese as individuals of other breeding populations are misassigned as dusky Canada geese and birds of the lighter-plumaged dusky-like group did not appear to originate from, breeding sites of the dusky Canada goose. Our analyses demonstrate that genetic markers can accurately estimate the proportion of genetically differentiated areas that comprise an admixed group, but they also raise questions about the management scale of Pacific Flyway Canada geese (e.g., at the subspecies or breeding population level) and the use of morphological and genetic characteristics to

  1. Maximum Running Speed of Captive Bar-Headed Geese Is Unaffected by Severe Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Lucy A.; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Meir, Jessica U.; Milsom, William K.; Scott, Graham R.; Bishop, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    While bar-headed geese are renowned for migration at high altitude over the Himalayas, previous work on captive birds suggested that these geese are unable to maintain rates of oxygen consumption while running in severely hypoxic conditions. To investigate this paradox, we re-examined the running performance and heart rates of bar-headed geese and barnacle geese (a low altitude species) during exercise in hypoxia. Bar-headed geese (n = 7) were able to run at maximum speeds (determined in normoxia) for 15 minutes in severe hypoxia (7% O2; simulating the hypoxia at 8500 m) with mean heart rates of 466±8 beats min−1. Barnacle geese (n = 10), on the other hand, were unable to complete similar trials in severe hypoxia and their mean heart rate (316 beats.min−1) was significantly lower than bar-headed geese. In bar-headed geese, partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in both arterial and mixed venous blood were significantly lower during hypoxia than normoxia, both at rest and while running. However, measurements of blood lactate in bar-headed geese suggested that anaerobic metabolism was not a major energy source during running in hypoxia. We combined these data with values taken from the literature to estimate (i) oxygen supply, using the Fick equation and (ii) oxygen demand using aerodynamic theory for bar-headed geese flying aerobically, and under their own power, at altitude. This analysis predicts that the maximum altitude at which geese can transport enough oxygen to fly without environmental assistance ranges from 6,800 m to 8,900 m altitude, depending on the parameters used in the model but that such flights should be rare. PMID:24710001

  2. Maximum running speed of captive bar-headed geese is unaffected by severe hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Lucy A; Butler, Patrick J; Frappell, Peter B; Meir, Jessica U; Milsom, William K; Scott, Graham R; Bishop, Charles M

    2014-01-01

    While bar-headed geese are renowned for migration at high altitude over the Himalayas, previous work on captive birds suggested that these geese are unable to maintain rates of oxygen consumption while running in severely hypoxic conditions. To investigate this paradox, we re-examined the running performance and heart rates of bar-headed geese and barnacle geese (a low altitude species) during exercise in hypoxia. Bar-headed geese (n = 7) were able to run at maximum speeds (determined in normoxia) for 15 minutes in severe hypoxia (7% O2; simulating the hypoxia at 8500 m) with mean heart rates of 466±8 beats min-1. Barnacle geese (n = 10), on the other hand, were unable to complete similar trials in severe hypoxia and their mean heart rate (316 beats.min-1) was significantly lower than bar-headed geese. In bar-headed geese, partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in both arterial and mixed venous blood were significantly lower during hypoxia than normoxia, both at rest and while running. However, measurements of blood lactate in bar-headed geese suggested that anaerobic metabolism was not a major energy source during running in hypoxia. We combined these data with values taken from the literature to estimate (i) oxygen supply, using the Fick equation and (ii) oxygen demand using aerodynamic theory for bar-headed geese flying aerobically, and under their own power, at altitude. This analysis predicts that the maximum altitude at which geese can transport enough oxygen to fly without environmental assistance ranges from 6,800 m to 8,900 m altitude, depending on the parameters used in the model but that such flights should be rare.

  3. Canada geese of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: family relationships, behavior and productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rummel, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Geese described are non-migratory, free-flying Todd's Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior). The genealogy of 261 of these geese was traced by archival research and three years of field observations. Nest locations and densities, preferences for various types of artificial nest structures, clutch sizes, hatching success, brood survival to flight stage, and food habits were recorded. Resul ts indicate geese may:,pair as yearlings, but these bonds may be broken and re-formed before breeding. Pair bonding generally resulted in geese of similar ages remaining together until the death of one partner, although re-pairing, polygamy, and pairing between broodmates also occurred. The dominance hierarchy of related birds strongly influenced the position of 'outsiders' pairing with indigenous females. Dominant status passed not only from male to male, but, upon the death of the dominant male, in at least one instance, the surviving female retained dominant status. Gang broods were composed of progeny of the rearing pair, plus goslings relinquished by female offspring or siblings of the rearing pair. Among indentifiable geese, gang broods were reared by the dominant pair on each impoundment. Geese retained their family integrity both in flight and during the post-molt dispersion. Female and males paired with local females, nested in their natal areas. No significant relationship (P < 0.05) was found between clutch size and age of the female. Twelve-year productivity of the Patuxent geese appeared related to the reproductive success of a specific resident family. Collars, legbands, and telemetry were initially used to distinguish conspecifics. It was subsequently discovered that individual geese could be recognized by cheek-patch patterns, unusual plumage, or mannerisms. It is suggested that cheek-patch similarities in related Canada geese might be used to trace gene flow within flocks, and may be used for individual recognition by other Canada geese.

  4. Phylogeography of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Talbot, S.L.; Pearce, J.M.; Pierson, Barbara J.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2003-01-01

    Using molecular genetic markers that differ in mode of inheritance and rate of evolution, we examined levels and partitioning of genetic variation for seven nominal subspecies (11 breeding populations) of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America. Gene trees constructed from mtDNA control region sequence data show that subspecies of Canada Geese do not have distinct mtDNA. Large- and small-bodied forms of Canada Geese were highly diverged (0. 077 average sequence divergence) and represent monophyletic groups. A majority (65%) of 20 haplotypes resolved were observed in single breeding locales. However, within both large- and small-bodied forms certain haplotypes occurred across multiple subspecies. Population trees for both nuclear (microsatellites) and mitochondrial markers were generally concordant and provide resolution of population and subspecific relationships indicating incomplete lineage sorting. All populations and subspecies were genetically diverged, but to varying degrees. Analyses of molecular variance, nested-clade and coalescence-based analyses of mtDNA suggest that both historical (past fragmentation) and contemporary forces have been important in shaping current spatial genetic distributions. Gene flow appears to be ongoing though at different rates, even among currently recognized subspecies. The efficacy of current subspecific taxonomy is discussed in light of hypothesized historical vicariance and current demographic trends of management and conservation concern.

  5. Factors influencing reporting and harvest probabilities in North American geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, G.S.; Moser, T.J.; Kendall, W.L.; Doherty, P.F.; White, Gary C.; Caswell, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed variation in reporting probabilities of standard bands among species, populations, harvest locations, and size classes of North American geese to enable estimation of unbiased harvest probabilities. We included reward (US10,20,30,50, or100) and control (0) banded geese from 16 recognized goose populations of 4 species: Canada (Branta canadensis), cackling (B. hutchinsii), Ross's (Chen rossii), and snow geese (C. caerulescens). We incorporated spatially explicit direct recoveries and live recaptures into a multinomial model to estimate reporting, harvest, and band-retention probabilities. We compared various models for estimating harvest probabilities at country (United States vs. Canada), flyway (5 administrative regions), and harvest area (i.e., flyways divided into northern and southern sections) scales. Mean reporting probability of standard bands was 0.73 (95 CI 0.690.77). Point estimates of reporting probabilities for goose populations or spatial units varied from 0.52 to 0.93, but confidence intervals for individual estimates overlapped and model selection indicated that models with species, population, or spatial effects were less parsimonious than those without these effects. Our estimates were similar to recently reported estimates for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We provide current harvest probability estimates for these populations using our direct measures of reporting probability, improving the accuracy of previous estimates obtained from recovery probabilities alone. Goose managers and researchers throughout North America can use our reporting probabilities to correct recovery probabilities estimated from standard banding operations for deriving spatially explicit harvest probabilities.

  6. Supplementary artificial light to increase egg production of geese under natural lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-Meng; Chen, Lih-Ren; Lee, Shuen-Rong; Jea, Yu-Shine; Kao, Jung-Yie

    2009-07-01

    A new supplementary lighting program was designed to increase the egg production of geese under natural light conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the supplementary lighting program on egg production of White Roman geese in an open housing system at the Tropic of Cancer. Forty mature White Roman geese were randomly allocated into two groups (male:female=1:4). The supplementary lighting program with a total daily photoperiod of between 12.0 h and 13.5 h was initiated on 1 November and withdrawn from the experimental group on 30 January. In contrast, the geese in the control group were kept under natural lighting conditions throughout this study. The results showed that the laying peak of the experimental group occurred earlier than normal in the reproductive season and the geese continued laying throughout the breeding season. The geese in the experimental group had 47.6 eggs/goose which was significantly (P<0.05) more than that of the control group having 26.4 eggs/goose. We can conclude that the supplemental lighting method will result in an earlier laying peak of the geese in the breeding season and higher egg production. The supplementary lighting program was able to maximize egg production in geese at the Tropic of Cancer.

  7. Distribution of autumn-staging Lesser Snow Geese on the northeast coastal plain of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Donna G.; Brackney, Alan W.; Spindler, Michael A.; Hupp, Jerry W.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted aerial surveys of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) during autumn staging on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northeast Alaska from late August through September, 1982 - 1993. We evaluated numbers and distribution of Snow Geese that staged on the ANWR, compared abundance of birds among 5 x 5-km cells used frequently (5 - 8 yr), periodically (3 - 4 yr), or infrequently (1 - 2 yr), and examined distribution changes within years. Maximum numbers of Snow Geese observed annually were highly variable (range 12,828 - 309,225). Snow Goose flocks occurred across 605,000 ha of the coastal plain, but used some areas more frequently than others. Frequently used cells (38 of 363 cells in the study area) were non-randomly distributed and primarily occurred on the central coastal plain between the wet coastal and steep foothills regions. Abundance of geese was greatest in frequently used, intermediate in periodically used, and lowest in infrequently used cells. Within years, Snow Goose numbers and flock locations varied between surveys, possibly because geese moved to different foraging areas during staging. The widespread distribution and annual variability in numbers of Snow Geese on the coastal plain was likely because birds used foraging habitats that were spatially and temporally heterogeneous. The ANWR coastal plain is an important component of the fall-staging area used by Snow Geese that nest in the western Canadian Arctic. Management decisions that affect the region should reflect its value to migrating Snow Geese.

  8. Extraoral surgical correction of lingual entrapment in a Chinese goose (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Grosset, Claire; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Waymire, Andrew; Puchalski, Sarah M; Steffey, Michele A

    2013-12-01

    An adult female Chinese goose (Anser cygnoides) presented with a ventral displacement of the hyoid apparatus, associated with distension of the intermandibular sublingual space and of the gular skin, causing difficulties with prehension and deglutition of food and water. Physical examination revealed that the tongue was able to move normally and could be replaced into a normal anatomical position by external compression of the distended ventral intermandibular region. A mild hypoalbuminemia was the only remarkable finding of the biochemistry panel. Radiographs and computed tomography scan of the head and neck regions confirmed a normal hyoid apparatus. An extraoral surgical reconstruction of the distended intermandibular skin was performed: the excess skin was incised and resected and the margins of the incision were sutured with appropriate tissue tension to obtain a good apposition and prevent ventral displacement of the hyoid apparatus. Postoperative complication included airway obstruction by a large amount of respiratory secretions, which were successfully aspirated from the trachea. A supportive elastic bandage was placed at the level of the beak commissure during the following 24 hours in order to reduce downward pressure on the suture line and minimize the risk of dehiscence of the suture. The goose resumed eating within 4 hours following the surgery and oxygen supplementation was discontinued after 24 hours. Respiration was assessed as normal and the tongue remained permanently in normal position. The lingual entrapment did not recur during the following 18 months.

  9. Could Have Gone Wrong: Effects of Abrupt Changes in Migratory Behaviour on Harvest in a Waterbird Population

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Jesper; Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Balsby, Thorsten J. S.; Tombre, Ingunn M.

    2015-01-01

    To sustainably exploit a population, it is crucial to understand and reduce uncertainties about population processes and effects of harvest. In migratory species, management is challenged by geographically separated changing environmental conditions, which may cause unexpected changes in species distribution and harvest. We describe the development in the harvest of Svalbard-breeding pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) in relation to the observed trajectory and migratory behaviour of the population. In autumn, geese migrate via stopover sites in Norway and Denmark (where they are hunted) to wintering grounds in the Netherlands and Belgium (where they are protected). In Denmark and Norway harvesting increased stepwise during the 2000s. The increase in the population size only partly explained the change. The change corresponded to a simultaneous stepwise increase in numbers of geese staging in Denmark throughout autumn and winter; geese also moved further inland to feed which collectively increased their exposure to hunting. In Norway the increase in harvest reflected greater utilisation of lowland farmland areas by geese, increasing their hunting exposure. The study demonstrates how changes in migratory behaviour can abruptly affect exposure to hunting, which showed a functional response to increased temporal and spatial availability of geese. The harvest has now reached a level likely to cause a population decline. It highlights the need for flexible, internationally coordinated hunting regulations and reliable up-to-date population estimates and hunting bag statistics, which are rare in European management of migratory waterbirds. Without such information decisions are left with judgments based on population estimates, which often have time lags of several years between recording and reporting, hampering possibilities for the timely adjustment of management actions. PMID:26247849

  10. Winter distribution, movements, and annual survival of radiomarked Vancouver Canada geese in southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Hodges, John I.; Conant, Bruce P.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Groves, Debbie J.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Pacific Flyway Canada geese (Branta canadensis) requires information on winter distribution of different populations. Recoveries of tarsus bands from Vancouver Canada geese (B. canadensis fulva) marked in southeast Alaska, USA, ≥4 decades ago suggested that ≥83% of the population was non-migratory and that annual adult survival was high (Ŝ = 0.836). However, recovery distribution of tarsus bands was potentially biased due to geographic differences in harvest intensity in the Pacific Flyway. Also, winter distribution of Vancouver Canada geese could have shifted since the 1960s, as has occurred for some other populations of Canada geese. Because winter distribution and annual survival of this population had not recently been evaluated, we surgically implanted very high frequency radiotransmitters in 166 adult female Canada geese in southeast Alaska. We captured Vancouver Canada geese during molt at 2 sites where adults with goslings were present (breeding areas) and 2 sites where we observed nonbreeding birds only. During winter radiotracking flights in southeast Alaska, we detected 98% of 85 females marked at breeding areas and 83% of 70 females marked at nonbreeding sites, excluding 11 females that died prior to the onset of winter radiotracking. We detected no radiomarked females in coastal British Columbia, or western Washington and Oregon, USA. Most (70%) females moved ≤30 km between November and March. Our model-averaged estimate of annual survival (Ŝ = 0.844, SE = 0.050) was similar to the estimate of annual survival of geese marked from 1956 to 1960. Likely <2% of Vancouver Canada geese that nest in southeast Alaska migrate to winter areas in Oregon or Washington where they could intermix with Canada geese from other populations in the Pacific Flyway. Because annual survival of adult Vancouver Canada geese was high and showed evidence of long-term consistency, managers should examine how reproductive success and recruitment may affect

  11. Winter distribution, movements, and annual survival of radiomarked Vancouver Canada geese in Southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Hodges, J.I.; Conant, B.P.; Meixell, B.W.; Groves, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Pacific Flyway Canada geese (Branta canadensis) requires information on winter distribution of different populations. Recoveries of tarsus bands from Vancouver Canada geese (B. canadensis fulva) marked in southeast Alaska, USA, ???4 decades ago suggested that ???83% of the population was non-migratory and that annual adult survival was high (?? = 0.836). However, recovery distribution of tarsus bands was potentially biased due to geographic differences in harvest intensity in the Pacific Flyway. Also, winter distribution of Vancouver Canada geese could have shifted since the 1960s, as has occurred for some other populations of Canada geese. Because winter distribution and annual survival of this population had not recently been evaluated, we surgically implanted very high frequency radiotransmitters in 166 adult female Canada geese in southeast Alaska. We captured Vancouver Canada geese during molt at 2 sites where adults with goslings were present (breeding areas) and 2 sites where we observed nonbreeding birds only. During winter radiotracking flights in southeast Alaska, we detected 98% of 85 females marked at breeding areas and 83% of 70 females marked at nonbreeding sites, excluding 11 females that died prior to the onset of winter radiotracking. We detected no radiomarked females in coastal British Columbia, or western Washington and Oregon, USA. Most (70%) females moved ???30 km between November and March. Our model-averaged estimate of annual survival (?? = 0.844, SE = 0.050) was similar to the estimate of annual survival of geese marked from 1956 to 1960. Likely <2% of Vancouver Canada geese that nest in southeast Alaska migrate to winter areas in Oregon or Washington where they could intermix with Canada geese from other populations in the Pacific Flyway. Because annual survival of adult Vancouver Canada geese was high and showed evidence of long-term consistency, managers should examine how reproductive success and recruitment may affect

  12. Avian cholera mortality in lesser snow geese nesting on Banks Island, Northwest Territories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Samelius, G.; Goldberg, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Avian cholera is one of the most important diseases affecting waterfowl in North America, but little is known about its ecology and its impact on waterfowl populations. We documented avian cholera mortality in breeding lesser snow geese (Chen c. caerulescens) at the Egg River colony on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, in 1995 and 1996. Area of the breeding colony, core nesting area, and number of nesting geese were greater in 1996 (colony=7,537 ha, core area=1,581 ha, 401,000 nesting geese) than in 1995 (colony=6,637 ha, core area=996 ha, 318,000 nesting geese). Density of nesting geese also was greater in the core area during 1995 (120 geese/ha) than in 1996 (90 geese/ha). Pasteurella multocida (serotype 1) was cultured from the leg bones of adult snow goose carcasses collected after outbreaks. Mortality from avian cholera began during nesting and continued until birds dispersed at hatch. Mortality appeared to be in foci scattered throughout the nesting colony, but generally was greater where there were greater densities of nesting geese. We estimated that 30,000 and 20,000 geese died in 1995 and 1996, respectively, about 5-9% of the nesting colony. Between 1991 and 1997, at least 4 avian cholera outbreaks occurred at Banks Island. It appears that avian cholera has become endemic in this population of snow geese, and these birds have the potential to transmit the disease to other waterfowl, especially on wintering areas where waterfowl are very concentrated.

  13. Breeding period-associated changes in semen quality, concentrations of LH, PRL, gonadal steroid and thyroid hormones in domestic goose ganders (Anser anser f. domesticus).

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Rozenboim, Israel

    2015-03-01

    In flocks of geese fertility decreases in the second half of the breeding season. The reasons for this reduction in reproduction ability are still unclear. This study measured changes in semen quality variables throughout the period of intensive breeding in relation to hormonal concentrations associated with the sexual activity of ganders. Semen was collected (2×/week) from 2-year-old ganders in the period February-June. Standard ejaculation parameters and spermatozoa (spz) membrane integrity after E/N and SYBR-14/PI staining were evaluated. The DNA Fragmentation Index was measured by flow cytometry and sperm quality factors (SQF). The plasma levels of T, E2, P4, LH, PRL, THs in relation to semen parameters were evaluated. In ejaculate collected at the onset of the second half of breeding (April - spring period), a reduction in sperm concentration and % of liveE/N and liveSYBR-14+/PI- spz was shown. At this time, decrease in concentrations of LH and T and increase in PRL were found as well as moderate changes in THs were observed. However, in May a second peak in T and sperm production occurred. The DFI-% was higher in the middle part of breeding. Gonadal steroids concentration were not good prognostic marker of the reproductive potential of ganders. We suggest that a marked decline in LH and T in the spring period indicated the onset of endocrine changes mediated by PRL and THs resulting in progressive regression of testis functions. The lowest SQF in the spring/summer period coincided with the highest PRL suggesting an anti-spermatogenic action of PRL in ganders.

  14. Light and electron microscopic study of the eyelids, conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue and lacrimal gland in Bilgorajska Goose (Anser anser).

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, Joanna; Nowaczyk, Renata; Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina; Barszcz, Karolina; Kowalczyk, Artur; Łukaszewicz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Normal structure of the accessory organs of the eye is essential for normal eye physiology. Among the most important accessory organs of the eye are the eyelids, the conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) and the lacrimal gland (LG). The aim of this study was to demonstrate the histological structure of the eyelids and LG by histochemical and ultrastructural analysis. The study was performed on 13 adult female Bilgorajska geese. Eyelid samples were stained with the Alcian blue (AB pH 2.5) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) methods. Staining methods used for LG were AB pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin (AF), PAS and Hale's dialysed iron (HDI). Within the connective tissue of the eyelids, well-developed, diffuse, CALT follicles were observed, mostly under the conjunctival epithelium. Numerous lymphocytes were present within loose connective tissue. Staining of the eyelids with the PAS method demonstrated the presence of goblet cells of a mucous nature, and AB pH 2.5 staining indicated the presence of sulfated acid mucopolysaccharides. PAS staining of LG revealed the presence of secretory cells containing weakly PAS-positive granules. All epithelial cells of the corpus glandulae and the duct systems reacted positively to AB pH 2.5. HDI staining detected the presence of carboxylated acid mucopolysaccharides. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed two types of secretory epithelial cells in LG. Both types of LG cells contained drop-like secretory vesicles of different sizes with low or high electron density in cytoplasm, as well as small and large lipid vacuoles, and numerous small primary lysosomes.

  15. Impact of special early harvest seasons on subarctic-nesting and temperate-nesting Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheaffer, S.E.; Kendall, W.L.; Bowers, E. Frank

    2005-01-01

    Dramatic changes in wintering distributions of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have occurred over the past 50 years in eastern North America. Declines in numbers of subarctic-nesting geese wintering in southern states, and increases in numbers wintering in northern regions, have resulted in a northern shift in winter distributions. In contrast, numbers of temperate-nesting geese have increased throughout eastern North America. Management efforts to control overabundant temperate-nesting flocks have included the establishment of special early harvest seasons in September. However, the effect of early seasons on survival and harvest of subarctic-nesting populations has not been documented. Understanding the timing of migration movements and the fidelity of subarctic-nesting flocks to terminal winter refuges in the Southeast also is necessary to design early harvest seasons that target temperate-nesting flocks and protect subarctic-nesting populations. We used recoveries of marked geese to estimate survival and harvest rates before and after implementation of early harvest seasons within the Mississippi Flyway during 1976-1999. In addition, we used observations of neck-banded geese from the Southern James Bay Population (SJBP) to evaluate the hypothesis that subarctic-nesting geese arriving prior to mid-December on several key terminal winter refuges in the Southeast (early arriving migrants) were more likely to return to those refuges in subsequent years than were migrants, arriving after mid-December (late arriving migrants). September seasons during 1987-1994 were a minor source of mortality for subarctic-nesting populations and accounted for < 10% of their annual harvest mortality. The effectiveness of early seasons for increasing mortality of temperate-nesting flocks varied among the states we examined and was tempered by concurrent changes in state-specific harvest regulations during the regular harvest season. For SJBP Canada geese, annual fidelity to

  16. Winter losses of Canada geese at Pea Island, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowan, A.B.; Herman, C.M.

    1955-01-01

    Report of research and findings to date. Topics discussed include: studies on life history and biology of gizzard worm; results of autopsies; experiments on survival and transmission of gizzard worm eggs and larvae in both field and laboratory; persistence of infections; and results of infections in geese of different ages. Cause of deaths has not been finally determined, but indications are that gizzard worm is an important contributing factor and that poor physical condition, brought about at least partially by malnutrition, also contributes to the losses.

  17. Forage digestibility and intake by lesser snow geese: effects of dominance and resource heterogeneity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; White, Robert G.; Sedinger, James S.; Robertson, Donna G.

    1996-01-01

    We measured forage intake, digestibility, and retention time for 11 free-ranging, human-imprinted lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) as they consumed underground stembases of tall cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium) on an arctic staging area in northeastern Alaska. Geese fed in small patches (x̄=21.5 m2) of forage that made up ≤3% of the study area and consisted of high-quality “aquatic graminoid” and intermediate-quality “wet sedge” vegetation types. Dominant geese spent more time feeding in aquatic graminoid areas (r=0.61), but less total time feeding and more time resting than subdominant geese. Subdominant geese were displaced to areas of wet sedge where cotton-grass was a smaller proportion of underground biomass. Geese metabolized an average of 48% of the organic matter in stembases and there was a positive correlation between dominance and organic matter metabolizability (r=0.61). Total mean retention time of forage was 1.37 h and dry matter intake was 14.3 g/h. Snow geese that stage on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea likely use an extensive area because they consume a large mass of forage and exploit habitats that are patchily distributed and make up a small percentage of the landscape. Individual variation in nutrient absorption may result from agonistic interactions in an environment where resources are heterogeneously distributed.

  18. Forced copulation results in few extrapair fertilizations in Ross's and lesser snow geese.

    PubMed

    Dunn; Afton; Gloutney; Alisauskas

    1999-05-01

    Extrapair paternity varies from 0 to over 70% of young among various populations of birds. Comparative studies have suggested that this variation is related to nesting density, breeding synchrony and the proportion of extrapair copulations. We used minisatellite DNA fingerprinting to examine levels of extrapair paternity in Ross's geese, Chen rossi, and lesser snow geese, C. caerulescens c. (hereafter snow geese) nesting in the largest known goose colony in the world. These geese have one of the highest known percentages of extrapair copulation (46-56% of all attempted copulations), and all of these appeared to be forced. Among all successful copulations, 33 and 38% were extrapair in Ross's and snow geese, respectively. Despite the high percentage of extrapair copulations, extrapair paternity was low in both Ross's and snow geese (2-5% of young). Extrapair paternity was not related to nest density in either species. However, in snow geese, extrapair paternity was more likely to occur in nests of females that nested asynchronously, either early or late in the season. This is one of a few reported examples of a negative relationship between extrapair paternity and breeding synchrony. Extrapair young also tended to come from eggs laid later in the clutch. Although forced extrapair copulations appear to be a relatively inefficient reproductive tactic for males, they may provide a reproductive advantage for some males. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  19. Forced copulation results in few extrapair fertilizations in Ross's and lesser snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunn, P.O.; Afton, A.D.; Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    Extrapair paternity varies from 0 to over 70% of young among various populations of birds. Comparative studies have suggested that this variation is related to nesting density, breeding synchrony and the proportion of extrapair copulations. We used minisatellite DNA fingerprinting to examine levels of extrapair paternity in Ross's geese, Chen rossi, and lesser snow geese, C. caerulescens c. (hereafter snow geese) nesting in the largest known goose colony in the world. These geese have one of the highest known percentages of extrapair copulation (46-56% of all attempted copulations), and all of these appeared to be forced. Among all successful copulations, 33 and 38% were extrapair in Ross's and snow geese, respectively. Despite the high percentage of extrapair copulations, extrapair paternity was low in both Ross's and snow geese (2-5% of young). Extrapair paternity was not related to nest density in either species. However, in snow geese, extrapair paternity was more likely to occur in nests of females that nested asynchronously, either early or late in the season. This is one of a few reported examples of a negative relationship between extrapair paternity and breeding synchrony. Extrapair young also tended to come from eggs laid later in the clutch. Although forced extrapair copulations appear to be a relatively inefficient reproductive tactic for males, they may provide a reproductive advantage for some males.

  20. Seagrass (Zostera spp.) as food for brent geese (Branta bernicla): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganter, B.

    2000-07-01

    Brent geese (called brant in North America) are among the smallest and the most marine of all goose species, and they have very long migration routes between high Arctic breeding grounds and temperate wintering grounds. Like all other geese, brent geese are almost entirely herbivorous. Because of these ecological characteristics they have a high food demand and are strongly dependent on stopover sites to "refuel" during the migration period. Three subspecies of brent geese are distributed around the Holarctic, forming seven populations with distinct migration routes. Most or all of these populations make heavy use of Zostera spp. during migratory stopovers on spring and/or autumn migration. Examples of Zostera stopover areas being used by large numbers of brent geese for several weeks each year are Izembek Lagoon (Alaska), lagoons in Baja California, the German/Danish Wadden Sea, the Golfe du Morbihan (France), British estuaries, and the White Sea (Western Russian Arctic). Brent geese feed on Zostera wherever they can, but they can only reach the plants at low tide or in shallow water. Changes in Zostera abundance affect brent goose distribution, and the "wasting disease" affecting Atlantic Zostera stocks during the 1930s was at least partly responsible for a steep decline in brent goose population sizes on both sides of the Atlantic. While Zostera is of outstanding importance as food for brent geese, the impact of the geese on Zostera stocks seems to be less important - at many sites, the geese consume only a small amount of the available Zostera, or, if they consume more, the seagrass can regenerate fully until the following season.

  1. Search for the ANSER (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum

    ScienceCinema

    Wasielewski, Michael R. (Director, Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center); ANSER Staff

    2016-07-12

    'Search for the ANSER' was submitted by the Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center (ANSER) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. ANSER, an EFRC directed by Michael Wasielewski at Argonne National Laboratory is a partnership of scientists from five institutions: Argonne National Laboratory, Northwestern University, University of Chicago, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Yale. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. At ANSER, the mission is 'to revolutionize our understanding of molecules, materials and methods necessary to create dramatically more efficient technologies for solar fuels and electricity production.' Research topics are: catalysis (water), electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis, solar photovoltaic, solar fuels, solar electrodes, photosynthesis, transportation fuels, bio-inspired, spin dynamics, hydrogen (fuel), ultrafast physics, interfacial characterization, matter by design, novel materials synthesis, charge transport, and self-assembly.

  2. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site – Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2010-05-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  3. Reproductive ecology of Emperor Geese: Survival of adult females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Margaret R.

    1992-01-01

    Life history theory predicts a decrease in survival with increased reproductive effort of individuals. This relationship, however, is highly variable among and within species. I studied the nesting success and survival of adult female Emperor Geese during 1982-1986 and found no direct evidence that differential reproductive effort as measured by the number of eggs laid or hatching success had a significant negative effect on survival to the next breeding season. Incubated clutch size, hatched clutch size, number of parasitic eggs, nest initiation date, hatch date, and mass at hatch were not related to subsequent survival. Of the factors I examined, only an attempt to nest the previous season was related to survival of a female. I suggest that the higher probability of survival among non-nesting adult female Emperor Geese was primarily related to hunting pressure on the nesting area between spring and fall migration. The probability of survival was increased for females with larger clutches, suggesting a positive relationship between brood size and survival.

  4. Goose Hemorrhagic polyomavirus detection in geese using real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Leon, Olivier; Corrand, Léni; Bich, Tran Ngoc; Le Minor, Odile; Lemaire, Mylène; Guérin, Jean-Luc

    2013-12-01

    Goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) is the viral agent of hemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese (HNEG), a lethal disease of goslings. Although death is the most common outcome, geese that recover from HNEG are persistently infected. Here, we present the development of real-time SYBR Green real-time PCR targeted to GHPV and its use to assess the prevalence of GHPV infection in French geese flocks. When compared with classical end-point PCR, real-time PCR revealed a much better sensitivity and equivalent specificity. Real-time PCR could, therefore, be considered a gold standard for the detection of GHPV. Results of field investigations evidenced a very high prevalence of GHPV infections in French geese, largely associated with healthy carriage.

  5. Poisoning of Canada geese in Texas by parathion sprayed for control of Russian wheat aphid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Juenger, Gary; Roffe, Thomas J.; Smith, Milton R.; Irwin, Roy J.

    1991-01-01

    Approximately 200 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) died at a playa lake in the Texas Panhandle shortly after a winter wheat field in the basin adjacent to the lake was treated with parathion to control newly invading Russian wheat aphids (Diuraphis noxia). No evidence of infectious disease was diagnosed during necropsies of geese. Brain ChE activities were depressed up to 77% below normal. Parathion residues in GI tract contents of geese ranged from 4 to 34 ppm. Based on this evidence, parathion was responsible for the goose mortalities. Parathion applications to winter wheat will undoubtedly increase if parathion is applied for control of both Russian wheat aphids and greenbugs (Schizaphis graminum). Geese may potentially be exposed to widespread applications of parathion from fall to spring, essentially their entire wintering period.

  6. Herbivory by resident geese: The loss and recovery of wild rice along the tidal Patuxent River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Well known for a fall spectacle of maturing wild rice (Zizania aquatica) and migrant waterbirds, the tidal freshwater marshes of the Patuxent River, Maryland, USA, experienced a major decline in wild rice during the 1990s. We conducted experiments in 1999 and 2000 with fenced exclosures and discovered herbivory by resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Grazing by geese eliminated rice outside exclosures, whereas protected plants achieved greater size, density, and produced more panicles than rice occurring in natural stands. The observed loss of rice on the Patuxent River reflects both the sensitivity of this annual plant to herbivory and the destructive nature of an overabundance of resident geese on natural marsh vegetation. Recovery of rice followed 2 management actions: hunting removal of approximately 1,700 geese during a 4-year period and reestablishment of rice through a large-scale fencing and planting program.

  7. Regional management of farmland feeding geese using an ecological prioritization tool.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jesper; Bjerrum, Morten; Tombre, Ingunn M

    2014-10-01

    Wild geese foraging on farmland cause increasing conflicts with agricultural interests, calling for a strategic approach to mitigation. In central Norway, conflicts between farmers and spring-staging pink-footed geese feeding on pastures have escalated. To alleviate the conflict, a scheme by which farmers are subsidized to allow geese to forage undisturbed was introduced. To guide allocation of subsidies, an ecological-based ranking of fields at a regional level was recommended and applied. Here we evaluate the scheme. On average, 40 % of subsidized fields were in the top 5 % of the ranking, and 80 % were within the top 20 %. Goose grazing pressure on subsidized pastures was 13 times higher compared to a stratified random selection of non-subsidized pastures, capturing 67 % of the pasture feeding geese despite that subsidized fields only comprised 13 % of the grassland area. Close dialogue between scientists and managers is regarded as a key to the success of the scheme.

  8. Tracking the autumn migration of the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) with satellite telemetry and relationship to environmental conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Yaonan; Hao, Meiyu; Takekawa, John Y.; Lei, Fumin; Yan, Baoping; Prosser, Diann J.; Douglas, David C.; Xing, Zhi; Newman, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    The autumn migration routes of bar-headed geese captured before the 2008 breeding season at Qinghai Lake, China, were documented using satellite tracking data. To assess how the migration strategies of bar-headed geese are influenced by environmental conditions, the relationship between migratory routes, temperatures, and vegetation coverage at stopovers sites estimated with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were analyzed. Our results showed that there were four typical migration routes in autumn with variation in timing among individuals in start and end times and in total migration and stopover duration. The observed variation may be related to habitat type and other environmental conditions along the routes. On average, these birds traveled about 1300 to 1500 km, refueled at three to six stopover sites and migrated for 73 to 83 days. The majority of the habitat types at stopover sites were lake, marsh, and shoal wetlands, with use of some mountainous regions, and farmland areas.

  9. Subtype-specific influenza A virus antibodies in Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Kistler, Whitney M; Stallknecht, David E; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Van Why, Kyle; Yabsley, Michael J

    2015-06-12

    Historically, surveillance for influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds has relied on viral detection assays. This was largely due to poor performance of serological assays in wild birds; however, recently developed commercial serological assays have improved the ability to detect IAV antibodies in wild birds. Serological surveillance for IAV antibodies in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) has shown that, despite a low prevalence of virus isolations, Canada geese are frequently exposed to IAVs and that exposure increases with latitude, which follows virus isolation prevalence patterns observed in dabbling ducks. The objectives of this study were to further evaluate IAV antibodies in Canada geese using a subtype-specific serological assay to determine if Canada geese are exposed to subtypes that commonly circulate in dabbling ducks. We collected serum samples from Canada geese in Minnesota, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin and tested for antibodies to IAVs using a blocking ELISA. Positive samples were further tested by hemagglutination inhibition for 10 hemagglutinin IAV subtypes (H1-H10). Overall, we detected antibodies to NP in 24% (714/2919) of geese. Antibodies to H3, H4, H5, and H6 subtypes predominated, with H5 being detected most frequently. A decrease in H5 HI antibody prevalence and titers was observed from 2009 to 2012. We also detected similar exposure pattern in Canada geese from New Jersey, Minnesota, Washington and Wisconsin. Based on the published literature, H3, H4, and H6 viruses are the most commonly reported IAVs from dabbling ducks. These results indicate that Canada geese also are frequently exposed to viruses of the same HA subtypes; however, the high prevalence of antibodies to H5 viruses was not expected as H5 IAVs are generally not well represented in reported isolates from ducks.

  10. Moult migration of emperor geese Chen canagica between Alaska and Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.; Syroechkovskiy, E.E.; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Eldridge, W.D.; Lappo, E.

    2007-01-01

    We studied reproductive success and post-breeding movements of 32 adult female emperor geese Chen canagica that were marked with satellite radio transmitters on their nesting area on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska 2000–2004. All 16 females that failed to successfully reproduce departed the YKD and moulted remiges either on the north coast of the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia (n=15), or on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska (n=1). Of 16 females that successfully nested, one migrated to Russia following hatch whereas the remainder stayed on the YKD. While moulting on the Chukotka Peninsula, emperor geese with satellite transmitters primarily used coastal lagoons west of Kolyuchin Bay. We observed 21,150 adult-plumaged emperor geese during aerial surveys in Chukotka in 2002. Most (95%) were in the same region used by geese that had been marked with satellite transmitters in Alaska. The number of emperor geese observed in Russia was comparable to our estimate of ≥20,000 adults that either do not nest or nest unsuccessfully each year on the YKD, suggesting that most nonproductive adults, or ≥28% of the adult population departs the YKD to moult elsewhere. The number of moult migrants may be substantially higher in years of poor reproductive success or if adult-plumaged birds that are not of breeding age also leave the YKD. Moult migration of emperor geese between Alaska and Russia is likely substantially greater than previously believed. Russian moulting habitats are important to the North American population of emperor geese and events that affect survival of geese in Russia could impact population trends on the YKD. Protection of coastal lagoons on the north coast of Chukotka is warranted.

  11. Leucocytozoon simondi in Emperor Geese from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmen, T.K.; Franson, J.C.; Creekmore, L.H.; Schmutz, J.A.; Fowler, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    We surveyed Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) in western Alaska for avian hematozoa. Blood smears were collected from 134 adults and goslings in late July 1996, on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. One of 134 (0.7%) Emperor Geese harbored Leucocytozoon simondi, representing a new host record for this parasite. No other hematozoa were detected. This is one of few reports of avian blood parasites from the arctic tundra.

  12. Leucocytozoon simondi in emperor geese from the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Creekmore, L.H.; Schmutz, J.A.; Fowler, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    We surveyed Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) in western Alaska for avian hematozoa. Blood smears were collected from 134 adults and goslings in late July 1996, on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. One of 134 (0.7%) Emperor Geese harbored Leucocytozoon simondi, representing a new host record for this parasite. No other hematozoa were detected. This is one of few reports of avian blood parasites from the arctic tundra.

  13. Characterization of HSP70 and its expression in tissue: correlation with physiological and immune indices in goose (Anser cygnoides) serum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W W; Xiao, X; Gan, J K; Zhang, X Q; Kong, L N; Luo, Q B

    2015-10-09

    We cloned the goose heat shock protein 70 gene (HSP70), to determine its sequence variation and elucidate its mRNA expression. We designed primers to amplify the entire goose HSP70 sequence. We used 10 commercial Wuzong goslings in a heat-stress experiment. We collected tissue samples for RNA extraction and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We analyzed the variation in expression of goose HSP70 before and after heat stress. We constructed a DNA pool from six different species, for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) screening. We detected 18 SNPs and selected three of these SNPs for correlation analysis with biological and immune traits in 200 Wuzong geese. We showed that T+237C was significantly correlated with the serum corticosterone level, whereas T+1122C was significantly correlated with the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Goose HSP70 contained no introns. The results of qRT-PCR analysis revealed significant gender differences in the expression of goose HSP70 at 40°C but not at 25°C; moreover, in general, expression was significantly higher at 40°C than at 25°C. With the exception of the leg muscle and cerebellum, HSP70 expression was significantly higher in male geese than in female geese. Our results indicate that goose HSP70 plays an important role in response to severe heat stress.

  14. Effect of photoperiod on serum hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle in geese.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X Z; Gao, G L; Wang, H W; Li, Q; Zhang, K S; Zhong, H; Wang, Q G

    2017-03-22

    The poor egg-laying rate of geese hinders the development of the goose industry; therefore, the reproductive performance of geese is an important area of investigation. To evaluate the relationship between photoperiod, reproductive hormones, and reproductive activity during the egg-laying cycle in geese under natural conditions, we collected blood samples from Sichuan white geese and Xupu geese to quantify changes in prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). We also calculated the rate of egg laying for the two populations during the egg-laying cycle. We show that the egg-laying rate and the serum concentration of some hormones (PRL, E2, VIP, FSH, GnIH, and LH) differed significantly between the two populations during the pre-laying, laying, and ceased-laying periods. Serum LH concentrations may be associated with maturation of the ovary and oviducts, whereas FSH, PRL, and GnIH play important roles in egg laying. These results provide a useful resource for future studies examining the laying rate in geese.

  15. Antibodies to avian influenza viruses in Canada geese (Branta canadensis): a potential surveillance tool?

    PubMed

    Kistler, Whitney M; Stallknecht, David E; Deliberto, Thomas J; Swafford, Seth; Pedersen, Kerri; Van Why, Kyle; Wolf, Paul C; Hill, Jerry A; Bruning, Darren L; Cumbee, James C; Mickley, Randall M; Betsill, Carl W; Randall, Adam R; Berghaus, Roy D; Yabsley, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Traditionally, the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds has been defined by detection of virus or viral RNA through virus isolation or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our goals were to estimate AIV antibody prevalence in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and measure effects of age and location on these estimates. We collected 3,205 samples from nine states during June and July 2008 and 2009: Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Washington, and West Virginia. Serum samples were tested for AIV antibodies with the use of a commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 483 (15%) Canada geese had detectable antibodies to AIV. Significantly higher prevalences were detected in geese collected from northeastern and upper midwestern states compared with southeastern states. This trend is consistent with results from virus isolation studies reporting AIV prevalence in North American dabbling ducks. Within Pennsylvania, significantly higher antibody prevalences were detected in goose flocks sampled in urban locations compared to flocks sampled in rural areas. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in after-hatch-year geese compared to hatch-year geese. No significant differences in prevalence were detected from 10 locations sampled during both years. Results indicate that Canada geese are frequently exposed to AIVs and, with resident populations, may potentially be useful as sentinels to confirm regional AIV transmission within wild bird populations.

