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Sample records for gel-tamo study group

  1. Frontline autologous stem cell transplantation in high-risk peripheral T-cell lymphoma: a prospective study from The Gel-Tamo Study Group.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, José; Conde, Eulogio; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Arranz, Reyes; León, Angel; Marín, Julián; Bendandi, Maurizio; Albo, Carmen; Caballero, María Dolores

    2007-07-01

    Retrospective data shows that peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) patients sensitive to conventional chemotherapy for aggressive lymphomas may respond better if this treatment is consolidated with frontline autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Here, we present data from a prospective phase II trial of high-dose chemotherapy and ASCT as a frontline consolidation therapy for aggressive nodal PTCL. This study involved 26 gallium-scan-positive patients with high-risk nodal PTCL [excluding anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive]. Patients received three courses of MegaCHOP before they were evaluated, and those that were gallium-scan-negative at this stage then received another course of MegaCHOP and ASCT. Patients who remained gallium-scan-positive received two courses of an IFE regimen (ifosfamide 10 g/m(2), etoposide 150 mg/m(2)/12 h on days 1-3) and if they at least achieved PR, they then received the transplant. Complete response (CR) was achieved by 12 patients (46%) after three courses of MegaCHOP and 12 patients received IFE as a salvage therapy. After the ASCT (n = 19), 89% of patients achieved CR. In contrast, six patients (23%) did not receive the transplant because of the progression of the disease (n = 5) or lethal toxicity (n = 1). One patient in first-line CR refused ASCT. After a median follow-up of 35 months, the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 3 yr was 73% and 53%, respectively. Moreover, the OS, PFS and disease-free survival (DFS) were 84%, 56% and 63%, respectively 2 yr after transplant in patients who received ASCT consolidation (n = 19). Early salvage therapy for patients with high-risk aggressive nodal PTCL that do not achieve CR after three courses of chemotherapy and ASCT frontline consolidation for chemosensitive patients may improve treatment outcome.

  2. High-dose therapy in diffuse large cell lymphoma: results and prognostic factors in 452 patients from the GEL-TAMO Spanish Cooperative Group.

    PubMed

    Caballero, M D; Pérez-Simón, J A; Iriondo, A; Lahuerta, J J; Sierra, J; Marín, J; Gandarillas, M; Arranz, R; Zuazu, J; Rubio, V; Fernández de Sevilla, A; Carreras, E; García-Conde, J; García-Laraña, J; Grande, C; Sureda, A; Vidal, M J; Rifón, J; Pérez-Equiza, C; Varela, R; Moraleda, J M; García Ruíz, J C; Albó, C; Cabrera, R; San Miguel, J F; Conde, E

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the results and prognostic factors influencing overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in 452 patients diagnosed with diffuse large cell lymphomas (DLCL) treated with high-dose therapy (HDT) included in the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante Autólogo de Médula Osea (GEL-TAMO) Spanish registry. At transplantation, median age was 42 years (range 15-73), 146 patients (32%) were transplanted in first complete remission (1st CR), 19% in second CR (2nd CR) and 47% had active disease: sensitive disease in 157 (35%) patients [95 were in first partial remission (1st PR) and 62 in second PR (2nd PR)] and refractory disease in 55 (12%) patients. Age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (IPI) was 2 or 3 in 51 patients (12%). Conditioning regimen consisted of BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan) in 39% of patients, BEAC (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine and cyclophosphamide) in 33%, CBV (carmustine, etoposide and cyclophosphamide) in 10% and cyclophosphamide plus total body irradiation (TBI) in 12%. Estimated overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years were 53% and 43%, respectively. The transplant-related mortality was 11% (53 cases). By multivariate analysis three variables significantly influenced OS and DFS: number of protocols to reach 1st CR, disease status at transplant and TBI in the conditioning regimen. Age-adjusted IPI at transplantation also influenced OS. Prolonged OS and DFS can be achieved in patients with DLCL after HDT and our results suggest that the best line of chemotherapy should be used up-front in patients considered as candidates for HDT in order to obtain an early CR. Resistant patients are not good candidates for HDT and they should be offered newer strategies. Finally, polichemotherapy conditioning regimens offer better results compared with TBI.

  3. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Results of the HDR-ALLO study – a prospective clinical trial by the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante de Médula Osea (GEL/TAMO) and the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sureda, Anna; Canals, Carme; Arranz, Reyes; Caballero, Dolores; Ribera, Josep Maria; Brune, Mats; Passweg, Jacob; Martino, Rodrigo; Valcárcel, David; Besalduch, Joan; Duarte, Rafael; León, Angel; Pascual, Maria Jesus; García-Noblejas, Ana; Corral, Lucia López; Xicoy, Bianca; Sierra, Jordi; Schmitz, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Background Although Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a highly curable disease with modern chemotherapy protocols, some patients are primary refractory or relapse after first-line chemotherapy or even after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. We investigated the potential role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in this setting. Design and Methods In this phase II study 92 patients with relapsed Hodgkin’s lymphoma and an HLA-identical sibling, a matched unrelated donor or a one antigen mismatched, unrelated donor were treated with salvage chemotherapy followed by reduced intensity allogeneic transplantation. Fourteen patients showed refractory disease and died from progressive lymphoma with a median overall survival after trial entry of 10 months (range, 6–17). Seventy-eight patients proceeded to allograft (unrelated donors, n=23). Fifty were allografted in complete or partial remission and 28 in stable disease. Fludarabine (150 mg/m2 iv) and melphalan (140 mg/m2 iv) were used as the conditioning regimen. Anti-thymocyte globulin was additionally used as graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis for recipients of grafts from unrelated donors. Results The non-relapse mortality rate was 8% at 100 days and 15% at 1 year. Relapse was the major cause of failure. The progression-free survival rate was 47% at 1 year and 18% at 4 years from trial entry. For the allografted population, the progression-free survival rate was 48% at 1 year and 24% at 4 years. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with a lower incidence of relapse. Patients allografted in complete remission had a significantly better outcome. The overall survival rate was 71% at 1 year and 43% at 4 years. Conclusions Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can result in long-term progression-free survival in heavily pre-treated patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The reduced intensity conditioning approach significantly reduced non-relapse mortality; the high relapse rate represents

  4. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma. Results of the HDR-ALLO study - a prospective clinical trial by the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante de Médula Osea (GEL/TAMO) and the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Anna; Canals, Carme; Arranz, Reyes; Caballero, Dolores; Ribera, Josep Maria; Brune, Mats; Passweg, Jacob; Martino, Rodrigo; Valcárcel, David; Besalduch, Joan; Duarte, Rafael; León, Angel; Pascual, Maria Jesus; García-Noblejas, Ana; López Corral, Lucia; Xicoy, Bianca; Sierra, Jordi; Schmitz, Norbert

    2012-02-01

    Although Hodgkin's lymphoma is a highly curable disease with modern chemotherapy protocols, some patients are primary refractory or relapse after first-line chemotherapy or even after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. We investigated the potential role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in this setting. In this phase II study 92 patients with relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma and an HLA-identical sibling, a matched unrelated donor or a one antigen mismatched, unrelated donor were treated with salvage chemotherapy followed by reduced intensity allogeneic transplantation. Fourteen patients showed refractory disease and died from progressive lymphoma with a median overall survival after trial entry of 10 months (range, 6-17). Seventy-eight patients proceeded to allograft (unrelated donors, n=23). Fifty were allografted in complete or partial remission and 28 in stable disease. Fludarabine (150 mg/m(2) iv) and melphalan (140 mg/m(2) iv) were used as the conditioning regimen. Anti-thymocyte globulin was additionally used as graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis for recipients of grafts from unrelated donors. The non-relapse mortality rate was 8% at 100 days and 15% at 1 year. Relapse was the major cause of failure. The progression-free survival rate was 47% at 1 year and 18% at 4 years from trial entry. For the allografted population, the progression-free survival rate was 48% at 1 year and 24% at 4 years. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with a lower incidence of relapse. Patients allografted in complete remission had a significantly better outcome. The overall survival rate was 71% at 1 year and 43% at 4 years. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can result in long-term progression-free survival in heavily pre-treated patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The reduced intensity conditioning approach significantly reduced non-relapse mortality; the high relapse rate represents the major remaining challenge in this setting. The HDR

  5. Clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with mantle cell lymphoma. Recommendations from the GEL/TAMO Spanish Cooperative Group.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Dolores; Campo, Elías; López-Guillermo, Armando; Martín, Alejandro; Arranz-Sáez, Reyes; Giné, Eva; López, Andrés; González-Barca, Eva; Canales, Miguel Ángel; González-Díaz, Marcos; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is considered a distinct type of B-cell lymphoma genetically characterized by the t(11;14) translocation and cyclin D1 overexpression. There is also a small subset of tumors negative for cyclin D1 expression that are morphologically and immunophenotypically indistinguishable from conventional MCL. Although in the last decades, the median overall survival of patients with MCL has improved significantly, it is still considered as one of the poorest prognoses diseases among B-cell lymphomas. Election of treatment for patients with MCL is complex due to the scarcity of solid evidence. Current available data shows that conventional chemotherapy does not yield satisfactory results as in other types of B-cell lymphomas. However, the role of other approaches such as autologous or allogenic stem cell transplantation, immunotherapy, the administration of consolidation or maintenance schedules, or the use of targeted therapies still lack clear indications. In view of this situation, the Spanish Group of Lymphomas/Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation has conducted a series of reviews on different aspects of MCL, namely its diagnosis, prognosis, first-line and salvage treatment (both in young and elderly patients), new targeted therapies, and detection of minimal residual disease. On the basis of the available evidence, a series of recommendations have been issued with the intention of providing guidance to clinicians on the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of patients with MCL.

  6. R-ESHAP as salvage therapy for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: the influence of prior exposure to rituximab on outcome. A GEL/TAMO study.

    PubMed

    Martín, Alejandro; Conde, Eulogio; Arnan, Montserrat; Canales, Miguel A; Deben, Guillermo; Sancho, Juan M; Andreu, Rafael; Salar, Antonio; García-Sanchez, Pedro; Vázquez, Lourdes; Nistal, Sara; Requena, María-José; Donato, Eva M; González, José A; León, Angel; Ruiz, Concepción; Grande, Carlos; González-Barca, Eva; Caballero, María-Dolores

    2008-12-01

    The role of re-treatment with rituximab in aggressive B-cell lymphomas still needs to be defined. This study evaluated the influence of prior exposure to rituximab on response rates and survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab plus etoposide, cytarabine, cisplatinum and methylprednisolone (R-ESHAP). We retrospectively analyzed 163 patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who received R-ESHAP as salvage therapy with a curative purpose. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether rituximab had been administered (n=94, "R+" group) or not (n=69, "R-" group) prior to R-ESHAP. Response rates were significantly higher in the R- group in the univariate but not in the multivariate analysis. In the analysis restricted to the R+ group, we observed very low complete remission and overall response rates in patients with primary refractory disease (8% and 33%, respectively), as compared to those in patients who were in first partial remission (41% and 86%) or who had relapsed disease (50% and 75%) (p<0.01 in both cases). Overall, 60% and 65% of patients in the R+ and R- groups, respectively, underwent stem-cell transplantation after the salvage therapy. With a median follow-up of 29 months (range, 6-84), patients in the R+ group had significantly worse progression-free survival (17% vs. 57% at 3 years, p<0.0001) and overall survival (38% v 67% at 3 years, p=0.0005) than patients in the R- group. Prior exposure to rituximab was also an independent adverse prognostic factor for both progression-free survival (RR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.3, p=0.008) and overall survival (RR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.9, p=0.004). R-ESHAP was associated with a high response rate in patients who were not refractory to upfront rituximab-based chemotherapy. However, the survival outcome was poor for patients previously exposed to rituximab, as compared to in those who had not previously been treated with rituximab.

  7. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in peripheral T-cell lymphoma: the GEL-TAMO experience.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J; Caballero, M D; Gutiérrez, A; Marín, J; Lahuerta, J J; Sureda, A; Carreras, E; León, A; Arranz, R; Fernández de Sevilla, A; Zuazu, J; García-Laraña, J; Rifon, J; Varela, R; Gandarillas, M; SanMiguel, J; Conde, E

    2003-12-01

    T-cell immunophenotype constitutes an unfavorable prognostic factor in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue (HDC/ASCT) is the best salvage therapy for patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas. However, results with this therapy in peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) are not well defined. From January 1990 to December 1999, 115 patients with PTCL underwent HDC/ASCT inside the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante Autólogo de Médula Osea (GEL-TAMO) registry. At diagnosis the median age was 41 years and 60% of patients presented with two or three risk factors from the adjusted International Prognostic Index (a-IPI). Thirty-two per cent of patients were transplanted in first complete response (CR), 62% in chemosensitive disease and 5% in refractory disease. Eighty-six per cent of the patients attained a CR and 5% a partial response (PR). With a median follow-up of 37 months (range 1-133), overall survival (OS), time-to-treatment failure (TTF) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years was 56%, 51% and 60%, respectively; for the 37 patients transplanted in first CR, OS and DFS at 5 years were 80% and 79%, respectively. Lactase dehydrogenase (LDH), a-IPI and disease status pre-transplant were associated with outcome. More than half of patients with chemosensitive disease who were transplanted are expected to be alive at 5 years. We confirm the utility of the pre-transplant IPI system in predicting outcome. Salvage treatment results with HDC/ASCT in PTCL are similar to those found in corresponding aggressive B-cell lymphomas.

  8. Dose-escalated CHOP and tailored intensification with IFE according to early response and followed by BEAM/autologous stem-cell transplantation in poor-risk aggressive B-cell lymphoma: a prospective study from the GEL-TAMO Study Group.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Reyes; Conde, Eulogio; Grande, Carlos; Mateos, Maria Victoria; Gandarillas, Marco; Albo, Carmen; Lahuerta, Juan J; Fernández-Rañada, José M; Hernández, Miguel T; Alonso, Natalia; García Vela, José A; Garzón, Sebastián; Rodríguez, José; Caballero, Dolores

    2008-03-01

    The role of high-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) in the up-front treatment of poor-risk aggressive lymphoma is still unknown. We conducted a prospective multi-centre trial with dose-escalated CHOP (MegaCHOP) and tailored intensification prior to HDT/ASCT according to early response assessed by CT and gallium scan (Ga67S). Eighty-six patients with newly diagnosed and Ga-67 avid aggressive B-cell lymphoma received MegaCHOP for three courses and were evaluated for response by CT and Ga67S. Patients with CT response and negative Ga67S received another MegaCHOP cycle followed by BEAM and ASCT. Those patients with positive Ga67S or without CT response received salvage treatment with two courses of ifosfamide and etoposide (IFE) followed, whenever response had been achieved, by BEAM and ASCT. Response rate before HDT/ASCT was 85% and, with 34 months of median follow-up, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and treatment-related mortality were 56%, 64% and 7%, respectively. For transplanted patients (81% of the whole series), PFS and OS were 67% and 74%, respectively. No different outcomes were observed between patients achieving an early negative Ga67S response treated with MegaCHOP and BEAM/ASCT and patients with mid-treatment positive Ga67S who received IFE prior BEAM/ASCT. This response-adapted strategy including early treatment modifications prior HDT/ASCT have yielded encouraging PFS and OS in patients with poor-risk B aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  9. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    PubMed

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  10. Successful Small Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francke, Amiel W.; Kaplan, Walter J.

    1977-01-01

    The authors examine their own experiences with the small study group method used in professional continuing education in the optometric profession, offering some observations and tentative conclusions for other professionals considering the method. (WL)

  11. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  12. Study Groups: Conduit for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makibbin, Shirley S.; Sprague, Marsha M.

    This conference presentation describes study groups as a mechanism for changing teacher behavior. The history of study groups is discussed, beginning with the first American study groups organized by Benjamin Franklin; the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle; the waning of study groups in the early 20th century as college enrollment…

  13. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  14. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  15. The Iraq Study Group Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    resources in trying to understand the people who fabricate , plant, and explode those devices. 62 We were told that there are fewer than 10 analysts on...Eldredge, Hersh and Jardine , and also a consultant in the Washington, D.C., government relations firm The Tongour, Simpson, Holsclaw Group. He

  16. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-12-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome.

  17. IMMUNOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON BLOOD GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carlos; Lundblad, Arne; Kabat, Elvin A.

    1971-01-01

    The immunochemical properties of purified A1 and A2 glycoproteins have been compared to ascertain whether their antigenic determinants differ. Quantitative precipitin and complement-fixation studies using several anti-A sera as well as purified γG anti-A antibodies clearly showed a specificity difference. This was also supported by absorption studies: A2 substance specifically removed antibodies reacting with A2 substance leaving anti-A1 activity. A1 substance was more effective than A2 substance in dissolving an A1 anti-A1-specific precipitate. Purified γM anti-A hemolyzed A1 cells more readily than A2 cells. Inhibition studies using mono- and difucosyl type 2 A-active oligosaccharides showed that type 2 difucosyl receptors are present in A2 substance. The structural basis for the specificity difference between A1 and A2 would appear to be that A2 substances lack type 1 A determinants; this would account for the observed higher H and Leb activity in A2 substances. PMID:4104425

  18. International Study Group Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, Tor O

    2000-07-18

    The focus of the ISG work was on advancing the accelerator design and supporting technologies. This is a complex process which involves a close interaction between theoretical analysis of the collider design and R and D progress on hardware components. The sequence of efforts took place roughly in the following order: (1) Optimization of the collider parameters and definition of system and subsystem requirements, (2) Identification of design strategies and options, and (3) Development of specific technologies to achieve these requirements. Development and testing of the required components, and R and D on manufacturing techniques have been important activities of the ISG. Experiments at the major test facilities such as the ATF at KEK and ASSET at SLAC have also played a significant role in the ISG studies.

  19. Common Group Problems: A Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Sanford B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A field study of a naturally functioning group (N=125) was conducted to identify common group problems. Trained observers attended group meetings and described the problems encountered. Difficulties of cohesion, leadership, sub-group formation, and personality conflict were identified. (RC)

  20. How Our Teacher Study Group Sparks Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlin, Myna L.; Short, Kathy G.

    1991-01-01

    After replacing its basal readers with a literature series, Tucson (Arizona) schools piloted a study group approach supporting long-term, innovative changes in reading instruction. Study groups gave teachers the chance to consider their beliefs, share ideas, challenge current practices, blend theory and practice, identify professional and personal…

  1. Facebook Groups as LMS: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meishar-Tal, Hagit; Kurtz, Gila; Pieterse, Efrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study in using Facebook as an alternative to a learning management system (LMS). The paper reviews the current research on the use of Facebook in academia and analyzes the differences between a Facebook group and a regular LMS. The paper reports on a precedent-setting attempt to use a Facebook group as a course…

  2. GEMS: A Study Group to Update Dietitians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobberdiel, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses study group technique to update dietitians. Includes objectives (such as providing opportunities for sharing of information among area hospitals' dietetic departments and creating greater exposure to nutritional care philosophies/methods), subgroup responsibilities, and journals used. (JN)

  3. GEMS: A Study Group to Update Dietitians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobberdiel, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses study group technique to update dietitians. Includes objectives (such as providing opportunities for sharing of information among area hospitals' dietetic departments and creating greater exposure to nutritional care philosophies/methods), subgroup responsibilities, and journals used. (JN)

  4. Hanford single-shell tank grouping study

    SciTech Connect

    Remund, K.M.; Anderson, C.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1995-10-01

    A tank grouping study has been conducted to find Hanford single-shell tanks with similar waste properties. The limited sampling resources of the characterization program could be allocated more effectively by having a better understanding of the groups of tanks that have similar waste types. If meaningful groups of tanks can be identified, tank sampling requirements may be reduced, and the uncertainty of the characterization estimates may be narrowed. This tank grouping study considers the analytical sampling information and the historical information that is available for all single-shell tanks. The two primary sources of historical characterization estimates and information come from the Historical Tank Content Estimate (HTCE) Model and the Sort on Radioactive Waste Tanks (SORWT) Model. The sampling and historical information are used together to come up with meaningful groups of similar tanks. Based on the results of analyses presented in this report, credible tank grouping looks very promising. Some groups defined using historical information (HTCE and SORWT) correspond well with those based on analytical data alone.

  5. Theoretical Studies Of Group IVA And Group IVB Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-20

    reaction paths. The R(-7) dispersion terms was also derived and coded. While most workers ignore the odd power dispersion terms, these terms can be...second order perturbation theory (MP2) to help explain the experimental results of the Fayer group on phenol migration dynamics. An exhaustive...2013) 3. L. Kocia, S. Young, Y. Kholod, M. Gordon, M. Fayer, and A. Rappe, “Theoretical Examination of Picosecond Phenol Migration Dynamics in

  6. Space Station concept development group studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA study activities in preparation for a Space Station began in the early 1970's. The early studies included many in-house NASA and contracted studies. A group of representatives from all the NASA Centers, titled the Space Station Concept Development Group (CDG) was involved in the studies which led to the initiation of the Space Station Program. The CDG studies were performed over a period of approximately one year and consisted of four phases. The initial phase had the objective to determine the functions required of the station as opposed to a configuration. The activities of the second phase were primarily concerned with a sizing of the facilities required for payloads and the resources necessary to support these mission payloads. The third phase of studies was designed to develop a philosophical approach to a number of areas related to autonomy, maintainability, operations and logistics, and verification. The fourth phase of the study was to be concerned with configuration assessment activities.

  7. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  8. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  9. Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    Concerns of the National Security Agency (NSA) that information contained in some articles about cryptography in learned and professional journals and in monographs might be inimical to the national security are addressed. The Public Cryptography Study Group, with one dissenting opinion, recommends that a voluntary system of prior review of…

  10. Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Study Group.

    PubMed

    LoCicero, J

    1993-09-01

    Both patients and the medical profession are quick to embrace new technology, particularly when it may replace an existing surgical procedure. Unfortunately, the rapidity of acceptance is rarely associated with careful evaluation. Laparoscopy is a recent example of such widely embraced technology. Studies of laparoscopy that yielded good comparative data to more traditional methods were slow to accrue. This led to the exposure of its shortcomings through governmental reports and the lay press. To prevent this from happening in thoracoscopy, two types of studies are required so that valid conclusions about the new technology can be drawn. The first is an accounting of the new technology as procedures evolve around it. The data collected in such a study should contain basic information, including the indications for the procedure, how it was performed, procedure length, associated complications, and patient outcome. Such information provides a broad profile of the technology, emphasizing from the outset its potential strengths and weaknesses. The second type of study involves a more detailed concurrent comparison of the specific procedures utilizing this technology to the established traditional methods. Such randomized studies help to firmly establish through scientific process the place of the new technology. The Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Study Group was organized in early 1992 to address these concerns. From an initial four surgeons the group has grown to include more than 41 institutions. Currently the group is collecting data in a registry and has established three clinical trials to evaluate video-assisted thoracic surgery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. A Comparative Study of Family Bereavement Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopmeyer, Estelle; Werk, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Examined five bereavement support groups, three of which focused on widows, family survivors of suicide, and family survivors of death of family member by cancer. Members of three groups tended to report strong satisfaction with group experience. Reasons for joining group and most valuable aspects of group experience varied as function of group…

  12. STUDIES ON THE HEMOPHILUS GROUP OF ORGANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Gilder, H.; Granick, S.

    1947-01-01

    The porphin requirements of the Hemophilus organisms have been studied. Organisms of the parainfluenzae group show quantitative differences in their ability to synthesize heme. The ability of the parainfluenzae organisms to grow appears to depend on the rate with which they synthesize heme and in part at least on the properties of the medium to protect the heme from peroxidative breakdown. Quantitative studies of the growth of H. influenzae Turner on various iron porphins have been made. Iron protoporphin gives greatest growth when supplied in excess, although iron mesoporphin appears more efficient at lower concentrations. Iron deutero- and iron hematoporphin are much less effective. This suggests that although the vinyl groups are not essential for growth of the Turner organism they may be required for some particular enzymes which aid in attaining maximum growth. A number of substances potentiate the growth-promoting properties of iron porphins. These substances include reducing agents and agents which destroy H2O2. E. influenzae Turner appears to require heme for anaerobic as well as aerobic growth. The possibility of an essential heme enzyme functioning under anaerobic conditions must therefore be considered. PMID:18896933

  13. Environmental studies group. Annual report for 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D. C.; Hurley, J. D.

    1980-08-21

    Group projects included radioecological studies of aquatic and terrestrial systems, land management activities, foodstuff monitoring, dust transport studies including fugitive dust measurements and modeling, and several support programs involving evaluation of the plant's ambient air samplers and airborne tritium monitoring techniques. Some salient results from the several project reports include determination of an appropriate model for mechanically generated fugitive dust dispersion, a radionuclide inventory of Smart Ditch Pond (Pond D-1), a coefficient of community determination for two terrestrial sample plots on the plant site buffer zone, a natality and mortality rate determination for fawns in the plant deer herd (including one positive coyote-kill determination), inlet loss and filter paper collection efficiencies for the plant ambient air samplers, and differential tritium sampling measurements of the vapor in Building 771 stack effluent.

  14. Bayesian Model Selection for Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Klaas Enno; Penny, Will D.; Daunizeau, Jean; Moran, Rosalyn J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    approaches in the presence of outliers. We expect that this new random effects method will prove useful for a wide range of group studies, not only in the context of DCM, but also for other modelling endeavours, e.g. comparing different source reconstruction methods for EEG/MEG or selecting among competing computational models of learning and decision-making. PMID:19306932

  15. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  16. Curriculum as environment: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernadette; Purnell, Marguerite J

    2011-01-01

    Curricula development is critical for the advancement and evolution of holistic nursing education. Although the American Holistic Nurses Association offers advanced practice board certification for graduate nurses, there is a scarcity of available graduate holistic nursing courses and curricula. The researchers developed a curriculum for an advanced holistic nursing program at a university college of nursing in South Florida. The curriculum and process of development were presented at a workshop during a national holistic nursing conference. A portion of the workshop included an opportunity for attendees to voluntarily participate in a focus group research study. The specific aim of the research was to determine the best approaches for the development of curricula for the promotion of graduate holistic nurse education based on the insights of holistic nurses, nurse educators, nurse practitioners, and scholars. A content analysis identified 3 themes that addressed holistic nursing curriculum: (1) consider curriculum as an evolving blueprint for personal and professional growth; (2) embrace the uniqueness of students; and (3) encourage faculty to co-create the learning environment.

  17. New Groups Study Science's Effect on Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the chief aims of the Council for Science and Society in London and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Vienna. Indicates that both groups are planning to function as a multinational interdisciplinary organization. (CC)

  18. Tobacco in prisons: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R; Butler, T; Wilhelm, K; Wodak, A; Cunningham, M; Anderson, I

    2009-06-01

    To examine the role of tobacco use in prison and possible influences of the prison environment on smoking among inmates in the context of developing inmate smoking cessation programmes. Qualitative study based on seven focus groups with prisoners and ex-prisoners. A maximum security prison in rural New South Wales (NSW), Australia, and a community justice restorative centre and accommodation service for ex-prisoners in Sydney, NSW, Australia. 40 participants (28 men and 12 women) comprising nine prisoners (including four Indigenous inmates) and 31 ex-prisoners. Prisoners reported that tobacco serves as a de facto currency in correctional settings and can be exchanged for goods, used to pay debts and for gambling. Smoking helps manage the stressful situations such as transfers, court appearances and prison visits. Inmate smoking cessation programmes need to address the enmeshment of tobacco in prison life, improve availability of pharmacotherapies (for example, nicotine patches, bupropion) and the quitline (a free telephone helpline providing information on stopping smoking), provide non-smoking cells and areas within prisons, encourage physical activity for inmates and maintain monitoring of smoking cessation status after release. Tobacco is integrally bound up in the prison "culture". Our findings are relevant to inform prison health authorities concerned with improving the health of prisoners, and for support organisations attempting to facilitate smoking cessation both in prison and after release. Smoking cessation programmes in prisons should be tailored to the unique stresses of the prison environment. Programmes need to acknowledge the difficulties of quitting smoking in prison arising from the stresses posed by this setting.

  19. Group Processes and EFL Learners' Motivation: A Study of Group Dynamics in EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lilian Ya-Hui

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how group processes, such as group cohesiveness and group norms, influence an individual EFL learner's motivation. The uniqueness of this research lies in shifting the focus from an analysis of the individual's experience being seen as apart from the group to considering the individual's experience in relation to the social…

  20. Children's Learning Groups: A Study of Emergent Leadership, Dominance, and Group Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko

    This study explores the importance of the group context in the emergence of leadership, dominance, and group effectiveness in children's collaborative learning groups. Ten 3-person work groups performed a collaborative math activity. Using achievement goal orientation (Ames, 1992; Maehr and Midgley, 1996; Pintrich and Schunk, 1996) as a framework,…

  1. Report of the School Finance Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document reports the findings of a study assessing the status of school finance in Wisconsin and recommending preferred methods for funding the public schools. Seventy-nine topics were considered in five areas: state support, general aid, categorical aid, factors affecting school costs, and other topics. The study's recommendations regarding…

  2. Individual and Group Differences in Study Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, J. B.

    Existing research indicates that particular study strategies are deployed with differing success according to certain critical personality factors, most notably a syndrome of characteristics related to internal or external locus of control. Institutional factors that have an effect on study behaviour include Faculty membership (Arts/Science), mode…

  3. Watching MOOCs Together: Investigating Co-Located MOOC Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Nan; Verma, Himanshu; Skevi, Afroditi; Zufferey, Guillaume; Blom, Jan; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that massive open online course (MOOC) students prefer to study in groups, and that social facilitation within the study groups may render the learning of difficult concepts a pleasing experience. We report on a longitudinal study that investigates how co-located study groups watch and study MOOC videos together. The study was…

  4. Watching MOOCs Together: Investigating Co-Located MOOC Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Nan; Verma, Himanshu; Skevi, Afroditi; Zufferey, Guillaume; Blom, Jan; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that massive open online course (MOOC) students prefer to study in groups, and that social facilitation within the study groups may render the learning of difficult concepts a pleasing experience. We report on a longitudinal study that investigates how co-located study groups watch and study MOOC videos together. The study was…

  5. The Women in the Army Study Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    order to facilitate the above, several initiatives are ongoing or have been completed. As part of the study effort, a new methodology for...Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences has been tasked to validate maximum female content levels recommended by Training and...This point is supported throughout the study . It is clear that the original intent of Congress and, by extension, the intent of the American people

  6. International scoping study: accelerator working group report

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael; Zisman, M.S.

    2006-09-30

    During the past several years, an International Scoping Study (ISS) of a Neutrino Factory was carried out, with the aim of developing an internationally accepted baseline facility design. Progress toward that goal will be described. Many of the key technical aspects of a Neutrino Factory facility design are presently being investigated experimentally, and the status of these investigations will be mentioned. Plans for the recently launched International Design Study (IDS), which serves as a follow-on to the ISS, will be briefly described.

  7. Mongolism, Ciba Foundation Study Group Number 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolstenholme, G. E. W., Ed.; Porter, Ruth, Ed.

    Resulting from a 1-day conference on mongolism, the book contains research studies and discussion summaries. Papers include "Parental Age, Live-Birth Order, and Pregnancy-Free Interval in Down's Syndrome in Japan" by E. Matsunaga, "Consanguineous Marriages and Mongolism" by H. Foressman and H. O. Akesson, "Correlation of Dermal Patterns on…

  8. Mongolism, Ciba Foundation Study Group Number 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolstenholme, G. E. W., Ed.; Porter, Ruth, Ed.

    Resulting from a 1-day conference on mongolism, the book contains research studies and discussion summaries. Papers include "Parental Age, Live-Birth Order, and Pregnancy-Free Interval in Down's Syndrome in Japan" by E. Matsunaga, "Consanguineous Marriages and Mongolism" by H. Foressman and H. O. Akesson, "Correlation of Dermal Patterns on…

  9. Cluster Analysis in Minority Group Poverty Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, E. Lamar

    This paper, one of a series which arose out of data gathered on Choctaw Indians, Negroes, and whites in a low income area of Mississippi, expands upon one aspect of a recently completed analysis by the author. In the study, an attempt was made to distinguish between the characteristics associated with income levels and those related to ethnic…

  10. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  11. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  12. Dialogical Approach Applied in Group Counselling: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivuluhta, Merja; Puhakka, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes structured group counselling and a dialogical approach to develop a group counselling intervention for students beginning a computer science education. The study assesses the outcomes of group counselling from the standpoint of the development of the students' self-observation. The research indicates that group counselling…

  13. Dialogical Approach Applied in Group Counselling: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivuluhta, Merja; Puhakka, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes structured group counselling and a dialogical approach to develop a group counselling intervention for students beginning a computer science education. The study assesses the outcomes of group counselling from the standpoint of the development of the students' self-observation. The research indicates that group counselling…

  14. The Experiences of Expert Group Work Supervisors: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atieno Okech, Jane E.; Rubel, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of group work supervision literature suggests that description of expert group work supervisors' experiences could be useful for expanding existing group work supervision practices and models. This study provided a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. Results indicate…

  15. Study Abroad: The Reality of Building Dynamic Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransbury, Molly K.; Harris, Sandra A.

    1994-01-01

    The collaborative effort of a professor of human development with expertise in group process and a general education professor with expertise in Greek mythology and culture uses a case study format to apply theoretical models of group dynamics to the travel and learning experience of study abroad. Implications for course design and group process…

  16. Professional Development within Collaborative Teacher Study Groups: Pitfalls and Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Teacher study groups are often thought to be effective professional development structures. Such teacher communities may foster teacher learning through a collaborative culture and the codification of group members' collective knowledge. However, not all study groups are effective professional development. This article is a discussion of factors…

  17. A Group Approach in a Community Empowerment: A Case Study of Waste Recycling Group in Jakarta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadiyanti, Puji

    2016-01-01

    This study reviews a group approach in empowering the community through waste recycling activities related to the development of human resources in Jakarta. The specific objectives to be achieved are the wish to understand and find: (1) Conditions of waste recycling empowerment in Jakarta, (2) Mechanisms of a group approach in empowering…

  18. Empirical study on social groups in pedestrian evacuation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Krüchten, Cornelia; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Pedestrian crowds often include social groups, i.e. pedestrians that walk together because of social relationships. They show characteristic configurations and influence the dynamics of the entire crowd. In order to investigate the impact of social groups on evacuations we performed an empirical study with pupils. Several evacuation runs with groups of different sizes and different interactions were performed. New group parameters are introduced which allow to describe the dynamics of the groups and the configuration of the group members quantitatively. The analysis shows a possible decrease of evacuation times for large groups due to self-ordering effects. Social groups can be approximated as ellipses that orientate along their direction of motion. Furthermore, explicitly cooperative behaviour among group members leads to a stronger aggregation of group members and an intermittent way of evacuation.

  19. Improving Group Processes in Transdisciplinary Case Studies for Sustainability Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansmann, Ralf; Crott, Helmut W.; Mieg, Harald A.; Scholz, Roland W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Deficient group processes such as conformity pressure can lead to inadequate group decisions with negative social, economic, or environmental consequences. The study aims to investigate how a group technique (called INFO) improves students' handling of conformity pressure and their collective judgments in the context of a…

  20. Improving Group Processes in Transdisciplinary Case Studies for Sustainability Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansmann, Ralf; Crott, Helmut W.; Mieg, Harald A.; Scholz, Roland W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Deficient group processes such as conformity pressure can lead to inadequate group decisions with negative social, economic, or environmental consequences. The study aims to investigate how a group technique (called INFO) improves students' handling of conformity pressure and their collective judgments in the context of a…

  1. Academic and Personal Development through Group Work: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study linked academic and personal development within a group counseling intervention. A pre-test post-test research design compared social skills, learning behaviors, and achievement with a convenience sample and control group of students from three elementary schools. For the treatment group, grade point average in Language Arts…

  2. Academic and Personal Development through Group Work: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study linked academic and personal development within a group counseling intervention. A pre-test post-test research design compared social skills, learning behaviors, and achievement with a convenience sample and control group of students from three elementary schools. For the treatment group, grade point average in Language Arts…

  3. English Curriculum Redesign through an EFL Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-chin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how a teacher study group collectively examined problems in their current English curriculum and redesigned the curriculum into theme-based lessons for various grades. Comprised of seven elementary school teachers and a teacher educator, the teacher study group met bi-weekly for three hours for a total of eight meetings.…

  4. Speaking up in groups: a cross-level study of group voice climate and voice.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe; Wheeler-Smith, Sara L; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on employee voice—defined as the discretionary communication of ideas, suggestions, or opinions intended to improve organizational or unit functioning—the effects of shared or collective-level cognitions have received scant attention. There has also been relatively little research on voice within work groups. Our goal in this study was to address these important gaps by focusing on the effects of group-level beliefs about voice (i.e., group voice climate) on individual voice behavior within work groups. We conducted a cross-level investigation of voice behavior within 42 groups of engineers from a large chemical company. Consistent with our hypotheses, group voice climate was highly predictive of voice and explained variance beyond the effects of individual-level identification and satisfaction, and procedural justice climate. Also consistent with predictions, the effect of identification on voice was stronger in groups with favorable voice climates. These findings provide evidence that voice is shaped not just by individual attitudes and perceptions of the work context, as past research has shown, but also by group-level beliefs. The results also highlight the importance of broadening our conceptual models of voice to include shared cognitions and of conducting additional cross-level research on voice.

  5. Cooperative Study Groups: Give Your Students the Home Team Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerma, Tony

    2007-01-01

    In this article I discuss the factors that led me to implement study groups in the teaching of mathematics. An important influence in this decision began with an experimental study conducted with two College Algebra classes in which students were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While there was no statistical difference between the study…

  6. Investigating Science Collaboratively: A Case Study of Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinicola, Debra A.

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of one urban middle school group of students who were investigating scientific phenomena were analyzed; this study was conducted to discern if and how peer interaction contributes to learning. Through a social constructivist lens, case study methodology, we examined conceptual change among group members. Data about science talk was…

  7. Women's groups and individual entrepreneurs: a Ugandan case study.

    PubMed

    Pickering, H; Kajura, E; Katongole, G; Whitworth, J

    1996-10-01

    This study is based on interviews conducted among 8 women's income-generating groups and 12 individual women entrepreneurs in 15 villages in Masaka district, Uganda. The Baganda are the main tribe in the study villages. The study evaluates the economic achievement, objectives, and social characteristics of the groups. Groups ranged in size from 9-20 members. All had functioned for 3-5 years. A regular membership fee was paid through the sale of agricultural produce. Groups met at least every 2 weeks. This study revealed that the individual goals were to increase individual wealth, while the stated group goals were to invest in the community. Members considered the groups as useful in providing an easy way to raise capital. Most members considered financial status as a criterion for group membership. Elderly women tended to join social and handicraft groups. The women's group members tended to be friends before the establishment of the group and tended to be currently married to men residing in the area. Of the 12 women entrepreneurs, only 5 were currently married. All 12 women entrepreneurs had considerable initiative. The 12 women and the women's group members derived income from two or more sources: agricultural projects, animal husbandry, craft production, alcohol production and sale, or other activities. Study findings indicate that decisions were often delayed or avoided in order to preserve social cohesion. In a market-oriented enterprise, quick response time is needed and the bureaucratic dynamics would hinder some agricultural ventures. The poorest women experienced barriers to group membership. Women entrepreneurs were more successful than group women.

  8. Study of blood groups and rhesus isoimmunization in antenatal cases.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, D P; Bhutani, B

    1980-06-01

    The present study has been conducted on 1500 pregnant women of Patiala. All the cases were examined for ABO and Rh(D) blood groups; the Rh(D)-negative cases also for evidence of Rh-immunization. The distribution of ABO blood groups reveals 40.20% blood group B, 29.27% blood group O, 22.80% blood group A, and 7.73% blood group AB. Rh(D) blood types reveal 94.40% positive cases and 5.60% negative cases. Incidence of immunization was found to be 1.33% in the total sample and 23.80% in Rh(D)-negative cases. Comparison of these frequencies has been sought with some other studies.

  9. Religious and national group identification in adolescence: a study among three religious groups in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ng Tseung-Wong, Caroline; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2013-01-01

    Religious group identification is an important but understudied social identity. The present study investigates religious group identification among adolescents of different faiths (Hindu, Muslim, Christian) living in multicultural Mauritius. It further explores how religious and national group identities come together among religious majority and minority adolescents. For three age groups (11 to 19 years, N = 2152) we examined the strength of adolescents' religious and national group identification, the associations between these two identities, and the relationships to global self-esteem. Across age and religious group, participants reported stronger identification with their religious group than with the nation. Identification with both categories declined with age, with the exception of Muslims, whose strong religious identification was found across adolescence. The association between religious and national identification was positive, albeit stronger for the majority group of Hindus and for early adolescents. We examined the manner in which religious and national identities come together using a direct self-identification measure and by combining the separate continuous measures of identification. Four distinct clusters of identification (predominant religious identifiers, dual identifiers, neutrals, and separate individuals) that were differently associated with global self-esteem were found. Dual identifiers reported the highest level of global self-esteem. The clusters of identification did not fully correspond to the findings for the direct self-identification measure. The results are discussed in terms of the meaning of dual identity and the positive manner in which adolescents can manage their multiple identities while taking into account the ideological framework in which those identities are played out.

  10. Content-Related Interactions in Self-initiated Study Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Karen; Talanquer, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    The central goal of the present exploratory study was to investigate the nature of the content-related interactions in study groups independently organized by college organic chemistry students. We were particularly interested in the identification of the different factors that affected the emergence of opportunities for students to co-construct understanding and engage in higher levels of cognitive processing. Our results are based on the analysis of in situ observations of 34 self-initiated study sessions involving over a 100 students in three academic semesters. The investigation revealed three major types of social regulation processes, teaching, tutoring, and co-construction in the observed study sessions. However, the extent to which students engaged in each of them varied widely from one session to another. This variability was mostly determined by the specific composition of the study groups and the nature of the study tasks in which they were engaged. Decisions about how to organize the study session, the relative content knowledge and conceptual understanding expressed by the participants, as well as the cognitive level of the problems that guided group work had a strong impact on the nature of student interactions. Nevertheless, group talk in the observed study groups was mostly focused on low-level cognitive processes. The results of our work provide insights on how to better support students' productive engagement in study groups.

  11. Educator Study Groups: A Professional Development Tool to Enhance Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herner-Patnode, Leah

    2009-01-01

    Professional development can take many forms. The most effective development includes individual educators in the formation and planning process. Educator study groups are one form of professional development that allows major stakeholders in the education process the autonomy to develop individual and group goals. This often translates into an…

  12. Advisory Groups to Encourage Collaboration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lisa A.; Glynn, Graham; Lavallee, David; Moreau, Joseph; Orzech, Mary Jo; Pence, Harry E.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a case study of how the provost and senior executive leadership of one large university system capitalized on a long-standing advisory group as a tool to support communication and collaboration across a broad constituency. These advisory efforts help guide both future directions and investment. It is the story of how this group has…

  13. Group Time in Early Childhood Centers: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Oralie

    To investigate the current status of group time in early childhood centers, a small-scale exploratory study was designed and executed. Results of interviews with 35 teachers and observations in five classrooms serving children ages 2 1/2 through kindergarten revealed that all classrooms had at least one group time or circle time, usually in the…

  14. Advisory Groups to Encourage Collaboration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lisa A.; Glynn, Graham; Lavallee, David; Moreau, Joseph; Orzech, Mary Jo; Pence, Harry E.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a case study of how the provost and senior executive leadership of one large university system capitalized on a long-standing advisory group as a tool to support communication and collaboration across a broad constituency. These advisory efforts help guide both future directions and investment. It is the story of how this group has…

  15. Educator Study Groups: A Professional Development Tool to Enhance Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herner-Patnode, Leah

    2009-01-01

    Professional development can take many forms. The most effective development includes individual educators in the formation and planning process. Educator study groups are one form of professional development that allows major stakeholders in the education process the autonomy to develop individual and group goals. This often translates into an…

  16. Grassroots Growth: The Evolution of a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Dana; Moore, Terry; Taylor, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Four years ago, a group of teachers lingered after a district meeting, sharing a conversation about encouraging social responsibility in the school district of Tenafly, New Jersey. That conversation led to the eventual formation of a teacher study group, a grassroots professional learning community that has impacted its members and the school…

  17. Grassroots Growth: The Evolution of a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Dana; Moore, Terry; Taylor, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Four years ago, a group of teachers lingered after a district meeting, sharing a conversation about encouraging social responsibility in the school district of Tenafly, New Jersey. That conversation led to the eventual formation of a teacher study group, a grassroots professional learning community that has impacted its members and the school…

  18. Peer Study Groups as Catalyst for Vocational Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R.; Hane, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Postsecondary peer assisted learning programs often cite improving academic achievement for students. This qualitative study investigated the potential effect of serving as student facilitators of a peer study group on their future vocation. This was a replication of previous studies of personal and professional outcomes for study group…

  19. Cognitive Behavioral Principles Within Group Mentoring: A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    JENT, JASON F.; NIEC, LARISSA N.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group mentoring program that included components of empirically supported mentoring and cognitive behavioral techniques for children served at a community mental health center. Eighty-six 8- to 12-year-old children were randomly assigned to either group mentoring or a wait-list control group. Group mentoring significantly increased children’s reported social problem-solving skills and decreased parent-reported child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems after controlling for other concurrent mental health services. Attrition from the group mentoring program was notably low (7%) for children. The integration of a cognitive behavioral group mentoring program into children’s existing community mental health services may result in additional reductions in externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. PMID:20582243

  20. Cognitive Behavioral Principles Within Group Mentoring: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jent, Jason F; Niec, Larissa N

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group mentoring program that included components of empirically supported mentoring and cognitive behavioral techniques for children served at a community mental health center. Eighty-six 8- to 12-year-old children were randomly assigned to either group mentoring or a wait-list control group. Group mentoring significantly increased children's reported social problem-solving skills and decreased parent-reported child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems after controlling for other concurrent mental health services. Attrition from the group mentoring program was notably low (7%) for children. The integration of a cognitive behavioral group mentoring program into children's existing community mental health services may result in additional reductions in externalizing and internalizing behavior problems.

  1. When the group practice breaks up: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group practices are increasingly common for primary care physicians worldwide. Although breakups are likely to happen frequently within group practices, their process has not been studied to date. The aims of this study were therefore to explore the reasons for breakups of group practices of general practitioners and to describe the associated feelings. Methods We conducted a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews of 21 general practitioners and one secretary from past group practices in the Rhône-Alpes region, France, who experienced a breakup. Results When getting started in group practice for the first time, young doctors did not feel ready and supported, and did not necessarily share the same expectations as their partners. The reasons for the breakups involved imbalances within the groups, contrasting working and management styles, and breakdowns in communication. The breakup process often generated long-persistent feelings of suffering and failure for almost every partner who experienced a breakup, particularly for the partner who was leaving. Conclusions Weakening factors exist from the very beginning of a partnership, and problems are likely to increase at every change or event occurring in the group. We provide several recommendations, including fair management, a shared project based on a precise contract, the consultation of third parties as necessary and, in the worst case scenario, leaving the group practice in time. PMID:23642277

  2. Bion's thinking about groups: a study of influence and originality.

    PubMed

    Schneider, John A

    2015-04-01

    One of Bion's least-acknowledged contributions to psychoanalytic theory is his study of the relationship between the mind of the individual (the ability to think), the mentalities of groups of which the individual is a member, and the individual's bodily states. Bion's early work on group therapy evolved into a study of the interplay between mind and bodily instincts associated with being a member of a group, and became the impetus for his theory of thinking. On the foundation of Bion's ideas concerning this interaction among the thinking of the individual, group mentality, and the psyche-soma, the author presents his thoughts on the ways in which group mentality is recognizable in the analysis of individuals. © 2015 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  3. The Stranger Group in an Overseas Study Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Dennison; Tarr, Rhonda

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the nature and problems of group interaction among American students participating in overseas study programs, with specific reference to a Junior Year program offered by the University of Connecticut in Rouen, France. (CLK)

  4. A focus group study of sexually active black male teenagers.

    PubMed

    Nix, L M; Pasteur, A B; Servance, M A

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of a focus group study conducted by the National Institute for Adolescent Pregnancy and Family Services at Temple University. It presents in detail how the study was carried out and relevant findings from the transcripts of sessions held with a group of sexually active teenage males, including excerpts from the transcripts. Also included are the characteristics of the participants and a summary of the services they requested from a model adolescent pregnancy prevention and care program.

  5. A qualitative study of breast cancer self-help groups.

    PubMed

    Gray, R; Fitch, M; Davis, C; Phillips, C

    1997-12-01

    This study reports on the experience of women in four community breast cancer self-help groups in Ontario, Canada. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 women, asking them about benefits and limitations of their group involvement, and about their perspectives on group processes and structures. Overall, participants reported their group involvement to be extremely helpful for navigating the short and long-term impact of breast cancer. Emotional support benefits included connecting with other breast cancer survivors, feeling understood and sharing experiences, providing hope, and sharing healing laughter. Informational and practical support benefits included sharing of important information and learning how to get what you want. Even where there were concerns about limitations or tensions of group experience, these occurred against a backdrop of appreciation and commitment. From the discussion of group processes and structures, a number of issues were identified as problematic. Most notable were how to deal with deaths of group members and how to balance the group's primary purpose of providing mutual support with secondary goals of dealing with group business and engaging in meaningful advocacy.

  6. Novice Teachers Learning through Participation in a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambson, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Using Lave and Wenger's framework of legitimate peripheral participation in communities of practice, this case study explores the experiences of three novice teachers engaged with more experienced teachers in a teacher study group during their first year of teaching. The study illustrates how, over time, the novices moved from more peripheral to…

  7. Study of the global environment of small galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplancic, F.; Dávila, F.; Coldwell, G.

    2017-07-01

    The present work presents a study of the global density environment of small galaxy groups. To this end we use a catalog of small galaxy systems constructed from the 10th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To characterize the global environment of small galaxy groups we use different estimators, including the number of significant neighbors within a fixed aperture, the distance to the nearest neighbor and the number density profile of these systems. In order to perform a comparative study, we select different categories of systems considering galaxy pairs, triplets of galaxies and groups with at least four member galaxies. We found differences between the global environment of pairs compared to triplet of galaxies and groups. Galaxy pairs inhabit environments of lower global density than triplets and groups which are located in higher global density regions. This result is in agreement with different studies in the literature which propose that triplets of galaxies and compact groups have similarities in their fundamental properties and are different from galaxy pairs. Our findings suggest that the global density environment of small galaxy groups plays a fundamental role in the characterization of the main properties of these systems and their member galaxies.

  8. Case stories in general practice: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Abildsnes, Eirik; Flottorp, Signe; Stensland, Per

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore the interactive process of sharing case stories in small-group activity in general practice. Design Qualitative focus group study. Setting Peer-group meetings of doctors attending specialist training or continuous medical education in general practice. Participants Twenty female and 30 male doctors working in general practice in Norway. Results The storyline of case presentations included detailed stories with emotional engagement, co-authored by other group members. The stories initiated discussions and reflections concerning patients’ and doctors’ perspectives, medical ethics as well as clinical problems. The safe atmosphere allowed testing out boundaries of socially shared knowledge. Conclusions Sharing case stories in small groups in general practice initiated interaction that facilitated meaning-making, reflection and peer support. PMID:22874630

  9. Studying the HI content of the NGC 4930 group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfinger, Kathrin; Kilborn, Virginia; Koribalski, Baerbel

    2011-10-01

    We propose to observe the neutral hydrogen (HI) content of the spiral-rich NGC 4930 group using the ATCA. This notable group lies 2.5° east of the Centaurus cluster core and is probably infalling for the first time. Our primary goal is to trace the evolutionary changes of spirals in different environments and to map the first signs of interaction and transformation. Our aims of the ATCA observations are (i) to study the HI properties of the group, (ii) to determine if there is an HI deficiency in the members, (iii) to look for any signs of ram pressure stripping that would indicate an interaction with a hot intra-group medium and (iv) to conduct a ‘blind’ survey for new group members, such as dwarf companions within the survey volume. We will further test the latest galaxy finding routines such as Duchamp, which are vital for the success of the upcoming ASKAP HI surveys. The NGC 4930 group is covered in the HI Parkes All Sky Survey but only two out of the nine group members are detected in HI. We propose to make mosaic observations and we expect to detect all of the known galaxies in this group.

  10. Difficulties in Balint groups: a qualitative study of leaders' experiences

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldmand, Dorte; Holmström, Inger

    2010-01-01

    Background Balint groups (BGs) are a means of enhancing competence in the physician–patient relationship and are also regarded as beneficial for GPs' mental health. However, voluntary BGs are still few, some members terminate their participation, and problems are reported in obligatory groups in residency programmes. This raises questions about possible negative aspects of BGs. Aim To examine difficulties in BGs as experienced by BG leaders. Design of study Qualitative study using interviews. Setting Eight BG leaders from five countries were interviewed. Method The interviews focused on the informants' experiences of difficulties in their groups and were analysed with a systematic text-condensation method. Results Three categories of difficulties emerged from the analysis: 1) the individual physician having needs, vulnerabilities, and defences; 2) the group (including the leader) having problems of hidden agendas, rivalries, and frames; and 3) the surrounding environment defining the conditions of the group. BGs were found to fit into modern theories of small groups as complex systems. They are submitted to group dynamics that are sometimes malicious, and are exposed to often tough environmental conditions. Conclusion Professionally conducted BGs seem to be a gentle, efficient method to train physicians, but with limitations. Participation of a member demands psychological stability and an open mind. BGs need support from the leadership of healthcare organisations in order to exist. PMID:21062547

  11. A mentored cooperative group pilot study: atrophic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Lester, Joanne L; Jarvis, Chandler; Bartholomew, Deborah; Yee, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    To review nursing research initiatives from two cooperative groups and outline a pilot study performed by a junior nurse researcher mentored by cooperative group nurse researchers and institutional physicians. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, World Wide Web. Nursing research can be initiated and led by nurses in the cooperative group setting. The team approach model of research includes several disciplines to examine multiple facets of the same problem, or of multiple problems that a cancer patient may face. This new model will enable a greater number of nurse researchers to investigate symptom management, survivorship, and quality-of-life issues. Nurse researchers should be included in every cooperative group study to investigate nurse-sensitive outcomes and issues related to symptom management, survivorship, and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cancer support groups: a critical review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H; Wachala, Elizabeth D

    2007-05-01

    Support groups for adults affected by cancer are widely offered by local community and national agencies in North America. This type of psychosocial intervention is defined in terms of its structure and functions, and its theoretical underpinnings and models of practice are described. Forty-four empirical studies of professionally led cancer support groups are summarized and critically reviewed. These studies include 32 outcome evaluations of randomized controlled trials, two process evaluations, and 10 consumer satisfaction studies. The findings reveal high levels of consumer satisfaction, and the outcome evaluations substantiate the morale and other quality of life benefits short of prolonging life. Discussion centers on priorities for future research and practice.

  13. Developing Dialogic Teaching Identities through Online Video Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Nathan Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how teachers narrate and develop their identities through their participation in an online video study group. Participants are six public school world language teachers using "Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling" (TPRS) methodology who live in geographically diverse regions of the United States but…

  14. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  15. Practicing Social Movement Theory in Case Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormrod, James S.

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluates the use of a "case study group" method for teaching social movement theory. The aim was to give students the opportunity to practice theorizing actively rather than simply learning theory passively. The method provides this by requiring students to undertake case studies on social movements of their choice for the…

  16. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  17. [TIMI group study of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Braunwald, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the history of development of various methods of reperfusion therapy in myocardial infarction. The method of intracoronary thrombolysis was developed and used in Russia in 1976. In 1984 the TIMI Study Group initiated large-scale long-term trial of thrombolytic therapy in myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris. Some basic results of the study are outlined.

  18. Developing Dialogic Teaching Identities through Online Video Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Nathan Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how teachers narrate and develop their identities through their participation in an online video study group. Participants are six public school world language teachers using "Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling" (TPRS) methodology who live in geographically diverse regions of the United States but…

  19. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children’s coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. Methods/design The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7–13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the “Ladder of life” which measures overall life satisfaction, and “Jag tycker jag är” (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale “Familjeklimat” (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. Discussion There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from

  20. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    PubMed

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-24

    Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children's coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7-13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life satisfaction, and "Jag tycker jag är" (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale "Familjeklimat" (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study

  1. Revitalising PBL groups: evaluating PBL with study teams.

    PubMed

    Moust, Jos; Roebertsen, Herma; Savelberg, Hans; De Rijk, Angelique

    2005-03-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), students are actively engaged with psychological learning principles as activation of prior knowledge, elaboration and organization of knowledge. In their tutorial groups, however, students do not always apply these principles when working with a procedure like the "Seven-Jump" method. To stimulate students to use these principles more often, they were offered another format within a PBL context: PBL with study teams. During the period of self-study, students work on a regular basis in so-called study teams, small groups of 3-4 persons. In these groups they explain to each other their learning outcomes, clarify for each other their problems while studying texts and organize their knowledge to present this to the members of other study teams in their tutorial group. Previous research showed that students spent more time on self-study in a PBL with study team condition than in a traditional PBL context. In this study the achievement as well as appreciation of students participating in a PBL with study teams' environment, is compared with students working in a traditional PBL environment. To determine whether PBL with study teams differs from the traditional PBL environment in students' appreciation and study time. We conducted an experiment in two blocks over two years. Questionnaires were administered to collect data on appreciation and time for self-study. Students' appreciation of the two formats did not differ much. The large standard deviations indicate considerable differences in appreciation between individual students. Appreciation was slightly higher in the second experiment when instructions about how to collaborate were less strict. Students devoted twice as many hours studying in the study group format compared with the traditional PBL format. The students indicated that they enjoyed the format but that the increased workload disturbed their customary study rhythm. Assessment scores and tutors'impressions suggest that

  2. Ethics reflection groups in community health services: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Lillemoen, Lillian; Pedersen, Reidar

    2015-04-17

    Systematic ethics support in community health services in Norway is in the initial phase. There are few evaluation studies about the significance of ethics reflection on care. The aim of this study was to evaluate systematic ethics reflection in groups in community health (including nursing homes and residency), - from the perspectives of employees participating in the groups, the group facilitators and the service managers. The reflection groups were implemented as part of a research and development project. A mixed-methods design with qualitative focus group interviews, observations and written reports were used to evaluate. The study was conducted at two nursing homes, two home care districts and a residence for people with learning disabilities. Participants were employees, facilitators and service managers. The study was guided by ethical standard principles and was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. We found support for ethics reflection as a valuable measure to strengthen clinical practice. New and improved solutions, more cooperation between employees, and improved collaboration with patients and their families are some of the results. No negative experiences were found. Instead, the ethics reflection based on experiences and challenges in the workplace, was described as a win-win situation. The evaluation also revealed what is needed to succeed and useful tips for further development of ethics support in community health services. Ethics reflection groups focusing on ethical challenges from the participants' daily work were found to be significant for improved practice, collegial support and cooperation, personal and professional development among staff, facilitators and managers. Resources needed to succeed were managerial support, and anchoring ethics sessions in the routine of daily work.

  3. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY FOCUS GROUPS - FOLLOW-UP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect

    recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus

    groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...

  4. Literacy Partners: Teacher Innovation in a Study/Research Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, Dana L.

    A study/research partnership between university teacher educators and teachers was formed when teachers at the third-, fourth- and fifth-grade levels decided to implement an innovation called Literature Response Groups in their classrooms. The setting was an urban elementary school in northern California. Participants included six elementary…

  5. Effective Single-Parent Training Group Program: Three System Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold E.; Miller, Keva M.; Orellana, E. Roberto; Briggs, Adam C.; Cox, Wendell H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study highlights Dr. Elsie Pinkston and colleagues' research on the effectiveness of behavior parent training and examines the application of single-parent training group (SPG) programs to three parent-child dyads exposed to distressed family circumstances. Methods: Single-system evaluation designs were conducted with two…

  6. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY FOCUS GROUPS - FOLLOW-UP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect

    recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus

    groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...

  7. Laboratory Governance: Issues for the Study Group on Regional Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Thomas; Dominic, Joseph

    Background information and an analysis of issues involved in the governance of new regional educational laboratories are presented. The new laboratories are to be established through a 1984 competition administered by the National Institute of Education (NIE). The analysis is designed to assist the Study Group on Regional Laboratories to advise…

  8. TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the...1ncludes all AD, AOFMIGRIGRFM, and unclef 65 RETIRETFMIOTH, exclucbng 65+ Albers Equal Area Prqect10n, 2011 2011 MHS Conference Five Models  TRICARE

  9. Faculty-Study Groups Support School Improvement Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on effective professional interactions of teachers and administrators as faculty-study groups in school improvement practices and educational reform to improve instruction and learning. The emphasis on practical approach promises to create conditions for continuous systemic change and academic improvement. The author…

  10. Effective Single-Parent Training Group Program: Three System Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold E.; Miller, Keva M.; Orellana, E. Roberto; Briggs, Adam C.; Cox, Wendell H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study highlights Dr. Elsie Pinkston and colleagues' research on the effectiveness of behavior parent training and examines the application of single-parent training group (SPG) programs to three parent-child dyads exposed to distressed family circumstances. Methods: Single-system evaluation designs were conducted with two…

  11. Mapping Task Switching in Frontal Cortex Through Neuropsychological Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shallice, Tim; Stuss, Donald T.; Picton, Terence W.; Alexander, Michael P.; Gillingham, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers evidence provided by large neuropsychological group studies and meta-analyses of functional imaging experiments on the location in frontal cortex of the subprocesses involved in the carrying out of task-switching paradigms. The function of the individual subprocesses is also considered in the light of analyses of the performance of normal subjects. PMID:18982110

  12. NORTHEAST LOON STUDY WORKING GROUP PARTNERSHIP TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northeast Loon Study Working Group (NELSWG) was formed in 1994 to proactively identify threats to one of the Northeast's most popular waterbirds, the common loon, Gavia immer. Seventeen institutions have come together to identify strategy, coordinate the work load, and share ...

  13. Teacher Study Groups As a Means of Rural Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbaugh, Mary Susan E.; Hecimovic, Tony

    A teacher study group was formed at Garfield Elementary School (Billings, Montana) to provide opportunities for professional development. Garfield Elementary has a student population of over 400 students, approximately 50 of whom qualify for special education services. The majority of children come from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and…

  14. A study of the current group evaporation/combustion theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion can be greatly enhanced by disintegrating the liquid fuel into droplets, an effect achieved by various configurations. A number of experiments carried out in the seventies showed that combustion of droplet arrays and sprays do not form individual flames. Moreover, the rate of burning in spray combustion greatly deviates from that of the single combustion rate. Such observations naturally challenge its applicability to spray combustion. A number of mathematical models were developed to evaluate 'group combustion' and the related 'group evaporation' phenomena. This study investigates the similarity and difference of these models and their applicability to spray combustion. Future work that should be carried out in this area is indicated.

  15. Unilateral neglect and perceptual parsing: a large-group study.

    PubMed

    Neppi-Mòdona, Marco; Savazzi, Silvia; Ricci, Raffaella; Genero, Rosanna; Berruti, Giuseppina; Pepi, Riccardo

    2002-01-01

    Array-centred and subarray-centred neglect were disambiguated in a group of 116 patients with left neglect by means of a modified version of the Albert test in which the central column of segments was deleted so as to create two separate sets of targets grouped by proximity. The results indicated that neglect was more frequent in array- than subarray-centred coordinates and that, in a minority of cases, neglect co-occurred in both coordinate-systems. The two types of neglect were functionally but not anatomically dissociated. Presence of visual field defects was not prevalent in one type of neglect with respect to the other. These data contribute further evidence to previous single-case and small-group studies by showing that neglect can occur in single or multiple reference frames simultaneously, in agreement with current neuropsychological, neurophysiological and computational concepts of space representation.

  16. Ab-Initio Study of the Group 2 Hydride Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Joe P.; Wright, Timothy G.; Manship, Daniel R.

    2013-06-01

    The beryllium hydride (BeH)- dimer has recently been shown to be surprisingly strongly bound, with an electronic structure which is highly dependent on internuclear separation. At the equilibrium distance, the negative charge is to be found on the beryllium atom, despite the higher electronegativity of the hydrogen. The current study expands this investigation to the other Group 2 hydrides, and attempts to explain these effects. M. Verdicchio, G. L. Bendazzoli, S. Evangelisti, T. Leininger J. Phys. Chem. A, 117, 192, (2013)

  17. Geothermal development of the Madison group aquifer: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A geothermal well has been drilled at the St. Mary's Hospital in Pierre, South Dakota. The well is 2176 feet deep and artesian flows 375 gpm at 106/sup 0/F. The well is producing fluids from the Mississippian Madison Group, a sequence of carbonate rocks deposited over several western states. The project was funded to demonstrate the goethermal potential of this widespread aquifer. This case study describes the development of the project through geology, drilling, stimulation, and testing.

  18. Adolescents' understanding of research concepts: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Blake, Diane R; Lemay, Celeste A; Kearney, Margaret H; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2011-06-01

    To identify ways to improve adolescents' understanding of informed assent by exploring adolescent comprehension of concepts common to all clinical trials as well as those specific to a human immunodeficiency virus vaccine trial. Qualitative descriptive study. Community-based organizations. Healthy adolescents aged 15 to 17 years in 8 focus groups. Focus groups were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. Digital recordings of the groups were transcribed verbatim. Textual data were categorized by 2 investigators using directed qualitative content analysis techniques. Major themes and subthemes were identified, and representative quotes were selected. The general research concepts that were most difficult for teens to understand were placebo and randomization. The most difficult vaccine trial concepts were how a vaccine works and that a vaccine is used for prevention rather than treatment. The most difficult human immunodeficiency virus vaccine-specific trial concept was that standard human immunodeficiency virus antibody tests might provide a false-positive result for participants receiving the test vaccine. Focus group participants wanted to be informed about adverse effects, trial procedures, and whether previous research had been performed before making a decision about trial participation. Many clinical trial concepts were difficult for teens to understand. Attention needs to be directed toward developing effective ways to explain these concepts to adolescents participating in future human immunodeficiency virus vaccine and other clinical trials.

  19. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it.

  20. National facilities study. Volume 4: Space operations facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objectives of the National Facilities Study (NFS) were to: (1) determine where U.S. facilities do not meet national aerospace needs; (2) define new facilities required to make U.S. capabilities 'world class' where such improvements are in the national interest; (3) define where consolidation and phase-out of existing facilities is appropriate; and (4) develop a long-term national plan for world-class facility acquisition and shared usage. The Space Operations Facilities Task Group defined discrete tasks to accomplish the above objectives within the scope of the study. An assessment of national space operations facilities was conducted to determine the nation's capability to meet the requirements of space operations during the next 30 years. The mission model used in the study to define facility requirements is described in Volume 3. Based on this model, the major focus of the Task Group was to identify any substantive overlap or underutilization of space operations facilities and to identify any facility shortfalls that would necessitate facility upgrades or new facilities. The focus of this initial study was directed toward facility recommendations related to consolidations, closures, enhancements, and upgrades considered necessary to efficiently and effectively support the baseline requirements model. Activities related to identifying facility needs or recommendations for enhancing U.S. international competitiveness and achieving world-class capability, where appropriate, were deferred to a subsequent study phase.

  1. Bayesian model reduction and empirical Bayes for group (DCM) studies.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Litvak, Vladimir; Oswal, Ashwini; Razi, Adeel; Stephan, Klaas E; van Wijk, Bernadette C M; Ziegler, Gabriel; Zeidman, Peter

    2016-03-01

    This technical note describes some Bayesian procedures for the analysis of group studies that use nonlinear models at the first (within-subject) level - e.g., dynamic causal models - and linear models at subsequent (between-subject) levels. Its focus is on using Bayesian model reduction to finesse the inversion of multiple models of a single dataset or a single (hierarchical or empirical Bayes) model of multiple datasets. These applications of Bayesian model reduction allow one to consider parametric random effects and make inferences about group effects very efficiently (in a few seconds). We provide the relatively straightforward theoretical background to these procedures and illustrate their application using a worked example. This example uses a simulated mismatch negativity study of schizophrenia. We illustrate the robustness of Bayesian model reduction to violations of the (commonly used) Laplace assumption in dynamic causal modelling and show how its recursive application can facilitate both classical and Bayesian inference about group differences. Finally, we consider the application of these empirical Bayesian procedures to classification and prediction. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bayesian model reduction and empirical Bayes for group (DCM) studies

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Litvak, Vladimir; Oswal, Ashwini; Razi, Adeel; Stephan, Klaas E.; van Wijk, Bernadette C.M.; Ziegler, Gabriel; Zeidman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This technical note describes some Bayesian procedures for the analysis of group studies that use nonlinear models at the first (within-subject) level – e.g., dynamic causal models – and linear models at subsequent (between-subject) levels. Its focus is on using Bayesian model reduction to finesse the inversion of multiple models of a single dataset or a single (hierarchical or empirical Bayes) model of multiple datasets. These applications of Bayesian model reduction allow one to consider parametric random effects and make inferences about group effects very efficiently (in a few seconds). We provide the relatively straightforward theoretical background to these procedures and illustrate their application using a worked example. This example uses a simulated mismatch negativity study of schizophrenia. We illustrate the robustness of Bayesian model reduction to violations of the (commonly used) Laplace assumption in dynamic causal modelling and show how its recursive application can facilitate both classical and Bayesian inference about group differences. Finally, we consider the application of these empirical Bayesian procedures to classification and prediction. PMID:26569570

  3. Utilization of group theory in studies of molecular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocak, Mahir E.

    The structure of the molecular symmetry group of molecular clusters was analyzed and it is shown that the molecular symmetry group of a molecular cluster can be written as direct products and semidirect products of its subgroups. Symmetry adaptation of basis functions in direct product groups and semidirect product groups was considered in general and the sequential symmetry adaptation procedure which is already known for direct product groups was extended to the case of semidirect product groups. By using the sequential symmetry adaptation procedure a new method for calculating the VRT spectra of molecular clusters which is named as Monomer Basis Representation (MBR) method is developed. In the MBR method, calculations starts with a single monomer with the purpose of obtaining an optimized basis for that monomer as a linear combination of some primitive basis functions. Then, an optimized basis for each identical monomer is generated from the optimized basis of this monomer. By using the optimized bases of the monomers, a basis is generated generated for the solution of the full problem, and the VRT spectra of the cluster is obtained by using this basis. Since an optimized basis is used for each monomer which has a much smaller size than the primitive basis from which the optimized bases are generated, the MBR method leads to an exponential optimization in the size of the basis that is required for the calculations. Application of the MBR method has been illustrated by calculating the VRT spectra of water dimer by using the SAPT-5st potential surface of Groenenboom et al. The rest of the calculations are in good agreement with both the original calculations of Groenenboom et al. and also with the experimental results. Comparing the size of the optimized basis with the size of the primitive basis, it can be said that the method works efficiently. Because of its efficiency, the MBR method can be used for studies of clusters bigger than dimers. Thus, MBR method can

  4. Meaning Making in Cancer Survivors: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Spek, Nadia; Vos, Joel; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F.; Breitbart, William; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Cuijpers, Pim; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Confrontation with a life-threatening disease like cancer can evoke existential distress, which can trigger a search for meaning in people after having survived this disease. Methods In an effort to gain more insight in the meaning making process, we conducted four focus groups with 23 cancer survivors on this topic. Participants responded to questions about experienced meaning making, perceived changes in meaning making after cancer and the perceived need for help in this area. Results Most frequently mentioned meaning making themes were relationships and experiences. We found that, in general, cancer survivors experienced enhanced meaning after cancer through relationships, experiences, resilience, goal-orientation and leaving a legacy. Some participants, however, also said to have (also) experienced a loss of meaning in their lives through experiences, social roles, relationships and uncertainties about the future. Conclusions The results indicated that there is a group of cancer survivors that has succeeded in meaning making efforts, and experienced sometimes even more meaning in life than before diagnosis, while there is also a considerable group of survivors that struggled with meaning making and has an unmet need for help with that. The results of this study contribute to develop a meaning centered intervention for cancer survivors. PMID:24086695

  5. Study group assists in global water cycle program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornberger, George M.

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) has appointed a Water Cycle Study Group (WCSG),chaired by George Hornberger of the University of Virginia, to advise the USGCRP agencies on development of a Global Water Cycle Program within the USGCRPThe aim is to define a USGCRP initiative for fiscal years 2001 and beyond. In appointing the group, Robert Corell (then chair of the Subcommittee on Global Change Research) noted that “Deficiencies in our understanding of the global water cycle severely handicap efforts to improve climate prediction and guide water resource planning. Central to this initiative is the establishment of a science community-based research planning process complemented by an enhanced interagency coordination effort to address the content of this effort for FY 2001 and beyond.”The charge to the WCSG is to “formulate a research strategy and scientific plan for investigating the global water cycle, its role in climate, and the fundamental processes that govern the availability and the biogeochemistry of water resources, [and to] develop the strategy and science plan for a national program.” The WCSG is assisted by a parallel Interagency Working Group (IWG), which is charged with coordinating agency activities with the development of the WCSG science plan.The IWG is cochaired by Rick Lawford of NOAA's Office of Global Programs and Robert Schiffer of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  6. National logistics working groups: A landscape analysis study.

    PubMed

    Leab, Dorothy; Schreiber, Benjamin; Kasonde, Musonda; Bessat, Olivia; Bui, Son; Loisel, Carine

    2017-04-19

    Several countries have acknowledged the contributions made by national logistics working groups (NLWG) to ensure equitable access to the expanded program on immunization's (EPI) vaccines against preventable diseases. In order to provide key insights to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) supply chain hub - as well as other players, including national EPI - a landscape analysis study was conducted from September 2015 to February 2016. This is a cross-sectional survey taken by 43 countries that combines qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data was collected through a desk review, consultation, interviews, and distance questioning. References and guidance were used to determine and specify the underlying mechanisms of NLWGs. The key findings are:This study has provided a general overview of the status of NLWGs for immunization in various countries. Based on the key insights of the study, technical assistance needs have been identified, and immunization partners will be required to help countries create and reinforce their NLWGs.

  7. EXPERIENCES OF GAMMA HYDROXYBUTYRATE (GHB) INGESTION: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Judith C.; Harris, Shana L.; Dyer, Jo E.

    2008-01-01

    GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) is a significant new drug of abuse added to the United States Controlled Substance Act in 2000. The majority of the published literature on GHB consists of clinical case reports, mainly from emergency departments, and a collection of laboratory-based studies, focused mainly on anesthesia. While comments about the various experiences and behaviors of human users are often included in such studies or reports, these aspects of GHB are only just beginning to be systematically investigated or detailed. Reported here are data from a qualitative study using focus group methods on the consumption habits, experiences, and beliefs of GHB users. A total of 51 people, 30 men and 21 women, mean age of 31.1±7.6 years (range 18 – 52 years), who report having used GHB for an average of 4.3±2.5 years (range 1–11 years), were interviewed in 10 separate groups held in 2004. This paper discusses broadly the general experience of the GHB ‘high,’ major perceived benefits including sexual responses to the drug, perceived risks and dangers of ingestion, co-ingestion, and various contexts of use. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications drawn from this information for clinicians treating patients who use GHB. PMID:17703706

  8. Numerical renormalization group study of a dissipative quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glossop, M. T.; Ingersent, K.

    2007-03-01

    We study the quantum phase transition (QPT) induced by dissipation in a quantum dot device at the degeneracy point. We employ a Bose-Fermi numerical renormalization group approach [1] to study the simplest case of a spinless resonant-level model that couples the charge density on the dot to a dissipative bosonic bath with density of states B(φ)ŝ. In anticipation of future experiments [2] and to assess further the validity of theoretical techniques in this rapidly developing area, we take the conduction-electron leads to have a pseudogap density of states: ρ(φ) |φ|^r, as considered in a very recent perturbative renormalization group study [3]. We establish the conditions on r and s such that a QPT arises with increasing dissipation strength --- from a delocalized phase, where resonant tunneling leads to large charge fluctuations on the dot, to a localized phase where such fluctuations are frozen. We present results for the single-particle spectrum and the response of the system to a local electric field, extracting critical exponents that depend in general on r and s and obey hyperscaling relations. We make full comparison with results of [3] where appropriate. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-0312939. [1] M. T. Glossop and K. Ingersent, PRL 95, 067202 (2005); PRB (2006). [2] L. G. G. V. Dias da Silva, N. P. Sandler, K. Ingersent, and S. E. Ulloa, PRL 97, 096603 (2006). [3] C.-H. Chung, M. Kir'can, L. Fritz, and M. Vojta (2006).

  9. Functional renormalization group study of nuclear and neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Drews, Matthias; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-01-22

    A chiral model based on nucleons interacting via boson exchange is investigated. Fluctuation effects are included consistently beyond the mean-field approximation in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The liquid-gas phase transition of symmetric nuclear matter is studied in detail. No sign of a chiral restoration transition is found up to temperatures of about 100 MeV and densities of at least three times the density of normal nuclear matter. Moreover, the model is extended to asymmetric nuclear matter and the constraints from neutron star observations are discussed.

  10. Profit 󈨐 Summary Report. Report of the Profit Study Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-07

    Evaluation of the Test of the Employed Capital Concept Pro E,, a.l-.•iih•er Purpose VI-3 Approach V 1-5 Findings VI-12 M!osenile of Findings VI-19...development of a new profit policy. The Profit 󈨐 study group, with help from the Defense Contract 9 Audit Agency (DCAA), the General Accounting Office...attention were specifically organized for "in-depth" analysis. These "Major Issues" , are: /; (1) DPC 107 and the return-on-investment -- concept (2

  11. Density matrix renormalization group numerical study of the kagome antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H C; Weng, Z Y; Sheng, D N

    2008-09-12

    We numerically study the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice using the density-matrix renormalization group method. We find that the ground state is a magnetically disordered spin liquid, characterized by an exponential decay of spin-spin correlation function in real space and a magnetic structure factor showing system-size independent peaks at commensurate magnetic wave vectors. We obtain a spin triplet excitation gap DeltaE(S=1)=0.055+/-0.005 by extrapolation based on the large size results, and confirm the presence of gapless singlet excitations. The physical nature of such an exotic spin liquid is also discussed.

  12. Group therapy for women with substance use disorders: results from the Women's Recovery Group Study.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Sugarman, Dawn E; Freid, Cathryn M; Bailey, Genie L; Crisafulli, Michele A; Kaufman, Julia S; Wigderson, Sara; Connery, Hilary S; Rodolico, John; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2014-09-01

    This Stage II trial builds on a Stage I trial comparing the single-gender Women's Recovery Group (WRG) to mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC) that demonstrated preliminary support for the WRG in treating women with substance use disorders. The Stage II trial aims were to (1) investigate effectiveness of the WRG relative to GDC in a sample of women heterogeneous with respect to substance of abuse and co-occurring psychiatric disorders, and (2) demonstrate the feasibility of implementing WRG in an open-enrollment group format at two sites. In this randomized clinical trial, participants were included if they were substance dependent and had used substances within the past 60 days (n=158). Women were randomized to WRG (n=52) or GDC (n=48); men were assigned to GDC (n=58). Substance use outcomes were assessed at months 1-6 and 9. Women in both the WRG and GDC had reductions in mean number of substance use days during treatment (12.7 vs 13.7 day reductions for WRG and GDC, respectively) and 6 months post-treatment (10.3 vs 12.7 day reductions); however, there were no significant differences between groups. The WRG demonstrated comparable effectiveness to standard mixed-gender treatment (i.e., GDC) and is feasibly delivered in an open-group format typical of community treatment. It provides a manual-based group therapy with women-focused content that can be implemented in a variety of clinical settings for women who are heterogeneous with respect to their substance of abuse, other co-occurring psychiatric disorders, and life-stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome paper include the lack of

  14. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Kraemer, Thomas; Rust, Kristina; Schaub, Michael

    2012-04-04

    A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome paper include the lack of standardisation of hypnotic

  15. [Study on the occupational stress norm and it's application for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Tai-Yi; Lan, Ya-Jia

    2006-09-01

    A study of the occupational stress norm and it's application for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group. In this study, cross-sectional study method is used, and a synthetic way of sorting and randomized sampling is adopted to deal with research targets (36 marketing group, 331 public service/safety group, 903 production laborer group). Descriptive statistics for OSI-R scale scores for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group were modulated. Scale raw score to T-score conversion tables derived from the OSI-R normative sample for marketing group public service/safety group and production laborer group were established. OSI-R profile from for marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group were established. For the ORQ and PSQ scales, scores at or above 70 indicate a strong levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 60 to 69 suggest middle levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 40 to 59 indicate normal levels of stress and strain. Score below 40 indicate a relative absence of occupational stress and strain. For the PRQ scales, score below 30 indicate a significant lack of coping resources. Score in the range of 30 to 39 suggest middle deficits in coping resources. Score in the range of 40 to 59 indicate average coping resources. Scores at or above 60 indicate a strong levels of coping resources. The authors combined subjective and objective environment match model of occupational stress. Different intervention measure should be take to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability.

  16. The Life Design Group: A Case Study Vignette in Group Career Construction Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Susan R.; Stoltz, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Providing cost efficient, yet effective, student services, including career services, is a critical component in higher education. Career services must include the perspectives of the 21st-century work place. We advocate for the delivery of career development services in a group format using a narrative approach to career counseling with college…

  17. The Life Design Group: A Case Study Vignette in Group Career Construction Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Susan R.; Stoltz, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Providing cost efficient, yet effective, student services, including career services, is a critical component in higher education. Career services must include the perspectives of the 21st-century work place. We advocate for the delivery of career development services in a group format using a narrative approach to career counseling with college…

  18. Parents' perspectives on the MMR immunisation: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Evans, M; Stoddart, H; Condon, L; Freeman, E; Grizzell, M; Mullen, R

    2001-11-01

    The uptake of the combined measles, mumps and rubella immunisation (MMR) in Britain has fallen since 1998, when a link was hypothesised with the development of bowel disorders and childhood autism. Despite reassurances about the safety of MMR, uptake levels remain lower than optimal. We need to understand what influences parents' decisions on whether to accept MMR or not so that health professionals can provide a service responsive to their needs. To investigate what influences parents' decisions on whether to accept or refuse the primary MMR immunisation and the impact of the recent controversy over its safety. Qualitative study using focus group discussions. Forty-eight parents, whose youngest child was between 14 months and three years old, attended groups at community halls in six localities in Avon and Gloucestershire. Purposive sampling strategy was used to include parents from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds. Three groups comprised parents who had accepted MMR and three groups comprised parents who had refused MMR. Data analysis used modified grounded theory techniques incorporating the constant comparative method. All parents felt that the decision about MMR was difficult and stressful, and experienced unwelcome pressure from health professionals to comply. Parents were not convinced by Department of Health reassurances that MMR was the safest and best option for their children and many had accepted MMR unwillingly. Four key factors influenced parents' decisions: (a) beliefs about the risks and benefits of MMR compared with contracting the diseases, (b) information from the media and other sources about the safety of MMR, (c) confidence and trust in the advice of health professionals and attitudes towards compliance with this advice, and (d) views on the importance of individual choice within Government policy on immunisation. Parents wanted up-to-date information about the risks and benefits of MMR to be available in advance of their immunisation

  19. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  20. Outpatient antibiotic therapy for elderly patients. HIAT Study Group.

    PubMed

    Angel, J V

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of outpatient intravenous (IV) therapy with a third-generation cephalosporin, cefotaxime, in patients > or = 60 years of age and to determine its effect on length of hospital stay. Subset analysis was performed with 62 patients with various infections who had been enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, open-label trial of IV cefotaxime delivered through a computerized ambulatory delivery system (ADS). Initial treatment was given in hospital if required, followed by home therapy. The overall clinical response rate among evaluable patients was 98%, and the overall bacteriologic response rate was 93%. The mean duration of inpatient therapy was 3.6 days less than the mean of 8.2 days allowed under diagnosis-related group (DRG) allotments. Outpatient therapy with cefotaxime via infusion pump is safe and effective and may reduce hospitalization requirements.

  1. Ethnic conflict without ethnic groups: a study in pure sociology.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Mark

    2009-09-01

    Despite growing awareness of the limitations of group-level analyses in ethnic studies, research on ethnic conflict has paid virtually no systematic attention to variation at the individual or micro level. Addressing that gap, the present paper draws upon data from interviews conducted with members of two broadly-defined categories recently arrived in the Republic of Ireland, Muslims and Nigerians. Results indicate that while members of both immigrant categories experience a good deal of ethnic conflict or hostility, such conflict is rarely collective and invariably varies across individuals. The research data are consistent with Donald Black's theory of moralism. Black's theory, based on his theoretical system known as pure sociology, predicts that ethnic hostility increases with the social inferiority and cultural distance of the immigrant, and that higher status immigrants are more assertive in responding to hostility, though they experience less of it (the status paradox).

  2. Multi-wavelengths studies of fossil galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosroshahi, H. G.

    2016-09-01

    Fossil systems are understood to be the end product of galaxy mergers within groups and clusters. Their halo morphology points to their relaxed/virialised nature, thus allowing them to employed as observational probes for the evolution of cosmic structures, their thermodynamics and dark matter distribution. Cosmological simulations, and their underlying models, are broadly consistent with the early formation epoch for fossils. In a series of studies we have looked into the dark matter, IGM and galaxy properties, across a wide range of wavelengths, from X-ray through optical and IR to the Radio, to achieve a better understating of fossil systems, the attributed halo age, IGM heating and their AGNs and use them as laboratories to probe galaxy formation models. We combine luminosity gap with luminosity segregation to identify the most dynamically relaxed systems which allows us to reveal brand new connections between galaxies and their environments.

  3. Studies of nearby poor clusters - The Eridanus group

    SciTech Connect

    Willmer, C.N.A.; Focardi, P.; Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S. )

    1989-11-01

    Results are reported from dynamical study of the Eridanus group of galaxies. This system is quite prominent in one of the large-scale features found in the recently completed Southern Sky Redshift Survey (da Costa et al., 1988): the Eridanus-Fornax-Dorado filament. The irregualr aspect of Eridanus suggests the existence of subclustering, which is confirmed by statistical tests. These subclusters are bound, suggesting that the system is still condensing from the Hubble flow and may eventually form a cluster of about 10 to the 14th solar mass. By calculating the two-body orbital solution, it is found that the Eridanus complex and the Fornax cluster also form a bound system, although still in the expansion phase. 41 refs.