  16. Factors Affecting the Incidence of Angel Wing in White Roman Geese: Stocking Density and Genetic Selection.

    PubMed

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Lin, T Y; Cheng, Y S; Lee, Y P; Fan, Y K

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated stocking density and genetic lines, factors that may alter the severity and incidence of angel wing (AW), in White Roman geese. Geese (n = 384) from two genetically selected lines (normal- winged line, NL, and angel-winged line, AL, respectively) and one commercial line (CL) were raised in four pens. Following common commercial practice, low-stocking-density (LD), medium-stocking-density, and high-stocking-density treatments were respectively administered to 24, 32, and 40 geese per pen at 0 to 3 weeks (1.92 m(2)/pen) and 4 to 6 weeks (13.2 m(2)/pen) of age and to 24, 30, and 36 geese at 7 to 14 weeks (20.0 m(2)/pen) of age. The results revealed that stocking density mainly affected body weight gain in geese younger than 4 weeks, and that geese subjected to LD had a high body weight at 2 weeks of age. However, the effect of stocking density on the severity score of AW (SSAW) and incidence of AW (IAW) did not differ significantly among the treatments. Differences were observed among the genetic stocks; that is, SSAW and IAW were significantly higher in AL than in NL and CL. Genetic selection generally aggravates AW, complicating its elimination. To effectively reduce IAW, stocking density, a suspected causal factor, should be lower than that presently applied commercially.

  17. Gene expression profiling in the pituitary gland of laying period and ceased period huoyan geese.

    PubMed

    Luan, Xinhong; Cao, Zhongzan; Xu, Wen; Gao, Ming; Wang, Laiyou; Zhang, Shuwei

    2013-07-01

    Huoyan goose is a Chinese local breed famous for its higher laying performance, but the problems of variety degeneration have emerged recently, especially a decrease in the number of eggs laid. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism that underlies egg laying in Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the pituitary gland of Huoyan geese taken during the laying period and ceased period were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Total RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of ceased period and laying period geese. The cDNA in the pituitary glands of ceased geese was subtracted from the cDNA in the pituitary glands of laying geese (forward subtraction); the reverse subtraction was also performed. After sequencing and annotation, a total of 30 and 24 up and down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These genes mostly related to biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification process, signal transduction, small molecule metabolic process. Furthermore, eleven genes were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results for the most part were consistent with the SSH results. Among these genes, Synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1) and Stathmin-2 (STMN2) were substantially over-expressed in laying period compared to ceased period. These results could serve as an important reference for elucidating the molecular mechanism of higher laying performance in Huoyan geese.

  18. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel flavivirus isolated from geese in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinmei; Han, Kaikai; Zhao, Dongmin; Liu, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Jingfeng; Niu, Huimin; Zhang, Kangning; Zhu, Jiangning; Wu, Dongming; Gao, Lei; Li, Yin

    2013-06-01

    Since April 2010, a novel contagious disease in ducks and geese, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and neurological signs, caused by a newly emerged virus has spread around Eastern China. Dissection conducted on the dead geese demonstrated hemorrhage in brain, lung, liver, heart, ovary, and enlarged and necrotic spleen. A new virus, named Goose/Jiangsu/804/2010 (JS804) virus, was isolated in Jiangsu area from geese. Then the virus was re-isolated from the affected geese and replicated well in duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 40-60 nm in diameter. The full-length genome of this isolated virus was determined, showing that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus) than other members of the Flaviviridae based on the data of phylogenetic analyses. Our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates precisely, and therefore, the causative agent of geese occurring in Eastern China is a new flavivirus. This is the first report that flavivirus infects not only egg-laying and breeder ducks but also geese. The findings extend our understanding of how the virus spreads and causes disease.

  19. Estimating population parameters for northern and southern breeding populations of Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Rusch, Donald H.; Samuel, Michael D.; Humburg, Dale D.; Sullivan, Brian D.

    1998-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have been managed largely as a migratory resource. In the 1960's, Canada goose flocks were restored to historic breeding ranges in the United States and southern Canada to enhance recreational opportunity for observation and harvest. These populations of southern breeding geese have rapidly expanded, increasing conflicts with social and economic interests and causing the Midwinter Waterfowl Survey to be less effective as a management tool to monitor migrant populations. Wildlife agencies need methods to control local, southern breeding geese that reduce conflicts while providing adequate protection to populations of northern breeding geese. New techniques have been developed using mark-resight data from neck-banded geese to estimate distribution and population size during the late summer, fall, and mid-winter. Survival and movement rates can be estimated over special early or late hunting seasons, traditional fall-winter hunting season, and nonharvest periods. Direct recovery rates can be estimated for special and traditional harvest periods and these recovery rates can be related to survival and movement rates. Changes in harvest regulations can be related to changes in recovery, survival, and movement rates for specific cohorts of Canada geese. These techniques can be used to monitor population status and determine more appropriate harvest strategies.

  20. Annual contribution of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus by migrant Canada geese to a hardwater lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Wetzel, Robert G.; Johnson, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    Each year more than 6,000 migrant Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior Todd) rest for 3 to 10 days during the months of March, October, November, and December on Wintergreen Lake, a productive 15 ha (33 acre) hardwater lake in the W. K. Kellogg Bird Sanctuary of Michigan State University in southwestern Michigan. For the past six years accurate weekly counts have been made of resident and migrant waterfowl using Wintergreen Lake. During the past four years Wintergreen Lake has been the site of extensive limnological investigations relating nutrient dynamics and primary productivity. These limnological investigations suggested nutrients contributed by migrant Canada geese were the chief cause of hypereutrophic primary productivity conditions in Wintergreen Lake. Until January 1970, the unpredictable habits of wild Canada geese using Wintergreen Lake prevented accurate estimation of nutrients contributed ton the lake in the form of goose feces. An opportunity to measure this source of nutrients was presented on 9 to 11 January 1970 when about 600 late fall migrant Canada geese rested part of three days in a clearly defined area on newly fallen snow covering frozen Wintergreen Lake. During their stay on the lake accurate records were kept of goose numbers, their location on the lake surface, hours spent on the ice and hours spent feeding off the lake. After the geese left on 11 January 1970, a random sampling procedure was used to measure the density of droppings deposited within the area used by the geese on the lake surface.

  1. Evidence of territoriality and species interactions from spatial point-pattern analyses of subarctic-nesting geese.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Matthew E; Andersen, David E

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of bird nests and nest fate provides insights into processes influencing a species' distribution. At Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, recent declines in breeding Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) has coincided with increasing populations of nesting lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (Chen rossii). We conducted a spatial analysis of point patterns using Canada goose nest locations and nest fate, and lesser snow goose nest locations at two study areas in northern Manitoba with different densities and temporal durations of sympatric nesting Canada and lesser snow geese. Specifically, we assessed (1) whether Canada geese exhibited territoriality and at what scale and nest density; and (2) whether spatial patterns of Canada goose nest fate were associated with the density of nesting lesser snow geese as predicted by the protective-association hypothesis. Between 2001 and 2007, our data suggest that Canada geese were territorial at the scale of nearest neighbors, but were aggregated when considering overall density of conspecifics at slightly broader spatial scales. The spatial distribution of nest fates indicated that lesser snow goose nest proximity and density likely influence Canada goose nest fate. Our analyses of spatial point patterns suggested that continued changes in the distribution and abundance of breeding lesser snow geese on the Hudson Bay Lowlands may have impacts on the reproductive performance of Canada geese, and subsequently the spatial distribution of Canada goose nests.

  2. Evidence of Territoriality and Species Interactions from Spatial Point-Pattern Analyses of Subarctic-Nesting Geese

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Matthew E.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of bird nests and nest fate provides insights into processes influencing a species’ distribution. At Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, recent declines in breeding Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) has coincided with increasing populations of nesting lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross’s geese (Chen rossii). We conducted a spatial analysis of point patterns using Canada goose nest locations and nest fate, and lesser snow goose nest locations at two study areas in northern Manitoba with different densities and temporal durations of sympatric nesting Canada and lesser snow geese. Specifically, we assessed (1) whether Canada geese exhibited territoriality and at what scale and nest density; and (2) whether spatial patterns of Canada goose nest fate were associated with the density of nesting lesser snow geese as predicted by the protective-association hypothesis. Between 2001 and 2007, our data suggest that Canada geese were territorial at the scale of nearest neighbors, but were aggregated when considering overall density of conspecifics at slightly broader spatial scales. The spatial distribution of nest fates indicated that lesser snow goose nest proximity and density likely influence Canada goose nest fate. Our analyses of spatial point patterns suggested that continued changes in the distribution and abundance of breeding lesser snow geese on the Hudson Bay Lowlands may have impacts on the reproductive performance of Canada geese, and subsequently the spatial distribution of Canada goose nests. PMID:24312520

  3. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuggle, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell

  4. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  5. Modelling the distribution of chickens, ducks, and geese in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prosser, Diann J.; Wu, Junxi; Ellis, Erie C.; Gale, Fred; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Global concerns over the emergence of zoonotic pandemics emphasize the need for high-resolution population distribution mapping and spatial modelling. Ongoing efforts to model disease risk in China have been hindered by a lack of available species level distribution maps for poultry. The goal of this study was to develop 1 km resolution population density models for China's chickens, ducks, and geese. We used an information theoretic approach to predict poultry densities based on statistical relationships between poultry census data and high-resolution agro-ecological predictor variables. Model predictions were validated by comparing goodness of fit measures (root mean square error and correlation coefficient) for observed and predicted values for 1/4 of the sample data which were not used for model training. Final output included mean and coefficient of variation maps for each species. We tested the quality of models produced using three predictor datasets and 4 regional stratification methods. For predictor variables, a combination of traditional predictors for livestock mapping and land use predictors produced the best goodness of fit scores. Comparison of regional stratifications indicated that for chickens and ducks, a stratification based on livestock production systems produced the best results; for geese, an agro-ecological stratification produced best results. However, for all species, each method of regional stratification produced significantly better goodness of fit scores than the global model. Here we provide descriptive methods, analytical comparisons, and model output for China's first high resolution, species level poultry distribution maps. Output will be made available to the scientific and public community for use in a wide range of applications from epidemiological studies to livestock policy and management initiatives.

  6. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

  7. Foraging time and dietary intake by breeding ross's and lesser snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Afton, A.D.; Slattery, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    We compared foraging times of female Ross's (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding at Karrak Lake, NT, Canada and examined variation due to time of day and reproductive stage. We subsequently collected female geese that had foraged for known duration and we estimated mass of foods consumed during foraging bouts. Female Ross's Geese spent more time foraging (mean % ?? SE = 28.4 ?? 1.3%; P = 0.0002), on average, than did female Lesser Snow Geese (21.5 ?? 1.4%). Foraging time by female geese differed among reproductive stages, but differences were not consistent among time periods (stage-by-time block interaction, P=0.0003). Females spent considerably more time foraging during prelaying and laying than during incubation. Ross's Geese also spent a greater percent of time feeding (83.0??2.8%) during incubation recesses than did Lesser Snow Geese (60.9??3.6%). Consumption of organic matter during foraging bouts was minimal; estimated consumption averaged 9.6??4.0 and 12.4??4.6 g (mean ?? SE) dry mass/day before incubation and 5.9??2.0 and 5.7??2.1 g dry mass/day during incubation for Lesser Snow and Ross's Geese, respectively. Diets consisted primarily of mosses (bryophytes), Chickweed (Stellaria spp.) and Sedges (Carex spp.). Before incubation, eggshell consumption was estimated as 4.3??3.2 and 0.4??0.3 g dry mass/day for Lesser Snow and Ross's Geese, respectively; neither species consumed eggshell during incubation. We conclude that eggshell from nests of previous years is likely an important source of dietary calcium used to meet mineral demands of eggshell formation at Karrak Lake. Our findings of wide disparities between foraging time and food intake indicate that results from studies that do not directly measure intake rates remain equivocal. Finally, we propose four hypotheses accounting for foraging effort that evidently yields little nutritional or energetic benefit to geese nesting at Karrak Lake.

  8. Different time and energy budgets of Lesser Snow Geese in rice-prairies and coastal marshes in southwest Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    Many bird species use human-made habitats and an important issue is whether these are equally suitable foraging habitats as are historical, natural habitats. Historically, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens, hereafter Snow Geese) wintered in coastal marshes in Louisiana but began using rice-prairies within the last 60 years. Time spent feeding was used as an indicator of habitat suitability and time and energy budgets of Snow Geese were compared between rice-prairies and coastal marshes in southwest Louisiana. Composite diets of Snow Geese have a lower energy density in the rice-prairies than in coastal marshes; thus, we predicted that Snow Geese would spend relatively more time feeding in rice-praires to obtain existence energy. However, time spent feeding was higher in coastal marshes and thus, not proportional to energy density of composite diets. Snow Geese in coastal marshes ingested less apparent metabolizable energy than did Snow Geese in rice-prairies. In rice-prairies, juveniles spent more time feeding than did adults; however, time spent feeding was similar between age classes in coastal marshes. Undeveloped foraging skills probably cause juvenile Snow Geese to forage less efficiently in coastal marshes than in rice-prairies. These findings are consistent with recent trends in Snow Goose numbers, which increased in rice-prairies but remained stable in coastal marshes.

  9. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica: Large-scale effects of interspecific densities and food availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lake, B.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Lindberg, M.S.; Ely, C.R.; Eldridge, W.D.; Broerman, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica at three locations across the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, during 1990-2004 to investigate whether large-scale variation in body mass was related to interspecific competition for food. From 1990 to 2004, densities of Cackling Geese Branta hutchinsii minima more than doubled and were c. 2-5?? greater than densities of Emperor Geese, which were relatively constant over time. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese was strongly related (negatively) to interspecific densities of geese (combined density of Cackling and Emperor Geese) and positively related to measures of food availability (grazing lawn extent and net above-ground primary productivity (NAPP)). Grazing by geese resulted in consumption of ??? 90% of the NAPP that occurred in grazing lawns during the brood-rearing period, suggesting that density-dependent interspecific competition was from exploitation of common food resources. Efforts to increase the population size of Emperor Geese would benefit from considering competitive interactions among goose species and with forage plants. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  10. Survival and pre-fledging body mass in juvenile emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, Joel A.

    1993-01-01

    A positive relationship exists between fledgling body mass and juvenile survival for some altricial (Krementz et al. 1989, Magrath 1991, Linden et al. 1992) and precocial (Owen and Black 1989, Longcore et al. 1991, Francis et al. 1992) species. Because the energetic demands of migration are high, physiologic condition may be a proximate determinate of juvenile survival in geese. Owen and Black (1989) found that pre-fledging body mass of Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis) was positively related to juvenile survival to winter. First-year survival in Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) was also affected by pre-fledging body mass (Francis et al. 1992). It is not clear, however, when such mass-related mortality occurs. Both species migrate >3,000 km to wintering areas, but make use of fall staging areas while en route (Owen 1980, Francis and Cooke 1992). Survival fo geese between fledging and staging areas has not been addressed. Measurement of survival during this interval could provide insight to the timing of juvenile mortality in arctic geese.

  11. Do Arctic breeding geese track or overtake a green wave during spring migration?

    PubMed Central

    Si, Yali; Xin, Qinchuan; de Boer, Willem F.; Gong, Peng; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Geese breeding in the Arctic have to do so in a short time-window while having sufficient body reserves. Hence, arrival time and body condition upon arrival largely influence breeding success. The green wave hypothesis posits that geese track a successively delayed spring flush of plant development on the way to their breeding sites. The green wave has been interpreted as representing either the onset of spring or the peak in nutrient biomass. However, geese tend to adopt a partial capital breeding strategy and might overtake the green wave to accomplish a timely arrival on the breeding site. To test the green wave hypothesis, we link the satellite-derived onset of spring and peak in nutrient biomass with the stopover schedule of individual Barnacle Geese. We find that geese track neither the onset of spring nor the peak in nutrient biomass. Rather, they arrive at the southernmost stopover site around the peak in nutrient biomass, and gradually overtake the green wave to match their arrival at the breeding site with the local onset of spring, thereby ensuring gosling benefit from the peak in nutrient biomass. Our approach for estimating plant development stages is critical in testing the migration strategies of migratory herbivores. PMID:25735996

  12. Pathological observations of an experimental infection of geese with goose circovirus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Tian, Jing; Tan, Xun; Yu, Hongtao; Ding, Shouqiang; Sun, Hongxia; Yu, Xuping

    2011-02-01

    There is so far no report describing the pathogenicity of goose circovirus (GoCV) following experimental infection. We report here an experimental inoculation of 21-day-old geese with a GoCV polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive sample of bursa of Fabricius (BF) homogenate, and the results of clinicopathological changes. Forty geese were randomly assigned to two groups: the inoculated group (n=30) receiving tissue homogenate and the uninoculated group (n=10) receiving a placebo (physiological saline). Tissue samples were collected for histopathological examination and GoCV detection. The main clinical signs in the GoCV-inoculated geese included diarrhoea at 17 to 30 days post inoculation, marked differences of growth rate and feather disorders in three of the geese. Viraemia was detected by PCR only at 14 days post inoculation. The BF, thymus, spleen, duodenum and liver of some inoculated geese were also PCR-positive. Real-time PCR showed that there was relatively more viral load in the BF. Histological examination revealed lymphocytic depletion and histiocytosis in the BF and inflammation characterized by lymphatic infiltration in the lung, liver and kidney. Immunohistochemistry applied to PCR-positive samples showed that in only three BF samples was GoCV antigen detected in lymphocytes in both the cortex and medulla. In situ apoptosis detection of all BF samples indicated that GoCV inoculation was associated with an increase in bursal lymphocytic apoptotic events.

  13. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  14. Do Arctic breeding geese track or overtake a green wave during spring migration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Yali; Xin, Qinchuan; de Boer, Willem F.; Gong, Peng; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H. T.

    2015-03-01

    Geese breeding in the Arctic have to do so in a short time-window while having sufficient body reserves. Hence, arrival time and body condition upon arrival largely influence breeding success. The green wave hypothesis posits that geese track a successively delayed spring flush of plant development on the way to their breeding sites. The green wave has been interpreted as representing either the onset of spring or the peak in nutrient biomass. However, geese tend to adopt a partial capital breeding strategy and might overtake the green wave to accomplish a timely arrival on the breeding site. To test the green wave hypothesis, we link the satellite-derived onset of spring and peak in nutrient biomass with the stopover schedule of individual Barnacle Geese. We find that geese track neither the onset of spring nor the peak in nutrient biomass. Rather, they arrive at the southernmost stopover site around the peak in nutrient biomass, and gradually overtake the green wave to match their arrival at the breeding site with the local onset of spring, thereby ensuring gosling benefit from the peak in nutrient biomass. Our approach for estimating plant development stages is critical in testing the migration strategies of migratory herbivores.

  15. Antibodies against Pasteurella multocida in snow geese in the western arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Baranyuk, V.; Sileo, L.; Price, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    To determine if lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) are a potential reservoir for the Pasteurella multocida bacterium that causes avian cholera, serum samples and/or pharyngeal swabs were collected from > 3,400 adult geese breeding on Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) during 1993-1996. Pharyngeal swab sampling rarely (> 0.1%) detected birds that were exposed to P. multocida in these populations. Geese with serum antibody levels indicating recent infection with P. multocida were found at both breeding colonies. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 3.5% at Wrangel Island, an area that has no recorded history of avian cholera epizootics. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 2.8% at Banks Island in 1994, but increased to 8.2% during 1995 and 1996 when an estimated 40,000-60,000 snow geese were infected. Approximately 50% of the infected birds died during the epizootic and a portion of the surviving birds may have become carriers of the disease. This pattern of prevalence indicated that enzootic levels of infection with P. multocida occurred at both breeding colonies. When no avian cholera epizootics occurred (Wrangel Island, Banks Island in 1994), female snow geese (4.7%) had higher antibody prevalence than males (2.0%).

  16. Genetic differentiation between sympatric and allopatric wintering populations of Snow Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Humphries, E.M.; Peters, J.L.; Jonsson, J.E.; Stone, R.; Afton, A.D.; Omland, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge on the Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland, USA has been the wintering area of a small population of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; LSGO) since the 1930s. Snow Geese primarily pair in wintering areas and gene flow could be restricted between this and other LSGO wintering populations. Winter pair formation also could facilitate interbreeding with sympatric but morphologically differentiated Greater Snow Geese (C. c. atlantica; GSGO).We sequenced 658 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region for 68 Snow Geese from East Coast and Louisiana wintering populations to examine the level of genetic differentiation among populations and subspecies. We found no evidence for genetic differentiation between LSGO populations but, consistent with morphological differences, LSGO and GSGO were significantly differentiated. We also found a lack of genetic differentiation between different LSGO morphotypes from Louisiana. We examined available banding data and found the breeding range of Delmarva LSGO overlaps extensively with LSGO that winter in Louisiana, and documented movements between wintering populations. Our results suggest the Delmarva population of LSGO is not a unique population unit apart from Mid-Continent Snow Geese. ?? 2009 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  17. Molecular genetic status of Aleutian Canada Geese from Buldir and the Semidi Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Barbara J.; Pearce, John M.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Shields, Gerald F.; Scribner, Kim T.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted genetic analyses of Aleutian Canada Geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) from Buldir Island in the western Aleutians and the Semidi Islands in the eastern portion of their breeding range. We compared data from seven microsatellite DNA loci and 143 base pairs of the control region of mitochondrial DNA from the two populations of Aleutian Canada Geese and another small-bodied subspecies, the Cackling Canada Goose (B. c. minima) which nests in western Alaska. The widely separated island-nesting Aleutian geese were genetically more closely related to each other than to mainland-nesting small-bodied geese. The populations of Aleutian geese were genetically differentiated from one another in terms of mitochondrial DNA haplotype and microsatellite allele frequencies, suggesting limited contemporary gene flow and/or major shifts in gene frequency through genetic drift. The degree of population genetic differentiation suggests that Aleutian Canada Goose populations could be considered separate management units. There was some evidence of population bottlenecks, although we found no significant genetic evidence of non-random mating or inbreeding.

  18. Characterization of Campylobacter from resident Canada geese in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, M Elizabeth; Siletzky, Robin M; Gu, Weimin; Degernes, Laurel A; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S; Kathariou, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    Waterfowl are natural reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens, and abundant resident (nonmigratory) Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in urban and suburban environments pose the potential for transmission of Campylobacter through human contact with fecal deposits and contaminated water. In June 2008 and July 2009, we collected 318 fecal samples from resident Canada Geese at 21 locations in and around Greensboro, North Carolina, to test for Campylobacter. All campylobacter species detected were C. jejuni isolates, and prevalences in 2008 and 2009 were 5.0% and 16.0%, respectively. Prevalence of C. jejuni-positive sampling sites was 21% (3/14) and 40% (6/15) in 2008 and 2009, respectively. All C. jejuni isolates were susceptible to a panel of six antimicrobial agents (tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin). We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and fla-typing to identify several strain types among these isolates. Multilocus sequence typing of representative isolates revealed six sequence types, of which two (ST-3708 and ST-4368) were new, two (ST-702 and ST-4080) had been detected previously among C. jejuni from geese, and two (ST-991 and ST-4071) were first reported in C. jejuni from an environmental water source and a human illness, respectively. These results indicate a diverse population of antibiotic-susceptible C. jejuni in resident Canada Geese in and around Greensboro, North Carolina, and suggest a need for additional assessment of the public health risk associated with resident Canada Geese in urban and suburban areas.

  19. Antibodies against Pasteurella multocida in snow geese in the western Arctic.

    PubMed

    Samuel, M D; Shadduck, D J; Goldberg, D R; Baranyuk, V; Sileo, L; Price, J I

    1999-07-01

    To determine if lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) are a potential reservoir for the Pasteurella multocida bacterium that causes avian cholera, serum samples and/or pharyngeal swabs were collected from > 3,400 adult geese breeding on Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) during 1993-1996. Pharyngeal swab sampling rarely (> 0.1%) detected birds that were exposed to P. multocida in these populations. Geese with serum antibody levels indicating recent infection with P. multocida were found at both breeding colonies. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 3.5% at Wrangel Island, an area that has no recorded history of avian cholera epizootics. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 2.8% at Banks Island in 1994, but increased to 8.2% during 1995 and 1996 when an estimated 40,000-60,000 snow geese were infected. Approximately 50% of the infected birds died during the epizootic and a portion of the surviving birds may have become carriers of the disease. This pattern of prevalence indicated that enzootic levels of infection with P. multocida occurred at both breeding colonies. When no avian cholera epizootics occurred (Wrangel Island, Banks Island in 1994), female snow geese (4.7%) had higher antibody prevalence than males (2.0%).

  20. Variation in foraging behavior and body mass in broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica): Evidence for interspecific density dependence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Laing, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    Broods of geese spend time feeding according to availability and quality of food plants, subject to inherent foraging and digestive constraints. We studied behavioral patterns of broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, and examined how feeding and alert behavior varied in relation to habitat and goose density. During 1994-1996, time spent feeding by Emperor Goose goslings and adult females was positively related to multispecies goose densities near observation blinds, and not to just Emperor Goose density. Similarly, body mass of Emperor Goose goslings was more strongly related (negatively) to multispecies goose densities than intraspecific densities. A grazing experiment in 1995 indicated that most above ground primary production by Carex subspathacea, a preferred food plant, was consumed by grazing geese. Those results demonstrate that interspecific competition for food occurred, with greatest support for goslings whose behavioral repertoire is limited primarily to feeding, digesting, and resting. Although the more abundant Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) differed from Emperor Geese in their preferred use of habitats during brooding rearing (Schmutz 2001), the two species occurred in equal abundance in habitats preferred by Emperor Goose broods. Thus, Cackling Canada Geese were a numerically significant competitor with Emperor Geese. Comparing these results to an earlier study, time spent feeding by goslings, adult females, and adult males were greater during 1993-1996 than during 1985-1986. During the interval between those studies, densities of Cackling Canada Geese increased two to three times whereas Emperor Goose numbers remained approximately stable, which implies that interspecific competition affected foraging behavior over a long time period. These density-dependent changes in foraging behavior and body mass indicate that interspecific competition affects nutrient acquisition and gosling growth

  1. MORTALITY PATTERNS IN ENDANGERED HAWAIIAN GEESE (NENE; BRANTA SANDVICENSIS).

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Dagenais, Julie; Rameyer, Robert; Breeden, Renee

    2015-07-01

    Understanding causes of death can aid management and recovery of endangered bird populations. Toward those ends, we systematically examined 300 carcasses of endangered Hawaiian Geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis) from Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai between 1992 and 2013. The most common cause of death was emaciation, followed by trauma (vehicular strikes and predation), and infectious/inflammatory diseases of which toxoplasmosis (infection with Toxoplasma gondii) predominated. Toxicoses were less common and were dominated by lead poisoning or botulism. For captive birds, inflammatory conditions predominated, whereas emaciation, trauma, and inflammation were common in free-ranging birds. Mortality patterns were similar for males and females. Trauma predominated for adults, whereas emaciation was more common for goslings. Causes of death varied among islands, with trauma dominating on Molokai, emaciation and inflammation on Kauai, emaciation on Hawaii, and inflammation and trauma on Maui. Understanding habitat or genetic-related factors that predispose Nene (particularly goslings) to emaciation might reduce the impact of this finding. In addition, trauma and infection with T. gondii are human-related problems that may be attenuated if effectively managed (e.g., road signs, enforcement of speed limits, feral cat [Felis catus] control). Such management actions might serve to enhance recovery of this endangered species.

  2. Key actions towards the sustainable management of European geese.

    PubMed

    Stroud, David A; Madsen, Jesper; Fox, Anthony D

    2017-03-01

    Increasing abundance of geese in North America and Europe constitutes a major conservation success, but has caused increasing conflicts with economic, health and safety interests, as well as ecosystem impacts. Potential conflict resolution through a single, 'one size fits all' policy is hindered by differences in species' ecology, behaviour, abundance and population status, and in contrasting political and socio-economic environments across the flyways. Effective goose management requires coordinated application of a suite of tools from the local level to strategic flyway management actions. The European Goose Management Platform, established under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds, aims to harmonise and prioritise management, monitoring and conservation efforts, sharing best practice internationally by facilitating agreed policies, coordinating flyway efforts, and sharing and exchanging experiences and information. This depends crucially upon adequate government financing, the collection of necessary monitoring data (e.g., on distribution, abundance, hunting bags, demography, ecosystem and agricultural damage), the collation and effective use of such data and information, as well as the evaluation of outcomes of existing management measures.

  3. Mortality patterns in endangered Hawaiian geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Rameyer, Robert; Breeden, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Understanding causes of death can aid management and recovery of endangered bird populations. Toward those ends, we systematically examined 300 carcasses of endangered Hawaiian Geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis) from Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai between 1992 and 2013. The most common cause of death was emaciation, followed by trauma (vehicular strikes and predation), and infectious/inflammatory diseases of which toxoplasmosis (infection with Toxoplasma gondii) predominated. Toxicoses were less common and were dominated by lead poisoning or botulism. For captive birds, inflammatory conditions predominated, whereas emaciation, trauma, and inflammation were common in free-ranging birds. Mortality patterns were similar for males and females. Trauma predominated for adults, whereas emaciation was more common for goslings. Causes of death varied among islands, with trauma dominating on Molokai, emaciation and inflammation on Kauai, emaciation on Hawaii, and inflammation and trauma on Maui. Understanding habitat or genetic-related factors that predispose Nene (particularly goslings) to emaciation might reduce the impact of this finding. In addition, trauma and infection with T. gondii are human-related problems that may be attenuated if effectively managed (e.g., road signs, enforcement of speed limits, feral cat [Felis catus] control). Such management actions might serve to enhance recovery of this endangered species.

  4. Age, habitat and tide effects on feeding activity of Emperor Geese during Autumn migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, Joel A.

    1994-01-01

    I studied feeding activity of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) on the Alaska Peninsula during autumn migration, 1991. Scan samples were used to estimate the proportion of birds feeding in flocks as a measure of feeding intensity. Most geese fed during low tides and roosted during high tides. However, flocks with disproportionately more juveniles continued to feed during high tides in either blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) beds (during relatively low high tides) or in vegetated habitats. Feeding intensity was higher in mussel habitats than in mud/sand or vegetated habitats, and juveniles fed more than adults. Juvenile geese probably have greater nutritional needs than adults, and feeding during high tide may represent their attempt to satisfy these disproportionate demands. Vegetated habitats may be used when high value bivalve prey are unavailable due to tidal inundation.

  5. Responses of wintering geese to the designation of goose foraging areas in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Koffijberg, Kees; Schekkerman, Hans; van der Jeugd, Henk; Hornman, Menno; van Winden, Erik

    2017-03-01

    The Netherlands is important for wintering migratory herbivorous geese, numbers of which have rapidly increased, leading to conflict with agriculture. In 2005/2006, a new goose management policy aimed to limit compensation payments to farmers by concentrating foraging geese in 80 000 ha of designated 'go' areas-where farmers received payment to accommodate them-and scaring geese from 'no go' areas elsewhere. Monthly national counts of four abundant goose species during 10 years prior to the new policy and in 8 years following implementation found that 57% of all goose days were spent within 'go' areas under the new management, the same as prior to implementation. Such lack of response suggests no predicted learning effects, perhaps because of (i) increases in abundance outside of 'go' areas, (ii) irregularly shaped boundaries and enclaves of 'no go' farmland within 'go' areas and/or (iii) insufficient differences in disturbance levels within and outside designated areas.

  6. Bald Eagles consume Emperor Geese during late-winter in the Aleutian Archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Anthony, Robert G.; Williams, Jeffrey C.

    2004-01-01

    Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) are a species of concern because their population has declined rapidly since the mid-1960s and continues to remain below management objectives (Petersen et al. 1994). Emperor Geese are restricted primarily to Alaska and exhibit an east-west migration pattern, whereby most birds begin breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta by mid-May, stage on the Alaska Peninsula by late September, and migrate westward to winter in the Aleutian Archipelago from late November to mid-April (Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977, Petersen et al. 1994). Demographic and movement studies have been conducted on breeding grounds and stagmg areas (e.g., Schmutz et al. 1994, 1997); however, the winter ecology of Emperor Geese is poorly understood due in part to the extremely remote nature of the Aleutian Archipelago (Petersen et al. 1994). 

  7. Why geese benefit from the transition from natural vegetation to agriculture.

    PubMed

    Fox, Anthony D; Abraham, Kenneth F

    2017-03-01

    The energy and nutrient content of most agricultural crops are as good as or superior to natural foods for wild geese and they tend to be available in agricultural landscapes in far greater abundance. Artificial grasslands (fertilised native swards and intensively managed reseeds) offer far superior quality forage and higher intake rates than seminatural or natural grasslands. The availability of such abundant artificial food explains the abandonment of traditional habitats for farmland by geese over the last 50-100 years and favours no reduction in current levels of exploitation of agriculture. Continental scale spatial and temporal shifts among geese undergoing spring fattening confirm their flexibility to respond rapidly to broadscale changes in agriculture. These dramatic changes support the hypothesis that use of agricultural landscapes has contributed to elevated reproductive success and that European and North American farmland currently provides unrestricted winter carrying capacity for goose populations formerly limited by wetlands habitats prior to the agrarian revolution of the last century.

  8. Effects of heptachlor-treated cereal grains on Canada geese in the Columbia Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Lenhart, D.J.; Cromartie, E.; Jarvis, Robert L.; Bartonek, James C.

    1979-01-01

    In 1976 and 1977, die-offs of birds of several species occurred in Umatilla and Morrow counties, Oregon. Detection of high levels of heptachlor epoxide (HE) in tissues of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) prompted this study to determine the extent and impact of heptachlor contamination on geese on two study areas on the Columbia River--the Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge (Umatilla) in Oregon and Washington and on the McNary Recreation Area (McNary) about 65 km upstream in Washington. Nest success of Great Basin Canada geese (B. c. moffitti) at McNary was 90.2 percent compared to 5I.7 percent at Umatilla. HE in eggs was correlated with nest success--95 percent of the nests from which sample eggs contained 10 ug/g. Eggs from McNary were essentially clean of organochlorine pollutants, while eggs from Umatilla contained an average of 2.93 ?g/g of HE and a maximum of 24.29 ug/g. Lethal levels of HE were detected in brains of resident Great Basin Canada geese and over-wintering Taverner's geese (B. c. taverneri) that were found dead on or near Umatilla: The source of HE in geese appeared to be ingestion of seeds treated with heptachlor for wireworm control. The small population of moffitti is in danger of extirpation from heptachlor. Recommendations for minimizing the heptachlor problem include: (1) improved handling of treated grain to decrease its availability to wildlife, (2) use of treated seed only in areas requiring wireworm control, and cessation of prophylactic use, particularly on wheat planted in irrigated circles immediately following potatoes, and (3) replacement of heptachlor with a safer chemicaL

  9. Differences in oxidative stress between young Canada geese and mallards exposed to lead-contaminated sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure causes an increase in tissue lipid peroxides and variation in glutathione (GSH) concentration, which can be related to peroxidative damage of cell membranes in Pb poisoned animals. Species and individual variation in sensitivity to Pb poisoning among animals may be due to differential resistance to oxidative stress. We compared the effects of oxidative stress caused by Pb exposure (1.7, 414 and 828 ig/g of diet) for the first six weeks in growing young of two species of waterfowl, Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), with the first species being possibly more sensitive to Pb poisoning based on previous field and laboratory observations. Blood and liver Pb concentrations increased more in mallards than in geese; this may be explained on the basis of body weight, being 3.2 times higher in geese, and hepatic metabolism where GSH-S-transferase activity is 2.9 fold higher in geese and presumably has a role in the binding of Pb to GSH and subsequent biliary excretion. In contrast, mallards showed higher hepatic levels of GSH and activities of GSH peroxidase (GPX) and GSH reductase (GR). Although both species showed an increase in hepatic GSH concentration with Pb exposure, the increase of lipid peroxidation with Pb exposure was more significant in geese. Within treatment groups, hepatic GSH concentrations were inversely related to liver Pb concentration in both species, which may correspond to the role of GSH in Pb excretion. Hepatic GSH was also inversely related to hepatic lipid peroxidation, but only in mallards and in agreement with the differences observed in GPX and GR activities. The lower resistance to lipid peroxidation of Canada geese may explain why birds of this species found dead in the field by Pb shot ingestion often have a lower number of shot in the gizzard and lower liver Pb concentrations than mallards.

  10. Experimental infection of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea) with a clade 2.3.2 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2005, clade 2.2 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused infections and disease involving numerous species of wild waterfowl in Eurasia and Africa. However, outbreaks associated with clade 2.3.2 viruses have increased since 2009, and viruses within this clade have beco...

  11. Comparative analysis of the gastrointestinal microbial communities of bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) in different breeding patterns by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Cao, Jian; Li, Ji-Rong; Yang, Fang; Li, Zhuo; Li, Lai-Xing

    2016-01-01

    The bar-headed goose is currently one of the most popular species for rare birds breeding in China. However, bar-headed geese in captivity display a reduced reproductive rate. The gut microbiome has been shown to influence host factors such as nutrient and energy metabolism, immune homeostasis and reproduction. It is therefore of great scientific and agriculture value to analyze the microbial communities associated with bar-headed geese in order to improve their reproductive rate. Here we describe the first comparative study of the gut microbial communities of bar-headed geese in three different breeding pattern groups by 16SrRNA sequences using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The results showed that Firmicutes predominated (58.33%) among wild bar-headed geese followed by Proteobacteria (30.67%), Actinobacteria (7.33%) and Bacteroidetes (3.33%). In semi-artificial breeding group, Firmicutes was also the most abundant bacteria (62.00%), followed by Bacteroidetes (28.67%), Proteobacteria (4.20%), Actinobacteria (3.27%) and Fusobacteria (1.51%). The microbial communities of artificial breeding group were dominated by Firmicutes (60.67%), Fusobacteria (29.67%) and Proteobacteria (9.33%). Wild bar-headed geese had a significant higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while semi-artificial breeding bar-headed geese had significantly more Bacteroidetes. The semi-artificial breeding group had the highest microbial community diversity and richness, followed by wild group, and then the artificial breeding group. The marked differences of genus level group-specific microbes create a baseline for future bar-headed goose microbiology research.

  12. Response of cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii taverneri to spatial and temporal variation in production of crowberries on the Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Safine, David E.; Nielson, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic geese often feed on berries during premigratory fattening. We hypothesized that during autumn staging on the Alaska Peninsula, the distribution of Taverne's cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii taverneri) would be correlated with spatial variation in crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) abundance. We also predicted that daily rates of fat increase among cackling geese would be higher in years when crowberries were abundant, compared to years when the crowberry crop was poor. Apparent distribution of geese based on fecal densities mirrored patterns of berry abundance, with areas that had highest densities of crowberries being used most heavily by geese. In areas where apparent use was greatest, geese consumed approximately 30 % of the berry crop between early September and mid-October. From 1999 to 2002, annual mean crowberry density in early September ranged from 205 berries m-2 (1999) to 12 berries m-2 (2002). Daily rates of lipid increase averaged 7.6 g day-1 for juvenile and 11.4 g-1 day for adult cackling geese and did not differ among years despite a >90 % difference in annual berry abundance. Although cackling geese used areas with higher densities of berries and apparently consumed a relatively large percentage of the crowberry crop, we could not detect an effect of annual variation in berry abundance on rates of fattening. Berries may have provided relatively little metabolizable biomass due to their high (90 %) water content. However, consumption of crowberries may provide geese with other physiological benefits such as water for osmoregulation or antioxidants and fatty acids that contribute to metabolic performance during migration.

  13. Migration, fidelity, and use of autumn staging grounds in Alaska by Cackling Canada Geese Branta canadensis minima

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, Robert; Babcock, Christopher; Handel, Colleen M.; Butler, William R.; Raveling, Dennis G.

    1996-01-01

    Cackling Canada Geese were studied annually (1985-88) on autumn migration staging areas in Alaska during a period of rapid population growth. Geese concentrated at two estuaries (Ugashik Bay and Cinder Lagoon) along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula. Birds arrived on the staging areas in late September, numbers peaked during mid-October, and departure occurred by late October or early November. Annual peak counts combined for the two staging areas ranged from 16,000-54,000 geese, or from 23-120% of the autumn population index. Up to 30,000 geese were recorded at each estuary, but relative use of the two staging areas varied among years. Within-year fidelity to staging areas was high; only three of 242 neck-banded geese seen more than once were observed at both areas within a season. Between-year fidelity to staging areas was highest among hatching-year females (11 of 11) and adult males (14 of 17), lowest among hatching-year males (4 of 9), and intermediate among adult females (18 of 28). Use of the two staging areas was independent of family status, reproductive status, and age. Late arrivals on the staging areas consisted of a higher proportion of single and paired birds than of geese in family groups. Most geese departed the staging grounds with the onset of freezing conditions and the passage of low pressure systems that produced winds favourable for migration. Transoceanic flights to the wintering grounds in Oregon and California were completed in about 48 h. During years with mild weather on the breeding grounds and years with early freezing conditions on the staging areas, few geese staged on the Alaska Peninsula, indicating that geese can sometimes obtain sufficient energy reserves to migrate directly from the breeding grounds without stopping on the staging areas. Only 25% of the area used for staging is legally protected. Use of unprotected areas may become increasingly important if the population continues to increase.

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility of Lactobacillus strains isolated from domestic geese.

    PubMed

    Dec, M; Wernicki, A; Puchalski, A; Urban-Chmiel, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of 93 Lactobacillus strains isolated from domestic geese raised on Polish farms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 13 antimicrobial substances was determined by the broth microdilution method. All strains were sensitive to the cell wall inhibitors ampicillin and amoxicillin (MIC ≤ 8 μg/ml). Resistance to inhibitors of protein synthesis and to fluoroquinolone inhibitors of replication was found in 44.1% and 60.2% of isolates, respectively; 26.9% strains were resistant to neomycin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), 23.6% to tetracycline (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 15% to lincomycin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), 18.3% to doxycycline (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 9.7% to tylosin (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 56% to flumequine (MIC ≥ 256 μg/ml) and 22.6% to enrofloxacin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml). Bimodal distribution of MICs indicative of acquired resistance and unimodal distribution of the high MIC values indicative of intrinsic resistance were correlated with Lactobacillus species. Eleven (11.8%) strains displayed multiple resistance for at least three classes of antibiotics. Data derived from this study can be used as a basis for reviewing current microbiological breakpoints for categorisation of susceptible and resistant strains of Lactobacillus genus and help to assess the hazards associated with the occurrence of drug resistance among natural intestinal microflora.

  15. Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukona??Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid-June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

  16. Renal coccidiosis in interior Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior Todd, of the Mississippi Valley population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuggle, Benjamin N.; Crites, John L.

    1984-01-01

    Kidneys from 309 Interior Canada geese from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway were examined for renal coccidia. Oocysts and/or young zygotes of Eimeria sp. were found in 6.8% of goose kidneys sampled. Only one type of renal coccidian oocyst was observed. Significantly more immature geese were infected than adults; however, there was no significant difference observed between the prevalences of infection in male and female birds. A host cellular response to zygotes and oocysts was noted in the majority of infected adult geese. Heavily infected kidneys were hypertrophic with minute foci on the surface of the organ. Histological examinations showed large numbers of unsporulated oocysts accumulated in distended collecting tubules, resulting in pressure necrosis to adjacent tissue and urate retention. Zygotes were observed in the cytoplasm of tubule cells and extracellularly in interstitial tissue. Infected tubule cells were characterized by the peripheral location of the nuclei, cytoplasmic basophilia, and cellular hypertrophy. This is the first report of an Eimeria sp. in the kidneys of Canada geese of the Mississippi Valley population.

  17. Teaching migration routes to canada geese and trumpeter swans using ultralight aircraft, 1990-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sladen, William J. L.; Lishman, W.A.; Ellis, D.H.; Shire, G.G.; Rininger, D.L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes eleven years (1990-2001) of experiments to teach Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) and Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) pre-selected migration routes using ultralight aircraft. When Canada Geese were trained to follow an ultralight aircraft for southward autumn migrations of 680 or 1,320 km, 81% (83/103) returned on their own in the next spring to near their place of training. In contrast, none returned of 21 similarly raised geese that were transported south in a closed truck over a route of 680 km. Trumpeter Swans have proven more difficult to train. However, in two experiments in which Trumpeter Swans followed an ultralight for the entire pre-selected route, one of three and two of four returned close to their training area. A stage-by-stage method, in which swans were transported in trucks between stops, flown in the vicinity and penned with a view of the night sky, has shown some promise. So far an established migration route (north and south twice) has been confirmed in only two geese

  18. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.49 Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military... asphyxiation. (ii) Birds caught live may be euthanized or transported and relocated to another site approved...

  19. 50 CFR 21.51 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.51 Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural... dislocation, and (H) CO2 asphyxiation. (ii) Birds caught live may be euthanized or transported and...

  20. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.50 Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs. (a.... Moreover, this section does not authorize the killing of any migratory bird species or destruction of...

  1. 50 CFR 21.51 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.51 Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural... dislocation, and (H) CO2 asphyxiation. (ii) Birds caught live may be euthanized or transported and...

  2. 50 CFR 21.52 - Public health control order for resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.52 Public health control order for resident Canada geese. (a) Which... repellants, (G) Cervical dislocation, and (H) CO2 asphyxiation. (ii) Birds caught live may be euthanized...

  3. 50 CFR 21.52 - Public health control order for resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.52 Public health control order for resident Canada geese. (a) Which... repellants, (G) Cervical dislocation, and (H) CO2 asphyxiation. (ii) Birds caught live may be euthanized...

  4. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.49 Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military... asphyxiation. (ii) Birds caught live may be euthanized or transported and relocated to another site approved...

  5. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.50 Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs. (a.... Moreover, this section does not authorize the killing of any migratory bird species or destruction of...

  6. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.49 Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military... asphyxiation. (ii) Birds caught live may be euthanized or transported and relocated to another site approved...

  7. 50 CFR 21.51 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.51 Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural... dislocation, and (H) CO2 asphyxiation. (ii) Birds caught live may be euthanized or transported and...

  8. 50 CFR 21.52 - Public health control order for resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.52 Public health control order for resident Canada geese. (a) Which... repellants, (G) Cervical dislocation, and (H) CO2 asphyxiation. (ii) Birds caught live may be euthanized...

  9. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.50 Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs. (a.... Moreover, this section does not authorize the killing of any migratory bird species or destruction of...

  10. Presumed drowning of Aleutian Canada geese on the Pacific coast of California and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springer, P.F.; Lowe, R.W.; Stroud, R.K.; Gullett, Patricia A.

    1989-01-01

    Carcasses of 42 and 17 Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia), a federally listed endangered species, were found on ocean beaches near Crescent City, California, and near Pacific City, Oregon, respectively, following severe storms. Necropsies and other information suggest that the birds were flushed during the storms and somehow entered the water where they were washed into the surf and drowned.

  11. Serology and genetics of Toxoplasma gondii in endangered Hawaiian (Nene) geese (Branta sandvicensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is parasite transmitted by feral cats that has historically caused mortality in native Hawaiian birds. A recent study revealed that this parasite accounts for ca. 4% of causes of mortality in native Hawaiian geese (nene-Branta sandvicensis). To know how widespread exposure to the...

  12. Characterization of a herpes virus isolated from domestic geese in Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, R.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    A herpesvirus (GHV 552/89) associated with high mortality in a flock of domestic geese in Australia was compared with duck virus enteritis (DVE) herpesvirus by cross-protection studies in domestic geese, Muscovy ducks and commercial Pekin ducks. In DVE-vaccinated geese, Muscovy ducks and Pekin ducks, mortality levels of 100, 50 and 0%, respectively, were recorded following challenge with GHV 552/89. Conversely, in geese, Muscovy ducks and Pekin ducks immunized with inactivated GHV 552/89, 100% mortality was observed in the geese and Muscovy ducks, and 80% in the Pekin ducks following challenge with DVE virus. The isolate was also compared with six other avian herpesviruses using cross-neutralization tests in cell cultures. No detectable cross-neutralization occurred with any of the avian herpesviruses tested. Further characterization of GHV 552/89 was undertaken by comparing its genome with strains of DVE herpesvirus using restriction endonuclease analysis of the viral DNA and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Following digestion with HindIII, the DNA fragment pattern of GHV 552/89 was found to be completely different from the DVE viruses. Similarities were found between the digestion patterns of a UK and a US DVE isolate, but both were distinguishable from a UK vaccine strain. The results of the PCR analysis and comparison using two DVE-specific primer sets did not produce specific amplification products of expected molecular weights (603 and 446 base pairs) from the GHV 552/89 genome. The PCR products derived from the DVE strains were similar to those derived from the DVE control DNA. From the results of this study, it is concluded that the goose herpesvirus GHV 552/89 is antigenically and genomically distinct from DVE herpesvirus.

  13. The possibility of obtaining intergeneric hybrids via White Kołuda (Anser anser L.) goose insemination with fresh and frozen-thawed Canada goose (Branta canadensis L.) gander semen.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Artur; Łukaszewicz, Ewa

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the present experiments was to produce the intergeneric hybrids of domesticated and wild goose via artificial insemination with fresh and frozen-thawed semen. The experiments were carried out during two successive goose reproductive seasons, on eight five-year-old Canada Goose (Branta canadensis L.) males used as semen donors and 16 two-year-old White Kołuda geese designated to fertility tests. Pooled semen was collected twice a week by the dorso-abdominal massage. In freshly collected semen, ejaculate volume, color, consistency, degree of fecal or blood contamination, spermatozoa concentration, motility, and morphology were evaluated. Part of the semen collected in the first year of the experiment (Experiment 1) was used for geese insemination with fresh semen, while the remainder was frozen. In Experiment 2 all samples were subjected exclusively to freezing procedure. Geese were inseminated once a week with fresh semen in a dose of 80 μl or 160 μl, and twice a week with frozen-thawed semen in a dose of 80 μl (160 μl per wk) or 100 μl (200 μl per wk). Eggs were set weekly and incubated up to hatching. The volume of ejaculates varied from 0.100 to 0.470 ml; spermatozoa concentration from 140 to 310 million ml(-1); progressive movement was observed in 40 to 60% of spermatozoa; the percentage of total live spermatozoa ranged from 69.3 to 92.0%, the highest percentage (34.0-68.3) was represented by live normal spermatozoa and those with bulb-head (13.3-41.0). Cryopreservation caused a decrease in percentage of motile cells to 30%; total live spermatozoa contribution by 27.2%p, including those live normal by 15.9%p (in relation to the fresh semen), bulb-head spermatozoa by 10.9%p, and increase (by 5.9%p) in number of spermatozoa with other deformations. Goose insemination 1×/week with fresh semen containing about 10.3 million live normal spermatozoa resulted in 66.7% of fertile eggs and with dose higher by 2.8 million spermatozoa (on average

  14. Effects of implanted radio transmitters with percutaneous antennas on the behavior of Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ruhl, G.A.; Pearce, John M.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tomeo, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We examined whether surgically-implanted radio transmitters with percutaneous antennas affected behavior of Lesser Canada Geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) in Anchorage, Alaska. We implanted either a 26-g VHF radio transmitter or a larger VHF radio that was the same mass (35 g) and shape as a satellite transmitter in the coelom of adult females captured during molt in 2000. A control group of females was marked with leg bands. We simultaneously observed behavior of radio-marked and control females from 4-62 d following capture. We observed no differences in the proportion of time birds in different treatments allocated among grazing, resting, comfort, walking, and alert behavior. Females in different treatments spent a similar proportion of time in the water. Implantation of radio transmitters did not affect the frequency of agonistic interactions. We conclude that coelomic radio transmitters with percutaneous antennas had minimal effects on the behavior of Canada Geese.

  15. Aspects of development of digestive activity of intestine in young chickens, ducks and geese.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Wertelecki, T; Skorupińska, J

    2002-12-01

    The experiment comprised 100 chickens, 100 ducks and 100 geese fed diets based on mixed grains of maize, barley and wheat. Nutrient concentrations in the mixtures were in accordance with the requirements of poultry species. The birds were kept in metabolic cages from the 1st up to the 42nd day of life. The measurements of body weight, activity of alpha-amylase and lipase in pancreatic tissue, enzymatic activity of intestinal wall cells, parameters of carbohydrate fermentations, ileal and total amino acids digestibility were conducted on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 28th and 42nd day of life or on the 14th, 28th and 42nd day of life. The pancreas alpha-amylase activity in chickens during the whole period was quite constant; in ducks and geese it was very low, but from the 28th day a dynamic increase in the activity of the pancreatic enzymes was observed in these birds. The activity of lipase was low but from the 28th day of experiment an increase was noted and was much higher in waterfowl than in chickens. The highest caecal concentration of SCFA (Short chain fatty acids) (in total high) was noted in chickens; these values were slightly lower in geese and ducks. A high (70%) ileal amino acids digestibility was seen in very young chickens; during the period of 15-42 days this value amounted up to 73%. In geese, the obtained values were 63% and in ducks 43-61%, with a mean of 55%. Faecal digestibility of amino acids had a mean of up to 86% for all species but the digestibility of single amino acids such as cystine, glycine, histidine and tyrosine was diversified and relatively lower than the others.

  16. Temporal patterns of apparent leg band retention in North American geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Kendall, William L.; Moser, Timothy J.; White, Gary C.; Doherty, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    An important assumption of mark?recapture studies is that individuals retain their marks, which has not been assessed for goose reward bands. We estimated aluminum leg band retention probabilities and modeled how band retention varied with band type (standard vs. reward band), band age (1-40 months), and goose characteristics (species and size class) for Canada (Branta canadensis), cackling (Branta hutchinsii), snow (Chen caerulescens), and Ross?s (Chen rossii) geese that field coordinators double-leg banded during a North American goose reward band study (N = 40,999 individuals from 15 populations). We conditioned all models in this analysis on geese that were encountered with >1 leg band still attached (n = 5,747 dead recoveries and live recaptures). Retention probabilities for standard aluminum leg bands were high (estimate of 0.9995, SE = 0.001) and constant over 1-40 months. In contrast, apparent retention probabilities for reward bands demonstrated an interactive relationship between 5 size and species classes (small cackling, medium Canada, large Canada, snow, and Ross?s geese). In addition, apparent retention probabilities for each of the 5 classes varied quadratically with time, being lower immediately after banding and at older age classes. The differential retention probabilities among band type (reward vs. standard) that we observed suggests that 1) models estimating reporting probability should incorporate differential band loss if it is nontrivial, 2) goose managers should consider the costs and benefits of double-banding geese on an operational basis, and 3) the United States Geological Survey Bird Banding Lab should modify protocols for receiving recovery data.

  17. Adapted Tembusu-Like Virus in Chickens and Geese in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Shaoying; Chen, Yuhuan; Liu, Chunguo; Chen, Shilong; Yin, Xiuchen; Li, Gang

    2012-01-01

    An outbreak of egg drop disease occurred in many chicken and goose farms in China in 2011. By using an NS5-specific reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), we found that 56% of chicken and 38% of goose samples were positive for Tembusu-like virus (TMUV). Isolates showed high sequence homology to duck TMUVs, and chickens and geese showed signs of egg drop disease after experimental infection with duck TMUV. Our data suggest TMUV has adapted in domestic birds. PMID:22692734

  18. Pathogen Loading From Canada Geese Faeces in Freshwater: Potential Risks to Human Health Through Recreational Water Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gorham, T J; Lee, J

    2016-05-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) faeces have been shown to contain pathogenic protozoa and bacteria in numerous studies over the past 15 years. Further, increases in both the Canada geese populations and their ideal habitat requirements in the United States (US) translate to a greater presence of these human pathogens in public areas, such as recreational freshwater beaches. Combining these factors, the potential health risk posed by Canada geese faeces at freshwater beaches presents an emerging public health issue that warrants further study. Here, literature concerning human pathogens in Canada geese faeces is reviewed and the potential impacts these pathogens may have on human health are discussed. Pathogens of potential concern include Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Helicobacter canadensis, Arcobacter spp., Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli pathogenic strains, Chlamydia psitacci, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. Scenarios presenting potential exposure to pathogens eluted from faeces include bathers swimming in lakes, children playing with wet and dry sand impacted by geese droppings and other common recreational activities associated with public beaches. Recent recreational water-associated disease outbreaks in the US support the plausibility for some of these pathogens, including Cryptosporidium spp. and C. jejuni, to cause human illness in this setting. In view of these findings and the uncertainties associated with the real health risk posed by Canada geese faecal pathogens to users of freshwater lakes, it is recommended that beach managers use microbial source tracking and conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment to analyse the local impact of Canada geese on microbial water quality during their decision-making process in beach and watershed management.

  19. Evaluation of histopathological changes, viral load and immune function of domestic geese infected with Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ailing; Diao, Youxiang; Chen, Hao; Wang, Jiao; Ge, Pingping; Sun, Xiaoyan; Hao, Dongmin

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of Newcastle disease in flocks of geese with high morbidity and mortality in southern and eastern China have been reported frequently since the late 1990s, which broke the traditional view that geese are considered to be the natural reservoir of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) but show few or no clinical signs after infection. In this present study, geese were infected intranasally with a local strain of NDV. Clinical disease and gross pathology were observed. Serum and immune organs were collected from geese sequentially euthanized or after disease-associated death. We studied the histopathology of immune organs by haematoxylin and eosin staining and NDV fusion protein was detected in tissues by immunohistochemistry. At the same time, the SYBR Green I real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect the viral load from the collected samples. Serum samples were tested for NDV-specific antibodies and avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific antibodies by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The results showed that severe lesions and numerous positive reactions of NDV antigen were detected in the immune organs. High viral loads developed in immune organs of infected geese, correlating with the severity of clinical signs and lesions in the tissues. Furthermore, the infected geese developed low HI antibody titres to both AIV and NDV. The present study showed that the replication and dissemination of the NDV isolate was widespread in immune organs of geese. The study revealed that waterfowl may not only be a natural reservoir of NDV but also become susceptible to disease and may play a major role in the epidemiology of Newcastle disease.

  20. Efficacy study and field application of an inactivated new type gosling viral enteritis virus vaccine for domestic geese.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Ma, G P; Wang, M S; Cheng, A C; Zhu, D K; Luo, Q H; Jia, R Y; Liu, F; Chen, X Y; Han, X F; Bo, Y; Zhou, D C

    2011-04-01

    New type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) caused a serious disease in naive juvenile goslings. In the described studies the performance of 2 vaccines was analyzed: a vaccine containing adjuvanted inactivated NGVEV and a vaccine containing adjuvanted inactivated NGVEV and recombinant goose IL-2. Breeder geese were subcutaneously vaccinated at the beginning of the egg production period with the vaccines. Breeder geese sham vaccinated with PBS served as control. The cellular and humoral immune responses of the vaccinated breeder geese, as well as the presence of maternally derived antibody to NGVEV, were investigated by ELISA, virus neutralization test, and lymphocyte proliferation assay, respectively. A significantly higher immunogenicity (P < 0.05) was induced by the inactivated NGVEV-recombinant goose IL-2 adjuvant vaccine compared with the inactivated NGVEV vaccine. The offspring of the vaccinated birds were challenged with virulent NGVEV (100 50% lethal dose) and the protective efficacy of the vaccines was determined. Furthermore, in a field trial the efficacy of the inactivated NGVEV vaccine was recorded from years 2003 to 2007. No clinical signs or abnormal health status were observed in the vaccinated breeder geese and the progeny. After a single application, >80% protection was shown in the progeny of geese vaccinated against NGVEV challenge for approximately 5 mo. The extensive field trials further demonstrated that vaccination of breeder geese with the inactivated NGVEV vaccine could be a safe and efficacious means to control NGVE disease. Moreover, the level of maternally derived NGVEV antibody titer in the egg yolk reflected the level of NGVEV antibodies in the breeder geese, suggesting that the egg yolk could be used to monitor the vaccination efficacy in commercial goose breeder flocks.

  1. Nesting biology of Lesser Canada Geese, Branta canadensis parvipes, along the Tanana River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Pearce, J.M.; Ruess, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Lesser Canada Geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) are widespread throughout interior regions of Alaska and Canada, yet there have been no published studies documenting basic aspects of their nesting biology. We conducted a study to determine reproductive parameters of Lesser Canada Geese nesting along the Tanana River near the city of Fairbanks, in interior Alaska. Fieldwork was conducted in May of 2003, and consisted of locating nests along the riparian corridor between Fairbanks and Northpole, Alaska. Nests were found on gravel islands and shore habitats along the Tanana River, and were most commonly observed among driftwood logs associated with patches of alder (Alnus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.). Peak of nest initiation was 3-8 May, with a range from 27 April to 20 May; renesting was likely. Clutches ranged in size from 2 to 7 eggs and averaged 4.6 eggs. There was a negative correlation between clutch size and date of nest initiation. Egg size (mean mass = 128 g) was similar to other medium-sized Canada Geese. A positive correlation between egg size and clutch size was likely related to female age. Nineteen of 28 nests (68%) were active when visited; nests located on islands with nesting Mew Gulls (Larus canus) were more likely to be active than nests located elsewhere. Evidence at nest sites implicated Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as nest predators.

  2. The dynamics of avian influenza in Lesser Snow Geese: implications for annual and migratory infection patterns.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Michael D; Hall, Jeffrey S; Brown, Justin D; Goldberg, Diana R; Ip, Hon; Baranyuk, Vasily V

    2015-10-01

    Wild water birds are the natural reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, our ability to investigate the epizootiology of AIV in these migratory populations is challenging and, despite intensive worldwide surveillance, remains poorly understood. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis in Pacific Flyway Lesser Snow Geese, Chen caerulescens, to investigate AIV serology and infection patterns. We collected nearly 3000 sera samples from Snow Geese at two breeding colonies in Russia and Canada during 1993-1996 and swab samples from >4000 birds at wintering and migration areas in the United States during 2006-2011. We found seroprevalence and annual seroconversion varied considerably among years. Seroconversion and infection rates also differed between Snow Goose breeding colonies and wintering areas, suggesting that AIV exposure in this gregarious waterfowl species is likely occurring during several phases (migration, wintering, and potentially breeding areas) of the annual cycle. We estimated AIV antibody persistence was longer (14 months) in female geese compared to males (6 months). This relatively long period of AIV antibody persistence suggests that subtype-specific serology may be an effective tool for detection of exposure to subtypes associated with highly pathogenic AIV. Our study provides further evidence of high seroprevalence in Arctic goose populations, and estimates of annual AIV seroconversion and antibody persistence for North American waterfowl. We suggest future AIV studies include serology to help elucidate the epizootiological dynamics of AIV in wild bird populations.

  3. Effect of feeding green onions (Allium ascalonicum) to White Chinese geese (Threskiornis spinicollis).

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rocio; Chin, R P

    2004-07-01

    Sudden increase in mortality was observed in 2 different flocks of mature breeder geese fed green onions. At necropsy, birds had pale epicardium with random petechiation, sanguinous fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac, and mild swelling of the liver and spleen. Histologically, there was accumulation of hemosiderin in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells of the liver, macrophages, and renal tubules. There was also moderate to severe hepatic necrosis, vacuolation of hepatocytes, splenitis, and renal tubular nephrosis. To assess the effects of green onion ingestion, 2 feeding trials were carried out in 3 mature White Chinese geese. In the first trial, onions were thoroughly mixed with pellet maintenance ration. In the second trial, onions were offered in a separate trough from the pelleted diet. During the 21 days of experiments, the red blood cell count and hematocrit decreased, whereas the polychromasia and reticulocyte estimate increased. The blood changes were more marked in birds from the second feeding trial. Gross and histologic changes were similar in both trials. Mild swelling and severe darkening of the liver were the only significant findings at necropsy. Histologically, the liver looked similar to that seen from the field outbreak. The liver contained moderate amounts of hemosiderin in the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, and had centrolobular necrosis and vacuolation of hepatocytes. This experimental study demonstrated that anemia and liver pathology could be caused by ingestion of onions. Furthermore, Heinz bodies are not a consistent finding in the blood of geese fed onions.

  4. Diurnal flight time of wintering Canada geese: consideration of refuges and flight energetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Humburg, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    We monitored individual radio-equipped Canada geese (Branta canadensis) associated with a federal refuge to assess flight activities from late fall through spring. The number of flights per day was lowest in late fall when most geese remained within the refuge and highest in spring when they moved increasingly beyond the refuge area. The only significant seasonal difference in flight time occurred between late fall and late winter 1986. Over all seasons, diurnal flight time averaged 9.4 i?? 2.4 min (SE) and ranged from 0 to 33 min. Geese spent more time flying in afternoon periods during late winter 1986 and early winter 1987. Because of low goose populations on the refuge and abundant food resources in 1986-87, flight activity was probably lower than in most other years. Conservative estimates of average daily energy expenditures for flight ranged from 65 kJ/day in late fall to 200 kJ/day in early winter and were as high as 450 kJ/day. Additional energy costs for flight, when expressed as a percentage of daily energy expenditures, increased from fall (3%) to spring (10%). Highest estimates total daily energy costs (2987 kJ/day, equivalent to 178 g corn) appear to be within reasonable estimates of daily energy consumption. During periods of severe cold or limited food availability, however, additional energy demands for flight (e.g., due to disturbances or long foraging flights) may become important in the daily energy balance of individuals.

  5. Response of fall-staging brant and Canada geese to aircraft overflights in southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, D.H.; Stehn, R.A.; Erickson, W.P.; Derksen, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    Because much of the information concerning disturbance of waterfowl by aircraft is anecdotal, we examined behavioral responses of Pacific brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and Canada geese (B. canadensis taverneri) to experimental overflights during fall staging at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. These data were used to develop predictive models of brant and Canada goose response to aircraft altitude, type, noise, and lateral distance from flocks. Overall, 75% of brant flocks and 9% of Canada goose flocks flew in response to overflights. Mean flight and alert responses of both species were greater for rotary-wing than for fixed-wing aircraft and for high-noise than for low-noise aircraft. Increased lateral distance between an aircraft and a flock was the most consistent predictive parameter associated with lower probability of a response by geese. Altitude was a less reliable predictor because of interaction effects with aircraft type and noise. Although mean response of brant and Canada geese generally was inversely proportional to aircraft altitude, greatest response occurred at intermediate (305-760 m) altitudes. At Izembek Lagoon and other areas where there are large concentrations of waterfowl, managers should consider lateral distance from the birds as the primary criterion for establishing local flight restrictions, especially for helicopters.

  6. High-throughput sequencing reveals the core gut microbiome of Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) in different wintering areas in Tibet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Cao, Jian; Yang, Fang; Wang, Xuelian; Zheng, Sisi; Sharshov, Kirill; Li, Laixing

    2016-04-01

    Elucidating the spatial dynamic and core gut microbiome related to wild bar-headed goose is of crucial importance for probiotics development that may meet the demands of bar-headed goose artificial breeding industries and accelerate the domestication of this species. However, the core microbial communities in the wild bar-headed geese remain totally unknown. Here, for the first time, we present a comprehensive survey of bar-headed geese gut microbial communities by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology using nine individuals from three distinct wintering locations in Tibet. A total of 236,676 sequences were analyzed, and 607 OTUs were identified. We show that the gut microbial communities of bar-headed geese have representatives of 14 phyla and are dominated by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The additive abundance of these four most dominant phyla was above 96% across all the samples. At the genus level, the sequences represented 150 genera. A set of 19 genera were present in all samples and considered as core gut microbiome. The top seven most abundant core genera were distributed in that four dominant phyla. Among them, four genera (Lactococcus, Bacillus, Solibacillus, and Streptococcus) belonged to Firmicutes, while for other three phyla, each containing one genus, such as Proteobacteria (genus Pseudomonas), Actinobacteria (genus Arthrobacter), and Bacteroidetes (genus Bacteroides). This broad survey represents the most in-depth assessment, to date, of the gut microbes that associated with bar-headed geese. These data create a baseline for future bar-headed goose microbiology research, and make an original contribution to probiotics development for bar-headed goose artificial breeding industries.

  7. Estimates of movement and site fidelity using mark-resight data of wintering Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Malecki, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Population ecologists have devoted disproportionate attention to the estimation and study of birth and death rates and far less effort to rates of movement. Movement and fidelity to wintering areas have important ecological and evolutionary implications for avian populations. Previous inferences about movement among and fidelity to wintering areas have been restricted by limitations of data and methodology. We use multiple observation data from a large-scale capture-resighting study of Canada Geese in the Atlantic flyway to estimate probabilities of returning to previous wintering locations and moving to new locations. Mark-resight data from 28,849 Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) banded woth individually coded neck bands in the mid-Atlantic (New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey), Chesapeake (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia), and Carolinas (North and South Carolina) were used to estimate movement and site-fidelity. Two three-sample mark-resight models were developed and programmed using SURVIV to estimate the probability of moving among or remaining within these three wintering regions. The model (MV2) that incorporated tradition' or memory of previous wintering regions fit the data better than the model (MV1) that assumes that a first-order Markov chain described movement among regions. Considerable levels of movement occured among regions of the Atlantic flyway. The annual probability of remaining in the same region for two successive winters, used as a measure of site fidelity, was 0.710 plus or minus 0.016 (estimated mean plus or minus SE, 0.889 plus or minus 0.006, and 0.562 plus or minus 0.025, for the mid-Atlantic, Chesapeake, and Carolinas, respectively. The estimated probability of moving between years corresponded to changes in winter harshness. In warm years, geese moved north and in cold years, they moved south. Geese had a high probability of moving to and remaining in the Chesapeake. Annual changes in the movement probabilities did not correspond to annual

  8. Identification of Laying-Related SNP Markers in Geese Using RAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yu, ShiGang; Chu, WeiWei; Zhang, LiFan; Han, HouMing; Zhao, RongXue; Wu, Wei; Zhu, JiangNing; Dodson, Michael V; Wei, Wei; Liu, HongLin; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Laying performance is an important economical trait of goose production. As laying performance is of low heritability, it is of significance to develop a marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategy for this trait. Definition of sequence variation related to the target trait is a prerequisite of quantitating MAS, but little is presently known about the goose genome, which greatly hinders the identification of genetic markers for the laying traits of geese. Recently developed restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing is a possible approach for discerning large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and reducing the complexity of a genome without having reference genomic information available. In the present study, we developed a pooled RAD sequencing strategy for detecting geese laying-related SNP. Two DNA pools were constructed, each consisting of equal amounts of genomic DNA from 10 individuals with either high estimated breeding value (HEBV) or low estimated breeding value (LEBV). A total of 139,013 SNP were obtained from 42,291,356 sequences, of which 18,771,943 were for LEBV and 23,519,413 were for HEBV cohorts. Fifty-five SNP which had different allelic frequencies in the two DNA pools were further validated by individual-based AS-PCR genotyping in the LEBV and HEBV cohorts. Ten out of 55 SNP exhibited distinct allele distributions in these two cohorts. These 10 SNP were further genotyped in a goose population of 492 geese to verify the association with egg numbers. The result showed that 8 of 10 SNP were associated with egg numbers. Additionally, liner regression analysis revealed that SNP Record-111407, 106975 and 112359 were involved in a multiplegene network affecting laying performance. We used IPCR to extend the unknown regions flanking the candidate RAD tags. The obtained sequences were subjected to BLAST to retrieve the orthologous genes in either ducks or chickens. Five novel genes were cloned for geese which harbored the candidate laying

  9. Identification of Laying-Related SNP Markers in Geese Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, ShiGang; Chu, WeiWei; Zhang, LiFan; Han, HouMing; Zhao, RongXue; Wu, Wei; Zhu, JiangNing; Dodson, Michael V.; Wei, Wei; Liu, HongLin; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Laying performance is an important economical trait of goose production. As laying performance is of low heritability, it is of significance to develop a marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategy for this trait. Definition of sequence variation related to the target trait is a prerequisite of quantitating MAS, but little is presently known about the goose genome, which greatly hinders the identification of genetic markers for the laying traits of geese. Recently developed restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing is a possible approach for discerning large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and reducing the complexity of a genome without having reference genomic information available. In the present study, we developed a pooled RAD sequencing strategy for detecting geese laying-related SNP. Two DNA pools were constructed, each consisting of equal amounts of genomic DNA from 10 individuals with either high estimated breeding value (HEBV) or low estimated breeding value (LEBV). A total of 139,013 SNP were obtained from 42,291,356 sequences, of which 18,771,943 were for LEBV and 23,519,413 were for HEBV cohorts. Fifty-five SNP which had different allelic frequencies in the two DNA pools were further validated by individual-based AS-PCR genotyping in the LEBV and HEBV cohorts. Ten out of 55 SNP exhibited distinct allele distributions in these two cohorts. These 10 SNP were further genotyped in a goose population of 492 geese to verify the association with egg numbers. The result showed that 8 of 10 SNP were associated with egg numbers. Additionally, liner regression analysis revealed that SNP Record-111407, 106975 and 112359 were involved in a multiplegene network affecting laying performance. We used IPCR to extend the unknown regions flanking the candidate RAD tags. The obtained sequences were subjected to BLAST to retrieve the orthologous genes in either ducks or chickens. Five novel genes were cloned for geese which harbored the candidate laying

  10. A kinetic study of the natural induction of liver steatosis in Greylag Landaise geese: the role of hyperphagia.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, X; Guy, G; Laverze, J B; Bonnefont, C; Knudsen, C; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2016-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a sharp rise in feed intake (hyperphagia) and spontaneous liver steatosis could be experimentally induced in domestic Greylag geese by combining a short photoperiod and a sequence of feed restriction followed by ad libitum corn feeding during the fall and the winter. In this previous work, however, individual feed intake could not be recorded. The present study aimed at evaluating the relationship between level and pattern of hyperphagia and liver weight with an individual control of feed intake in individually housed (IH) geese, while comparing the performances with group housed (GH) geese. A total of 300 male geese of 19 weeks of age, were provided with corn ad libitum after an initial feed restriction period. From 21 to 23 weeks of age, the daylight duration was progressively reduced from 10 to 7 h and kept as such until the end of the experiment (week 36). In all, 30 GH and 30 IH geese were slaughtered at 19, 27, 30, 32 and 36 weeks of age. Feed intake was measured per group in GH geese and individually in IH geese. During the 1st week of corn feeding, the average feed intake rose up to 600 g/goose per day in GH geese but not in IH geese where the feed intake rose gradually from 300 to 400 g/day. The liver weight increased from 93 g (week 19) to 497 g (week 32; P<0.05) in GH birds. In IH birds, liver weights were, on average, much lower (ranging from 220 to 268 g) than in GH birds (P<0.05). In GH and IH bird, the variability in the individual response to corn feeding was very high (liver weight cv ranging from 63% to 83% depending on slaughter age). A close correlation between corn consumption and liver weight was evidenced in IH birds at each slaughter age (R 2 ranging from 0.62 to 0.79), except at 36 weeks of age where this correlation was weak (R 2=0.14). The variability in the extent of liver steatosis is very high and our results in IH birds clearly point out the major role of hyperphagia, mainly at the beginning of the

  11. Cassava foliage affects the microbial diversity of Chinese indigenous geese caecum using 16S rRNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mao; Zhou, Hanlin; Pan, Xiangyu; Xu, Tieshan; Zhang, Zhenwen; Zi, Xuejuan; Jiang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Geese are extremely adept in utilizing plant-derived roughage within their diet. However, the intestinal microbiome of geese remains limited, especially the dietary effect on microbial diversity. Cassava foliage was widely used in animal feed, but little information is available for geese. In this study, the geese were fed with control diet (CK), experimental diet supplemented with 5% cassava foliage (CF5) or 10% (CF10) for 42 days, respectively. The cecal samples were collected after animals were killed. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to investigate the microbial diversity in the caecum of geese with different dietary supplements. Taxonomic analysis indicated that the predominant phyla were distinct with different dietary treatments. The phyla Firmicutes (51.4%), Bacteroidetes (29.55%) and Proteobacteria (7.90%) were dominant in the CK group, but Bacteroidetes (65.19% and 67.29%,) Firmicutes (18.01% and 17.39%), Proteobacteria (8.72% and 10.18%), Synergistete (2.51% and 1.76%) and Spirochaetes (2.60% and 1.46%) were dominant in CF5 and CF10 groups. The abundance of Firmicutes was negatively correlated with the supplementation of cassava foliage. However, the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were positively correlated with the supplementation of cassava foliage. Our study also revealed that the microbial communities were significantly different at genus levels. Genes related to nutrient and energy metabolism, immunity and signal transduction pathways were primarily enriched by the microbiome. PMID:28383519

  12. Relationships between storage and secretion of hepatic lipids in two breeds of geese with different susceptibility to liver steatosis.

    PubMed

    Fournier, E; Peresson, R; Guy, G; Hermier, D

    1997-04-01

    Susceptibility to liver steatosis was studied in Landes and Poland geese, which are hyper- and hyporesponsive, respectively, to overfeeding. Plasma lipoproteins were characterized at different stages of the overfeeding process, whereas fatty liver composition was determined after completion of overfeeding and slaughtering. Before overfeeding, plasma lipoprotein profile was typical of birds in both breeds, except that very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were low in triglyceride (approximately 30%). Moreover, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration was higher in the Poland geese (6.44 vs 4.97 g/L). During overfeeding, hepatic lipogenesis was increased, and fatty liver resulted from accumulation of primarily triglyceride (approximately 95% of lipid content), but also of all other lipids. This accumulation was significantly greater in the Landes geese for all lipids but phospholipid. Thus, the liver weight was 100% higher in this breed (1,005 g vs 485 g), whereas lipid release during sterilization was twofold higher (26.3 vs 7.5%). Parallel, plasma concentration and triglyceride content of hepatic lipoproteins, VLDL and HDL, increased about one- to twofold, this effect being greater in the Poland geese. Therefore, channeling of triglyceride towards secretion rather than in situ storage may be responsible for the hyporesponsiveness of this breed to overfeeding. In both breeds, and especially in the Landes geese, a relative deficiency in phospholipid synthesis together with an enhanced secretion may be limiting factors of hepatocyte hypertrophia and, therefore, of steatosis.

  13. Immunobiological activity and antiviral regulation efforts of Chinese goose (Anser cygnoides) CD8α during NGVEV and GPV infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun; Zhao, Qiurong; Qi, Yulin; Liu, Fei; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-01-01

    The CD8 molecule is a cell membrane glycoprotein expressed on cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which are involved in the clearance of viruses. However, the functional characterization of goose CD8α is still unclear. The immunobiological characterization of goose CD8α in goose spleen mononuclear cells (MNCs) was examined by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). It was shown that CD8α mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by in vitro treatment of MNCs with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (ConA), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) in a dose-dependent way, but lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) did not have this same effect. Moreover, the time-course effect of CD8α expression in response to mitogens (PHA, ConA, and poly I:C) was evaluated in MNCs. A significant increase in the transcriptional levels of CD8α was detected in new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV)-infected goose MNCs at 48 h postinfection (PI) and in goose parvovirus (GPV)-infected MNCs at 72 h PI. Also, the number of CD8α+ cells was significantly increased during viral infection from 72 h on. The seminal changes in mRNA profiles of antiviral cytokines (IFN-α, IFN-γ, and IL-18) were observed and were significantly increased during late phases of NGVEV and GPV infection. Accordingly, our data not only contribute to the understanding of the immune characteristics of goose CD8α, but they also provide new insight into the innate antiviral immunity of geese.

  14. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems - II: slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Boz, M A; Sarıca, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs. 2863), dressing percentages (66.6-65.2% vs. 65.0-63.6%) and carcass part, feather and edible inner organ weights. The ratio of both edible inner organs and abdominal fat was higher in naturally hatched geese. Breast meat L*, a* and pH values and thigh meat dry matter values were higher in artificially hatched geese, whereas thigh meat b* and pH values were higher in naturally hatched geese. 4. Intensively reared geese had higher slaughter weights (4900 vs. 4783 g), carcass weights (3253 vs. 3130 g) and abdominal fat weights (280 vs. 250 g), as well as higher dressing percentages (66.3-64.9% vs. 65.3-63.9%). Breast meat b* and thigh meat L* values were higher in the intensive system, while breast and thigh pH values, dripping loss and cooking loss were higher in the free-range system. Water-holding capacity was higher in the intensive system. 5. In conclusion, artificially hatched, intensively reared geese had the highest slaughter weights; however, both artificially and naturally hatched geese raised in a free-range system reached acceptable slaughter weights and can thus be recommended for use with this type of production system.

  15. TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODY PREVALENCE AND TWO NEW GENOTYPES OF THE PARASITE IN ENDANGERED HAWAIIAN GEESE (NENE: BRANTA SANDVICENSIS).

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Verma, Shiv K; Su, Chunlei; Medeiros, John; Kaiakapu, Thomas; Kwok, Oliver C; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-04-28

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite transmitted by domestic cats ( Felis catus ) that has historically caused mortality in native Hawaiian birds. To estimate how widespread exposure to the parasite is in nene (Hawaiian Geese, Branta sandvicensis), we did a serologic survey for T. gondii antibody and genetically characterized parasite DNA from the tissues of dead birds that had confirmed infections by immunohistochemistry. Of 94 geese sampled, prevalence on the island of Kauai, Maui, and Molokai was 21% (n=42), 23% (n=31), and 48% (n=21), respectively. Two new T. gondii genotypes (ToxoDB #261 and #262) were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism from four geese, and these appeared segregated geographically. Exposure to T. gondii in wild nene is widespread and, while the parasite is not a major cause of death, it could have sublethal or behavioral effects. How to translate such information to implement effective ways to manage feral cats in Hawaii poses challenges.

  16. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems: I. Growth traits.

    PubMed

    Boz, M A; Sarica, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigated the effect of incubation type and production system on geese growth traits. 2. A total of 216 geese were either naturally (114) or artificially (102) hatched and reared in intensive or free-range production systems (4 replicates each) until 18 weeks of age. 3. Weights of naturally hatched goslings (NHG) were significantly higher than artificially hatched goslings (AHG) at 2 weeks (644 vs. 536 g); however, weights of AHG were significantly higher than NHG at both 6 weeks (3245 vs. 3010 g) and 18 weeks (5212 vs. 4353 g). 4. AHG had better feed conversion ratios (FCRs) than NHG (6.21 vs. 6.46 at 18 weeks). Feed consumption of naturally hatched geese was found higher in first 4 weeks when compared to artificially hatched geese and artificially hatched geese consumed more feed than naturally hatched geese after 8 weeks. 5. Production system had insignificant effects on feed consumption, FCRs, viability and mutilation rates. 6. Slipped wings were more frequent in NHG than AHG (8.32% vs. 1.68% at 6 weeks; 23.84% vs. 5.12% between 7 and 18 weeks) and in free-range production when compared to intensive production (17.88% vs. 11.08% over the course of the production period). 7. The study results indicate that both artificially and NHG can be reared in free-range production systems without any loss in performance and in deference to animal welfare.