  4. Virtual Gaming Simulation in Nursing Education: A Focus Group Study.

    PubMed

    Verkuyl, Margaret; Hughes, Michelle; Tsui, Joyce; Betts, Lorraine; St-Amant, Oona; Lapum, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    The use of serious gaming in a virtual world is a novel pedagogical approach in nursing education. A virtual gaming simulation was implemented in a health assessment class that focused on mental health and interpersonal violence. The study's purpose was to explore students' experiences of the virtual gaming simulation. Three focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 20 first-year nursing students after they completed the virtual gaming simulation. Analysis yielded five themes: (a) Experiential Learning, (b) The Learning Process, (c) Personal Versus Professional, (d) Self-Efficacy, and (e) Knowledge. Virtual gaming simulation can provide experiential learning opportunities that promote engagement and allow learners to acquire and apply new knowledge while practicing skills in a safe and realistic environment. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(5):274-280.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Teaching Astronomy in Extracurricular Study Groups of Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, Mher; Grigoryan, Avetik

    2016-12-01

    The report presents the history of activity of Extracurricular Study Groups of Ar¬menia teaching astronomy and related subjects. It mainly refers to the Aerospace Club founded in 1988, which has long been acting as an officially unre¬gis¬tered, but efficiently performing non-governmental organization – Armenian Youth Ae¬ro¬space Society. The Club teaches, provides a truly scientific view of the world, advocates astronomy and other scientific and technical areas, provides interesting lectures and ar¬ticles to schools and mass media, arranges seminars and meetings with renowned experts, publishes scientific ar¬ticles, manuals, books, puts forward important scientific and techno-logical problems and offer students to work together on them, seek for solutions and develop possible appli¬ca¬tions. All this is aimed at maintaining and further development of leading positions of Armenia's scientific potential, particularly in astronomy.

  6. A Pilot Study in Marital Group Therapy: Process and Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sells, James N.; Giordano, Francesca G.; King, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    A marital group intervention was developed to address communication, conflict, forgiveness, and reconciliation. This article reviews the history of marital group intervention and presents a description of an 8-week marital group intervention. Results indicated improvement in forgiveness skills, anger expression, and marital satisfaction at…

  7. Multicultural Influences on Group Learning: A Qualitative Higher Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Arthur; Weaven, Scott; Herington, Carmel

    2008-01-01

    Although the literature examining the usefulness of group projects is extensive, the link between cooperative learning, group performance and skills transfer in multicultural contexts remains unclear. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 107 international and domestic postgraduate and undergraduate marketing students to investigate this…

  8. Group Counseling for African American Elementary Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a group counseling intervention promoting academic achievement and ethnic identity development for twenty fifth grade African American elementary students. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scores of students participating in the treatment group improved significantly over those in the control group. Implications…

  9. Multicultural Influences on Group Learning: A Qualitative Higher Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Arthur; Weaven, Scott; Herington, Carmel

    2008-01-01

    Although the literature examining the usefulness of group projects is extensive, the link between cooperative learning, group performance and skills transfer in multicultural contexts remains unclear. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 107 international and domestic postgraduate and undergraduate marketing students to investigate this…

  10. Introducing Semantic Cohesion Analysis: A Study of Group Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Cohesive talk was observed over time and across psychotherapy groups led by self-disclosing or nondisclosing therapists. Despite individual therapist differences, the nondisclosing groups showed more cohesive interactions throughout therapy. No differences were observed in clients' perceptions of therapists or their attraction to the group.…

  11. Music during after-death care: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Holm, Marianne S; Fålun, Nina; Gjengedal, Eva; Norekvål, Tone M

    2012-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is not only a place to recover from injuries incurred during accidents and from serious illness. For many patients, it is also a place where they might die. Nursing care does not stop when a patient dies; rather, it continues with the care of the deceased and with family support. The aims of this study were (1) to explore the experiences and attitudes of nurses towards the use of ambient music in the ICU during after-death care and (2) to describe the feedback nurses received from relatives when music was used during the viewing. A qualitative design employing focus group interviews was used. Three focus group interviews with 15 nurses were conducted. All the interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six main categories of attitudes emerged from the analysis: (1) different attitudes among nurses towards the use of music; (2) music affects the atmosphere; (3) music affects emotions; (4) use of music was situational; (5) special choice of music and (6) positive feedback from the bereaved. This study demonstrates that music might be helpful for nurses during after-death care as well as for the care of the relatives. Including ambient music in an after-death care programme can help nurses show respect for the deceased as the body is being prepared. Music played during the viewing may be a way of helping relatives in their time of grieving. It may ease the situation by making that event special and memorable. However, standardizing this intervention does not seem appropriate. Rather, the individual nurse and the family must decide whether music is to be used in a particular situation. © 2012 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2012 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  12. Gout in immigrant groups: a cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wändell, Per; Carlsson, Axel C; Li, Xinjun; Gasevic, Danijela; Ärnlöv, Johan; Holzmann, Martin J; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-01-13

    Our aim was to study the association between country of birth and incidence of gout in different immigrant groups in Sweden. The study population included the whole population of Sweden. Gout was defined as having at least one registered diagnosis in the National Patient Register. The association between incidence of gout and country of birth was assessed by Cox regression, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), using Swedish-born individuals as referents. All models were conducted in both men and women, and the full model was adjusted for age, place of residence in Sweden, educational level, marital status, neighbourhood socio-economic status and co-morbidities. The risk of gout varied by country of origin, with highest estimates, compared to Swedish born, in fully adjusted models among men from Iraq (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.54-2.16), and Russia (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.26-2.27), and also high among men from Austria, Poland, Africa and Asian countries outside the Middle East; and among women from Africa (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.50-3.31), Hungary (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.45-2.71), Iraq (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.13-2.74) and Austria (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.07-2.70), and also high among women from Poland. The risk of gout was lower among men from Greece, Spain, Nordic countries (except Finland) and Latin America and among women from Southern Europe, compared to their Swedish counterparts. The increased risk of gout among several immigrant groups is likely explained by a high cardio-metabolic risk factor pattern needing attention.

  13. International Multicenter Study of Head Injury in Children. ISHIP Group.

    PubMed

    Murgio, A; Andrade, F A; Sanchez Muñoz, M A; Boetto, S; Leung, K M

    1999-07-01

    With the object of evaluating different epidemiological factors in the acute phase of head injury (HI) in the pediatric age group in five countries (Argentina, Brazil, France, Hong-Kong and Spain), we carried out a prospective and descriptive study, in which we analyzed the clinical and radiological risk factors versus management and outcome 7-30 days after trauma. We included all children seen in the emergency department and hospitalized who were aged between 0 and 15 years and had sustained HI. Data were compiled from the clinical records and analyzed for neurological evaluation with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Glasgow Paediatric Coma Score (GPCS), and also by means of dynamics, symptoms, skull X-rays, CT scans. The total of 2478 patients enrolled in the study was made up of 60.9% boys and 39.1 % girls. Age distribution was as follows: 55.2% aged 0-4 years; 28.3% aged 5-9 years, and 16.4% aged 10-15 years. Most (75.3%, or 1768) of these patients completed follow-up. The total sample included 1058 children (42.7%) who required hospitalization. Skull fractures were identified in 11.8% (298) of the cases, and 6.4% (158) of CT scans were pathologic. Minor HI accounted for 56.4% of these children, moderate HI for 38.9%, and severe HI for the remaining 4.7%. The lethality rate was 1.6%. Our preliminary data reveal that it is very important for new guidelines on the treatment of minor HI to be prepared, because patients with minor HI had undergone the most skull X-rays and also most frequently been admitted to hospital for unnecessarily long periods of time, though the incidence of brain damage (1.6%) was lowest in this group of the study population. We intend to carry out a full analysis of the various risk factors at the end of the study.

  14. MMR: marginalised, misrepresented and rejected? Autism: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate; Petticrew, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore how the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine controversy impacted on the lives of parents caring for children with autism. Design Qualitative focus group study. Setting United Kingdom. Patients A purposively selected sample of 38 parents took part in 10 focus group discussions between March 2003 and May 2005. Results Many parents felt that the MMR vaccine could be too potent for children who are susceptible to developing autism. Of the parents whose children received the MMR vaccine, many felt guilty that they may have caused or contributed to their child's autism. Some parents felt frustrated by health professionals' lack of understanding of the negative impact the MMR controversy has had on them. Some parents were anxious about subsequent MMR decision‐making for their children. Conclusions The controversy has had a negative impact on some parents of children with autism. This has implications for health professionals, who need to be particularly aware of the issues these parents face in future MMR decision‐making for their affected child and younger siblings. It is anticipated that these findings will raise awareness among health professionals of the difficulties faced by such parents. More generally, there is a need to promote a greater awareness of the important role health visitors can play in parental decision‐making and for research examining whether health professionals feel they receive sufficient training in communication skills. It is also essential that the latest scientific research findings are disseminated quickly to these parents and to those health professionals advising parents on matters of vaccine safety. PMID:17376937

  15. [A study of the occupational stress norm and it' s application for the technical group and scientific research group].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-wei; Liu, Ze-jun; Zhao, Pei-qing; Bai, Shao-ying; Pang, Xing-huo; Wang, Zhi-ming; Jin, Tai-yi; Lan, Ya-jia

    2006-11-01

    A study of the occupational stress norm and it' s application for the technical group and scientific research group. In this study, cross-sectional study method is used, and a synthetic way of sorting and randomized sampling is adopted to deal with research targets(235 scientific research group, 857 technical group). Descriptive statistics for OSI-R scale scores for the technical group and scientific research group were modulated. Scale raw score to T-score conversion tables derived from the OSI-R normative sample for technical group and scientific research group were established. OSI-R profile from for technical group and scientific research group were established. For the ORQ and PSQ scales, scores at or above 70T indicate a strong levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 60T to 69T suggest middle levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 40T to 59T indicate normal levels of stress and strain. Score below 40T indicate a relative absence of occupational stress and strain. For the PRQ scales, score below 30T indicate a significant lack of coping resources. Score in the range of 30T to 39T suggest middle deficits in coping resources. Score in the range of 40T to 59T indicate average coping resources. Scores at or above 60T indicate a strong levels of coping resources. Different intervention measure should be take to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability.

  16. International Pediatric MS Study Group Clinical Trials Summit: meeting report.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Tanuja; Tardieu, Marc; Amato, Maria Pia; Banwell, Brenda; Bar-Or, Amit; Ghezzi, Angelo; Kornberg, Andrew; Krupp, Lauren B; Pohl, Daniela; Rostasy, Kevin; Tenembaum, Silvia; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Wassmer, Evangeline

    2013-03-19

    Pediatric studies for new biological agents are mandated by recent legislation, necessitating careful thought to evaluation of emerging multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies in children with MS. Challenges include a small patient population, the lack of prior randomized clinical trials, and ethical concerns. The goal of this meeting was to assess areas of consensus regarding clinical trial design and outcome measures among academic experts involved in pediatric MS care and research. The Steering Committee of the International Pediatric MS Study Group identified key focus areas for discussion. A total of 69 meeting attendees were assembled, including 35 academic experts. Regulatory and pharmaceutical representatives also attended, and provided input, which informed academic expert consensus decisions. The academic experts agreed that clinical trials were necessary in pediatric MS to obtain pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy data, and regulatory approval allowing for greater medication access. The academic experts agreed that relapse was an appropriate primary outcome measure for phase III pediatric trials. An international standardized cognitive battery was identified. The pros and cons of various trial designs were discussed. Guidelines surrounding MRI studies, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and registries were developed. The academic experts agreed that given the limited subject pool, a stepwise approach to the launch of clinical trials for the most promising medications is necessary in order to ensure study completion. Alternative approaches could result in unethical exposure of patients to trial conditions without gaining knowledge. Consensus points for conduct of clinical trials in the rare disease pediatric MS were identified amongst a panel of academic experts, informed by regulatory and industry stakeholders.

  17. International Pediatric MS Study Group Clinical Trials Summit

    PubMed Central

    Tardieu, Marc; Amato, Maria Pia; Banwell, Brenda; Bar-Or, Amit; Ghezzi, Angelo; Kornberg, Andrew; Krupp, Lauren B.; Pohl, Daniela; Rostasy, Kevin; Tenembaum, Silvia; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Wassmer, Evangeline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric studies for new biological agents are mandated by recent legislation, necessitating careful thought to evaluation of emerging multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies in children with MS. Challenges include a small patient population, the lack of prior randomized clinical trials, and ethical concerns. The goal of this meeting was to assess areas of consensus regarding clinical trial design and outcome measures among academic experts involved in pediatric MS care and research. Methods: The Steering Committee of the International Pediatric MS Study Group identified key focus areas for discussion. A total of 69 meeting attendees were assembled, including 35 academic experts. Regulatory and pharmaceutical representatives also attended, and provided input, which informed academic expert consensus decisions. Results: The academic experts agreed that clinical trials were necessary in pediatric MS to obtain pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy data, and regulatory approval allowing for greater medication access. The academic experts agreed that relapse was an appropriate primary outcome measure for phase III pediatric trials. An international standardized cognitive battery was identified. The pros and cons of various trial designs were discussed. Guidelines surrounding MRI studies, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and registries were developed. The academic experts agreed that given the limited subject pool, a stepwise approach to the launch of clinical trials for the most promising medications is necessary in order to ensure study completion. Alternative approaches could result in unethical exposure of patients to trial conditions without gaining knowledge. Conclusion: Consensus points for conduct of clinical trials in the rare disease pediatric MS were identified amongst a panel of academic experts, informed by regulatory and industry stakeholders. PMID:23509048

  18. Occupational therapists' perceptions of gender - a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Liedberg, Gunilla M; Björk, Mathilda; Hensing, Gunnel

    2010-10-01

    Women and men are shaped over the courses of their lives by culture, society and human interaction according to the gender system. Cultural influences on individuals' social roles and environment are described in occupational therapy literature, but not specifically from a gender perspective. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how a sample of occupational therapists perceives the 'gender' concept. Four focus group interviews with 17 occupational therapists were conducted. The opening question was: 'How do you reflect on the encounter with a client depending on whether it is a man or a woman?' The transcribed interviews were analysed and two main themes emerged: 'the concept of gender is tacit in occupational therapy' and 'client encounters'. The occupational therapists expressed limited theoretical knowledge of 'gender'. Furthermore, the occupational therapists seemed to be 'doing gender' in their encounters with the clients. For example, in their assessment of the client, they focussed their questions on different spheres: with female clients, on the household and family; with male clients, on their paid work. This study demonstrated that occupational therapists were unaware of the possibility that they were 'doing gender' in their encounters with clients. There is a need to increase occupational therapists' awareness of their own behaviour of 'doing gender'. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate whether gendered perceptions will shorten or lengthen a rehabilitation period and affect the chosen interventions, and in the end, the outcome for the clients. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2010 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.

  19. Barriers to evidence-based nursing: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Hannes, Karin; Vandersmissen, Jo; De Blaeser, Liesbeth; Peeters, Gert; Goedhuys, Jo; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2007-10-01

    This paper reports a study to explore the barriers to evidence-based nursing among Flemish (Belgian) nurses. Barriers obstructing the call for an increase in evidence-based nursing have been explored in many countries, mostly through quantitative study designs. Authors report on lack of time, resources, evidence, authority, support, motivation and resistance to change. Relationships between barriers are seldom presented. We used a grounded theory approach, and five focus groups were organized between September 2004 and April 2005 in Belgium. We used purposeful sampling to recruit 53 nurses working in different settings. A problem tree was developed to establish links between codes that emerged from the data. The majority of the barriers were consistent with previous findings. Flemish (Belgian) nurses added a potential lack of responsibility in the uptake of evidence-based nursing, their 'guest' position in a patient's environment leading to a culture of adaptation, and a future 'two tier' nursing practice, which refers to the different education levels of nurses. The problem tree developed serves as (1) a basic model for other researchers who want to explore barriers within their own healthcare system and (2) a useful tool for orienting change management processes. Despite the fact that the problem tree presented is context-specific for Flanders (Belgium), it gives an opportunity to develop clear objectives and targeted strategies for tackling obstacles to evidence-based nursing.

  20. Brace Classification Study Group (BCSG): part one - definitions and atlas.

    PubMed

    Grivas, Theodoros B; de Mauroy, Jean Claude; Wood, Grant; Rigo, Manuel; Hresko, Michael Timothy; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Negrini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The current increase in types of scoliosis braces defined by a surname or a town makes scientific classification essential. Currently, it is a challenge to compare braces and specify the indications of each brace. A precise definition of the characteristics of current braces is needed. As such, the International Society for Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) mandated the Brace Classification Study Group (BCSG) to address the pertinent terminology and brace classification. As such, the following study represents the first part of the SOSORT consensus in addressing the definitions and providing a visual atlas of bracing. After a short introduction on the braces, the aim of the BCSG is described and its policies/general consideration are outlined. The BSCG endeavor embraces the very important SOSORT - Scoliosis Research Society cooperation, the history of which is also briefly narrated. This report contains contributions from a multidisciplinary panel of 17 professionals who are part of the BCSG. The BCSG introduced several pertinent domains to characterize bracing systems. The domains are defined to allow for analysis of each brace system. A first approach to brace classification based on some of these proposed domains is presented. The BCSG has reached a consensus on 139 terms related to bracing and has provided over 120 figures to serve as an atlas for educational purposes. This is the first clinical terminology tool for bracing related to scoliosis based on the current scientific evidence and formal multidisciplinary consensus. A visual atlas of various brace types is also provided.

  1. Study of idempotents in cyclic group rings over F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Kai Lin; Ang, Miin Huey

    2016-06-01

    The existence of an idempotent generator for group codes or group ring codes in FqG plays a very important role in determining the minimal distance of the respective code. Some necessary and sufficient conditions for a group ring element to be an idempotent in F2Cn are investigated in this paper. The main result in this paper is the affirmation of the existence of finitely many basis idempotents which gives a full identification of all idempotents in every binary cyclic group ring F2Cn. All the basis idempotents in F2Cn are able to be found by partitioning the largest idempotent's support.

  2. Geochemical Study of Lichens in Tatun Volcano Group, North Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Ssu-Yu

    2015-04-01

    Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located in the northwest of Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. Although the last activity was 200000 years ago, it is critical to monitor TVG because it is nearby metropolitan area. This study is part of the monitoring program and attempts to observe the geochemical relationship between lichen and volcanic gas. Lichens have been extensively used for monitoring atmospheric quality. Lichen can live in critical environments and can accumulate metals from atmosphere due to lack of excretion mechanism. Moreover, lichen can live long and growth in a low rate; therefore, lichen geochemistry can represent an average in a long term manner. In TVG, fruticose lichen can be seldom found due to the high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. However, foliose lichen and crustose lichen are not rare in the study area. In this study, lichens were collected from TVG and Nan-ao Trail which is in non-volcanic area. The cations were measured by ICP-MS. The geochemical results were analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). It shows that there is no significant difference among non-volcanic lichens and the non-volcanic lichens are located at an end-member of two distinct trends. It is believed that the non-volcanic lichens indicate a geochemical baseline in north Taiwan and two trends may represent the mixing between two different types of volcanic gases in TVG and geochemical baseline. In this study, rare earth elements (REEs) were also measured. The results of non-volcanic and TVG lichens were normalized by North America Shale and TVG andesite, respectively. Both obtain a flat REE pattern, which confirm that TVG lichens receive metals from volcanic origin and non-volcanic lichens give information of background geochemistry in north Taiwan. In addition, a middle REE enrichment and distinct Ce negative anomaly can be observed. According to the previous studies, middle REE enrichment may be achieved by the selected adsorption of middle REEs by organic

  3. Implementation of Total School Cluster Grouping: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Necciai, Rodney Alan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation was designed and conducted to examine perception of classroom grouping practices in elementary schools. It includes a comprehensive review of literature related to grade-level and within-class grouping practices over the past thirty years in American schools. A focus was gleaned from the literature that led to the design of a…

  4. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  5. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  6. International Pediatric MS Study Group Global Members Symposium report.

    PubMed

    Wassmer, Evangeline; Chitnis, Tanuja; Pohl, Daniela; Amato, Maria Pia; Banwell, Brenda; Ghezzi, Angelo; Hintzen, Rogier Q; Krupp, Lauren B; Makhani, Naila; Rostásy, Kevin; Tardieu, Marc; Tenembaum, Silvia; Waldman, Amy; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Kornberg, Andrew J

    2016-08-30

    The International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group held its inaugural educational program, "The World of Pediatric MS: A Global Update," in September 2014 to discuss advances and challenges in the diagnosis and management of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neuroinflammatory CNS disorders. Highlights included a discussion on the revised diagnostic criteria, which enable the differentiation of MS, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and other neuroinflammatory disorders. While these criteria currently identify clinical and MRI features for a particular diagnosis, advances in biomarkers may prove to be useful in the future. An update was also provided on environmental factors associated with pediatric MS risk and possibly outcomes, notably vitamin D deficiency. However, optimal vitamin D intake and its role in altering MS course in children have yet to be established. Regarding MS outcomes, our understanding of the cognitive consequences of early-onset MS has grown. However, further work is needed to define the course of cognitive function and its long-term outcome in diverse patient samples and to develop strategies for effective cognitive rehabilitation specifically tailored to children and adolescents. Finally, treatment strategies were discussed, including a need to consider additional drug treatment options and paradigms (escalation vs induction), although treatment should be tailored to the individual child. Of critical importance, clinical trials of newer MS agents in children are required. Although our understanding of childhood MS has improved, further research is needed to have a positive impact for children and their families.

  7. Operating theatre nurses' perceptions of competence: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne; Chang, Hsiao-Yun Annie; Werder, Helen

    2009-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study exploring nurses' perceptions of the components of competence in the operating theatre. Competency Standards for operating theatre practice are used in some countries to guide clinical and professional behaviours. The need for competence assessment has been enshrined, but the conceptualization and agreement about what signifies competence in Operating Theatre has been lacking. Three focus groups were conducted with 27 operating theatre nurses in three major metropolitan hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Interviews were audio taped and field notes were taken. Data were collected during 2008. Thematic analysis was performed. From the analysis of the textual data, three themes were identified: 'coalescence of theoretical, practical, situational and aesthetic knowledge within a technocratic environment'; 'the importance of highly developed communication skills among teams of divergent personalities and situations'; and 'managing and coordinating the flow of the list'. These findings have identified that competence in respect to components of knowledge, teamwork and communication, and the ability to coordinate and manage are important and should be incorporated in operating theatre Competency Standards. Additionally, findings may assist in the development of an instrument to measure operating nurses' perceived competence.

  8. Interprofessional Perspectives on ABCDE Bundle Implementation: A Focus Group Study.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Leanne M; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Mion, Lorraine C

    The ABCDE bundle is a multifaceted, interprofessional intervention that is associated with reduced ventilator and delirium days as well as increased likelihood of mobility in intensive care. The aim of this study is to describe organizational domains that contribute to variation in ABCDE bundle implementation as reported by intensive care unit providers and to examine the capability of a conceptual framework for identifying variation in ABCDE bundle implementation. We conducted 2 separate focus groups that included nurses, respiratory therapists, occupational and physical therapists (N = 16) from the surgical and medical intensive care units at 1 academic medical center. All participants had experience performing ABCDE bundle activities. Variation in how the ABCDE bundle was interpreted and executed within and across disciplines was noted. Organizational facets, the physical environment, labor quantity and quality, task burden, provider attitudes, and patient characteristics were noted to influence ABCDE bundle execution. The difficulty coordinating and implementing early mobility was emphasized. The number of disciplines required to perform an activity and individual component complexity was reported to influence ABCDE bundle implementation. Nurses repeatedly described challenges with coordinating care across disciplines. Small tests of change, adequate staffing, interprofessional training and protocol development efforts, and role modeling may be effective methods for successful ABCDE bundle implementation.

  9. Dissipative two-electron transfer: A numerical renormalization group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornow, Sabine; Bulla, Ralf; Anders, Frithjof B.; Nitzan, Abraham

    2008-07-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium two-electron transfer in a model redox system represented by a two-site extended Hubbard model and embedded in a dissipative environment. The influence of the electron-electron interactions and the coupling to a dissipative bosonic bath on the electron transfer is studied in different temperature regimes. At high temperatures, Marcus transfer rates are evaluated, and at low temperatures, we calculate equilibrium and nonequilibrium population probabilities of the donor and acceptor with the nonperturbative numerical renormalization group approach. We obtain the nonequilibrium dynamics of the system prepared in an initial state of two electrons at the donor site and identify conditions under which the electron transfer involves one concerted two-electron step or two sequential single-electron steps. The rates of the sequential transfer depend nonmonotonically on the difference between the intersite and on-site Coulomb interaction, which become renormalized in the presence of the bosonic bath. If this difference is much larger than the hopping matrix element, the temperature as well as the reorganization energy, simultaneous transfer of both electrons between donor and acceptor can be observed.

  10. Student Use of Out-of-Class Study Groups in an Introductory Undergraduate Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybczynski, Stephen M.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Self-formed out-of-class study groups may benefit student learning; however, few researchers have quantified the relationship between study group use and achievement or described changes in study group usage patterns over a semester. We related study group use to performance on content exams, explored patterns of study group use, and qualitatively…

  11. Karyometry in atypical endometrial hyperplasia: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Peter H; Garcia, Francisco A R; Trimble, Cornelia L; Kauderer, James; Curtin, John; Lim, Peter C; Hess, Lisa M; Silverberg, Steven; Zaino, Richard J; Yozwiak, Michael; Bartels, Hubert G; Alberts, David S

    2012-04-01

    Treatment for atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) is based on pathologic diagnosis. About 40% of AEH is found to be carcinoma at surgery. This study's objective is to derive an objective characterization of nuclei from cases diagnosed as AEH or superficially invasive endometrial cancer (SIEC). Cases from GOG study 167A were classified by a central pathology committee as AEH (n=39) or SIEC (n=39). High resolution digitized images of cell nuclei were recorded. Features of the nuclear chromatin pattern were computed. Classification rules were derived by discriminant analysis. Nuclei from cases of AEH and SIEC occupy the same range on a progression curve for endometrial lesions. Cases of AEH and SIEC both comprise nuclei of two phenotypes: hyperplastic characteristics and premalignant/neoplastic characteristics. The principal difference between AEH and SIEC is the percentage of premalignant/neoplastic nuclei. When this percentage approaches 50-60% superficial invasion is likely. SIEC may develop already from lesions at the low end of the progression curve. AEH comprises cases which may constitute a low risk group involving <40% of AEH cases. These cases hold a percentage of <20% of nuclei of a preneoplastic phenotype. AEH cases from the central and high end of progression have >40% of nuclei of preneoplastic phenotype. Nuclei of the preneoplastic phenotype in AEH lesions are almost indistinguishable from nuclei in SIEC, where this percentage exceeds 60%. The percentage of nuclei of the preneoplastic phenotype in AEH esions might serve as criterion for assessment of risk for the development of invasive disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Karyometry in atypical endometrial hyperplasia: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Peter H; Garcia, Francisco AR; Trimble, Cornelia L; Kauderer, James; Curtin, John; Lim, Peter C; Hess, Lisa M; Silverberg, Steven; Zaino, Richard J; Yozwiak, Michael; Bartels, Hubert G; Alberts, David S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Treatment for atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) is based on pathologic diagnosis. About 40% of AEH is found to be carcinoma at surgery. This study's objective is to derive an objective characterization of nuclei from cases diagnosed as AEH or superficially invasive endometrial cancer (SIEC). Methods Cases from GOG study 167A were classified by a central pathology committee as AEH (n=39) or SIEC (n=39). High resolution digitized images of cell nuclei were recorded. Features of the nuclear chromatin pattern were computed. Classification rules were derived by discriminant analysis. Results Nuclei from cases of AEH and SIEC occupy the same range on a progression curve for endometrial lesions. Cases of AEH and SIEC both comprise nuclei of two phenotypes: hyperplastic characteristics and premalignant/neoplastic characteristics. The principal difference between AEH and SIEC is percentage of premalignant/neoplastic nuclei. When this percentage approaches 50-60% superficial invasion is likely. SIEC may develop already from lesions at the low end of the progression curve. Conclusions AEH comprises cases which may constitute a low risk group involving <40% of AEH cases. These cases hold a percentage of <20% of nuclei of a preneoplastic phenotype. AEH cases from the central and high end of progression have >40 % of nuclei of preneoplastic phenotype. Nuclei of the preneoplastic phenotype in AEH lesions are almost indistinguishable from nuclei in SIEC, where this percentage exceeds 60%. The percentage of nuclei of the preneoplastic phenotype in AEH lesions might serve as criterion for assessment of risk for the development of invasive disease. PMID:22155796

  13. An international investigation into O red blood cell unit administration in hospitals: the GRoup O Utilization Patterns (GROUP) study.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Michelle P; Barty, Rebecca; Aandahl, Astrid; Apelseth, Torunn O; Callum, Jeannie; Dunbar, Nancy M; Elahie, Allahna; Garritsen, Henk; Hancock, Helen; Kutner, José Mauro; Manukian, Belinda; Mizuta, Shuichi; Okuda, Makoto; Pagano, Monica B; Pogłód, Ryszard; Rushford, Kylie; Selleng, Kathleen; Sørensen, Claess Henning; Sprogøe, Ulrik; Staves, Julie; Weiland, Thorsten; Wendel, Silvano; Wood, Erica M; van de Watering, Leo; van Wordragen-Vlaswinkel, Maria; Ziman, Alyssa; Jan Zwaginga, Jaap; Murphy, Michael F; Heddle, Nancy M; Yazer, Mark H

    2017-10-01

    Transfusion of group O blood to non-O recipients, or transfusion of D- blood to D+ recipients, can result in shortages of group O or D- blood, respectively. This study investigated RBC utilization patterns at hospitals around the world and explored the context and policies that guide ABO blood group and D type selection practices. This was a retrospective study on transfusion data from the 2013 calendar year. This study included a survey component that asked about hospital RBC selection and transfusion practices and a data collection component where participants submitted information on RBC unit disposition including blood group and D type of unit and recipient. Units administered to recipients of unknown ABO or D group were excluded. Thirty-eight hospitals in 11 countries responded to the survey, 30 of which provided specific RBC unit disposition data. Overall, 11.1% (21,235/191,397) of group O units were transfused to non-O recipients; 22.6% (8777/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to O D+ recipients, and 43.2% (16,800/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to recipients that were not group O D-. Disposition of units and hospital transfusion policy varied within and across hospitals of different sizes, with transfusion of group O D- units to non-group O D- patients ranging from 0% to 33%. A significant proportion of group O and D- RBC units were transfused to compatible, nonidentical recipients, although the frequency of this practice varied across sites. © 2017 AABB.

  14. Profiles in Successful Group Piano for Children: A Collective Case Study of Children's Group-Piano Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective case study was to explore the best practices in beginning group-piano instruction. Four beginning and intermediate groups of piano students (N =20) were observed. Data were triangulated through in-class observation of students and teachers, teacher interviews and student questionnaires. The master teachers…

  15. Profiles in Successful Group Piano for Children: A Collective Case Study of Children's Group-Piano Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective case study was to explore the best practices in beginning group-piano instruction. Four beginning and intermediate groups of piano students (N =20) were observed. Data were triangulated through in-class observation of students and teachers, teacher interviews and student questionnaires. The master teachers…

  16. Many hands make light work: further studies in group evolution.

    PubMed

    Tomko, Nicholas; Harvey, Inman; Virgo, Nathaniel; Philippides, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    When niching or speciation is required to perform a task that has several different component parts, standard genetic algorithms (GAs) struggle. They tend to evaluate and select all individuals on the same part of the task, which leads to genetic convergence within the population. The goal of evolutionary niching methods is to enforce diversity in the population so that this genetic convergence is avoided. One drawback with some of these niching methods is that they require a priori knowledge or assumptions about the specific fitness landscape in order to work; another is that many such methods are not set up to work on cooperative tasks where fitness is only relevant at the group level. Here we address these problems by presenting the group GA, described earlier by the authors, which is a group-based evolutionary algorithm that can lead to emergent niching. After demonstrating the group GA on an immune system matching task, we extend the previous work and present two modified versions where the number of niches does not need to be specified ahead of time. In the random-group-size GA, the number of niches is varied randomly during evolution, and in the evolved-group-size GA the number of niches is optimized by evolution. This provides a framework in which we can evolve groups of individuals to collectively perform tasks with minimal a priori knowledge of how many subtasks there are or how they should be shared out.

  17. Studies of Typing from the LNR Typing Research Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    transient signals having identical energy spectra. February, 1970. 11. Donald A. Norman. Remembrance of things past. June, 1970. 12. Norman I. Anderson...Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation Donald R. Gentner F-’ Jonathan Grudin Serge Larochelle __ Donald A. Norman...Group: The Role of Context, Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation The LNI Typing Research Group: Donald R

  18. Studying the Stellar Populations of the Local Group with VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    The best chance we have to understand star formation and how it proceeds in the Universe is going to come from detailed studies of the numerous different environments found within the Local Group (LG). Present day star formation in our Galaxy occurs exclusively in metal rich environments (Z ˜ Z_⊙), so if we want to study how low metallicity stars form (and thus understand observations of galaxies at high-redshift) we have to look beyond our Galaxy, to the smallest star forming dwarf galaxies, which can have extremely low metallicities (Z ˜ 0.02-0.05Z_⊙). Of course in its entirety a stellar population always contains the complete details of the star formation history of a galaxy, however this information is often hard to disentangle retroactively. We also have much to learn from the Magellanic Clouds (Z ˜ 0.1- 0.3Z_⊙), although because they are undergoing interactions with our Galaxy and each other their evolutionary picture and its general applicability less obvious. In our LG there are also a number of "remnants", or galaxies which which currently do not form stars (e.g. the dSph, such as Carina, Leo I, Ursa Minor, etc..). It is not straight forward to draw parallels between galaxies which are forming stars and those which aren't. This is of course because star formation has such a dramatic impact upon a galaxy, and alternative methods have to be used to make the most basic of comparisons of properties (e.g. metallicity, mass, luminosity evolution). It is necessary to put all the dwarf galaxies into a global picture if we are to draw meaningful conclusions about their star formation properties (e.g. Ferrara & Tolstoy 1999). Many of the small LG galaxies contain direct evidence of complicated star formation histories (e.g. Smecker-Hane et al. 1994; Tolstoy et al. 1998; Gallart et al. 1999), which suggests that star formation patterns can change dramatically over long time scales. This kind of evolutionary behaviour can have a dramatic impact upon the

  19. What about N? A methodological study of sample-size reporting in focus group studies.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire

    2011-03-11

    Focus group studies are increasingly published in health related journals, but we know little about how researchers use this method, particularly how they determine the number of focus groups to conduct. The methodological literature commonly advises researchers to follow principles of data saturation, although practical advise on how to do this is lacking. Our objectives were firstly, to describe the current status of sample size in focus group studies reported in health journals. Secondly, to assess whether and how researchers explain the number of focus groups they carry out. We searched PubMed for studies that had used focus groups and that had been published in open access journals during 2008, and extracted data on the number of focus groups and on any explanation authors gave for this number. We also did a qualitative assessment of the papers with regard to how number of groups was explained and discussed. We identified 220 papers published in 117 journals. In these papers insufficient reporting of sample sizes was common. The number of focus groups conducted varied greatly (mean 8.4, median 5, range 1 to 96). Thirty seven (17%) studies attempted to explain the number of groups. Six studies referred to rules of thumb in the literature, three stated that they were unable to organize more groups for practical reasons, while 28 studies stated that they had reached a point of saturation. Among those stating that they had reached a point of saturation, several appeared not to have followed principles from grounded theory where data collection and analysis is an iterative process until saturation is reached. Studies with high numbers of focus groups did not offer explanations for number of groups. Too much data as a study weakness was not an issue discussed in any of the reviewed papers. Based on these findings we suggest that journals adopt more stringent requirements for focus group method reporting. The often poor and inconsistent reporting seen in these

  20. Collective behavior in animal groups: theoretical models and empirical studies

    PubMed Central

    Giardina, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Collective phenomena in animal groups have attracted much attention in the last years, becoming one of the hottest topics in ethology. There are various reasons for this. On the one hand, animal grouping provides a paradigmatic example of self-organization, where collective behavior emerges in absence of centralized control. The mechanism of group formation, where local rules for the individuals lead to a coherent global state, is very general and transcends the detailed nature of its components. In this respect, collective animal behavior is a subject of great interdisciplinary interest. On the other hand, there are several important issues related to the biological function of grouping and its evolutionary success. Research in this field boasts a number of theoretical models, but much less empirical results to compare with. For this reason, even if the general mechanisms through which self-organization is achieved are qualitatively well understood, a quantitative test of the models assumptions is still lacking. New analysis on large groups, which require sophisticated technological procedures, can provide the necessary empirical data. PMID:19404431

  1. Polyimide characterization studies - Effect of pendant alkyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Young, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect on selected polyimide properties when pendant alkyl groups were attached to the polymer backbone was investigated. A series of polymers were prepared using benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) and seven different p-alkyl-m,p'-diaminobenzophenone monomers. The alkyl groups varied in length from C(1) (methyl) to C(9) (nonyl). The polyimide prepared from BTDA and m,p'-diaminobenzophenone was included as a control. All polymers were characterized by various chromatographic, spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical techniques. Increasing the length of the pendant alkyl group resulted in a systematic decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) for vacuum cured films. A 70 C decrease in Tg to 193 C was observed for the nonyl polymer compared to the Tg for the control. A corresponding systematic increase in Tg indicative of crosslinking, was observed for air cured films. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a slight sacrifice in thermal stability with increasing alkyl length. No improvement in film toughness was observed.

  2. Employee perceptions of diabetes education needs: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Felecia; Jacobson, Sharol

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this descriptive non-experimental research was to assess employee perceptions of desired diabetes education through focus groups. Thirteen employees of a southern university in three focus groups identified many standard and some emerging educational topics of interest including healthier food choices when eating out, increasing activity, deciding whether highly advertised "special" products for diabetes were necessary, and recognizing the importance of obesity among children. The employees were willing to attend group meetings related to diabetes, but not to pay for them. The information will be used to plan an intervention to promote diabetes prevention and self-management in a worksite environment where diabetes costs are rising rapidly, and to support the need for a university wellness program. Occupational health nurses can address both employees' needs and employers' costs through such a program.

  3. Student use of out-of-class study groups in an introductory undergraduate biology course.

    PubMed

    Rybczynski, Stephen M; Schussler, Elisabeth E

    2011-01-01

    Self-formed out-of-class study groups may benefit student learning; however, few researchers have quantified the relationship between study group use and achievement or described changes in study group usage patterns over a semester. We related study group use to performance on content exams, explored patterns of study group use, and qualitatively described student perceptions of study groups. A pre- and posttest were used to measure student content knowledge. Internet-based surveys were used to collect quantitative data on exam performance and qualitative data on study group usage trends and student perceptions of study groups. No relationship was found between gains in content knowledge and study group use. Students who participated in study groups did, however, believe they were beneficial. Four patterns of study group use were identified: students either always (14%) or never (55%) used study groups, tried but quit using them (22%), or utilized study groups only late in the semester (9%). Thematic analysis revealed preconceptions and in-class experiences influence student decisions to utilize study groups. We conclude that students require guidance in the successful use of study groups. Instructors can help students maximize study group success by making students aware of potential group composition problems, helping students choose group members who are compatible, and providing students materials on which to focus their study efforts.

  4. Student Use of Out-of-Class Study Groups in an Introductory Undergraduate Biology Course

    PubMed Central

    Rybczynski, Stephen M.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Self-formed out-of-class study groups may benefit student learning; however, few researchers have quantified the relationship between study group use and achievement or described changes in study group usage patterns over a semester. We related study group use to performance on content exams, explored patterns of study group use, and qualitatively described student perceptions of study groups. A pre- and posttest were used to measure student content knowledge. Internet-based surveys were used to collect quantitative data on exam performance and qualitative data on study group usage trends and student perceptions of study groups. No relationship was found between gains in content knowledge and study group use. Students who participated in study groups did, however, believe they were beneficial. Four patterns of study group use were identified: students either always (14%) or never (55%) used study groups, tried but quit using them (22%), or utilized study groups only late in the semester (9%). Thematic analysis revealed preconceptions and in-class experiences influence student decisions to utilize study groups. We conclude that students require guidance in the successful use of study groups. Instructors can help students maximize study group success by making students aware of potential group composition problems, helping students choose group members who are compatible, and providing students materials on which to focus their study efforts. PMID:21364102

  5. The Group Reading Inventory in the Social Studies Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henk, William A.; Helfeldt, John P.

    1985-01-01

    The Group Reading Inventory (GRI) is a reading evaluation tool that can survey an entire class of students at the same time. A testing sequence using GRI that allows teachers to identify the functional reading levels of most students in three short examination sessions is presented. (RM)

  6. Needs Assessment Among Diverse Groups: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pooler, Anne E.; Toner, James F.

    A Teacher Corps project to deliver staff development services focused on five educational settings: a correctional youth center, a high school, a junior high school, a youth group home consortium, and a college of education. It was felt that comparing the results of needs assessments conducted at each facility would enable useful analyses of…

  7. Six Immigrant Groups in Queens: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Geraldine S.

    This research report summarizes data on six new immigrant groups, Colombians, Italians, Greeks, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Israelis, living in the Borough of Queens in New York City. The research format consisted of a comprehensive interview administered to 116 households. Data on occupation, education, income, household composition,…

  8. Children Displaced by Hurricane Katrina: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Houston, J. Brian; Wyche, Karen Fraser; Van Horn, Richard L.; Reyes, Gilbert; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; North, Carol S.

    2008-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 23 children and adolescents, aged 9 to 17 years, who relocated from Louisiana to Texas following Hurricane Katrina to explore their disaster, evacuation, and resettlement experiences. The resilience described by some was remarkable and, despite evidence of cultural disparity and stigma, many identified positive…

  9. Enhancing Student Engagement: A Group Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taneja, Aakash

    2014-01-01

    Computing professionals work in groups and collaborate with individuals having diverse backgrounds and behaviors. The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) characterizes that a computing program must enable students to attain the ability to analyze a problem, design and evaluate a solution, and work effectively on teams to…

  10. Needs Assessment Among Diverse Groups: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pooler, Anne E.; Toner, James F.

    A Teacher Corps project to deliver staff development services focused on five educational settings: a correctional youth center, a high school, a junior high school, a youth group home consortium, and a college of education. It was felt that comparing the results of needs assessments conducted at each facility would enable useful analyses of…

  11. Pilot Study of Four Selected Groups of Parolees, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garay, Bert; And Others

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Vocational Rehabilitation Programs of the Adult Correctional Facilities of the State of Washington, four groups of parolees were reviewed to determine their successful adjustment 18 months after parole. The Adult Correctional Facilities offer training in a variety of vocations, including the following: auto…

  12. Enhancing Student Engagement: A Group Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taneja, Aakash

    2014-01-01

    Computing professionals work in groups and collaborate with individuals having diverse backgrounds and behaviors. The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) characterizes that a computing program must enable students to attain the ability to analyze a problem, design and evaluate a solution, and work effectively on teams to…

  13. Multilevel Mediation Modeling in Group-Based Intervention Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Jennifer L.; MacKinnon, David P.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes and evaluates a method to test for mediation in multilevel data sets formed when an intervention administered to groups is designed to produce change in individual mediator and outcome variables. Applies the method to the ATLAS intervention designed to decrease steroid use among high school football players. (SLD)

  14. Children Displaced by Hurricane Katrina: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Houston, J. Brian; Wyche, Karen Fraser; Van Horn, Richard L.; Reyes, Gilbert; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; North, Carol S.