  17. Analysis of meat flavor compounds in pedigree and two-strain Yangzhou geese.

    PubMed

    Cui, L L; Wang, J F; Xie, K Z; Li, A H; Geng, T Y; Sun, L R; Liu, J Y; Zhao, M; Zhang, G X; Dai, G J; Wang, J Y

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the meat flavor compounds of Yangzhou geese, including one group of pedigree strain (AA group) and 4 groups of 2-strain crossbreds (KA, KB, CA, and SA). Each group consisted of 100 geese comprised of 5 replicates of 10 males and 10 females each. Inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), amino acid (AA), and fatty acid (FA) levels in breast and thigh muscle were determined. Results showed that AA group had the highest levels of total amino acid (TAA) and dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) in breast muscle and of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in thigh muscle (P<0.05). In SA group, the levels of C17:1, C22:0, C22:1, C20:4, and C24:1 in breast muscle were significantly higher in SA than in other groups (P<0.05). KB group had the lowest glycine levels in breast muscle (P<0.05) while MUFA levels were significantly higher in KB than in other groups (P<0.05). In KA, the levels of C18:3 in breast muscle in were higher than in CA and KB (P<0.05). CA had relevant higher IMPc levels in breast muscle than SA (P<0.05) and other groups (P>0.05); however, no significant differences were obtained in thigh muscle (P>0.05). In conclusion, Yangzhou AA goose has high levels of meat flavor compounds than its crossbreeds. Future efforts should focus on assessing meat flavor through measurement of sensory characteristics of Yangzhou geese.

  18. OAZ1 knockdown enhances viability and inhibits ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rong; He, Hui; Yi, Zhixin; Chen, Ziyu

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1), which is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene, regulates follicular development, ovulation, and steroidogenesis. The granulosa cells in the ovary play a critical role in these ovarian functions. However, the action of OAZ1 mediating physiological functions of granulosa cells is obscure. OAZ1 knockdown in granulosa cells of geese was carried out in the current study. The effect of OAZ1 knockdown on polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and hormone receptor transcription of primary granulosa cells in geese was measured. The viability of granulosa cells transfected with the shRNA OAZ1 at 48 h was significantly higher than the control (p<0.05). The level of putrescine and spermidine in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 was 7.04- and 2.11- fold higher compared with the control, respectively (p<0.05). The CCND1, SMAD1, and BCL-2 mRNA expression levels in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 were each significantly higher than the control, respectively (p<0.05), whereas the PCNA and CASPASE 3 expression levels were significantly lower than the control (p<0.05). The estradiol concentration, ER and LHR mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 compared with the control (p<0.05). Taken together, our results indicated that OAZ1 knockdown elevated the putrescine and spermidine contents and enhanced granulosa cell viability and inhibited ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese. PMID:28362829

  19. Developmental toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment in Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, David J.; Heinz, Gary H.; Sileo, Louis; Audet, Daniel J.; Campbell, Juile K.; Obrecht, Holly H.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has recently been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The effects of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho on posthatching development of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were examined for 6 wk. Day-old goslings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (48%) supplemented control diet, or CDARB sediment (3449 mug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12%, 24%, or 48%. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 0.68 ppm (ww), with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over fourfold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 1.61 ppm with decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma protein in addition to the effects just described. The 48% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.52 ppm with 22% mortality, decreased growth, and elevated plasma lactate dehydrogenase-L (LDH-L) activity. In this group the liver lead concentration was 6.57 ppm (ww), with twofold increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS) and in reduced glutathione concentration; associated effects included elevated glutathione reductase activity but lower protein-bound thiols concentration and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 14.93 ppm with subacute renal tubular nephrosis in one of the surviving goslings. Three other geese in this treatment group exhibited calcified areas of marrow, and one of these displayed severe chronic fibrosing pancreatitis. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated less readily in gosling blood and tissues than reported in ducklings but at given concentrations was generally more toxic to goslings. Many of these effects were similar to those reported in wild geese and mallards within the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  20. Detection and characterization of a distinct bornavirus lineage from healthy Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Payne, Susan; Covaleda, Lina; Jianhua, Guo; Swafford, Seth; Baroch, John; Ferro, Pamela J; Lupiani, Blanca; Heatley, Jill; Tizard, Ian

    2011-11-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV), identified in 2008, infect captive parrots and macaws worldwide. The natural reservoirs of these viruses are unknown. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to screen oropharyngeal/cloacal swab and brain samples from wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) for ABV. Approximately 2.9% of swab samples were positive for bornavirus sequences. Fifty-two percent of brain samples from 2 urban flocks also tested positive, and brain isolates were cultured in duck embryo fibroblasts. Phylogenetic analyses placed goose isolates in an independent cluster, and more notably, important regulatory sequences present in Borna disease virus but lacking in psittacine ABVs were present in goose isolates.

  1. Age as a factor in acquisition of parasites by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehr, E.E.; Herman, C.M.

    1954-01-01

    Examination of 46 Canada goose goslings yielded 14 species of parasites, including five Protozoa, four Nematoda, two Cestoda, and three Trematoda. Evidence indicates that goslings acquired most of these infections during their first week of life. Some parasites, Prosthogonimus sp., occurred only in younger birds. Others, Leucocytozoon simondi, were evident only during the initial course of infection, while still others remained evident in older geese. Parasites with a direct life cycle appeared to be more prevalent than those requiring intermediate hosts. Among 29 birds from a refuge in Michigan, 14 species of parasites were found; while in 17 goslings from a Utah refuge, only five species occurred.

  2. Effects of male removal on female reproductive biology in Ross' and Lesser Snow Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leschack, C.R.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    We studied effects of mate removal on nesting and hatching success, incubation behavior, body mass, and post-hatch dispersal distance of female Ross' (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens) at Karrak Lake. N.W.T., Canada. Male ge and widowed and paired control females were monitored through post-hatch dispersal. Nesting and hatching success did not differ between species or treatments (widowed vs paired) and averaged 77.5 ?? 3.8% and 64.0 ?? 3.6% (??SE), respectively. Paired females spent more time with their bills tucked (23.7 ?? 3.3% vs 9.1 ?? 4.0%) and less time alert (8.6 ?? 2.9% vs 22.9 ?? 3.5%) while on nests than did widowed females. Snow widowed females (31.1 ?? 4.7%) and Ross' widowed females (20.6 ?? 6.0%) generally spent more time each day in head-up alert than did Snow paired females (7.1 ?? 3.8%). Snow paired maleS (11.8 ?? 3.8%), Ross' paired females (9.4 ?? 3.6%), and Ross' paired males (7.9 ?? 3.6%). Body mass of paired and widowed female Ross' Geese did not differ at hatch or at time of post-hatch recapture; however, mean distance recaptured from the breeding colony was greater for paired (50.9 ?? 6.1 km) than for widowed females (27.3 ?? 6.6 km). Total mass gain (276 ?? 19 g) and rate of mass gain (8.4 ?? 0.5 g/day), from hatch until post-hatch recapture (33.1 ?? 1.2 days), were similar for widowed and paired female Ross' Geese. Male removal experiments in monogamous, precocial species generally have produced few effects on female nesting success or incubation behavior. We suggest that male parental care in arctic-nesting geese is more critical during laying and the post-hatch period than during incubation.

  3. Detection and Characterization of a Distinct Bornavirus Lineage from Healthy Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) ▿

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Susan; Covaleda, Lina; Jianhua, Guo; Swafford, Seth; Baroch, John; Ferro, Pamela J.; Lupiani, Blanca; Heatley, Jill; Tizard, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV), identified in 2008, infect captive parrots and macaws worldwide. The natural reservoirs of these viruses are unknown. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to screen oropharyngeal/cloacal swab and brain samples from wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) for ABV. Approximately 2.9% of swab samples were positive for bornavirus sequences. Fifty-two percent of brain samples from 2 urban flocks also tested positive, and brain isolates were cultured in duck embryo fibroblasts. Phylogenetic analyses placed goose isolates in an independent cluster, and more notably, important regulatory sequences present in Borna disease virus but lacking in psittacine ABVs were present in goose isolates. PMID:21900161

  4. Invasive herbivory: resident Canada geese and the decline of wild rice along the tidal Patuxent River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    While concern grows over the increasing numbers of exotic mute swans (Cygnus olor) on the Chesapeake Bay, less attention seems to be given to the highly familiar and native Canada goose (Branta canadensis) which has over time developed unprecedented nonmigratory, or resident, populations. Although nuisance flocks of Canada geese have been well advertised at city parks, athletic fields, and golf courses over the past three decades, recent expansion of populations to an estimated one million birds in the Atlantic Flyway, and to over 100,000 in Maryland, carries a threat of broader ecological consequences.

  5. ANSER Technologies - UAV Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fusion – Multi-Platform Picture Compilation (Situational Awareness) – Improved Navigation and Target Location accuracy – GPS Denied Operations • Future...Location in a GPS Denied Environment through SLAM DDF • Single Sensor • Multi-Sensor • Single Platform • Multi-Platform Date / Reference...modelling and simulation show – SLAM provides the means for accurate navigation and target location – GPS Denied – No a-priori map data – DDF provides

  6. Forage site selection by lesser snow geese during autumn staging on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Robertson, Donna G.

    1998-01-01

    Lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) of the Western Canadian Arctic Population feed intensively for 2-4 weeks on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea in Canada and Alaska at the beginning of their autumn migration. Petroleum leasing proposed for the Alaskan portion of the staging area on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) could affect staging habitats and their use by geese. Therefore we studied availability, distribution, and use by snow geese of tall and russett cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium and E. russeolum, respectively) feeding habitats on the ANWR. We studied selection of feeding habitats at 3 spatial scales (feeding sites [0.06 m2], feeding patches [ca. 100 m2], and feeding areas [>1 ha]) during 1990-93. We used logistic regression analysis to discriminate differences in soil moisture and vegetation between 1,548 feeding sites where snow geese exploited individual cotton-grass plants and 1,143 unexploited sites at 61 feeding patches in 1990. Feeding likelihood increased with greater soil moisture and decreased where nonforage species were present. We tested the logistic regression model in 1991 by releasing human-imprinted snow geese into 4 10 × 20-m enclosed plots where plant communities had been mapped, habitats sampled, and feeding probabilities calculated. Geese selected more feeding sites per square meter in areas of predicted high quality feeding habitat (feeding probability ≥ 0.6) than in medium (feeding probability = 0.3-0.59) or poor (feeding probability < 0.3) quality habitat (P < 0.0001). Geese increasingly used medium quality areas and spent more time feeding as trials progressed and forage was presumably reduced in high quality habitats. We examined relationships between underground biomass of plants, feeding probability, and surface microrelief at 474 0.06- m2 sites in 20 thermokarst pits in 1992. Feeding probability was correlated with the percentage of underground biomass composed of cotton-grass (r = 0

  7. Long-term effects of grazing and global warming on the composition and carrying capacity of graminoid marshes for moulting geese in east Greenland.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jesper; Jaspers, Cornelia; Tamstorf, Mikkel; Mortensen, Christian Ebbe; Rigét, Frank

    2011-09-01

    Greening of the Arctic due to climate warming may provide herbivores with richer food supplies, resulting in higher herbivore densities. In turn, this may cause changes in vegetation composition and ecosystem function. In 1982-1984, we studied the ecology of non-breeding moulting geese in Jameson Land, low Arctic East Greenland. By then, geese consumed most of the graminoid production in available moss fens, and it appeared that the geese had filled up the available habitat. In 2008, we revisited the area and found that the number of moulting geese and the temperature sum for June-July had tripled, while the above-ground biomass in a moss fen ungrazed by geese had more than doubled. In a goose-grazed fen, the overall plant composition was unchanged, but the frequency of graminoids had decreased and the area with dead vegetation and open spots had increased. We suggest that climate warming has lead to increased productivity, allowing for higher numbers of moulting geese. However, the reduction of vegetation cover by grazing may have longer term negative consequences for the number of geese the habitat can sustain.

  8. Spring migratory pathways and migration chronology of Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) wintering at the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giles, Molly M.; Jodice, Patrick G.; Baldwin, Robert F.; Stanton, John D.; Epstein, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the migratory pathways, migration chronology, and breeding ground affiliation of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) that winter in and adjacent to the Santee National Wildlife Refuge in Summerton, South Carolina, United States. Satellite transmitters were fitted to eight Canada Geese at Santee National Wildlife Refuge during the winter of 2009–2010. Canada Geese departed Santee National Wildlife Refuge between 5 and 7 March 2010. Six Canada Geese followed a route that included stopovers in northeastern North Carolina and western New York, with three of those birds completing spring migration to breeding grounds associated with the Atlantic Population (AP). The mean distance between stopover sites along this route was 417 km, the mean total migration distance was 2838 km, and the Canada Geese arrived on AP breeding grounds on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay between 20 and 24 May 2010. Two Canada Geese followed a different route from that described above, with stopovers in northeastern Ohio, prior to arriving on the breeding grounds on 9 June 2010. Mean distance between stopover sites was 402 and 365 km for these two birds, and total migration distance was 4020 and 3650 km. These data represent the first efforts to track migratory Canada Geese from the southernmost extent of their current wintering range in the Atlantic Flyway. We did not track any Canada Geese to breeding grounds associated with the Southern James Bay Population. Caution should be used in the interpretation of this finding, however, because of the small sample size. We demonstrated that migratory Canada Geese wintering in South Carolina use at least two migratory pathways and that an affiliation with the Atlantic Population breeding ground exists.

  9. A review of episodes of zinc phosphide toxicosis in wild geese (Branta spp.) in Oregon (2004−2011)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bildfell, Rob J.; Rumbeiha, Wilson K.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Gillin, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    Epizootic mortality in several geese species, including cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis), has been recognized in the Willamette Valley of Oregon for over a decade. Birds are generally found dead on a body of water or are occasionally observed displaying neurologic clinical signs such as an inability to raise or control the head prior to death. Investigation of these epizootic mortality events has revealed the etiology to be accidental poisoning with the rodenticide zinc phosphide (Zn3P2). Gross and histologic changes are restricted to acute pulmonary congestion and edema, sometimes accompanied by distension of the upper alimentary tract by fresh grass. Geese are unusually susceptible to this pesticide; when combined with an epidemiologic confluence of depredation of specific agricultural crops by rodents and seasonal avian migration pathways, epizootic toxicosis may occur. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, appropriate sample collection and handling, plus specific test calibration for this toxicant. Interagency cooperation, education of farmers regarding pesticide use, and enforcement of regulations has been successful in greatly decreasing these mortality events since 2009.

  10. An Autoethnographic Study of Identity Development of Korean "Wild-Geese Mother" Students in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sung Ran

    2013-01-01

    Today a significant number of Korean mothers come to the United States (U.S.) with their children for their children's English education, while their husbands stay in Korea. Now these overseas families are called "wild-geese families" in Korea. Although some of these mothers have been attending U.S. adult and postsecondary educational…

  11. Serological survey and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in domestic ducks and geese in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To obtain estimates for the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ducks and geese in Germany, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were established based on affinity-purified T. gondii tachyzoite surface antigen 1 (TgSAG1) and used to examine duck and goose sera for T. gondii -specific ...

  12. A review of episodes of zinc phosphide toxicosis in wild geese (Branta spp.) in Oregon (2004-2011).

    PubMed

    Bildfell, Rob J; Rumbeiha, Wilson K; Schuler, Krysten L; Meteyer, Carol U; Wolff, Peregrine L; Gillin, Colin M

    2013-01-01

    Epizootic mortality in several geese species, including cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis), has been recognized in the Willamette Valley of Oregon for over a decade. Birds are generally found dead on a body of water or are occasionally observed displaying neurologic clinical signs such as an inability to raise or control the head prior to death. Investigation of these epizootic mortality events has revealed the etiology to be accidental poisoning with the rodenticide zinc phosphide (Zn(3)P(2)). Gross and histologic changes are restricted to acute pulmonary congestion and edema, sometimes accompanied by distension of the upper alimentary tract by fresh grass. Geese are unusually susceptible to this pesticide; when combined with an epidemiologic confluence of depredation of specific agricultural crops by rodents and seasonal avian migration pathways, epizootic toxicosis may occur. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, appropriate sample collection and handling, plus specific test calibration for this toxicant. Interagency cooperation, education of farmers regarding pesticide use, and enforcement of regulations has been successful in greatly decreasing these mortality events since 2009.

  13. Using videography to quantify landscape-level availability of habitat for grazers: An example with emperor geese in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lake, B.C.; Lindberg, M.S.; Schmutz, J.A.; Anthony, R. Michael; Broerman, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a videography approach to estimating large-scale availability of grazing lawns, an important food resource used by broods of emperor geese (Chen canagica) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Sampling was conducted in 1999, 2003, and 2004 at six locations that encompassed ???40% of the North American population of breeding emperor geese. We conducted ground truthing in 2003 and 2004 to estimate how accurately grazing lawn was classified. Overall, classification accuracy for grazing lawn and non-grazing lawn habitat was greater than 91%. Availability of grazing lawns was stable among years, but varied both among and within locations. Some locations have up to three times as much available grazing lawn, which in combination with densities of geese, likely represents dramatic variation in per capita food availability. Our results suggest that videography is a useful way to sample quickly across a large region and accurately identify fine-scale habitats. We present its use for estimating the availability of a preferred food resource for emperor geese, but the method could be applied to many other cases.

  14. Identification of Type II Interferon Receptors in Geese: Gene Structure, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Expression Patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Qi, Yulin; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-01-01

    Interferon γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1) and IFNGR2 are two cell membrane molecules belonging to class II cytokines, which play important roles in the IFN-mediated antiviral signaling pathway. Here, goose IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 were cloned and identified for the first time. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that relatively high levels of goose IFNγ mRNA transcripts were detected in immune tissues, including the harderian gland, cecal tonsil, cecum, and thymus. Relatively high expression levels of both IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 were detected in the cecal tonsil, which implicated an important role of IFNγ in the secondary immune system of geese. No specific correlation between IFNγ, IFNGR1, and IFNGR2 expression levels was observed in the same tissues of healthy geese. IFNγ and its cognate receptors showed different expression profiles, although they appeared to maintain a relatively balanced state. Furthermore, the agonist R848 led to the upregulation of goose IFNγ but did not affect the expression of goose IFNGR1 or IFNGR2. In summary, trends in expression of goose IFNγ and its cognate receptors showed tissue specificity, as well as an age-related dependency. These findings may help us to better understand the age-related susceptibility to pathogens in birds.

  15. Metabolizability and partitioning of energy and protein in green plants by yearling lesser snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, James S.; White, Robert G.; Hupp, Jerry

    1995-01-01

    We measured apparent metabolizability of organic matter, gross energy, nitrogen and cell wall constituents of pelleted alfalfa by Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens. We also used simultaneous measurements of energy expenditure and apparent metabolizable energy intake to estimate heat increment of feeding and net energy for production and maintenance. Apparent metabolizability of energy was 46% as a result of substantial retention of dietary cellulose (45%). Mean slope of the relationship between energy expenditure and apparent metabolizable energy intake, which estimates heat increment at feeding, was 0.33. One minus the slope, 0.67, was our estimate of the proportion of apparent metabolizable energy available for maintenance and production. Resting metabolic rate at zero apparent metabolizable energy intake ranged from 361 kJ· kg-1· day-1 to 432 kJ· kg-1· day-1, while apparent metabolizable energy intake required for energy balance ranged from 455 kJ· kg-1· day-1 to 871 kJ· kg-1· day-1. Lesser Snow Geese (>2 kg mass) were more efficient at retaining dietary energy but possibly lost more of this energy as heat than smaller Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans)(∼1 kg mass), suggesting a possible relationship between body size and processing of energy in herbivorous birds.

  16. Gene expression profile in the liver tissue of geese after overfeeding.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L H; Meng, H; Duan, X J; Xu, G Q; Zhang, J; Gong, D Q

    2011-01-01

    Geese form a fatty liver after feeding on a carbohydrate-rich diet, possibly as an evolutionary adaptation to accumulate reserves for migration. To gain insight into the gene-regulation processes of hepatic steatosis in geese, we examined the profile of transcriptional expression in goose fatty liver and control liver by suppression subtractive hybridization and measured the levels of serum biochemical variables. We found 107 genes whose expression was different between the treatment and control groups. The main functions of these genes are metabolic processes, including the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids. Twenty-four genes were classified using the Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Twelve genes that related to metabolic and cellular processes were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. A specific positive effect of feeding was observed on the expression of genes involved mainly in unsaturated fatty acids and triglyceride synthesis, and a negative effect was observed on genes involved in β-oxidation, cholesterol metabolism, and glycolysis. The results could serve as an important reference for the development of goose breeding for fatty liver production and human liver disease research.

  17. Morphological traits of Pacific Flyway Canada Geese as an aid to subspecies identification and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, John M.; Bollinger, Karen S.

    2003-01-01

    Subspecies of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) exhibit wide variation in body size across their range. To monitor harvest levels in the Pacific Flyway, biologists commonly use culmen length and plumage color to differentiate among subspecies on sympatric wintering grounds. Among the four large-bodied Pacific subspecies (B. c. parvipes, B. c. occidentalis, B. c. fulva, and B. c. moffitti), overlap in culmen length and subjectivity of visually assessing color results in misclassification and inaccurate harvest estimates. We examined the morphology of Pacific large-bodied Canada Geese to characterize body size variation among subspecies and provide more discriminatory measures for harvest assessments. We found that culmen length, one of the most commonly used field measures, overlapped widely among subspecies, and it had little support for inclusion in discriminatory models. Morphological measures with greater explanatory power included bill width at nail, bill width at base, head length, and mid wing. If culmen length and plumage color continue to be used to assess winter harvest, we recommend the addition of at least one sex-specific measurement to reduce levels of misclassification among subspecies. If an additional morphological measure is included, further evaluation on the wintering grounds should be conducted as this measure's effectiveness may vary depending upon observer bias, temporal and spatial variation in subspecies abundance, and the proportion of birds accurately sexed by cloacal examination.

  18. Prevalence, transmission, and genetic diversity of blood parasites infecting tundra-nesting geese in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John A.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fondell, Tom F.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Terenzi, John; Ely, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 842 blood samples collected from five species of tundra-nesting geese in Alaska was screened for haemosporidian parasites using molecular techniques. Parasites of the generaLeucocytozoon Danilewsky, 1890, Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890, and Plasmodium Marchiafava and Celli, 1885 were detected in 169 (20%), 3 (<1%), and 0 (0%) samples, respectively. Occupancy modeling was used to estimate prevalence of Leucocytozoon parasites and assess variation relative to species, age, sex, geographic area, year, and decade. Species, age, and decade were identified as important in explaining differences in prevalence of Leucocytozoonparasites. Leucocytozoon parasites were detected in goslings sampled along the Arctic Coastal Plain using both historic and contemporary samples, which provided support for transmission in the North American Arctic. In contrast, lack of detection of Haemoproteus and Plasmodiumparasites in goslings (n = 238) provided evidence to suggest that the transmission of parasites of these genera may not occur among waterfowl using tundra habitats in Alaska, or alternatively, may only occur at low levels. Five haemosporidian genetic lineages shared among different species of geese sampled from two geographic areas were indicative of interspecies parasite transmission and supported broad parasite or vector distributions. However, identicalLeucocytozoon and Haemoproteus lineages on public databases were limited to waterfowl hosts suggesting constraints in the range of parasite hosts.

  19. Intercontinental gene flow among western arctic populations of lesser snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shorey, R.I.; Scribner, K.T.; Kanefsky, J.; Samuel, M.D.; Libants, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial genetic structure of highly vagile species of birds is important in predicting their degree of population demographic and genetic independence during changing environmental conditions, and in assessing their abundance and distribution. In the western Arctic, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) provide an example useful for evaluating spatial population genetic structure and the relative contribution of male and female philopatry to breeding and wintering locales. We analyzed biparentally inherited microsatellite loci and maternally inherited mtDNA sequences from geese breeding at Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) to estimate gene flow among populations whose geographic overlap during breeding and winter differ. Significant differences in the frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes contrast with the homogeneity of allele frequencies for microsatellite loci. Coalescence simulations revealed high variability and asymmetry between males and females in rates and direction of gene flow between populations. Our results highlight the importance of wintering areas to demographic independence and spatial genetic structure of these populations. Male-mediated gene flow among the populations on northern Wrangel Island, southern Wrangel Island, and Banks Island has been substantial. A high rate of female-mediated gene flow from southern Wrangel Island to Banks Island suggests that population exchange can be achieved when populations winter in a common area. Conversely, when birds from different breeding populations do not share a common wintering area, the probability of population exchange is likely to be dramatically reduced. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  20. Estimation of genetic parameters for growth, carcass and overfeeding traits in a white geese strain

    PubMed Central

    Larzul, Catherine; Rouvier, Roger; Rousselot-Pailley, Daniel; Guy, Gérard

    2000-01-01

    In an experimental strain of white plumage geese created in 1989, two experiments were carried out from 1993 to 1995 in order to estimate genetic parameters for growth, and carcass composition traits in non-overfed animals, and genetic parameters for growth and fatty liver formation in overfed animals. Four hundred and thirty-one non-overfed animals were bred and slaughtered at 11 weeks of age; they were measured for forearm length, keel bone length, chest circumference and breast depth before and after slaughtering. The carcasses were partly dissected in order weigh breast, breast muscle and skin + fat, and abdominal fat. Four hundred and seventy-seven overfed animals were slaughtered at 20 weeks of age; they were measured for "paletot" (breast meat, bone and meat from wings, bone and meat from thigh and legs) weight and liver weight. In these two experiments, the weights had moderate to high heritability values. Breast depth measured on live animals showed a low heritability value. In overfed animals, liver weight showed a high heritability value. Liver weight could be increased by selection without a great effect on "paletot" weight. Thus, obtaining a white plumage geese strain for fatty liver production by selection would be difficult because only 20% of overfed animals had fatty liver. The results did not allow to conclude on the influence of selection on liver weight on carcass traits such as muscle or fatty tissue weight. PMID:14736387

  1. Association of single nucleotide polymorphism in melatonin receptor 1A gene with egg production traits in Yangzhou geese.

    PubMed

    Alsiddig, M A; Yu, S G; Pan, Z X; Widaa, H; Badri, T M; Chen, J; Liu, H L

    2017-04-01

    In the present study the melatonin receptor 1A gene (MTNR1A) was proposed to be a candidate gene for egg production in Yangzhou geese. A total of 210 goose blood samples were collected to investigate the association of the MTNR1A gene with the number of eggs produced. Using a direct sequencing method, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; g.177G>C) was detected in the 5' regulatory region of the MTNR1A gene (Genbank ss1985399687). Two alleles (G and C) and three genotypes were identified. Association analysis results showed that the g.177G>C SNP significantly affected the level of egg production within a 34-week egg-laying period (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the geese with the GG genotype produced significantly more eggs compared to the geese with the CC genotype. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the MTNR1A gene was highly expressed in small intestine, granulosa cell and ovary compared to other examined tissues. In addition, the mRNA expression level of MTNR1A in ovary indicated that significantly higher expression levels were recorded for geese with the GG genotype compared to those with the CC genotype. Moreover, a luciferase reporter assay showed that the CC genotype had significantly lower promoter activity than did GG. These results suggest that the identified SNP in the MTNR1A gene may influence the number of eggs produced and mRNA expression levels in Yangzhou geese and could be considered as a useful molecular marker in goose selection and improvement, especially for egg production.

  2. Effects of presentation and type of cereals (corn or sorghum) on performance of geese.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J; Auvergne, A; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Bijja, M; Bannelier, C; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the effects of cereal (corn or sorghum) and of the presentation of the diet (pelleted diet or a mixture with cereal) on the performance of geese. In total, 480 one-day-old geese were divided into 4 groups differing in the diet they received between 52 and 102 d of age: a pelleted diet containing 500 g of sorghum/kg (CS group; AMEn 11.29 MJ/kg, CP 16.70%); a mixture containing 500 g of protein-rich pellets and 500 g of sorghum whole seeds/kg (MS group; AMEn 11.61 MJ/kg, CP 14.30%); a pelleted diet containing 500 g of corn/kg (group CC; AMEn 11.33 MJ/kg, CP 16.40%); and a mixture containing 500 g of protein-rich pellets and 500 g of corn mash/kg (group MC; AMEn 11.48 MJ/kg, CP 14.50%). From 102 to 117 d, 33 birds/sex/group were force-fed with corn. Between 52 and 102 d of age, individual BW and collective feed intake (40 birds/pen) were measured weekly. Body traits were measured at 69, 96, and 117 d and the volume of the crop was measured at 102 d of age. The cereal had no significant effect on total feed intake (15,028 g, NS) or BW (5,811 g, NS) but the breast development at 102 d was less in birds fed sorghum compared with corn (-4.9%; P<0.05). Feed intake (+8.4% between 69 and 102 d; P<0.001), BW (+3.9%; P<0.001) and gut development (+9.3%; P<0.001) were higher when the diet was offered as a mixture compared with a complete pelleted diet. The birds fed the complete pelleted diets had a larger crop (+10.1%; P<0.05) than others. The cereal and the presentation of the diet had no effect on the body traits at the end of the force feeding. The results suggest that the use of sorghum whole seeds is interesting for feeding geese.

  3. Field evaluation of lead effects on Canada geese and mallards in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Blus, L.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, Daniel J.; Snyder, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    Hatch year (HY) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River Basin had higher concentrations of lead in their blood than HY Western Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) (geometric means 0.98 versus 0.28 I?g/g, wet weight). The pattern for adults of both species was similar, although geometric means (1.77 versus 0.41 I?g/g) were higher than in HY birds. HY mallards captured in the CDA River Basin in 1987 contained significantly lower lead concentrations in their blood than in 1994a??95 (0.36 versus 0.98 I?g/g); however, some very young mallards were sampled in 1987, and concentrations in adults were not significantly different in 1987, 1994, or 1995 (1.52, 2.07, 1.55 I?g/g, respectively). Both species in the CDA River Basin in 1994a??95 showed significantly reduced red blood cell delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity compared to the reference areas: Canada geese (HY a??65.4 to a??86.0%, adults a??82.3%), and mallards (HY a??90.7 to a??95.5%, adults a??94.1%). Canada goose goslings were divided into size classes, and the two smaller classes from the CDA River Basin had significantly elevated free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (protoporphyrin) levels compared to the reference area (15.2?? and 6.9??). HY and adult mallards both had significantly elevated protoporphyrin (5.9?? and 7.5??). Recognizing that interspecific differences exist in response and sensitivity to lead, it appears (at least for hemoglobin and hematocrit) that Canada geese were more sensitive to lead than mallards, i.e., adverse hematologic effects occur at lower blood lead concentrations. Only Canada geese from the CDA River Basin, in spite of lower blood lead concentrations, had significantly reduced mean hemoglobin and hematocrit values. No euthanized Canada geese (all HYs) from CDA River Basin were classified as clinically lead poisoned, but 38 Canada geese found dead in the CDA River Basin during a concurrent study succumbed to lead poisoning between 1992 and

  4. Changing arctic ecosystems—What is causing the rapid increase of snow geese in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Whalen, Mary E.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-09-10

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) informs key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is a key study area within the USGS CAE initiative. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past decades, leading to decreased sea ice, permafrost thaw, and an advancement of spring phenology. The number of birds on the ACP also is changing, marked by increased populations of the four species of geese that nest in the region. The Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) is the most rapidly increasing of these species. USGS CAE research is quantifying these changes and their implications for management agencies.

  5. Changing Arctic ecosystems: sea ice decline, permafrost thaw, and benefits for geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul; Whalen, Mary; Pearce, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strives to inform resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. A key area for the USGS CAE initiative has been the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past 30 years, leading to reductions in sea ice and thawing of permafrost. Loss of sea ice has increased ocean wave action, leading to erosion and salt water inundation of coastal habitats. Saltwater tolerant plants are now thriving in these areas and this appears to be a positive outcome for geese in the Arctic. This finding is contrary to the deleterious effects that declining sea ice is having on habitats of ice-dependent animals, such as polar bear and walrus.

  6. The roller coaster flight strategy of bar-headed geese conserves energy during Himalayan migrations.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C M; Spivey, R J; Hawkes, L A; Batbayar, N; Chua, B; Frappell, P B; Milsom, W K; Natsagdorj, T; Newman, S H; Scott, G R; Takekawa, J Y; Wikelski, M; Butler, P J

    2015-01-16

    The physiological and biomechanical requirements of flight at high altitude have been the subject of much interest. Here, we uncover a steep relation between heart rate and wingbeat frequency (raised to the exponent 3.5) and estimated metabolic power and wingbeat frequency (exponent 7) of migratory bar-headed geese. Flight costs increase more rapidly than anticipated as air density declines, which overturns prevailing expectations that this species should maintain high-altitude flight when traversing the Himalayas. Instead, a "roller coaster" strategy, of tracking the underlying terrain and discarding large altitude gains only to recoup them later in the flight with occasional benefits from orographic lift, is shown to be energetically advantageous for flights over the Himalayas.

  7. The roller coaster flight strategy of bar-headed geese conserves energy during Himalayan migrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, C.M.; Spivey, R.J.; Hawkes, L. A.; Batbayar, N.; Chua, B.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Natsagdorj, T.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Takekawa, John Y.; Wikelski, Martin; Butler, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and biomechanical requirements of flight at high altitude have been the subject of much interest. Here, we uncover a steep relation between heart rate and wingbeat frequency (raised to the exponent 3.5) and estimated metabolic power and wingbeat frequency (exponent 7) of migratory bar-headed geese. Flight costs increase more rapidly than anticipated as air density declines, which overturns prevailing expectations that this species should maintain high-altitude flight when traversing the Himalayas. Instead, a "roller coaster" strategy, of tracking the underlying terrain and discarding large altitude gains only to recoup them later in the flight with occasional benefits from orographic lift, is shown to be energetically advantageous for flights over the Himalayas.

  8. GPS location history data mining and anomalous detection: the scenario of bar-headed geese migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Ze; Xiong, Yan; Yan, Baoping; Prosser, Diann J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Lu, W.; Cai, G.; Liu, W.; Xing, W.

    2013-01-01

    It is important to discover common movement sequences and uncommon behaviors during the migration of wild birds. In this paper, we propose a new approach to analyze the GPS location history data of migratory birds. The stopover sites are first extracted from the location history data of birds, and their movement sequences are generated automatically. Then, a consistency calculation method is introduced for calculating the movement sequence consistency degrees among the birds. The common movement sequences and uncommon behaviors can be recognized on the basis of consistency. We conducted experiments on the data collected from bar-headed geese captured in the Qinghai Lake region. The experiment results indicate the correctness of our approach.

  9. Species differences in hematological values of captive cranes, geese, raptors, and quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Hensler, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Hematological and serum chemical constituents of blood were determined for 12 species, including 7 endangered species, of cranes, geese, raptors, and quail in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Means, standard deviations, analysis of variance by species and sex, and a series of multiple comparisons of means were derived for each parameter investigated. Differences among some species means were observed in all blood parameters except gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Although sampled during the reproductively quiescent period, an influence of sex was noted in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, Ca, and P. Our data and values reported in literature indicate that most hematological parameters vary among species and, in some cases, according to methods used to determine them. Therefore, baseline data for captive and wild birds should be established by using standard methods, and should be made available to aid others for use in assessing physiological and pathological conditions of these species.

  10. Safety and efficacy of an inactivated Carbopol-adjuvanted goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus vaccine for domestic geese.

    PubMed

    Gelfi, Jacqueline; Pappalardo, Michael; Claverys, Carine; Peralta, Brigitte; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2010-04-01

    Haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of the goose (HNEG) is an epizootic viral disease in domestic geese. The causal agent is a polyomavirus, namely goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus. To help control the disease, an inactivated vaccine was developed, based on viral particles produced in goose kidney cells. Viral material was quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, inactivated with beta-propiolactone and adjuvanted with Carbopol, an acrylic acid polymer. Carbopol proved to be more immunogenic than aluminium hydroxide and was totally safe when administered to young goslings and breeders alike. Carbopol-adjuvanted vaccine induced a high serological response. Moreover, goslings hatched from vaccinated breeders were protected against viral challenge, indicating that maternally-derived neutralizing antibodies (MDA) were efficiently transferred. MDA were still detectable 15 days post-hatch. Clinical trials will be necessary to accurately evaluate a vaccine-based HNEG control strategy under field conditions.

  11. The aerodynamics of avian take-off from direct pressure measurements in Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Usherwood, James R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Biewener, Andrew A

    2003-11-01

    Direct pressure measurements using electronic differential pressure transducers along bird wings provide insight into the aerodynamics of these dynamically varying aerofoils. Acceleration-compensated pressures were measured at five sites distributed proximally to distally from the tertials to the primaries along the wings of Canada geese. During take-off flight, ventral-to-dorsal pressure is maintained at the proximal wing section throughout the wingstroke cycle, whereas pressure sense is reversed at the primaries during upstroke. The distal sites experience double pressure peaks during the downstroke. These observations suggest that tertials provide weight-support throughout the wingbeat, that the wingtip provides thrust during upstroke and that the kinetic energy of the rapidly flapping wings may be dissipated via retarding aerodynamic forces (resulting in aerodynamic work) at the end of downstroke.

  12. Remote sensing for monitoring of wildlife habitat: Lesser snow geese and sub-Arctic coastal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadallah, Fawziah L.

    Human environmental impact has occurred on a global scale. Effective management of problems occurring over broad regions requires monitoring and intervention over large extents of space and time. Remote sensing provides an attractive data source, particularly as satellite data have been consistently collected over both space and time and present a readily available, inexpensive archive. At best, however, remote sensing provides proxy data for the underlying variables of interest. Here remotely sensed data are used to measure habitat degradation at a lesser snow goose colony. An increase in goose numbers has led to a loss of forage vegetation in the arctic and sub-arctic marshes where the geese nest and raise their young. In particular, isostatic rebound has generated extensive coastal marshes along the west coast of Hudson Bay, and lesser snow geese colonized such a marsh at La Perouse Bay in the late 1950's. This well-studied colony is used to assess the feasibility of mapping decadal change with Landsat imagery. A baseline map is developed using satellite data, aerial photography, and a knowledge of vegetation dynamics at the site. Calibration equations, relating the quantity of above-ground vegetation and its reflectance, are developed using cross-validation and goodness-of-prediction measures for field data collected on-site. To detect changes in vegetation state, tree-classification and cross-validation were applied to ground data. Using satellite imagery, changes in vegetation quantity and type could be detected against a background of mineral soil, but not against a background of mosses. Even in this site with low topographic variability, few species and few strong driving forces (i.e. isostatic rebound and herbivory), multiple change trajectories are possible. As different trajectories have different influences on both the reflectance of the surface and the expected behaviour and functioning of the system, each must be accounted for separately. Failure to

  13. Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov., isolated from faeces of Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Amselle, Megan; Beck, Brian J; Popham, David L; Whittaker, Paul; Wang, Hua; Kerrigan, Elizabeth; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

    2012-09-01

    Three strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from the faeces of apparently healthy wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in 2010 by cultivating faecal LAB on Rogosa SL agar under aerobic conditions. These three isolates were found to share 99.9 % gene sequence similarity of their 16S rRNA, their 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer region (ITS), partial 23S rRNA, rpoB, rpoC, rpoA and pheS gene sequences. However, the three strains exhibited lower levels of sequence similarity of these genetic targets to all known LAB, and the phylogenetically closest species to the geese strains were Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus saniviri. In comparison to L. casei ATCC 393(T), L. paracasei ATCC 25302(T), L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469(T) and L. saniviri DSM 24301(T), the novel isolates reacted uniquely in tests for cellobiose, galactose, mannitol, citric acid, aesculin and dextrin, and gave negative results in tests for l-proline arylamidase and l-pyrrolydonyl-arylamidase, and in the Voges-Proskauer test. Biochemical tests for cellobiose, aesculin, galactose, gentiobiose, mannitol, melezitose, ribose, salicin, sucrose, trehalose, raffinose, turanose, amygdalin and arbutin could be used for differentiation between L. saniviri and the novel strains. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and phylogenetic data, the three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SL1108(T) (= ATCC BAA-2142(T) = LMG 26001(T) = DSM 23927(T)) and two additional strains are SL1170 and SL60106.

  14. Effects of abdominally implanted radiotransmitters with percutaneous antennas on migration, reproduction, and survival of Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Pearce, John M.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Miller, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Abdominally implanted radiotransmitters with percutaneous antennas are increasingly used to monitor movements, survival, and reproduction of waterbirds. However, there has been relatively little assessment of the effects of such radios on avian demographic parameters or migration. We implanted either a 26- or 35-g abdominal transmitter with percutaneous antenna in 198 adult female lesser Canada geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) in Anchorage, Alaska during 2000 and 2001. We compared migration chronology, reproductive effort, and survival of radiomarked females to 118 control females marked with leg bands. Arrival dates following spring migration were similar among females in different treatments in 2001. However, in 2002, wind direction during late migration was less favorable, and arrival of females with 35-g radiotransmitters lagged 1–2 days behind that of control females. Nest initiation dates, clutch size, and mean egg volume were similar for 152 nests of females that lacked radios and 62 nests of radiomarked females. Estimated nesting propensity for females with operable radiotransmitters was 61% and 72% in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Apparent annual survival (ϕ = 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.76 to 0.87) was similar among treatments in the first year after geese were marked. In the second and third years after marking, model-averaged estimates for survival of females with large radiotransmitters were 10% lower than estimates for control females. However, the effect of large radios on long-term survival was equivocal because of uncertainty surrounding treatment estimates. We conclude that abdominally implanted radiotransmitters with percutaneous antennas had small effects on migration chronology but no apparent effects on fecundity. Abdominal transmitters can provide unbiased estimates of anserine survival in the first year after deployment. Because of the potentially greater effects of larger transmitters on migration and long-term survival, we

  15. Optimizing nest survival and female survival: Consequences of nest site selection for Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Grand, J.B.; Fondell, T.F.; Anthony, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between attributes of nest sites used by Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in the Copper River Delta, Alaska, and patterns in nest and female survival. We aimed to determine whether nest site attributes related to nest and female survival differed and whether nest site attributes related to nest survival changed within and among years. Nest site attributes that we examined included vegetation at and surrounding the nest, as well as associations with other nesting birds. Optimal nest site characteristics were different depending on whether nest survival or female survival was examined. Prior to 25 May, the odds of daily survival for nests in tall shrubs and on islands were 2.92 and 2.26 times greater, respectively, than for nests in short shrub sites. Bald Eagles (Halieaeetus leucocephalus) are the major predator during the early breeding season and their behavior was likely important in determining this pattern. After 25 May, when eagle predation is limited due to the availability of alternative prey, no differences in nest survival among the nest site types were found. In addition, nest survival was positively related to the density of other Canada Goose nests near the nest site. Although the number of detected mortalities for females was relatively low, a clear pattern was found, with mortality three times more likely at nest sites dominated by high shrub density within 50 m than at open sites dominated by low shrub density. The negative relationship of nest concealment and adult survival is consistent with that found in other studies of ground-nesting birds. Physical barriers that limited access to nest sites by predators and sites that allowed for early detection of predators were important characteristics of nest site quality for Canada Geese and nest site quality shifted within seasons, likely as a result of shifting predator-prey interactions.

  16. Contaminants burdens of two subpopulations of lesser snow geese from Wrangel Island, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, C.A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Litvin, Y.V.; Baranyuk, V.V.

    1995-12-31

    The Wrangel Island breeding colony of snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) winters as two subpopulations: one in the British Columbia-Washington state area and one in northern California. The northern-wintering subpopulation has remained stable in the last decade while the California subpopulation has declined by two-thirds. The authors examined the burdens for 19 elemental contaminants in these two groups of birds. The eggs collected in 1993 showed that the California birds had significantly higher levels of manganese. Manganese can cause neurological damage. Livers from adults collected in 1994 showed significant differences in copper, iron, magnesium, molybdenum, and zinc. Only copper was higher in the California birds (x = 116 ppm vs. x = 46 ppm dry weight). These copper levels were higher than in 26 other avian species collected in areas not known to be contaminated. Copper can be toxic but levels for health impairment have not been established for snow geese. Manganese levels did not differ. Elevated copper can be ameliorated by consumption of zinc, molybdenum and/or iron but California birds had significantly lower levels of these analytes. Analyses of ingested food and grit showed that the northern-wintering birds had greater levels of every analyte in which there was a significant difference (aluminum, arsenic, copper, magnesium, manganese, mercury, nickel, lead, strontium, vanadium, zinc) so copper and manganese must be ingested at a different time and/or place than when/where they sampled. Cultivated rice on which the California birds feed may be a primary source for copper and manganese because of the use of fertilizers and copper sulfate. However, these data do not indicate that contaminant levels are high enough to impact health.

  17. Complete genome sequence of a natural reassortant H9N2 avian influenza virus found in bean goose (Anser fabalis): direct evidence for virus exchange between Korea and China via wild birds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Chang-Seon

    2014-08-01

    In 2011, we isolated a natural recombinant H9N2 avian influenza virus from fecal droppings of bean goose (Anser fabalis) in Korea. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the A/bean goose/Korea/220/2011(H9N2) isolate is a reassortant of Eurasian and North American lineages of avian influenza virus. In addition, the complete genome sequence, including all 8 gene segments, was associated with Chinese H9N2 viruses isolated from wild birds in the Hunan East Dongting Lake National Nature Reserve. These data provide direct evidence for the exchange of avian influenza viruses between Korea and China via wild birds.

  18. Delayed Flood Recession in Central Yangtze Floodplains Can Cause Significant Food Shortages for Wintering Geese: Results of Inundation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Lei; Wen, Li; Feng, Duoduo; Zhang, Hong; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-12-01

    Carex meadows are critical habitat for wintering geese in the floodplains of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. These meadows follow a growth cycle closely tied to the seasonal hydrological fluctuation: as water levels recede in the fall, exposed mudflats provide habitat for Carex spp. growth. The seasonal growth of Carex overlaps the arrival of wintering geese and provides an important food source for the migrants. Recent alterations to the Yangtze's hydrology, however, have disrupted the synchronous relationship between water levels, Carex growth and wintering geese at Dongting Lake. In October 2012, we carried out an outdoor mesocosm experiment to investigate potential impacts of delayed water recession on the germination and growth of Carex heterolepis, the dominant Carex species at Dongting Lake, to understand how changes in hydrology might impact wintering goose habitat. Results showed that the delayed flood recession exerted significant impact on the first growth cycle of Carex growth. Prolonged inundation significantly lowered the intrinsic growth rate ( P = 0.03) and maximum growth rates ( P = 0.02). It also took significantly longer time to reach the peak growth rate ( P = 0.04 and 0.05 for number of shoot and biomass, respectively). As a result, biomass accumulation was reduced by 45, 62 and 90 % for 10-day, 20-day and 30-day inundation treatments, respectively. These results indicate a severe risk of food shortage for wintering geese when water recession delayed. This potential risk should be taken into consideration when operating any hydrological control structures that alter the flood regimes in Dongting Lake.

  19. Climate change, phenology, and habitat degradation: drivers of gosling body condition and juvenile survival in lesser snow geese.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Lise M; Rockwell, Robert F; Cooch, Evan G; Brook, Rodney W; Mulder, Christa P H; Koons, David N

    2013-01-01

    Nesting migratory geese are among the dominant herbivores in (sub) arctic environments, which have undergone unprecedented increases in temperatures and plant growing days over the last three decades. Within these regions, the Hudson Bay Lowlands are home to an overabundant breeding population of lesser snow geese that has dramatically damaged the ecosystem, with cascading effects at multiple trophic levels. In some areas the overabundance of geese has led to a drastic reduction in available forage. In addition, warming of this region has widened the gap between goose migration timing and plant green-up, and this 'mismatch' between goose and plant phenologies could in turn affect gosling development. The dual effects of climate change and habitat quality on gosling body condition and juvenile survival are not known, but are critical for predicting population growth and related degradation of (sub) arctic ecosystems. To address these issues, we used information on female goslings marked and measured between 1978 and 2005 (4125 individuals). Goslings that developed within and near the traditional center of the breeding colony experienced the effects of long-term habitat degradation: body condition and juvenile survival declined over time. In newly colonized areas, however, we observed the opposite pattern (increase in body condition and juvenile survival). In addition, warmer than average winters and summers resulted in lower gosling body condition and first-year survival. Too few plant 'growing days' in the spring relative to hatch led to similar results. Our assessment indicates that geese are recovering from habitat degradation by moving to newly colonized locales. However, a warmer climate could negatively affect snow goose populations in the long-run, but it will depend on which seasons warm the fastest. These antagonistic mechanisms will require further study to help predict snow goose population dynamics and manage the trophic cascade they induce.

  20. mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Brantacanadensis).

    PubMed

    Paxinos, Ellen E; James, Helen F; Olson, Storrs L; Sorenson, Michael D; Jackson, Jennifer; Fleischer, Robert C

    2002-02-05

    Phylogenetic analysis of 1.35 kb of mtDNA sequence from fossils revealed a previously unknown radiation of Hawaiian geese, of which only one representative remains alive (the endangered Hawaiian goose or nene, Branta sandvicensis). This radiation is nested phylogenetically within a living species, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and is related most closely to the large-bodied lineage within that species. The barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) is also nested within the Canada goose species and is related most closely to the small-bodied lineage of Canada geese. The peripheral isolation of the barnacle goose in the Palearctic apparently allowed the evolution of its distinctive plumage pattern, whereas the two Nearctic lineages of Canada geese share a primitive plumage pattern. The Hawaiian lineage of Canada geese diverged more dramatically, splitting into at least three species that differ in body size, body proportions, and flight ability. One fossil species, limited to the island of Hawaii, was related closely to the nene but was over four times larger, flightless, heavy-bodied and had a much more robust cranium. Application of a rate calibration to levels of DNA divergence suggests that this species evolved on the island of Hawaii in less than 500,000 years. This date is consistent with the potassium/argon-based age of the island of Hawaii of 430,000-500,000 years. The giant Hawaii goose resembles the moa-nalos, a group of massive, extinct, flightless ducks that lived on older Hawaiian Islands and thus is an example of convergent evolution of similar morphologies in island ecosystems.

  1. mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Paxinos, Ellen E.; James, Helen F.; Olson, Storrs L.; Sorenson, Michael D.; Jackson, Jennifer; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 1.35 kb of mtDNA sequence from fossils revealed a previously unknown radiation of Hawaiian geese, of which only one representative remains alive (the endangered Hawaiian goose or nene, Branta sandvicensis). This radiation is nested phylogenetically within a living species, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and is related most closely to the large-bodied lineage within that species. The barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) is also nested within the Canada goose species and is related most closely to the small-bodied lineage of Canada geese. The peripheral isolation of the barnacle goose in the Palearctic apparently allowed the evolution of its distinctive plumage pattern, whereas the two Nearctic lineages of Canada geese share a primitive plumage pattern. The Hawaiian lineage of Canada geese diverged more dramatically, splitting into at least three species that differ in body size, body proportions, and flight ability. One fossil species, limited to the island of Hawaii, was related closely to the nene but was over four times larger, flightless, heavy-bodied and had a much more robust cranium. Application of a rate calibration to levels of DNA divergence suggests that this species evolved on the island of Hawaii in less than 500,000 years. This date is consistent with the potassium/argon-based age of the island of Hawaii of 430,000–500,000 years. The giant Hawaii goose resembles the moa-nalos, a group of massive, extinct, flightless ducks that lived on older Hawaiian Islands and thus is an example of convergent evolution of similar morphologies in island ecosystems. PMID:11818543

  2. Giardia sp. Cysts and Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in the Feces of Migratory Canada Geese (Branta canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Fayer, Ronald; Trout, James M.; Lewis, Earl J.; Farley, C. Austin; Sulaiman, Irshad; Lal, Altaf A.

    1998-01-01

    Fecal droppings of migratory Canada geese, Branta canadensis, collected from nine sites near the Chesapeake Bay (Maryland), were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia spp. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were found in feces at seven of nine sites, and Giardia cysts were found at all nine sites. The oocysts from three sites were infectious for mice and molecularly identified as the zoonotic genotype of Cryptosporidium parvum. Waterfowl can disseminate infectious C. parvum oocysts in the environment. PMID:9647860

  3. Delayed flood recession in central Yangtze floodplains can cause significant food shortages for wintering geese: results of inundation experiment.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lei; Wen, Li; Feng, Duoduo; Zhang, Hong; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-12-01

    Carex meadows are critical habitat for wintering geese in the floodplains of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. These meadows follow a growth cycle closely tied to the seasonal hydrological fluctuation: as water levels recede in the fall, exposed mudflats provide habitat for Carex spp. growth. The seasonal growth of Carex overlaps the arrival of wintering geese and provides an important food source for the migrants. Recent alterations to the Yangtze's hydrology, however, have disrupted the synchronous relationship between water levels, Carex growth and wintering geese at Dongting Lake. In October 2012, we carried out an outdoor mesocosm experiment to investigate potential impacts of delayed water recession on the germination and growth of Carex heterolepis, the dominant Carex species at Dongting Lake, to understand how changes in hydrology might impact wintering goose habitat. Results showed that the delayed flood recession exerted significant impact on the first growth cycle of Carex growth. Prolonged inundation significantly lowered the intrinsic growth rate (P = 0.03) and maximum growth rates (P = 0.02). It also took significantly longer time to reach the peak growth rate (P = 0.04 and 0.05 for number of shoot and biomass, respectively). As a result, biomass accumulation was reduced by 45, 62 and 90 % for 10-day, 20-day and 30-day inundation treatments, respectively. These results indicate a severe risk of food shortage for wintering geese when water recession delayed. This potential risk should be taken into consideration when operating any hydrological control structures that alter the flood regimes in Dongting Lake.

  4. Molecular characterization, tissue expression, and polymorphism analysis of liver-type fatty acid binding protein in Landes geese.

    PubMed

    Song, Z; Shao, D; Sun, X X; Niu, J W; Gong, D Q

    2015-01-23

    Liver weight is an important economic trait in the fatty goose liver industry. Liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is involved in the formation and metabolism of fatty acids. Thus, we hypothesized that sequence polymorphisms in L-FABP were associated with fatty liver weight in goose. We first isolated, sequenced, and characterized the goose L-FABP gene, which had not been previously reported. The goose L-FABP gene was 2490 bp and included 4 exons coding for a 126-amino acid protein. Analysis of expression levels of the goose L-FABP gene in different tissues showed that the expression level in the liver tissue was higher than in other tissues, and was significantly higher in the liver tissue of overfed geese than in control geese. Moreover, a single nucleotide polymorphism located at 774 bp in the gene was identified in a Landes goose population. To test whether this single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with fatty liver production, liver weight and the ratio of liver to carcass weights were determined for the 3 genotypes with this single nucleotide polymorphism (TT, TG, GG) in overfed Landes geese. Our data indicate that individuals with the GG genotype had higher values for the variables measured than those with the other 2 genotypes, suggesting that L-FABP can be a selection marker for the trait of fatty liver production in goose.

  5. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  6. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    PubMed

    Franson, J Christian; Hoffman, David J; Schmutz, Joel A

    2009-06-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence and two new genotypes of the parasite in endangered Hawaiian Geese (nene: Branta sandvicensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Verma, Shiv K.; Su, Chunlei; Medeiros, John; Kaiakapu, Thomas; Kwok, Oliver C.; Dubey, Jitender P.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite transmitted by domestic cats (Felis catus) that has historically caused mortality in native Hawaiian birds. To estimate how widespread exposure to the parasite is in nene (Hawaiian Geese, Branta sandvicensis), we did a serologic survey for T. gondii antibody and genetically characterized parasite DNA from the tissues of dead birds that had confirmed infections by immunohistochemistry. Of 94 geese sampled, prevalence on the island of Kauai, Maui, and Molokai was 21% (n=42), 23% (n=31), and 48% (n=21), respectively. Two new T. gondii genotypes were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism from four geese, and these appeared segregated geographically. Exposure to T. gondii in wild nene is widespread and, while the parasite is not a major cause of death, it could have sublethal or behavioral effects. How to translate such information to implement effective ways to manage feral cats in Hawaii poses challenges.

  8. The dynamics of avian influenza in western Arctic snow geese: implications for annual and migratory infection patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Brown, Justin D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Ip, Hon S.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.

    2015-01-01

    Wild water birds are the natural reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, our ability to investigate the epizootiology of AIV in these migratory populations is challenging, and despite intensive worldwide surveillance, remains poorly understood. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis in Pacific Flyway lesser snow geese Chen caerulescens to investigate AIV serology and infection patterns. We collected nearly 3,000 sera samples from snow geese at 2 breeding colonies in Russia and Canada during 1993-1996 and swab samples from > 4,000 birds at wintering and migration areas in the United States during 2006-2011. We found seroprevalence and annual seroconversion varied considerably among years. Seroconversion and infection rates also differed between snow goose breeding colonies and wintering areas, suggesting that AIV exposure in this gregarious waterfowl species is likely occurring during several phases (migration, wintering and potentially breeding areas) of the annual cycle. We estimated AIV antibody persistence was longer (14 months) in female geese compared to males (6 months). This relatively long period of AIV antibody persistence suggests that subtype-specific serology may be an effective tool for detection of exposure to subtypes associated with highly-pathogenic AIV. Our study provides further evidence of high seroprevalence in Arctic goose populations, and estimates of annual AIV seroconversion and antibody persistence for North American waterfowl. We suggest future AIV studies include serology to help elucidate the epizootiological dynamics of AIV in wild bird populations.

  9. The origin of the white Roman goose.

    PubMed

    Wang, C M; Way, T D; Chang, Y C; Yen, N T; Hu, C L; Nien, P C; Jea, Y S; Chen, L R; Kao, J Y

    2010-12-01

    In order to avoid interference from nuclear copies of mitochondrial DNA (numts), mtDNA of the white Roman goose (domestic goose) was extracted from liver mitochondria. The mtDNA control region was amplified using a long PCR strategy and then sequenced. Neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum-likelihood approaches were implemented using the 1,177 bp mtDNA control region sequences to compute the phylogenetic relationships of the domestic goose with other geese. The resulting identity values for the white Roman geese were 99.1% (1,166/1,177) with western graylag geese and 98.8% (1,163/1,177) with eastern graylag geese. In molecular phylogenetic trees, the white Roman goose was grouped in the graylag lineage, indicating that the white Roman goose came from the graylag goose (Anser anser). Thus, the scientific name of the white Roman goose should be Anser anser 'White Roman.'

  10. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 2 in ovarian follicles of the Sichuan white goose (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    He, Hui; Kang, Bo; Jiang, Dongmei; Ma, Rong; Bai, Lin

    2014-07-25

    The ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 2 (OAZ2) gene is a member of the antizyme gene family. Antizymes play pivotal roles in various cellular pathways, including polyamine anabolism and apoptosis. The molecular structure and expression profile of the OAZ2 in goose ovarian follicles have not been reported. In this study, the OAZ2 cDNA sequence of the Sichuan white goose was cloned (Anser cygnoides), and phylogenetic and structural analyses of the OAZ2 were performed. The expression profiling of OAZ2 mRNA in goose ovarian follicles was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The sequence analysis showed that the 756 bp OAZ2 sequence contained two overlapping open reading frames (ORF). ORF1 was 99 bp in length, and encoded a 32 aa polypeptide. ORF2 was 477 bp in length, and encoded a 158 aa polypeptide. The frameshift site that initiates the translation of ORF2 was located at nucleotide position 97 in the OAZ2. The analysis of OAZ2 mRNA expression in hierarchical follicles showed that the level of OAZ2 mRNA was higher in the SWF and F2 follicular stages than that in the ovarian stroma (P<0.05). The lowest level of OAZ2 expression was detected in the ovarian stroma. These results suggest that the highly conserved frameshift region plays an important role in sustaining the function of OAZs. Furthermore, the significantly higher level of OAZ2 mRNA in the SWF stage indicates that OAZ2 may be involved in recruiting hierarchical follicles. Our results also suggest that OAZ2 may augment the effects of OAZ1 in follicle development.

  11. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  12. Prevalence of lead exposure among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of lead exposure from ingestion of waste lead shot among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and < 1 % of adults showed evidence of recent exposure to lead shot (i.e., concentrations in the blood elevated above the threshold value of 0. 18 ppm lead). However, median background blood lead concentrations (i.e., blood samples with < 0.18 ppm lead) were higher in adults than goslings, indicating that exposure of adults to lead had occurred during previous seasons. Waste lead shot was available on the migration and wintering grounds, where a larger proportion of the blood samples from immatures (< 1 year old) than adults (> 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez

  13. Variability in pathobiology of South Korean H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus infection for 5 species of migratory waterfowl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological outcome of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection in wild waterfowl is poorly understood. This study examined infectivity and pathobiology of A/chicken/Korea/IS/06 (H5N1) HPAI virus infection in Mute swans (Cygnus olor), Greylag geese (Anser anser), Ruddy Sheld...

  14. Analysis of the serum concentrations of kisspeptin and neurokinin B in the geese during reproductive cycle and their localisation in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Hua, Wen; Luo, Lei; Tian, Yuan; Song, Min; Liu, Yajie; Cui, Pei; Song, Shuang; Jiang, Shudong; Li, Fubao; Fang, Fugui

    2014-12-10

    Kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) have various functions. Their expression has been demonstrated in rat and human ovary, and estrogen affects their activity, suggesting a role for these molecules in the control of ovary function. However, whether these signaling systems are present in geese ovary, and the associated with serum estrogen remains largely unexplored. In this study we investigated the expression of kisspeptin and NKB in the ovary, and analysed their changes in the serum during the reproductive cycle and their association with serum estradiol in the geese. The results showed both kisspeptin and NKB immunoreactivity was found in the ovary, with marked expression in the granular layer and theca of the follicle, where intense coexpression of kisspeptin and NKB was also detected. The serum concentrations of kisspeptin and NKB in geese were significantly higher (P<0.05) in broody period than in laying period and laying cessation stage. However, the level of estradiol was markedly higher (P<0.05) in laying period than in broody and laying cessation stage. Serum kisspeptin was positively correlated with NKB (r=0.866, P<0.001), serum estradiol was negatively correlated with kisspeptin (r=-0.977, P<0.05) and NKB (r=-0.887, P<0.05). Overall, the existence of kisspeptin and NKB in geese ovary, and the difference of their serum concentrations during reproductive cycle and the inverse correlation with serum estradiol are highly suggestive of a role for kisspeptin and NKB in the regulation of geese reproductive function.

  15. Ecological implications of reduced forage quality on growth and survival of sympatric geese.

    PubMed

    Richman, Samantha E; Leafloor, James O; Karasov, William H; McWilliams, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Allometric constraints associated with digesting leaves require relatively small avian herbivores to consume high-quality forage. How such constraints are overcome during ontogeny when energy and nutrient requirements are relatively high has not been adequately explored. We compared growth trajectories of Canada and lesser snow goose goslings raised on grass-based diets that differed in protein (10%, 14% or 18%) and fibre (30% or 45%) with those of free-living goslings on Akimiski Island, Canada. This common-garden experiment allowed us to test the hypotheses that (i) smaller-bodied geese are more negatively affected by reduced forage quality than larger-bodied geese, and (ii) goslings from subarctic brood-rearing areas have a limited capacity to slow growth in response to reduced forage quality. Canada goose goslings fed low-protein (10%) diets were on average 44% lighter in body mass, had slower growth rates and were delayed >20 days in reaching 90% of asymptotic size compared with Canada goose goslings fed 18% protein. In contrast, snow goose goslings were unable to survive on the low-protein diets, and those fed high- or medium-protein diets grew at a similar rate and achieved similar asymptotic size. Canada and snow goose goslings fed low-protein diets had reduced growth rates of the tarsus and delayed emergence of the 9th primary. Free-ranging Canada goslings on Akimiski Island were similar in mass and structural size to captive-reared goslings fed low-protein diets. In contrast, snow goslings were similar in mass and structural size to the captive-reared goslings fed the high- and medium-protein diets. This suggests that degraded habitats with mostly low-protein forage may be able to support Canada goslings better than snow goslings which require higher-quality forage to survive. Size-related differences in gosling growth and survival in response to diminished diet quality may influence population size when available food reaches a lower threshold in

  16. Renesting by dusky Canada geese on the Copper River Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Grand, James B.; Miller, David A.W.; Anthony, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The population of dusky Canada geese (Branta canadensis occidentalis; hereafter duskies) breeding on the Copper River Delta (CRD), Alaska, USA, has been in long-term decline, largely as a result of reduced productivity. Estimates of renesting rates by duskies may be useful for adjusting estimates of the size of the breeding population derived from aerial surveys and for understanding population dynamics. We used a marked population of dusky females to obtain estimates of renesting propensity and renesting interval on the CRD, 1999–2000. Continuation nests, replacement nests initiated without a break in the laying sequence, resulted only after first nests were destroyed in the laying stage with ≤4 eggs laid. Renesting propensity declined with nest age from 72% in mid-laying to 30% in early incubation. Between first nests and renests, mean interval was 11.9 ± 0.6 days, mean distance was 74.5 m (range 0–214 m), and clutch size declined 0.9 ± 0.4 eggs. We incorporated our renesting estimates and available estimates of other nesting parameters into an individual-based model to predict the proportion of first nests, continuation nests, and renests, and to examine female success on the CRD, 1997–2000. Our model predicted that 19–36% of nests each year were continuation nests and renests. Also, through 15 May (the approx. date of breeding ground surveys), 1.1–1.3 nests were initiated per female. Thus, the number of nests per female would have a significant, though relatively consistent, effect on adjusting the relation between numbers of nests found on ground surveys versus numbers of birds seen during aerial surveys. We also suggest a method that managers could use to predict nests per female using nest success of early nests. Our model predicted that relative to observed estimates of nest success, female success was 32–100% greater, due to replacement nests. Thus, although nest success remains low, production for duskies was higher than previously thought

  17. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; McKernan, M.A.; Eisenreich, K.M.; Link, W.A.; Olsen, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Knowles, K.A.; McGowan, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was Iympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 :g/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 ug/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 ug/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney <5 ug/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  18. Filling a void: abundance estimation of North American populations of arctic geese using hunter recoveries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alisauskas, R.T.; Drake, K.L.; Nichols, J.D.; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    We consider use of recoveries of marked birds harvested by hunters, in conjunction with continental harvest estimates, for drawing inferences about continental abundance of a select number of goose species. We review assumptions of this method, a version of the Lincoln?Petersen approach, and consider its utility as a tool for making decisions about harvest management in comparison to current sources of information. Finally, we compare such estimates with existing count data, photographic estimates, or other abundance estimates. In most cases, Lincoln estimates are far higher than abundances assumed or perhaps accepted by many waterfowl biologists and managers. Nevertheless, depending on the geographic scope of inference, we suggest that this approach for abundance estimation of arctic geese may have usefulness for retrospective purposes or to assist with harvest management decisions for some species. Lincoln?s estimates may be as close or closer to truth than count, index, or photo data, and can be used with marking efforts currently in place for estimation of survival and harvest rates. Although there are bias issues associated with estimates of both harvest and harvest rate, some of the latter can be addressed with proper allocation of marks to spatially structured populations if subpopulations show heterogeneity in harvest rates.

  19. "My goose child Martina": the multiple uses of geese in the writings of Konrad Lorenz.

    PubMed

    Munz, Tania

    2011-01-01

    In 1935, the graylag goose Martina (1935-?) hatched from an egg in the home of the zoologist Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989). Martina imprinted on Lorenz, slept in his bedroom, mated with the gander Martin, and flew off in 1937. Over the following decades, Konrad Lorenz helped to establish the discipline of ethology, received a share of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and continued to write about his famous goose Martina. This essay examines the different instantiations of the geese in general, and Martina in particular, in Lorenz's writings aimed at readerships that included prewar zoologists, National Socialist psychologists, and popular audiences from the 1930s to 1980s. By developing an animal with her own biography, Lorenz created an individual whose lived and rhetorical agency made her especially well suited to perform widely divergent aspects of his evolving science. While a significant literature in the history of science has explored the standardization and stabilization of animals in science, I show how Lorenz's creation of a highly protean and increasingly public Martina was co-constitutive of the establishment of the science and public persona.

  20. Evaluation of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program: addressing resettlement issues in prison.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Leigh; Pritchard, Cecilia; Haskayne, Donna; Watson, Andy; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the impact of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program on a sample of offenders who attended it. This program used theatre performance, experiential exercises, skills practice role-plays, and metaphors such as the masks to invite a group of offenders to consider and explore issues connected with their release and reconnecting with a life outside prison. Pre- and postprogram psychometric tests, behavior ratings, and interviews were completed to assess the effectiveness of the program. Significant changes were observed from pre- to posttreatment in terms of self-efficacy, motivation to change, and improved confidence in skills (i.e., social and friendship, occupational, family and intimacy, dealing with authority, alternatives to aggression or offending, and self-management and self-control skills). Improved behavior and engagement within the program was observed over the 3 days of the program. Interviews also revealed the positive impact the program had on the participants. This provides evidence supporting the short-term effectiveness of the Re-Connect program.

  1. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid and choline requirements of young Embden geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined.

  2. Genetic consequences of breaking migratory traditions in barnacle geese Branta leucopsis.

    PubMed

    Jonker, R M; Kraus, R H S; Zhang, Q; van Hooft, P; Larsson, K; van der Jeugd, H P; Kurvers, R H J M; van Wieren, S E; Loonen, M J J E; Crooijmans, R P M A; Ydenberg, R C; Groenen, M A M; Prins, H H T

    2013-12-01

    Cultural transmission of migratory traditions enables species to deal with their environment based on experiences from earlier generations. Also, it allows a more adequate and rapid response to rapidly changing environments. When individuals break with their migratory traditions, new population structures can emerge that may affect gene flow. Recently, the migratory traditions of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis changed, and new populations differing in migratory distance emerged. Here, we investigate the population genetic structure of the Barnacle Goose to evaluate the consequences of altered migratory traditions. We used a set of 358 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to genotype 418 individuals from breeding populations in Greenland, Spitsbergen, Russia, Sweden and the Netherlands, the latter two being newly emerged populations. We used discriminant analysis of principal components, FST , linkage disequilibrium and a comparison of geneflow models using migrate-n to show that there is significant population structure, but that relatively many pairs of SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium, suggesting recent admixture between these populations. Despite the assumed traditions of migration within populations, we also show that genetic exchange occurs between all populations. The newly established nonmigratory population in the Netherlands is characterized by high emigration into other populations, which suggests more exploratory behaviour, possibly as a result of shortened parental care. These results suggest that migratory traditions in populations are subject to change in geese and that such changes have population genetic consequences. We argue that the emergence of nonmigration probably resulted from developmental plasticity.

  3. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and the Methodology for Mitigation and Enhancement in the Flathead Drainage, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, Dennis L.

    1985-01-01

    The lower Flathead System Canada Goose Study was initiated to determine population trends and the effects of water level fluctuations on nest and brood habitat on the southern half of Flathead Lake and the lower Flathead River as a result of the operations of Kerr Dam. This report presents data collected during the 1984 field season as part of an ongoing project. Geese used Pablo, Kicking Horse, Ninepipe Reservoirs heavily during late summer and fall. Use of the river by geese was high during the winter, when the reservoirs were frozen, and during the breeding period. Most breeding geese left the river after broods fledged. Thirteen percent of the artificial tree nest structures on the river were used by nesting geese. Goose nest initiation on the river peaked the last week in March through the first week in April, and hatching peaked the first week in May. Predation was the most significant cause of nest loss on the river, and nest loss by flooding was not observed. Avian predation was the single largest factor contributing to nest loss on the lake. Habitat use was studied in 4 brood areas on the river and 8 brood areas on the lake, and available habitat was assessed for 2 portions of both the lake and the river. Brood habitat use was significantly different from the available habitat in all areas studied. On the lower river, broods used wheat fields, gravel bars, and shrub habitats. On the upper river, coniferous forest and shrub habitats were preferred. On the West Bay of the lake, brood areas consisted primarily of lawns and tall herbaceous habitat, while on the South Bay, marshes dominated the brood areas studied. Water levels on the river and lake affect both accessibility of these areas to brooding geese, and the ecology of the habitats preferred by geese. 43 refs., 24 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. Effects of short light regimes and lower dietary protein content on the reproductive performance of White Roman geese in an environment-controlled house.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shen-Chang; Chiang, Hsin-I; Lin, Min-Jung; Jea, Yu-Shine; Chen, Lih-Ren; Fan, Yang-Kwang; Lee, Tzu-Tai

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of short light regimes and lower dietary protein content on the reproductive performance of White Roman geese in an environment- controlled house. Thirty-two ganders and 80 geese during the third laying period were allotted into 16 pens, randomly assigned into a split-plot design with two different lighting regimes: (1) short light regimes (SL) with 6.5h of light and 17.5h of dark (6.5L:17.5D), and (2) long light regimes (LL) with 19L:5D during the 6-wk prelaying period, followed by two different levels of protein diets (Low CP: 15% vs. High CP: 18%) for the laying period. The results showed that birds treated with the SL light regime had a heavier body weight compared to those treated with LL at the arrival of the peak period of egg production (6.19 vs. 5.87kg, P<0.05). Geese under LL had a longer laying period than those under SL treatment (277 vs. 175day, P<0.05), while the geese under SL treatment had a higher laying intensity (15.4% vs. 12.6%, P<0.05), fertility and hatchability than those under LL treatment. Our results suggest that the White Roman geese treated with 6-wk short light regime during the prelaying period and on the low CP diet during the laying period found conditions sufficient to sustain their regular reproduction performance, which would benefit geese farmers in the perspectives of energy saving and prolonged laying period.

  5. Fidelity and breeding probability related to population density and individual quality in black brent geese Branta bernicla nigricans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, J.S.; Chelgren, N.D.; Ward, D.H.; Lindberg, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    1. Patterns of temporary emigration (associated with non-breeding) are important components of variation in individual quality. Permanent emigration from the natal area has important implications for both individual fitness and local population dynamics. 2. We estimated both permanent and temporary emigration of black brent geese (Branta bernicla nigricans Lawrence) from the Tutakoke River colony, using observations of marked brent geese on breeding and wintering areas, and recoveries of ringed individuals by hunters. We used the likelihood developed by Lindberg, Kendall, Hines & Anderson 2001 (Combining band recovery data and Pollock's robust design to model temporary and permanent emigration. Biometrics, 57, 273-281) to assess hypotheses and estimate parameters. 3. Temporary emigration (the converse of breeding) varied among age classes up to age 5, and differed between individuals that bred in the previous years vs. those that did not. Consistent with the hypothesis of variation in individual quality, individuals with a higher probability of breeding in one year also had a higher probability of breeding the next year. 4. Natal fidelity of females ranged from 0.70 ?? 0.07-0.96 ?? 0.18 and averaged 0.83. In contrast to Lindberg et al. (1998), we did not detect a relationship between fidelity and local population density. Natal fidelity was negatively correlated with first-year survival, suggesting that competition among individuals of the same age for breeding territories influenced dispersal. Once females nested at the Tutakoke River, colony breeding fidelity was 1.0. 5. Our analyses show substantial variation in individual quality associated with fitness, which other analyses suggest is strongly influenced by early environment. Our analyses also suggest substantial interchange among breeding colonies of brent geese, as first shown by Lindberg et al. (1998).

  6. Effect of Monochromic Light-emitting Diode Light with Different Color on the Growth and Reproductive Performances of Breeder Geese

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C.; Lin, M. J.; Zhuang, Z. X.; Huang, S. Y.; Lin, T. Y.; Jea, Y. S.; Fan, Y. K.; Lee, T. T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of monochromic light-emitting diode (LED) light with different color on the growth and reproductive performances of white Roman breeder geese. A randomized complete batch design was utilized for the trial, and the replicate was regarded as one batch. Twenty ganders and fifty-five dames were used in batch 1 (started on 2011/6/17 and ended on 2012/1/31), thirty ganders and eighty-four dames were used in batch 2 (started on 2012/3/23 and ended on 2012/10/26), and thirty ganders and seventy-two dames were used in batch 3 (started on 2013/3/12 and ended on 2013/12/20). Two hundred and ninety-one geese were randomly assigned to 6 rooms in an environmentally controlled house. They were randomly allotted into one of three monochromatic light treatments: Blue, red, or white. The results showed that there was no significant difference in body weight among the three lighting groups at any point throughout the experimental period. However, compared to the blue light group, significantly more eggs were produced by the red and white light groups (p<0.05). Furthermore, the laying period of the red light group was significantly longer than that of other two groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that red LED-light has the best effect on reproductive performance (i.e. longer laying period and higher total eggs number) at 30 lux light intensity, and is therefore a better choice for the management of breeding geese than blue or white LED-light. PMID:26954165

  7. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brook, Rodney W.; Leafloor, James O.; Douglas, David C.; Abraham, Kenneth F.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  8. Development of an adaptive harvest management program for Taiga bean geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Alhainen, Mikko; Fox, Anthony D.; Madsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    This report describes recent progress in specifying the elements of an adaptive harvest program for taiga bean goose. It describes harvest levels appropriate for first rebuilding the population of the Central Management Unit and then maintaining it near the goal specified in the AEWA International Single Species Action Plan (ISSAP). This report also provides estimates of the length of time it would take under ideal conditions (no density dependence and no harvest) to rebuild depleted populations in the Western and Eastern Management Units. We emphasize that our estimates are a first approximation because detailed demographic information is lacking for taiga bean geese. Using allometric relationships, we estimated parameters of a thetalogistic matrix population model. The mean intrinsic rate of growth was estimated as r = 0.150 (90% credible interval: 0.120 – 0.182). We estimated the mean form of density dependence as   2.361 (90% credible interval: 0.473 – 11.778), suggesting the strongest density dependence occurs when the population is near its carrying capacity. Based on expert opinion, carrying capacity (i.e., population size expected in the absence of hunting) for the Central Management Unit was estimated as K  87,900 (90% credible interval: 82,000 – 94,100). The ISSAP specifies a population goal for the Central Management Unit of 60,000 – 80,000 individuals in winter; thus, we specified a preliminary objective function as one which would minimize the difference between this goal and population size. Using the concept of stochastic dominance to explicitly account for uncertainty in demography, we determined that optimal harvest rates for 5, 10, 15, and 20-year time horizons were h = 0.00, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.06, respectively. These optima represent a tradeoff between the harvest rate and the time required to achieve and maintain a population size within desired bounds. We recognize, however, that regulation of absolute harvest rather than

  9. Analysis of 16S rDNA and Metagenomic Sequences Revealed Microbial Community and Host-Specific Sequences of Canadian Geese Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increasing concern regarding the public health risks associated with waterfowl fecal pollution as a result of the increase in geese populations (Branta canadensis) in or near U.S. and Canadian recreational waters. Currently, there are no methods that can be used to de...

  10. Protective efficacy of commercial Newcastle disease vaccines against challenge of goose origin virulent Newcastle disease virus in geese.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yabin; Liu, Mei; Li, Wenliang

    2008-09-01

    Since 1997, severe outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) in geese in many regions throughout China have resulted in high morbidity and mortality, and great economic loss to farmers; however, no licensed, specific vaccine is yet available for this disease in China. In this study, goslings were immunized with different combinations and dosages of several commercial ND vaccines including La Sota vaccine, Mukteswar vaccine, recombinant live vaccine against avian influenza (AI) and ND (rL-H5 strain), and inactivated ND oil-emulsion vaccine (La Sota strain). The protective effects were evaluated based upon the level of antibody response and the degree of protection against the goose-origin virulent NDV strain. The result showed that two doses (i.e., one more than that for chicken) of La Sota vaccine priming, followed by 2-5 doses of Mukteswar vaccine boosting 2-3 weeks later, not only induced higher HI antibody levels, but also conferred longer-lasting protection. This immunization procedure can be recommended for prevention of ND in geese.

  11. Immunopotentiators Improve the Efficacy of Oil-Emulsion-Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine in Chickens, Ducks and Geese.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jihu; Wu, Peipei; Zhang, Xuehua; Feng, Lei; Dong, Bin; Chu, Xuan; Liu, Xiufan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Huailiang; Hou, Jibo; Tang, Yinghua

    2016-01-01

    Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI) vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection.

  12. Source tracking identifies deer and geese as vectors of human-infectious Cryptosporidium genotypes in an urban/suburban watershed.

    PubMed

    Jellison, Kristen L; Lynch, Amy E; Ziemann, Joseph M

    2009-06-15

    This study identified Cryptosporidium genotypes in the Wissahickon watershed from May 2005 to April 2008. We analyzed 129 samples from Wissahickon Creek, 83 effluent samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and 240 fecal droppings. Genotyping was based on the hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene. Oocysts were detected year-round, independent of wet weather events, in 22% of Wissahickon Creek samples, 5% of WWTP effluents, and 7% of fecal samples. Of the genotypes detected, 67% were human-infectious: 30% C. hominis or C. hominis-like, 12% C. parvum, 14% cervine genotype, 9% skunk genotype, and 1% chipmunk I genotype. Similar genotype profiles were detected in Wissahickon Creek each year, and human-infectious genotypes were detected year-round. Unusual genotypes detected in a deer (a C. hominis-like genotype) and geese (C. hominis-like genotypes, C. parvum, and muskrat genotype I) show that these animals are vectors of human-infectious genotypes in this watershed. Results suggest that deer, geese, and WWTPs are appropriate targets for source water protection in the Wissahickon watershed.

  13. Effect of corn silage and quantitative feed restriction on growth performance, body measurements, and carcass tissue composition in White Kołuda W31 geese.

    PubMed

    Kokoszyński, D; Bernacki, Z; Grabowicz, M; Stańczak, K

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of corn silage and quantitative feed restriction on BW, ADG, feed conversion, and carcass composition of White Kołuda W31 geese. Two diets were fed during the rearing period from 22 to 98 d of age: 1) a commercial diet ad libitum, and 2) restricted amounts of a commercial diet and corn silage ad libitum. Each treatment had 2 replicates of 16 birds each. From 99 to 119 d of age, all birds were fattened with whole oat grain alone. Incorporation of corn silage reduced weight gains and caused statistically significant differences in BW at the end of the rearing period (14 wk, 6,625.0 vs. 6,050.0 g; P < 0.05). Experimental geese showed compensatory growth during the oat fattening period and the BW of geese from both groups was similar at the end of the study (17 wk, 7,675.1 vs. 7,467.9 g; P > 0.05). Daily weight gains varied with week of growth, being lowest at 12 wk of age. Birds fed the commercial diet and corn silage had a significantly longer trunk (29.2 vs. 31.0 cm, P < 0.05) and shorter shanks (10.0 vs. 9.4 cm, P < 0.05) at 8 wk, and significantly smaller chest circumference (54.7 vs. 51.9 cm, P < 0.05) at the end of 14 wk. At the end of oat feeding (17 wk), geese receiving silage had significantly longer trunk and drumstick compared with geese fed commercial diets alone. The carcasses of 17-wk-old experimental geese contained more breast and leg muscles (%), and less skin with subcutaneous fat from breast and legs compared with control birds. Significant differences were only noted between the groups in dressing percentage (65.0 vs. 74.7%, P < 0.05) and proportion of skin with subcutaneous fat from breast (8.9 vs. 7.8%, P < 0.05). Dilution of the diet for young fattening geese with whole-crop corn silage had a positive effect on production economics and carcass composition.