    2008-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 23 children and adolescents, aged 9 to 17 years, who relocated from Louisiana to Texas following Hurricane Katrina to explore their disaster, evacuation, and resettlement experiences. The resilience described by some was remarkable and, despite evidence of cultural disparity and stigma, many identified positive…

  15. Adolescent Perceptions of Problematic Heterosocial Situations: A Focus Group Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Rachel L.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a taxonomy of teen-identified problematic heterosocial situations through 10 same-sex focus groups involving 58 adolescents. Results suggest the importance of romantic relationships in the lives of participating adolescents and show the range of situations identified in addition to dating. (SLD)

  16. A Photometric Study of Phocaea Group Asteroid 1584 Fuji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, J. S.

    2004-05-01

    Observations of Phocaea group asteroid 1584 Fuji with the 31-inch telescope at Lowell Observatory in Arizona and the 24-inch telescope at Britton Observatory at Dickinson College in Pennsylvania from 31 January 2004 to 28 February 2004 indicate a sinusoidal lightcurve with a period of 14.89 ± 0.01 hours, in conflict with published results. Reduction of these data to a standard magnitude system indicate a V-band amplitude of 0.13 ± 0.02 magnitudes, further diverging from the accepted value. Application of the IAU Two-Parameter magnitude system for asteroids permits an estimation of the body's diameter. I compare these parameters with those published for Fuji's companions in the Phocaea group, other S-type objects in the main belt, and asteroids of similar size throughout the Solar System. I thank Dickinson College and the Arizona Space Grant Consortium for their financial support.

  17. Renormalization-group study of the four-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Richard; Moroz, Sergej

    2010-05-15

    We perform a renormalization-group analysis of the nonrelativistic four-boson problem by means of a simple model with pointlike three- and four-body interactions. We investigate in particular the region where the scattering length is infinite and all energies are close to the atom threshold. We find that the four-body problem behaves truly universally, independent of any four-body parameter. Our findings confirm the recent conjectures of others that the four-body problem is universal, now also from a renormalization-group perspective. We calculate the corresponding relations between the four- and three-body bound states, as well as the full bound-state spectrum and comment on the influence of effective range corrections.

  18. Women's decision making at menopause - a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Alfred, Ann; Esterman, Adrian; Farmer, Elizabeth; Pilotto, Louis; Weston, Kathryn

    2006-04-01

    Women are faced with a confusion of information and uncertainty when making decisions at menopause. We conducted four focus groups of 31 women aged 40-64 years, exploring their experience and views about menopause, its management, and decision support needs. Focus group participants saw menopause as a natural progression rather than a medical condition, and decision making about therapies as a personal responsibility. They wanted reliable, agenda free information, and opportunities to discuss personal needs with (preferably female) health professionals. They preferred minimal intervention and found life style strategies helpful. Women's preference to make their own decisions at menopause is frustrated by conflicting information and the perceived marketing agenda of information sources. Women need unbiased, timely, menopause information backed by expert commentary in a range of media to suit their access needs.

  19. Final Report of the West Point Study Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-27

    effectively in the basic langu- ages of daily life-standard Eglish and scientific language . Likewise, an Academy education should emphasize the...behavioral sciences, language , and the humanities. This required grouping of courses is designed to estab- lish a foundation in the mathematical and...longer term will provide stability and continuity of policy and contribute to academic excellence. (p. 39) 2. Change the function of the Academic Board

  20. Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Susan G.; Morrow, Emma; van Vreeswijk, Michiel; Reid, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders (ST-E-g) in a case series of eight participants with chronic eating disorders and high levels of co-morbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, experiential, and interpersonal strategies, with an emphasis on behavioral change. Specific schema-based strategies focused on bodily felt-sense and body-image, as well as emotional regulation skills. Six attended until end of treatment, two dropped-out at mid-treatment. Eating disorder severity, global schema severity, shame, and anxiety levels were reduced between pre- and post-therapy, with a large effect size at follow-up. Clinically significant improvement in eating severity was found in four out of six completers. Group completers showed a mean reduction in schema severity of 43% at post-treatment, and 59% at follow-up. By follow-up, all completers had achieved over 60% improvement in schema severity. Self-report feedback suggests that group factors may catalyze the change process in schema therapy by increasing perceptions of support and encouragement to take risks and try out new behaviors, whilst providing a de-stigmatizing and de-shaming therapeutic experience. PMID:21833243

  1. Perspectives on colorectal cancer screening: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Vivek; Gray, Ross; Chart, Pam; Fitch, Marg; Saibil, Fred; Zdanowicz, Yola

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To assess attitudes and acceptability of Ontario consumers and doctors towards colorectal screening with faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and colonoscopy. Design, setting and participants  Focus groups with gender‐specific samples of the population, high‐risk gastroenterology patients and family doctors. Method  Semi‐structured interview guides used by facilitator to lead groups through knowledge of risk factors and prevention of colorectal cancer, the screening modalities, requirements for implementing screening programmes, barriers to screening and preferences towards screening. Main findings  There were low levels of knowledge about colorectal cancer and its prevention in the general population. FOBT was an acceptable screening modality, but considerable education about its use and benefits would be necessary to implement a screening programme. Colonoscopy was not perceived to be a good choice for a primary screen in the general population. The high‐risk group supported use of FOBT in the general population and emphasized the need for education. The doctors were more reluctant about screening, requesting clear guidelines. They also identified the time and resources that would be required if a screening programme were initiated. Conclusion  While colorectal screening is acceptable in this sample, information and decision aids are required to enable consumers and providers to make effective decisions. Implementation of colorectal screening programmes requires substantial educational efforts for both consumers and doctors. PMID:14982499

  2. Pattern of susceptibility to measles in Italy. Serological Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Salmaso, S.; Gabutti, G.; Rota, M. C.; Giordano, C.; Penna, C.; Mandolini, D.; Crovari, P.

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of seroprevalence and incidence data we describe the distribution of individuals susceptible and immune to measles in Italy in 1996-97. In regions where vaccination coverage was at least 70%, approximately 10% of 3-year-old children were susceptible to measles, whereas 40% were in this category in regions with lower vaccination coverage. Seroprevalence among children older than 4 years was similar for the two groups of regions; in the age group 20-39 years it was approximately 95%. During 1990-96 in the regions with lower vaccination coverage the incidence was highest among children aged 4-6 years, and the median age of cases was 7 years; in the regions with higher vaccination coverage, however, the incidence remained at around 5% for the age group 4-16 years, and the overall median age was 10 years. These data confirm the partial reduction in measles incidence in Italy, although transmission has still not been interrupted. The size and geographical distribution of the current pool of susceptible individuals can be expected to present an obstacle to measles elimination if appropriate vaccination strategies, such as catch-up campaigns, are not adopted. PMID:10994277

  3. ABO blood groups in oral cancer: a first case-control study in a defined group of Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Hajian, Shima; Fadavi, Elnaz; Sabour, Siamak; Baharvand, Maryam; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh

    2014-01-01

    The ABO blood group has been recently proposed to influence development of oral cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the type of ABO blood group and oral cancer. In a case-control study, 104 patients with oral cancer were compared with 90 blood donors without cancer as controls. Data regarding the patient demographics, blood groups, Rh status, cancer characteristics and oral habits were also compared between two subgroups of squamous and non-squamous oral cancers. For statistical analysis, Chi-square test, t-student Test and Logistic Regression were used to analyze the relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer. The frequency of blood group B was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than controls (32% vs 13%) (p value=0.01), but Rh factor did not show significant difference between cases and controls. According to Logistic Regression, people with blood group B and those older than 50 had 3.5 and 19.4 times elevated risk of developing oral cancer, respectively. The frequency of squamous cell cancer was also significantly higher in men and people older than 50. On the other hand, females, people under 50, and those with blood group B were at 5.6, 2.9 and 4.3 times higher risk of developing non-squamous cell oral cancer,respectively. People with blood group B are at a greater risk of developing oral cancer, and female patients under 50 years of age with blood group B have the highest risk to develop non-squamous cell oral cancer.

  4. The history and future of the Urologic Oncology Study Group (UOSG) of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG).

    PubMed

    Tobisu, Kenichi

    2012-05-01

    The Urologic Oncology Study Group (UOSG) of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group was founded in 2001. At the beginning, 41 collaborative institutions participated, and the first group representative was Kenichi Tobisu, from the Shizuoka Cancer Center. In the last 10 years, three JCOG studies have been conducted. In two of them, patient registration has been closed and they are now in the follow-up period. The third study has just started registration in 2011. At present, we have not yet completed the final data analyses in any of the studies. In the meantime, however, we have performed a few retrospective analyses by collecting clinical data from each of the participating institutions, and the results were published as important Japanese data. All the activities of the investigation were supported by the Health and Labor Sciences Research Grants for Clinical Research in Japan. The UOSG encountered great difficulties in planning the prospective study, completing the sophisticated protocol and recruiting the expected number of patients. It usually took a longer time than expected to achieve the final goal. This was probably due to insufficient experience in conducting sophisticated protocol studies and immaturity in managing a study group. Now, the UOSG consists of 38 institutions and is gradually overcoming these problems. In 2011, the UOSG changed its group representative to Yoshiyuki Kakehi from Kagawa University and continues to strive to meet the challenge of becoming a more active group. In this review, we provide an overview of the history and achievements of the UOSG over the past 10 years, along with a list of participating institutions.

  5. NASBE Study Group Surveys State Leadership Development Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Bobbi; Hull, Robert

    2015-01-01

    State board members, working in partnership with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted an in-depth study of states' school leadership development policies and practices. Data from this study are being analyzed to determine ways that states can create systems and structures for…

  6. In-Depth Cultural Studies in Multicultural Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silina-Jasjukevica, Gunta; Briška, Ilze

    2016-01-01

    There is much research and educational practices at all levels of education on how to deal with promoting acceptance and understanding between different cultures. A cultural study forms an important part of shaping intercultural understanding. "The aim" of the research is to analyze an innovative way of incorporating cultural studies in…

  7. In-Depth Cultural Studies in Multicultural Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silina-Jasjukevica, Gunta; Briška, Ilze

    2016-01-01

    There is much research and educational practices at all levels of education on how to deal with promoting acceptance and understanding between different cultures. A cultural study forms an important part of shaping intercultural understanding. "The aim" of the research is to analyze an innovative way of incorporating cultural studies in…

  8. The effects of group 1 versus group 2 carbapenems on imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Yehuda; Lidji, Shiri Klarfeld; Shabtai, Esther; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Schwaber, Mitchell J

    2011-07-01

    Use of the group 2 carbapenems, imipenem and meropenem, may lead to emergence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance. The group 1 carbapenem ertapenem has limited activity against P. aeruginosa and is not associated with imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (IMP-R PA) in vitro. This retrospective, group-level, longitudinal study collected patient, antibiotic use, and resistance data from 2001 to 2005 using a hospital database containing information on 9 medical wards. A longitudinal data time series analysis was done to evaluate the association between carbapenem use (defined daily doses, or DDDs) and IMP-R PA. A total of 139 185 patient admissions were included, with 541 150 antibiotics DDDs prescribed: 4637 DDDs of group 2 carbapenems and 2130 DDDs of ertapenem. A total of 779 IMP-R PA were isolated (5.6 cases/1000 admissions). Univariate analysis found a higher incidence of IMP-R PA with group 2 carbapenems (P < 0.001), aminoglycosides (P = 0.034), and penicillins (P = 0.05), but not with ertapenem. Multivariate analysis showed a yearly increase in incidence of IMP-R-PA (3.8%, P < 0.001). Group 2 carbapenem use was highly associated with IMP-R PA, with a 20% increase in incidence (P = 0.0014) for each 100 DDDs. Group 2 carbapenem use tended to be associated with an increased proportion of IMP-R PA (P = 0.0625) in multivariate analysis. Ertapenem was not associated with IMP-R PA. These data would support preferentially prescribing ertapenem rather than group 2 carbapenems where clinically appropriate.

  9. Outcomes of Group Care for Youth: A Review of Comparative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bethany R.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Svoboda, Deborah V.; Fakunmoju, Sunday; Barth, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review empirical evidence of the effects of placement in group care compared to other interventions. Method: Two-group empirical studies were identified and effect sizes for all reported outcomes were calculated. Results: Nineteen two-group studies were found that compared group care with family foster…

  10. Outcomes of Group Care for Youth: A Review of Comparative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bethany R.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Svoboda, Deborah V.; Fakunmoju, Sunday; Barth, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review empirical evidence of the effects of placement in group care compared to other interventions. Method: Two-group empirical studies were identified and effect sizes for all reported outcomes were calculated. Results: Nineteen two-group studies were found that compared group care with family foster…

  11. Medical Student Perspectives of Active Learning: A Focus Group Study.

    PubMed

    Walling, Anne; Istas, Kathryn; Bonaminio, Giulia A; Paolo, Anthony M; Fontes, Joseph D; Davis, Nancy; Berardo, Benito A

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Medical student perspectives were sought about active learning, including concerns, challenges, perceived advantages and disadvantages, and appropriate role in the educational process. Focus groups were conducted with students from all years and campuses of a large U.S. state medical school. Students had considerable experience with active learning prior to medical school and conveyed accurate understanding of the concept and its major strategies. They appreciated the potential of active learning to deepen and broaden learning and its value for long-term professional development but had significant concerns about the efficiency of the process, the clarity of expectations provided, and the importance of receiving preparatory materials. Most significantly, active learning experiences were perceived as disconnected from grading and even as impeding preparation for school and national examinations. Insights: Medical students understand the concepts of active learning and have considerable experience in several formats prior to medical school. They are generally supportive of active learning concepts but frustrated by perceived inefficiencies and lack of contribution to the urgencies of achieving optimal grades and passing United States Medical Licensing Examinations, especially Step 1.

  12. DFT study of glycosyl group reactivity in quercetin derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeevitha, D.; Sadasivam, K.; Praveena, R.; Jayaprakasam, R.

    2016-09-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is used to compute relevant electronic properties with the purpose of generating precise information which facilitates the best activity given by the positions of glycosyl group attached at all 3 different rings of quercetin such as Q3G (C- ring), Q7G (A-ring) and Q3‧G (B-ring). Computed values of the OH BDE, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), Density of states (DOS,PDOS,OPDOS) and electronic properties such as electron affinity (EA), ionization potential (IP), softness (S), hardness (η), electronegativity (χ) and electrophilic index (ω) indicate that the title compounds possess good radical scavenging activity. Charge delocalization and intramolecular hydrogen bonds are characterized using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. NBO accurately differentiate the weak and strong intramolecular hydrogen bond of quercetin-O-glycoside compounds. Results available from the computational investigation have proved that A-ring glycoside of quercetin is capable of donating electrons and acts as a good anti-oxidant than B-ring glycoside and C-ring glycoside of quercetin.

  13. Functional renormalization group studies of nuclear and neutron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Matthias; Weise, Wolfram

    2017-03-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) methods applied to calculations of isospin-symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter as well as neutron matter are reviewed. The approach is based on a chiral Lagrangian expressed in terms of nucleon and meson degrees of freedom as appropriate for the hadronic phase of QCD with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. Fluctuations beyond mean-field approximation are treated solving Wetterich's FRG flow equations. Nuclear thermodynamics and the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition are investigated in detail, both in symmetric matter and as a function of the proton fraction in asymmetric matter. The equations of state at zero temperature of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are found to be in good agreement with advanced ab-initio many-body computations. Contacts with perturbative many-body approaches (in-medium chiral perturbation theory) are discussed. As an interesting test case, the density dependence of the pion mass in the medium is investigated. The question of chiral symmetry restoration in nuclear and neutron matter is addressed. A stabilization of the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry is found to persist up to high baryon densities once fluctuations beyond mean-field are included. Neutron star matter including beta equilibrium is discussed under the aspect of the constraints imposed by the existence of two-solar-mass neutron stars.

  14. Renormalization group studies of many-body localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, Ehud

    2015-03-01

    Quantum correlations do not usually persist for long in systems at finite energy density and disappear once the system thermalizes. But many-body localization offers an alternative paradigm, whereby quantum matter can evade the usual fate of thermal equilibrium and retain retrievable quantum correlations even at high energies. I will survey a dynamical renormalization group (RG) approach used to characterize the novel dynamics and entanglement structures, which develop in the localized phase in lieu of classical thermalization. Then I will present a theory of the transition between the ergodic and the many-body localized phase based on a novel RG framework. Here eigenstate entanglement entropy emerges as a natural scaling variable; the RG describes a change from area-law to volume law entanglement through an intriguing critical point, where the distribution of entanglement entropy becomes maximally broad. The ergodic phase established near the critical point is a Griffiths phase, which exhibits sub-diffusive energy transport and sub-ballistic entanglement propagation. The anomalous diffusion exponent vanishes continuously at the critical point. Before closing I will discuss recent progress in confronting the emerging theoretical understanding of many-body localization with experimental tests. This research is supported in part by the ERC synergy grant UQUAM.

  15. Transactions in a support group meeting: a case study.

    PubMed

    Algazi, L P

    2000-04-01

    Following bariatric surgery, the inclusion of a support group as part of the treatment plan makes after-care easier and more efficient for the patients, as well as for the physicians. The following is presented for the education of the medical community. It represents one exemplary session which incorporates the elements necessary for effective after-care: 1. Encouragement for compliance and praise for success. 2. Education about life-after-surgery, including nutrition, exercise and dieting techniques. 3. Identification of problems. 4. Identification and development of new kinds of self-nurturing. 5. Participation in a forum where others really "understand" the challenges and difficulties associated with "change," even when the change is for the better. 6. Creation of a "safe harbor" where patients can bring spouses, parents and significant others so that they may also understand, encourage continuing success, and recognize their own personal issues related to the major changes that they are also experiencing with their loved one. 7. Opportunity for curious potential patients in the community to come and learn from the "experts" in an atmosphere of true caring and concern.

  16. Recommendations for reporting economic evaluations of haemophilia prophylaxis: a nominal groups consensus statement on behalf of the Economics Expert Working Group of The International Prophylaxis Study Group.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, A; Berger, K; Bohn, R; Carcao, M; Fischer, K; Gringeri, A; Hoots, K; Mantovani, L; Schramm, W; van Hout, B A; Willan, A R; Feldman, B M

    2008-01-01

    The need for clearly reported studies evaluating the cost of prophylaxis and its overall outcomes has been recommended from previous literature. To establish minimal ''core standards'' that can be followed when conducting and reporting economic evaluations of hemophilia prophylaxis. Ten members of the IPSG Economic Analysis Working Group participated in a consensus process using the Nominal Groups Technique (NGT). The following topics relating to the economic analysis of prophylaxis studies were addressed; Whose perspective should be taken? Which is the best methodological approach? Is micro- or macro-costing the best costing strategy? What information must be presented about costs and outcomes in order to facilitate local and international interpretation? The group suggests studies on the economic impact of prophylaxis should be viewed from a societal perspective and be reported using a Cost Utility Analysis (CUA) (with consideration of also reporting Cost Benefit Analysis [CBA]). All costs that exceed $500 should be used to measure the costs of prophylaxis (macro strategy) including items such as clotting factor costs, hospitalizations, surgical procedures, productivity loss and number of days lost from school or work. Generic and disease specific quality of lífe and utility measures should be used to report the outcomes of the study. The IPSG has suggested minimal core standards to be applied to the reporting of economic evaluations of hemophilia prophylaxis. Standardized reporting will facilitate the comparison of studies and will allow for more rational policy decisions and treatment choices.

  17. Structure and function studies on enzymes with a catalytic carboxyl group(s): from ribonuclease T1 to carboxyl peptidases

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    A group of enzymes, mostly hydrolases or certain transferases, utilize one or a few side-chain carboxyl groups of Asp and/or Glu as part of the catalytic machinery at their active sites. This review follows mainly the trail of studies performed by the author and his colleagues on the structure and function of such enzymes, starting from ribonuclease T1, then extending to three major types of carboxyl peptidases including aspartic peptidases, glutamic peptidases and serine-carboxyl peptidases. PMID:23759941

  18. Consumers' preferences for fresh yam: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Barlagne, Carla; Cornet, Denis; Blazy, Jean-Marc; Diman, Jean-Louis; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry

    2017-01-01

    In West and Central Africa and in the Caribbean, yam is one of the most important sources of carbohydrates and has a great potential to improve food security. The yam production sector is, however, now challenged by the satisfaction of evolving consumers' preferences. Since little is known about consumers' preferences regarding yams' characteristics, product quality, and the drivers of yam purchase, six focus group discussions were conducted (for a total of 31 participants). Among the purchasing criteria, price was considered more important than the others. It was followed by the external damage, the origin, and the size of the tuber. The most frequently cited consumption criteria were the taste, the texture, and color of flesh after cooking. Taste was considered more important than the other criteria. Three consumers' profiles were established reflecting heterogeneity in preferences, especially as concerns the willingness to pay for yam and consumption habits. They were designated as the Hedonistic, the Thrifty and the Flexible. Our results suggest that innovations can be implemented to sustain and stimulate the development of the yam sector in Guadeloupe. Two main development paths were identified. The first path is the valorization of the great existing diversity of yam varieties and the increase in the level of information for consumers about product attributes such as the cooking mode, the origin, and the mode of production. Building a marketing strategy based on the valorization of this diversity can help maintain and preserve yam's agro-biodiversity and the satisfaction of rapidly evolving consumption habits. The second path is the definition of yam ideotypes that suit consumers' needs. We expect that tailoring the production to consumers' needs will have a positive impact on global food security in the Caribbean region.

  19. Using Online Study Groups to Prepare Police Promotional Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Bonnie L.

    2013-01-01

    Quality policing requires selecting and retaining the best and the brightest officers and supporting their advancement into the leadership ranks of police organizations. This study investigates two aspects of police promotional testing: identifying and understanding the barriers to participation in the promotional process and the use of online…

  20. A Phenomenological Study of an Indonesian Cohort Group's Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budiraharjo, Markus

    2013-01-01

    This study was set to investigate how a cohort of ten Indonesian teachers experienced transformations in their teaching professionalism upon receiving an assignment of instructional leadership training to other school leaders. These ten teachers, who came from three different Indonesian Jesuit high schools and one archdiocese-based educational…

  1. Teacher Study Groups: Toward a Model of Differentiated Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox-Mallory, Michelle Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    While there is extensive research related to the study of high-quality professional development, the research shows that there is limited evidence to indicate that teachers are provided with this type of professional development on a consistent, ongoing basis. The research also suggests that there is a lack of adequate evidence to show that…

  2. Using Online Study Groups to Prepare Police Promotional Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Bonnie L.

    2013-01-01

    Quality policing requires selecting and retaining the best and the brightest officers and supporting their advancement into the leadership ranks of police organizations. This study investigates two aspects of police promotional testing: identifying and understanding the barriers to participation in the promotional process and the use of online…

  3. Final Recommendations of the Community College Financing Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cade, John A.; Heller, Henry B.

    This report presents findings and recommendations from a study conducted by the Maryland General Assembly examining options for increasing state formula aid and changing the distribution of aid to the state's 18 community colleges. Following a letter of transmittal providing background information on community college financing, the report…

  4. Report of the APS Neutrino Study Reactor Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Abouzaid, E.; Anderson, K.; Barenboim, G.; Berger, B.; Blucher, E.; Bolton, T.; Choubey, S.; Conrad, J.; Formaggio, J.; Freedman, S.; Finely, D.; Fisher, P.; Fujikawa, B.; Gai, M.; Goodman, M.; de Goueva, A.; Hadley, N.; Hahn, R.; Horton-Smith, G.; Kadel, R.; Kayser, B.; Heeger, K.; Klein, J.; Learned, J.; Lindner, M.; Link, J.; Luk, K.-B.; McKeown, R.; Mocioiu, I.; Mohapatra, R.; Naples, D.; Peng, J.; Petcov, S.; Pilcher, J.; Rapidis, P.; Reyna, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Stanton, N.; Stefanski, R.; Yamamoto, R.; Worcester, M.

    2004-10-28

    The worldwide program to understand neutrino oscillations and determine the neutrino mixing parameters, CP violating effects, and mass hierarchy will require a broad combination of measurements. The group believes that a key element of this future neutrino program is a multi-detector neutrino experiment (with baselines of {approx} 200 m and {approx} 1.5 km) with a sensitivity of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} = 0.01. In addition to oscillation physics, the reactor experiment may provide interesting measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} at Q{sup 2} = 0, neutrino couplings, magnetic moments, and mixing with sterile neutrino states. {theta}{sub 13} is one of the twenty-six parameters of the standard model, the best model of electroweak interactions for energies below 100 GeV and, as such, is worthy of a precision measurement independent of other considerations. A reactor experiment of the proposed sensitivity will allow a measurement of {theta}{sub 13} with no ambiguities and significantly better precision than any other proposed experiment, or will set limits indicating the scale of future experiments required to make progress. Figure 1 shows a comparison of the sensitivity of reactor experiments of different scales with accelerator experiments for setting limits on sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the mixing angle is very small, or for making a measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the angle is observable. A reactor experiment with a 1% precision may also resolve the degeneracy in the {theta}{sub 23} parameter when combined with long-baseline accelerator experiments. In combination with long-baseline measurements, a reactor experiment may give early indications of CP violation and the mass hierarchy. The combination of the T2K and Nova long-baseline experiments will be able to make significant measurements of these effects if sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.05 and with enhanced beam rates can improve their reach to the sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.02 level

  5. The Women’s Recovery Group Study: A Stage I trial of women-focused group therapy for substance use disorders versus mixed-gender group drug counseling

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Shelly F.; Trucco, Elisa M.; McHugh, R. Kathryn; Lincoln, Melissa; Gallop, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this Stage I Behavioral Development Trial was to develop a manual-based 12-session Women’s Recovery Group (WRG) and to pilot test this new treatment in a randomized controlled trial against a mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC), an effective manual-based treatment for substance use disorders. After initial manual development, two pre-pilot groups of WRG were conducted to determine feasibility and initial acceptability of the treatment among subjects and therapists. In the pilot stage, women were randomized to either WRG or GDC. No significant differences in substance use outcomes were found between WRG and GDC during the 12-week group treatment. However, during the 6-month post-treatment follow-up, WRG members demonstrated a pattern of continued reductions in substance use while GDC women did not. In addition, pilot WRG women with alcohol dependence had significantly greater reductions in average drinks/drinking day than GDC women 6 months post-treatment (p < .03, effect size = 0.81). While satisfaction with both groups was high, women were significantly more satisfied with WRG than GDC (p < .009, effect size = 1.11). In this study, the newly developed 12-session women-focused WRG was feasible with high satisfaction among participants. It was equally effective as mixed-gender GDC in reducing substance use during the 12-week in-treatment phase, but demonstrated significantly greater improvement in reductions in drug and alcohol use over the post-treatment follow-up phase compared with GDC. A women-focused single-gender group treatment may enhance longer-term clinical outcomes among women with substance use disorders. PMID:17446014

  6. Flare build-up study - Homologous flares group. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martres, M.-J.; Mein, N.; Mouradian, Z.; Rayrole, J.; Schmieder, B.; Simon, G.; Soru-Escaut, I.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Solar Maximum Mission observations have been used to study the origin and amount of energy, mechanism of storage and release, and conditions for the occurrence of solar flares, and some results of these studies as they pertain to homologous flares are briefly discussed. It was found that every set of flares produced 'rafales' of homologous flares, i.e., two, three, four, or more flares separated in time by an hour or less. No great changes in macroscopic photospheric patterns were observed during these flaring periods. A quantitative brightness parameter of the relation between homologous flares is defined. Scale changes detected in the dynamic spectrum of flare sites are in good agreement with a theoretical suggestion by Sturrock. Statistical results for different homologous flare active regions show the existence in homologous flaring areas of a 'pivot' of previous filaments interpreted as a signature of an anomaly in the solar rotation.

  7. The Saginaw Teacher Study Group Movement: From Pilot to Districtwide Study Groups in Four Years. National Writing Project at Work. Volume 1, Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Mary K.; Calliari, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This monograph covers the Saginaw Teacher Study Group Movement from its inception in 1996 through its expansion to include the overwhelming majority of Saginaw teachers in 1999-2001. Since 1996, classroom teachers in Saginaw have been volunteering for study groups addressing the learning and teaching of students in poverty. In the first half of…

  8. Exploratory Studies on the Effects of a Career Exploration Group for Urban Chinese Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.; Lee, Sarah J.; Pituc, Stephanie T.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies evaluating a school-based, culturally responsive career exploration and assessment group for low-income, urban Chinese immigrant youth are described. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods compared the treatment (CEDAR group) versus the control group (no intervention). In Study 1, CEDAR group participants reported a significant…

  9. Studies of an artificially shock-loaded H group chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, D. W.; Ashworth, J. R.; Broadbent, C. P.; Bevan, A. W. R.

    1984-01-01

    SEM and TEM, together with thermoluminescence (TL), are used to study five samples of the naturally unshocked Kernouve (H6) meteorite that were shock-loaded to pressures of 70, 165, 270, and 390 kbar. Attention is given to olivine and orthopyroxene deformation mechanisms at these pressure levels. The microhardness of the kamacite in the samples increases with shock pressure, and it is noted that annealed kamacite displays incipient crystallinity, while alpha-martensite and taenite sometimes contain slip lines. At pressures over 200 kbar, there was a systematic decrease in both natural TL and TL sensitivity. Changes in the ratio of these two values for various regions of the TL glow curve suggest that two processes were effective during shock: thermal drainage of electron traps and a reduction in the effective trap density. Thermal effects with widespread annealing are noted in the case of a sample subjected to shock pulse.

  10. Studies on a new group of biodegradable surfactants for glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Haefs, Roland; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela; Mainx, Hans-G; Mittelstaedt, Werner; Noga, Georg

    2002-08-01

    The effectiveness of a homologous series of biodegradable rapeseed oil derivatives (triglyceride ethoxylates; Agnique RSO series containing an average of 5, 10, 30 and 60 units of ethylene oxide (EO) as adjuvants for foliage-applied, water-soluble, systemic active ingredients was evaluated employing glyphosate as an example. Previous experiments had revealed that the surfactants used are not phytotoxic at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 g litre-1. The experiments were performed using Phaseolus vulgaris L and nine selected weed species, grown in a growth chamber at 25/20 (+/- 2) degrees C day/night temperature and 40/70 (+/- 10)% relative humidity. The surfactants were evaluated for enhancement of spray retention, and foliar penetration biological efficacy of glyphosate. Glyphosate was applied at a concentration of 43 mM. The surfactants were added at concentrations of 1 g litre-1. The commercial glyphosate 360 g AE litre-1 SL Roundup Ultra and unformulated glyphosate served as references. The surfactants used improved spray retention, foliar penetration and biological efficacy. Some of the formulations were comparable to the performance of Roundup Ultra in the aspects evaluated; some were even more effective in enhancing spray liquid retention and promoting glyphosate phytotoxicity in several plant species. In these studies Agnique RSO 60 generally was most effective.

  11. Pilot study of the Korean Parent Training Program using a partial group randomized experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin; Boutain, Doris; Chun, Jin-Joo; Kim, Sangho; Im, Hyesang

    2017-01-01

    Problems Korean American (KA) children experience mental health problems due to difficulties in parenting dysfunction complicated by living in two cultures. Methods Korean Parent Training Program (KPTP) was pilot tested with 48 KA mothers of children (ages 3–8) using partial group randomized controlled experimental study design. Self-report survey and observation data were gathered. Findings Analyses using generalized estimating equation indicated the intervention group mothers increased effective parenting and their children decreased behavior problems and reported less acculturation conflict with mothers. Conclusions The KPTP is a promising way to promote effective parenting and increase positive child mental health in KA families. PMID:24645901

  12. Peer group status of gender dysphoric children: a sociometric study.

    PubMed

    Wallien, Madeleine S C; Veenstra, René; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2010-04-01

    In this sociometric study, we aimed to investigate the social position of gender-referred children in a naturalistic environment. We used a peer nomination technique to examine their social position in the class and we specifically examined bullying and victimization of gender dysphoric children. A total of 28 children (14 boys and 14 girls), referred to a gender identity clinic, and their classmates (n = 495) were included (M age, 10.5 years). Results showed that the gender-referred children had a peer network of children of the opposite sex. Gender-referred boys had more nominations on peer acceptance from female classmates and less from male classmates as compared to other male classmates. Gender-referred girls were more accepted by male than by female classmates and these girls had significantly more male friends and less female friends. Male classmates rejected gender-referred boys more than other boys, whereas female classmates did not reject the gender-referred girls. For bullying and victimization, we did not find any significant differences between the gender-referred boys and their male classmates nor between the gender-referred girls and their female classmates. In sum, at elementary school age, the relationships of gender dysphoric children with opposite-sex children appeared to be better than with same-sex children. The social position of gender-referred boys was less favorable than that of gender-referred girls. However, the gender-referred children were not more often bullied than other children, despite their gender nonconforming behavior.

  13. Infrared spectroscopy and theoretical studies of group IV molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Eric

    This research involved the formation of novel molecules, and the first observation of infrared active modes and infrared active combination bands of already discovered molecules. The molecules were produced by the laser evaporation of germanium, germanium-carbon, and carbons rod previously sintered in a new built vacuum furnace. The infrared spectra were taken using Bomem FTIR spectrometer with an interface infrared optics toward the formation chamber. These molecules were theoretically simulated using commercial quantum chemistry suites of programs and homemade codes. The linear GeC5Ge germanium-carbon chain has been detected for the first time through the dual laser evaporation of graphite and germanium, the nu4(sigmau) vibrational fundamental was observed at 2158.0 cm-1. Two new vibrational fundamentals of linear GeC3Ge, nu 4(sigma4 = 735.3 cm-1 and nu6(sigma u) = 580.1 cm-1, have been observed. This is apparently the first observation of germanium isotopic shifts in vibrational spectra. Linear GeC3 has been formed by the dual laser ablation of germanium and carbon rods and by single laser ablation of a sintered germanium-carbon rod, and trapped in Ar matrices. Two vibrational fundamentals of linear GeC 3 nu1(sigma) = 1903.9 cm-1 and nu 2(sigma) = 1279.6 cm-1, have been observed. In the present work there is no spectroscopic evidence of cyclic structures for GeC 3 with either the transannular Ge-C or C-C bond although at the coupled cluster level of theory they are both predicted to be ˜7-9 kcal/mol lower in energy than the linear isomer. This result suggests a need for further theoretical studies of GeC3 to see if the cyclic isomers are indeed more stable than the linear. New combination bands of carbon chains have been observed, (nu 1+nu4) = 3388.8 cm-1 of linear C5 and (nu2+nu7) = 3471.8 cm-1 of linear C9. Since the asymmetric stretching1 modes involved in these absorptions have been measured previously it has been possible to assign the infrared inactive

  14. Attitudes of Older Adults in a Group-Based Exercise Program Toward a Blended Intervention; A Focus-Group Study.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Sumit; Dadema, Tessa; Kröse, Ben J A; Visser, Bart; Engelbert, Raoul H H; Van Den Helder, Jantine; Weijs, Peter J M

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety, and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living.

  15. Attitudes of Older Adults in a Group-Based Exercise Program Toward a Blended Intervention; A Focus-Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Sumit; Dadema, Tessa; Kröse, Ben J. A.; Visser, Bart; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.; Van Den Helder, Jantine; Weijs, Peter J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety, and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living. PMID:27920744

  16. "It's not like a fat camp" - A focus group study of adolescents' experiences on group-based obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Engström, Anna; Abildsnes, Eirik; Mildestvedt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The health burden related to obesity is rising among children and adolescents along with the general population worldwide. For the individual as well as the society this trend is alarming. Several factors are driving the trend, and the solution seems to be multifaceted because long-lasting treatment alternatives are lacking. This study aims to explore adolescents' and young adults' motivation for attending group-based obesity treatment and social and environmental factors that can facilitate or hinder lifestyle change. In this study, we arranged three focus groups with 17 participants from different obesity treatment programs in the west and south of Norway. The content in these programs differed, but they all used Motivational Interviewing as a teaching method. We conducted a data-driven analysis using systematic text condensation. Self-determination theory has been used as an explanatory framework. We identified four major themes: 1) motivation, 2) body experience and self-image, 3) relationships and sense of belonging, and 4) the road ahead. Many of the participants expressed external motivation to participate but experienced increasing inner motivation and enjoyment during the treatment. Several participants reported negative experiences related to being obese and appreciated group affiliation and sharing experiences with other participants. Motivation may shift during a lifestyle course. Facilitating factors include achieving and experiencing positive outcomes as well as gaining autonomy support from other course participants and friends. Obstacles to change were a widespread obesogenic environment as well as feelings of guilt, little trust in personal achievements and non-supporting friends.

  17. Mentoring First Year Study Groups--Benefits from the Mentors' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrberg, Nadia Rahbek; Michelsen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    The "study group concept" at the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) was implemented to aid first year students' transitional challenges. A mentor (an older student) is affiliated each study group to facilitate productive group work, bring awareness to study habits, and share his/her own experiences with life as a student. The study…

  18. Content-Related Interactions and Methods of Reasoning within Self-Initiated Organic Chemistry Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Karen Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Students often use study groups to prepare for class or exams; yet to date, we know very little about how these groups actually function. This study looked at the ways in which undergraduate organic chemistry students prepared for exams through self-initiated study groups. We sought to characterize the methods of social regulation, levels of…

  19. Combat Air Forces Campaign Level Modernization Planning: A Study in Group Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    COMBAT AIR FORCES CAMPAIGN LEVEL MODERNIZATION PLANNING: A STUDY IN GROUP DECISION MAKING THESIS Ian L. Walker, Captain, USAF AFIT/GCA...ENV/03-10 COMBAT AIR FORCES CAMPAIGN LEVEL MODERNIZATION PLANNING: A STUDY IN GROUP DECISION MAKING THESIS Presented to the...AIR FORCES CAMPAIGN LEVEL MODERNIZATION PLANNING: A STUDY IN GROUP DECISION MAKING Ian L. Walker, BS, MPA Captain, USAF

  20. Evaluation of group A1B erythrocytes converted to type as group O: studies of markers of function and compatibility

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Zhuo, Hai-Long; Zhang, Xue; Ji, Shou-Ping; Tan, Ying-Xia; Li, Su-Bo; Jia, Yan-Jun; Xu, Hua; Wu, Qing-Fa; Yun, Zhi-Min; Luo, Qun; Gong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Enzymatic conversion of blood group A1B red blood cells (RBC) to group O RBC (ECO) was achieved by combined treatment with α-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and safety of these A1B-ECO RBC in vitro. Materials and methods A 20% packed volume of A1B RBC was treated with enzymes in 250 mM glycine buffer, pH 6.8. The efficiency of the conversion of A and B antigen was evaluated by traditional typing in test tubes, gel column agglutination technology and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. The physiological and metabolic parameters of native and ECO RBC were compared, including osmotic fragility, erythrocyte deformation index, levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ATP, methaemoglobin, free Na+, and free K+. The morphology of native and ECO RBC was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Residual α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in A1B-ECO RBC was detected by double-antibody sandwich ELISA method. Manual cross-matching was applied to ensure blood compatibility. Results The RBC agglutination tests and FACS results showed that A1B RBC were efficiently converted to O RBC. Functional analysis suggested that the conversion process had little impact on the physiological and metabolic parameters of the RBC. The residual amounts of either α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in the A1B-ECO RBC were less than 10 ng/mL of packed RBC. About 18% of group B and 55% of group O sera reacted with the A1B-ECO RBC in a sensitive gel column cross-matching test. Discussion The conversion process does not appear to affect the morphological, physiological or metabolic parameters of A1B-ECO RBC. However, the A1B-ECO RBC still reacted with some antigens. More research on group O and B sera, which may partly reflect the complexity of group A1 the safety of A1B-ECO RBC is necessary before the application of these RBC in clinical transfusion. PMID:26509826

  1. Safety of the use of group A plasma in trauma: the STAT study.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Nancy M; Yazer, Mark H

    2017-08-01

    Use of universally ABO-compatible group AB plasma for trauma resuscitation can be challenging due to supply limitations. Many centers are now using group A plasma during the initial resuscitation of traumatically injured patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of this practice on mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS). Seventeen trauma centers using group A plasma in trauma patients of unknown ABO group participated in this study. Eligible patients were group A, B, and AB trauma patients who received at least 1 unit of group A plasma. Data collected included patient sex, age, mechanism of injury, Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) probability of survival, and number of blood products transfused. The main outcome of this study was in-hospital mortality differences between group B and AB patients compared to group A patients. Data on early mortality (≤24 hr) and hospital LOS were also collected. There were 354 B and AB patients and 809 A patients. The two study groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, TRISS probability of survival, and total number of blood products transfused. The use of group A plasma during the initial resuscitation of traumatically injured patients of unknown ABO group was not associated with increased in-hospital mortality, early mortality, or hospital LOS for group B and AB patients compared to group A patients. These results support the practice of issuing thawed group A plasma for the initial resuscitation of trauma patients of unknown ABO group. © 2017 AABB.

  2. Psychophysiological Measures of Learning Comfort: Study Groups' Learning Styles and Pulse Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Tacy L.; Said, Sukhaynah H.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided empirical support for tutor-led study groups using a physiological measurement and study survey data. The scope of this preliminary study included determining differences in biology and chemistry study group members' (N = 25) regarding learning styles and pulse rate changes. As hypothesized, there was significant evidence that…

  3. A Basis for Choice. Report of a Study Group on Post-16 Pre-Employment Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Curriculum Review and Development Unit, London (England).

    This report presents the findings of a study group that examined full-time pre-employment courses available in England and Wales for young people over 16 years of age. Part 1 sets forth the group's objectives. Part 2 focuses on the procedures used to fulfill the study group's task of examining existing courses to determine whether they enhance…

  4. Pilot study of the Korean parent training program using a partial group-randomized experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin; Boutain, Doris; Chun, Jin-Joo; Kim, Sangho; Im, Hyesang

    2014-08-01

    Korean American (KA) parents need a culturally tailored parent training that helps them bridge the Korean and American cultures and divergent parenting practices. The Korean Parent Training Program (KPTP) was pilot tested with 48 KA mothers of children between 3 and 8 years old using a partial group-randomized controlled experimental study design. Researchers gathered self-report survey and observation data. Analyses, which used generalized estimating equations, indicated the intervention group mothers increased use of effective parenting practices and their children decreased behavioral problems and reported less acculturation conflict with their mothers. The KPTP is a promising way to promote effective parenting and increase positive child mental health in KA families. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Distribution of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Patients With Keratoconus: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Naderan, Mohammad; Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Shoar, Saeed; Kamaleddin, Mohammad Amin; Naderan, Morteza; Rezagholizadeh, Farzaneh; Zolfaghari, Masoome; Pahlevani, Rozhin

    2015-07-01

    Association of keratoconus (KC) with genetic predisposition and environmental factors has been well documented. However, no single study has investigated the possible relationship between ABO and Rh blood groups and KC. A case-control study was designed in a university hospital enrolling 214 patients with KC in the case group and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects in the control group. Primary characteristics, ABO blood group, and Rh factors were compared between the two groups. Topographic findings of KC eyes and the severity of the diseases were investigated according to the distribution of the blood groups. Blood group O and Rh(+) phenotype were most frequent in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of ABO blood groups or Rh factors. Mean keratometery (K), central corneal thickness, thinnest corneal thickness, flat K, steep K, sphere and cylinder, spherical equivalent, and uncorrected visual acuity were all similar between ABO blood groups and Rh(+) and Rh(-) groups. However, the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) had the highest value in AB blood group (0.35 ± 0.22 logMAR, P=0.005). Moreover, the blood group AB revealed the highest frequency for grade 3 KC, followed by grades 1, 2, and 4 (P=0.003). We observed no significant excess of any particular blood group among KC cases compared with healthy subjects. Except BCVA, none of the keratometric or topographic findings was significantly different between blood groups.