  14. Effects of Bacillus subtilis var. natto and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermented liquid feed on growth performance, relative organ weight, intestinal microflora, and organ antioxidant status in Landes geese.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Zhu, X Z; Wang, J P; Wang, Z X; Huang, Y Q

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis var. natto N21 (BAC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y10 (SAC) fermented liquid feed (FLF) during different incubation times on the growth performance, relative organ weight, intestinal microflora, and organ antioxidative status in Landes geese. Two hundred forty male Landes geese (10 wk old) with the BW of 4.163 ± 0.108 kg were selected for a 3-wk trial and randomly allotted to 3 treatments according to their BW (10 replicates/treatment and 8 geese/replicate). The treatments included 1) CON, dry basal feed (corn-soybean basal diet mixed with water) before feeding (2:1 wt/wt), 2) FLF24, 24 h FLF, and 3) FLF48, 48 h FLF. The FLF diet was prepared by storing basal diet with 10(9) cfu/g feed of each BAC and SAC and water (2:1 wt/wt) in a closed tank at 20°C fermented for 24 or 48 h. The BW gain and feed intake of geese fed FLF24 and FLF48 was greater (P < 0.05) than CON treatment. Feeding geese with FLF24 and FLF48 feeds increased (P < 0.05) the relative weight of leg muscle whereas the liver was heavier (P < 0.05) in FLF48 treatment than CON and FLF24 treatments. The FLF24 and FLF48 increased (P < 0.05) the Lactobacillus population and depressed (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli population in small and large intestine. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was greatest (P < 0.05) in FLF48 whereas the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was less (P < 0.05) in FLF24 and FLF48 treatments than CON. Geese fed FLF48 diet had greater glutathione peroxidase activity and less malondialdehyde content in heart and liver than those fed CON diet. In breast muscle, the superoxide dismutase activity were increased (P < 0.05) by FLF24 and FLF48 treatments than CON diet. In conclusion, the results indicated that feeding geese with BAC and SAC mix FLF can improve growth and feed intake, modulate the intestine ecology, and decrease the blood cholesterol concentrations; it also can

  15. Effect of incorporating sugar beet pulp in the finisher diet on performance of geese.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J; Brachet, M; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Molette, C; Bannelier, C; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of incorporating sugar beet pulp (SBP) into the diet on the development of the crop and performance of geese. A total of 480 1-day-old ganders were divided into three groups differing in the composition and mode of distribution of the diet offered from day 56 to 89. The following two diets were used: a standard diet (nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, AMEn 11.44 MJ/kg; 160 g/kg CP) or a diet containing 10% of SBP (SBP diet; AMEn 11.47 MJ/kg; 160 g/kg CP). The swelling capacity (SC) hydration was higher for SBP than for the standard diet (3.62 v. 2.72 ml of H2O/g of dry matter at 60 min; P<0.05). In the Control group, birds were fed with a controlled time of access to a standard diet. Other birds were fed the SBP diet with a controlled time of access (SBPt group) or a controlled quantity offered (SBPq). From day 90 to 104, 88 birds/group were overfed with a mixture containing mainly corn. Body traits including volume of the crop were measured at day 89. Fatty liver weight and commercial grading were measured at d 104. Feed intake from day 56 to 89 was higher in the Control group than in the SBPt group (8097 v. 7545 g; P<0.05), feed intake in the SBPq group being intermediate (7801 g); however, live weights (LW) of the birds were similar in the three groups measured at day 89 (5746 g; P>0.05). At day 89, the volume of the crop tended to be higher in the SBPt compared with the Control group (52.8 v. 48.8 ml/kg of LW; P=0.101). After overfeeding, feed intake (12 922 g), weight gain (2412 g), LW (8170 g), fatty liver weight (875 g) and commercial grading of the fatty liver were similar (P>0.1) for all the three groups. Therefore, SBP could help adapt the digestive tract of waterfowl to high feed intake through an increase in the crop volume, but its method of use - that is, level of incorporation and mode of distribution - should continue to be investigated.

  16. Effects of substituting yellow corn for sorghum in geese diets on magret and foie gras quality.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J; Auvergne, A; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Bijja, M; Bannelier, C; Manse, H; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the effects of substitution of yellow corn with sorghum during the growing-finishing (G period), overfeeding (O period), or both periods on magret and foie gras quality in geese. In total, 260 ganders were divided into 4 groups (65 birds in each) differing in the cereal (yellow corn or sorghum) included in the diet given during the G and the O periods, using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The groups differed in the nature of the cereal in the diet offered to birds between 44 and 104 d of age (G period: a diet containing 500 g of sorghum/kg (SS and SC groups) or a diet containing 500 g of yellow corn/kg (CS and CC groups). The groups differed also in the diet offered to birds between 105 and 120 d of age (O period): 967 g of yellow corn/kg (SC and CC groups) or 965 g of sorghum/kg (SS and CS groups). At the end of the O period, the birds were slaughtered after 10 h of fasting to measure foie gras and breast muscle weight, color, and chemical composition. The mortality in the SC group was higher (P < 0.05) than in the other 3 groups (14.29 vs. 3.58%, average of the 3 groups). After overfeeding, birds fed with sorghum had foie gras that were heavier 984 vs. 885 g, in CS+SS vs. CC+SC groups, respectively; P < 0.001) and less yellow (18.03 vs. 23.97 for b*, in CS+SS vs. CC+SC groups, respectively, P < 0.001) than birds fed with corn. The substitution of yellow corn with sorghum during the G and O periods (SS group) increased the weight of the foie gras, but altered its color to a paler yellow. In contrast, a substitution during the G period only (SC group) resulted in increased mortality during the O period.

  17. Effects of sequential feeding with low- and high-protein diets on growth performances and plasma metabolite levels in geese.

    PubMed

    Ho, S-Y; Chen, Y-H; Yang, S-K

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted by two trials to investigate effects of sequential feeding with low- and high-protein diets on growth traits and plasma metabolites in geese. In Trial I, the effect of sequential feeding under time-restricted feeding system was investigated. Seventy-two White Roman goslings were randomly allotted into either sequential feeding (S1) or control feeding (C1) group. All goslings were fed for 1 h at morning and at evening, respectively, from 2 to 8 weeks of age. S1 group was offered 13% CP diet at morning and 19% CP diet at evening. C1 group was offered the same diet (16% CP; mixed equally with the two diets mentioned above) at both morning and evening. Blood samples were hourly collected for 4 h after feeding at both morning and evening for the determination of the postprandial plasma levels of glucose, triacylglycerol and uric acid at the end of experiment. Results showed that BW, average daily gain (ADG), and daily feed intake (FI) were not different between groups, but the feed efficiency (FE) in S1 group was significantly higher than that in C1 group (P<0.05). The areas under curve (AUC) of plasma postprandial levels of glucose, triacylglycerol and uric acid were not affected by treatment, but the AUC of triacylglycerol and uric acid in morning were lower than those in evening (P<0.05). In Trial II, the effect of sequential feeding under ad libitum feeding system was investigated. Twenty-four goslings were randomly allotted into either sequential feeding (S2) or control feeding (C2) group. Diets were altered at 0600 and 1800 h, respectively, and geese were fed ad libitum from 4 to 8 weeks of age. S2 group was offered 14% CP diet at morning and 20% CP diet at evening. C2 group was supplied the same diet (mixed with the two diets according to the ratio of diets consumed by S2 group on the preceded day) at both morning and evening. Results showed that the ADG in S2 group was higher than those in C2 group (P<0.05). Summarized data from both

  18. [Changes of fatty-acid structure of common lipids and contents of peroxidation products in tissues of embryos depending on the level of vitamins A, D3 and E in a diet of geese during the reproductive period].

    PubMed

    Moravs'ka, O V; Vovk, S O

    2010-01-01

    Results concerning the contents of retinol in the liver, residual yoke of 25-day embryos and yoke of eggs depending on the level of vitamins A, D3 and E in the diet of geese by grey Obroshin breeds in reproductive period are presented in the paper. It is established, that vitamin D3 reduces the level of retinol deposition in the tissues of embryos and yoke of eggs of geese, and addition of vitamins A and E to a diet of geese raises the level of retinol both in the liver and residual yoke of embryos, and in yokes of geese eggs. Besides the data about changes of fatty-acid spectrum of common lipids and contents of lipid peroxidations products in tissues of the liver and pectoral muscles of 25-day embryos are presented in the paper depending on the level of vitamins A, D3 and E in geese diet during their reproductive period. Introduction of vitamin A--in quantity of 10000 IU, vitamin D3--in quantity of 3000 IU, in the composition of mixed fodder of geese during the reproductive period and vitamin E in quantity 35 IU on 1 kg to mixed fodder optimizes fatty-acid structure of the common lipids and the level of peroxidations lipids products in the liver and pectoral muscles of embryos.

  19. Reconciling competing values placed upon goose populations: The evolution of and experiences from the Islay Sustainable Goose Management Strategy.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Rae; Shaw, Jessica M

    2017-03-01

    The Scottish island of Islay hosts 45 000 barnacle geese Branta leucopsis (56% of the Greenland barnacle goose population, plus those passing through on migration), 5000 Greenland white-fronted geese Anser albifrons flavirostris (up to 30% of the world population) and 2500 greylag geese Anser anser, most of which feed on 9000 ha of grassland. The financial impacts of estimated agricultural damage have risen greatly over the past 20 years due to increasing goose numbers and higher farming costs. Mechanisms implemented to resolve conflict over time are reviewed for their effectiveness. Emphasis is placed on coordinating the implementation of strategic national conflict resolution at a local scale where the relative pressure from internationally important concentrations of geese on agriculture is acute. Despite the "local" nature of this problem, the benefit from the experience of decades of attempted conflict resolution and the effectiveness of existing programmes can contribute much to the regional and flyway dimensions of this international issue.

  20. Global change and ecosystem connectivity: How geese link fields of central Europe to eutrophication of Arctic freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Hessen, Dag O; Tombre, Ingunn M; van Geest, Gerben; Alfsnes, Kristian

    2017-02-01

    Migratory connectivity by birds may mutually affect different ecosystems over large distances. Populations of geese overwintering in southern areas while breeding in high-latitude ecosystems have increased strongly over the past decades. The increase is likely due to positive feedbacks caused by climate change at both wintering, stopover sites and breeding grounds, land-use practices at the overwintering grounds and protection from hunting. Here we show how increasing goose populations in temperate regions, and increased breeding success in the Arctic, entail a positive feedback with strong impacts on Arctic freshwater ecosystems in the form of eutrophication. This may again strongly affect community composition and productivity of the ponds, due to increased nutrient loadings or birds serving as vectors for new species.

  1. Complete genome sequence of a novel flavivirus, duck tembusu virus, isolated from ducks and geese in china.

    PubMed

    Yun, Tao; Zhang, Dabing; Ma, Xuejun; Cao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Liu; Ni, Zheng; Ye, Weicheng; Yu, Bin; Hua, Jionggang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cun

    2012-03-01

    Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) is an emerging agent that causes a severe disease in ducks. We report herein the first complete genome sequences of duck tembusu virus strains YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2, isolated from Shaoxing ducks, breeder ducks, and geese, respectively, in China. The genomes of YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2 are all 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and encode a putative polyprotein of 3,426 amino acids. It is flanked by a 5' and a 3' noncoding region (NCR) of 94 and 618 nt, respectively. Knowledge of the whole sequence of DTMUV will be useful for further studies of the mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenesis.

  2. Do glucocorticoids in droppings reflect baseline level in birds captured in the wild? A case study in snow geese.

    PubMed

    Legagneux, Pierre; Gauthier, Gilles; Chastel, Olivier; Picard, Gérald; Bêty, Joël

    2011-07-01

    Baseline glucocorticoid (CORT) levels in plasma are increasingly used as physiological indices of the relative condition or health of individuals and populations. The major limitation is that CORT production is stimulated by the stress associated with capture and handling. Measuring fecal CORT is one way to solve this problem because elevation of fecal CORT usually does not occur before 1-12h after a stressful event in captive animals. However, the effect of capture and handling on fecal CORT levels has seldom been investigated in the wild. In a first experiment, we validated that fecal CORT levels starts to increase in droppings (a mixture of fecal and urinary material) about 1-2h following injection of CORT-release hormone (ACTH) in captive greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica). In a second experiment, we investigated whether dropping and plasma CORT were related and if the capture affected fecal CORT levels in wild birds. Baseline CORT was obtained by bleeding individuals within 4 min after capture. No relationship was found between baseline and CORT in droppings shortly after capture (<4 min). In addition, CORT levels in droppings increased linearly with time after capture and was already elevated by a factor two 40 min after capture. The different turnover time of CORT between urine and feces could explain such results. We conclude that droppings cannot provide an index of basal CORT levels in snow geese captured in the wild. Such a result contrast with previous studies conducted on habituated, captive animals. We thus recommend that use of droppings as a non-invasive technique to measure baseline CORT be restricted to non-manipulated individuals in the wild.

  3. Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in an Embden×Toulouse Goose Cross Raised in Organic Dehesa

    PubMed Central

    Solé, M.; Peña, F.; Domenech, V.; Clemente, I.; Polvillo, O.; Valera, M.; Verona, J. C.; Rubí, M.; Molina, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET) for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles), of domestic geeseAnser anser domesticus” raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (p<0.01) were greater for the ET group at the same live weight. None of the groups showed differences in the production of fatty liver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner–Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and 8.87 kg/cm2), which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (p<0.001), reflecting the optimum nutritional values as a component of a healthy consumer diet. PMID:26954156

  4. Scaring as a tool to alleviate crop damage by geese: Revealing differences between farmers' perceptions and the scale of the problem.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Caroline E; Tombre, Ingunn M; Madsen, Jesper

    2017-03-01

    Expanding populations of farmland foraging geese are causing escalating conflict with agriculture. We used questionnaires to investigate farmers´ perceptions in mid-Norway of spring staging geese and the extent to which they attempt to reduce pasture damage by goose scaring. We predicted farmers' scaring effort (a measure of dissatisfaction) to increase on fields closer to goose roosting sites where goose grazing intensity was highest (measured by dropping counts). Results showed no such relationship, suggesting that farmers' perception of goose use was not linked to actual goose use, but influenced by sociological factors and individual opinion. These results confirm the need to distribute subsidies/compensation to affected farmers based upon quantifiable measures of goose use rather than complaint levels. To avoid further conflict escalation, it is equally important that managers are aware of farmers´ perceptions and their causes, to effectively target communication about policies and measures to mitigate goose-agriculture problems.

  5. Molecular characterization, alternative splicing and expression analysis of ACSF2 and its correlation with egg-laying performance in geese.

    PubMed

    Yu, S; Wei, W; Xia, M; Jiang, Z; He, D; Li, Z; Han, H; Chu, W; Liu, H; Chen, J

    2016-08-01

    ACSF2 (encoded by acyl-CoA synthetase family member 2) belongs to the acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) family, activating fatty acids by forming a thioester bond with CoA. In our previous study, a SNP residing in the intron of ACSF2 was identified to be linked to goose egg-laying performance. But the structure of goose ACSF2 as well as its role in reproduction remains unknown. In this study, we cloned and characterized ACSF2 in Yangzhou geese. A total of four alternative splice variants, designated as ACSF2-1, ACSF2-2, ACSF2-3 and ACSF2-4 respectively, were identified in the ovary. The coding regions of the four variants are 1770, 1692, 1599 and 1917 bp in length, respectively encoding 589, 563, 532 and 638 amino acids with conserved AMP-binding sites. All ACSF2 variants were widely expressed in 11 tested tissues in geese, except that the ACSF2-2 transcript was not detected in hypothalamus, pituitary gland and granulosa cells. Subcellular localization revealed that ACSF2 is a mitochondrial matrix protein. ACSF2 mRNA level was compared between high egg production (HEP; n = 8) and low egg production (LEP; n = 10) groups and showed a lower (P < 0.05) mRNA level in the HEP group. Further experiments indicated that overexpressing ACSF2 resulted in a significant increase of caspase-3 mRNA levels and that ACSF2 knockdown triggered a decrease in the caspase-3 mRNA level in granulosa cells. Similarly, the lower caspase-3 mRNA levels were identified in ovaries of the HEP group with lower ACSF2 mRNA levels. The research showed that the ACSF2 mRNA levels had a positive correlation with caspase-3 mRNA levels in vivo (R = 0.86, P < 0.01). Our results suggest that lower ACSF2 expression promotes the laying performance of goose possibly by inhibiting granulosa cell apoptosis and facilitating follicular development.

  6. Investigation into the possibility of vertical transmission of avian bornavirus in free-ranging Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Delnatte, Pauline; Nagy, Eva; Ojkic, Davor; Crawshaw, Graham; Smith, Dale A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of in ovo infection with avian bornavirus (ABV) in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 53 eggs were opportunistically collected at various stages of embryonic development from 16 free-ranging goose nests at a large urban zoo site where ABV infection is known to be present in this species. ABV RNA was detected in the yolk of one of three unembryonated eggs using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. ABV RNA was not identified in the brains from 23 newly hatched goslings or 19 embryos, nor from three early whole embryos. Antibodies against ABV were not detected in the plasma of any of the hatched goslings using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Possible reasons for the failure to detect ABV RNA in hatchlings or embryos include low sample size, eggs deriving from parents not actively infected with ABV, the testing of only brain tissue, and failure of the virus to replicate in Canada goose embryos. In conclusion, this preliminary investigation demonstrating the presence of ABV RNA in the yolk of a Canada goose egg provides the first evidence for the potential for vertical transmission of ABV in waterfowl.

  7. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: assessment for the 2013-2015 hunting seasons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This report describes progress on the development of an adaptive harvestmanagement strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese near their agreed target level (60,000) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark. Specifically, this report provides an optimal harvest quota for the 2013-2015 hunting seasons and describes a process for evaluating whether emergency hunting closures would be needed during that period. By combining varying hypotheses about survival and reproduction, a suite of nine models have been developed that represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent, and the extent to which spring temperatures are important. The most current set of monitoring information was used to update model weights for the 1991 – 2012 period. Current model weights suggest no evidence for density-dependent survival. These results suggest that the pink-footed goose population may have recently experienced a release from density-dependent mechanisms, corresponding to the period of most rapid growth in population size. There was equivocal evidence for the effect of May temperature days (number of days with temperatures above freezing) on survival and on reproduction. The optimal harvest strategy suggests that the appropriate annual harvest quota for the 20132015 period is 15,000; hence there is no need to take emergency measures to close the upcoming hunting season. For comparison, the estimated harvest in 2012 was 11,000. If the harvest quota of 15,000 were met, the autumn 2013 population count is expected to be 76,000. If only the most recent 3-year mean harvest were realized (11,500), an autumn population size of 80,000 thousand is expected. Thus, it may be that harvest is approaching the magnitude needed to stabilize the population.

  8. Pathogenicity and transmission of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza clade 2.3.4.4 viruses (H5N8 and H5N2) in domestic waterfowl (Pekin ducks and Chinese geese)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks and geese are common backyard poultry in many countries, frequently in contact with wild waterfowl, which are natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses and have played a key role in the spread of Asian-lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). In late 2014, a reassor...

  9. Effects of dietary protein and energy levels on digestive enzyme activities and electrolyte composition in the small intestinal fluid of geese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Yang, Lin; Wang, Yongchang; Zhai, Shuangshuang; Wang, Shenshen; Yang, Zhipeng; Wang, Wence

    2017-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein and energy levels on digestive enzymes and electrolyte composition in jejunum of geese. A 3×3 factorial and completely randomized design was adopted with three protein levels and three energy levels. The experiment included four replicates for each treatment, and three geese for each replicate. Isovolumetric supernate from centrifugal jejuna fluid were mixed in each replicate. Activities of digestive enzymes and ions were analyzed. The results showed trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were significantly increased with increasing of dietary protein and energy levels (P<0.05). The concentrations of Ca(2+) and pH value were significantly decreased by increased dietary protein and energy levels. However, no significant differences were found for the activities of amylase and cellulase, as well as the concentration of Na(+) among groups with different protein and energy levels. In conclusion, digesta enzymes and electrolytes in the small intestine adapted to the protein and energy levels. The activities of protease, rather than amylase and cellulase were induced with increasing of protein and energy levels. The imbalance of positive and negative ions was possibly adjusted by the fluctuant concentrations of K(+) , Cl(-) and Ca(2+) for maintaining normal physiological function.

  10. Avian cholera in waterfowl: the role of lesser snow and Ross's geese as carriers of avian cholera in the Playa Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    We collected samples from apparently healthy geese in the Playa Lakes Region (USA) during the winters of 2000a??01 and 2001a??02 to determine whether carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, were present in wild populations. With the use of methods developed in laboratory challenge trials (Samuel et al., 2003a) and a serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction method for identification of P. multocida serotype 1, we found that a small proportion of 322 wild birds (<5%) were carriers of pathogenic P. multocida. On the basis of serology, an additional group of these birds (<10%) were survivors of recent avian cholera infection. Our results confirm the hypothesis that wild waterfowl are carriers of avian cholera and add support for the hypothesis that wild birds are a reservoir for this disease. In concert with other research, this work indicates that enzootic infection with avian cholera occurs in lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) populations throughout their annual cycle. Although fewer Rossa??s geese (Chen rossii) were sampled, we also found these birds were carriers of P. multocida. Even in the absence of disease outbreaks, serologic evidence indicates that chronic disease transmission and recent infection are apparently occurring year-round in these highly gregarious birds and that a small portion of these populations are potential carriers with active infection.

  11. Induction of out-of-season egg laying by artificial photoperiod in Yangzhou geese and the associated endocrine and molecular regulation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huanxi; Shao, Xibing; Chen, Zhe; Wei, Chuankun; Lei, Mingming; Ying, Shijia; Yu, Jianning; Shi, Zhendan

    2017-03-18

    This study was carried out to induce out-of-season breeding, in the summer, and to achieve high reproductive performance using artificial photoperiod manipulation in the long-day breeding Yangzhou goose. Young geese were subject to a two-phase short-to-long (group A) or a three-phase (long-short-long; group B) photoperiod program February through October. Egg-laying was induced to start similarly in both groups in May, increased to a peak level in July, and then decreased gradually through to October. The peak and post-peak laying rates were higher with the three-phase than with the two-phase program. Plasma progesterone concentrations changed similarly in the two groups, increasing from low levels during the pre-lay periods until the peak laying stage, then decreasing with decline in the egg-laying rate. Plasma T3 concentrations increased from the beginning of the experiment to form the first peak under a short photoperiod, declined to a trough at peak lay and then progressively increased to high levels towards the end of the experiment. Plasma T4 concentrations increased throughout the experiment, showing little response to changes in photoperiod. GnIH mRNA expression level in the hypothalamus steadily decreased from high levels under the short photoperiod to a nadir at peak of lay, but was abruptly up-regulated by over a thousand-fold thereafter. This mRNA expression pattern was also shared by GnIHR, VIPR, TRHR, TSH, and PRL genes in the pituitary gland, and to lesser extent, by GnRH, VIP, and TRH genes in the hypothalamus. Pituitary GnRHR mRNA expression levels changed in a similar manner to that of reproductive activities of geese in both groups. FSH beta subunits mRNA expression levels increased to high levels after day 11 of the long photoperiod, and were higher in group B than in group A at peak laying. LH beta gene expression level was similarly upregulated by photoperiod and was higher in group B than in group A when used the multivariable and two

  12. Effect of flaxseed on the fatty acid profile of egg yolk and antioxidant status of their neonatal offspring in Huoyan geese.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Jiang, Y Y; Wang, J P; Yan, B X; Huang, Y Q; Wang, Z X

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of geese's maternal diet supplemented with flaxseed on the fatty acid profiles of egg yolks and the antioxidant status of their offspring. A total of 288 female Huoyan geese (42 weeks old) were randomly allotted to four experimental groups in this 56-day experiment and fed on diets containing flaxseed at 0% (control), 5%, 10% and 15%, respectively. There were nine replicate pens per treatment, with eight geese per replicate pen. The concentration of α-linolenic acid (linear, P<0.01), EPA (20:5n-3; linear, P<0.01), DHA (22:6n-3; quadratic, P=0.03) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (linear, P<0.01) levels in the yolk lipids increased with increasing dietary flaxseed levels. Yolk palmitic acid (16:0, linear, P=0.05), saturated fatty acid (linear, P=0.04) level and total n-6/n-3 ratio (P<0.01) decreased in a linear fashion as dietary flaxseed levels increased. Increasing dietary flaxseed levels linearly decreased (P=0.01) the total cholesterol in egg yolks. After hatching, three 1-day-old gosling were selected randomly from each replicate to determine blood characteristics and liver antioxidant status. Aspartate aminotransferase activity (linear, P=0.03), total triglycerides (linear, P=0.02) and total cholesterol (linear, P=0.05) contents in blood linearly decreased as the levels of flaxseed increased. A linear dose response to maternal dietary flaxseed was detected for the activities of the goslings' liver enzymes catalase (linear, P=0.01), superoxide dismutase (linear, P<0.01) and glutathione peroxidase (linear, P<0.01). The malondialdehyde (quadratic, P=0.03) and alkaline phosphatase content in the livers of goslings decreased as flaxseed supplementation levels increased. In conclusion, the dietary addition of flaxseed up to 15%, in the maternal diet resulted in increased n-3 PUFA levels in egg yolks and improved the antioxidant status of offspring in a dose-dependent manner.

  13. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and Methods for Mitigation and Management in the Southern Flathead Valley, Montana, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, Dennis L.; Gregory, Shari K.; Matthews, William C. Jr.; Claar, James J.; Ball, I. Joseph

    1987-11-01

    Kerr Hydroelectric Dam is located at the south end of Flathead Lake, controls water levels on the lake and the Flathead River below the dam, and is currently operated as a load control facility. Current operation of Kerr Dam creates the greatest yearly water level fluctuations on both the lake and river during the Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) brood and nesting period. Data collected from 1980-1982 indicated that goose nest numbers on the river were lower than during the 1950's, and that brood habitat on the lake may be limiting the goose population there. Our study was conducted from 1983-1987 to determine the effects of Kerr Dam operation on Canada goose populations and habitat on the south half of Flathead Lake and the Flathead River, and to formulate management and mitigation recommendations. Nesting geese on the river appeared to be negatively affected by a lack of nest sites free from predators, and responded to available artificial nest structures with an increase in nest numbers and nesting success. Under current dam operation, river channel depths and widths do not discourage access to nesting islands by mammalian predators during some years and high predation on ground nests occurs. Intensively used brood areas on the lake and river were identified and described. Brood habitat on the lake was lower in quality and quantity than on the river due to dam operations. Gosling mortality on the lake was high, almost 2 times higher than on the river. Lake broods expended more energy obtaining food than river broods. Losses of brood habitat in the form of wet meadow marshes were documented and mitigation options developed. Management/mitigation alternatives and monitoring methods for nesting and brooding geese were identified.

  14. Pre-exposing Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) to a low-pathogenic H1N1 avian influenza virus protects them against H5N1 HPAI virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Yohannes; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Leith, Marsha; Kehler, Helen; Suderman, Matthew; Pasick, John

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies we examined the role of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in the epidemiology of Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. To expand on this and better understand how pre-exposure to heterosubtypic low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses might influence the outcome of H5N1 HPAI infection, we pre-exposed naïve juvenile Canada Geese to different North American wild-bird-origin LPAI viruses. We selected H1, H2, and H6 hemagglutinin subtype viruses based on their higher-order evolutionary relatedness to the H5 hemagglutinin. Pre-exposing Canada Geese to either H2N3 or H6N5 viruses did not protect them against a lethal H5N1 HPAI virus challenge. In addition, H5N1 was transmitted to naïve control birds that were placed among both groups resulting in death by 5 days postcontact. In contrast, Canada Geese that were pre-exposed to H1N1 were protected against a lethal H5N1 challenge, shed minimal amounts of the virus into the environment, and did not transmit the infection to naïve contact birds. None of the H1N1, H2N3, or H6N5 pre-exposure sera neutralized H5N1 in vitro; however, sera from H1N1-infected birds reduced virus plaque size but not number when compared with H2N3, H6N5, or negative sera, suggesting that antibodies directed against the neuraminidase may have had a role in the protective effects observed.

  15. Two maternal origins of Chinese domestic goose.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Zhu, W Q; Chen, K W; H, Y; Xu, W J; Song, W

    2011-12-01

    China is particularly rich in goose genetic resources. Systematic study of the genetic diversity and origin of Chinese domestic geese will provide an important scientific basis for the conservation and utilization of these resources and for human history. The 521-bp control region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA from 26 goose breeds and 6 Landaise geese were sequenced. The results showed that the average haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of Chinese domestic geese were 0.1384 and 0.00029, respectively. Shared haplotype analysis and systematic evolution analysis revealed that Chinese domestic geese had 2 maternal origins. The Yili goose breed originated from the Greylag goose (Anser anser), and the other 25 domestic goose breeds originated from the swan goose (Anser cygnoides). An interesting finding was that 1 Linxian white goose and 1 Wanxi white goose shared the same H4 haplotype with the Rhine goose and the Landaise goose, which originated from the Greylag goose (A. anser). Further research on this finding is planned.

  16. The effect of age on the growth rate of tissues and organs and the percentage content of edible and inedible components in Koluda White geese.

    PubMed

    Murawska, Daria

    2013-05-01

    The parts of carcasses of slaughtered animals that are not intended for human consumption are referred to as inedible components. The total percentage of edible to inedible components in the carcasses of different poultry species is an important economic consideration. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age on the growth rate of tissues and organs and the percentage change in edible to inedible components in geese. A flock of 240 Polish Koluda White geese was raised to 12 wk of age. The percentage content of edible components increased (P < 0.001) and the percentage content of inedible parts decreased (P < 0.001) as the birds grew older. Among edible components, the most considerable changes were noted in the growth rates of muscle tissue (10.5% increase; P < 0.001) and giblets (5.1% decrease; P < 0.001). The percentage share of muscle tissue increased to 10 wk of age. Lean meat weight increased from 175 g in wk 2 to 1,482 g in wk 12. The increase in lean meat weight varied considerably between body parts. The proportion of breast muscles in total meat weight increased substantially (by 26%), whereas the proportion of leg muscles decreased (by 34%). An increase in the weight of skin with subcutaneous fat was observed until the end of the rearing period, but the percentage content of this component remained at a similar level throughout the experiment (19.1 to 19.6%). The decrease in the percentage content of inedible components was mostly due to a decrease in the share of slaughter offal (by approximately 6.5%) because the proportion of bones remained at a stable level (approximately 11.9 to 11.5%). The weight of abdominal fat, which can be classified as edible or inedible, increased significantly with age, from 15.1 g in wk 2 to 205.1 g in wk 12, accounting for 1.6% and 4.0% total BW, respectively.

  17. Functional morphology of the tongue in the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica).

    PubMed

    Jackowiak, Hanna; Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Godynicki, Szymon; Iwasaki, Shin-ichi; Meyer, Wilfried

    2011-09-01

    Using LM and SEM methods, the study describes microstructures in particular areas of the tongue of the goose. A thick multilayered keratinized epithelium forms the "lingual nail" and covers small and giant conical papillae, whereby the first functions as an exoskeleton of the tongue apex, and the latter are arranged along the lingual and well-developed connective tissue cores, and together with the bill lamellae are involved in cutting. The row of conical papillae on the lingual prominence prevents regurgitation of transported food. In the area of the "lingual nail" and in the anterior part of the lingual prominence, Herbst corpuscles are accumulated, which allow to recognize food position. Filiform papillae, as widely distributed between the conical papillae of the body, are responsible for filtering. They can be explained as long keratinized processes of the epithelium and are devoid of connective tissue cores. During food transport, the flattened areas of the lingual body and the lingual prominence are protected by a parakeratinized epithelium, but the root is covered by a nonkeratinized epithelium. The presence of adipose tissue in the tongue probably reduces pressure during food passage, but also promotes mucus evacuation from the lingual glands, thus facilitating food transport. An entoglossal bone with a continuation as cartilage is the stable structural basis of the tongue system.

  18. The topography of regio caudalis hypothalami in goose (Anser anser F. domestica).

    PubMed

    Rehák, P; Kostová, D; Boda, K

    1986-01-01

    We studied the topography of the caudal hypothalamic region of the goose on brain sections stained with luxol fast blue and cresyl violet in combination according to Klüver-Barrera (1953), or with cresyl violet (Nissl method). In the regio caudalis hypothalami of this bird we identified in agreement with Nomina anatomica avium (Breazile 1979): nucleus premamillaris (PM), nucleus mamillaris lateralis (ML), nucleus mamillaris medialis (MM), nucleus supramamillaris interstitialis (SMI) and nucleus intercalatus (Ic).

  19. Lack of genetic structure in greylag goose (Anser anser) populations along the European Atlantic flyway

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Irene; Follestad, Arne; Boos, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Greylag goose populations are steadily increasing in north-western Europe. Although individuals breeding in the Netherlands have been considered mainly sedentary birds, those from Scandinavia or northern Germany fly towards their winter quarters, namely over France as far as Spain. This study aimed to determine the genetic structure of these birds, and to evaluate how goose populations mix. We used mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites from individuals distributed throughout the European Atlantic flyway, from breeding sites in Norway and the Netherlands to stopover and wintering sites in northern and south-western France. The mtDNA marker (CR1 D-Loop, 288 bp sequence, 144 ind.) showed 23 different haplotypes. The genetic distances amongst individuals sampled in Norway, northern France and the Netherlands were low (range 0.012–0.013). Individuals in south-western France showed a slightly higher genetic distance compared to all other sampling areas (ranges 0.018–0.022). The NJ tree does not show evidence of any single clades grouping together all individuals from the same geographic area. Besides, individuals from each site are found in different branches. Bayesian clustering procedures on 14 microsatellites (169 individuals) did not detect any geographically distinct cluster, and a high genetic admixture was recorded in all studied areas except for the individuals from the breeding sites in Norway, which were genetically very close. Estimation of migration rates through Bayesian inference confirms the scenario for the current mixing of goose populations. PMID:26339543

  20. Risk assessment of lead poisoning and pesticide exposure in the declining population of red-breasted goose (Branta ruficollis) wintering in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rafael; Petkov, Nikolai; Lopez-Antia, Ana; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Green, Andy J

    2016-11-01

    The red-breasted goose Branta ruficollis is a globally threatened species (IUCN Vulnerable) and the only European goose species currently in decline. Working on the wintering grounds on the Black Sea Coast, we address two potential causes of decline of this species for the first time: lead poisoning, and contamination from pesticides. We quantified the densities of spent Pb shot in three wetlands used by the geese in north-east Bulgaria, and analysed the Pb concentration in the faeces of red-breasted geese and the more abundant greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons, using Al concentration as an indicator of soil ingestion. Pb shot densities in sediments were low, and we found no evidence for Pb shot ingestion in red-breasted geese. On the other hand, we found that the geese were feeding on wheat whose seeds were treated with four fungicides: thiram, tebuconazole, difenoconazole and fludioxonil, and the two first were even detected in geese faecal samples. Using data on the daily food intake, we estimated the exposure levels of the geese to these fungicides, both by measuring the concentrations remaining on seeds and by estimating the amount used to coat the seeds at the time of sowing. We found that the exposure rates estimated during the sowing period for both geese species can exceed the recognized hazardous doses for thiram, and to a lesser extent for tebuconazole, which indicates that some pesticides may be playing a previously overlooked role in the decline of red-breasted geese.

  1. Extra-pair copulations in Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Daniel; Sedinger, James S.

    1990-01-01

    Monogamy is the primary mating system among waterfowl, but extra-pair copulations (EPCs) have been documented in at least 39 species (McKinney et al. 1983). Extra-pair copulations occur in most Holarctic species of dabbling ducks (Anas spp.), but have been recorded in only three species of geese: Lesser Snow Geese, Chen caerulescens caerulescens (Mineau and Cooke 1979a), Ross’ Geese, C. rossii (J. Ryder in McKinney et al. 1984), and Greater White-fronted Geese, Anser albifrons frontalis (C.R. Ely, pers. comm.).In colonial Lesser Snow Geese, the close proximity of nesting conspecifics may enable males to pursue EPCs as a secondary reproductive strategy (Mineau and Cooke, 1979a, 1979b). Copulatory behavior of other geese has not been studied in sufficient detail to permit comparison with Lesser Sone Geese. Here we report on timing and rates of pair copulations (PCs) and EPCs, and describe behaviors associated with EPCs in colonially nesting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans).

  2. Identification of three novel avian beta-defensins from goose and their significance in the pathogenesis of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Ma, Deying; Zhang, Mingyue; Zhang, Kexin; Liu, Xiaoli; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Liu, Shengwang

    2013-12-01

    Here, we report the characterization of three avian β-defensins (AvBDs) from the goose, named anser_AvBD1, AvBD3, and AvBD6, respectively. All of anser_AvBDs exhibited broad antibacterial activity. In addition, the antibacterial activity of all of the AvBDs against Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis decreased significantly in the presence of 100mM NaCl (P<0.01). None of the AvBDs showed hemolytic activity. In order to assess the significance of these anser_AvBDs in the infection of Salmonella enteritidis, mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and anser_AvBDs in tissues of both control and infected geese was evaluated. We observed a significant up-regulation of TLR4, anser_AvBD1, 3, and 6 in some immune tissues evaluated, in response to S. enteritidis infection. These data demonstrated that TLR4 may serve a possible role in eliciting host immune responses to pathogens, and β-defensins may play a pivotal role in the host defense mechanisms of the goose.

  3. Vulnerability of nontarget goose species to hunting with electronic snow goose calls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caswell, J.H.; Afton, A.D.; Caswell, F.D.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1999, use of electronic calls has been legal for hunting lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter snow geese) during special seasons or times of day when other waterfowl species could not be hunted in prairie Canada. Prior to expanding the use of electronic calls for hunting snow geese during fall hunting seasons, effects of these calls on nontarget goose species must be examined. Accordingly, we examined the vulnerability of Canada (Branta canadensis) and white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) (dark geese) to electronic snow goose calls and 3 goose decoy sets (dark, mixed, and white) during the 1999 fall hunting seasons in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Canada geese were 2.3 times more likely to fly within gun range (P<0.001) and the mean number killed/hour/hunter was 2.5 times greater (P=0.043) during control periods when hunters were silent or used traditional calling methods (i.e., hand-held and voice calls) than when hunters used electronic snow goose calls. Flock response and kill rate for Canada geese declined as proportions of white decoys increased in decoy sets (P<0.001). White-fronted geese were 1.8 times more likely to fly within gun range (P=0.050) and the mean number killed/hour/hunter was 5.0 times greater (P=0.022) during control periods than during periods when electronic snow goose calls were used. Flock response for white-fronted geese also declined as the proportion of white decoys increased in decoy sets (P<0.001). The legalization of electronic snow goose calls during fall hunting seasons in prairie Canada should not result in increased harvest of nontarget dark geese.

  4. A hypothesis: the conjunction of soldiers, gas, pigs, ducks, geese and horses in northern France during the Great War provided the conditions for the emergence of the "Spanish" influenza pandemic of 1918-1919.

    PubMed

    Oxford, J S; Lambkin, R; Sefton, A; Daniels, R; Elliot, A; Brown, R; Gill, D

    2005-01-04

    The Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 was a cataclysmic outbreak of infection wherein over 50 million people died worldwide within 18 months. The question of the origin is important because most influenza surveillance at present is focussed on S.E. Asia. Two later pandemic viruses in 1957 and 1968 arose in this region. However we present evidence that early outbreaks of a new disease with rapid onset and spreadability, high mortality in young soldiers in the British base camp at Etaples in Northern France in the winter of 1917 is, at least to date, the most likely focus of origin of the pandemic. Pathologists working at Etaples and Aldershot barracks later agreed that these early outbreaks in army camps were the same disease as the infection wave of influenza in 1918. The Etaples camp had the necessary mixture of factors for emergence of pandemic influenza including overcrowding (with 100,000 soldiers daily changing), live pigs, and nearby live geese, duck and chicken markets, horses and an additional factor 24 gases (some of them mutagenic) used in large 100 ton quantities to contaminate soldiers and the landscape. The final trigger for the ensuing pandemic was the return of millions of soldiers to their homelands around the entire world in the autumn of 1918.

  5. Development of mechanical papillae of the tongue in the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica) during the embryonic period.

    PubMed

    Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Jackowiak, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Three types of mechanical papillae, i.e., conical, filiform, and hair-like papillae, are present on the tongue in the domestic goose. Within conical papillae, we distinguish three categories: large and small conical papillae on the body and conical papillae on the lingual prominence. The arrangement of mechanical papillae on the tongue in Anseriformes is connected functionally with different feeding mechanisms such as grazing and filter-feeding. The present work aims to determine whether morphology of three types of mechanical papillae in goose at the time of hatching is the same as in an adult bird and if the tongue is prepared to fulfill feeding function. Our results revealed that the primordia of the large conical papillae start to develop during the differentiation stage. The primordia of the small conical papillae and conical papillae of the lingual papillae start to develop during the growth stage. At the end of the growth stage, only large conical papillae, three pairs of small conical papillae, and conical papillae of the lingual prominence have similar arrangement as in an adult bird. The shape and arrangement of the remaining small conical papillae probably will be changed after hatching. During embryonic period, the filiform papillae and hair-like papillae are not formed. The embryonic epithelium that covered the mechanical papillae undergoes transformation leading to the formation of multilayered epithelium. During prehatching stage, epithelium becomes orthokeratinized epithelium. In conclusion, the tongue of the domestic goose after hatching is well prepared only for grazing. The filtration of food from water is limited due to the lack of filiform papillae.

  6. The histological observations on the large intestine of the goose (Anser anser) during the pre- and post-hatching periods.

    PubMed

    Líman, Narin; Aslan, Sahin; Gülmez, Nurhayat

    2002-08-01

    The development of the cecum and colon in the goose was investigated during the period from the 15th to 28th day of the incubation and from 1 to 30 days of age after hatching by light microscopy. By day 15 of the incubation, in the cecum and colon, the lumen was surrounded by pseudostratified epithelium. The previllous ridges appeared at 15th and 17th days of the incubation in the colon and ceca, respectively. At the base of previllous ridges, the epithelium changed into a simple prismathic epithelium at 15th and 17th days of the incubation in the colon and cecum, respectively. The villi appeared at the 21st days of the incubation. The crypts and goblet cells appeared on the first day after hatching. In the pre-hatching period, the lamina muscularis mucosa was present only in the colon. The submucosa consisted of loosely aggregated connective tissue in the pre-hatching period. In the post-hatching period, it consisted of a very thin layer of connective tissue. Its presence was only obvious where the cells of the submucosal nerve plexus or occasional large blood vessels considerably increased its thickness. The nerve plexus corresponding to the Auerbach's plexus of the mammalian intestine and submucosal nerve plexus appeared by 15th days of the incubation. From the 15th to 28th day of incubation, the tunica muscularis consisted of circular smooth muscle cells in the ceca. On the 28th day of the incubation a thinner longitudinal muscle layer added to the circular muscle layer. In the colon there was an outer longitudinal and a thicker circular muscle layer.