  6. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1993 Annual Meeting (York, Ontario, Canada, May 28-June 1, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the 1993 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are presented in four sections: (1) invited lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic groups; and (4) ad hoc groups. Papers include: (1) "What is a Square Root? A Study of Geometrical Representation in Different…

  7. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1994 Annual Meeting (Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, June 3-7, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers from the 1994 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are divided into the following sections: (1) invited lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic groups; (4) ad hoc groups; and (5) reports on ICMI (International Committee on Mathematical Instruction) studies. Papers include: (1)…

  8. Moving Farmer Knowledge beyond the Farm Gate: An Australian Study of Farmer Knowledge in Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, J.; Curtis, A.

    1997-01-01

    Case study of Australian farmers participating in group extension instruction indicated that local knowledge may remain dormant unless social interaction allows it to emerge. Group interaction facilitated the integration of local and scientific knowledge. (SK)

  9. A comparative study of six different inpatient groups with respect to their basic assumption functioning.

    PubMed

    Karterud, S

    1989-07-01

    Seventy-five group therapy sessions of six different inpatient team groups in one short-term, one intermediate term, and one long-term psychiatric ward were studied with Group Focal Conflict Analysis and the Group Emotionality Rating System. The majority of the group sessions (41) functioned as fight-flight groups, twenty-four sessions functioned at a "pseudogroup" level, and ten sessions were dependency groups. The differences between the fight-flight groups and the dependency group on the variables aggression and dependency were highly significant statistically. A mixture of fight-flight groups and pseudogroups were found in the short-term ward with emergency obligations. The author discusses the assets and shortcomings of fight-flight and dependency cultures within psychiatric wards.

  10. Active versus receptive group music therapy for major depressive disorder-A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Atiwannapat, Penchaya; Thaipisuttikul, Papan; Poopityastaporn, Patchawan; Katekaew, Wanwisa

    2016-06-01

    To compare the effects of 1) active group music therapy and 2) receptive group music therapy to group counseling in treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). On top of standard care, 14 MDD outpatients were randomly assigned to receive 1) active group music therapy (n=5), 2) receptive group music therapy (n=5), or 3) group counseling (n=4). There were 12 one-hour weekly group sessions in each arm. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1 month (after 4 sessions), 3 months (end of interventions), and 6 months. Primary outcomes were depressive scores measured by Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) Thai version. Secondary outcomes were self-rated depression score and quality of life. At 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months, both therapy groups showed statistically non-significant reduction in MADRS Thai scores when compared with the control group (group counseling). The reduction was slightly greater in the active group than the receptive group. Although there were trend toward better outcomes on self-report depression and quality of life, the differences were not statistically significant. Group music therapy, either active or receptive, is an interesting adjunctive treatment option for outpatients with MDD. The receptive group may reach peak therapeutic effect faster, but the active group may have higher peak effect. Group music therapy deserves further comprehensive studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A Study of the Effectiveness of Ability Grouping on the Academic Achievement of Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Barbara Georgeson

    This study examined the effects of grouping students by ability or achievement on middle school students' academic achievement. Mathematics achievement scores from the California Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) were obtained from 25 seventh graders randomly selected from a group of 80 who had received instruction in an ability-grouped setting for…

  12. Learning Readiness in Two Jewish Groups: A Study in "Cultural Deprivation." An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Morris

    In a study of school readiness, 90 American born, middle class Jewish children were tested before entering the first grade and divided into two groups. The groups were well-matched with one difference: children were either Ashkenazic (of European descent) or Sephardic (of Syrian descent). Families of both of these groups, however, had been in the…

  13. Peer Group Influence and Selection in Adolescents' School Burnout: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Leskinen, Esko; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which peer group similarity in school burnout is due to peer group influence and the extent to which it is due to peer group selection. Moreover, the roles of academic achievement and gender in school burnout were examined. A total of 611 ninth graders were examined at the beginning of the final term of…

  14. A Brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Psychoeducational Group for Chinese People with Chronic Illnesses: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Daniel F. K.; Ip, Priscilla S. Y.; Lee, Kim Man

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study attempted to examine the effectiveness of a brief cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) psychoeducational group for Chinese people with chronic illness in Hong Kong. It adopted a single group design, and 52 participants joined the group. A questionnaire with three outcome measures, measuring general mental health, quality of life…

  15. Effects of Group Therapy on Female Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…

  16. Combining Individual and Group-Level Perspectives for Studying Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvaja, Maarit; Salovaara, Hanna; Hakkinen, Paivi; Jarvela, Sanna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify concepts and methods for studying collaboration in context. The article presents a two-level methodology designed to combine individual and group-level perspectives for the evaluation of collaborative knowledge construction in student groups. The group-level analysis is focused on the students' negotiation…

  17. Adaptation and Flexibility When Conducting and Planning Peer Study Group Review Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R.; Hanes, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Based on an evaluation of the professional literature of postsecondary learning assistance, little is known about decisions made by student leaders during their peer study group review sessions. Our research question for this study is "How did study group leaders adapt their role to better meet the needs of the students who participated in…

  18. Adaptation and Flexibility When Conducting and Planning Peer Study Group Review Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R.; Hanes, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Based on an evaluation of the professional literature of postsecondary learning assistance, little is known about decisions made by student leaders during their peer study group review sessions. Our research question for this study is "How did study group leaders adapt their role to better meet the needs of the students who participated in…

  19. The Roles of a University Professor in a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-Chin; Hung, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The opportunities in which university professors collaborate with the practicing school teachers in a teacher study group are few. This study investigated how a university professor facilitated a collaborative teacher study group to enhance teachers' professional growth. Five primary school teachers and a university professor collaborated on…

  20. The Roles of a University Professor in a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-Chin; Hung, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The opportunities in which university professors collaborate with the practicing school teachers in a teacher study group are few. This study investigated how a university professor facilitated a collaborative teacher study group to enhance teachers' professional growth. Five primary school teachers and a university professor collaborated on…

  1. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C; Bertolotto, Antonio; Berven, Frode S; Brundin, Lou; Comabella, Manuel; Degn, Matilde; Deisenhammer, Florian; Fazekas, Franz; Franciotta, Diego; Frederiksen, Jette L; Galimberti, Daniela; Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Hegen, Harald; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hintzen, Rogier; Hughes, Steve; Iacobaeus, Ellen; Kroksveen, Ann C; Kuhle, Jens; Richert, John; Tumani, Hayrettin; Villar, Luisa M; Drulovic, Jelena; Dujmovic, Irena; Khalil, Michael; Bartos, Ales

    2013-11-01

    The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus definitions and nomenclature for the following groups: healthy controls (HCs), spinal anesthesia subjects (SASs), inflammatory neurological disease controls (INDCs), peripheral inflammatory neurological disease controls (PINDCs), non-inflammatory neurological controls (NINDCs), symptomatic controls (SCs). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use of available resources. This will lead to improved quality of CSF biomarker research in MS and related disorders.

  2. Offender experiences and opinions of mixed-gender group work in the community: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Burrowes, Nina; Day, Jo

    2011-10-01

    The National Probation Service in England and Wales currently delivers community-based accredited offending behavior programs in mixed-gender groups. There is at present a lack of research on the potential impact of mixed-gender group work on female offenders, who are often the minority within the group. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the area using qualitative methods. Sixteen offenders who had participated in a mixed-gender offending behavior program were interviewed as part of this study. Themes from the interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory techniques. The findings illustrated an overall preference among all participants for mixed-gender rather than single-gender group work. The specific advantages of mixed-gender group work included increased learning about the opposite sex and a more relaxed atmosphere within the group. Although this study reflects positive attitudes to mixed-gender group work, the findings need to be tested further using empirical methodology.

  3. [Urinary lithotripsy in children. Multicenter study of the Pediatric Urology Study Group].

    PubMed

    Van Kote, G; Lottmann, H; Fremond, B; Mourey, E; Dore, B; Daoud, S; Valla, J S; Garcia, S; Beurton, D; Poddevin, F; Biserte, J; Villar, F; Lacombe, A

    1999-01-01

    The authors present the results of a survey conducted among French paediatric urologists belonging to the Groupe d'Etudes en Urologie Pédiatrique (GEUP) (Paediatric Urology Study Group). This study, based on 122 cases observed in 13 centres, is not exhaustive, but is nevertheless statistically significant. The preoperative assessment confirms the usual findings of urinary stones in children: pyelonephritis, haematuria and abdominal pain, the usual presenting complaint, concomitant malformative uropathy (10% of cases) and a predominance of calcium stones. More than 200 stones were treated, larger than 10 millimeters in diameter in one-third of cases. Renal stones, mainly caliceal (more than 50%), included 11 staghorn calculi. This study also included 22 ureteric stones, mainly in the pelvic ureter, and 2 bladder stones. Lithotripsy was ultrasound-guided in 2/3 of cases and required general anaesthesia in about 3/4 of cases. Ureteric catheterization was required in 19 infants preoperatively, but in only 2 infants (stein strasse) postoperatively. One or two lithotripsy sessions were sufficient in most cases, but 4 sessions were necessary in 5 patients, to the same kidney in 1 case. The mean hospital stay was 2 to 3 days, but the procedure was performed on an outpatient basis in 15 cases. The immediate postoperative course was uneventful and asymptomatic. This survey revealed about 10% of complete failures, corresponding to solitary caliceal stones in 2/3 of cases; 29 partial failures were essentially due to lower caliceal stones and staghorn calculi; 84 successes (stone-free), mainly pelvic or simple caliceal stones. Scintigraphy did not reveal any immediate postoperative impairment of renal function. This study reported a success rate of about 70%, regardless of the type of apparatus used. Assessment of the results of ESWL requires sufficient follow-up both concerning the outcome of fragmented stones and evaluation of possible functional repercussions. This survey

  4. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee." PMID:15303410

  5. Tinted lenses and dyslexics--a controlled study. SPELD (S.A.) Tinted Lenses Study Group.

    PubMed

    Gole, G A; Dibden, S N; Pearson, C C; Pidgeon, K J; Mann, J W; Rice, D; Rooney, K F; Hannell, G; Fitzgerald, B A; Kortman, J Y

    1989-05-01

    We have carried out a randomised prospective controlled trial of the effect of tinted lenses on the reading ability of 24 non-asthmatic dyslexic children aged between nine and twelve years. Reading ability was assessed using the Neale Analysis of Reading. After one school term, there was no significant difference in the change in reading age between treatment and control groups. After two school terms (approximately six months), only 11 children (44%) were still wearing the glasses. Of 381 suitable subjects for entry into the study, 208 were excluded because of a diagnosis of asthma (to avoid effects of medication on cerebral function). As a result, we may have excluded subjects who would have responded favourably to tinted lenses.

  6. Population studies in groups and clusters of galaxies. III. A catalog of galaxies in five nearby groups

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, H.C.; Sandage, A. Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD )

    1990-07-01

    Five nearby groups of galaxies have been surveyed using large-scale plates from the 2.5 m duPont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Catalogs of galaxies brighter than B(T) = 20 are presented for the Leo, Dorado, NGC 1400, NGC 5044, and Antlia groups. A total of 1044 galaxies are included, from visual inspection of 14 plates, covering 31 deg square. Galaxies have been classified in the extended Hubble system, and group memberships have been assigned based on velocity (where available) and morphology. About half the galaxies listed are likely members of one of the nearby groups. The catalogs are complete to B(T) = 18, although the completeness limits vary slightly from group to group. Based on King model fits to the surface density profiles, the core radii of the groups range from 0.3 to 1 Mpc, and central densities range from 120 to 1900 galaxies Mpc exp-3 brighter than M(BT) = -12.5. Dynamical analysis indicates that all of the groups are likely to be gravitationally bound. 64 refs.

  7. Children of mentally ill parents—a pilot study of a group intervention program

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. Method: This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Results: Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. Discussion: This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies. PMID:26539129

  8. The quality of control groups in nonrandomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shepard P; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate control group selection in nonrandomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery American (JHS). We reviewed all papers published in JHS in 2013 to identify studies that used nonrandomized control groups. Data collected included type of study design and control group characteristics. We then appraised studies to determine whether authors discussed confounding and selection bias and how they controlled for confounding. Thirty-seven nonrandomized studies were published in JHS in 2013. The source of control was either the same institution as the study group, a different institution, a database, or not provided in the manuscript. Twenty-nine (78%) studies statistically compared key characteristics between control and study group. Confounding was controlled with matching, exclusion criteria, or regression analysis. Twenty-two (59%) papers explicitly discussed the threat of confounding and 18 (49%) identified sources of selection bias. In our review of nonrandomized studies published in JHS, papers had well-defined controls that were similar to the study group, allowing for reasonable comparisons. However, we identified substantial confounding and bias that were not addressed as explicit limitations, which might lead the reader to overestimate the scientific validity of the data. Incorporating a brief discussion of control group selection in scientific manuscripts should help readers interpret the study more appropriately. Authors, reviewers, and editors should strive to address this component of clinical importance. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Principal's Role in Fostering Collaborative Learning Communities through Faculty Study Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Hutinger, Janice L.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the leadership of school principals with respect to faculty study group development as a key element of the professional learning community. Questions asked concern the approaches that principals use to facilitate study group processes that, in turn. foster teacher learning and student achievement, and ways in which…

  10. Learning to Love Reading: A Self-Study on Fostering Students' Reading Motivation in Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between small, differentiated reading groups and fourth-grade students' reading motivation. Using self-study methodology, the author examined her own process of implementing these reading groups through two cycles of action research. Data were analyzed from two different administrations of the Motivations for…

  11. The Comparability of Focus Group and Survey Results: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focus group findings were compared with survey findings for three studies in which both methods were used. Studies conducted on voluntary sterilization in Guatemala, Honduras, and Zaire with over 2,000 subjects confirm that focus groups yield information similar to that obtained from surveys and are useful in program planning. (SLD)

  12. How Teachers Develop Their Professional Knowledge in English Study Group in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi-Ching

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research was to understand the perceptions of Taiwanese teachers of the effects of a study group on their professional growth in the workplace. This case study employed the following data collection techniques: (1) informal observations and interviews, (2) focus group interview, (3) semi-structured individual…

  13. The Relationship between Students' Small Group Activities, Time Spent on Self-Study, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Rachelle J. A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van Berkel, Henk J. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contributions students make to the problem-based tutorial group process as observed by their peers, self-study time and achievement. To that end, the Maastricht Peer Activity Rating Scale was administered to students participating in Problem-Based Learning tutorial groups.…

  14. Learning to Love Reading: A Self-Study on Fostering Students' Reading Motivation in Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between small, differentiated reading groups and fourth-grade students' reading motivation. Using self-study methodology, the author examined her own process of implementing these reading groups through two cycles of action research. Data were analyzed from two different administrations of the Motivations for…

  15. The Comparability of Focus Group and Survey Results: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focus group findings were compared with survey findings for three studies in which both methods were used. Studies conducted on voluntary sterilization in Guatemala, Honduras, and Zaire with over 2,000 subjects confirm that focus groups yield information similar to that obtained from surveys and are useful in program planning. (SLD)

  16. Are Elementary Principals Ready For Group Pre-Kindergarten Education? An Empirical Study in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anselmo, Sandra

    This article reports the findings from an empirical study of the readiness of elementary principals in the State of Iowa for group pre-kindergarten education. The study was based on responses of principals to items in a mail questionnaire and was directed at discovering their attitudes and knowledge about selected issues in group pre-kindergarten…

  17. Group Work and the Learning of Critical Thinking in the Hong Kong Secondary Liberal Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis; Howe, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a one-year longitudinal study that investigated the impact of group work on the development of students' critical thinking in Hong Kong secondary schools. It explores whether the participation of teachers in a group-based teaching intervention adapted from an earlier study conducted in the United Kingdom (UK)…

  18. Student-Initiated Study Groups for STEM Classes in Community College Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Blasius, Eileen; Klingsmith, Libby; Waite, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a focus group research study that examined the experiences of community college students who initiated study groups for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) courses based on self-identified needs for learning support. Results indicated that students identified early in the semester that they needed…

  19. On the relationship between group functioning and study success in problem-based learning.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Juha; Sauri, Pekka; Lonka, Kirsti

    2006-01-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), discussion in the tutorial group plays a central role in stimulating student learning. Problems are the principal input for stimulating discussion. The quality of discussion is assumed to influence student learning and, in the end, study success. To investigate the relationships between aspects of group functioning and study success. First-year medical students (n = 116), forming 12 PBL groups, completed a 21-item questionnaire on various aspects of a PBL session. At the end of the unit, a course examination was administered. Scales were constructed and reliability analyses conducted. Group functioning and case quality were strongly correlated with students' grades in a course examination. Further, students' perceptions of group functioning, case quality and the quality of their own contribution were linked strongly with each other. Group functioning, case quality and study success are associated with each other in PBL. The interaction between these aspects of PBL in promoting learning calls for further investigation.

  20. Group housing of male CD1 mice: reflections from toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Annas, A; Bengtsson, C; Törnqvist, E

    2013-04-01

    Owing to their naturally aggressive behaviour, male mice are often housed individually in toxicity studies. However, several publications advocate group-housing of mice to enable normal social behaviour and interactions between the animals. This refinement project aimed at facilitate group-housing in toxicity studies. A handling procedure, including key factors such as allocation into groups before sexual maturation, transfer of used nesting material into clean cages and avoidance of external changes, that makes group-housing of male CD-1 mice possible in long-term toxicity studies has been developed at Safety Assessment within AstraZeneca, Sweden. Observations on the effect on aggression/fighting in group-housed male mice following different procedures performed in toxicity studies have shown that temporary removal of animals from the group for blood or urine sampling does not affect the group dynamics. However, temporary removal of animals for mating leads to fighting if the animals are taken back to the original group. Treatment with test compound might affect the general condition of the animals and the social hierarchy could be changed. In such cases aggression/fighting might occur and the animals have to be separated. Our experience clearly indicates that group housing of male mice in long-term studies leads to more easily handled animals, as compared with individually housed mice.

  1. [Myelogenous leukemia in children. ANLL9205 study by Children's Cancer and Leukemia Study Group (CCLSG)].

    PubMed

    Mimaya, J; Horikoshi, Y; Shimizu, H; Maeda, H; Koizumi, S; Kawakami, K; Watanabe, A; Utsumi, J; Kikuta, A; Oka, T; Mugishima, H; Kawamura, N; Gushiken, T; Ohta, S; Yamamura, Y; Ishida, Y; Sekine, I; Okada, N; Fujimoto, T

    1997-02-01

    Treatment results were evaluated in 45 children with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) treated on the ANLL-9205 protocol of the Children's Cancer Leukemia Study Group (CCLSG, Japan). In this protocol, terarubicin (THP-ADR), vincristine and continuous infusion of cytosine arabinoside (Ara C) were applied for remission induction therapy (AVC), and VP16+ high dose Ara C were used sequentially for 32 or 48 weeks. Eleven patients received stem cell transplantation. Thirty-eight out of the 43 eligible patients (88.4%) achieved complete remission, and the overall 3-year event-free survival (EFS) was 55.6% (S.E.,10%). This favorable response was attributed mainly to the high induction rate of patients with the M5, M7 FAB subtypes and higher WBC counts (> or = 10 x 10(9)/L). There was no difference in the 3-year EFS of these patients who discontinued treatment between 32 weeks and 48 weeks. Serious toxicities were not observed in this study. These findings suggest that the ANLL-9205 protocol is an effective and safe treatment regimen for childhood AML. When comparing the treatment period of 32 or 48 weeks, the difference was not statistically significant.

  2. OTSEGO COUNTY EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM FOR TESTING METHODS OF FORMING FARM MANAGEMENT STUDY GROUPS, A PROGRESS REPORT. EXTENSION STUDY, NUMBER 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONGEST, JAMES W.; GENGENBACK, WILLIAM H.

    THE MOST FREQUENT METHOD OF GROUP FORMATION FOR INTENSIVE FARM MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS IN NEW YORK STATE HAS BEEN TO COMBINE ALL INTERESTED FARMERS IN LARGE GROUPS AT THE COUNTY EXTENSION HEADQUARTERS. THIS EXPERIMENT WAS SET UP TO STUDY THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO METHODS OF FORMING SMALL GROUPS--BY SOCIOMETRIC CHOICE OR SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS. ALL…

  3. Bias from historical control groups used in orthodontic research: a meta-epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Koretsi, Vasiliki; Jäger, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The validity of meta-analysis is dependent upon the quality of included studies. Here, we investigated whether the design of untreated control groups (i.e. source and timing of data collection) influences the results of clinical trials in orthodontic research. This meta-epidemiological study used unrestricted literature searching for meta-analyses in orthodontics including clinical trials with untreated control groups. Differences in standardized mean differences (ΔSMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated according to the untreated control group through multivariable random-effects meta-regression controlling for nature of the interventional group and study sample size. Effects were pooled with random-effects synthesis, followed by mixed-effect subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Studies with historical control groups reported deflated treatment effects compared to studies with concurrent control groups (13 meta-analyses; ΔSMD = -0.31; 95% CI = -0.53, -0.10; P = 0.004). Significant differences were found according to the type of historical control group (based either on growth study or clinical archive; 11 meta-analyses; ΔSMD = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.21, 0.59; P < 0.001). The use of historical control groups in orthodontic clinical research was associated with deflation of treatment effects, which was independent from whether the interventional group was prospective or retrospective and from the study's sample size. Caution is warranted when interpreting clinical studies with historical untreated control groups or when interpreting systematic reviews that include such studies. PROSPERO (CRD42015024179). None. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A pilot study of the experience of participating in a Therapeutic Touch practice group.

    PubMed

    Moore, Theresa; Ting, Brigid; Rossiter-Thornton, Maria

    2008-09-01

    This pilot study explored the experience of participating in a Therapeutic Touch practice group. A qualitative descriptive-exploratory method was used, involving 12 members of practice groups in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada. Analysis of the data using an extraction-synthesis process yielded four themes: (a) learning with others through sharing and hands-on experience is valued; (b) connecting with a network of supportive relationships that sustain self and Therapeutic Touch practice; (c) comfort-discomfort arising with self, others, or ideas; and (d) meaningful changes emerge while experiencing group energy and Therapeutic Touch. The findings expand current knowledge about the positive aspects of participating in practice groups and provide a beginning understanding of member discomfort, which had not been previously reported. This knowledge will be useful to Therapeutic Touch organizations, practice group leaders, and group members. It will also guide health care agencies and practitioners of other healing modalities who may be considering establishing practice groups.

  5. Containing psychotic patients with fragile boundaries: a single-session group case study.

    PubMed

    Lavarenne, Anaïs; Segal, Emily; Sigman, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes a single group psychotherapy session of six individuals suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective illness, which was characterized by numerous manifestations of fragile Ego boundaries. Based on these illustrations of fragile Ego boundaries, we explore some of the group's core therapeutic actions against psychosis. We discuss how the group (1) provides access to a structuring auxiliary Ego, (2) acts as a containing object by establishing firm boundaries and by mentalizing patients' psychotic productions, and (3) may become a solid object representation introjected by individuals wrestling with porous Ego boundaries and a poor sense of self. We conclude that, in addition to the known role of group therapy in increasing mature defenses, developing insight and providing social support, the group promotes healthier Ego boundaries, and eventually improves self-differentiation, and also tolerance to interpersonal proximity. This case study clarifies group therapy dynamics with individuals suffering from psychosis.

  6. ABO blood group system and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Yan, Min; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan

    2012-10-17

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for meta-analysis. In our case-control study, the risk of gastric cancer in blood group A was significantly higher than that in non-A groups (O, B and AB) (odd ratio, OR1.34; 95% confidential interval, CI 1.25-1.44). Compared with non-O groups (A, B and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.88). The proportion of H. pylori infection in blood group A individuals was significantly higher than that in non-A blood groups (OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.05-1.93). We further combined our data with the published data of others, and crossreferenced the risk of gastric cancer with the blood type, finding consistent evidence that gastric cancer risk in the blood A group was higher than that in the non-A groups (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.15), and that blood type O individuals were consistently shown gastric cancer risk reduction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.94). Our study concluded that there was a slightly increased risk of gastric cancer in blood group A individuals, and people with blood type A are more prone to be infected by H. pylori than other ABO blood type individuals, whereas, a slightly decreased risk of gastric cancer was identified in blood type O individuals.

  7. Correlates of Regular Participation in Sports Groups among Japanese Older Adults: JAGES Cross–Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults’ participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Methods Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population–based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Results Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Conclusions Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults’ participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future

  8. Correlates of Regular Participation in Sports Groups among Japanese Older Adults: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults' participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population-based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults' participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future longitudinal studies to elucidate the causal

  9. Reconsidering the gospel according to group studies: a neuropsychological case study approach to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laws, K R; McKenna, P J; McCarthy, R A

    1996-11-01

    Individual patterns of performance on tests of: visual perception, language, executive function, memory, and face-processing, were examined in 10 schizophrenic patients who were preselected for having current WAIS IQ and premorbid NART IQ scores in the normal range. Although the patients showed some heterogeneity in the type, pervasiveness, and degree of cognitive impairment, a majority had severely impaired verbal recall and familiar face-naming. This contrasted with the low incidence and severity of impairment on tests of executive function, visual recall, recognition memory, naming, and unfamiliar faceprocessing. Contrasts between individual patients indicated that verbal recall and executive performance are independent in some patients and that memory appears to be the core deficit. The profile of impaired and preserved cognitive function revealed some important dissimilarities from the pattern that has emerged from group studies. Finally, face-naming correlated highly with the learning of unrelated paired associates, confirming a similarity with neurological patients who have person name anomia. It is suggested that both deficits might reflect a problem with learning ''meaninglessness'' associations; this interpretation is discussed with reference to a deficit at the level of the Supervisory Attentional System (Shallice, 1988).

  10. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and cerebellar contribution to in-group attitudes: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Gamond, Lucile; Ferrari, Chiara; La Rocca, Stefania; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2017-04-01

    We tend to express more positive judgments and behaviors toward individuals belonging to our own group compared to other (out-) groups. In this study, we assessed the role of the cerebellum and of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) - two regions critically implicated in social cognition processes - in mediating implicit valenced attitudes toward in-group and out-group individuals. To this aim, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with a standard attitude priming task, in which Caucasian participants had to categorize the valence of a series of adjectives primed by either an in-group or an out-group face. In two behavioral experiments, we found an in-group bias (i.e. faster categorization of positive adjectives when preceded by in-group faces) but no evidence of an out-group bias. Interestingly, TMS over both the dmPFC and over the (right) cerebellum significantly interfered with the modulation exerted by group membership on adjective valence classification, abolishing the in-group bias observed at baseline. Overall, our data suggest that both the dmPFC and the cerebellum play a causal role in mediating implicit social attitudes.

  11. A crossectional country group study of three health level outcomes and four potential causes.

    PubMed

    Pegels, C C

    1989-01-01

    A crossectional study of four country groups segmented by per capita income of the majority of the world's countries was made to evaluate the relationship between health level outcomes and potential causes which may impact on the health level outcomes. The health level outcomes consist of life expectancy at birth, infant mortality rate and child mortality rate. The potential causes consist of secondary school children per 100 in school age group, daily calory supply per capita, population per physician and population per nurse. For the two lower income country groups the two important determinants of life expectancy were daily calory supply per capita and secondary school children per 100 in school age group. For the upper middle income the country group the important positive determinant of life expectancy was population per nurse and for the upper income country group the important negative determinant of life expectancy was daily calory supply per capita. Infant and child mortality rates were associated with secondary school children per 100 in school age group and population per physician or population per nurse for the two lower income country groups. For the upper middle income country group population per nurse or population per physician was supplemented by daily calory supply per capita for both infant and child mortality. For the upper income country group only infant mortality had statistically significant determinants. They were daily calory supply per capita and secondary school children per 100 in school age groups.

  12. The Differences between Novice and Expert Group-Piano Teaching Strategies: A Case Study and Comparison of Beginning Group Piano Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    This case study compares the teaching strategies employed by a novice and an expert instructor of two beginning children's group-piano classes. In the United States, there is a century-long tradition of teaching piano to children in groups, and group teaching is championed in pedagogy texts and at professional educator conferences throughout…

  13. Group Identity and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study of Group Identity, Perceived Peer Acceptance, and Friendships amongst Ethnic Minority English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Jugert, Philipp; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; Le Touze, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This research examined whether peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children reflect the social groups to which children belong and the degree to which they identify with these groups. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the influence of group identities (i.e., ethnic and national) on children's perceived peer acceptance…

  14. A hospital-based study to evaluate the incidence pattern of group A streptococcal throat infections from different age group patients.

    PubMed

    Ray, Dipanwita; Banerjee, Surajita; Bhattacharya, Sujata; Sinha, Sukanta; Bandyopadhyay, Debasis; Ghosal, Chaitry; Gupta, Siddhartha; Majumdar, Pallav Kumar; Saha, Somnath; Gupta, Soma; Bhattacharya, Basudev

    2010-02-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes(group A) is a major pathogen capable of causing a wide range of diseases in different age group of people. In this study 100 patients were selected who presented with the complaint of sore throat. All the patients were divided in four age groups. Streptococcus pyogenes colonies were confirmed on the basis of beta-haemolysis, bacitracin sensitivity test, and latex agglutination test for group A. Out of a total of 100 samples, 42 were confirmed as group A streptococcus. From this study, it has been observed that all age groups, with maximum occurrence in 5-15 years age group, were suffering from group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Therefore every case of sore throat especially affecting children should be investigated to detect the causative agent for initiation of proper therapy so that the more serious outcome like acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) can be prevented.

  15. Improving the Entrepreneurial Competencies of Dutch Dairy Farmers through the Use of Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergevoet, R. H. M.; Van Woerkum, Cees

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe and analyse the role that study groups might play in improving the entrepreneurial competencies of farmers. The most important competencies are described. Emphasis is placed on group learning processes and participatory approaches. Theories of adult learning and extension paradigms in relation to our…

  16. Gender, Group Composition, Cooperation, and Self-Efficacy in Computer Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tor

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study of Norwegian college students that investigated whether gender, group composition, or self-efficacy in computing has any impact on cooperation, giving or getting task-related help, and level of activity in student groups. Results confirms gender differences in self-efficacy in computing. (Author/LRW)

  17. Utilizing the Peer Group Method with Case Studies to Teach Pharmaceutics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Pamela J.

    1994-01-01

    A large-group (110 students) pharmaceutics course, designed to use small-group case-based problem solving to address pharmaceutical manufacturing problems, is described; and student response to the course is examined. The 11 case studies used in the curriculum are summarized. The peer evaluation form is included. (MSE)

  18. Nurture Groups: A Large-Scale, Controlled Study of Effects on Development and Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sue; MacKay, Tommy; Kearney, Maura

    2009-01-01

    Nurture groups have contributed to inclusive practices in primary schools in the UK for some time now and have frequently been the subject of articles in this journal. This large-scale, controlled study of nurture groups across 32 schools in the City of Glasgow provides further evidence for their effectiveness in addressing the emotional…

  19. The Effects on Students of Working in Cooperative Groups: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, David L.; And Others

    This study asks whether placing students in small, cooperative work groups results in redirecting student norms, climate and student interaction. Using a post-test only design, students in classes which daily used cooperative groups for the entire academic year were compared with comparable students from classes which used the lecture-discussion…

  20. Measurement Error Correction Formula for Cluster-Level Group Differences in Cluster Randomized and Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…

  1. School Finance and Technology: A Case Study Using Grid and Group Theory to Explore the Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Stephoni; Harris, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Using grid and group theory (Douglas 1982, 2011), the study described in this article examined the intersections of technology and school finance in four schools located in districts differing in size, wealth, and commitment to technology integration. In grid and group theory, grid refers to the degree to which policies and role prescriptions…

  2. Group Therapy for Children after Homicide and Violence: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salloum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated a group intervention designed to reduce posttraumatic stress among children after homicide and/or violence. Method: Employing a secondary data analysis of 117 participants in 21 group interventions, pretest and posttest differences in posttraumatic stress levels and between child witnesses and nonwitnesses,…

  3. The Fargo Study Group: Faculty Helping Themselves to Improve Their Instructional Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Henry B.

    The experiences of a group of seven physicians and medical school faculty who wished to improve their instructional capacities are described by the educational psychologist who led the study group. The participants held appointments at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and had responsibility for teaching medical students in…

  4. Listening to Voices of Children with a Visual Impairment: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khadka, Jyoti; Ryan, Barbara; Margrain, Tom H.; Woodhouse, J. Margaret; Davies, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the educational, social and leisure activities and issues that matter to school children and young people with a visual impairment and to compare their lifestyle with fully sighted counterparts. Thirteen focus groups were conducted and the groups were stratified by age, gender, visual status and school…

  5. Exploratory Study of MOOC Learners' Demographics and Motivation: The Case of Students Involved in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayeck, Rebecca Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary findings on students enrolled in a massive open online course, who were also assigned to work in groups. Part of a larger study on the effect of groups on retention and completion in MOOCs, the paper provides students' demographics (i.e., location, gender, education level, and employment status), and motivation for…

  6. Day Reporting Center and Recidivism: Comparing Offender Groups in a Western Pennsylvania County Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, David R.; Harvey, Patrick J.; Schanz, Youngyol Yim

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors report on an investigation comparing the recidivism and other variables of two similar offender populations in a western Pennsylvania county. The two groups were comparable in offense type, size (N = 63 for each) and other variables such as sex, race and age range. One group represented offenders who received a sentence…

  7. Improving the Entrepreneurial Competencies of Dutch Dairy Farmers through the Use of Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergevoet, R. H. M.; Van Woerkum, Cees

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe and analyse the role that study groups might play in improving the entrepreneurial competencies of farmers. The most important competencies are described. Emphasis is placed on group learning processes and participatory approaches. Theories of adult learning and extension paradigms in relation to our…

  8. Combining Propensity Score Matching and Group-Based Trajectory Analysis in an Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Amelia; Nagin, Daniel S.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    In a nonrandomized or observational study, propensity scores may be used to balance observed covariates and trajectory groups may be used to control baseline or pretreatment measures of outcome. The trajectory groups also aid in characterizing classes of subjects for whom no good matches are available and to define substantively interesting groups…

  9. Listening to Voices of Children with a Visual Impairment: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khadka, Jyoti; Ryan, Barbara; Margrain, Tom H.; Woodhouse, J. Margaret; Davies, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the educational, social and leisure activities and issues that matter to school children and young people with a visual impairment and to compare their lifestyle with fully sighted counterparts. Thirteen focus groups were conducted and the groups were stratified by age, gender, visual status and school…

  10. Peer Learning Group among College Voice Majors: Collaborative Inquiry Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Joo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    This collaborative inquiry case study investigated a pre-existing peer learning group composed of five Korean college voice students and a non-musician facilitator. The group was chosen for this research to understand the implications of a diversified learning context in addition to the typical master-apprenticeship context of higher music…

  11. The Effectiveness of Nurture Groups on Student Progress: Evidence from a National Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul; Whitebread, David

    2007-01-01

    Nurture groups (NGs) are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. Although the first groups were established over 30 years ago, growth in the number of NGs in the UK has been exponential over the past ten years. This study attempts to assess the effectiveness of NGs in promoting positive…

  12. Summary Report of the Defense Science Study Group, 1985-1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    8217 -,’Copy 24 of 150 Copies NIDA PAPER P-2310 Two I SUMMARY REPORT OF THE 0 DEFENSE SCIENCE STUDY GROUP 1985 - 1988 0 DTIC JAN 3 11990 Richard J...CARRUTHERS Head, Department of Physics University of Arizona * RUTH DAVIS** President The Pymatuning Group, Inc. ALEXANDER H. FLAX Private Consultant EUGENE

  13. Improving Study Habits of Junior High School Students Through Self-Management versus Group Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.; Trujillo, Amaryllis E.

    1975-01-01

    Both a self-management approach, teaching the principles of behavior modification and self-control (n=36), and a group-discussion technique, involving discussion of study habits and problems (n=41), led to improvements in grade point averages compared with a no-treatment control group (n=36) for low-achieving junior high school students. (Author)

  14. Identifying Implications of Tensions in a Series of Collaborative Self-Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Katheryn; Fitzgerald, Linda May; Manke, Mary P.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on 14 years of collaborative self-study group work at their university, East and Fitzgerald reviewed the data, stories and findings from that collaborative work, seeking to go beyond those original stories to identify practical implications of the tensions that emerged and played out within the various groups. Findings were shared and…

  15. School Finance and Technology: A Case Study Using Grid and Group Theory to Explore the Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Stephoni; Harris, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Using grid and group theory (Douglas 1982, 2011), the study described in this article examined the intersections of technology and school finance in four schools located in districts differing in size, wealth, and commitment to technology integration. In grid and group theory, grid refers to the degree to which policies and role prescriptions…

  16. Verbal Participation and Outcomes in Medical Education: A Study of Third Year Clinical Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Patricia Joan

    A study of third-year medical school discussion groups was undertaken to determine how much the cognitive level of instructors' questions in small group sessions influenced student responses and whether these responses had any measureable relationship to critical thinking skills, or National Board of Medical Examiner (NBME) scores. The research…

  17. Improving Study Habits of Junior High School Students Through Self-Management versus Group Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.; Trujillo, Amaryllis E.

    1975-01-01

    Both a self-management approach, teaching the principles of behavior modification and self-control (n=36), and a group-discussion technique, involving discussion of study habits and problems (n=41), led to improvements in grade point averages compared with a no-treatment control group (n=36) for low-achieving junior high school students. (Author)

  18. Issues in Feminist Therapy: The Work of a Women's Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radov, Carol G.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses attempts of study groups of women in mental health professions that was instrumental in developing thearetical formulations concerning feminist therapy. From experiences both in the group and with clients, concludes that the profession as a whole must increase its responsiveness to concerns of women and issues of feminist therapy.…

  19. Measurement Error Correction Formula for Cluster-Level Group Differences in Cluster Randomized and Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…

  20. Gender, Group Composition, Cooperation, and Self-Efficacy in Computer Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tor

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study of Norwegian college students that investigated whether gender, group composition, or self-efficacy in computing has any impact on cooperation, giving or getting task-related help, and level of activity in student groups. Results confirms gender differences in self-efficacy in computing. (Author/LRW)

  1. Combining Propensity Score Matching and Group-Based Trajectory Analysis in an Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Amelia; Nagin, Daniel S.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    In a nonrandomized or observational study, propensity scores may be used to balance observed covariates and trajectory groups may be used to control baseline or pretreatment measures of outcome. The trajectory groups also aid in characterizing classes of subjects for whom no good matches are available and to define substantively interesting groups…

  2. Group physical therapy during inpatient rehabilitation for acute spinal cord injury: findings from the SCIRehab Study.

    PubMed

    Zanca, Jeanne M; Natale, Audrey; Labarbera, Jacqueline; Schroeder, Sally Taylor; Gassaway, Julie; Backus, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Inpatient rehabilitation for spinal cord injury (SCI) includes the use of both individual and group physical therapy sessions. A greater understanding of group physical therapy use will help in the evaluation of the appropriateness of its use and contribute to the development of standards of practice. This report describes the extent to which group physical therapy is being used in inpatient rehabilitation for SCI, identifies group physical therapy interventions being delivered, and examines patterns in the types of activities being used for people with different levels and completeness of injury (ie, injury groups). The SCIRehab Study is a 5-year, multicenter investigation that uses practice-based evidence research methodology. Data on characteristics of participants and treatments provided were collected through detailed chart review and customized research documentation completed by clinicians at the point of care. The analyses described here included data from 600 participants enrolled during the first year of the project. Most of the participants (549/600) spent time in group physical therapy, and 23% of all documented physical therapy time was spent in group sessions. The most common group physical therapy activities were strengthening, manual wheelchair mobility, gait training, endurance activities, and range of motion/stretching. Time spent in group physical therapy and the nature of activities performed varied among the injury groups. Physical therapy use patterns observed in the 6 participating centers may not represent all facilities providing inpatient rehabilitation for SCI. Research documentation did not include all factors that may affect group physical therapy use, and some sessions were not documented. The majority of physical therapy was provided in individual sessions, but group physical therapy contributed significantly to total physical therapy time. Group physical therapy time and activities differed among the injury groups in patterns

  3. Examining the Underlying Values of Turkish and German Mathematics Teachers' Decision Making Processes in Group Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the values underlying the decision-making processes in group studies for Turkish and German mathematics teachers. This study presented a small part of a wider study investigating German and Turkish mathematics teachers' and their students' values (Values in Mathematics Teaching in Turkey and Germany…

  4. Alcohol prevention at sporting events: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    PubMed

    Durbeej, Natalie; Elgán, Tobias H; Jalling, Camilla; Gripenberg, Johanna

    2016-06-06

    Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP) inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i) BAC levels among ≥ 4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii) outside the arenas (≥200 attempts) and (iii) inside the arenas (≥ 200 attempts), and (iv) frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (≥ 200 attempts). There is an urgent need nationally and internationally to

  5. Chemical studies of L-chondrites. I - A study of possible chemical sub-groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, C. W.; Dodd, R. T.; Jarosewich, E.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Te, Tl and Zn and major element data in 14 L4-6 and 3 LL5 chondrites indicates that the L-group is unusually variable and may represent at least 2 sub-groups differing in formation history. Chemical trends in the S/Fe-rich sub-group support textural evidence indicating late loss of a shock-formed Fe-Ni-S melt; the S/Fe-poor sub-group seemingly reflects nebular fractionation only. Highly mobile In and Zn apparently reflect shock-induced loss from L-chondrites. Data for L5 chondrites suggest higher formation temperatures and/or degrees of shock than for LL5 chondrites.

  6. The efficacy of a population-based comparison group in cross-sectional occupational health studies.

    PubMed

    Schulte, P A; Singal, M; Stringer, W T; Kominsky, J R; Landrigan, P J

    1982-12-01

    The availability and the choice of appropriate comparison groups are essential for valid occupational epidemiologic studies. Too often, however, adequate comparison groups cannot easily be found within a workplace environment or extracted from the general population. An evaluation of the efficacy of using a pool of comparison subjects from the health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) was performed on data gathered by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1979. Comparison groups from the HANES pool were derived for 246 workers at four different commercial/industrial facilities in the Niagara Falls, New York, area and the comparability between the groups was assessed for several demographic, behavioural, and biomedical variables. The HANES groups exhibited a high degree of comparability with regard to most variables, excluding ancestry. The HANES pool may serve as a useful source of subjects to allow for the comparison of disease rates where occupational exposure is the key distinguishing feature between groups.

  7. The use of group participation and an enquiry-based study guide with computer assisted learning.

    PubMed

    Botelho, M

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to explore the use of group participation and an enquiry-based study guide to enhance the learning experience when using a computer assisted learning (CAL) program. Forty-eight students were asked to complete a CAL program on resin bonded bridges in groups of 2-4 with an enquiry-based study guide. An evaluation questionnaire of the learning experience was included with the study guide with paired positive and negative questions and open-ended questions for students to complete and return. The responses were collated and the nature of the comments qualitatively analysed. Thirty-two questionnaires were returned. There were almost three times the numbers of positive to negative responses relating to the usefulness of the enquiry based study guide, group participation and the CAL program. The majority of these positive responses related to the usefulness of the study guide and group participation in highlighting and guiding learning and creating opportunities for discussion, problem solving and peer teaching. A small number of negative responses cited the target-orientated nature of the study guide and the longer time needed for group work, due to the varying learning abilities of the participants and the need for discussion. The use of group participation and an enquiry-based study guide was reported to enhance the learning experience of CAL.

  8. Words, Records, and Beyond: Studying about Local Ethnic Groups through Primary Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Shirla R.; Clegg, Ambrose A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests primary sources for studying local ethnic groups when conventional textbooks omit or distort information. Primary sources include church and census records, city directories, oral tradition, pictorial records, programs, and artifacts such as statues and plaques. (AV)

  9. Eternal Triangulation: Case Studies in the Evaluation of Educational Software by Classroom-Based Teacher Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David; Keep, Ros

    1988-01-01

    Reviews some of the problems involved in the evaluation of educational software, and describes a classroom-based case study approach to software evaluation intended for application by autonomous self-programming groups of teachers. (20 references) (Author/CLB)

  10. Antibiotic susceptibility of group A streptococci: a 6-year follow-up study.

    PubMed Central

    Betriu, C; Sanchez, A; Gomez, M; Cruceyra, A; Picazo, J J

    1993-01-01

    The susceptibility patterns of group A streptococci over the last 6 years in our hospital were determined. Since our last study, carried out in 1987, all isolates have remained very susceptible in vitro to penicillin and all of the other beta-lactam agents tested. We observed resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and ofloxacin. The prevalence of erythromycin-resistant group A streptococci did not change appreciably throughout the study period. PMID:8215292

  11. Elementary teachers in a science inquiry study group: Concerns, uses, and reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundzynski, Christina

    Professional development is evolving into an ongoing learning process of self-disclosure, reflection, and growth that produces the best results when it is job-embedded over a period of time (Diaz-Maggioli, 2003). One promising approach to use is that of study groups (National Science Education Standards, 2006). A study group is a series of weekly sessions in which a small group of teachers meet voluntarily for a period of time, to discuss educational issues (Farstrup, 2002). Utilizing study groups is particularly helpful in the area of science inquiry (National Science Education Standards, 2006). In concert with the use of study groups for inquiry teaching, using teacher concerns, levels of use and the reflective process are promising variables within teacher professional development activities. This study examined the effects of elementary teachers' participating in a science inquiry study group. Data were collected at the onset and the completion of the twelve sessions (30 hours) using the Stages of Concerns Questionnaire, Levels of Use interviews, and teacher reflection journals. Findings indicated participants changed their concerns about science inquiry in some stages within the phases of self, task, and impact, increased their level of use in science inquiry, and generated surface knowledge on the third level (multi-structural).

  12. Experiences of older adults in a group physiotherapy program at a rehabilitation hospital: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Melissa J; Burge, Angela T; Soh, Sze-Ee; Jeffs, Kimberley J; Winter, Adele; Holland, Anne E

    2016-05-01

    Physiotherapy delivered in a group setting has been shown to be effective in a variety of populations. However, little is known about the attitudes of older adults toward participating in group physiotherapy. The objectives of this study were to explore older inpatients' perceptions and experiences of group physiotherapy using qualitative methods. Twelve hospitalized adults aged ≥65 years who were involved in a larger randomized controlled trial undertook individual semistructured interviews regarding their experiences in group physiotherapy. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and line by line, iterative thematic analysis was undertaken. Descriptive codes were developed, compared, and grouped together to create themes. Analysis revealed 6 major themes and 10 subthemes. All participants reported feeling happy to attend group sessions, a satisfactory alternative to individual physiotherapy. Participants described physical benefits that increased their motivation, and comparisons with their peers either motivated them or made them feel gratitude for their own health. Perceived attentiveness of group instructors contributed to participants reporting that treatment was individualized and similar to individual physiotherapy. Motivation and camaraderie with peers contributed to their enjoyment of group physiotherapy. Hospitalized older adults enjoyed exercising with their peers and valued the physical and social benefits of group physiotherapy. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:358-362. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  13. A Band of Sisters: The Impact of Long-Term Small Group Participation--Forty Years in a Women's Prayer and Bible Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Kevin E.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a women's prayer and Bible study group that has met for over forty years. The report focuses on factors contributing to the group's longevity and vitality over time, how it changed over the years, and its impact on the lives of the women who participated in it. It also addresses how this long-term group…

  14. Transforming Medical Care: Case Study of an Exemplary, Small Medical Group

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Leif I.; Hroscikoski, Mary C.; Sperl-Hillen, JoAnn M.; Harper, Peter G.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Most published descriptions of organizations providing or improving quality of care concern large medical groups or systems; however, 90% of the medical care in the United States is provided by groups of no more than 20 physicians. We studied one such group to determine the organizational and cultural attributes that seem related to its achievements in care quality. METHODS A 15–family physician medical group was identified from comparative public performance scores of 27 medical groups providing most of the primary care in our metropolitan area. Semistructured interviews were conducted with diverse personnel in this group, operations were observed, and written documents were reviewed. Four primary care physician researchers and a consultant then reviewed transcriptions, field notes, and materials during semistructured sessions to identify the main attributes of this group and their probable origins. RESULTS This medical group ranked first in a composite measure of preventive services and fourth and sixth, respectively, in composite scores for coronary artery disease and diabetes care. Our analysis identified 12 attributes of this group that seemed to be associated with its good care quality, with patient-centeredness being the foundational attribute for most of the others. Historical factors important to most of these attributes included small size, physician ownership, and a high value on practice consistency among the clinicians in the group. CONCLUSIONS The identified 12 attributes of this medical group seem to be associated with its superior care quality, and most of them might be replicable by other small groups if they choose to work toward that end. PMID:16569713

  15. Improving the Reading Ability of Science Students through Study Groups and Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Tunde; Okebukola, Foluso

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the effects of appropriate pedagogical skills (study groups and multiple intelligences) on students' efficiencies in reading skills. It employed a factorial design using three variables. A sample of 90 science students choosing from three intact classes were involved in the study. Data analyses were carried out using mean,…

  16. A Case Study of the Impact of Guided Reading Groups in Second Grade on Comprehension Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorent Deegan, Chanin E.

    2010-01-01

    This study combined both qualitative and quantitative research to determine the impact of instructional practices on comprehension improvement in second grade Guided Reading groups. Four second grade teachers and their 73 students ages seven through eight years old participated in this study. Additionally, the study examined the effects of Guided…

  17. The Effectiveness of Lecture-Integrated, Web-Supported Case Studies in Large Group Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzawi, May; Dawson, Maureen M.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of lecture-integrated and web-supported case studies in supporting a large and academically diverse group of undergraduate students was evaluated in the present study. Case studies and resource (web)-based learning were incorporated as two complementary interactive learning strategies into the traditional curriculum. A truncated…

  18. The Effectiveness of Lecture-Integrated, Web-Supported Case Studies in Large Group Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzawi, May; Dawson, Maureen M.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of lecture-integrated and web-supported case studies in supporting a large and academically diverse group of undergraduate students was evaluated in the present study. Case studies and resource (web)-based learning were incorporated as two complementary interactive learning strategies into the traditional curriculum. A truncated…

  19. Translation and validation of International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale in Hindi language

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ravi; Lahan, Vivekananda; Goel, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to translate and validate the International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale (IRLS) in Hindi language. Materials and Methods: Thirty one consecutive patients diagnosed of Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) were included in the study. Control group comprised of 31 subjects not having any symptom of RLS. The scale was procured from MAPI research trust; and, permission for the translation was sought. The translation was done according to the guidelines provided by the publisher. After translation, final version of the scale was applied in both the groups to find out the reliability and clinical validity. Results: RLS group had a predominance of females, and they were younger than the male counterparts (Age=36.80 ± 10.46 years vs 45.18 ± 8.34 years; t=2.28; P=0.03). There was no difference in the mean age between groups (RLS=39.77 ± 10.44 years vs Non RLS=38.29 ± 11.29 years; t=-0.53; P=0.59). IRLS scores were significantly different between both groups on all items (P<0.001). Translated version showed high reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.86). IRLS scores were significantly different between both groups on all items (P<0.001). Conclusion: Hindi version of IRLS is reliable and a clinically valid tool that can be applied in Hindi speaking population. PMID:22346013

  20. Translation and validation of International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale in Hindi language.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravi; Lahan, Vivekananda; Goel, Deepak

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study is to translate and validate the International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale (IRLS) in Hindi language. Thirty one consecutive patients diagnosed of Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) were included in the study. Control group comprised of 31 subjects not having any symptom of RLS. The scale was procured from MAPI research trust; and, permission for the translation was sought. The translation was done according to the guidelines provided by the publisher. After translation, final version of the scale was applied in both the groups to find out the reliability and clinical validity. RLS group had a predominance of females, and they were younger than the male counterparts (Age=36.80 ± 10.46 years vs 45.18 ± 8.34 years; t=2.28; P=0.03). There was no difference in the mean age between groups (RLS=39.77 ± 10.44 years vs Non RLS=38.29 ± 11.29 years; t=-0.53; P=0.59). IRLS scores were significantly different between both groups on all items (P<0.001). Translated version showed high reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.86). IRLS scores were significantly different between both groups on all items (P<0.001). Hindi version of IRLS is reliable and a clinically valid tool that can be applied in Hindi speaking population.

  1. [Study of 5'-DFUR treatment as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for stomach and colorectal cancer. Tokai GATS Group (pilot study)].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, A; Maeda, A; Hachisuka, K; Yura, J; Honda, K; Honda, H; Yoshizaki, S; Tsuruga, N; Nakazato, H

    1994-04-01

    In order to study preliminary the safety of 5'-DFUR treatment as postoperative adjuvant therapy, intermittent and continuous treatment regimens were administered to patients undergoing curative resection of carcinomas of the stomach and the colorectum. Two treatment schedules were employed: 5'-DFUR was either given continuously in a daily oral dose of 600 mg/patient (continuous group) or for 2 weeks in a daily oral dose of 1,200 mg/patient followed by 2 weeks of no treatment (intermittent group). Twenty-one stomach cancer patients and 34 colorectal cancer patients were registered in the study. The rates of adverse drug reactions in the patients who completed treatment were 20.0% (2/10) in the continuous group and 50.0% (4/8) in the intermittent group of gastric cancer patients, and 16.6% (2/12) in the continuous group and 17.6% (3/17) in the intermittent group of colorectal cancer patients. The main adverse drug reactions were gastrointestinal symptoms. The incidence of diarrhea, a problematic side effect of 5'-DFUR, was 4.5% (1/22) in the continuous group and 12.0% (3/25) in the intermittent group. There were no statistically significant differences between the continuous group and the intermittent group in regard to the incidence of adverse drug reactions and survival rate. In addition, as there were no serious adverse drug reactions, both treatment regimens were demonstrated to be highly safe when administered as postoperative adjuvant therapy.

  2. The group matters: an explorative study of group cohesion and quality of life in cancer patients participating in physical exercise intervention during treatment.

    PubMed

    Midtgaard, J; Rorth, M; Stelter, R; Adamsen, L

    2006-03-01

    A series of studies have shown that physical activity improves cancer patients functional capacity and quality of life (QOL). Few of these studies have included physical exercise carried out in a group setting. However, patient's experience with the in-group processes remains unexplored. This study investigated group cohesion and changes in QOL in 55 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy who participated in a 9 h weekly group exercise programme for 6 weeks. The study used a method triangulation component design. Seven qualitative group interviews were conducted post-intervention. QOL (SF-36; EORTC QLQ-C30) was assessed at baseline and after Week 6. The interviews revealed that group cohesion was an interim goal aimed to maximize peak performance potential by patients. Group cohesion was characterized by a special 'esprit de corps' and enabled the group members to feel like sport teams. The programme made purposeful togetherness possible while allowing the patients an opportunity to let their illness fade into the background. Questionnaire data showed significant improvements in mental health, social and emotional functioning. This study identified a conceptualization of group cohesion that forms a valuable basis for a larger randomized controlled trial to conclude whether the observed changes are a result of this specific intervention.

  3. Group swimming and aquatic exercise programme for children with autism spectrum disorders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Haley, Stephen M; O'Neil, Margaret E

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a 14-week aquatic exercise programme for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Non-randomized control trial. Twelve children participated in this pilot study with seven participants in the aquatic exercise group and five in the control group. The programme was held twice per week for 40 minutes per session. Swimming skills, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular endurance, mobility skills and participant and parent satisfaction were measured before and after the intervention. No significant between-group changes were found. Within-group improvements for swimming skills were found for the intervention group. Programme attendance was high. Parents and children were very satisfied with the programme activities and instructors. This pilot programme was feasible and showed potential for improving swimming ability in children with ASD. Exercise intensity was low for some participants, most likely contributing to a lack of significant findings on fitness outcomes.

  4. Effect of Acetyl Group on Mechanical Properties of Chitin/Chitosan Nanocrystal: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Junhe; Yu, Zechuan; Lau, Denvid

    2016-01-05

    Chitin fiber is the load-bearing component in natural chitin-based materials. In these materials, chitin is always partially deacetylated to different levels, leading to diverse material properties. In order to understand how the acetyl group enhances the fracture resistance capability of chitin fiber, we constructed atomistic models of chitin with varied acetylation degree and analyzed the hydrogen bonding pattern, fracture, and stress-strain behavior of these models. We notice that the acetyl group can contribute to the formation of hydrogen bonds that can stabilize the crystalline structure. In addition, it is found that the specimen with a higher acetylation degree presents a greater resistance against fracture. This study describes the role of the functional group, acetyl groups, in crystalline chitin. Such information could provide preliminary understanding of nanomaterials when similar functional groups are encountered.

  5. Group cohesion and social support in exercise classes: results from a danish intervention study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-10-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group, the teaching ability by the instructors, and the activity by itself. The cohesive group was characterized by an attitude of mutual support toward exercise activities. This mutual support facilitated development of self-efficacy beliefs among the participants improving their mastery expectation regarding exercise. Manipulating group dynamics may be a promising intervention tool in the promotion of leisure-time physical activity.

  6. Effect of Acetyl Group on Mechanical Properties of Chitin/Chitosan Nanocrystal: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Junhe; Yu, Zechuan; Lau, Denvid

    2016-01-01

    Chitin fiber is the load-bearing component in natural chitin-based materials. In these materials, chitin is always partially deacetylated to different levels, leading to diverse material properties. In order to understand how the acetyl group enhances the fracture resistance capability of chitin fiber, we constructed atomistic models of chitin with varied acetylation degree and analyzed the hydrogen bonding pattern, fracture, and stress-strain behavior of these models. We notice that the acetyl group can contribute to the formation of hydrogen bonds that can stabilize the crystalline structure. In addition, it is found that the specimen with a higher acetylation degree presents a greater resistance against fracture. This study describes the role of the functional group, acetyl groups, in crystalline chitin. Such information could provide preliminary understanding of nanomaterials when similar functional groups are encountered. PMID:26742033

  7. [Development and evaluation of an ADHD teacher group training--a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Rossbach, Marlis; Probst, Paul

    2005-10-01

    In the introduction is shown that no controlled studies of teacher training programs in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been published in German research literature as yet in spite of high demand for educational inservice training. The aim of the present study is the development and evaluation of a two-step ADHD teacher group training. In step 1 a group training (12 h) was performed with 18 advisory teachers. The curriculum included ADHD theory, contingency management and "antecedent" TEACCH-oriented school-based interventions (Schopler 1997; Bregman and Gerdtz 1997). In step 2 then a subsample of 6 advisory teachers supervised 10 classroom teachers of 11 primary school students (mean age 8.6 yrs.) with ADHD symptoms, who were assigned to two experimental groups. The classroom teachers of the Standard Treatment Group (n=5 students) received the basic module "ADHD theory and school-based interventions" (6 h), the teachers of the Intensive Treatment Group (n=6 students) received the same basic module plus the module "Student-related training in Contingency Management" (in total 14h). The group training process was evaluated by teacher satisfaction ratings and knowledge test. The training effect on student behavior was evaluated by teacher ratings within a two-group-pre-post-follow-up design. The main results are: (a) The group training process was mostly evaluated favorably; knowledge increased significantly; (b) ADHD symptoms were reduced significantly in both treatment groups, with stronger and sustained improvement of problem behaviors and adaptive functioning in the Intensive Treatment Group. These findings provide some consistent evidence, that classroom behaviors of children with ADHD symptoms can be improved substantially by a teacher mediator training approach.

  8. Intensive group-based CBT for child social phobia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Caroline L; Cobham, Vanessa; Waters, Allison M; Occhipinti, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    Although CBT has proven efficacious in the treatment of child social phobia (SP), most children do not present for treatment and child SP may be less responsive to treatment than other anxiety disorders. Intensive, group-based, SP-specific CBT may improve the efficacy of, and access to, treatment for child SP. The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary examination of such a program. Forty Australian children aged 7-12 years (15 male and 25 female) were allocated into treatment and waitlist groups. Clinical interviews to determine diagnostic status were conducted prior to treatment, following treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Parent and child questionnaire measures of child anxiety symptoms, internalizing symptoms, depression, social skills, social competence, and parental social anxiety were administered at the same time points. Treatment was delivered in 4 separate 3-hour sessions conducted over 3 consecutive weekends. At postassessment, 52.4% of children in the treatment group and 15.8% of children in the waitlist group were free of their SP diagnosis. At postassessment, compared to waitlist children, treatment group children demonstrated a greater drop in clinical severity, a greater increase in overall functioning, and held fewer clinical diagnoses. Treatment group children also reported a greater reduction in SP symptoms compared to waitlist children, and treatment group parents reported a greater reduction in child internalizing and anxiety symptoms, a greater increase in child social competence, and a greater decrease in parental SP symptoms, compared to parents of children in the waitlist group. By 6-month follow-up, 76.9% of the treatment group were free of their SP diagnosis and gains on all other measures were maintained. The results of this study are encouraging, and suggest that brief, intensive, group CBT for children with social anxiety is beneficial for many youngsters. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A cross-cultural study of colour grouping: evidence for weak linguistic relativity.

    PubMed

    Davies, I R; Corbett, G G

    1997-08-01

    We report a cross-cultural study of colour grouping carried out as a test of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (linguistic relativity theory). Speakers of English, Russian and Setswana-languages that differ in their number of basic colour terms, and in how the blue-green region is categorized--were compared on a colour sorting task. Informants sorted a representative set of 65 colours into groups so that members of the groups looked similar to each other, with no restriction on the number of groups formed. If linguistic relativity theory is true, then there should be reliable differences between the three samples in the composition of the groups they formed associated with the differing positions of colour category boundaries in the languages. The most striking feature of the results, inconsistent with linguistic relativity theory, was the similarity amongst the patterns of choice of the three samples. However, there were also significant differences amongst the samples. Setswana speakers (who have a single basic term for BLUE or GREEN) were more likely to group BLUE colours with GREEN colours than either English or Russian speakers. But Russian speakers (who have two basic colour terms for BLUE) were no more likely than English speakers to group light and dark BLUE separately. In addition there were general structural differences in grouping among the samples: they differed in the level of consensus in grouping, the number of groups formed and in the distribution of the number of colours placed in a group. These structural differences may reflect differences in the availability and salience of the colour categories across the languages. Our data support perceptual universalism modulated by weaker linguistic effects.

  10. Friendship group influences on body dissatisfaction and dieting among adolescent girls: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Woelders, Lieke C S; Larsen, Junilla K; Scholte, Ron H J; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-11-01

    Although some studies among adolescent girls found that friends within friendship groups were rather similar on dieting and/or body image constructs, these studies were limited by their cross-sectional designs. The current prospective study is the first to examine friendship group influences on eating disorder risk factors, including body dissatisfaction, weight concerns, dietary restraint, and dieting in adolescent girls. Design was a two-wave prospective study with 1-year interval. Of 863 girls (mean age = 13.8, SD = .7), 344 were members of one of the 103 reciprocal friendship groups identified using social network analysis. Reciprocal friends were similar with respect to body image and dieting constructs. However, initial friendship group levels of body dissatisfaction, weight concerns, dietary restraint, and dieting did not predict individual body image and dieting variables 1 year later. The current findings attest to the significance of reciprocal friendship group correlates of eating disorder risk factors, but suggest that during early-to-mid-adolescence, levels of body image concerns and dieting within reciprocal friendship groups do not influence adolescents' own body image concerns and dieting over 1 year of time. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Objective Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Results Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Conclusions Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the “hard to reach” character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld. PMID:26902160

  12. Risperidone versus pimozide in Tourette's disorder: a comparative double-blind parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, R; van der Linden, C; Buitelaar, J K; Gericke, G S; Hawkridge, S M; Temlett, J A

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of Tourette's disorder with classical neuroleptics is limited by their side effects. Risperidone is a new efficacious antipsychotic with a low propensity for extrapyramidal side effects. To establish risperidone's therapeutic potential in Tourette's disorder, we studied the safety and efficacy of risperidone in comparison with pimozide in patients with Tourette's disorder diagnosed according to DSM-III-R. In a 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, 26 patients were treated with risperidone (mean daily dose = 3.8 mg), and 24 patients were treated with pimozide (mean daily dose = 2.9 mg). There was significant improvement of tics with respect to the Tourette's Symptom Severity Scale (TSSS) for both groups. Forty-one patients completed the study. At endpoint, 54% (14/26) of the risperidone patients and 38% (9/24) of the pimozide patients had only very mild or no symptoms on the global severity rating of the TSSS. Both treatment groups had improved significantly at endpoint in regard to Global Assessment of Functioning and Clinical Global Impressions scale outcomes. Symptoms of anxiety and depressive mood improved significantly from baseline in both groups. Obsessive-compulsive behavior improvement reached significance only in the risperidone group. Although the severity of extrapyramidal side effects was low in both groups, fewer patients in the risperidone group reported extrapyramidal side effects (N = 4) compared with the pimozide group (N = 8). Depression, fatigue, and somnolence were reported as the most prominent side effects in both treatment groups. Both drugs were efficacious and well tolerated in patients with Tourette's disorder. Risperidone may become the first-line drug in the treatment of Tourette's disorder owing to a more favorable efficacy and tolerability profile.

  13. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Tavener, Meredith; Mooney, Rosemary; Thomson, Clare; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-02-22

    Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the "hard to reach" character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld.

  14. Smoking and peer groups: results from a longitudinal qualitative study of young people in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Sittlington, Julie; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Harrisson, Sheila; Treacy, Margaret; Abaunza, Pilar Santos

    2005-09-01

    Previous research has indicated that young people are under considerable social pressure to take up smoking. This study has therefore sought to explore and better understand the mechanisms through which peer-related social factors operate to encourage young people to smoke. Individual qualitative interviews were held with adolescent children aged 11-12 years (N = 102) within youth clubs based in economically deprived areas of Northern Ireland, and then followed up on two occasions during the subsequent 3 years (N = 51/39). The data implied that, although peers influence smoking uptake, this seldom happens through direct persuasion, but rather as the result of the young person striving to conform to the normative behaviour of the peer group with which they identify. The findings are consistent with social identity theory and self-categorization theory in that for both smoking and nonsmoking 14-year-olds smoking activity appears to provide a means through which to define social groups, to accentuate similarity within groups and differences between groups. In-group favouritism was expressed in the sharing of cigarettes within the in-group and in the negative stereotyping of out-group members. There was some evidence that group affiliation may be negotiated differently for boys and girls. These findings imply that successful intervention needs to reconsider the normative processes that encourage young people to smoke.

  15. An Observational Study of Group Waterpipe Use in a Natural Environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To date research on tobacco smoking with a waterpipe (hookah, narghile, and shisha) has focused primarily on the individual user in a laboratory setting. Yet, waterpipe tobacco smoking is often a social practice that occurs in cafés, homes, and other natural settings. This observational study examined the behavior of waterpipe tobacco smokers and the social and contextual features of waterpipe use among groups in their natural environment. Methods: Trained observers visited urban waterpipe cafés on multiple occasions during an 8-month period. Observations of 241 individual users in naturally formed groups were made on smoking topography (puff frequency, duration, and interpuff interval [IPI]) and engagement in other activities (e.g., food and drink consumption, other tobacco use, and media viewing). Results: Most users were male in group sizes of 3–4 persons, on average, and each table had 1 waterpipe, on average. The predominant social features during observational periods were conversation and nonalcoholic drinking. Greater puff number was associated with smaller group sizes and more waterpipes per group, while longer IPIs were associated with larger group sizes and fewer waterpipes per group. Additionally, greater puff frequency was observed during media viewing and in the absence of other tobacco use. Conclusions: Overall, the results suggest that waterpipe smoking behavior is affected by group size and by certain social activities. Discussion focuses on how these findings enhance our understanding of factors that may influence exposure to waterpipe tobacco smoke toxicants in naturalistic environments. PMID:23943842

  16. Association of ABO blood group and risk of lung cancer in a multicenter study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Urun, Yuksel; Utkan, Gungor; Cangir, Ayten Kayi; Oksuzoglu, Omur Berna; Ozdemir, Nuriye; Oztuna, Derya Gokmen; Kocaman, Gokhan; Coşkun, Hasan Şenol; Kaplan, Muhammet Ali; Yuksel, Cabir; Demirkazik, Ahmet; Icli, Fikri

    2013-01-01

    The ABO blood groups and Rh factor may affect the risk of lung cancer. We analyzed 2,044 lung cancer patients with serologically confirmed ABO/Rh blood group. A group of 3,022,883 healthy blood donors of Turkish Red Crescent was identified as a control group. We compared the distributions of ABO/Rh blood group between them. The median age was 62 years (range: 17-90). There was a clear male predominance (84% vs. 16%). Overall distributions of ABO blood groups were significantly different between patients and controls (p=0.01). There were also significant differences between patients and controls with respect to Rh positive vs. Rh negative (p=0.04) and O vs. non-O (p=0.002). There were no statistically significant differences of blood groups with respect to sex, age, or histology. In the study population, ABO blood types were associated with the lung cancer. Having non-O blood type and Rh-negative feature increased the risk of lung cancer. However, further prospective studies are necessary to define the mechanisms by which ABO blood type may influence the lung cancer risk.

  17. Group training with healthy computing practices to prevent repetitive strain injury (RSI): a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Peper, Erik; Gibney, Katherine H; Wilson, Vietta E

    2004-12-01

    This pilot study investigated whether group training, in which participants become role models and coaches, would reduce discomfort as compared to a nontreatment Control Group. Sixteen experimental participants participated in 6 weekly 2-hr group sessions of a Healthy Computing program whereas 12 control participants received no training. None of the participants reported symptoms to their supervisors nor were they receiving medical treatment for repetitive strain injury prior to the program. The program included training in ergonomic principles, psychophysiological awareness and control, sEMG practice at the workstation, and coaching coworkers. Using two-tailed t tests to analyze the data, the Experimental Group reported (1) a significant overall reduction in most body symptoms as compared to the Control Group and (2) a significant increase in positive work-style habits, such as taking breaks at the computer, as compared to the Control Group. This study suggests that employees could possibly improve health and work style patterns based on a holistic training program delivered in a group format followed by individual practice.

  18. Effects of group therapy on female adolescent survivors of sexual abuse: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors was explored through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Self-image was defined as body image, self-reliance, self-control, and impulse-control. An experimental pre-post design was utilized. Participants were 13 female adolescent high school drop-outs with a history of sexual abuse who participated in the National Guard Youth Challenge Program at Camp Shelby in Mississippi. Participants completed the Offer Self- Image Questionnaire for Adolescents. The hypothesis that group therapy was an effective intervention for sexual abuse survivors was not supported; however, this is likely due to the small sample size. Because this was a pilot study, mean trends were observed to see directional changes that may assist future researchers. Observation of mean trends revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control while the group that did not receive group therapy remained the same. Mean trends also revealed that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the control group maintained their levels of self-reliance.

  19. Qualitative focus group study investigating experiences of accessing and engaging with social care services: perspectives of carers from diverse ethnic groups caring for stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Nan; Holley, Jess; Ellmers, Theresa; Mein, Gill; Cloud, Geoffrey

    2016-01-29

    Informal carers, often family members, play a vital role in supporting stroke survivors with post-stroke disability. As populations age, numbers of carers overall and those from minority ethnic groups in particular, are rising. Carers from all ethnic groups, but especially those from black and minority ethnic groups frequently fail to access support services, making understanding their experiences important. The study therefore explored the experiences of carers of stroke survivors aged 45+ years from 5 ethnic groups in accessing and receiving social care services after hospital discharge. This qualitative study used 7 recorded focus groups with informal carers of stroke survivors. Data were analysed thematically focusing on similarities and differences between ethnic groups. Carers were recruited from voluntary sector organisations supporting carers, stroke survivors and black and minority ethnic groups in the UK. 41 carers from 5 ethnic groups (Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, black African, black Caribbean, white British) participated in the focus groups. Several interconnected themes were identified including: the service gap between hospital discharge and home; carers as the best person to care and cultural aspects of caring and using services. Many themes were common to all the included ethnic groups but some related to specific groups. Across ethnic groups there were many similarities in the experiences of people caring for stroke survivors with complex, long-term care needs. Accessing services demands effort and persistence on carers' part. If carers believe services are unsatisfactory or that they, rather than formal services, should be providing support for stroke survivors, they are unlikely to persist in their efforts. Cultural and language differences add to the challenges black and minority ethnic group carers face. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Health effects of war stress on Norwegian World War II resistance groups: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Major, Ellinor F

    2003-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which adverse long-term health effects of World War II stress exposure were present in 3 groups of resistance veterans. The groups had been exposed to different types of war stressors: concentration camp incarceration, resistance participation within the illegal press, and a secret military organization. With the differences in war stressors as a basis, we assumed that those incarcerated in a concentration camp would display more adverse health effect compared to the resistance veterans. The findings point to a relationship between the severity of war stressors and postwar health in all 3 groups.

  1. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in

  2. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13-14, 15-16 and 17-18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15-16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in adolescents

  3. Developing patient reference groups within general practice: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Smiddy, Jane; Reay, Joanne; Peckham, Stephen; Williams, Lorraine; Wilson, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    Clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) are required to demonstrate meaningful patient and public engagement and involvement (PPEI). Recent health service reforms have included financial incentives for general practices to develop patient reference groups (PRGs). To explore the impact of the patient participation direct enhanced service (DES) on development of PRGs, the influence of PRGs on decision making within general practice, and their interface with CCGs. A mixed-methods approach within three case study sites in England. Three case study sites were tracked for 18 months as part of an evaluation of PPEI in commissioning. A sub-study focused on PRGs utilising documentary and web-based analysis; results were mapped against findings of the main study. Evidence highlighted variations in the establishment of PRGs, with the number of active PRGs via practice websites ranging from 27% to 93%. Such groups were given a number of descriptions such as patient reference groups, patient participation groups, and patient forums. Data analysis highlighted that the mode of operation varied between virtual and tangible groups and whether they were GP- or patient-led, such analysis enabled the construction of a typology of PRGs. Evidence reviewed suggested that groups functioned within parameters of the DES with activities limited to practice level. Data analysis highlighted a lack of strategic vision in relation to such groups, particularly their role within an overall patient and PPEI framework). Findings identified diversity in the operationalisation of PRGs. Their development does not appear linked to a strategic vision or overall PPEI framework. Although local pragmatic issues are important to patients, GPs must ensure that PRGs develop strategic direction if health reforms are to be addressed. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  4. Parametric analyses of summative scores may lead to conflicting inferences when comparing groups: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asaduzzaman; Chien, Chi-Wen; Bagraith, Karl S

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether using a parametric statistic in comparing groups leads to different conclusions when using summative scores from rating scales compared with using their corresponding Rasch-based measures. A Monte Carlo simulation study was designed to examine between-group differences in the change scores derived from summative scores from rating scales, and those derived from their corresponding Rasch-based measures, using 1-way analysis of variance. The degree of inconsistency between the 2 scoring approaches (i.e. summative and Rasch-based) was examined, using varying sample sizes, scale difficulties and person ability conditions. This simulation study revealed scaling artefacts that could arise from using summative scores rather than Rasch-based measures for determining the changes between groups. The group differences in the change scores were statistically significant for summative scores under all test conditions and sample size scenarios. However, none of the group differences in the change scores were significant when using the corresponding Rasch-based measures. This study raises questions about the validity of the inference on group differences of summative score changes in parametric analyses. Moreover, it provides a rationale for the use of Rasch-based measures, which can allow valid parametric analyses of rating scale data.

  5. Optimal caliper width for propensity score matching of three treatment groups: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongji; Cai, Hongwei; Li, Chanjuan; Jiang, Zhiwei; Wang, Ling; Song, Jiugang; Xia, Jielai

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score matching is a method to reduce bias in non-randomized and observational studies. Propensity score matching is mainly applied to two treatment groups rather than multiple treatment groups, because some key issues affecting its application to multiple treatment groups remain unsolved, such as the matching distance, the assessment of balance in baseline variables, and the choice of optimal caliper width. The primary objective of this study was to compare propensity score matching methods using different calipers and to choose the optimal caliper width for use with three treatment groups. The authors used caliper widths from 0.1 to 0.8 of the pooled standard deviation of the logit of the propensity score, in increments of 0.1. The balance in baseline variables was assessed by standardized difference. The matching ratio, relative bias, and mean squared error (MSE) of the estimate between groups in different propensity score-matched samples were also reported. The results of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that matching using a caliper width of 0.2 of the pooled standard deviation of the logit of the propensity score affords superior performance in the estimation of treatment effects. This study provides practical solutions for the application of propensity score matching of three treatment groups.

  6. Hypertension management initiative prospective cohort study: comparison between immediate and delayed intervention groups.

    PubMed

    Tobe, S W; Moy Lum-Kwong, M; Von Sychowski, S; Kandukur, K; Kiss, A; Flintoft, V

    2014-01-01

    The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario's Hypertension Management Initiative (HMI) was a pragmatic implementation of clinical practice guidelines for hypertension management in primary care clinics. The HMI was a prospective delayed phase cohort study of 11 sites enrolling patients in two blocks starting 9 months apart in 2007. The intervention was an evidence-informed chronic disease management program consisting of an interprofessional educational intervention with practice tools to implement the Canadian Hypertension Education Program's clinical practice guidelines. This study compares the change in blood pressure (BP) from baseline to 9 months after the intervention between groups. In the immediate intervention group, the mean BP at baseline was 134.6/79.1 mm Hg (18.2/11.5) and in the delayed intervention group 134.2/77.1 mm Hg (18.9/11.8). The fall in BP in the immediate intervention group from baseline to 9 months after the intervention was 7.3/3.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.9-8.7/2.6-4.5) and in the delayed group 8.1/3.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 7.0-9.3/2.5-4.1) (all P<0.0001 were compared from baseline to the end of 9 months of the program in both groups). This study is the first to demonstrate that implementation of an interprofessional knowledge integration initiative for the control of hypertension can rapidly lead to lower BP levels.

  7. Combining matched and unmatched control groups in case-control studies.

    PubMed

    le Cessie, Saskia; Nagelkerke, Nico; Rosendaal, Frits R; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Pomp, Elisabeth R; van Houwelingen, Hans C

    2008-11-15

    Multiple control groups in case-control studies are used to control for different sources of confounding. For example, cases can be contrasted with matched controls to adjust for multiple genetic or unknown lifestyle factors and simultaneously contrasted with an unmatched population-based control group. Inclusion of different control groups for a single exposure analysis yields several estimates of the odds ratio, all using only part of the data. Here the authors introduce an easy way to combine odds ratios from several case-control analyses with the same cases. The approach is based upon methods used for meta-analysis but takes into account the fact that the same cases are used and that the estimated odds ratios are therefore correlated. Two ways of estimating this correlation are discussed: sandwich methodology and the bootstrap. Confidence intervals for the pooled estimates and a test for checking whether the odds ratios in the separate case-control studies differ significantly are derived. The performance of the method is studied by simulation and by applying the methods to a large study on risk factors for thrombosis, the MEGA Study (1999-2004), wherein cases with first venous thrombosis were included with a matched control group of partners and an unmatched population-based control group.

  8. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  9. Children's Experiences and Meaning Construction on Parental Divorce: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Sofie D. J.; De Mol, Jan; Buysse, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The global aim of this study was to explore children's narratives of parental divorce. A convenience sample, composed of 11- and 14-year-old children, was recruited. A total of 22 children (12 male, 10 female) participated in this focus group study. The findings show that two components seem to be really important for children during the divorce…

  10. Weight Loss as a Primary Objective of Therapeutic Groups for Obese Women: Two Preliminary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg…

  11. Study Circles at the Pharmacy--A New Model for Diabetes Education in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkadi, Anna; Rosenqvist, Urban

    1999-01-01

    Tests the feasibility of a one-year group education model for patients with type 2 diabetes in Sweden. Within study circles led by pharmacists, participants learned to self-monitor glucose, to interpret the results and to act upon them. Results show that study circles held at pharmacies are a feasible way of education persons with type 2 diabetes.…

  12. Factors Affecting Ethnic Minority Students' Attainment in Secondary Schools in Cyprus: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodosiou-Zipiti, Galatia; West, Mel; Muijs, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study in Cyprus aiming to gain insight into the factors responsible for the low attainment of ethnic minority students observed in earlier studies. Teachers from different schools and cities on the island participated in a focus group discussion. Identified factors related to the child, parents, home environment, teachers,…

  13. Literacy Practices and Linguistic Choices: A Sociocultural Study of a Multilingual Adult Literacy Student Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen R.; Thorp, Kay

    The report describes a study of a multilingual group of six adult literacy students, five women and one man, enrolled in an English literacy class at an Australian college. Subjects' countries of origin include Afghanistan, Indonesia/China, Lebanon, Iran, and China. The study examined factors affecting subjects' daily literacy practices and…

  14. A Case Study of Group Processes and Student Evaluation of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Kristian G.; Sathe, Richard S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper documents a case study undertaken to understand the effect of group processes on student evaluation of teaching (SET). The study used interviews to investigate the experiences of students in a cohort model Master of Science in Accountancy degree program and how those experiences influenced SET. The cohort served as an extreme example in…

  15. Opportunities and Challenges in Using Studies without a Control Group in Comparative Effectiveness Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Jessica K.; Dahabreh, Issa J.; Balk, Ethan M.; Avendano, Esther E.; Lau, Joseph; Ip, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    When examining the evidence on therapeutic interventions to answer a comparative effectiveness research question, one should consider all studies that are informative on the interventions' causal effects. "Single group studies" evaluate outcomes longitudinally in cohorts of subjects who are managed with a single treatment strategy.…

  16. Why Teachers Participate in Professional Development: Lessons from a Schoolwide Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigsby, James B.; Firestone, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Because it is not clear that teachers will volunteer for good professional development if it is made available, this study used surveys--including social network analysis--and interviews to examine why teachers did and did not participate in one school's high-quality study group. While all teachers were motivated by intrinsic incentives, two…

  17. Facilitating Group Analysis of Two Case Studies Utilising Peer Tutoring: Comparison of Tasks and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Lin Siew

    2016-01-01

    Peer-tutoring sessions of two groups of advanced diploma in financial accounting students with mixed proficiency were analysed thoroughly in this study. Numerous studies in peer tutoring have produced favourable results to both tutors and tutees due to the scaffolding process which promotes effective learning. However, there is a lack of studies…

  18. Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

  19. A Case Study of Group Processes and Student Evaluation of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Kristian G.; Sathe, Richard S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper documents a case study undertaken to understand the effect of group processes on student evaluation of teaching (SET). The study used interviews to investigate the experiences of students in a cohort model Master of Science in Accountancy degree program and how those experiences influenced SET. The cohort served as an extreme example in…

  20. Participation, Interaction and Social Presence: An Exploratory Study of Collaboration in Online Peer Review Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Huahui; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.; Mellenius, Ingmarie

    2014-01-01

    A key reason for using asynchronous computer conferencing in instruction is its potential for supporting collaborative learning. However, few studies have examined collaboration in computer conferencing. This study examined collaboration in six peer review groups within an asynchronous computer conferencing. Eighteen tertiary students participated…

  1. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of higher education and graduate and undergraduate students to undertake research or study in a... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  2. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of higher education and graduate and undergraduate students to undertake research or study in a... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  3. A Case Study: An ACT Stress Management Group in a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daltry, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) stress management group in a college counseling center setting. This study explored (a) the effectiveness of ACT in increasing participants' ability to tolerate distress, which directly affects their ability to function in a stressful college…

  4. Weight Loss as a Primary Objective of Therapeutic Groups for Obese Women: Two Preliminary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg…

  5. A Case Study: An ACT Stress Management Group in a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daltry, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) stress management group in a college counseling center setting. This study explored (a) the effectiveness of ACT in increasing participants' ability to tolerate distress, which directly affects their ability to function in a stressful college…

  6. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... foreign country. (2) The period of research or study in a foreign country is generally from three to... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  7. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... foreign country. (2) The period of research or study in a foreign country is generally from three to... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  8. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... foreign country. (2) The period of research or study in a foreign country is generally from three to... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Freshman Interest Groups at the University of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinto, Vincent; Goodsell, Anne

    This paper reports on two studies, one quantitative and the other qualitative, on the effectiveness and influence of Freshman Interest Groups (FIGs) at the University of Washington. A quantitative panel study compared 442 freshmen participating in 21 FIGs with 1818 non-participating freshmen. Findings indicated that the FIG program provided a…

  10. Why Teachers Participate in Professional Development: Lessons from a Schoolwide Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigsby, James B.; Firestone, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Because it is not clear that teachers will volunteer for good professional development if it is made available, this study used surveys--including social network analysis--and interviews to examine why teachers did and did not participate in one school's high-quality study group. While all teachers were motivated by intrinsic incentives, two…

  11. Participation, Interaction and Social Presence: An Exploratory Study of Collaboration in Online Peer Review Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Huahui; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.; Mellenius, Ingmarie

    2014-01-01

    A key reason for using asynchronous computer conferencing in instruction is its potential for supporting collaborative learning. However, few studies have examined collaboration in computer conferencing. This study examined collaboration in six peer review groups within an asynchronous computer conferencing. Eighteen tertiary students participated…

  12. Mathematical Retention Over the Summer. Teacher Corps Mathematics Work/Study Group. Working Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begle, E.G.; And Others

    This study investigated mathematical retention of junior high school students over the summer months. Approximately 41 percent of the eighth-grade subjects used in this study were Chicano; the others were Anglo, Black, Oriental, and American Indian. The subjects were divided by ethnic group--Chicano or non-Chicano--and according to whether or not…

  13. Children's Experiences and Meaning Construction on Parental Divorce: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Sofie D. J.; De Mol, Jan; Buysse, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The global aim of this study was to explore children's narratives of parental divorce. A convenience sample, composed of 11- and 14-year-old children, was recruited. A total of 22 children (12 male, 10 female) participated in this focus group study. The findings show that two components seem to be really important for children during the divorce…

  14. Children's Preferences for Group Musical Activities in Child Care Centres: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a cross-cultural research study of children's preferences for group musical activities in child care centres. A total of 228 young children aged 4-5 years in seven child care centres in Hong Kong and in the Adelaide City of South Australia participated in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected via a…

  15. Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

  16. Liberal Studies in Hong Kong: A New Perspective on Critical Thinking through Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis; Howe, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article reports research that is contextualised within reforms of secondary education in Hong Kong and the reintroduction of Liberal Studies, which jointly emphasise the need for a learning environment that facilitates the practice of group work and the development of critical thinking. A study is described that explores the relevance of…

  17. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  18. Qualitative focus group study investigating experiences of accessing and engaging with social care services: perspectives of carers from diverse ethnic groups caring for stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Nan; Holley, Jess; Ellmers, Theresa; Mein, Gill; Cloud, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Informal carers, often family members, play a vital role in supporting stroke survivors with post-stroke disability. As populations age, numbers of carers overall and those from minority ethnic groups in particular, are rising. Carers from all ethnic groups, but especially those from black and minority ethnic groups frequently fail to access support services, making understanding their experiences important. The study therefore explored the experiences of carers of stroke survivors aged 45+ years from 5 ethnic groups in accessing and receiving social care services after hospital discharge. Design This qualitative study used 7 recorded focus groups with informal carers of stroke survivors. Data were analysed thematically focusing on similarities and differences between ethnic groups. Setting Carers were recruited from voluntary sector organisations supporting carers, stroke survivors and black and minority ethnic groups in the UK. Participants 41 carers from 5 ethnic groups (Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, black African, black Caribbean, white British) participated in the focus groups. Results Several interconnected themes were identified including: the service gap between hospital discharge and home; carers as the best person to care and cultural aspects of caring and using services. Many themes were common to all the included ethnic groups but some related to specific groups. Conclusions Across ethnic groups there were many similarities in the experiences of people caring for stroke survivors with complex, long-term care needs. Accessing services demands effort and persistence on carers’ part. If carers believe services are unsatisfactory or that they, rather than formal services, should be providing support for stroke survivors, they are unlikely to persist in their efforts. Cultural and language differences add to the challenges black and minority ethnic group carers face. PMID:26826148

  19. Patient experiences of a bariatric group programme for managing obesity: A qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Mark; Khan, Sammyh S; Farrow, Claire V; Shah, Pooja; Daly, Mark; Kos, Katarina

    2017-02-01

    People with obesity experience a range of physical and psychological ill-health outcomes. This study examined patients' experiences of a group-based programme for the management of morbid obesity delivered within the UK National Health Service. The focus of the study was on the emerging dynamic of the group and patients' perceptions of its impact on health outcomes. A qualitative interview study was conducted and involved patients recruited from a Tier 3 bariatric service in South West England. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Twenty patients (12 females) with a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2) participated in a semi-structured one-to-one interview. Participants had been registered with the bariatric service for at least 6 months. None of the participants had had bariatric surgery. Most participants felt that they had benefited from participating in the group programme and talked about the group as a resource for lifestyle change. Participants' narratives centred on the emergence of a sense of self based upon their participation in the group: establishing psychological connections to other patients, or shared social identity, was regarded as a key mechanism through which the programme's educational material was accessed, and underpinned the experience of social support within the group. Through interaction with other patients, involving the sharing of personal experiences and challenges, participants came to experience their weight 'problem' through a collective lens that they felt empowered them to initiate and sustain individual lifestyle change. Bariatric care groups have the potential to support lifestyle change and weight loss and may help address the psychological needs of patients. Nurturing a sense of shared social identity amongst patients with morbid obesity should be a core aim of the care pathway and may provide the foundation for successful translation of dietetic content in group programmes. Statement of contribution What is already

  20. Group sequential methods and sample size savings in biomarker-disease association studies.

    PubMed Central

    Aplenc, R; Zhao, H; Rebbeck, T R; Propert, K J

    2003-01-01

    Molecular epidemiological association studies use valuable biosamples and incur costs. Statistical methods for early genotyping termination may conserve biosamples and costs. Group sequential methods (GSM) allow early termination of studies on the basis of interim comparisons. Simulation studies evaluated the application of GSM using data from a case-control study of GST genotypes and prostate cancer. Group sequential boundaries (GSB) were defined in the EAST-2000 software and were evaluated for study termination when early evidence suggested that the null hypothesis of no association between genotype and disease was unlikely to be rejected. Early termination of GSTM1 genotyping, which demonstrated no association with prostate cancer, occurred in >90% of the simulated studies. On average, 36.4% of biosamples were saved from unnecessary genotyping. In contrast, for GSTT1, which demonstrated a positive association, inappropriate termination occurred in only 6.6%. GSM may provide significant cost and sample savings in molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:12663557

  1. Regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults in Japan: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Yagasaki, Kaori; Saito, Yoshinobu; Oguma, Yuko

    2017-08-22

    While community-wide interventions to promote physical activity have been encouraged in older adults, evidence of their effectiveness remains limited. We conducted a qualitative study among older adults participating in regular group exercise to understand their perceptions of the physical, mental, and social changes they underwent as a result of the physical activity. We conducted a qualitative study with purposeful sampling to explore the experiences of older adults who participated in regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention. Four focus group interviews were conducted between April and June of 2016 at community halls in Fujisawa City. The participants in the focus group interviews were 26 older adults with a mean age of 74.69 years (range: 66-86). The interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method in the grounded theory approach. We used qualitative research software NVivo10® to track the coding and manage the data. The finding 'regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults' emerged as an overarching theme with seven categories (regular group exercise, functional health, active mind, enjoyment, social connectedness, mutual support, and expanding communities). Although the participants perceived that they were aging physically and cognitively, the regular group exercise helped them to improve or maintain their functional health and enjoy their lives. They felt socially connected and experienced a sense of security in the community through caring for others and supporting each other. As the older adults began to seek value beyond individuals, they gradually expanded their communities beyond geographical and generational boundaries. The participants achieved balanced health in the physical, mental, and social domains through regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention and contributed to expanding communities through social connectedness and

  2. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1995 Annual Meeting (Ontario, Canada, May 26-30, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pothier, Yvonne M., Ed.

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at the 1995 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are organized into four sections: (1) plenary lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic sessions; and (4) ad hoc sessions. Papers include: (1) "The Role of Epistemology in the Analysis of Teaching/Learning…

  3. The impact of instructor grouping strategies on student efficacy in inquiry science labs: A phenomenological case study of grouping perceptions and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Nathaniel J.

    Abundant educational research has integrated Albert Bandura's concepts of self-efficacy and collective efficacy within educational settings. In this phenomenological case study, the investigation sought to capture the manifestation of self-efficacy and collective efficacy within inquiry-based science laboratory courses. Qualitative data was derived from student efficacy surveys, direct classroom observations, and three-tiered interviews with teacher participants. Four high school science instructors and their students from two school districts in Northern Illinois were selected to participate in the study. This study sought to identify instructor strategies or criteria used to formulate student laboratory groups and the impact of such groupings on student self-efficacy and collective efficacy. Open coding of interview transcripts, observation logs, and student surveys led to the development of eight emerging themes. These themes included the purpose of science laboratory activities, instructor grouping strategies, instructor roles, instructor's perceptions, science laboratory assessment, student interactions, learner self-perceptions, and grouping preferences. Results from the study suggest that some students were innately inclined to assume leadership roles, smaller groupings had greater participation from all group members, students had a strong preference for working collaboratively in groups, and students desired to maintain stable laboratory groups in lieu of periodically changing laboratory partners. As with all case study methodologies, the findings of the study were limited to the individual participants at research sites and were not generalizable to all science classrooms. Additional research in the realms of group size, group autonomy, and student interviews would provide even greater insights into the observed phenomena.

  4. Studies of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of nitroimidazoles: demystifying this critical relationship with the nitro group

    PubMed Central

    Boechat, Núbia; Carvalho, Alcione S; Salomão, Kelly; de Castro, Solange L; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Mello, Francisco VC; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Aiub, Claudia AF; Conde, Taline Ramos; Zamith, Helena PS; Skupin, Rolf; Haufe, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Nitroimidazoles exhibit high microbicidal activity, but mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties have been attributed to the presence of the nitro group. However, we synthesised nitroimidazoles with activity against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, but that were not genotoxic. Herein, nitroimidazoles (11-19) bearing different substituent groups were investigated for their potential induction of genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/Microsome assay) and the correlations of these effects with their trypanocidal effect and with megazol were investigated. The compounds were designed to analyse the role played by the position of the nitro group in the imidazole nucleus (C-4 or C-5) and the presence of oxidisable groups at N-1 as an anion receptor group and the role of a methyl group at C-2. Nitroimidazoles bearing NO2 at C-4 and CH3 at C-2 were not genotoxic compared to those bearing NO2 at C-5. However, when there was a CH3 at C-2, the position of the NO2 group had no influence on the genotoxic activity. Fluorinated compounds exhibited higher genotoxicity regardless of the presence of CH3 at C-2 or NO2 at C-4 or C-5. However, in compounds 11 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2Cl) and 12 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2F), the fluorine atom had no influence on genotoxicity. This study contributes to the future search for new and safer prototypes and provide. PMID:26018452

  5. The relationship between three-dimensional imaging and group decision making: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Litynski, D M; Grabowski, M; Wallace, W A

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes an empirical investigation of the effect of three dimensional (3-D) imaging on group performance in a tactical planning task. The objective of the study is to examine the role that stereoscopic imaging can play in supporting face-to-face group problem solving and decision making-in particular, the alternative generation and evaluation processes in teams. It was hypothesized that with the stereoscopic display, group members would better visualize the information concerning the task environment, producing open communication and information exchanges. The experimental setting was a tactical command and control task, and the quality of the decisions and nature of the group decision process were investigated with three treatments: 1) noncomputerized, i.e., topographic maps with depth cues; 2) two-dimensional (2-D) imaging; and 3) stereoscopic imaging. The results were mixed on group performance. However, those groups with the stereoscopic displays generated more alternatives and spent less time on evaluation. In addition, the stereoscopic decision aid did not interfere with the group problem solving and decision-making processes. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential benefits, and the need to resolve demonstrated weaknesses of the technology.

  6. Experimental study on small group behavior and crowd dynamics in a tall office building evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yaping; Li, Lihua; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Tao

    2017-05-01

    It is well known that a large percentage of occupants in a building are evacuated together with their friends, families, and officemates, especially in China. Small group behaviors are therefore critical for crowd movement. This paper aims to study the crowd dynamic considering different social relations and the impacts of small groups on crowd dynamics in emergency evacuation. Three experiments are conducted in an 11-storey office building. In the first two experiments, all participants are classmates and know each other well. They are evacuated as individuals or pairs. In the third experiment, social relations among the participants are complex. Participants consist of 8 families, 6 lovers and several individuals. Space-time features, speed characteristics and density-speed relations for each experiment are analyzed and compared. Results conclude that small group behaviors can make positive impacts on crowd dynamics when evacuees know each other and are cooperative. This conclusion is also testified by four verified experiments. In the third experiment, speeds of evacuees are lowest. Small groups form automatically with the presence of intimate social relations. Small groups in this experiment slow down the average speed of the crowd and make disturbance on the crowd flow. Small groups in this case make negative impacts on the movement of the crowd. It is because that evacuees do not know each other and they are competitive to each other. Characteristics of different types of small groups are also investigated. Experimental data can provide foundational parameters for evacuation model development and are helpful for building designers.

  7. Social skills group training in high-functioning autism: A qualitative responder study.

    PubMed

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Rautio, Daniel; Asztalos, Jenny; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bölte, Sven

    2016-11-01

    Systematic reviews show some evidence for the efficacy of group-based social skills group training in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, but more rigorous research is needed to endorse generalizability. In addition, little is known about the perspectives of autistic individuals participating in social skills group training. Using a qualitative approach, the objective of this study was to examine experiences and opinions about social skills group training of children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder and their parents following participation in a manualized social skills group training ("KONTAKT"). Within an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial (NCT01854346) and based on outcome data from the Social Responsiveness Scale, six high responders and five low-to-non-responders to social skills group training and one parent of each child (N = 22) were deep interviewed. Interestingly, both high responders and low-to-non-responders (and their parents) reported improvements in social communication and related skills (e.g. awareness of own difficulties, self-confidence, independence in everyday life) and overall treatment satisfaction, although more positive intervention experiences were expressed by responders. These findings highlight the added value of collecting verbal data in addition to quantitative data in a comprehensive evaluation of social skills group training. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Combining social and genetic networks to study HIV transmission in mixing risk groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrabi, Narges; Prosperi, Mattia C. F.; Belleman, Robbert G.; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; De Luca, Andrea; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Reconstruction of HIV transmission networks is important for understanding and preventing the spread of the virus and drug resistant variants. Mixing risk groups is important in network analysis of HIV in order to assess the role of transmission between risk groups in the HIV epidemic. Most of the research focuses on the transmission within HIV risk groups, while transmission between different risk groups has been less studied. We use a proposed filter-reduction method to infer hypothetical transmission networks of HIV by combining data from social and genetic scales. We modified the filtering process in order to include mixing risk groups in the model. For this, we use the information on phylogenetic clusters obtained through phylogenetic analysis. A probability matrix is also defined to specify contact rates between individuals form the same and different risk groups. The method converts the data form each scale into network forms and combines them by overlaying and computing their intersection. We apply this method to reconstruct networks of HIV infected patients in central Italy, including mixing between risk groups. Our results suggests that bisexual behavior among Italian MSM and IDU partnership are relatively important in heterosexual transmission of HIV in central Italy.

  9. The effect of bereavement groups on grief, anxiety, and depression - a controlled, prospective intervention study.

    PubMed

    Näppä, Ulla; Lundgren, Ann-Britt; Axelsson, Bertil

    2016-07-12

    Bereavement groups are believed to be beneficial as preventive interventions to reduce the development of complicated grief for people at risk after the death of a significant other. This study aimed to investigate whether measurable effects on grief, anxiety, and depression could be detected in those participating in bereavement groups compared to non-participating controls. Questionnaires covering the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and background questions were handed out pre-intervention, five weeks and one year post-intervention to bereaved caregivers invited to bereavement groups. The results were analysed with non-parametric methods. A total of 124 individuals answered the questionnaires, and were divided into three categories: participants, non-participants unable to participate, and non-participants not wanting to participate in bereavement groups. At the one-year follow up, participants and those unable to participate reported higher levels of grief and were more anxious than those not wanting to participate. Depression did not differ between the groups. Participation in bereavement groups did not produce any effects on grief, anxiety, or depression in comparison to non-participants who were unable to participate. Non-participants who did not want to participate reported lower levels of grief and anxiety than the other two groups.

  10. Studies on the relative reactivity of three hydroxyl groups in aconitine.

    PubMed

    She, Xue-Ke; Jian, Xi-Xian; Chen, Dong-Lin; Chen, Qiao-Hong; Wang, Feng-Peng

    2012-01-01

    The relative reactivity of three hydroxyl groups in aconitine toward acetylation, chlorination, sulfonylation, and oxidation has been studied in this paper. The reduction of C-3 ketone and C-15 ketone derivatives of aconitine was also investigated. It was found that (1) the relative reactivity of three hydroxyl groups toward acetylation, chlorination, and sulfonylation is 3-OH>13-OH>15-OH; (2) 3-OH is much more reactive than 15-OH toward oxidation; and (3) reduction of the carbonyl group at C-3 with NaBH(4) generated a pair of C-3 epimers, while the reduction products of the carbonyl group at C-15 depend largely on the specific reducing agent and the absolute configuration of 16-OCH(3). When the substrate has 16β-OCH(3), its carbonyl group at C-15 can be reduced with NaBH(4) to yield exclusively the 15α-OH-containing product. Upon replacement of reducing agent NaBH(4) with LiAlH(4), the C-15 carbonyl group can be reduced to yield a pair of C-15 epimers. On the other hand, when the substrate has 16α-OCH(3), C-15 carbonyl group can only be reduced to generate 15α-OH-containing product.

  11. Studies of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of nitroimidazoles: demystifying this critical relationship with the nitro group.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Núbia; Carvalho, Alcione S; Salomão, Kelly; Castro, Solange L de; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Mello, Francisco V C; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Aiub, Claudia A F; Conde, Taline Ramos; Zamith, Helena P S; Skupin, Rolf; Haufe, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Nitroimidazoles exhibit high microbicidal activity, but mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties have been attributed to the presence of the nitro group. However, we synthesised nitroimidazoles with activity against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, but that were not genotoxic. Herein, nitroimidazoles (11-19) bearing different substituent groups were investigated for their potential induction of genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/Microsome assay) and the correlations of these effects with their trypanocidal effect and with megazol were investigated. The compounds were designed to analyse the role played by the position of the nitro group in the imidazole nucleus (C-4 or C-5) and the presence of oxidisable groups at N-1 as an anion receptor group and the role of a methyl group at C-2. Nitroimidazoles bearing NO2 at C-4 and CH3 at C-2 were not genotoxic compared to those bearing NO 2 at C-5. However, when there was a CH3 at C-2, the position of the NO2 group had no influence on the genotoxic activity. Fluorinated compounds exhibited higher genotoxicity regardless of the presence of CH3 at C-2 or NO2 at C-4 or C-5. However, in compounds 11 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2Cl) and 12 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2F), the fluorine atom had no influence on genotoxicity. This study contributes to the future search for new and safer prototypes and provide.

  12. The role of discourse in group knowledge construction: A case study of engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittleson, Julie M.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2004-03-01

    This qualitative study examined the role of discourse (verbal elements of language) and Discourse (nonverbal elements related to the use of language, such as ways of thinking, valuing, and using tools and technologies) in the process of group knowledge construction of mechanical engineering students. Data included interviews, participant observations, and transcripts from lab sessions of a group of students working on their senior design project. These data were analyzed using discourse analysis focusing on instances of concept negotiation, interaction in which multiple people contribute to the evolving conceptual conversation. In this context, despite instructors' attempts to enhance the collaboration of group members, concept negotiation was rare. In an effort to understand this rarity, we identified themes related to an engineering Discourse, which included participants' assumptions about the purpose of group work, the views about effective groups, and their epistemologies and ontologies. We explore how the themes associated with the engineering Discourse played a role in how and when the group engaged in concept negotiation. We found that underlying ideologies and assumptions related to the engineering Discourse played both facilitating and inhibitory roles related to the group's conceptually based interactions.

  13. Falls among dizzy patients in primary healthcare: an intervention study with control group.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Månsson, Nils-Ove; Ringsberg, Karin A; Håkansson, Anders

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether vestibular rehabilitation can improve balance, reduce self-perceived handicap because of dizziness and, if possible, reduce falls among dizzy patients in primary healthcare. The study also finds out which of the balance measures and measure of self-perceived handicap, if any, predicted the risk of falls. The design of this study is an intervention study with control group. Fifty-eight patients, 65 years and older, with multisensory dizziness were taken as participants. The intervention group trained vestibular rehabilitation twice a week for 9 weeks. All patients were assessed at baseline and after 3 months, with four different balance measures and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. After 6, 9 and 12 months, a follow-up by telephone was performed and, at 12 months, the patients also filled out a Dizziness Handicap Inventory questionnaire. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups between baseline and 3 months in one static balance measure and in one dynamic measure (P=0.038 and 0.044). In total, 40 falls were reported, 31 were classified as intrinsic falls, 26 of them caused by vertigo and nine falls were classified as extrinsic. No difference was found between the two groups in proportions of patients who fell. Poor ability to stand in tandem stance doubled the risk for falls. Vestibular rehabilitation can improve balance in elderly patients with multisensory dizziness. Vertigo is a common cause of falls in this group of patients and vestibular rehabilitation is a feasible treatment.

  14. Group mental health interventions in civilian populations in war-conflict areas: a Lebanese pilot study.

    PubMed

    Farhood, Laila F; Richa, Hala; Massalkhi, Hanadi

    2014-04-01

    Cognitive behavioral (CB) group therapy is an effective therapeutic intervention to treat war-related trauma. The aim of this pilot study was to describe the effects of conducting CB group therapy in a civilian population exposed to war in southern Lebanon. Participants presenting with psychiatric symptoms attended an 8-week CB group therapy intervention adapted to the Lebanese culture. Observations from therapists' field notes were reviewed and grouped into commonalities. A majority of the total participants (N = 10) reported satisfaction with the CB therapy and a decrease in symptoms. Field notes revealed positive group interactions (i.e., sharing information, cohesiveness), therapeutic benefits (i.e., symptom identification, destigmatizing mental illness, learning coping strategies), and barriers to attendance (i.e., stigma, personal constraints). CB group therapy is a promising intervention for civilian survivors of war trauma. Challenges to conducting such interventions in a war-conflict area are discussed. Future research and intervention planning should address challenges faced during this study to better meet mental health needs.

  15. The MATISSE study: a randomised trial of group art therapy for people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Art Therapy has been promoted as a means of helping people who may find it difficult to express themselves verbally engage in psychological treatment. Group Art Therapy has been widely used as an adjunctive treatment for people with schizophrenia but there have been few attempts to examine its effects and cost effectiveness has not been examined. The MATISSE study aims to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of group Art Therapy for people with schizophrenia. Method/Design The MATISSE study is a three-arm, parallel group, pragmatic, randomised, controlled trial of referral to group Art Therapy plus standard care, referral to an attention control 'activity' group plus standard care, or standard care alone. Study participants were recruited from inpatient and community-based mental health and social care services at four centres in England and Northern Ireland. Participants were aged over 18 years with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, confirmed by an examination of case notes using operationalised criteria. Participants were then randomised via an independent and remote telephone randomisation service using permuted stacked blocks, stratified by site. Art Therapy and activity groups were made available to participants once a week for up to 12 months. Outcome measures were assessed by researchers masked to allocation status at 12 and 24 months after randomisation. Participants and care givers were aware which arm of the trial participants were allocated to. The primary outcomes for the study are global functioning (measured using the Global Assessment of Functioning scale) and mental health symptoms (measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) assessed at 24 months. Secondary outcomes were assessed at 12 and 24 months and comprise levels of group attendance, social function, satisfaction with care, mental wellbeing, and costs. Discussion We believe that this is the first large scale pragmatic trial of Art Therapy for people with

  16. Experiences with Recruitment of Marginalized Groups in a Danish Health Promotion Program: A Document Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Bak, Carsten Kronborg

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have found that marginalized groups living in deprived neighborhoods are less likely to participate in health programs compared to the majority of society. This study evaluates recruitment approaches conducted during a national government-funded project in 12 deprived neighborhoods across Denmark between 2010 and 2014. The aim of this study was to understand how recruitment approaches could promote participation in health programs within deprived neighborhoods to reach marginalized groups. Method Documents from all 12 of the included municipalities were collected to conduct a document evaluation. The collected documents consisted of 1,500 pages of written material with 12 project descriptions, three midterm and 10 final evaluations. The collected data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. Results The results are based on the fact that only 10 municipalities have developed evaluations related to recruitment, and only three evaluations provided a description of which marginalized groups were recruited. Challenges related to recruitment consist of difficulties involving the target group, including general distrust, language barriers and a lack of ability to cope with new situations and strangers. Additional geographical challenges emerged, especially in rural areas. Positive experiences with recruitment approaches were mainly related to relationship building and trust building, especially through face-to-face contact and the project employees’ presence in the neighborhood. Additionally, adjusting some of the interventions and the recruitment strategy increased participation. Conclusion This study found that relation and trust between the residents and the project employees is an important factor in the recruitment of marginalized groups in deprived neighborhoods as well as adjusting the health interventions or recruitment strategy to the target groups. In future research, it is necessary to examine which recruitment approaches are

  17. Experiences with Recruitment of Marginalized Groups in a Danish Health Promotion Program: A Document Evaluation Study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Marianne; Poulsen, Eva Kanstrup; Rytter, Anne Stoffersen; Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Bak, Carsten Kronborg

    2016-01-01

    Studies have found that marginalized groups living in deprived neighborhoods are less likely to participate in health programs compared to the majority of society. This study evaluates recruitment approaches conducted during a national government-funded project in 12 deprived neighborhoods across Denmark between 2010 and 2014. The aim of this study was to understand how recruitment approaches could promote participation in health programs within deprived neighborhoods to reach marginalized groups. Documents from all 12 of the included municipalities were collected to conduct a document evaluation. The collected documents consisted of 1,500 pages of written material with 12 project descriptions, three midterm and 10 final evaluations. The collected data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. The results are based on the fact that only 10 municipalities have developed evaluations related to recruitment, and only three evaluations provided a description of which marginalized groups were recruited. Challenges related to recruitment consist of difficulties involving the target group, including general distrust, language barriers and a lack of ability to cope with new situations and strangers. Additional geographical challenges emerged, especially in rural areas. Positive experiences with recruitment approaches were mainly related to relationship building and trust building, especially through face-to-face contact and the project employees' presence in the neighborhood. Additionally, adjusting some of the interventions and the recruitment strategy increased participation. This study found that relation and trust between the residents and the project employees is an important factor in the recruitment of marginalized groups in deprived neighborhoods as well as adjusting the health interventions or recruitment strategy to the target groups. In future research, it is necessary to examine which recruitment approaches are effective under which circumstances to

  18. Nutritional status assessment during Alzheimer's disease: results after one year (the REAL French Study Group).

    PubMed

    Guerin, O; Soto, M E; Brocker, P; Robert, P H; Benoit, M; Vellas, B

    2005-01-01

    Weight loss and malnutrition are frequent and serious complications of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present article was to describe the cognitive and behavioural characteristics of the test population within the frame of the PHRC REAL.FR cohort (for Réseau sur la Maladie d'Alzheimer Français), depending on their nutritional state, and to consider their evolution one year after the original inclusion. The study population' stratification was done in three groups according to their Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score: malnutrition group (MNA < 17.5), at risk of malnutrition group (MNA 17.5-23.5), and normal nutritional status group (MNA > or = 23.5). 561 patients were evaluated at inclusion time, 393 at one year. The evaluation included the following scales: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities Daily Living (IADL), Neuro Psychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Zarit scale (ZARIT). Comparison and descriptive analysis for each MNA group at baseline and at one year has been performed. at baseline, the well-nourished and the malnutrition risk groups are significantly different concerning age, IADL and NPI; the well-nourished and undernutrition groups are different concerning MMSE, NPI and Zarit; the malnutrition risk and undernutrition groups are only different concerning NPI. At one year, the well-nourished and the malnutrition risk and undernutrition groups are different concerning one lonely variable, the NPI, in a significant way. The comparison of the three groups between baseline and one-year evaluation demonstrate for the well-nourished group an aggravation of MMSE, ADL, IADL, NPI, for the malnutrition risk group of MMSE and IADL, and for the undernutrition group of MMSE, IADL and NPI. Among the patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, the most malnutritioned worsen highly on cognitive and functional capacities. Furthermore, the nutritional aggravation seems

  19. Comparative study of blood group-recognizing lectins toward ABO blood group antigens on neoglycoproteins, glycoproteins and complex-type oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Hamako, J; Ozeki, Y; Titani, K

    2001-02-16

    Binding specificities of ABO blood group-recognizing lectins toward blood group antigens on neoglycoproteins, glycoproteins and complex-type oligosaccharides were studied by lectin-blotting analysis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and lectin-conjugated agarose column chromatography. Human serum albumin conjugated with A- and B-trisaccharides was clearly recognized by Helix pomatia (HPA), Phaseolus lunatus, Dolichos biflorus agglutinins, and Griffonia simplicifolia I agglutinin B(4), respectively. Almost the same results were obtained for human group A and B ovarian cyst and A-active hog gastric mucins, but Glycine max agglutinin only reacted to the group A hog mucin. When human plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF), having Asn-linked blood group antigens, was tested, HPA was highly sensitive to blood group A antigen on the vWF. Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) preferentially bound to the vWF from blood group O plasma. Within the GalNAc-recognizing lectins examined, a biantennary complex-type oligosaccharide having the blood group A structure retarded on an HPA-agarose column, and the affinity was diminished after digestion with alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. This product bound to UEA-I agarose column. These results indicate that HPA and UEA-I are most sensitive for detection of glycoproteins possessing small amounts of blood group A and H antigens and also useful for fractionation of complex-type oligosaccharides with blood group A and H antigens, respectively.

  20. Teaching the Moon: A Study of Teaching Methodology Across Age Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, F.; Paust, N.

    2012-08-01

    In this study I attempted to determine the most effective teaching style for teaching elementary, middle school, and undergraduate students about lunar phases and eclipses. Within each age group, there were two sub groups, one of which was introduced to the material in a standard lecture format while the other sub-group interacted with the content through activities and demonstrations. After their respective lessons, both sub-groups were given the same post-instruction test in order to assess their comprehension of the content. The results from this experiment provided insight into effective teaching styles and common misconceptions about lunar phases and eclipses at different age levels, as well as introducing new interactive teaching activities for elementary, middle school and undergraduate students.

  1. The effects of hydroxyl groups on Ca adsorption on rutile surfaces: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiong; Zhang, Hong-ping; Leng, Yang; Fang, Liming; Qu, Shuxin; Feng, Bo; Weng, Jie; Huang, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyl groups on titanium surfaces have been believed to play an important role in absorbing Ca in solution, which is crucial in the formation of bioactive calcium phosphates both in vitro and in vivo. CASTEP, a first-principles density functional theory (DFT) code, was employed to investigate Ca adsorption on various rutile (110) surfaces in order to clarify how hydroxyl groups effect Ca adsorption. The surfaces modeled in the present study include a bare rutile (110) surface, a hydroxylated rutile (110) surface, an oxidized rutile (110) surface, and a rutile (110) surface bonded with mixed OH groups and water. The results reveal that not all OH groups favors to attract Ca adsorption and loosely bonded OH and water on a rutile surface actually combine with Ca during adsorption. An oxidized rutile surface has the highest ability to attract Ca atoms, which partially explains that alkali-treated Ti surfaces could induce hydroxyapatite formation in alkaline environments.

  2. What matters to older African Americans facing end-of-life decisions? A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Karen; McGraw, Sarah A; Blank, Karen; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2005-01-01

    To better understand what matters to African American elders who are faced with issues of death, dying, and end-of-life care, a qualitative study was conducted to elicit their perspective. Focus groups were convened across the state of Connecticut. A total of 196 individuals participated in the 90-minute interview sessions. Using an interview guide, a trained moderator conducted the racially homogeneous discussion groups. Transcriptions of the group narratives with 22 older African Americans were coded to identify themes. Data were organized and analyzed using NUD-IST 4 and constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. Five major themes emerged from the focus group data on older African Americans: (1) spirituality, (2) burden on family, (3) trust, (4) health insurance coverage, and (5) cultural concerns. Recommendations are made for outreach education, involvement of informal helpers, and a level of acceptability in practice for diverse care needs.

  3. Parametric study of diffusion-enhancement networks for spatiotemporal grouping in real-time artificial vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Robert K.; Waxman, Allen M.

    1991-06-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Summary of the MIT Lincoln Laboratory effort into the parametric study of diffusion-enhancement networks for spatiotemporal grouping in real-time artificial vision. Spatiotemporal grouping phenomena are examined in the context of static and time-varying imagery. Dynamics that exhibit static feature grouping on multiple scales as a function of time and long-range apparent motion between time-varying inputs are developed for a biologically plausible diffusion-enhancement bilayer. The architecture consists of a diffusion and a contrast-enhancement layer coupled by feedforward and feedback connections: input is provided by a separate feature extracting layer. The model is cast as an analog circuit that is realizable in VLSI, the parameters of which are selected to satisfy a psychophysical database on apparent motion. Specific topics include: neural networks, astrocyte glial networks, diffusion enhancement, long-range apparent motion, spatiotemporal grouping dynamics, and interference suppression.

  4. Psycho-educational support groups for older women victims of family mistreatment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Patricia; Heiser, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Few programs for domestic violence victims have been evaluated for effectiveness. This gap is even more pronounced for elder abuse service interventions. The study presented here is intended to address this gap by using an experimental research design to evaluate outcomes of an elder mistreatment psycho-social support group pilot for cognitively unimpaired older female victims of mistreatment by family members and significant others for whom they are providing care or support. The support group model used for the study adapts amodel designed by NOVA House, an elder abuse shelter program in Manitoba, Canada. The study was funded by the Hartford Foundation Geriatric Social Work Faculty Scholars Program. While the significance of study findings is limited by the small number of pilot participants, the model intervention and evaluation instrument developed for the study may be utilized for study replication.

  5. The effects of group size and group economic factors on collaboration: a study of the financial performance of rural hospitals in consortia.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, B; Feldman, R; Manning, W G

    1999-01-01

    STUDY QUESTIONS: To determine factors that distinguish effective rural hospital consortia from ineffective ones in terms of their ability to improve members' financial performance. Two questions in particular were addressed: (1) Do large consortia have a greater collective impact on their members? (2) Does a consortium's economic environment determine the degree of collective impact on members? DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Based on the hospital survey conducted during February 1992 by the Robert Wood Johnson Hospital-Based Rural Health Care project of rural hospital consortia. The survey data were augmented with data from Medicare Cost Reports (1985-1991), AHA Annual Surveys (1985-1991), and other secondary data. STUDY DESIGN: Dependent variables were total operating profit, cost per adjusted admission, and revenue per adjusted admission. Control variables included degree of group formalization, degree of inequality of resources among members (group asymmetry), affiliation with other consortium group(s), individual economic environment, common hospital characteristics (bed size, ownership type, system affiliation, case mix, etc.), year (1985-1991), and census region dummies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All dependent variables have a curvilinear association with group size. The optimum group size is somewhere in the neighborhood of 45. This reveals the benefits of collective action (i.e., scale economies and/or synergy effects) and the issue of complexity as group size increases. Across analyses, no strong evidence exists of group economic environment impacts, and the environmental influences come mainly from the local economy rather than from the group economy. CONCLUSION: There may be some success stories of collaboration among hospitals in consortia, and consortium effects vary across different collaborations. RELEVANCE/IMPACT: When studying consortia, it makes sense to develop a typology of groups based on some performance indicators. The results of this study imply

  6. [Oxidative stress; a comparative study between normal and morbid obesity group population].

    PubMed

    De Tursi Ríspoli, Leonardo; Vázquez Tarragón, Antonio; Vázquez Prado, Antonio; Sáez Tormo, Guillermo; Mahmoud Ismail, Ali; Gumbau Puchol, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    To determine the level of oxidative stress in morbid obese patients by comparing their results to those of a normal population. We have studied the metabolites most representative of OS, both in the blood (MDA, 8-oxo-dG, GSSG and the ratio GSSG/GSH) and in the urine (8-oxo-dG), as well as the GSH antioxidant. A descriptive analysis of the sample was performed. The Kolmogorv-Smirnov test was used to assess whether the distribution of the different metabolites was normal. In the case of normal distribution, the Student's t test was used to compare the means, the Mann-Whitney U test was used for non-parametric data, with a significance level of p < 0.05 for hypothesis contrast. There were 28 patients in each group, without statistically significant differences regarding age and gender. The group of patients with morbid obesity presented an average BMI of 50.1 ± 4 and 23.9 ± 6 in the group with normal weight. 67.8% of the patients with morbid obesity had other comorbidities. There were no associated pathologies in the control group. All the values for the different OS metabolites were higher in the group of patients with morbid obesity than in the control group, whereas the activity of the antioxidant systems (GSH) was lower in the group with morbid obesity. The figures of OS metabolites obtained in the group of patients with morbid obesity confirm the presence of OS in obesity at a pathological level given the differences obtained in the group of normal population. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and electrical conductivity studies of metal chloro and nitroxide group containing styrene butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anilkumar, T.; Ramesan, M. T.

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of different functional group in SBR was done by a simple reaction between sodium nitrite and mercuric chloride in the presence of phase transfer catalyst. The attachment of chlorine and NO2 functional group in the double bond of the butadiene was monitored by FTIR and UV spectroscopy. The structure and morphology of chloro nitro SBR was studied by SEM and XRD. Flame retardency studies revealed that the chemical modification imparts better flame resistance to chemically modified SBR. AC conductivity and dielectric properties of chloro- nitro SBR was higher than that of SBR and conductivity increases with the level of chemical modification.

  8. Pattern of clustering of menopausal problems: A study with a Bengali Hindu ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Doyel; Pal, Baidyanath; Ray, Subha

    2016-01-01

    We attempted to find out how menopausal problems cluster with each other. The study was conducted among a group of women belonging to a Bengali-speaking Hindu ethnic group of West Bengal, a state located in Eastern India. We recruited 1,400 participants for the study. Information on sociodemographic aspects and menopausal problems were collected from these participants with the help of a pretested questionnaire. Results of cluster analysis showed that vasomotor, vaginal, and urinary problems cluster together, separately from physical and psychosomatic problems.

  9. Case studies putting the decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping) into practice.

    PubMed

    Arts, Josje H E; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Keene, Athena M; Kreiling, Reinhard; Lyon, Delina; Maier, Monika; Michel, Karin; Neubauer, Nicole; Petry, Thomas; Sauer, Ursula G; Warheit, David; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Case studies covering carbonaceous nanomaterials, metal oxide and metal sulphate nanomaterials, amorphous silica and organic pigments were performed to assess the Decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping). The usefulness of the DF4nanoGrouping for nanomaterial hazard assessment was confirmed. In two tiers that rely exclusively on non-animal test methods followed by a third tier, if necessary, in which data from rat short-term inhalation studies are evaluated, nanomaterials are assigned to one of four main groups (MGs). The DF4nanoGrouping proved efficient in sorting out nanomaterials that could undergo hazard assessment without further testing. These are soluble nanomaterials (MG1) whose further hazard assessment should rely on read-across to the dissolved materials, high aspect-ratio nanomaterials (MG2) which could be assessed according to their potential fibre toxicity and passive nanomaterials (MG3) that only elicit effects under pulmonary overload conditions. Thereby, the DF4nanoGrouping allows identifying active nanomaterials (MG4) that merit in-depth investigations, and it provides a solid rationale for their sub-grouping to specify the further information needs. Finally, the evaluated case study materials may be used as source nanomaterials in future read-across applications. Overall, the DF4nanoGrouping is a hazard assessment strategy that strictly uses animals as a last resort.

  10. Current status and future perspectives of cooperative study groups for lung cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuko; Okamoto, Isamu; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Ohe, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Saka, Hideo; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Takayama, Koichi; Semba, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    The performance of scientifically and ethically valid prospective clinical trials is the only means by which to obtain reliable clinical evidence that can improve clinical practice and thus the outcome of patients with lung cancer. The efficacy of treatment for advanced lung cancer remains limited; many cooperative study groups for lung cancer have been established in Japan since 1990s, and they have completed several landmark investigator-initiated clinical trials. This review highlights eight active Japanese cooperative study groups for lung cancer and summarizes their achievements made through clinical trials. In addition to their benefits, the existence of multiple study groups for a single disease such as lung cancer presents several challenges including the provision of infrastructure to ensure the scientific integrity of trial results, the unnecessary duplication of effort and the wasting of limited resources, and the accrual and completion of large-scale phase III trials in the shortest possible time. Collaboration among Japanese cooperative groups has recently increased in order to overcome these challenges. Although institutional barriers to the performance of such large intergroup trials remain, further harmonization and collaboration among cooperative groups will be vital in allowing Japanese investigators to make further important contributions for the development of new lung cancer therapies.

  11. Combining propensity score matching and group-based trajectory analysis in an observational study.

    PubMed

    Haviland, Amelia; Nagin, Daniel S; Rosenbaum, Paul R

    2007-09-01

    In a nonrandomized or observational study, propensity scores may be used to balance observed covariates and trajectory groups may be used to control baseline or pretreatment measures of outcome. The trajectory groups also aid in characterizing classes of subjects for whom no good matches are available and to define substantively interesting groups between which treatment effects may vary. These and related methods are illustrated using data from a Montreal-based study. The effects on subsequent violence of gang joining at age 14 are studied while controlling for measured characteristics of boys prior to age 14. The boys are divided into trajectory groups based on violence from ages 11 to 13. Within trajectory group, joiners are optimally matched to a variable number of controls using propensity scores, Mahalanobis distances, and a combinatorial optimization algorithm. Use of variable ratio matching results in greater efficiency than pair matching and also greater bias reduction than matching at a fixed ratio. The possible impact of failing to adjust for an important but unmeasured covariate is examined using sensitivity analysis.

  12. Challenges of participatory research: reflections on a study with breast cancer self‐help groups

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Ross E.; Fitch, Margaret; Davis, Christine; Phillips, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Objective To review and discuss issues related to participatory research, as they apply within the arena of cancer control. Design A participatory research study with breast cancer self‐help groups is referred to for description and discussion purposes. That study employed primarily individual and group interviews to assess benefits and limitations of self‐help groups. Settings Four breast cancer self‐help groups in Ontario communities provided the core involvement in the participatory research project. Results The values and practices of mainstream academic research often conflict with those of research emphasizing participation and control of communities under study, leading to a variety of challenges for the latter approaches. Practical constraints faced by many community groups have important implications for participatory research approaches. Conclusions A balance needs to be found for participatory research within cancer control – one that ensures that the core aims of participatory research are maintained, while simultaneously acknowledging the various challenges that make a fully participatory project unrealistic. Steps can be taken to achieve a workable balance. PMID:11281935

  13. Increasing the qualitative understanding of optimal functionality in older adults: a focus group based study.

    PubMed

    Algilani, Samal; Östlund-Lagerström, Lina; Schoultz, Ida; Brummer, Robert J; Kihlgren, Annica

    2016-03-23

    Decreased independence and loss of functional ability are issues regarded as inevitably connected to old age. This ageism may have negative influences on older adults' beliefs about aging, making it difficult for them to focus on their current ability to maintain a good health. It is therefore important to change focus towards promoting Optimal Functionality (OF). OF is a concept putting the older adult's perspective on health and function in focus, however, the concept is still under development. Hence, the aim was to extend the concept of optimal functionality in various groups of older adults. A qualitative study was conducted based on focus group discussions (FGD). In total 6 FGDs were performed, including 37 older adults from three different groups: group 1) senior athletes, group 2) free living older adults, group 3) older adults living in senior living homes. All data was transcribed verbatim and analyzed following the process of deductive content analysis. The principal outcome of the analysis was "to function as optimally as you possibly can", which was perceived as the core of the concept. Further, the concept of OF was described as multifactorial and several new factors could be added to the original model of OF. Additionally the findings of the study support that all three cornerstones comprising OF have to occur simultaneously in order for the older adult to function as optimal as possible. OF is a multifaceted and subjective concept, which should be individually defined by the older adult. This study further makes evident that older adults as a group are heterogeneous in terms of their preferences and views on health and should thus be approached as such in the health care setting. Therefore it is important to promote an individualized approach as a base when caring for older adults.

  14. The role of a teacher study group in negotiating constructivist science teaching in an elementary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Ellen Louise

    2000-12-01

    This study arose from the frustrations expressed by elementary teachers in a mid-size, urban school district who were involved in implementing a new district-wide science curriculum. The new curriculum was designed to meet the recommendations for constructivist teaching espoused in the current science education reform movement. As a fifth-grade teacher in the district as well, as a member of the science curriculum committee that wrote the new curriculum, I was in the position to hear the frustrations vented by fellow teachers as they struggled to make the shift from a loosely-supervised, textbook-based curriculum to one which emphasized hands-on instruction through four in-depth units at each grade level. In response to teachers' frustrations, I conducted an action-research study designed to provide a sustained, personalized, professional development opportunity for a group of elementary teachers in the building in which I taught. The study group of five teachers met during the course of the 1996--97 school year to work on familiarizing ourselves with the tenets of constructivist science teaching and learning and incorporating this type of teaching into our own practice. Activities engaged in included: reading relevant literature, viewing videotapes of teachers practicing constructivist science teaching, attending physics workshops, working with the intermediate school-district science consultant, and videotaping our own science lessons for the purposes of sharing with the other group members and studying our practice. During the year, I conducted individual interviews with the teacher participants and audiotaped all group meetings in an effort to learn if this experience held value as a means of helping the group members become more constructivist science teachers. During the year, it became clear that the teachers continued to face many obstacles as they worked to improve their science teaching. While the participants felt they made progress and all agreed that

  15. Correlative Studies in Clinical Trials: A Position Statement From the International Thyroid Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Bible, Keith C.; Cote, Gilbert J.; Demeure, Michael J.; Elisei, Rossella; Jhiang, Sissy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Patients with progressive thyroid cancer in distant metastatic sites represent a population with a need for new therapeutic options. Aspiring to improve the treatment of such patients, the objective of this position statement from the International Thyroid Oncology Group (ITOG) is to clarify the importance of incorporating high-quality correlative studies into clinical trials. Participants: ITOG was formed to develop and support high-quality multicenter and multidisciplinary clinical trials for patients with aggressive forms of thyroid cancer. The Correlative Sciences Committee of the ITOG focuses on the quality and types of correlative studies included in ITOG-associated clinical trials. Evidence: This document represents expert consensus from ITOG regarding this issue based on extensive collective experience in clinical and translational trials informed by basic science. Consensus Process: The Correlative Studies Committee identified an international writing group representative of diverse specialties, including basic sciences. Drafts were reviewed by all members of the writing group, the larger committee, and the ITOG board. After consideration of all comments by the writing group and modification of the document, the final document was then approved by the authors and the ITOG board. Conclusions: High-quality correlative studies, which include variety in the types of correlates, should be intrinsic to the design of thyroid cancer clinical trials to offer the best opportunity for each study to advance treatment for patients with advanced and progressive thyroid cancer. PMID:26418285

  16. Modifications of the ionosphere prior to large earthquakes: report from the Ionosphere Precursor Study Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, K.-I.; Devi, M.; Ryu, K.; Chen, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, H.; Bankov, L.; Kodama, T.

    2016-12-01

    The current status of ionospheric precursor studies associated with large earthquakes (EQ) is summarized in this report. It is a joint endeavor of the "Ionosphere Precursor Study Task Group," which was formed with the support of the Mitsubishi Foundation in 2014-2015. The group promotes the study of ionosphere precursors (IP) to EQs and aims to prepare for a future EQ dedicated satellite constellation, which is essential to obtain the global morphology of IPs and hence demonstrate whether the ionosphere can be used for short-term EQ predictions. Following a review of the recent IP studies, the problems and specific research areas that emerged from the one-year project are described. Planned or launched satellite missions dedicated (or suitable) for EQ studies are also mentioned.

  17. Photophysical studies of oxicam group of NSAIDs: piroxicam, meloxicam and tenoxicam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rona; Chakraborty, Hirak; Sarkar, Munna

    2003-04-01

    Oxicam group of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been chosen as a prototype molecular group that shows diverse biological functions and dynamic structural features. Photophysical studies of three drugs from this group viz., piroxicam, meloxicam and tenoxicam have been carried out in different solvents with varying polarity, H-bond character and viscosity. The spectral responses of different prototropic forms of these drugs towards varying solvent parameters have been studied, with the aim to characterize their interaction in biomimetic environment non-invasively. The nature of the lowest transition has been identified. The extinction coefficient, quantum yield and viscosity dependence on the nature of the solvents, all indicate the extreme sensitivity of these drugs to their microenvironment.

  18. Photophysical studies of oxicam group of NSAIDs: piroxicam, meloxicam and tenoxicam.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rona; Chakraborty, Hirak; Sarkar, Munna

    2003-04-01

    Oxicam group of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been chosen as a prototype molecular group that shows diverse biological functions and dynamic structural features. Photophysical studies of three drugs from this group viz., piroxicam, meloxicam and tenoxicam have been carried out in different solvents with varying polarity, H-bond character and viscosity. The spectral responses of different prototropic forms of these drugs towards varying solvent parameters have been studied, with the aim to characterize their interaction in biomimetic environment non-invasively. The nature of the lowest transition has been identified. The extinction coefficient, quantum yield and viscosity dependence on the nature of the solvents, all indicate the extreme sensitivity of these drugs to their microenvironment.

  19. An evaluation of Interprofessional group antenatal care: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Zoë G; Saxell, Lee; Christians, Julian K

    2017-09-07

    Maternal and neonatal outcomes are influenced by the nature of antenatal care. Standard pregnancy care is provided on an individual basis, with one-on-one appointments between a client and family doctor, midwife or obstetrician. A novel, group-based antenatal care delivery model was developed in the United States in the 1990s and is growing in popularity beyond the borders of the USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes in clients receiving interprofessional group perinatal care versus interprofessional individual care in a Canadian setting. Clients attending the South Community Birth Program (SCBP), an interprofessional, collaborative, primary care maternity program, offering both individual and group care, were invited to participate in the study. Pregnancy knowledge and satisfaction scores, and perinatal outcomes were compared between those receiving group versus individual care. Chi-square tests, general linear models and logistic regression were used to compare the questionnaire scores and perinatal outcomes between cohorts. Three hundred three clients participated in the study. Group care was comparable to individual care in terms of mode of birth, gestational age at birth, infant birth weight, breastfeeding rates, pregnancy knowledge, preparedness for labour and baby care, and client satisfaction. The rates of adverse perinatal outcomes were extremely low amongst SCBP clients, regardless of the type of care received (preterm birth rates ~5%). Breastfeeding rates were very high amongst all study participants (> 78% exclusive breastfeeding), as were measures of pregnancy knowledge and satisfaction. This is the first Canadian study to compare outcomes in clients receiving interprofessional group care versus individual care. Our observation that interprofessional group care outcomes and satisfaction were as good as interprofessional individual care has important implications for the antenatal care of clients and for addressing the projected

  20. Status of the IAA study group on traffic management rules for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contant, Corinne; Lala, Petr; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2007-10-01

    The investigation of space traffic and its management has only recently become a point of wider discussion. In particular, the series of workshops organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and other international organizations on international cooperation highlighted the issue. It was discussed thoroughly at the workshops, which took place in 1999 and 2001, respectively. It was at the 2001 workshop, when the suggestion was made that an International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Study on the subject of space traffic management should be prepared. This suggestion was taken up and a proposal was presented to the Board of Trustees of IAA, which, in late 2001, accepted this proposal. Following this, an interdisciplinary study group of around 20 persons was composed. One early milestone in the process of work was the conduct of an International Institute of Space Law (IISL)/European Center of Space Law (ECSL) Symposium alongside the 2002 session of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) Legal Subcommittee. This symposium consisted of presentations of members of the IAA study group. Also, close coordination with other study projects of IAA, in particular with the one on space debris, is sought. This paper presents the status of work of the study group, in particular, the approach and the scope of the study as well as its preliminary findings. The study group intends to finalize its work in early 2004, in order to be able to put the study before IAA and launch its review process before the 2004 International Astronautical Congress. Following this review, the study will be published and may be expected to make an impact in fora like the UNCOPUOS. The authors of this paper act as the coordinators/the rapporteur to this study. The paper will be presented in the IAA—as well as the IISL—session dealing with space traffic, by that bridging the two areas and seeking input from various sources.

  1. Stakeholders' contributions to tailored implementation programs: an observational study of group interview methods.

    PubMed

    Huntink, Elke; van Lieshout, Jan; Aakhus, Eivind; Baker, Richard; Flottorp, Signe; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Jäger, Cornelia; Kowalczyk, Anna; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Wensing, Michel

    2014-12-06

    Tailored strategies to implement evidence-based practice can be generated in several ways. In this study, we explored the usefulness of group interviews for generating these strategies, focused on improving healthcare for patients with chronic diseases. Participants included at least four categories of stakeholders (researchers, quality officers, health professionals, and external stakeholders) in five countries. Interviews comprised brainstorming followed by a structured interview and focused on different chronic conditions in each country. We compared the numbers and types of strategies between stakeholder categories and between interview phases. We also determined which strategies were actually used in tailored intervention programs. In total, 127 individuals participated in 25 group interviews across five countries. Brainstorming generated 8 to 120 strategies per group; structured interviews added 0 to 55 strategies. Healthcare professionals and researchers provided the largest numbers of strategies. The type of strategies for improving healthcare practice did not differ systematically between stakeholder groups in four of the five countries. In three out of five countries, all components of the chosen intervention programs were mentioned by the group of researchers. Group interviews with different stakeholder categories produced many strategies for tailored implementation of evidence-based practice, of which the content was largely similar across stakeholder categories.

  2. A Controlled Study of a Group Mindfulness Intervention for Individuals Living With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Kate; Ftanou, Maria; Monshat, Kaveh; Salzberg, Mike; Bell, Sally; Kamm, Michael A; Connell, William; Knowles, Simon R; Sevar, Katherine; Mancuso, Sam G; Castle, David

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (MI-IBD). Treatment-as-usual control versus mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention. Sixty patients participated in either the MI-IBD (n = 33) or treatment-as-usual group (n = 27) conditions. The MI-IBD consisted of an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction training group. Outcome measures were administered at baseline (before intervention), immediately after intervention, and 6 months after intervention. Primary outcomes included measures of quality of life, psychological distress (depression and anxiety), and mindfulness. Data for MI-IBD group participants also included weekly attendance, daily minutes meditated, and satisfaction with the program. There were no baseline differences between intervention and control groups on demographic variables or inflammatory bowel disease severity. Compared with the control group, the MI-IBD group reported significantly greater improvements in anxiety, quality of life, and mindfulness at after intervention, with reduction in depression and improvements in quality of life and mindfulness maintained at 6 months after intervention. Results demonstrate the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a mindfulness intervention for patients with inflammatory bowel disease, with medium-to-large effects on psychological distress, quality of life, and mindfulness.

  3. Spinal-cord stimulation in critical limb ischaemia: a randomised trial. ESES Study Group.

    PubMed

    Klomp, H M; Spincemaille, G H; Steyerberg, E W; Habbema, J D; van Urk, H

    1999-03-27

    For patients with critical limb ischaemia, spinal-cord stimulation has been advocated for the treatment of ischaemic pain and the prevention of amputation. We compared the efficacy of the addition of spinal-cord stimulation to best medical treatment in a randomised controlled trial. 120 patients with critical limb ischaemia not suitable for vascular reconstruction were randomly assigned either spinal-cord stimulation in addition to best medical treatment or best medical treatment alone. Primary outcomes were mortality and amputation. The primary endpoint was limb survival at 2 years. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 72.6 years (10.3). Median (IQR) follow-up was 605 days (244-1171). 40 (67%) of 60 patients in the spinal-cord-stimulator group and 41 (68%) of 60 patients in the standard group were alive at the end of the study, (p=0.96). There were 25 major amputations in the spinal-cord-stimulator group and 29 in the standard group, (p=0.47). The hazard ratio for survival at 2 years without major amputation in the spinal-cord stimulation group compared with the standard group was 0.96 (95% CI 0.61-1.51). Spinal-cord-stimulation in addition to best medical care does not prevent amputation in patients with critical limb ischaemia.

  4. Prediction of early-onset deviant peer group affiliation: a 12-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lacourse, Eric; Nagin, Daniel S; Vitaro, Frank; Côté, Sylvana; Arseneault, Louise; Tremblay, Richard E

    2006-05-01

    Deviant peer group involvement is strongly related to onset, aggravation, and persistence of conduct problems during adolescence. To identify early childhood behavioral profiles that predict early-onset deviant peer group involvement. A 12-year longitudinal study of behavioral development. Fifty-three inner-city elementary schools in a large Canadian city. A total of 1037 boys in kindergarten from low socioeconomic neighborhoods. Annual self-reported deviant peer group involvement from 11 to 17 years of age. Kindergarten boys were at highest risk of following an early adolescence trajectory of deviant peer group affiliation if they were hyperactive, fearless, and low on prosocial behaviors but much less at risk if they scored high on only 2 of these dimensions. Family adversity had no main effect but substantially increased the risk of following an early adolescence trajectory of deviant peer group affiliation for boys with a profile of hyperactivity, fearlessness, and low prosocial behaviors. Kindergarten boys from low socioeconomic areas who are hyperactive, fearless, infrequently prosocial, and raised in adverse family environments are at much heightened risk of engaging in deviant peer groups early in their development. Boys at high risk can be identified as early as kindergarten and should be targeted for preventive intervention.

  5. Long-term effects of political imprisonment: a group comparison study.

    PubMed

    Maercker, A; Schützwohl, M

    1997-11-01

    The study investigated the long-term effects of political imprisonment in the former German Democratic Republic. A group of non-treatment-seeking former political prisoners (n = 146) was compared with an age- and sex-matched group (n = 75). Assessments included the structured Diagnostic Interview for Psychiatric Disorders (German abbreviation: DIPS) for DSM-III-R/-IV diagnoses, a checklist of persecution and maltreatment, and other self-rated measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, and dissociation. PTSD was assessed by the DIPS as current and lifetime diagnoses. Former political prisoners were imprisoned for 38 months on average. The former prisoners had a lower educational and lifetime occupational level than the comparison group. Results regarding diagnoses show a frequency of 30% current and 60% lifetime PTSD in the former prisoners group. Other anxiety disorders (e.g., claustrophobia, social phobia) outnumbered comorbid affective disorders. The level of dissociation was elevated in the former prisoners group. Intrusive recollections and hyperarousal were more common than avoidance/numbing symptoms. Despite differences in imprisonment duration between three historically defined eras of persecution, no differences appeared in the level of symptomatology. The results suggest that political imprisonment in the former German Democratic Republic had long-term psychological effects. Compared with an age- and sex-matched comparison group, the former political prisoners showed higher levels not only of post-traumatic symptomatology but also of other anxiety disorders and dissociation.

  6. Studying the dwarf galaxies in nearby groups of galaxies: Spectroscopic and photometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, U.; Vennik, J.

    2014-11-01

    Galaxy evolution by interaction-driven transformation is probably highly efficient in groups of galaxies. Dwarf galaxies with their shallow potential are expected to reflect the interaction most prominently in their observable structure. The major aim of this series of papers is to establish a data base which allows to study the impact of group interaction onto the morphology and star-forming properties of dwarf galaxies. Firstly, we present our selection rules for target groups and the morphological selection method of target dwarf member candidates. Secondly, the spectroscopic follow-up observations with the HET are presented. Thirdly, we applied own reduction methods based on adaptive filtering to derive surface photometry of the candidates. The spectroscopic follow-up indicate a dwarf identification success rate of roughly 55 %, and a group member success rate of about 33 %. A total of 17 new low surface-brightness members is presented. For all candidates, total magnitudes, colours, and light distribution parameters are derived and discussed in the context of scaling relations. We point out short comings of the SDSS standard pipeline for surface photometry for these dim objects. We conclude that our selection strategy is rather efficient to obtain a sample of dim, low surface brightness members of groups of galaxies within the Virgo super-cluster. The photometric scaling relation in these X-ray dim, rather isolated groups does not significantly differ from those of the galaxies within the local volume.

  7. Comparison of 12-step groups to mutual help alternatives for AUD in a large, national study: Differences in membership characteristics and group participation, cohesion, and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Zemore, Sarah E; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Mericle, Amy; Hemberg, Jordana

    2017-02-01

    Many studies suggest that participation in 12-step groups contributes to better recovery outcomes, but people often object to such groups and most do not sustain regular involvement. Yet, research on alternatives to 12-step groups is very sparse. The present study aimed to extend the knowledge base on mutual help group alternatives for those with an alcohol use disorder (AUD), sampling from large, active, abstinence-focused groups including Women for Sobriety (WFS), LifeRing, and SMART Recovery (SMART). This paper presents a cross-sectional analysis of this longitudinal study, using baseline data to describe the profile and participation characteristics of attendees of these groups in comparison to 12-step members. Data from participants 18 and over with a lifetime AUD (N=651) were collected using Web-based surveys. Members of alternative 12-step groups were recruited in collaboration with group directors, who helped publicize the study by emailing meeting conveners and attendees and posting announcements on social media. A comparison group of current (past-30-day) 12-step attendees was recruited from an online meeting hub for recovering persons. Interested parties were directed to a Webpage where they were screened, and eligible participants completed an online survey assessing demographic and clinical variables; in-person and online mutual help involvement; and group satisfaction and cohesion. Analyses involved comparing those identifying WFS, SMART, and LifeRing as their primary group to 12-step members on the above characteristics. Compared to 12-step members, members of the mutual help alternatives were less religious and generally higher on education and income. WFS and LifeRing members were also older, more likely to be married, and lower on lifetime drug and psychiatric severity; meanwhile, LifeRing and SMART members were less likely to endorse the most stringent abstinence goal. Finally, despite lower levels of in-person meeting attendance, members of all

  8. The Bobath concept in stroke rehabilitation: a focus group study of the experienced physiotherapists' perspective.

    PubMed

    Lennon, S; Ashburn, A

    2000-10-15

    The Bobath concept, usually known as neuro-developmental treatment (NDT) in America, is one of the major approaches used to rehabilitate patients following stroke; however since the last publication of Bobath (1990), the concept has been taught via an oral tradition on postgraduate courses. This study therefore aimed to explore with experienced therapists firstly how the Bobath concept had changed since 1990, and secondly what they considered its main theoretical assumptions to be using a focus group research design. Eight peer-nominated expert physiotherapists agreed to participate in two focus groups organized according to specialist interest in either neurology (group A) or elderly care (group B). Therapists were asked to discuss six topics based on a review of published literature. Data analysis involved several readings of verbatim transcriptions, from which key themes and concepts were developed. All therapists agreed on the following core themes defining Bobath: analysis of normal movement, control of tone and facilitation of movement. Neuroplasticity was described as the primary rationale for treatment with therapists using afferent information to target the damaged central nervous system. In addition group A discussed motor learning, whereas group B discussed patient focused goals and relating treatment to function. This study highlighted changes in theory, terminology, and techniques. Tone remained a major problem in the rehabilitation management of the hemiplegic patient; however much attention was also directed towards the musculoskeletal system. Both facilitation of normal movement components and task specific practice using specific manual guidance were considered critical elements of the Bobath concept. For Bobath therapists, physiotherapy has an important impact on both the performance components of movement and functional outcomes. In view of the small numbers involved in this preliminary study, further studies are now needed to determine if these

  9. Small Group Cooperative Curriculum and Experimental Evaluation; A Study of Cooperation Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Joan R.; And Others

    This report describes a project to test the effectiveness of a small-group curriculum designed to teach cooperative group work. The sample of 53 groups of boys and 47 groups of girls was assigned to one of three conditions: (a) established groups, (b) ad hoc groups, and (c) control condition groups. Groups who had training were predicted to choose…

  10. [Lead intakes by different age-sex population groups from Chinese total diet study in 2000].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Gao, Junquan; Li, Xiaowei

    2007-07-01

    To estimate the dietary lead intakes by different age-sex population groups in China. The lead concentrations of food sample from 3rd Chinese total diet study were determined, and then were combined with the food consumption by population of ten age-sex groups, The lead intakes, and its distribution and dietary sources were obtained. It was found that the mean and median concentrations of lead in all food samples were 0.118 and 0.052mg/kg, respectively. The highest concentration of individual sample and mean concentrations of lead in preserved egg were 8.964mg/kg and 2.577mg/kg, respectively. The vegetable samples in Hubei Province were heavily contaminated. The lead intakes by different age-sex groups were estimated to be 54.9-112.7microg/day. The average dietary lead intakes by 2-7 years old group could reach 86.1% of PTWI, and individual lead intakes by about 30% children in this group exceed PTWI. But the average dietary lead intakes of other age-sex population groups ranged from 42.8% to 86.1% of PTWI. The main sources of dietary lead were cereals and vegetables in ten age-sex population groups, and could reach 72%-80% of total lead intakes. Although the dietary lead intakes by different age-sex population groups are all lower than PTWI, it should be decreased to a lower level. Moreover, the dietary exposures to lead are higher enough for 2-7 years old children and population in some provinces to be considered seriously.

  11. Ethnic density, urbanicity and psychosis risk for migrant groups - A population cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Peter; Thygesen, Malene; Das-Munshi, Jay; Becares, Laia; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten; Agerbo, Esben

    2017-03-15

    Rates of psychotic disorder are raised for many migrant groups. Understanding the role played by the social context in which they live may help explain why. This study investigates the effect of both neighbourhood ethnic density and urbanicity on the incidence of non-affective psychosis for migrant groups. Population based cohort of all those born 1965 or later followed from their 15th birthday (2,224,464 people) to 1st July 2013 (37,335,812 person years). Neighbourhood exposures were measured at age 15. For all groups incidence of non-affective psychosis was greater in lower ethnic density neighbourhoods. For migrants of African origin there was a 1.94-fold increase (95% CI, 1.17-3.23) comparing lowest and highest density quintiles; with similar effects for migrants from Europe (excluding Scandinavia): incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.99 (95% CI, 1.56-2.54); Asia: IRR 1.63 (95% CI, 1.02-2.59); and the Middle East: IRR 1.68 (95% CI, 1.19-2.38). This initial analysis found no evidence for an urbanicity effect for migrant groups. Adjusting for ethnic density revealed a positive association between level of urbanicity and psychosis for two groups, with a statistically significant linear trend (average effect of a one quintile increase) for migrants from Europe: IRR 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.16) and the Middle East: IRR 1.12 (95% CI, 1.01-1.23). In this first nationwide population-based study of ethnic density, urbanicity and psychosis we show that lower ethnic density is associated with increased incidence of non-affective psychosis for different migrant groups; masking urban/rural differences in psychosis for some groups. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Functional grouping and cortical–subcortical interactions in emotion: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Kober, Hedy; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Joseph, Josh; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Lindquist, Kristen; Wager, Tor D.

    2009-01-01

    We performed an updated quantitative meta-analysis of 162 neuroimaging studies of emotion using a novel multi-level kernel-based approach, focusing on locating brain regions consistently activated in emotional tasks and their functional organization into distributed functional groups, independent of semantically defined emotion category labels (e.g., “anger,” “fear”). Such brain-based analyses are critical if our ways of labeling emotions are to be evaluated and revised based on consistency with brain data. Consistent activations were limited to specific cortical sub-regions, including multiple functional areas within medial, orbital, and inferior lateral frontal cortices. Consistent with a wealth of animal literature, multiple subcortical activations were identified, including amygdala, ventral striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. We used multivariate parcellation and clustering techniques to identify groups of co-activated brain regions across studies. These analyses identified six distributed functional groups, including medial and lateral frontal groups, two posterior cortical groups, and paralimbic and core limbic/brainstem groups. These functional groups provide information on potential organization of brain regions into large-scale networks. Specific follow-up analyses focused on amygdala, periaqueductal gray (PAG), and hypothalamic (Hy) activations, and identified frontal cortical areas co-activated with these core limbic structures. While multiple areas of frontal cortex co-activated with amygdala sub-regions, a specific region of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC, Brodmann’s Area 9/32) was the only area co-activated with both PAG and Hy. Subsequent mediation analyses were consistent with a pathway from dmPFC through PAG to Hy. These results suggest that medial frontal areas are more closely associated with core limbic activation than their lateral counterparts, and that dmPFC may play a particularly important role in the

  13. Nordic Myeloma Study Group, the first 15 years: scientific collaboration and improvement of patient care.

    PubMed

    Hippe, Erik; Westin, Jan; Wislöff, Finn

    2005-03-01

    The accomplishments of the Nordic Myeloma Study Group (NMSG) during its first 15 yr are briefly surveyed, together with a discussion of principles guiding the group's clinical trials and of problems that need to be addressed in coming years. The group has so far carried out 12 clinical trials, comprising more than 2500 patients, spanning from minor phase II to large randomised phase III trials. At the time of writing, two randomised trials are running (comparing two doses of i.v. pamidronate, and melphalan-prednisone (MP) vs. MP-thalidomide to elderly patients). The group has strived for a simple organisation with much responsibility delegated to regional coordinators (Denmark 3, Norway 5, Sweden 5). With regard to trial design, the group has considered it important that studies are based on sound scientific questions, are simple to handle for the participants, population based, investigator initiated, include quality of life and health resources assessment as end-points, and can be used as basis for diverse scientific spin-off projects. Like other clinical trial groups, NMSG faces a number of challenges in coming years. The financial situation for independent investigator-initiated trials is far from satisfactory, especially with regard to the resource-consuming implementation of more stringent good clinical practice rules and ethical committee demands. NMSG has also encountered increasing difficulties in recruiting patients to recent trials, partly because of problems related to participating physicians (lack of support, laborious paper work, insufficient credit for participation). Solutions to these problems have to be found if industry-independent clinical trial groups are to survive.

  14. Evaluation of group homogeneity during acupuncture stimulation in fMRI studies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinbo; Qin, Wei; Dong, Minghao; Yuan, Kai; Liu, Jixin; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the extent of individual differences of functional MRI (fMRI) signal changes induced by acupuncture stimulation. Acupuncture at ST36 and checkerboard stimulation was applied to 16 subjects. We calculated the mean distance using beta values in a generalized linear model (GLM) analysis and employed it to study the group homogeneity by detecting the outliers. A more significant individual difference was presented in acupuncture stimulation compared with visual stimulation through evaluation of the mean distance. From the group results, we found that the activations were more significant in the homogeneous group results. Combining the behavior and fMRI results, there was no direct correlation between deqi index and mean distance in acupuncture stimulation. The deqi index of the outlier was in the normal range and did not differ significantly from others. Traditional group results without removing outliers were not sensitive enough to detect the real acupuncture effect. We suggest that individual difference should be taken into consideration for future acupuncture studies. Also, group analysis paralleled with individual analysis is critical for a full understanding of acupuncture effects. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Encouraging smoking cessation among disadvantaged groups: a qualitative study of the financial aspects of cessation.

    PubMed

    Bonevski, Billie; Bryant, Jamie; Paul, Christine

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to explore perceptions about financial aspects of smoking cessation among a group of disadvantaged welfare agency clients and their carers. Qualitative focus groups and in-depth interviews were supplemented with participant exit surveys about preferred smoking cessation strategies. Each discussion was audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using a thematic analysis. The setting was six non-government community welfare service organisations operating in New South Wales, Australia. Eleven social services offered by these organisations participated. Thirty two clients participated in six client focus groups, 35 staff participated in six staff focus groups and eight manager telephone interviews were conducted. Clients indicated that the cost of nicotine replacement therapy was a barrier to its use and that financial incentives were acceptable. Of the 16 possible strategies listed in the exit survey, the three selected as the most preferred by clients incorporated financial or non-financial assistance. By contrast, staff and managers selected financial and non-financial incentives as the least preferred and least feasible strategies. The study found high acceptance of incentives as a smoking cessation strategy among a disadvantaged group of non-government welfare service clients. The comparatively low level of desirability and feasibility from the perspective of service staff and managers suggests implementation of such an approach within the community service setting requires careful further testing. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Increasing International and Domestic Student Interaction through Group Work: A Case Study from the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshank, Ken; Chen, Honglin; Warren, Stan

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the use of group work strategies to increase student interaction and learning. Despite the growing linguistic and cultural diversity in tertiary institutions, there is strong evidence of minimal interaction between "domestic" and "international" students in classrooms and in wider university contexts. This study investigates…

  17. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  18. Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.…

  19. Strength through Diversity: Utilizing Diverse Learning Styles Study Groups To Strengthen Teaching and Learning Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Elsa C.

    To meet the challenges created by diverse learning styles and abilities, community college students are often required to take placement tests to identify individual learning styles. This study was conducted to determine whether organizing students into activity groups based on learning style contributes to performance; and whether grouping…

  20. Whole-Faculty Study Groups: Creating Professional Learning Communities That Target Student Learning. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carlene U.; Lick, Dale W.

    2004-01-01

    Used by hundreds of schools and school districts across the country, the Whole-Faculty Study Group (WFSG) System is a student-driven, holistic process for facilitating major staff development and schoolwide change. While providing a step-by-step methodology for the development and implementation of successful WFSGs, this newest edition of Murphy…

  1. Benefits and Barriers: Case Study of a Government Technology-Mediated Group Mentoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Brigitte; Cheng, Kwan Fan; Gorley, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to describe the design of a provincial government ministry group mentoring program and examine mentees' and mentors' experiences in the program. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 151 mentees rated their satisfaction in a post-program survey. The survey was followed by in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10…

  2. Library on the Go: A Focus Group Study of the Mobile Web and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeholzer, Jamie; Salem, Joseph A., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores student use of the mobile Web in general and expectations for an academic library's mobile Web site in particular through focus groups with students at Kent State University. Participants expressed more interest in using their mobile Web device to interact with library resources and services than anticipated. Results showed an…

  3. Cryptographic Research and NSA: Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davida, George I.

    1981-01-01

    The Public Cryptography Study Group accepted the claim made by the National Security Agency that some information in some publications concerning cryptology could be inimical to national security, and is allowing the establishment of a voluntary mechanism, on an experimental basis, for NSA to review cryptology manuscripts. (MLW)

  4. The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

  5. Preliminary Study of Resilience-Based Group Therapy for Improving the Functioning of Anxious Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Candice C.; Rich, Brendan A.; Sanchez, Lisa; O'Brien, Kelly; Alvord, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of research examining the feasibility of group psychotherapy interventions for anxious children in private clinical service settings. Furthermore, no research to date has examined the effectiveness of resilience-based interventions for helping children with anxiety disorders. Objective: The present study aims to examine…

  6. Teen Perceptions of the Promotion of Safer Sexual Practices: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrman, Judith W.; Kelley, Andrea; Haigh, Katherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Teens' own thoughts on fostering safe sexual practice are important perspectives in promoting adolescent sexual health yet are relatively absent in the literature. This focus group study explored teens' perceptions about the supports and challenges that exist as teens strive to engage in healthy sexual practices. Seventy-five teens participated in…

  7. Using the Facebook Group as a Learning Management System: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiyun; Woo, Huay Lit; Quek, Choon Lang; Yang, Yuqin; Liu, Mei

    2012-01-01

    Facebook is a popular social networking site. It, like many other new technologies, has potential for teaching and learning because of its unique built-in functions that offer pedagogical, social and technological affordances. In this study, the Facebook group was used as a learning management system (LMS) in two courses for putting up…

  8. A Case Study of Two Groups of Elementary Prospective Teachers' Experiences in Distinct Mathematics Content Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auslander, Susan Swars; Smith, Stephanie Z.; Smith, Marvin E.; Hart, Lynn C.; Carothers, Jody

    2016-01-01

    This multiple case study examined two groups of elementary prospective teachers (n=12) completing distinct mathematics content courses. Data were collected via two belief surveys, one content knowledge assessment, and individual interviews. The findings revealed differences in specialized content knowledge and mathematical beliefs between the two…

  9. Pressure for Uniformity: An Experimental Study of Deviate Responses in Group Discussions of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Patricia Hayes

    1978-01-01

    This study suggests female and male verbal behavior should be viewed separately when analysing task-importance. Ego-involvement works with task importance to create atmospheres of maximum involvement. Characteristics of communication and group pressure for uniformity are identified. (MFD)

  10. The Project Approach Catalog 2 by the Project Approach Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.

    Projects are in-depth studies of a topic undertaken by a class, a group, or an individual child. Projects are intended to strengthen children's dispositions to be interested, absorbed, and involved in in-depth observation, investigation, and representation of worthwhile phenomena in their own environments. This Catalog on the Project Approach, the…

  11. Group Cohesion and Social Support in Exercise Classes: Results from a Danish Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and…

  12. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group, efficacy study of alpha BRAIN® administered orally.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Todd M; Leech, Jarrett; deBros, Guy B; Murphy, Cynthia A; Budson, Andrew E; Vassey, Elizabeth A; Solomon, Paul R

    2016-03-01

    Alpha BRAIN® is a nootropic supplement that purports to enhance cognitive functioning in healthy adults. The goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this self-described cognitive enhancing nootropic on cognitive functioning in a group of healthy adults by utilizing a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled design. A total of 63-treatment naïve individuals between 18 and 35 years of age completed the randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. All participants completed a 2-week placebo run in before receiving active product, Alpha BRAIN® or new placebo, for 6 weeks. Participants undertook a battery of neuropsychological tests at randomization and at study completion. Primary outcome measures included a battery of neuropsychological tests and measures of sleep. Compared with placebo, Alpha BRAIN® significantly improved on tasks of delayed verbal recall and executive functioning. Results also indicated significant time-by-group interaction in delayed verbal recall for the Alpha BRAIN® group. The use of Alpha BRAIN® for 6 weeks significantly improved recent verbal memory when compared with controls, in a group of healthy adults. While the outcome of the study is encouraging, this is the first randomized controlled trial of Alpha BRAIN®, and the results merit further study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Communicating the Nature of Science through "The Big Bang Theory": Evidence from a Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Rashel; Orthia, Lindy A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a little-studied means of communicating about or teaching the nature of science (NOS)--through fiction television. We report some results of focus group research which suggest that the American sitcom "The Big Bang Theory" (2007-present), whose main characters are mostly working scientists, has influenced…

  14. A Study of the Structure of Piagetian Logical and Infralogical Grouping Within the Concrete Operational Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettrick, Graham W.

    This study investigated a problem within the theoretical structure of cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget, and used the concepts of classification and projective spatial relationships to investigate the nature of attainment and sequencing of three corresponding logical and infralogical groupings according to the models proposed by…

  15. Talking through the Problems: A Study of Discourse in Peer-Led Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repice, Michelle D.; Sawyer, R. Keith; Hogrebe, Mark C.; Brown, Patrick L.; Luesse, Sarah B.; Gealy, Daniel J.; Frey, Regina F.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, studies are investigating the factors that influence student discourse in science courses, and specifically the mechanisms and discourse processes within small groups, to better understand the learning that takes place as students work together. This paper contributes to a growing body of research by analyzing how students engage in…

  16. The Role of Discourse in Group Knowledge Construction: A Case Study of Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittleson, Julie M.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the role of discourse (verbal elements of language) and Discourse (nonverbal elements related to the use of language, such as ways of thinking, valuing, and using tools and technologies) in the process of group knowledge construction of mechanical engineering students. Data included interviews, participant…

  17. Culture, Perception, and Artistic Visualization: A Comparative Study of Children's Drawings in Three Siberian Cultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istomin, Kirill V.; Panáková, Jaroslava; Heady, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In a study of three indigenous and non-indigenous cultural groups in northwestern and northeastern Siberia, framed line tests and a landscape drawing task were used to examine the hypotheses that test-based assessments of context sensitivity and independence are correlated with the amount of contextual information contained in drawings, and with…

  18. Effectiveness of Facilitating Small-Group Learning in Large Lecture Classes: A General Chemistry Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, D. C.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of a study designed to investigate the effectiveness of peer-led, small-group discussions in a large (N greater than 400) general chemistry course usually taught in a traditional lecture format. The administrative structure, the training of the peer facilitators, and the achievement of students exposed to this environment…

  19. A Self-Study Investigation of Using Inquiry Groups in a Professional Development School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garin, Eva; Harper, Mya

    2016-01-01

    Inquiry Group participation for PDS teachers and teacher candidates is one of the signature programs of the Bowie State University PDS Network and provides PDS teachers and teacher candidates the opportunity to collaborate on teaching strategies and methodologies to use in their classrooms. This article uses self-study methodology to explore the…

  20. Collaborative Learning in Online Study Groups: An Evolutionary Game Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiong, Raymond; Jovanovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Educational benefits of online collaborative group work have been confirmed in numerous research studies. Most frequently cited advantages include the development of skills of critical thinking and problem solving as well as skills of self-reflection and co-construction of knowledge and meaning. However, the establishment and maintenance of active…

  1. The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

  2. Using the Facebook Group as a Learning Management System: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiyun; Woo, Huay Lit; Quek, Choon Lang; Yang, Yuqin; Liu, Mei

    2012-01-01

    Facebook is a popular social networking site. It, like many other new technologies, has potential for teaching and learning because of its unique built-in functions that offer pedagogical, social and technological affordances. In this study, the Facebook group was used as a learning management system (LMS) in two courses for putting up…

  3. Gesture and Naming Therapy for People with Severe Aphasia: A Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jane; Best, Wendy; Cocks, Naomi; Cruice, Madeline; Pring, Tim; Bulcock, Gemma; Creek, Gemma; Eales, Nancy; Mummery, Alice Lockhart; Matthews, Niina; Caute, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors (a) investigated whether a group of people with severe aphasia could learn a vocabulary of pantomime gestures through therapy and (b) compared their learning of gestures with their learning of words. The authors also examined whether gesture therapy cued word production and whether naming therapy cued gestures.…

  4. Improving the evidence base for anaesthesia. MASTER Anaesthesia Trial Study Group.

    PubMed

    Rigg, J; Cokis, C; Collins, K; Glass, D D; Jamrozik, K; Leslie, K; Myles, P; Peyton, P; Poustie, S; Silbert, B

    1998-12-01

    This paper is a brief report of the symposium, "Improving the Evidence Base for Anaesthesia and Intensive Care", organized by the MASTER Anaesthesia Trial Study Group at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists, Newcastle, N.S.W., on Tuesday, May 5, 1998.

  5. An Ethnographic Study of the Mathematical Ideas of a Group of Carpenters. Monograph Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millroy, Wendy Lesley

    1992-01-01

    The researcher conducted a six-month ethnographic study as an apprentice carpenter in Cape Town, South Africa, to document the valid mathematical ideas that are embedded in the everyday woodworking activities of a group of carpenters. A secondary objective was to examine and to give a firsthand account of the teaching and learning of mathematical…

  6. Language Factors Associated with Achievement Grouping in Math Classrooms: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Filer, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the effects of classroom achievement grouping (AG) practices on the early mathematics performance of language-minority students and compares their mathematics achievement to that of English-speaking majority students. Using a nationally representative database of the USA, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were done.…

  7. Preliminary Study of Resilience-Based Group Therapy for Improving the Functioning of Anxious Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Candice C.; Rich, Brendan A.; Sanchez, Lisa; O'Brien, Kelly; Alvord, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of research examining the feasibility of group psychotherapy interventions for anxious children in private clinical service settings. Furthermore, no research to date has examined the effectiveness of resilience-based interventions for helping children with anxiety disorders. Objective: The present study aims to examine…

  8. Multicultural Contacts in Education: A Case Study of an Exchange Project between Different Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuitema, Jaap; Veugelers, Wiel

    2011-01-01

    One important aim of citizenship education is learning to deal with cultural diversity. To this end, schools organise exchange projects to bring students into contact with different social and cultural groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intergroup contact in educational settings and to understand what the most…

  9. Beginning Teachers' Study Groups: A Place to Continue Critical Conversations about Teaching Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Avis; Ebersole, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how a study group for beginning teachers, led by instructors from the teacher education program from which they had just graduated, supported the novice teachers' abilities to survive their induction year and the constraints of school practices influenced by high-stakes accountability policies. Findings demonstrate that the…

  10. Cancer patients' perspectives on multidisciplinary team working: an exploratory focus group study.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Benjamin W; Jalil, Rozh T; Shah, Sujay; Brown, Katrina; Allchorne, Paula; Vincent, Charles; Green, James S A; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, focus-group study explores what patients understand about the multidisciplinary team (MDT) in cancer care. Participants were positive towards MDT working, and by strengthening the role of nurses in MDT decision-making, the representation of patients' interests can be improved.

  11. The Cyclical Tradition: A Study of Phases and Cycles in Four Models of Group Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, John

    A study analyzed and compared four selected models in the cyclical tradition of group development as a basis for identifying possible issues and implications for future theory building. The theorists whose models were examined were Leland Bradford, Jack Gibb, William Schutz, and Theodore Mills. Both historical and conceptual perspectives of the…

  12. Staff Perceptions of the Work Environment in Juvenile Group Home Settings: A Study of Social Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Kevin I.; Wells, James B.; Jones, Brandi

    2004-01-01

    This study used the Prison Social Climate Survey to measure perceptions of the work environment among staff employed in all group homes administered by a state department of juvenile justice. Work environment perceptions were favorable along six dimensions and in the moderate range on a seventh. The variables that most consistently predicted staff…

  13. A Qualitative Study of the Experience of Parents Attending a Psychoanalytically Informed Parent-Toddler Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Maria; Kitson, Annabel; Midgley, Nick

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a qualitative study into the experience of seven parents attending a psychoanalytically informed parent-toddler group. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with each parent, and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of the interviews led us to three "superordinate…

  14. Launching Writing Workshop: A Collaborative Project through Teacher Study Groups and Goal Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead, Pamela A.

    2003-01-01

    Examines processes and models of professional development that effect change in teachers' practices. Describes the study group process, the role of reflection, goal setting research, and collaborative writing workshop project results. Presents findings that support the research relative to the critical need for collegial collaboration. (SG)

  15. An Empirical Study of Hospitality Management Student Attitudes toward Group Projects: Instructional Factors and Team Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Youngsoo; Ro, Heejung

    2012-01-01

    The development of positive attitudes in team-based work is important in management education. This study investigates hospitality students' attitudes toward group projects by examining instructional factors and team problems. Specifically, we examine how the students' perceptions of project appropriateness, instructors' support, and evaluation…

  16. A Window into Learning: Case Studies of Online Group Communication and Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard E. J.; Cooke, Louise

    2006-01-01

    The two case studies presented explore the potential offered by in-depth qualitative analysis of students' online discussion to enhance our understanding of how students learn. Both cases are used to illustrate how the monitoring and moderation of online student group communication can open up a "window into learning", providing us with…

  17. An Exploratory Study of Group Therapy for Sexually Abused Adolescents and Nonoffending Guardians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Amanda P.; Kelly, Adrian B.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent survivors of sexual abuse frequently report severe trauma, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. While cognitive-behavioral group interventions show promise, interpreting efficacy is problematic due to commonly high attrition. This article reports promising exploratory study findings relating to a 12-week multimodal abuse-specific…

  18. USE OF DISCUSSION GROUPS TO INVESTIGATE RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of Discussion Groups to Investigate Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health
    DT Lobdell*, S Gutter+, P Mendola* (*US EPA, NHEERL; +UNC Chapel Hill)

    Much of what is known about successful recruitment and retention o...

  19. A Resource File for Social Studies in Utah. Level 4: Living in Groups in Differing Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This resource file contains information for Utah elementary school teachers to help their level 4 students meet the state's instructional objectives in the social studies. This particular student level emphasizes living in groups in differing environments. The following disciplines are covered in the resource file: psychology, anthropology,…

  20. The Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group Recommendations for the First Course in Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents five recommendations of the Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group: (1) The syllabus must respond to the client disciplines; (2) The first course should be matrix oriented; (3) Faculty should consider the needs and interests of students; (4) Faculty should use technology; and (5) At least one follow-up course should be required. Provides a…