  7. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection rates and exposure to influenza A viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S.; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006–2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1–3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40–60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  8. Molecular evolution of cytochrome C oxidase underlies high-altitude adaptation in the bar-headed goose.

    PubMed

    Scott, Graham R; Schulte, Patricia M; Egginton, Stuart; Scott, Angela L M; Richards, Jeffrey G; Milsom, William K

    2011-01-01

    Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) fly at up to 9,000 m elevation during their migration over the Himalayas, sustaining high metabolic rates in the severe hypoxia at these altitudes. We investigated the evolution of cardiac energy metabolism and O(2) transport in this species to better understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms of high-altitude adaptation. Compared with low-altitude geese (pink-footed geese and barnacle geese), bar-headed geese had larger lungs and higher capillary densities in the left ventricle of the heart, both of which should improve O(2) diffusion during hypoxia. Although myoglobin abundance and the activities of many metabolic enzymes (carnitine palmitoyltransferase, citrate synthase, 3-hydroxyacyl-coA dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase) showed only minor variation between species, bar-headed geese had a striking alteration in the kinetics of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the heteromeric enzyme that catalyzes O(2) reduction in oxidative phosphorylation. This was reflected by a lower maximum catalytic activity and a higher affinity for reduced cytochrome c. There were small differences between species in messenger RNA and protein expression of COX subunits 3 and 4, but these were inconsistent with the divergence in enzyme kinetics. However, the COX3 gene of bar-headed geese contained a nonsynonymous substitution at a site that is otherwise conserved across vertebrates and resulted in a major functional change of amino acid class (Trp-116 → Arg). This mutation was predicted by structural modeling to alter the interaction between COX3 and COX1. Adaptations in mitochondrial enzyme kinetics and O(2) transport capacity may therefore contribute to the exceptional ability of bar-headed geese to fly high.

  9. Outbreak of duck plague (duck herpesvirus enteritis) in numerous species of captive ducks and geese in temporal conjunction with enforced biosecurity (in-house keeping) due to the threat of avian influenza A virus of the subtype Asia H5N1.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Kuczka, A; Kühnhold, A; Bunzenthal, C; Bönner, B M; Hanka, K; Redmann, T; Yilmaz, A

    2007-01-01

    The continuing westward spread of avian influenza A virus of the subtype H5N1 in free-living and domestic birds forced the European Union and the German federal government to enhance all biosecurity measures including in-house keeping of all captive birds from October 20 to December 15, 2005. Movement of captive ducks and geese of many different species from a free-range system to tight enclosures and maintenance for prolonged times in such overcrowded sheds resulted in pronounced disturbance of natural behaviour, interruption of mating and breeding activities and possibly additional stress. Under these conditions the birds developed signs of severe disease and enhanced mortality twentyfour days later. A total of 17 out of 124 (14%) adult birds and 149 out of 184 year-old birds (81 %) died during the outbreak. A herpesvirus was isolated from many organs of succumbed ducks and geese that was identified as a duck plague herpesvirus by cross neutralization test using known antisera against duck plague virus. The published host range of duck plague comprises 34 species within the order Anseriformes. We report here on additional 14 species of this order that were found to be susceptible to duck plague virus. The exact source of the herpesvirus could not identified. However, low antibody titres in some ducks at day of vaccination indicate that at least some of the birds were latently infected with a duck plague herpesvirus. The remaining healthy appearing birds were subcutaneously vaccinated with a modified live duck plague vaccine (Intervet, Boxmeer, NL) that stopped losses and resulted in seroconversion in most of the vaccinated birds.

  10. Comprehensive Achievements: All Our Geese Are Swans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imison, Tamsyn, Ed.; Heilbronn, Ruth, Ed.; Williams, Liz, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schools in England are radically changing their organization and governance, casting aside the founding principle of the 1944 Education Act that education is a public service and abandoning the ideal of education as nurturing a sense of community. This book presents a portrait of a successful comprehensive school, between the years 1980 and 2000.…

  11. Uncertainty, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Jensen, Gitte H.; Madsen, Jesper; Williams, Byron K.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the application of dynamic-optimization methods to the problem of pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) management in western Europe. We were especially concerned with the extent to which uncertainty in population dynamics influenced an optimal management strategy, the gain in management performance that could be expected if uncertainty could be eliminated or reduced, and whether an adaptive or robust management strategy might be most appropriate in the face of uncertainty. We combined three alternative survival models with three alternative reproductive models to form a set of nine annual-cycle models for pink-footed geese. These models represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent, and the extent to which they are influenced by spring temperatures. We calculated state-dependent harvest strategies for these models using stochastic dynamic programming and an objective function that maximized sustainable harvest, subject to a constraint on desired population size. As expected, attaining the largest mean objective value (i.e., the relative measure of management performance) depended on the ability to match a model-dependent optimal strategy with its generating model of population dynamics. The nine models suggested widely varying objective values regardless of the harvest strategy, with the density-independent models generally producing higher objective values than models with density-dependent survival. In the face of uncertainty as to which of the nine models is most appropriate, the optimal strategy assuming that both survival and reproduction were a function of goose abundance and spring temperatures maximized the expected minimum objective value (i.e., maxi–min). In contrast, the optimal strategy assuming equal model weights minimized the expected maximum loss in objective value. The expected value of eliminating model uncertainty was an increase in objective value

  12. Spring snow goose hunting influences body composition of waterfowl staging in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    A spring hunt was instituted in North America to reduce abundance of snow geese (Chen caerulescens) by increasing mortality of adults directly, yet disturbance from hunting activities can indirectly influence body condition and ultimately, reproductive success. We estimated effects of hunting disturbance by comparing body composition of snow geese and non-target species, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) and northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected in portions of south-central Nebraska that were open (eastern Rainwater Basin, ERB) and closed (western Rainwater Basin, WRB; and central Platte River Valley, CPRV) to snow goose hunting during springs 1998 and 1999. Lipid content of 170 snow geese was 25% (57 g) less in areas open to hunting compared to areas closed during hunting season but similar in all areas after hunting was concluded in the ERB. Protein content of snow geese was 3% (14 g) less in the region open to hunting. Greater white-fronted geese had 24% (76 g; n = 129) less lipids in the hunted portion of the study area during hunting season, and this difference persisted after conclusion of hunting season. We found little difference in lipid or protein content of northern pintails in relation to spring hunting. Indirect effects of spring hunting may be considered a collateral benefit regarding efforts to reduce overabundant snow goose populations. Disrupted nutrient storage observed in greater white-fronted geese represents an unintended consequence of spring hunting that has potential to adversely affect reproduction for this and other species of waterbirds staging in the region.

  13. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection and exposure to influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Ely, Craig R; Hall, Jeffrey S; Schmutz, Joel A; Pearce, John M; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S; Ip, Hon S

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006-2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1-3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (<0.70%). Contrary to findings in ducks, the highest incidence of infected birds was in late spring when birds first arrived from staging and wintering areas. Despite low prevalence, most geese were previously exposed to AI viruses, as indicated by high levels of seroprevalence during late summer (47%-96% across species; n = 541). Seroprevalence was >95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40-60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  14. Glaucous gull predation of goslings on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, Timothy D.; Stehn, R.A.; Scribner, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus) nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta frequently prey on juvenile waterfowl. We collected 434 Glaucous Gulls from late June to early August 1994 to examine diet. Identification of undigested prey tissue, based on DNA microsatellite loci, showed three species of goslings in gull stomachs: Emperor Goose (Chen canagica), White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), and Cackling Canada Goose (Branta canadensis minima). Gulls that nested inland and were collected > 1.6 km from the coast accounted for approximately 70% of the total gull predation on Emperor and Canada Geese, and 96% on White-fronted Geese. Our stratified sample of gull stomachs and aerial survey estimates of population size and distribution of gulls and juvenile geese enabled extrapolation of species-specific predation rates to the entire Y-K Delta. We estimated that a minimum of 21 000 Emperor Goose, 34 000 Canada Goose, and 16 000 White-fronted Goose goslings were consumed by 12 600 Glaucous Gulls during the brood-rearing period on the Y-K Delta in 1994. Minimum estimated take by gulls represented 33% of Cackling Canada Goose, 47% of Emperor Goose, and 39% of White-fronted Goose eggs estimated to have hatched in the same area as gull collections. Gulls selected the three species of geese approximately in proportion to their abundance. Although gull predation caused significant gosling mortality, its role in regulating goose populations on Y-K Delta remains unresolved.

  15. Geese Are Swans and Swans Are Geese or Selecting Unripe Fruits Instead of Ripe Fruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    Procedural evaluations of limits of functions provide invariably better understanding of the limits than the approximations using a calculator. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that better understanding can be promoted if mathematical understanding precedes the impulse to use calculators. The note clarifies the stages when the…

  16. Seroprevalence of paramyxoviruses in synanthropic and semi-free-range birds.

    PubMed

    Esperón, Fernando; Vázquez, Belén; Sánchez, Azucena; Fernández-Piñero, Jovita; Yuste, María; Neves, Elena; Nogal, Verónica; Muñoz, María Jesús

    2014-06-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) are classified into nine different serotypes (APMV 1-9). Virulent strains of APMV-1 are already well characterized as the etiologic agent of Newcastle disease (ND), an important disease in poultry that is potentially capable of infecting all orders of avian species. However, very little is known about the other eight serotypes, the majority of which can cause disease in domestic birds. The role of synanthropic and semi-free-range birds as reservoirs of avian paramyxoviruses is not well understood and the main objective of this work was to evaluate the seroprevalence of APMV 1-9 in these kind of birds. A total of 296 sera, oropharyngeal swabs, and cloacal enemas were collected from semi-free-range birds belonging to four different species: feral pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica), hybrid ducks (Anas sp.), domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus), and white storks (Ciconia ciconia). Antibodies against NDV were found in 56.3% of domestic geese, 42.9% of feral pigeons, and 30.4% of hybrid ducks. Antibodies for other APMVs (-3, -4, -6, -7, -8, -9) were also found. Seven positive individuals were positive to real-time RT-PCR detection, all of them feral pigeons captured in 2006 and 2007. The results obtained reinforce the idea that semi-free-range birds may be good sentinels for the detection of NDV and other avian paramyxoviruses.

  17. Endemic avian toxoplasmosis on a farm in Illinois: clinical disease, diagnosis, biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens (Gallus domesticus), and a goose (Anser anser)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical toxoplasmosis in chickens (Gallus domesticus) has been rarely reported in literature. Here we report that three chickens on a farm in Illinois developed neurological signs . One of these chickens was examined postmortem and it had non-suppurative encephalitis with numerous Toxoplasma gondi...

  18. Identification of goose (Anser anser) and mule duck (Anasplatyrhynchos x Cairina moschata) foie gras by multiplex polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 5S RDNA gene.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M A; García, T; González, I; Asensio, L; Fernández, A; Lobo, E; Hernández, P E; Martín, R

    2001-06-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the nuclear 5S rDNA gene has been used for the identification of goose and mule duck foie gras. Two species-specific reverse primers were designed and used in a multiplex reaction, together with a forward universal primer, to amplify specific fragments of the 5S rDNA in each species. The different sizes of the species-specific amplicons, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, allowed clear identification of goose and mule duck foie gras samples. This genetic marker can be useful for detecting fraudulent substitution of the duck liver for the more expensive goose liver.

  19. Cloning and expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) in the liver of the Sichuan white goose and landes goose responding to overfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-Xiong; Han, Chun-Chun; Wang, Ji-Wen; Li, Liang; Tang, Hui; Lv, Jia; Lu, Lizhi; Xu, Feng

    2011-06-01

    The EST sequence of goose (Anser cygnoides) Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1(SCD-1) was obtained from a subtractive cDNA library. To further investigate the role of SCD-1 in lipid metabolism in geese, 5'-RACE and 3'-RACE were carried out in this study to obtain the complete cDNA sequence of goose SCD-1, which contained a 29-bp 5' UTR, a 1074-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 357 amino acids, and a 125-bp 3' UTR. The expression of SCD-1 was measured in several tissues, and the effects of overfeeding on the expression of SCD-1 were studied. The results of real time RT-PCR demonstrated that, compared to the brain, goose SCD-1 mRNA was more abundant in the liver. Overfeeding markedly increased the mRNA expression of SCD-1 in the liver of Sichuan White and Landes geese, and gene expression was markedly higher in the Sichuan White goose than in the landes goose. The mRNA abundance of SCD-1 in the liver had significant positive correlations with triacylglycerol (TG) content in liver lipids and in the levels of plasma insulin and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) levels in Sichuan white geese. However, the mRNA abundance of SCD-1 in the livers of Landes geese had only significant positive correlations with the TG content in liver lipids. In conclusion, SCD-1 is not only critical for hepatic steatosis in geese but is also important for the difference in lipid deposition in the livers of the two breeds.

  20. Role of bird movements in the epidemiology of West Nile and avian influenza virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John; Perry, William M.; Smith, Lacy M.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    Avian infl uenza virus (AIV) is infl uenced by site fi delity and movements of bird hosts. We examined the movement ecology of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) as potential hosts for West Nile virus (WNV) and greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) as potential hosts for AIVs. Research was based on radio-telemetry studies conducted in the Central Valley of California, USA. While crows were restricted to a small area of only a few square kilometers, the distribution of the geese encompassed the northern Central Valley. The crows used 1.5 to 3.5 different roosting areas monthly from February through October, revealing lower roost fi delity than the geese that used 1.1 to 1.5 roosting areas each month from November through March. The crows moved a mean distance of 0.11 to 0.49 km/month between their roosting sites and 2.5 to 3.9 km/month between roosting and feeding sites. In contrast, the geese moved 4.2 to 19.3 km/month between roosting areas, and their feeding range varied from 13.2 to 19.0 km/month. Our comparison of the ecological characteristics of bird movements suggests that the limited local movements of crows coupled with frequent turnover of roosts may result in persistence of focal areas for WNV infection. In contrast, widespread areas used by geese will provide regular opportunities for intermixing of AIVs over a much greater geographic area.

  1. An implantable instrument for studying the long-term flight biology of migratory birds

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, Robin J. E-mail: c.bishop@bangor.ac.uk; Bishop, Charles M. E-mail: c.bishop@bangor.ac.uk

    2014-01-15

    The design of an instrument deployed in a project studying the high altitude Himalayan migrations of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) is described. The electronics of this archival datalogger measured 22 × 14 × 6.5 mm, weighed 3 g, was powered by a ½AA-sized battery weighing 10 g and housed in a transparent biocompatible tube sealed with titanium electrodes for electrocardiography (ECG). The combined weight of 32 g represented less than 2% of the typical bodyweight of the geese. The primary tasks of the instrument were to continuously record a digitised ECG signal for heart-rate determination and store 12-bit triaxial accelerations sampled at 100 Hz with 15% coverage over each 2 min period. Measurement of atmospheric pressure provided an indication of altitude and rate of ascent or descent during flight. Geomagnetic field readings allowed for latitude estimation. These parameters were logged twice per minute along with body temperature. Data were stored to a memory card of 8 GB capacity. Instruments were implanted in geese captured on Mongolian lakes during the breeding season when the birds are temporarily flightless due to moulting. The goal was to collect data over a ten month period, covering both southward and northward migrations. This imposed extreme constraints on the design's power consumption. Raw ECG can be post-processed to obtain heart-rate, allowing improved rejection of signal interference due to strenuous activity of locomotory muscles during flight. Accelerometry can be used to monitor wing-beat frequency and body kinematics, and since the geese continued to flap their wings continuously even during rather steep descents, act as a proxy for biomechanical power. The instrument enables detailed investigation of the challenges faced by the geese during these arduous migrations which typically involve flying at extreme altitudes through cold, low density air where oxygen availability is significantly reduced compared to sea level.

  2. An implantable instrument for studying the long-term flight biology of migratory birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivey, Robin J.; Bishop, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    The design of an instrument deployed in a project studying the high altitude Himalayan migrations of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) is described. The electronics of this archival datalogger measured 22 × 14 × 6.5 mm, weighed 3 g, was powered by a ½AA-sized battery weighing 10 g and housed in a transparent biocompatible tube sealed with titanium electrodes for electrocardiography (ECG). The combined weight of 32 g represented less than 2% of the typical bodyweight of the geese. The primary tasks of the instrument were to continuously record a digitised ECG signal for heart-rate determination and store 12-bit triaxial accelerations sampled at 100 Hz with 15% coverage over each 2 min period. Measurement of atmospheric pressure provided an indication of altitude and rate of ascent or descent during flight. Geomagnetic field readings allowed for latitude estimation. These parameters were logged twice per minute along with body temperature. Data were stored to a memory card of 8 GB capacity. Instruments were implanted in geese captured on Mongolian lakes during the breeding season when the birds are temporarily flightless due to moulting. The goal was to collect data over a ten month period, covering both southward and northward migrations. This imposed extreme constraints on the design's power consumption. Raw ECG can be post-processed to obtain heart-rate, allowing improved rejection of signal interference due to strenuous activity of locomotory muscles during flight. Accelerometry can be used to monitor wing-beat frequency and body kinematics, and since the geese continued to flap their wings continuously even during rather steep descents, act as a proxy for biomechanical power. The instrument enables detailed investigation of the challenges faced by the geese during these arduous migrations which typically involve flying at extreme altitudes through cold, low density air where oxygen availability is significantly reduced compared to sea level.

  3. Metal levels in livers of waterfowl from Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2012-04-01

    This study presents concentrations of heavy metals (iron, zinc, manganese, copper, lead and cadmium) in livers of white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and spot-billed ducks (Anas poecilorhyncha) from Korea in February 2006 and 2008. Iron concentrations were significantly lower in spot-billed ducks than in other species (ANOVA, p<0.001). Zinc concentrations were greater in white-fronted geese and spot-billed ducks than in eurasian wigeons and mallards (ANOVA, p<0.001). Manganese and copper concentrations in white-fronted geese were significantly higher than in other species (ANOVA, p<0.001). Cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in mallards and spot-billed ducks than in white-fronted geese (ANOVA, p=0.007). However, lead concentrations did not differ among species. Iron, zinc, manganese and copper concentrations from this study were within the range of other waterfowl studies. Therefore, we suggest that essential elements such as iron, zinc, manganese and copper are within normal range and are maintained there by normal homeostatic mechanism. Twenty individuals (29.0 percent) exceeded the threshold level for abnormal lead exposure (5 μg/g dry weight) in waterfowl in this study and it is a higher proportion than in herons, egrets and owls from Korea. We suggest that the result was attributed to ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. However, cadmium concentrations in waterfowl except one specimen were within the background concentrations for wild birds. In livers of four waterfowl species found in Korea, lead and cadmium concentrations were similar to previously reported in other geese and ducks; except for poisoning of lead shot or sinkers as shown in earlier studies.

  4. Changing patterns of goose harvest on California public hunting areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, J.P.; Hicks, J.M.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    We summarized hunter visits, success, and the magnitude and species-subspecies composition of tho goose harvest recorded on California public hunting areas (PHAs) during 1950-89. Of six geographic regions, the Northeast accounted for the largest portion of the PHA harvest (55%); most of the remainder occurred in the Sacramento (30%) and Imperial (10%) Valley regions. Harvest, hunter visits, and success were low during the 1950s, but increased during the 1960s as new PHAs were added and data from Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs), where about half of California's PHA goose harvest occurs, became available. Success and harvest reflected declining goose abundance during the 1970s; however, hunter visits remained high on most PHAs because ducks were abundant. During the 1980s, declining populations of greater white-fronted geese, Anser albifrons frontalis, and cackling Canada geese, Branta canadensis minima, prompted restrictive regulations resulting in low harvest and success. Hunter visits were further reduced because of declining duck abundance and overall declines in hunter numbers. White-fronted geese were most prominent in the Northeast and Suisun Marsh harvest, but the lesser snow goose, Chen caerulescens caerulescens, was more important in other regions. Overall, the cackling Canada goose was the third most common goose harvested. The harvest of most geese peaked during 1965-74, coinciding with a peak in hunter visits, and then declined. However, the harvest of Canada geese (includes unknown proportions of western, B. c. moffitti, Taverner's, B. c. taverneri, and lesser, B. c. parvipes) and Ross' geese, Chen rossi, increased slightly throughout the study period. PHA harvest averaged 9-15% of the total state goose harvest during 1960-89. Success on PHAs was greater than statewide success until the 1980's, when restrictive regulations were imposed in zones encompassing many Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Basin PHAs. White

  5. Chinese goose (Anser cygnoides) CD8a: cloning, tissue distribution and immunobiological in splenic mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiurong; Liu, Fei; Chen, Shun; Yan, Xiaoling; Qi, Yulin; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2013-10-25

    CD8 molecule is a cell membrane glycoprotein, which plays an important role in cell-mediated immunity. Here, we identified Chinese goose CD8α (goCD8α) gene for the first time. The full-length cDNA of goCD8α is 1459bp in length and contains a 711bp open reading frame. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the waterfowl CD8α formed a monophyletic group. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that transcripts of goCD8α mRNA were high in the immune-related organs and mucosal immune system in gosling, and high in thymus and spleen comparing to other immune-related tissues in goose. The obvious increase of CD8α expression was observed in spleen of acute new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) infected bird, while the increase of CD8α were observed in the thymus, bursa of fabricius, and cecum of chronic infected bird. The CD8α mRNA transcription level in spleen mononuclear cells was significantly up-regulated when stimulated by phytohemagglutinin, but not by lipopolysaccharide in vitro.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of CD3ε in Chinese domestic goose (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuelian; Wei, Shuangshi; Shao, Jianwei; Zhang, Shudong; Gao, Mingchun; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2015-06-15

    CD3 is one of the most important cell surface markers of T lymphocytes which play an important role in signal transmission of antigen recognition. In this study, goose CD3ε gene was cloned by touchdown PCR with the template of goose thymus cDNA. The complete open reading frame of goose CD3ε encoded 178 amino acid residues with a 21 signal peptide. Sequence alignments showed that goose CD3ε had an amino acid sequence similarity to duck (80.3%) and chicken (66.3%). The extracellular domain of goose CD3ε was efficiently expressed as fusion protein in Escherichia coli, purified by a Ni-NTA agarose column, and the purified recombinant protein was used to produce anti-GoCD3εex polyclonal antibodies. The characteristics of PAb were identified by Western blot, cellular ELISA, IFA, FCM, and LSCM analysis. These results may be useful for a better understanding of goose CD3ε and have a foundation for the study of T cell mediated immune mechanism in waterfowl.

  7. Growth of black brant and lesser snow goose goslings in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Hogrefe, Kyle R.; Sedinger, James S.; Martin, Philip D.; Stickney, Alice A; Obritschkewitsch, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Gosling body mass can affect first year survival, recruitment, adult body size, and future fecundity of geese, and can serve as an indicator of forage availability and quality on brood-rearing areas. From 2012–2014 we measured body mass of 76 black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and 268 lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goslings of known age on the Colville River Delta (CRD) of northern Alaska to determine if there was evidence of density-dependent declines in gosling growth following recent population increases of those species and sympatric greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis). We contrasted contemporary body mass of brant goslings and forage biomass in brood-rearing habitats that were shared by all species, with measures obtained on, and near the CRD in the 1990s, prior to the establishment of snow goose nesting colonies in the area. Body mass of brant goslings recaptured between 25 and 32 days of age had not changed over the past 2 decades, despite an influx of snow geese, and increases in populations of brant and white-fronted geese. At 30 days of age, body mass of brant goslings on the CRD was 100–400 g heavier than for brant goslings of the same age on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska. Contemporary biomass of grazed Carex subspathacea on CRD brood-rearing areas was comparable to the 1990s and was 2–4 times greater than for the same plant community on the YKD. Historical data on growth of snow goose goslings were not available for the CRD. However, average body mass of 34-day-old snow goose goslings was >230 g heavier than for conspecifics of the same age in the Hudson Bay region. We conclude that the establishment of nesting snow geese on the CRD has not negatively affected brant gosling growth, and that recent population increases of all species have likely not been constrained by forage availability on brood-rearing areas. Barring demographic changes elsewhere in their annual cycles, we predict that

  8. Of trees, geese and cirripedes: man's quest for understanding.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John

    2011-03-01

    At least zoologists know that barnacles are arthropods rather than mollusks. However, this knowledge is surprisingly new, for it was as recent as 1830 before J. Vaughan Thompson showed, through a careful study of barnacle larvae, that they were crustaceans. In the 1850s, Charles Darwin unraveled much of the taxonomy of barnacles, and, significantly, his observations and classification of them follow the structure that was to be published later as his evolutionary theory. Irrespective of these works, knowledge of the systematic placement of barnacles remains surprisingly poor in the wider population today, with most non-biologists viewing barnacles as shallow-water fouling organisms related to oysters and limpets. The present paper reviews the way humans have perceived barnacles for at least a millennium; it evaluates why they were thought to have grown from trees and to have been part of the life cycle of birds; it concludes by contemplating the manner in which we perceive our environment and by doing so try to make sense of our world.

  9. Behavior of Cackling Canada Geese during brood rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, Ada C.; Ely, Craig R.

    1997-01-01

    We studied behavior of Cackling Canada Goose (Branta canadensis minima, cacklers) broods between 1992 and 1996 on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge in western Alaska. An increase in time spent foraging by goslings during our study was weakly correlated with an increase in the size of the local breeding population. Amount of time spent feeding by adults and goslings increased throughout the brood rearing period. Overall, goslings spent more time feeding than either adult females or males, and adult males spent the most time alert. Time alert varied among brood rearing areas and increased with brood size, but there was no variation in time spent alert among years. Increases in feeding or alert behaviors were at a cost to time spent in all other behaviors. We suggest that there is not a simple trade-off between feeding and alert behavior in cacklers, but instead that time spent feeding and alert are optimized against all other behaviors. We suggest that forage quality and availability determines the amount of time spent feeding, whereas the threat of predation or disturbance determines the amount of time spent alert.

  10. 50 CFR 21.60 - Conservation order for light geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird Populations... conservation order under the authority of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize various light... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. (b)...

  11. 50 CFR 21.60 - Conservation order for light geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird Populations... conservation order under the authority of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize various light... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. (b)...

  12. 50 CFR 21.60 - Conservation order for light geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird Populations... conservation order under the authority of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize various light... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. (b)...

  13. 50 CFR 21.60 - Conservation order for light geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird Populations... conservation order under the authority of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize various light... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. (b)...

  14. 50 CFR 21.60 - Conservation order for light geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird Populations... conservation order under the authority of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize various light... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. (b)...

  15. Effects of the light goose conservation order on non-target waterfowl distribution during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinges, Andrew J.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Vrtiska, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Light Goose Conservation Order (LGCO) was initiated in 1999 to reduce mid-continent populations of light geese (lesser snow geese Chen caerulescens and Ross's geese C. rossi). However, concern about potential for LGCO activities (i.e. hunting activities) to negatively impact non-target waterfowl species during spring migration in the Rainwater Basin (RWB) of Nebraska prompted agency personnel to limit the number of hunt days each week and close multiple public wetlands to LGCO activities entirely. To evaluate the effects of the LGCO in the RWB, we quantified waterfowl density at wetlands open and closed to LGCO hunting and recorded all hunter encounters during springs 2011 and 2012. We encountered a total of 70 hunting parties on 22 study wetlands, with over 90% of these encounters occurring during early season when the majority of waterfowl used the RWB region. We detected greater overall densities of dabbling ducks Anas spp., as well as for mallards A. platyrhynchos and northern pintails A. acuta on wetlands closed to the LGCO. We detected no effects of hunt day in the analyses of dabbling duck densities. We detected no differences in mean weekly dabbling duck densities among wetlands open to hunting, regardless of weekly or cumulative hunting encounter frequency throughout early season. Additionally, hunting category was not a predictor for the presence of greater white-fronted geese Anser albifronsin a logistic regression model. Given that dabbling duck densities were greater on wetlands closed to hunting, providing wetlands free from hunting disturbance as refugia during the LGCO remains an important management strategy at migration stopover sites. However, given that we did not detect an effect of hunt day or hunting frequency on dabbling duck density, our results suggest increased hunting frequency at sites already open to hunting would likely have minimal impacts on the distribution of non-target waterfowl species using the region for spring

  16. Effect of embedded shot on trace element concentrations in livers of Anseriformes species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, In-Kyu; Oh, Jong-Min

    2016-12-01

    Trace elements were analyzed in the liver of white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons, n=15), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos, n=4) and spot-billed ducks (Anas poecilorhyncha, n=13) found dead in Gimpo, Korea. All mallards and eight spot-billed ducks had embedded lead shot. Embedded shot could be affected elevated trace element concentrations on geese and ducks. Element concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), aluminum (Al), copper (Cr), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) differed among species and white-fronted geese without embedded shot had the lowest concentrations for all elements (geomean 0.36, 0.43, 0.07, 1.46, 7.60, 2.61 and 13.5µg/g dw, respectively). Cadmium in four (3.27-7.77µg/g dw) of 32 individuals and Pb in eight (5.07-9.72µg/g dw) of 32 individuals exceeded a tentative threshold effect level of Cd (>3.0µg/g dw) and Pb (>5.0µg/g dw) for birds; all geese and ducks for Cr (0.07-0.43µg/g dw) were within the background level (<4.0µg/g dw). All trace element concentrations were much greater in waterfowl species with embedded shot than without shot. Essential trace elements such as Cr, Al (geomean 1.46-37.3µg/g dw), Cu (7.60-57.1µg/g dw), Mn (2.61-27.6µg/g dw) and Zn (13.5-176µg/g dw) were within the normal range and were probably maintained by normal homeostatic mechanisms.

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Hui; Gan, Ping; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoxing; Lan, Yanfang; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%), 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%), and 4 of 35 cattle (11%) were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province. PMID:28224883

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Hui; Gan, Ping; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoxing; Lan, Yanfang; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%), 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%), and 4 of 35 cattle (11%) were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  19. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  20. Top-down vs. bottom-up control on vegetation composition in a tidal marsh depends on scale.

    PubMed

    Elschot, Kelly; Vermeulen, Anke; Vandenbruwaene, Wouter; Bakker, Jan P; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Stahl, Julia; Castelijns, Henk; Temmerman, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    The relative impact of top-down control by herbivores and bottom-up control by environmental conditions on vegetation is a subject of debate in ecology. In this study, we hypothesize that top-down control by goose foraging and bottom-up control by sediment accretion on vegetation composition within an ecosystem can co-occur but operate at different spatial and temporal scales. We used a highly dynamic marsh system with a large population of the Greylag goose (Anser anser) to investigate the potential importance of spatial and temporal scales on these processes. At the local scale, Greylag geese grub for below-ground storage organs of the vegetation, thereby creating bare patches of a few square metres within the marsh vegetation. In our study, such activities by Greylag geese allowed them to exert top-down control by setting back vegetation succession. However, we found that the patches reverted back to the initial vegetation type within 12 years. At large spatial (i.e. several square kilometres) and temporal scales (i.e. decades), high rates of sediment accretion surpassing the rate of local sea-level rise were found to drive long-term vegetation succession and increased cover of several climax vegetation types. In summary, we conclude that the vegetation composition within this tidal marsh was primarily controlled by the bottom-up factor of sediment accretion, which operates at large spatial as well as temporal scales. Top-down control exerted by herbivores was found to be a secondary process and operated at much smaller spatial and temporal scales.

  1. Top-down vs. bottom-up control on vegetation composition in a tidal marsh depends on scale

    PubMed Central

    Elschot, Kelly; Vermeulen, Anke; Vandenbruwaene, Wouter; Bakker, Jan P.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Stahl, Julia; Castelijns, Henk; Temmerman, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    The relative impact of top-down control by herbivores and bottom-up control by environmental conditions on vegetation is a subject of debate in ecology. In this study, we hypothesize that top-down control by goose foraging and bottom-up control by sediment accretion on vegetation composition within an ecosystem can co-occur but operate at different spatial and temporal scales. We used a highly dynamic marsh system with a large population of the Greylag goose (Anser anser) to investigate the potential importance of spatial and temporal scales on these processes. At the local scale, Greylag geese grub for below-ground storage organs of the vegetation, thereby creating bare patches of a few square metres within the marsh vegetation. In our study, such activities by Greylag geese allowed them to exert top-down control by setting back vegetation succession. However, we found that the patches reverted back to the initial vegetation type within 12 years. At large spatial (i.e. several square kilometres) and temporal scales (i.e. decades), high rates of sediment accretion surpassing the rate of local sea-level rise were found to drive long-term vegetation succession and increased cover of several climax vegetation types. In summary, we conclude that the vegetation composition within this tidal marsh was primarily controlled by the bottom-up factor of sediment accretion, which operates at large spatial as well as temporal scales. Top-down control exerted by herbivores was found to be a secondary process and operated at much smaller spatial and temporal scales. PMID:28158218

  2. Evaluation of Newcastle disease virus immunoassays for waterfowl using a monoclonal antibody specific for the duck immunoglobulin light chain.

    PubMed

    Kothlow, Sonja; Haüslaigner, Rafaela; Kaspers, Bernd; Grund, Christian

    2008-06-01

    In the present study a monoclonal antibody (mAb 14A3) was tested for its reactivity against serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) of several waterfowl species, and subsequently for its applicability as anti-species antibody in common immunoassays. Western blot analyses demonstrated its broad cross-reactivity with the serum IgY light chain of different duck species: Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), white-winged wood duck (Asarcornis scutulatus), common pintail (Dafila acuta). Reactivity was also evident with IgY of two swan species--mute swan (Cygnus olor) and black-necked swan (Sthenelides melanocoryphus)--and two goose species--domestic goose (Anser anser var. domestica) and red-breasted goose (Rufibrenta ruficollis). Applying the mAb for Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 [APMV-1]) test systems, its functionality within indirect immunoassays was evaluated. Using APMV-1-positive sera of domestic geese and Muscovy ducks, mAb 14A3 facilitated specific staining of APMV-1-infected cells in an immunofluorescence test. In addition, it proved to be functional in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a western blot assay. Thus, the analysed mAb represents an attractive and versatile reagent that offers the opportunity to develop serological tests for waterfowl, allowing a high sample throughput using the ELISA technique or the fine analysis of humoral immune responses using the western blot.

  3. Pathobiological Characterization of a Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Virus Isolated in British Columbia, Canada, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Yohannes; Kobasa, Darwyn; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Pickering, Brad; Babiuk, Shawn; Joseph, Tomy; Bowes, Victoria; Suderman, Mathew; Leung, Anders; Cottam-Birt, Colleen; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Pasick, John

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we describe the pathobiologic characteristics of a novel reassortant virus - A/chicken/BC/FAV-002/2015 (H5N1) belonging to clade 2.3.4.4 that was isolated from backyard chickens in British Columbia, Canada. Sequence analyses demonstrate PB1, PA, NA and NS gene segments were of North American lineage while PB2, HA, NP and M were derived from a Eurasian lineage H5N8 virus. This novel virus had a 19 amino acid deletion in the neuraminidase stalk. We evaluated the pathogenic potential of this isolate in various animal models. The virus was highly pathogenic to mice with a LD50 of 10 plaque forming units (PFU), but had limited tissue tropism. It caused only subclinical infection in pigs which did result in seroconversion. This virus was highly pathogenic to chickens, turkeys, juvenile Muscovy ducks (Cairnia moschata foma domestica) and adult Chinese geese (Anser cynoides domesticus) causing a systemic infection in all species. The virus was also efficiently transmitted and resulted in mortality in naïve contact ducks, geese and chickens. Our findings indicate that this novel H5N1 virus has a wide host range and enhanced surveillance of migratory waterfowl may be necessary in order to determine its potential to establish itself in the wild bird reservoir. PMID:26988892

  4. Tracking the spring migration of a bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) across the Himalaya with satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Javed, Salim; Takekawa, John Y.; Douglas, David C.; Rahmani, Asad R.; Kanai, Yutaka; Nagendran, Meenakshi; Choudhury, Binod C.; Sharma, Shruti

    2000-01-01

    Soil-food-chain-pesticide wildlife relationships were investigated to learn the concentration of pesticide residues present in soils, macro-invertebrates, vertebrates, and seeds as a result of annual applications of aldrin at recommended rates for pest control. Two central Missouri cornfields treated witb aldrin at 1 lb/acre, for 16 and 15 of the past 17 years, were selected for study during 1965-67. Primary samples collected for residue analyses included soils, earthworms (Lumbricidae), crickets (GryIlidae), and two kinds of ground beetles (Carabidae) obtained during early April, June, August, and October. Vertebrates and plant seeds collected during 1967 included white-footed mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), toads (Bufo americanus), snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and Pituophis sayi), corn (Zea Mays), foxtail (Setaria Faberii), and annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Pesticide residues consisted primarily of dieldrin, the degradation product of aldrin. Combined aldrin and dieldrin residues, as two field all-season averages, wet weight basis, were: soils, 0.31 ppm; earthworms, 1.49 ppm; crickets, 0.23 ppm; Harpalus ground beetles, 1.10 ppm; Poecilus ground beetles, 9.67 ppm; white-footed mice, 0.98 ppm; toads, 3.53 ppm; garter snakes, 12.35 ppm; and corn, foxtail, and sunflower seeds less than 0.02 ppm each. Unusually high average residues (37.48 ppm) in Poecilus beetles during June, 1967, were attributed to abnormally high soil moisture and predacious feeding habits of these insects.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus hominis BHG17 Isolated from Wild Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) Feces

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Zheng, Si-Si; Sharshov, Kirill; Sun, Hao; Wu, Xian-Qiang; Yang, Fang; Wang, Xue-Lian

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus hominis belongs to a group of coagulase-negative staphylococci and is an opportunistic pathogen, usually found on the skin and mucous membranes. Studies involving S. hominis isolated from wild birds are scarce. Here, we report a 2.365-Mb draft genome sequence of S. hominis BHG17, isolated from the feces of a bar-headed goose. PMID:28153901

  6. Surveillance for Eurasian-origin and intercontinental reassortant highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in Alaska, spring and summer 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andrew M.; Pearce, John M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Dobson, Jennifer; Lefferts, Brian; Spragens, Kyle A.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundEurasian-origin and intercontinental reassortant highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) were first detected in North America in wild, captive, and domestic birds during November–December 2014. Detections of HP viruses in wild birds in the contiguous United States and southern Canadian provinces continued into winter and spring of 2015 raising concerns that migratory birds could potentially disperse viruses to more northerly breeding areas where they could be maintained to eventually seed future poultry outbreaks.ResultsWe sampled 1,129 wild birds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, one of the largest breeding areas for waterfowl in North America, during spring and summer of 2015 to test for Eurasian lineage and intercontinental reassortant HP H5 IAVs and potential progeny viruses. We did not detect HP IAVs in our sample collection from western Alaska; however, we isolated five low pathogenic (LP) viruses. Four isolates were of the H6N1 (n = 2), H6N2, and H9N2 combined subtypes whereas the fifth isolate was a mixed infection that included H3 and N7 gene segments. Genetic characterization of these five LP IAVs isolated from cackling (Branta hutchinsii; n = 2) and greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons; n = 3), revealed three viral gene segments sharing high nucleotide identity with HP H5 viruses recently detected in North America. Additionally, one of the five isolates was comprised of multiple Eurasian lineage gene segments.ConclusionsOur results did not provide direct evidence for circulation of HP IAVs in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta region of Alaska during spring and summer of 2015. Prevalence and genetic characteristics of LP IAVs during the sampling period are concordant with previous findings of relatively low viral prevalence in geese during spring, non-detection of IAVs in geese during summer, and evidence for intercontinental exchange of viruses in western Alaska.

  7. A Conserved Epitope Mapped with a Monoclonal Antibody against the VP3 Protein of Goose Parvovirus by Using Peptide Screening and Phage Display Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenxi; Liu, Hongyu; Li, Jinzhe; Liu, Dafei; Meng, Runze; Zhang, Qingshan; Shaozhou, Wulin; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background Waterfowl parvovirus (WPV) infection causes high mortality and morbidity in both geese (Anser anser) and Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata), resulting in significant losses to the waterfowl industries. The VP3 protein of WPV is a major structural protein that induces neutralizing antibodies in the waterfowl. However, B-cell epitopes on the VP3 protein of WPV have not been characterized. Methods and Results To understand the antigenic determinants of the VP3 protein, we used the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4A6 to screen a set of eight partially expressed overlapping peptides spanning VP3. Using western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we localized the VP3 epitope between amino acids (aa) 57 and 112. To identify the essential epitope residues, a phage library displaying 12-mer random peptides was screened with mAb 4A6. Phage clone peptides displayed a consensus sequence of YxRFHxH that mimicked the sequence 82Y/FNRFHCH88, which corresponded to amino acid residues 82 to 88 of VP3 protein of WPVs. mAb 4A6 binding to biotinylated fragments corresponding to amino acid residues 82 to 88 of the VP3 protein verified that the 82FxRFHxH88 was the VP3 epitope and that amino acids 82F is necessary to retain maximal binding to mAb 4A6. Parvovirus-positive goose and duck sera reacted with the epitope peptide by dot blotting assay, revealing the importance of these amino acids of the epitope in antibody-epitope binding reactivity. Conclusions and Significance We identified the motif FxRFHxH as a VP3-specific B-cell epitope that is recognized by the neutralizing mAb 4A6. This finding might be valuable in understanding of the antigenic topology of VP3 of WPV. PMID:27191594

  8. Effect of storage duration on the rheological properties of goose liquid egg products and eggshell membranes.

    PubMed

    Kumbar, V; Nedomova, S; Trnka, J; Buchar, J; Pytel, R

    2016-07-01

    In practice, goose eggs are increasingly used and, therefore, the rheological properties have to be known for processing. The eggs of geese (Landes Goose, Anser anser f. domestica) were stored for one, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 wk at a constant temperature 4°C. First of all, the egg quality parameters were described in terms of egg weight, egg weight loss, egg shape index, yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh units. In the next step the rheological behavior of liquid egg products (egg yolk, albumen, and whole liquid egg) was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Flow curves of all liquid egg products exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. This behavior can be described using the Herschel-Bulkley model and for technical application using the Ostwald-de Waele model. The effect of the storage duration on the rheological behavior is different for the different liquid egg products. With the exception of very low shear rates, the viscosity of the egg yolk as well as of the whole liquid egg decreases with storage time. At lower shear rates there is a tendency toward increased albumen viscosity with storage duration. The storage duration also affects the mechanical properties of the eggshell membrane. This effect has been evaluated in terms of the ultimate tensile strength, fracture strain, and fracture toughness. All these parameters increased with the loading rate, but decreased during the egg storage. These mechanical phenomena should be respected, namely in the design of the egg model for the numerical simulation of the egg behavior under different kinds of the mechanical loading.

  9. Accumulation of As, Cd and selected trace elements in tubers of Scirpus aritimus L. from Doñana marshes (South Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madejon, P.; Murillo, J.M.; Maranon, T.; Espinar, J.L.; Cabrera, F.

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of a pyrite-mining, tailing dam on 1998 contaminated an area of 4286 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar river valleys in southern Spain. Over 2700 ha of the Doñana marshes, an important wintering area for wetland European birds, were contaminated. This study reports analyses of the tubers of Scirpus maritimus (an important food for greylag geese, Anser anser) collected in 2000 in the “Entremuros” (spill-affected area) and in nearby unaffected Doñana marshes (control areas). In the spill-affected area mean tuber tissue concentrations of Cd (0.25 mg kg−1) and Zn (61 mg kg−1) were greater than in those tubers from the control area (0.02 mg kg−1 for Cd, and 22 mg kg−1 for Zn); values of Cd and Zn in “Entremuros” (samples collected two years after the mine spill) were much smaller than those reported only a few months after the accident. Trace elements (As, Fe, Mn and Tl, and to a lesser extent Cd and Pb) showed a preferential accumulation in the outer skin of tubers. Surprisingly, concentrations of As and Fe were greater in tubers from some marsh sites not affected by the mine-spill than in tubers from the “Entremuros”. We suggest that relic river channels within the Doñana marshes may be contaminated by trace elements from historic mining activities. An exhaustive study of macrophytes and other plant species in this area is recommended to identify potential risks to wildlife.

  10. 7 CFR 1416.205 - Payment calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Ducks; (7) Ducks, ducklings; (8) Geese, goose; and (9) Geese, gosling. (g) The categories of eligible...) Ducks; (26) Ducks, ducklings; (27) Geese, goose; (28) Geese, gosling; (29) Catfish; (30) Crawfish;...

  11. Benefiting from a migratory prey: spatio-temporal patterns in allochthonous subsidization of an Arctic predator.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Berteaux, Dominique; Lecomte, Nicolas; Gauthier, Gilles; Szor, Guillaume; Bêty, Joël

    2012-05-01

    1. Flows of nutrients and energy across ecosystem boundaries have the potential to subsidize consumer populations and modify the dynamics of food webs, but how spatio-temporal variations in autochthonous and allochthonous resources affect consumers' subsidization remains largely unexplored. 2. We studied spatio-temporal patterns in the allochthonous subsidization of a predator living in a relatively simple ecosystem. We worked on Bylot Island (Nunavut, Canada), where arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus L.) feed preferentially on lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus and Dicrostonyx groenlandicus Traill), and alternatively on colonial greater snow geese (Anser caerulescens atlanticus L.). Geese migrate annually from their wintering grounds (where they feed on farmlands and marshes) to the Canadian Arctic, thus generating a strong flow of nutrients and energy across ecosystem boundaries. 3. We examined the influence of spatial variations in availability of geese on the diet of fox cubs (2003-2005) and on fox reproductive output (1996-2005) during different phases of the lemming cycle. 4. Using stable isotope analysis and a simple statistical routine developed to analyse the outputs of a multisource mixing model (SIAR), we showed that the contribution of geese to the diet of arctic fox cubs decreased with distance from the goose colony. 5. The probability that a den was used for reproduction by foxes decreased with distance from the subsidized goose colony and increased with lemming abundance. When lemmings were highly abundant, the effect of distance from the colony disappeared. The goose colony thus generated a spatial patterning of reproduction probability of foxes, while the lemming cycle generated a strong temporal variation of reproduction probability of foxes. 6. This study shows how the input of energy owing to the large-scale migration of prey affects the functional and reproductive responses of an opportunistic consumer, and how this input is spatially and

  12. Selection of a marker gene to construct a reference library for wetland plants, and the application of metabarcoding to analyze the diet of wintering herbivorous waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuzhan; Zhan, Aibin; Meng, Fanjuan; Xu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Food availability and diet selection are important factors influencing the abundance and distribution of wild waterbirds. In order to better understand changes in waterbird population, it is essential to figure out what they feed on. However, analyzing their diet could be difficult and inefficient using traditional methods such as microhistologic observation. Here, we addressed this gap of knowledge by investigating the diet of greater white-fronted goose Anser albifrons and bean goose Anser fabalis, which are obligate herbivores wintering in China, mostly in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River floodplain. First, we selected a suitable and high-resolution marker gene for wetland plants that these geese would consume during the wintering period. Eight candidate genes were included: rbcL, rpoC1, rpoB, matK, trnH-psbA, trnL (UAA), atpF-atpH, and psbK-psbI. The selection was performed via analysis of representative sequences from NCBI and comparison of amplification efficiency and resolution power of plant samples collected from the wintering area. The trnL gene was chosen at last with c/h primers, and a local plant reference library was constructed with this gene. Then, utilizing DNA metabarcoding, we discovered 15 food items in total from the feces of these birds. Of the 15 unique dietary sequences, 10 could be identified at specie level. As for greater white-fronted goose, 73% of sequences belonged to Poaceae spp., and 26% belonged to Carex spp. In contrast, almost all sequences of bean goose belonged to Carex spp. (99%). Using the same samples, microhistology provided consistent food composition with metabarcoding results for greater white-fronted goose, while 13% of Poaceae was recovered for bean goose. In addition, two other taxa were discovered only through microhistologic analysis. Although most of the identified taxa matched relatively well between the two methods, DNA metabarcoding gave taxonomically more detailed information. Discrepancies were likely due to

  13. Less waste corn, more land in soybeans, and the switch to genetically modified crops: Trends with important implications for wildlife management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Cox, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    American agriculture has provided abundant high-energy foods for migratory and resident wildlife populations since the onset of modern wildlife management. Responding to anecdotal evidence that corn residues are declining in cropland, we remeasured waste corn post-harvest in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska during 1997 and 1998 to compare with 1978. Post-harvest waste corn averaged 2.6% and 1.8% of yield in 1997 and 1998, respectively. After accounting for a 20% increase in yield, waste corn in 1997 and 1998 was reduced 24% and 47% from 1978. We also evaluated use of soybeans by spring-staging sandhill cranes (Crus canadensis) and waterfowl during spring 1998 and 1999. Despite being widely available in the CPRV, soybeans did not occur in esophageal contents of sandhill cranes (n=174), northern pintails (Anas acuta, n=139), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons, n=198), or lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens, n=208) collected with food in their esophagi. Lack of soybean consumption by cranes and waterfowl in Nebraska in early spring builds upon previously published findings, suggesting that soybeans are poorly suited for meeting nutrient needs of wildlife requiring a high-energy diet. Given evidence that high-energy food and numerous populations of seed-eating species found on farmland are declining, and the enormous potential risk to game and nongame wildlife populations if high-energy foods were to become scarce, a comprehensive research effort to study the problem appears warranted. Provisions under the Conservation Security subtitle of The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 offer a potential mechanism to encourage producers to manage cropland in ways that would replace part of the high-energy foods that have been lost to increasing efficiency of production agriculture.

  14. PHYLOGENETIC AND FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY OF SEAGULL AND CANADIAN GEESE FECAL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In spite of increasing public health concerns on the risks associated with swimming in waters contaminated with waterfowl feces, there is little information on the gut microbial communities of aquatic birds. To address the molecular microbial diversity of waterfowl, 16S rDNA and ...

  15. Constraints on productivity of wild Nene or Hawaiian geese Branta sandvicensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    I investigated constraints on the productivity of wild Nene on Hawaii and Maui during 1978-81. These populations were composed largely of captive-reared birds. Recruitment of young was low. Of 140 breeding attempts, 36% resulted in successful nests and 7% produced fledglings. Annual productivity was limited because: 1) relatively few available pairs attempted to breed (58% on Hawaii; 46% on Maui), 2) average rate of nest success was low (44%), and 3) gosling survival was low <39%). Low incidence of nesting suggests that many females could not accumulate sufficient body reserves for egg-laying and incubation due to poor foraging conditions or poorly developed foraging skills. Nest failure was high due to predation on eggs and incubating females by the introduced mongoose. Gosling mortality was high because of poor foraging conditions near many nests, forcing broods to travel over rugged, volcanic terrain to distant rearing areas. In addition, some goslings were killed by predators. Nene populations would benefit most from improved foraging opportunities for adult females and goslings and from reduced predator populations.

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia species isolates in ducks and geese.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Hossein; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. isolated from duck and goose intestinal contents. A total of 471 samples, including 291 duck and 180 goose intestinal contents, were purchased from wet markets between November 2008 and July 2010. Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. were isolated from 58 (12.3%), 107 (22.7%), and 80 (17%) of the samples, respectively. It was concluded that Listeria ivanovii, Salmonella Thompson, and Yersinia enterocolitica were the predominant serovars among Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp., respectively. Moreover, resistance to tetracycline was common in Listeria (48.3%) and Salmonella spp. (63.6%), whereas 51.3% of the Yersinia spp. isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Therefore, continued surveillance of the prevalence of the pathogens and also of emerging antibiotic resistance is needed to render possible the recognition of foods that may represent risks and also ensure the effective treatment of listeriosis, salmonellosis, and yersiniosis.

  17. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... other Federal, State, and local laws, and their use must comply with any labeling restrictions. (iv... using egg oiling must use 100 percent corn oil, a substance exempted from regulation by the U.S... outside the airport or military airfield's boundaries and be in compliance with all State and local...

  18. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... oiling, using 100 percent corn oil, a substance exempted from regulation by the U.S. Environmental... jurisdiction and be in compliance with all State and local laws and regulations. (5) Registrants authorized to... goose nests or the take of resident Canada goose eggs contrary to the laws or regulations of any...

  19. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... oiling, using 100 percent corn oil, a substance exempted from regulation by the U.S. Environmental... jurisdiction and be in compliance with all State and local laws and regulations. (5) Registrants authorized to... goose nests or the take of resident Canada goose eggs contrary to the laws or regulations of any...

  20. 50 CFR 21.51 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... used must be in accordance with other Federal, State, Tribal, and local laws, and their use must comply....21(j) of this subchapter. (v) Persons using egg oiling must use 100 percent corn oil, a substance... destruction of their nests and eggs contrary to the laws or regulations of any State or Tribe, and none of...

  1. 50 CFR 21.51 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... used must be in accordance with other Federal, State, Tribal, and local laws, and their use must comply....21(j) of this subchapter. (v) Persons using egg oiling must use 100 percent corn oil, a substance... destruction of their nests and eggs contrary to the laws or regulations of any State or Tribe, and none of...

  2. 50 CFR 21.52 - Public health control order for resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) All techniques used must be in accordance with other Federal, State, Tribal, and local laws, and their... listed in § 20.21(j) of this subchapter. (v) Persons using egg oiling must use 100 percent corn oil, a... their nests and eggs contrary to any State law or regulation, nor may any control activities...

  3. 50 CFR 21.52 - Public health control order for resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) All techniques used must be in accordance with other Federal, State, Tribal, and local laws, and their... listed in § 20.21(j) of this subchapter. (v) Persons using egg oiling must use 100 percent corn oil, a... their nests and eggs contrary to any State law or regulation, nor may any control activities...

  4. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... other Federal, State, and local laws, and their use must comply with any labeling restrictions. (iv... using egg oiling must use 100 percent corn oil, a substance exempted from regulation by the U.S... outside the airport or military airfield's boundaries and be in compliance with all State and local...

  5. Mate loss affects survival but not breeding in black brant geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicolai, Christopher A.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.; Boyd, W. Sean

    2012-01-01

    For birds maintaining long-term monogamous relationships, mate loss might be expected to reduce fitness, either through reduced survival or reduced future reproductive investment. We used harvest of male brant during regular sport hunting seasons as an experimental removal to examine effects of mate loss on fitness of female black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans; hereafter brant). We used the Barker model in program MARK to examine effects of mate loss on annual survival, reporting rate, and permanent emigration. Survival rates decreased from 0.847 ± 0.004 for females who did not lose their mates to 0.690 ± 0.072 for birds who lost mates. Seber ring reporting rate for females that lost their mates were 2 times higher than those that did not lose mates, 0.12 ± 0.086 and 0.06 ± 0.006, respectively, indicating that mate loss increased vulnerability to harvest and possibly other forms of predation. We found little support for effects of mate loss on fidelity to breeding site and consequently on breeding. Our results indicate substantial fitness costs to females associated with mate loss, but that females who survived and were able to form new pair bonds may have been higher quality than the average female in the population.

  6. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird... of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize resident Canada goose populations when... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. The...

  7. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird... of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize resident Canada goose populations when... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. The...

  8. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird... of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize resident Canada goose populations when... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. The...

  9. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird... of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize resident Canada goose populations when... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. The...

  10. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Overabundant Migratory Bird... of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to reduce and stabilize resident Canada goose populations when... inside or outside the migratory bird hunting season frameworks as described in this section. The...

  11. Fuel metabolism in Canada geese: effects of glucagon on glucose kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    During prolonged fasting, birds must rely on glucose mobilization to maintain normoglycemia. Glucagon is known to modulate avian energy metabolism during prolonged fasting, but the metabolic effects of this hormone on long-distance migrant birds have never been investigated. Our goal was to determine whether glucagon regulates the mobilization of the main lipid and carbohydrate fuels in migrant birds. Using the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) as a model species, we looked for evidence of fuel mobilization via changes in metabolite concentrations. No changes could be found for any lipid fraction, but glucagon elicited a strong increase in glucose concentration. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the effects of this hormone on glucose kinetics using continuous infusion of 6-[3H]-d-glucose. Glucagon was found to cause a 50% increase in glucose mobilization (from 22.2 ± 2.4 μmol·kg−1·min−1 to 33.5 ± 3.3 μmol·kg−1·min−1) and, together with an unchanged rate of carbohydrate oxidation, led to a 90% increase in plasma glucose concentration. This hormone also led to a twofold increase in plasma lactate concentration. No changes in plasma lipid concentration or composition were observed. This study is the first to demonstrate how glucagon modulates glucose kinetics in a long-distance migrant bird and to quantify its rates of glucose mobilization. PMID:26108869

  12. Industrial halide wastes cause acute mortality of snow geese in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andreasen, J.K.; Stroud, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    An examination of 97 dead migratory waterfowl collected at an industrial facility showed that the birds had had severe gastric and intestinal hemorrhaging. Water samples taken at on-site waste lagoons contained 6,750 mg/L fluoride, 4,500 mg/L bromine and 1,500 mg/L boron. Brain and liver tissues contained high levels of fluoride, as compared with tissues of birds collected at a control site. From the necropsy results, the high concentration of fluoride in the water samples and the elevated tissue residues, we conclude that the birds died from acute fluoride poisoning.

  13. 77 FR 26032 - Proposed Information Collection; Control and Management of Resident Canada Geese

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... information about this IC, contact Hope Grey at INFOCOL@fws.gov (email) or 703-358- 2482 (telephone.... Comments that you submit in response to this notice are a matter of public record. We will include...

  14. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Daniel

    1987-08-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council calls for wildlife mitigation at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River System. Beginning April, 1984, the Bonneville Power Administration funded a study of the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse and Kerr Dams on the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffittii) inhabitating the Flathead Valley of northwest Montana. The study was conducted by personnel of the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP), to: (1) identify the size and productivity of this population, (2) identify current habitat conditions and losses of nesting and brood-rearing areas, (3) describe the effects of water level fluctuations on nesting and brood-rearing, and (4) identify mitigation alternatives to offset these effects. Annual pair and nest surveys were used to document the location and fate of goose nests. The number of known nesting attempts varied from 44 in 1984 to 108 in 1985, to 136 in 1986 and 134 in 1987. Fifty-four percent of the annual meeting nesting effort took place on elevated sites which were secure from the flooding and dewatering effects of fluctuating water levels. An average of 15 nests were found on stumps in the remnant Flathead River delta, however, an area strongly influenced by the operation of Kerr Dam. Annual nest losses to flooding and predation attributable to fluctuations caused by the dam were recorded. 53 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  15. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of Pink-Footed Geese: 2014 progress summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, J.

    2015-01-01

    During the summer of 2013 we computed an optimal harvest strategy for the 3-year period 2013 – 2015. The strategy suggested that the appropriate annual harvest quota is 15 thousand. The 1-year harvest strategy calculated to determine whether an emergency closure of the hunting season is required this year suggested an allowable harvest of 25.0 thousand; thus, a hunting-season closure is not warranted.  If the harvest quota of 15 thousand were met in the coming hunting season, the next population count would be expected to be 71.0 thousand.  If only the most recent 4-year mean harvest were realized (11.3 thousand), a population size of 74.8 thousand would be expected.  Simulations suggest that it will take approximately seven years at current harvest levels to reduce population size to the goal of 60 thousand.  However, it is possible that the extension of the forthcoming hunting season in Denmark could result in a total harvest approaching 15 thousand; in this case, simulations suggest it would only take about three years to reach the goal.

  16. Three geese resembling Gray-Bellied Brant/Lawrence's Brant from Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, P.A.; Mitra, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Three oddly plumaged brant, intermediate in several respects between 'Atlantic' or 'Pale-bellied Brant' (hrota) and ?Black Brant? (nigricans) were photographed and described on western Long Island, New York during 2002 (two in March, the third in October). Their plumage corresponded to that of the little-studied, and apparently genetically distinctive small population known among goose biologists as 'Gray-bellied Brant,' which breeds only on a few islands in the western Canadian High Arctic, stages in migration in the inner Aleutians, and winters in a small portion of the Greater Puget Sound area. But Gray-bellied Brant also wander, having recently been found in winter as far from Puget Sound as Baja California in the west, and Iceland and the British Isles to the east?these strays presumably having migrated southwest with Pacific-wintering nigricans and southeast with Atlantic-wintering hrota, respectively. Despite their tendency to associate with locally wintering hrota and nigricans, mixed pairs or hybrid young involving these vagrants have never been demonstrated in North America?nor have mixed pairs or hybrid young between hrota and nigricans, despite widespread belief to the contrary. Complicating the picture is that the type specimen of nigricans, a distinctive New Jersey specimen collected in 1846, also differs from 'true' Pacific Coast Black Brant in several respects, in a manner qualitatively similar to the LI birds described herein. The appearance of the type, often referred to informally as 'Lawrence?s Brant,' differs from typical Black Brant to such an extent that Delacour and Zimmer (1952) rejected application of nigricans to Pacific Black Brant, to which the name orientalis would have to be applied instead. Recent examination of museum specimens of breeding- and winter-area Gray-bellies confirms that Lawrence?s Brant closely resembles some of them?as do these three Long Island birds. Whatever the ultimate statuses of Gray-bellied and Lawrence's Brant prove to be?and however the relationships among them and the three currently recognized other taxa of brant eventually play out?birds resembling Gray-bellied/Lawrence?s are occurring on both Atlantic and Pacific coasts and perhaps also in interior North America, so knowledge of their plumage variation should now be factored into the identification of all oddly-plumaged or out-of-range brant, but especially of putative 'nigricans' inland or on the Atlantic Coast.

  17. Occlusion of the syrinx as a manifestation of aspergillosis in Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Duncan, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Aspergillosis has been described in many species of wild waterfowl, primarily as a disease of the respiratory tract. Typically, mycotic granulomas are found in the lungs. Air sacs may be thickened and contain discoid individual or coalescing greenish or bluish plaques resembling bread mold. Occasionally, there is systemic involvement, with granulomas in multiple organs. Carcasses often are emaciated, indicating a long-term course. In the present report, we describe a fatal acute manifestation of Aspergillus fumigatus infection that easily may be overlooked when examining wild waterfowl.

  18. Satellite-marked waterfowl reveal migratory connection between H5N1 outbreak areas in China and Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prosser, D.J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Newman, S.H.; Yan, B.; Douglas, D.C.; Hou, Y.; Xing, Z.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Zhao, D.; Perry, W.M.; Palm, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    The role of wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has been greatly debated and remains an unresolved question. However, analyses to determine involvement of wild birds have been hindered by the lack of basic information on their movements in central Asia. Thus, we initiated a programme to document migrations of waterfowl in Asian flyways to inform hypotheses of H5N1 transmission. As part of this work, we studied migration of waterfowl from Qinghai Lake, China, site of the 2005 H5N1 outbreak in wild birds. We examined the null hypothesis that no direct migratory connection existed between Qinghai Lake and H5N1 outbreak areas in central Mongolia, as suggested by some H5N1 phylogeny studies. We captured individuals in 2007 from two of the species that died in the Qinghai Lake outbreaks and marked them with GPS satellite transmitters: Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus (n = 14) and Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (n = 11). Three of 25 marked birds (one Goose and two Shelducks) migrated to breeding grounds near H5N1 outbreak areas in Mongolia. Our results describe a previously unknown migratory link between the two regions and offer new critical information on migratory movements in the region. ?? 2009 British Ornithologists' Union.

  19. Monitoring potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, S.; Feng, D.; Xu, B.

    2015-12-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds and poultry have caught worldwide attention. To explore the association between wild bird migration and avian influenza virus transmission, we monitored potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species that might carry the avian influenza viruses in China. They are Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus). They served as major reservoir of the avian influenza viruses. We used bird watching records with the precise latitude/longitude coordinates from January 2002 to August 2014, and environmental variables with a pixel resolution of 5 km × 5 km from 2002 to 2014. The study utilized maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model based on ecological niche model approaches, and got the following results: 1) MaxEnt model have good discriminatory ability with the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating curve (ROC) of 0.86-0.97; 2) The four wild bird species were estimated to concentrate in the North China Plain, the middle and lower region of the Yangtze River, Qinghai Lake, Tianshan Mountain and Tarim Basin, part of Tibet Plateau, and Hengduan Mountains; 3) Radiation and the minimum temperature were found to provide the most significant information. Our findings will help to understand the spread of avian influenza viruses by wild bird migration in China, which benefits for effective monitoring strategies and prevention measures.

  20. Documenting trans-Himalayan migration through satellite telemetry: a report on capture, deployment, and tracking of bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) from India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Javed, S.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Douglas, D.C.; Rahmani, A.R.; Choudhury, B.C.; Landfried, S.L.; Sharma, Shruti

    2000-01-01

    Trichomonas gallinae-free pigeons and mourning doves were infected with the Jones' Barn strain of T. gallinae to determine the rate of disease resistant T. gallinae-free birds in each population. Although all birds became infected 88% of the pigeons were resistant to trichomoniasis while 82% of the mourning doves were resistant. It was concluded that these birds had been previously infected and spontaneously lost their trichomonad fauna while retaining their resistance to fatal infection.

  1. Molecular cloning of the SMAD4 gene and its mRNA expression analysis in ovarian follicles of the Yangzhou goose (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Huang, Z; Yuan, X; Wang, M; Wu, N; Song, Y; Chen, Y; Zhang, Y; Xu, Q; Chen, G; Zhao, W

    2016-08-01

    Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4) is an important protein in animal reproduction. It plays pivotal roles in cellular pathways, including apoptosis. The expression profile of the SMAD4 gene in goose ovarian follicles has not been reported. In this study, the SMAD4 coding sequence was cloned from the Yangzhou goose. A phylogenetic analysis was performed and mRNA expression was examined in various tissues using quantitative real-time PCR. An alternative splice form of SMAD4, SMAD4-b having 1656 bp, was identified. SMAD4-a mRNA was widely expressed in various healthy tissues, whereas SMAD4-b was very weakly expressed. SMAD4 mRNA in the ovary and oviduct was significantly higher than that in the pituitary and hypothalamus. SMAD4 mRNA expression analysis in hierarchical follicles showed that the level of SMAD4 mRNA was higher in large white follicles and post-ovulatory follicles than in the other follicles. The results indicate that SMAD4 might be involved in the recruitment of hierarchical follicles.

  2. Extra-pair copulation in the greater white-fronted goose

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.

    1989-01-01

    Controlled experiments and quantitative field studies with both captive and wild waterfowl (Family Anatidae) have demonstrated that extra-pair copulations (EPCs, both forced and unforced) may be a viable alternative reproductive strategy for males (Mineau and Cooke 1979; Burns et al. 1980; Cheng et al. 1982, 1983; Afron 1985; Evarts and Williams 1987). In a review of EPCs in waterfowl, McKinney et al. (1983) stressed the need for additional information on the extent of such behavior in seemingly monogamous species of birds. Such information would increase our understanding of the extent of mixed reproductive strategies as formally hypothesized by Trivers (1972). Extra-pair copulations have been reported for only three of 22 (14%) species of geese and swans (Tribe Anserini), but are known to occur in 37 of 122 (30%) of the remaining species of waterfowl (McKinney et al. 1983, 1984; Welsh 1988). Socioecological differences between Anserini and most other anatids may provide insight into the evolution of extra-pair copulatory behavior, as male Anserini (unlike most other Anatidae) provide extensive parental care and maintain long-term pair bonds (Owen 1980, p. 76). Cuckolded male Anserini thus stand to lose more in the form of reproductive investment than other male anatids, which may invest less in a given clutch and generally have short-term pair bonds.I describe here an observation of extra-pair copulation in wild Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis). The observation is significant not only because it augments our meager documentation of this behavior within the Anserini, but it is the first observation of such behavior in a noncolonial goose (Mineau and Cooke 1979, McKinney et al. 1983). The occurrence of EPC behavior in a dispersal-nesting goose is important, as proximity to potential mates has been hypothesized as a factor possibly selecting for EPC behavior in geese (McKinney et al. 1983) and other species of monogamous birds (Gladstone 1979

  3. Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Differentially Expressed Transcripts of Immune-Related Genes in Spleen of Gosling and Adult Goose.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Liu, Fei; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-09-22

    The goose (Anser cygnoides), having high nutritional value, high-quality feathers and high economic benefit, is an economically important poultry species. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the higher susceptibility to pathogens in goslings than in adult geese remains poorly understood. In this study, the histological sections of spleen tissue from a two-week-old gosling and an adult goose, respectively, were subjected to comparative analysis. The spleen of gosling was mainly composed of mesenchyma, accompanied by scattered lymphocytes, whereas the spleen parenchyma was well developed in the adult goose. To investigate goose immune-related genes, we performed deep transcriptome and gene expression analyses of the spleen samples using paired-end sequencing technology (Illumina). In total, 50,390 unigenes were assembled using Trinity software and TGICL software. Moreover, these assembled unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions and gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed. Through Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis, we investigated 558 important immune-relevant unigenes and 23 predicted cytokines. In addition, 22 immune-related genes with differential expression between gosling and adult goose were identified, among which the three genes showing largest differences in expression were immunoglobulin alpha heavy chain (IgH), mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 isoform X1 (MASP1) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). Finally, of these 22 differentially expressed immune-related genes, seven genes, including tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 13B (TNFRSF13B), C-C motif chemokine 4-like (CCL4), CXCR4, interleukin 2 receptor alpha (IL2RA), MHC class I heavy chain (MHCIα), transporter of antigen processing 2 (TAP2) IgH, were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression levels of all the candidate unigenes were up-regulated in adult geese other than that of TNFRSF13B. The comparative

  4. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population

    PubMed Central

    Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff M.; Walsh, Alyn; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch) years (i.e., between cohorts). In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8%) of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young) only once in their lifetime and 15 (2%) reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4) when environmental conditions were ‘good’ prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7) if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant) variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to the year of

  5. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Daniel

    1985-02-01

    Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River causes sporadic level fluctuations along the main stem Flathead River. Seasonal water level fluctuations and substantial habitat losses have occurred as a result of construction and operation of Kerr Dam, which regulates Flathead Lake. These fluctuations may impact goose populations through flooding or erosion of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and increased susceptibility of nests and young to predation. The number, location, and success of goose nests were determined through pair surveys and nest searches. Counts of indicated pairs suggest there were 73-125 occupied nests in the study area; 44 were located in 1984. Twenty were island ground nests, 19 were tree nests, and 5 were on man-made structures. Hatching success was 76 percent. Sixty-one percent of all nests were in deciduous forest habitat; 87 percent were on riparian bench or island landforms. Seventy-four percent of all nests were within 5 m of the seasonal high water mark (HWM) and 85 percent of ground nests were 1 m or less above the HWM. Production, habitat use, and distribution of broods were documented through aerial, boat, ground, and observation tower surveys. 28 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Daniel

    1986-04-01

    Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River causes sporadic water level fluctuations along the main stem Flathead River. Changes in chronology of seasonal water level fluctuations and substantial habitat losses have occurred as a result of construction and operation of Kerr Dam, which regulates Flathead Lake. These fluctuations may impact goose populations through flooding and erosion of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and increased susceptibility of nests and young to predation. The number, location, and success of goose nests were determined through pair surveys and nest searches. Our 1985 pair count data indicated that 95 to 143 nests may have been present. Hatching success for 1985 nests (55%) was low compared to long-term averages for the region. Predation was the predominant cause of ground nest failure (25 nests); we documented 2 nest failures due to flooding. The maximum gosling count in the study area for 1985 was 197. Six key brood-rearing areas were identified. Most (80%) sites were located in the herbaceous or pasture cover type and the riparian bench landform. Analysis of aerial photographs taken prior to construction of Kerr Dam documented the loss of 1859 acres of habitat along the north shore of Flathead Lake. Losses were attributed to inundation and to continuing erosion due to operation of Kerr Dam. Lake and river water level regimes were compared with the chronology of important periods in the nesting cycle. Low lake levels in May and early June coincide with the breed-rearing period. Mudflats are heavily used by broods, but their effect on survival must still be documented. Preliminary recommendations to protect and enhance Canada goose habitat and production are being developed.

  7. Spatial variation in life-history trade-offs results in an ideal free distribution in Black Brant Geese.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, Christopher A; Sedinger, James S; Ward, David H; Boyd, W Sean

    2014-05-01

    Ideal free distribution theory predicts that individuals distribute themselves so fitness is equal among patches. In this paper we evaluate all components of adult fitness to assess the hypothesis that individuals distribute themselves among seven brood-rearing areas so that trade-offs among different life history traits result in equal mean fitness among individuals using different areas. We used estimates of vital rates (clutch size, nest survival, pre-fledging survival, post-fledging survival, juvenile survival, and breeding probability) to estimate brood-rearing-area-specific per capita recruitment rates and survival for adult females. We summed brood-rearing-area-specific per capita recruitment and adult survival to calculate brood-rearing-area-specific estimates of lambda. We found little variation in lambda among brood-rearing areas and lifetime fitness implications of changing brood-rearing area were negligible (< 1% brood-rearing area mean fitness). We conclude that adult female Black Brant distribute themselves in an ideal free manner, resulting in equal fitness among females using these areas.

  8. Characterization of novel avian paramyxovirus strain APMV/Shimane67 isolated from migratory wild geese in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Eiji; Ito, Hiroshi; Tomioka, Yukiko; Ito, Toshihiro

    2015-09-01

    An avian paramyxovirus (APMV) isolated from goose feces (APMV/Shimane67) was biologically, serologically and genetically characterized. APMV/Shimane67 showed typical paramyxovirus morphology on electron microscopy. On hemagglutination inhibition test, antiserum against APMV/Shimane67 revealed low reactivity with other APMV serotypes and vice versa. The fusion (F) protein gene of APMV/Shimane67 contained 1,638 nucleotides in a single open reading frame encoding a protein of 545 amino acids. The cleavage site of F protein contained a pair of single basic amino acid (VRENR/L). The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the F gene of APMV/Shimane67 had relatively low identities (42.9-62.7% and 28.9-67.3%, respectively) with those of other APMVs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that APMV/Shimane67 was related to NDV, APMV-9 and APMV-12, but was distinct from those APMV serotypes. These results suggest that APMV/Shimane67 is a new APMV serotype, APMV-13.

  9. Misunderstanding the ``Nature'' of Co-Management: A Geography of Regulatory Science and Indigenous Knowledges (IK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Annette

    2013-11-01

    Governments, NGOs, and natural scientists have increased research and policy-making collaborations with Indigenous peoples for governing natural resources, including official co-management regimes. However, there is continuing dissatisfaction with such collaborations, and calls for better communication and mutual learning to create more “adaptive” co-management regimes. This, however, requires that both Western and Indigenous knowledge systems be equal participants in the “co-production” of regulatory data. In this article, I examine the power dynamics of one co-management regulatory regime, conducting a multi-sited ethnography of the practices of researching and managing one transnational migratory species, greater white-fronted geese ( Anser albifrons frontalis), who nest where Koyukon Athabascans in Alaska, USA, practice subsistence. Analyzing the ethnographic data through the literatures of critical geography, science studies and Indigenous Studies, I describe how the practice of researching for co-management can produce conflict. “Scaling” the data for the co-management regime can marginalize Indigenous understandings of human-environment relations. While Enlightenment-based practices in wildlife biology avoid “anthropomorphism,” Indigenous Studies describes identities that operate through non-modern, deeply imbricated human-nonhuman identities that do not separate “nature” and “society” in making knowledge. Thus, misunderstanding the “nature” of their collaborations causes biologists and managers to measure and research the system in ways that erase how subsistence-based Indigenous groups already “manage” wildlife: by living through their ethical commitments to their fellow beings. At the end of the article, I discuss how managers might learn from these ontological and epistemological differences to better “co-produce” data for co-management.

  10. Eco-virological approach for assessing the role of wild birds in the spread of avian influenza H5N1 along the Central Asian Flyway.

    PubMed

    Newman, Scott H; Hill, Nichola J; Spragens, Kyle A; Janies, Daniel; Voronkin, Igor O; Prosser, Diann J; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Bishop, Charles M; Butler, Patrick J; Wikelski, Martin; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Mundkur, Taej; Douglas, David C; Takekawa, John Y

    2012-01-01

    A unique pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks has emerged along the Central Asia Flyway, where infection of wild birds has been reported with steady frequency since 2005. We assessed the potential for two hosts of HPAI H5N1, the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), to act as agents for virus dispersal along this 'thoroughfare'. We used an eco-virological approach to compare the migration of 141 birds marked with GPS satellite transmitters during 2005-2010 with: 1) the spatio-temporal patterns of poultry and wild bird outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, and 2) the trajectory of the virus in the outbreak region based on phylogeographic mapping. We found that biweekly utilization distributions (UDs) for 19.2% of bar-headed geese and 46.2% of ruddy shelduck were significantly associated with outbreaks. Ruddy shelduck showed highest correlation with poultry outbreaks owing to their wintering distribution in South Asia, where there is considerable opportunity for HPAI H5N1 spillover from poultry. Both species showed correlation with wild bird outbreaks during the spring migration, suggesting they may be involved in the northward movement of the virus. However, phylogeographic mapping of HPAI H5N1 clades 2.2 and 2.3 did not support dissemination of the virus in a northern direction along the migration corridor. In particular, two subclades (2.2.1 and 2.3.2) moved in a strictly southern direction in contrast to our spatio-temporal analysis of bird migration. Our attempt to reconcile the disciplines of wild bird ecology and HPAI H5N1 virology highlights prospects offered by both approaches as well as their limitations.

  11. Molecular characterization and differential expression of multiple goose dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui; Liu, Yi; Wang, Huiying; Wu, Huali; Gong, Shaoming; Chen, Weihu; He, Daqian

    2014-02-10

    Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene, a member of the dopamine receptors gene family, has been studied as a candidate gene for broodiness due to its special effects on avian prolactin secretion. Here, the genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of goose (Anser cygnoides) DRD2 gene were cloned and characterized for the first time. The goose DRD2 cDNA is 1353bp in length and encodes a protein of 450 amino acids. The length of goose DRD2 genomic DNA is 8350bp, including seven exons and six introns. We identified four goose DRD2 variants, which were generated due to alternative splicing. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that all the deduced DRD2 amino acid sequences contain seven putative transmembrane domains and four potential N-glycosylation sites. A phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences displays that the goose DRD2 protein is closely related to those of avian species. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrates that the DRD2-1, DRD2-2 and DRD2-4 transcripts are differentially expressed in the pituitary, ovary, hypothalamus, as well as in the kidney, whereas the DRD2-3 transcript is widely expressed in all the examined tissues at different levels. Meanwhile, 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 4 insert-deletion (indel) variations were identified in the coding region and partial intron region of the goose DRD2 gene. Those findings will help us gain insight into the functions of the DRD2 gene in geese.

  12. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of antizyme inhibitor 1 in the ovarian follicles of the Sichuan white goose.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rong; Jiang, Dongmei; Kang, Bo; Bai, Lin; He, Hui; Chen, Ziyu; Yi, Zhixin

    2015-08-15

    Antizyme inhibitor 1 (Azin1) plays critical roles in various cellular pathways, including ornithine decarboxylase regulation, polyamine anabolism and uptake and cell proliferation. However, the molecular characteristics of the AZIN1 gene and its expression profile in goose tissues and ovarian follicles have not been reported. In this study, the AZIN1 cDNA of the Sichuan white goose (Anser cygnoides) was cloned, and analyzed for its phylogenetic and physiochemical properties. The expression profile of AZIN1 mRNA in geese tissues and ovarian follicles were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the open reading frame of the AZIN1 cDNA is 1,353 bp in length, encoding a 450 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 50 kDa. Out of all tissues examined, AZIN1 expression was highest in the adrenal gland and lowest in breast muscle. There was also a high expression of AZIN1 in the cerebellum and isthmus of oviduct. With follicular development, AZIN1 gene expression gradually increased, and its expression in F1 was significantly higher than in F5 (P<0.05). AZIN1 expression was also significantly higher in the POF1 than in the other follicles (P<0.05), and there was a low mRNA expression of AZIN1 in atretic follicles. The results of AZIN1 expression profiling in ovarian follicles suggest that AZIN1 may play an important role in the progression of follicular development, potentially through regulating polyamine levels.

  13. Eco-virological approach for assessing the role of wild birds in the spread of avian influenza H5N1 along the central Asian flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, Scott H.; Hill, Nichola J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Janies, Daniel; Voronkin, Igor O.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Wikelski, Martin; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Mundkur, Taej; Douglas, David C.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    A unique pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks has emerged along the Central Asia Flyway, where infection of wild birds has been reported with steady frequency since 2005. We assessed the potential for two hosts of HPAI H5N1, the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), to act as agents for virus dispersal along this ‘thoroughfare’. We used an eco-virological approach to compare the migration of 141 birds marked with GPS satellite transmitters during 2005–2010 with: 1) the spatio-temporal patterns of poultry and wild bird outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, and 2) the trajectory of the virus in the outbreak region based on phylogeographic mapping. We found that biweekly utilization distributions (UDs) for 19.2% of bar-headed geese and 46.2% of ruddy shelduck were significantly associated with outbreaks. Ruddy shelduck showed highest correlation with poultry outbreaks owing to their wintering distribution in South Asia, where there is considerable opportunity for HPAI H5N1 spillover from poultry. Both species showed correlation with wild bird outbreaks during the spring migration, suggesting they may be involved in the northward movement of the virus. However, phylogeographic mapping of HPAI H5N1 clades 2.2 and 2.3 did not support dissemination of the virus in a northern direction along the migration corridor. In particular, two subclades (2.2.1 and 2.3.2) moved in a strictly southern direction in contrast to our spatio-temporal analysis of bird migration. Our attempt to reconcile the disciplines of wild bird ecology and HPAI H5N1 virology highlights prospects offered by both approaches as well as their limitations.

  14. Genetic structure among greater white-fronted goose populations of the Pacific Flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Wilson, Robert E.; Talbot, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of the genetic structure of populations in the wild is essential for long-term conservation and stewardship in the face of environmental change. Knowledge of the present-day distribution of genetic lineages (phylogeography) of a species is especially important for organisms that are exploited or utilize habitats that may be jeopardized by human intervention, including climate change. Here, we describe mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear genetic (microsatellite) diversity among three populations of a migratory bird, the greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons), which breeds discontinuously in western and southwestern Alaska and winters in the Pacific Flyway of North America. Significant genetic structure was evident at both marker types. All three populations were differentiated for mtDNA, whereas microsatellite analysis only differentiated geese from the Cook Inlet Basin. In sexual reproducing species, nonrandom mate selection, when occurring in concert with fine-scale resource partitioning, can lead to phenotypic and genetic divergence as we observed in our study. If mate selection does not occur at the time of reproduction, which is not uncommon in long-lived organisms, then mechanisms influencing the true availability of potential mates may be obscured, and the degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity may appear incongruous with presumed patterns of gene flow. Previous investigations revealed population-specific behavioral, temporal, and spatial mechanisms that likely influence the amount of gene flow measured among greater white-fronted goose populations. The degree of observed genetic structuring aligns well with our current understanding of population differences pertaining to seasonal movements, social structure, pairing behavior, and resource partitioning.

  15. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewher