Sample records for gellan gum gel

  1. Optimizing gelling parameters of gellan gum for fibrocartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeyeon; Fisher, Stephanie; Kallos, Michael S; Hunter, Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    Gellan gum is an attractive biomaterial for fibrocartilage tissue engineering applications because it is cell compatible, can be injected into a defect, and gels at body temperature. However, the gelling parameters of gellan gum have not yet been fully optimized. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanics, degradation, gelling temperature, and viscosity of low acyl and low/high acyl gellan gum blends. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum resulted in increased stiffness and the addition of high acyl gellan gum resulted in greatly decreased stiffness. Degradation studies showed that low acyl gellan gum was more stable than low/high acyl gellan gum blends. Gelling temperature studies showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum and CaCl₂ increased gelling temperature and low acyl gellan gum concentrations below 2% (w/v) would be most suitable for cell encapsulation. Gellan gum blends were generally found to have a higher gelling temperature than low acyl gellan gum. Viscosity studies showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum increased viscosity. Our results suggest that 2% (w/v) low acyl gellan gum would have the most appropriate mechanics, degradation, and gelling temperature for use in fibrocartilage tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Yield stress determines bioprintability of hydrogels based on gelatin-methacryloyl and gellan gum for cartilage bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Mouser, Vivian H. M.; Melchels, Ferry P.W.; Visser, Jetze; Dhert, Wouter J.A.; Gawlitta, Debby; Malda, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting of chondrocyte-laden hydrogels facilitates the fabrication of constructs with controlled organization and shape for e.g. articular cartilage implants. Gelatin-methacryloyl (gelMA) supplemented with gellan gum is a promising bio-ink. However, the rheological properties governing the printing process, and the influence of gellan gum on the mechanical properties and chondrogenesis of the blend, are still unknown. Here, we investigated the suitability of gelMA/gellan for cartilage bioprinting. Multiple concentrations, ranging from 3-25% gelMA with 0-1.5% gellan gum, were evaluated for their printability, defined as the ability to form filaments and to incorporate cells at 15-37°C. To support the printability assessment, yield stress and viscosity of the hydrogels were measured. Stiffness of UV-cured constructs, as well as cartilage-like tissue formation by embedded chondrocytes, were determined in vitro. A large range of gelMA/gellan concentrations were printable with inclusion of cells and formed the bioprinting window. Addition of gellan gum improved filament deposition by inducing yielding behavior, increased construct stiffness, and supported chondrogenesis. High gellan gum concentrations, however, did compromise cartilage matrix production and distribution, and even higher concentrations resulted in too high yield stresses to allow cell encapsulation. This study demonstrates the high potential of gelMA/gellan blends for cartilage bioprinting and identifies yield stress as dominant factor for bioprintability. PMID:27431733

  3. Yield stress determines bioprintability of hydrogels based on gelatin-methacryloyl and gellan gum for cartilage bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Mouser, Vivian H M; Melchels, Ferry P W; Visser, Jetze; Dhert, Wouter J A; Gawlitta, Debby; Malda, Jos

    2016-07-19

    Bioprinting of chondrocyte-laden hydrogels facilitates the fabrication of constructs with controlled organization and shape e.g. for articular cartilage implants. Gelatin-methacryloyl (gelMA) supplemented with gellan gum is a promising bio-ink. However, the rheological properties governing the printing process, and the influence of gellan gum on the mechanical properties and chondrogenesis of the blend, are still unknown. Here, we investigated the suitability of gelMA/gellan for cartilage bioprinting. Multiple concentrations, ranging from 3% to 20% gelMA with 0%-1.5% gellan gum, were evaluated for their printability, defined as the ability to form filaments and to incorporate cells at 15 °C-37 °C. To support the printability assessment, yield stress and viscosity of the hydrogels were measured. Stiffness of UV-cured constructs, as well as cartilage-like tissue formation by embedded chondrocytes, were determined in vitro. A large range of gelMA/gellan concentrations were printable with inclusion of cells and formed the bioprinting window. The addition of gellan gum improved filament deposition by inducing yielding behavior, increased construct stiffness and supported chondrogenesis. High gellan gum concentrations, however, did compromise cartilage matrix production and distribution, and even higher concentrations resulted in too high yield stresses to allow cell encapsulation. This study demonstrates the high potential of gelMA/gellan blends for cartilage bioprinting and identifies yield stress as a dominant factor for bioprintability.

  4. Effect of gellan gum on the thermogelation property and drug release profile of Poloxamer 407 based ophthalmic formulation.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Mitali; Sarkar, Gunjan; Bhowmik, Manas; Das, Beauty; Chattoapadhyay, Atis Kumar; Rana, Dipak; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2017-09-01

    The effect of gellan gum on the gelation behavior and in-vitro release of a specific drug named pilocarpine hydrochloride from different ophthalmic formulations based on poloxamer 407 is examined. The mixture of 0.3wt% gellan gum and 18wt% poloxamer (PM) solutions show a considerable increase in gel strength in physiological condition. Gel dissolution rate from PM based formulation is significantly decreased due to the addition of gellan gum. FTIR spectra analysis witnesses an interaction in between OH groups of two polymers which accounts for lowering in gelation temperature of PM-gellan gum based formulations. It is also observed from the cryo-SEM study that the pore size of PM gel decreases with an addition of gellan gum and in-vitro release studies indicate that PM-gellan gum based formulation retain drug better than the PM solution alone. Therefore, the developed formulation has the potential to be utilized as an in-situ ophthalmic drug carrier. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gellan gum: a new biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J T; Martins, L; Picciochi, R; Malafaya, P B; Sousa, R A; Neves, N M; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2010-06-01

    Gellan gum is a polysaccharide manufactured by microbial fermentation of the Sphingomonas paucimobilis microorganism, being commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. It can be dissolved in water, and when heated and mixed with mono or divalent cations, forms a gel upon lowering the temperature under mild conditions. In this work, gellan gum hydrogels were analyzed as cells supports in the context of cartilage regeneration. Gellan gum hydrogel discs were characterized in terms of mechanical and structural properties. Transmissionelectron microscopy revealed a quite homogeneous chain arrangement within the hydrogels matrix, and dynamic mechanical analysis allowed to characterize the hydrogels discs viscoelastic properties upon compression solicitation, being the compressive storage and loss modulus of approximately 40 kPa and 3 kPa, respectively, at a frequency of 1 Hz. Rheological measurements determined the sol-gel transition started to occur at approximately 36 degrees C, exhibiting a gelation time of approximately 11 s. Evaluation of the gellan gum hydrogels biological performance was performed using a standard MTS cytotoxicity test, which showed that the leachables released are not deleterious to the cells and hence were noncytotoxic. Gellan gum hydrogels were afterwards used to encapsulate human nasal chondrocytes (1 x 10(6) cells/mL) and culture them for total periods of 2 weeks. Cells viability was confirmed using confocal calcein AM staining. Histological observations revealed normal chondrocytes morphology and the obtained data supports the claim that this new biomaterial has the potential to serve as a cell support in the field of cartilage regeneration.

  6. Rheological investigation of high-acyl gellan gum hydrogel and its mixtures with simulated body fluids.

    PubMed

    Osmałek, Tomasz Zbigniew; Froelich, Anna; Jadach, Barbara; Krakowski, Marek

    2018-05-01

    Purpose Most of the studies concerning gellan have been focused on its application as a food ingredient, however, gellan is often considered as a candidate for the development of novel pharmaceutical formulations. Taking into account that gellan is ion-sensitive, it can be assumed that its initial mechanical properties can change upon contact with body secretions. Therefore, the aim of the work was to investigate the rheological properties of pure high-acyl gellan gum hydrogel (0.4%) and its mixtures with selected simulated body fluids. Methods The rheological investigations were performed on rotational rheometer and included oscillatory temperature, amplitude, and frequency sweeping. The results enabled estimation of the linear viscoelastic regime, calculation of the cross-over points, and percentage of structure recovery. Results In the case of pure hydrogel no evidence of thermosensitivity was observed in the range of 20-40°C. In pH = 1.2 (NaCl/HCl) the hydrogel structure was almost entirely destroyed. Mixing with phosphate buffer (pH = 4.5) resulted in higher gel strength than after dilution with deionized water. The opposite effect was observed in the case of pH = 7.4. The studies performed for the mixture of GG hydrogel and mucin indicated interaction between the components. The hydrogel elasticity increased in the presence of simulated tear, but decreased in simulated saliva and vaginal fluid. Conclusions In this study, it was shown that the stability of a three-dimensional gellan structure may be affected by pH and the presence of mucin which most probably competed with gellan gum in divalent cations binding. The observations presented in this study may be important in terms of potential application of gellan gum as a potential carrier in drug delivery systems.

  7. The effect of deacetylated gellan gum on aesculin distribution in the posterior segment of the eye after topical administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuhong; Zheng, Yu; Li, Ye; Zeng, Ying; Kuang, Jianchao; Hou, Shixiang; Li, Xiaohui

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of deacetylated gellan gum on delivering hydrophilic drug to the posterior segment of the eye. An aesculin-containing in situ gel based on deacetylated gellan gum (AG) was prepared and characterized. In vitro corneal permeation across isolated rabbit cornea of aesculin between AG and aesculin solution (AS) was compared. The results showed that deacetylated gellan gum promotes corneal penetration of aesculin. Pharmacokinetics and ocular tissue distribution of aesculin after topical administration in rabbit eye showed that AG greatly improved aesculin accumulation in posterior segmentsrelative to AS, which was probably attributed to conjunctivital/sclera pathway. The area-under-the-curve (AUC) for AG in aqueous humor, choroid-retina, sclera and iris-ciliary body were significantly larger than those of AS. AG can be used as a potential carrier for broading the application of aesculin.

  8. Differentiation of osteoclast precursors on gellan gum-based spongy-like hydrogels for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Maia, F Raquel; Musson, David S; Naot, Dorit; da Silva, Lucilia P; Bastos, Ana R; Costa, João B; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Correlo, Vitor M; Reis, Rui L; Cornish, Jillian

    2018-03-16

    Bone tissue engineering with cell-scaffold constructs has been attracting a lot of attention, in particular as a tool for the efficient guiding of new tissue formation. However, the majority of the current strategies used to evaluate novel biomaterials focus on osteoblasts and bone formation, while osteoclasts are often overlooked. Consequently, there is limited knowledge on the interaction between osteoclasts and biomaterials. In this study, the ability of spongy-like gellan gum and hydroxyapatite-reinforced gellan gum hydrogels to support osteoclastogenesis was investigated in vitro. First, the spongy-like gellan gum and hydroxyapatite-reinforced gellan gum hydrogels were characterized in terms of microstructure, water uptake and mechanical properties. Then, bone marrow cells isolated from the long bones of mice and cultured in spongy-like hydrogels were treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to promote osteoclastogenesis. It was shown that the addition of HAp to spongy-like gellan gum hydrogels enables the formation of larger pores and thicker walls, promoting an increase in stiffness. Hydroxyapatite-reinforced spongy-like gellan gum hydrogels support the formation of the aggregates of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-stained cells and the expression of genes encoding DC-STAMP and Cathepsin K, suggesting the differentiation of bone marrow cells into pre-osteoclasts. The hydroxyapatite-reinforced spongy-like gellan gum hydrogels developed in this work show promise for future use in bone tissue scaffolding applications.

  9. Injectable gellan gum hydrogels with autologous cells for the treatment of rabbit articular cartilage defects.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, João T; Gardel, Leandro S; Rada, Tommaso; Martins, Luís; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L

    2010-09-01

    In this work, the ability of gellan gum hydrogels coupled with autologous cells to regenerate rabbit full-thickness articular cartilage defects was tested. Five study groups were defined: (a) gellan gum with encapsulated chondrogenic predifferentiated rabbit adipose stem cells (ASC + GF); (b) gellan gum with encapsulated nonchondrogenic predifferentiated rabbit adipose stem cells (ASC); (c) gellan gum with encapsulated rabbit articular chondrocytes (AC) (standard control); (d) gellan gum alone (control); (e) empty defect (control). Full-thickness articular cartilage defects were created and the gellan gum constructs were injected and left for 8 weeks. The macroscopic aspect of the explants showed a progressive increase of similarity with the lateral native cartilage, stable integration at the defect site, more pronouncedly in the cell-loaded constructs. Tissue scoring showed that ASC + GF exhibited the best results regarding tissue quality progression. Alcian blue retrieved similar results with a better outcome for the cell-loaded constructs. Regarding real-time PCR analyses, ASC + GF had the best progression with an upregulation of collagen type II and aggrecan, and a downregulation of collagen type I. Gellan gum hydrogels combined with autologous cells constitute a promising approach for the treatment of articular cartilage defects, and adipose derived cells may constitute a valid alternative to currently used articular chondrocytes. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Multi-modality gellan gum-based tissue-mimicking phantom with targeted mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Roland K; Shih, A J

    2013-08-21

    This study develops a new class of gellan gum-based tissue-mimicking phantom material and a model to predict and control the elastic modulus, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity by adjusting the mass fractions of gellan gum, propylene glycol, and sodium chloride, respectively. One of the advantages of gellan gum is its gelling efficiency allowing highly regulable mechanical properties (elastic modulus, toughness, etc). An experiment was performed on 16 gellan gum-based tissue-mimicking phantoms and a regression model was fit to quantitatively predict three material properties (elastic modulus, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity) based on the phantom material's composition. Based on these material properties and the regression model developed, tissue-mimicking phantoms of porcine spinal cord and liver were formulated. These gellan gum tissue-mimicking phantoms have the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties approximately equivalent to those of the spinal cord and the liver.

  11. Degradation of Carbazole by Microbial Cells Immobilized in Magnetic Gellan Gum Gel Beads▿

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Gai, Zhonghui; Yu, Bo; Feng, Jinhui; Xu, Changyong; Yuan, Yong; Lin, Zhixin; Xu, Ping

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic heterocycles, such as carbazole, are environmental contaminants suspected of posing human health risks. In this study, we investigated the degradation of carbazole by immobilized Sphingomonas sp. strain XLDN2-5 cells. Four kinds of polymers were evaluated as immobilization supports for Sphingomonas sp. strain XLDN2-5. After comparison with agar, alginate, and κ-carrageenan, gellan gum was selected as the optimal immobilization support. Furthermore, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by a coprecipitation method, and the average particle size was about 20 nm with 49.65-electromagnetic-unit (emu) g−1 saturation magnetization. When the mixture of gellan gel and the Fe3O4 nanoparticles served as an immobilization support, the magnetically immobilized cells were prepared by an ionotropic method. The biodegradation experiments were carried out by employing free cells, nonmagnetically immobilized cells, and magnetically immobilized cells in aqueous phase. The results showed that the magnetically immobilized cells presented higher carbazole biodegradation activity than nonmagnetically immobilized cells and free cells. The highest biodegradation activity was obtained when the concentration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was 9 mg ml−1 and the saturation magnetization of magnetically immobilized cells was 11.08 emu g−1. Additionally, the recycling experiments demonstrated that the degradation activity of magnetically immobilized cells increased gradually during the eight recycles. These results support developing efficient biocatalysts using magnetically immobilized cells and provide a promising technique for improving biocatalysts used in the biodegradation of not only carbazole, but also other hazardous organic compounds. PMID:17827304

  12. Gellan gum-based hydrogels for intervertebral disc tissue-engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Silva-Correia, J; Oliveira, J M; Caridade, S G; Oliveira, J T; Sousa, R A; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2011-06-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a challenging clinical problem that urgently demands viable nucleus pulposus (NP) implant materials. The best suited biomaterial for NP regeneration has yet to be identified, but it is believed that biodegradable hydrogel-based materials are promising candidates. In this work, we have developed ionic- and photo-crosslinked methacrylated gellan gum (GG-MA) hydrogels to be used in acellular and cellular tissue-engineering strategies for the regeneration of IVDs. The physicochemical properties of the developed hydrogels were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry. The swelling ability and degradation rate of hydrogels were also analysed in phosphate-buffered saline solution at physiological pH for a period of 30 days. Additionally, the morphology and mechanical properties of the hydrogels were assessed under a scanning electron microscope and dynamic compression, respectively. An in vitro study was carried out to screen possible cytotoxicity of the gellan gum-based hydrogels by culturing rat lung fibroblasts (L929 cells) with hydrogel leachables up to 7 days. The results demonstrated that gellan gum was successfully methacrylated. We observed that the produced GG-MA hydrogels possess improved mechanical properties and lower water uptake ability and degradation rate as compared to gellan gum. This work also revealed that GG-MA hydrogels are non-cytotoxic in vitro, thus being promising biomaterials to be used in IVD tissue-engineering strategies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Performance of new gellan gum hydrogels combined with human articular chondrocytes for cartilage regeneration when subcutaneously implanted in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J T; Santos, T C; Martins, L; Silva, M A; Marques, A P; Castro, A G; Neves, N M; Reis, R L

    2009-10-01

    Gellan gum is a polysaccharide that has been recently proposed by our group for cartilage tissue-engineering applications. It is commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industry and has the ability to form stable gels without the use of harsh reagents. Gellan gum can function as a minimally invasive injectable system, gelling inside the body in situ under physiological conditions and efficiently adapting to the defect site. In this work, gellan gum hydrogels were combined with human articular chondrocytes (hACs) and were subcutaneously implanted in nude mice for 4 weeks. The implants were collected for histological (haematoxylin and eosin and Alcian blue staining), biochemical [dimethylmethylene blue (GAG) assay], molecular (real-time PCR analyses for collagen types I, II and X, aggrecan) and immunological analyses (immunolocalization of collagen types I and II). The results showed a homogeneous cell distribution and the typical round-shaped morphology of the chondrocytes within the matrix upon implantation. Proteoglycans synthesis was detected by Alcian blue staining and a statistically significant increase of proteoglycans content was measured with the GAG assay quantified from 1 to 4 weeks of implantation. Real-time PCR analyses showed a statistically significant upregulation of collagen type II and aggrecan levels in the same periods. The immunological assays suggest deposition of collagen type II along with some collagen type I. The overall data shows that gellan gum hydrogels adequately support the growth and ECM deposition of human articular chondrocytes when implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of thermo-rheological behaviour and ionotropic crosslinking of new gellan gum-alkyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Agnello, Stefano; Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Fiorica, Calogero; Giammona, Gaetano

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and the physicochemical characterization of two series of gellan gum (GG) derivatives functionalized with alkyl chains with different number of carbon, from 8 to 18. In particular, low molecular weight gellan gum samples with 52.6 or 96.7 kDa, respectively, were functionalized with octylamine (C 8 ), dodecylamine (C 12 ) and octadecylamine (C 18 ) by using bis(4-nitrophenyl) carbonate (4-NPBC) as a coupling agent. Thermo-rheological and ionotropic crosslinking properties of these gellan gum-alkyl derivatives were evaluated and related to the degree of derivatization in alkyl chains. Results suggested as length and degree of derivatization differently influenced coil-to-helix gelation mechanism of GG derivatives, ionotropic crosslinking, and strength of crosslinked hydrogels obtained in CaCl 2 0.102 M and NaCl 0.15 M. Statement of hypothesis: The insertion of alkyl chains on the gellan gum backbone interferes with coil-to-helix transition mechanism and allows the production of hydrophobically assembled hydrogels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Methotrexate loaded gellan gum microparticles for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Dhanka, Mukesh; Shetty, Chaitra; Srivastava, Rohit

    2018-04-15

    Recently, polysaccharides based microparticles have been found to offer an attractive potential as a carrier in drug delivery field. In this study, bare gellan gum microparticles (GG MPs) and methotrexate (MTX) loaded gellan gum microparticles (MTX-GG MPs) prepared by using simple water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion solvent diffusion method. The developed microparticles (MPs) were found discretely distributed in a spherical shape. MTX has been encapsulated in microparticles with 84.8 ± 1.68% encapsulation efficiency (%EE) and 6.45 ± 0.07% loading capacity (%LC). The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) characterization of the MPs clearly indicated the physical encapsulation of MTX into polymeric matrix of MPs. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) characterization showed slightly higher thermal stability of MTX-GG MPs in comparison to the GG MPs. In vitro release study of MTX-GG MPs showed 84% drug release within 24 h. The hemolysis study of GG MPs and MTX-GG MPs on human red blood cells (RBCs) showed <1.0% hemolysis. The cell viability studies on L929 showed GG MPs, and MTX-GG MPs are biocompatible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fabrication of Porous α-TCP/Gellan Gum Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jian; Kim, Ill Yong; Kikuta, Koichi; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2016-03-01

    α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP, α-Ca3(PO4)2) receives great attention for bone repairing due to its biodegradability and capability of transformation to human bone's main inorganic components, hydroxyapatite (HAp). α-TCP porous scaffold is easily procurable by sintering of the low-temperature polymorph of TCP, β-TCR Still, porous body of α-TCP is too brittle to being handled and shaped, limiting its clinical application as implant materials. To improve mechanical properties of α-TCP porous scaffold, the present study focused on coating of a type of polysaccharides on α-TCP scaffolds. Gellan gum was chosen as the polysaccharide for coating because of its biodegradability as well as the potential acting as substrate for HAp deposition during hydration of α-TCP after exposure to body fluid. After coating of gellan gum on α-TCP scaffolds with porosity of 75 vol%, the compressive strength increased from 0.45 MPa to around 2.00 MPa. Among the coated scaffold, the maximum compressive strength, 3.97 MPa, was obtained on the scaffold with porosity of 63 vol%. Improvement of mechanical properties of α-TCP/gellan gum composites was achieved to show easy handling performance for a bone substitute for tissue repairing. The dissolving rate of the coated scaffolds was also controlled by adjusting the concentration of GG solutions.

  17. Formulation and optimization of virgin coconut oil with Tween-80 incorporated in gellan gum hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muktar, Muhammad Zulhelmi; Rose, Laili bt Che; Amin, Khairul Anuar Mat

    2017-09-01

    The demand for wound care products especially advance and active wound care product are huge. Honey and virgin coconut oil (VCO) are well-known as an ancient treatment to treat wound with its great properties such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral. In this study, the potential of VCO incorporated in gellan gum (GG) hydrogel was examined. A surfactant, Tween-80 was introduced to reduce the interfacial tension between VCO and water. Ternary phase diagram was constructed to get the microemulsion of VCO. The compositions of VCO and Tween-80 at stable region were chosen and incorporated in GG solution. The swelling, water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) and gel fraction were significantly affected by the composition of VCO. Higher amount of VCO in GG hydrogel increased the tensile strength and gel fraction at a cost of decreased in swelling and WVTR values.

  18. Biological performance of cell-encapsulated methacrylated gellan gum-based hydrogels for nucleus pulposus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tsaryk, Roman; Silva-Correia, Joana; Oliveira, Joaquim Miguel; Unger, Ronald E; Landes, Constantin; Brochhausen, Christoph; Ghanaati, Shahram; Reis, Rui L; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2017-03-01

    Limitations of current treatments for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration have promoted interest in the development of tissue-engineering approaches. Injectable hydrogels loaded with cells can be used as a substitute material for the inner IVD part, the nucleus pulposus (NP), and provide an opportunity for minimally invasive treatment of IVD degeneration. The NP is populated by chondrocyte-like cells; therefore, chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), stimulated to differentiate along the chondrogenic lineage, could be used to promote NP regeneration. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo response of human bone marrow-derived MSCs and nasal chondrocytes (NCs) to modified gellan gum-based hydrogels was investigated. Both ionic- (iGG-MA) and photo-crosslinked (phGG-MA) methacrylated gellan gum hydrogels show no cytotoxicity in extraction assays with MSCs and NCs. Furthermore, the materials do not induce pro-inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. Moreover, MSCs and NCs can be encapsulated into the hydrogels and remain viable for at least 2 weeks, although apoptosis is observed in phGG-MA. Importantly, encapsulated MSCs and NCs show signs of in vivo chondrogenesis in a subcutaneous implantation of iGG-MA. Altogether, the data endorse the potential use of modified gellan gum-based hydrogel as a suitable material in NP tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Preparation and characterization of a new gellan gum and sulphated hyaluronic acid hydrogel designed for epidural scar prevention.

    PubMed

    Cencetti, Claudia; Bellini, Davide; Longinotti, Cristina; Martinelli, Andrea; Matricardi, Pietro

    2011-02-01

    Postsurgical adhesions are a common problem in clinical practice, causing nerve compression, pain and discomfort. A new hydrogel based on gellan gum and sulphated hyaluronic acid was synthesized, with the aim to create an effective barrier for epidural scar formation. Physico-chemical properties of the gel were analyzed, and preliminary biocompatibility data (i.e. cytotoxicity) have been collected in view of its potential clinical use. The characterization of the new material demonstrated that the hydrogel, due to its high-viscosity, could effectively act as a barrier with a long in situ residence time. In addition, the hydrogel can be easily extruded from a syringe and its structure exhibits excellent stabilizing properties. Furthermore, biological assays showed that this gel is suitable for further preclinical development.

  20. Biochemical characterization of the beta-1,4-glucuronosyltransferase GelK in the gellan gum-producing strain Sphingomonas paucimobilis A.T.C.C. 31461.

    PubMed Central

    Videira, P; Fialho, A; Geremia, R A; Breton, C; Sá-Correia, I

    2001-01-01

    Biosynthesis of bacterial polysaccharide-repeat units proceeds by sequential transfer of sugars, from the appropriate sugar donor to an activated lipid carrier, by committed glycosyltransferases (GTs). Few studies on the mechanism of action for this type of GT are available. Sphingomonas paucimobilis A.T.C.C. 31461 produces the industrially important polysaccharide gellan gum. We have cloned the gelK gene from S. paucimobilis A.T.C.C. 31461. GelK belongs to family 1 of the GT classification [Campbell, Davies, Bulone, Henrissat (1997) Biochem. J. 326, 929-939]. Sequence similarity studies suggest that GelK consists of two protein modules corresponding to the -NH(2) and -CO(2)H halves, the latter possibly harbouring the GT activity. The gelK gene and the open reading frames coding for the -NH(2) (GelK(NH2)) and -CO(2)H (GelK(COOH)) halves were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. GelK and GelK(NH2) were present in both the soluble and membrane fractions of E. coli, whereas GelK(COOH) was only present in the soluble fraction. GelK catalysed the transfer of [(14)C]glucuronic acid from UDP-[(14)C]glucuronic acid into a glycolipid extracted from S. paucimobilis or E. coli, even in the presence of EDTA, and the radioactive sugar was released from the glycolipid by beta-1,4-glucuronidase. GelK was not able to use synthetic glucosyl derivatives as acceptors, indicating that the PP(i)-lipid moiety is needed for enzymic activity. Recombinant GelK(NH2) and GelK(COOH) did not show detectable activity. Based on the biochemical characteristics of GelK and on sequence similarities with N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, we propose that GT families 1 and 28 form a superfamily. PMID:11513745

  1. Preparation of ion-activated in situ gel systems of scopolamine hydrobromide and evaluation of its antimotion sickness efficacy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shi-lei; Zhang, Qi-zhi; Jiang, Xin-guo

    2007-04-01

    To develop a novel, in situ gel system for nasal delivery of scopolamine hydrobromide (SCOP) and study its efficacy on motion sickness. SCOP in situ gels at 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1.0% gellan gum concentration (w/v) were prepared, respectively, and characterized in terms of viscosity, in vitro release, and nasal ciliotoxicity. Single photon emission computing tomography technique was used to evaluate the nasal residence time of gel containing (99m)Tc tracer. The antimotion sickness efficacy produced by the in situ gel formulation was investigated in rats and compared with those achieved after subcutaneous and oral administration. The viscosity of the gellan gum formulations either in solution or in gel increased with increasing concentrations of gellan gum. Its release in vitro was moderate in artificial nasal fluid. The micrographic results showed that in situ gels were safe, without nasal ciliotoxicity. In comparison with phosphate buffer saline, a prolonged radioactivity of (99m)Tc in the rabbit nasal cavity was observed after administration of the gellan gum formulation. Intranasal SCOP in situ gel at a dose of 100 microg/kg decreased symptoms of motion sickness significantly in comparison with subcutaneous and oral administration (P<0.01). SCOP nasal in situ gel is a safe and promising therapeutic alternative to existing medications for motion sickness.

  2. A comparison of fibrin, agarose and gellan gum hydrogels as carriers of stem cells and growth factor delivery microspheres for cartilage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, Mark; Kelly, Daniel J

    2013-06-01

    The limited intrinsic repair capacity of articular cartilage has led to the investigation of different treatment options to promote its regeneration. The delivery of hydrogels containing stem or progenitor cells and growth factor releasing microspheres represents an attractive approach to cartilage repair. In this study, the influence of the encapsulating hydrogel on the ability of progenitor cells coupled with TGF-β3 releasing microspheres to form cartilaginous tissue was investigated. Fibrin, agarose and gellan gum hydrogels containing TGF-β3 loaded gelatin microspheres and progenitor cells derived from the infrapatellar fat-pad of the knee were cultured for 21 days in a chemically defined media. In the presence of TGF-β3 releasing microspheres, gellan gum hydrogels were observed to facilitate greater cell proliferation than fibrin or agarose hydrogels. Histological and biochemical analysis of the hydrogels indicated that fibrin was the least chondro-inductive of the three hydrogels, while agarose and gellan gum appeared to support more robust cartilage formation as demonstrated by greater sGAG accumulation within these constructs. Gellan gum hydrogels also stained more intensely for collagen type II and collagen type I, suggesting that although total collagen synthesis was higher in these constructs, that the phenotype may be more fibrocartilaginous in nature than normal hyaline cartilage. This study demonstrates how the encapsulating hydrogel can have a significant impact on the ability of stem cells to form cartilage when incorporated into a growth factor delivery system.

  3. Autonomous osteogenic differentiation of hASCs encapsulated in methacrylated gellan-gum hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mariana B; Custódio, Catarina A; Gasperini, Luca; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2016-09-01

    Methacrylated gellan-gum (GG-MA) alone and combined with collagen type I (Coll) is suggested here for the first time as a cell-laden injectable biomaterial for bone regeneration. On-chip high-throughput studies allowed rapidly assessing the suitability of 15 biomaterials/media combinations for the osteodifferentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). Hydrogels composed solely of GG-MA (GG100:0Coll) led hASCs from three different donors into the osteogenic lineage after 21days of cell culture, in the absence of any osteogenic or osteoconductive factors. Hydrogels containing more than 30% of Coll promoted increased cellular proliferation and led hASCs into osteogenic differentiation under basal conditions. Studies using isolated individual hydrogels - excluding eventual on-chip crosstalk - and standard biochemical assays corroborated such findings. The formation of focal adhesions of hASCs on GG100:0Coll hydrogels was verified. We hypothesize that the hydrogels osteogenic effect could be guided by mechanotransduction phenomena. Indeed, the hydrogels showed elastic modulus in ranges previously reported as osteoinductive and the inhibition of the actin-myosin contractility pathway impaired hASCs' osteodifferentiation. GG-MA hydrogels also did not promote hASCs' adipogenesis while used in basal conditions. Overall, GG-MA showed promising properties as an innovative and off-the shelf self-inducing osteogenic injectable biomaterial. Methacrylated gellan gum (GG-MA) is here suggested for the first time as a widely available polysaccharide to easily prepare hydrogels with cell adhesion properties and capability of inducing the autonomous osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). GG-MA was processed as stand-alone hydrogels or in different combinations with collage type I. All hydrogel formulations elicited the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, independently of the addition of any osteoconductive or osteogenic stimuli, i.e. in basal

  4. In vivo eye surface residence determination by high-resolution scintigraphy of a novel ion-sensitive hydrogel based on gellan gum and kappa-carrageenan.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús; Otero-Espinar, Francisco Javier; González-Barcia, Miguel; Lamas, María Jesús; Ruibal, Alvaro; Luaces-Rodríguez, Andrea; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Lema, Isabel; Herranz, Michel; Gómez-Lado, Noemí; Blanco-Mendez, José; Gil-Martínez, María; Pardo, María; Moscoso, Alexis; Cortes, Julia; Sánchez-Martínez, María; Pardo-Montero, Juan; Aguiar, Pablo

    2017-05-01

    In last years, sensitive hydrogels have become a breakthrough in ophthalmic pharmaceutical technology aimed at developing new strategies to increase the residence time of active substances. In a previous paper, we qualitatively demonstrated the capacity of a new ion sensitive hydrogel to increase the residence time. Nevertheless, the clearance of the gel from the ocular surface was not quantifiable with the used methodology. The aim of the present work was to use a well-established approach based on scintigraphy to quantitatively estimate the residence time of the previously proposed hydrogel. The rat corneal residence time of a topic ophthalmic formulation containing gellan gum and kappa carragenan (0.82% w/v) labeled with 99m Tc-DTPA radiotracer was evaluated and compared with the residence of an aqueous solution. Ophthalmic safety studies such as eye irritation or passage through the cornea were also carried out. After 1.5h of contact, 77% of the hydrogel remained in the ocular surface, presenting kinetics of disappearance one-phase decay and a half time of 262min. We conclude that the novel ophthalmic hydrogel developed with kappa carrageenan and gellan gum remains for long periods of time on the corneal surface, presenting a drop that fits an exponential decay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gellan gum blended PEI nanocomposites as gene delivery agents: evidences from in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ritu; Tripathi, S K; Tyagi, Shilpa; Ravi Ram, K; Ansari, K M; Shukla, Y; Kar Chowdhuri, D; Kumar, Pradeep; Gupta, K C

    2011-09-01

    Branched Polyethylenimine, 25 kDa (PEI), was blended with gellan gum, an anionic heteropolysaccharide, for partial neutralization of its excess positive charge to form gellan gum-polyethylenimine (GP) nanocomposites (NCs). Subsequently, we manipulated the amount of gellan gum for obtaining a series of NCs and characterized them for their size, charge and morphology. Among all the NCs, one member, named GP3, showed the best transfection efficiency in tested cell lines in comparison with the rest of the series, PEI, Lipofectamine and other commercial transfection agents and also exhibited minimum cytotoxicity. It was found to transfect primary cells of mouse skin with better efficiency than PEI and Lipofectamine and was able to protect the plasmid DNA from nucleases and serum proteins present in the blood. GP3 exhibited efficient intracellular delivery of plasmid as revealed by confocal studies while its intracellular presence was also confirmed by the knockdown of GFP expression (using GFP specific siRNA) and JNKII by quantifying proteins in cell lysates and by western blotting and hybridization, respectively. In vivo cytotoxicity studies in Drosophila showed lack of induction of stress response in the exposed organisms. Further, exposed organisms did not show any developmental delay or mortality and no morphological defects were observed in the emerged flies. In vivo gene expression studies in Balb/c mice revealed maximum expression of luciferase enzyme in spleen. The study suggests that GP3 may act as an efficient non-viral gene carrier with diverse biomedical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanoemulsion-based electrolyte triggered in situ gel for ocular delivery of acetazolamide.

    PubMed

    Morsi, Nadia; Ibrahim, Magdy; Refai, Hanan; El Sorogy, Heba

    2017-06-15

    In the present work the antiglaucoma drug, acetazolamide, was formulated as an ion induced nanoemulsion-based in situ gel for ocular delivery aiming a sustained drug release and an improved therapeutic efficacy. Different acetazolamide loaded nanoemulsion formulations were prepared using peanut oil, tween 80 and/or cremophor EL as surfactant in addition to transcutol P or propylene glycol as cosurfactant. Based on physicochemical characterization, the nanoemulsion formulation containing mixed surfactants and transcutol P was selected to be incorporated into ion induced in situ gelling systems composed of gellan gum alone and in combination with xanthan gum, HPMC or carbopol. The nanoemulsion based in situ gels showed a significantly sustained drug release in comparison to the nanoemulsion. Gellan/xanthan and gellan/HPMC possessed good stability at all studied temperatures, but gellan/carbopol showed partial drug precipitation upon storage and was therefore excluded from the study. Gellan/xanthan and gellan/HPMC showed higher therapeutic efficacy and more prolonged intraocular pressure lowering effect relative to that of commercial eye drops and oral tablet. Gellan/xanthan showed superiority over gellan/HPMC in all studied parameters and is thus considered as a promising mucoadhesive nanoemulsion-based ion induced in situ gelling formula for topical administration of acetazolamide. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Limonene encapsulation in freeze dried gellan systems.

    PubMed

    Evageliou, Vasiliki; Saliari, Dimitra

    2017-05-15

    The encapsulation of limonene in freeze-dried gellan systems was investigated. Surface and encapsulated limonene content was determined by measurement of the absorbance at 252nm. Gellan matrices were both gels and solutions. For a standard gellan concentration (0.5wt%) gelation was induced by potassium or calcium chloride. Furthermore, gellan solutions of varying concentrations (0.25-1wt%) were also studied. Limonene was added at two different concentrations (1 and 2mL/100g sample). Gellan gels encapsulated greater amounts of limonene than solutions. Among all gellan gels, the KCl gels had the greater encapsulated limonene content. However, when the concentration of limonene was doubled in these KCl gels, the encapsulated limonene decreased. The surface limonene content was significant, especially for gellan solutions. The experimental conditions and not the mechanical properties of the matrices were the dominant factor in the interpretation of the observed results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gellan Gum-Based Hydrogels for Osteochondral Repair.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lígia; Silva-Correia, Joana; Oliveira, J Miguel; Reis, Rui L

    2018-01-01

    Gellan gum (GG) is a widely explored natural polysaccharide that has been gaining attention in tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine field, and more recently in osteochondral TE approaches. Taking advantage of its inherent features such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, similarity with the extracellular matrix and easy functionalization, GG-based hydrogels have been studied for their potential for cartilage and bone tissue regeneration. Several preclinical studies describe the successful outcome of GG in cartilage tissue engineering. By its turn, GG composites have also been proposed in several strategies to guide bone formation. The big challenge in osteochondral TE approaches is still to achieve cartilage and bone regeneration simultaneously through a unique integrated bifunctional construct. The potential of GG to be used as polymeric support to reach both bone and cartilage regeneration has been demonstrated. This chapter provides an overview of GG properties and the functionalization strategies employed to tailor its behaviour to a particular application. The use of GG in soft and hard tissues regeneration approaches, as well in osteochondral integrated TE strategies is also revised.

  9. Rheological and mechanical properties of acellular and cell-laden methacrylated gellan gum hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Silva-Correia, Joana; Gloria, Antonio; Oliveira, Mariana B; Mano, João F; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Ambrosio, Luigi; Reis, Rui L

    2013-12-01

    Tissue engineered hydrogels hold great potential as nucleus pulposus substitutes (NP), as they promote intervertebral disc (IVD) regeneration and re-establish its original function. But, the key to their success in future clinical applications greatly depends on its ability to replicate the native 3D micro-environment and circumvent their limitation in terms of mechanical performance. In the present study, we investigated the rheological/mechanical properties of both ionic- (iGG-MA) and photo-crosslinked methacrylated gellan gum (phGG-MA) hydrogels. Steady shear analysis, injectability and confined compression stress-relaxation tests were carried out. The injectability of the reactive solutions employed for the preparation of iGG-MA and phGG-MA hydrogels was first studied, then the zero-strain compressive modulus and permeability of the acellular hydrogels were evaluated. In addition, human intervertebral disc (hIVD) cells encapsulated in both iGG-MA and phGG-MA hydrogels were cultured in vitro, and its mechanical properties also investigated under dynamic mechanical analysis at 37°C and pH 7.4. After 21 days of culturing, hIVD cells were alive (Calcein AM) and the E' of ionic-crosslinked hydrogels and photo-crosslinked was higher than that observed for acellular hydrogels. Our study suggests that methacrylated gellan gum hydrogels present promising mechanical and biological performance as hIVD cells were producing extracellular matrix. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  10. Baclofen novel gastroretentive extended release gellan gum superporous hydrogel hybrid system: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    El-Said, Ibrahim A; Aboelwafa, Ahmed A; Khalil, Rawia M; ElGazayerly, Omaima N

    2016-01-01

    Baclofen is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant with a short elimination half-life, which results in frequent daily dosing and subsequent poor patient compliance. The narrow absorption window of baclofen in the upper gastrointestinal tract limits its formulation as extended release dosage forms. In this study, baclofen extended release superporous hydrogel (SPH) systems, including conventional SPH, SPH composite and SPH hybrid (SPHH), were prepared aiming to increase the residence of baclofen at its absorption window. The applicability of different polymers, namely, gellan gum, guar gum, polyvinyl alcohol and gelatin, was investigated in preparation of SPHH systems. The prepared SPH systems were evaluated regarding weight and volume swelling ratio, porosity, mechanical properties, incorporation efficiency, degree of erosion and drug release. In vivo assessment was performed in dogs to evaluate gastric residence time by X-ray studies. In addition, the oral bioavailability of baclofen relative to commercially available Lioresal® immediate release tablets was also investigated. The novel baclofen gellan SPHH cross linked with calcium chloride was characterized by optimum mechanical properties, acceptable swelling properties as well as extended drug release. It also exhibited a prolonged plasma profile when compared to twice daily administered Lioresal®.

  11. In vitro and in vivo ocular safety and eye surface permanence determination by direct and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of ion-sensitive hydrogels based on gellan gum and kappa-carrageenan.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; González Barcia, Miguel; Gil-Martínez, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Lema, Isabel; Argibay, Barbara; Blanco Méndez, José; Lamas, Maria Jesus; Otero-Espinar, Francisco Javier

    2015-08-01

    Gellan gum, kappa-carrageenan and alginates are natural polysaccharides able to interact with different cations that can be used to elaborate ion-activated in situ gelling systems for different uses. The interaction between fluid solutions of these polysaccharides and cations presents into the tear made these biopolymers very interesting to elaborate ophthalmic drug delivery systems. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of mixtures of these polymers to obtain ion-activated ophthalmic in situ gelling systems with optimal properties for ocular use. To achieve this purpose different proportion of the biopolymers were analyzed using a mixture experimental design evaluating their transparency, mechanical properties and bioadhesion in the absence and presence of simulated tear fluid. Tear induces a rapid sol-to-gel phase transition in the mixtures forming a consistent hydrogel. The solution composed by 80% of gellan gum and 20% kappa-carrageenan showed the best mechanical and mucoadhesive properties. This mixture was evaluated for rheological behavior, microstructure, cytotoxicity, acute corneal irritancy, ex-vivo and in vivo ocular toxicity and in vivo corneal contact time using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) techniques. Result indicates that the system is safe at ophthalmic level and produces an extensive ocular permanence higher than 6h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and characterization of gellan gum microspheres containing a cold-adapted β-galactosidase from Rahnella sp. R3.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuting; Yi, Jiang; Hua, Xiao; Zhang, Yuzhu; Yang, Ruijin

    2017-04-15

    R-β-Gal is a cold-adapted β-galactosidase that is able to hydrolyze lactose and has the potential to produce low-lactose or lactose-free dairy products at low temperatures (4°C). Cold-adapted enzymes unfold at moderate temperatures due to the lower intramolecular stabilizing interactions necessary for flexibility at low temperatures. To increase stability and usage-performance, R-β-Gal was encapsulated in gellan gum by injecting an aqueous solution into two different hardening solutions (10mM CaCl 2 or 10mM MgCl 2 ). Enzyme characteristics of both free and encapsulated R-β-Gal were carried out, and the different effects of two cations were investigated. R-β-Gal showed better thermal and pH stability after encapsulation. Ca 2+ gels had higher encapsulation efficiency (71.4%) than Mg 2+ (66.7%) gels, and Ca 2+ formed larger inner and surface pores. R-β-Gal was released from the Ca 2+ hydrogel beads more rapidly than the Mg 2+ hydrogels during storage in aqueous solution due to the larger inner/surface pores of the matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimisation of gellan gum edible coating for ready-to-eat mango (Mangifera indica L.) bars.

    PubMed

    Danalache, Florina; Carvalho, Claudia Y; Alves, Vitor D; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Mata, Paulina

    2016-03-01

    The optimisation of an edible coating based on low acyl (L)/high acyl (H) gellan gum for ready-to-eat mango bars was performed through a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The independent variables were the concentration of gellan (L/H90/10) and the concentration of Ca(2+) in the coating solution, as well as the storage time after coating application. The response variables studied were the coating thickness, mango bars firmness, syneresis, and colour alterations. Gellan concentration was the independent variable that most influenced the thickness of the coating. Syneresis was quite low for the conditions tested (<1.64%). Similarly, the colour alterations were low during the entire storage time (ΔE<5). Considering the model predictions, 1.0%wt L/H90/10 with addition of 6 mM Ca(2+) could represent the optimal coating formulation for the mango bars. The release of eight volatile compounds from the uncoated and coated mango bars with the selected formulation was analysed by Headspace - Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography during 9 days of refrigerated storage. This work showed that the coating can improve mango bars sensory characteristics (appearance and firmness) and stability in terms of syneresis, colour and volatiles content during storage increasing the commercial value of the final product. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 3D printing of layered brain-like structures using peptide modified gellan gum substrates.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Rodrigo; Stevens, Leo; Thompson, Brianna C; Gilmore, Kerry J; Gorkin, Robert; Stewart, Elise M; in het Panhuis, Marc; Romero-Ortega, Mario; Wallace, Gordon G

    2015-10-01

    The brain is an enormously complex organ structured into various regions of layered tissue. Researchers have attempted to study the brain by modeling the architecture using two dimensional (2D) in vitro cell culturing methods. While those platforms attempt to mimic the in vivo environment, they do not truly resemble the three dimensional (3D) microstructure of neuronal tissues. Development of an accurate in vitro model of the brain remains a significant obstacle to our understanding of the functioning of the brain at the tissue or organ level. To address these obstacles, we demonstrate a new method to bioprint 3D brain-like structures consisting of discrete layers of primary neural cells encapsulated in hydrogels. Brain-like structures were constructed using a bio-ink consisting of a novel peptide-modified biopolymer, gellan gum-RGD (RGD-GG), combined with primary cortical neurons. The ink was optimized for a modified reactive printing process and developed for use in traditional cell culturing facilities without the need for extensive bioprinting equipment. Furthermore the peptide modification of the gellan gum hydrogel was found to have a profound positive effect on primary cell proliferation and network formation. The neural cell viability combined with the support of neural network formation demonstrated the cell supportive nature of the matrix. The facile ability to form discrete cell-containing layers validates the application of this novel printing technique to form complex, layered and viable 3D cell structures. These brain-like structures offer the opportunity to reproduce more accurate 3D in vitro microstructures with applications ranging from cell behavior studies to improving our understanding of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and characterization of gellan gum/glucosamine/clioquinol film as oral cancer treatment patch.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wanchi; Tsai, Huifang; Wong, Yinuan; Hong, Juiyen; Chang, Shwujen; Lee, Mingwei

    2018-01-01

    To administer cancer drugs with improved convenience to patients and to enhance the bioavailability of cancer drugs for oral cancer therapy, this study prepared gellan gum/glucosamine/clioquinol (GG/GS/CQ) film as the oral cancer treatment patch. GG/GS/CQ film fabricated through the EDC-mediated coupling reactions (GG/GS/CQ/EDC film). The film of the physicochemical properties and drug release kinetics were studied. The effectiveness of GG/GS/CQ/EDC film as oral cancer treatment patch were evaluated with the animal model. The results confirmed that CQ can be incorporated via EDC-mediated covalent conjugation to gellan gum/glucosamine. Mechanical testing revealed that the maximum tensile strength and elongation percentage at break were 1.91kgf/mm 2 and 5.01% for GG/GS/CQ/EDC film. After a drug release experiment lasting 45days, 86.8% of CQ was released from GG/GS/CQ/EDC film. The Huguchi model fit the GG/GS/CQ/EDC drug release data with high correlation coefficients (R 2 =0.9994, respectively). The effect of the CQ dose on oral cancer cells (OC-2) was tested, and the IC 50 of CQ alone and CQ with 10μM CuCl 2 were 9.59 and 2.22μM, respectively. The animal testing indicated that GG/GS/CQ/EDC film was decreased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and suppress tumor progression. These findings provide insights into a possible use for GG/GS/CQ/EDC film for oral ca in clinical practice. The GG/GS/CQ/EDC film is suitable as the dressing for use in the treatment of early-stage cancer or as wound care after surgery in late-stage of oral cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of cell-laden double-network hydrogels based on photocrosslinkable gelatin and gellan gum biomacromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeongho; Olsen, Bradley D.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in the application of hydrogels for tissue engineering scaffolds, especially for load-bearing tissues such as cartilage, is to develop hydrogels with high mechanical strength. In this study, a double-network (DN) strategy was used to engineer strong hydrogels that can encapsulate cells. We improved upon previously studied double-network (DN) hydrogels by using a processing condition compatible with cell survival. The DN hydrogels were created by a two-step photocrosslinking using gellan gum methacrylate (GGMA) for the rigid and brittle first network, and gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA) for the soft and ductile second network. We controlled the degree of methacrylation of each polymer so that they obtain relevant mechanical properties as each network. The DN was formed by photocrosslinking the GGMA, diffusing GelMA into the first network, and photocrosslinking the GelMA to form the second network. The formation of the DN was examined by diffusion tests of the large GelMA molecules into the GGMA network, the resulting enhancement in the mechanical properties, and the difference in mechanical properties between GGMA/GelMA single networks (SN) and DNs. The resulting DN hydrogels exhibited the compressive failure stress of up to 6.9 MPa, which approaches the strength of cartilage. It was found that there is an optimal range of the crosslink density of the second network for high strength of DN hydrogels. DN hydrogels with a higher mass ratio of GelMA to GGMA exhibited higher strength, which shows promise in developing even stronger DN hydrogels in the future. Three dimensional (3D) encapsulation of NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and the following viability test showed the cell-compatibility of the DN formation process. Given the high strength and the ability to encapsulate cells, the DN hydrogels made from photocrosslinkable macromolecules could be useful for the regeneration of load-bearing tissues. PMID:22265786

  17. Gellan sulfate inhibits Plasmodium falciparum growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Recuenco, Frances Cagayat; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Ishiwa, Akiko; Enomoto-Rogers, Yukiko; Fundador, Noreen Grace V.; Sugi, Tatsuki; Takemae, Hitoshi; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Murakoshi, Fumi; Gong, Haiyan; Inomata, Atsuko; Horimoto, Taisuke; Iwata, Tadahisa; Kato, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we assessed the sulfated derivative of the microbial polysaccharide gellan gum and derivatives of λ and κ-carrageenans for their ability to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and Dd2 growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro. Growth inhibition was assessed by means of flow cytometry after a 96-h exposure to the inhibitors and invasion inhibition was assessed by counting ring parasites after a 20-h exposure to them. Gellan sulfate strongly inhibited invasion and modestly inhibited growth for both P. falciparum 3D7 and Dd2; both inhibitory effects exceeded those achieved with native gellan gum. The hydrolyzed λ-carrageenan and oversulfated κ-carrageenan were less inhibitory than their native forms. In vitro cytotoxicity and anticoagulation assays performed to determine the suitability of the modified polysaccharides for in vivo studies showed that our synthesized gellan sulfate had low cytotoxicity and anticoagulant activity. PMID:24740150

  18. Novel synergistic transparent k-Carrageenan/Xanthan gum/Gellan gum hydrogel film: Mechanical, thermal and water barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, R; Kim, Sam Soo; Lee, Jaewoong

    2018-06-24

    The aim is to develop novel synergistic transparent k-Carrageenan/Xanthan gum/Gellan gum (k-C/X/G) hydrogel films with different weight ratio composition and to study the effect of these compositions on the physical properties of the films. The structure and morphological properties of the films were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Results for FT-IR, DSC and SEM analysis showed a clear interaction between k-C, X, and G to form a new material. The mechanical, thermal and water barrier properties such as water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (WCA) and moisture content were determined. The temperature at 5% weight loss (T 5% ) are in the range of 64.2-121.9 °C. The WVP exhibits are in the range of 1.8-2.4, contact angle are in the range of 32-65.8° and moisture content 16.5-21.51. The hydrogel film had good tensile strength of 19.1-31.0 MPa and elongation at break of 13-19% and tensile modulus of 1.6-2.4 GPa. The UV results indicate that the films were very transparent. The range of properties of the ternary k-C/X/G hydrogel films suggest that the presence molecular interaction and cross linking within the blends. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Mechanical reinforcement of gellan gum polyelectrolyte hydrogels by cationic polyurethane soft nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sahraro, Maryam; Barikani, Mehdi; Daemi, Hamed

    2018-05-01

    Novel mechanically reinforced nanocomposite hydrogels (NCHs) were developed based on methacrylated gellan gum (MGG) and cationic polyurethane nanoparticles (CPUNs) through a green chemical approach. A series of NCHs were synthesized by the incorporation of CPUNs with weight ratios of 0, 10, 30 and 50 w/w% into the MGG solution, with two different methacrylation degrees (1.2, 5.6%). The chemical structure, morphology, mechanical properties, stimuli-responsivity and cytotoxicity of synthesized NCHs were investigated. Analysis of the hydrogels mechanical testing demonstrated that the addition of CPUNs affords the significant increase in compressive properties. Meanwhile, the formulation of NCH containing the MGG with lower methacrylation degree and 30 w/w% CPUNs showed the highest mechanical properties. Furthermore, equilibrium swelling ratio of the hydrogels decreased by CPUNs addition. Finally, it is worth mentioning that NCHs showed no significant toxicity to human dermal fibroblast cells (HDFs) which idealize them as the suitable hydrogels for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inflammatory response study of gellan gum impregnated duck's feet derived collagen sponges.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seon Eui; Cha, Se Rom; Jang, Na Keum; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Reis, Rui L; Khang, Gilson

    2016-10-01

    Tissue engineered biomaterials have biodegradable and biocompatible properties. In this study, we have fabricated sponges using duck's feet derived collagen (DC) and gellan gum (GG), and further studied its inflammatory responses. The as-prepared duck's feet DC/GG sponges showed the possibility of application as a tissue engineering material through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The physical and chemical properties of sponges were characterized by compression strength, porosity, and scanning electron microscopy, etc. In vitro cell viability were investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. An inflammatory response was studied after seeding RAW264.7 cells on as-fabricated sponges using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In vivo studies were carried out by implanting in subcutaneous nude mouse followed by extraction, histological staining. Collectively, superior results were showed by DC/GG sponges than GG sponge in terms of physical property and cell proliferation and thus can be considered as a potential candidate for future tissue engineering applications.

  1. Development of gellan gum containing formulations for transdermal drug delivery: Component evaluation and controlled drug release using temperature responsive nanogels.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Moran, Carlos A; Zavgorodnya, Oleksandra; Penman, Andrew D; Kharlampieva, Eugenia; Bridges, S Louis; Hergenrother, Robert W; Singh, Jasvinder A; Wick, Timothy M

    2016-07-25

    Enhancing skin permeation is important for development of new transdermal drug delivery formulations. This is particularly relevant for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). To address this, semisolid gel and solid hydrogel film formulations containing gellan gum as a gelling agent were developed and the effects of penetration enhancers (dimethyl sulfoxide, isopropyl alcohol and propylene glycol) on transport of the NSAID diclofenac sodium was quantified. A transwell diffusion system was used to accelerate formulation development. After 4h, diclofenac flux from a superior formulation of the semisolid gel or the solid hydrogel film was 130±11μg/cm(2)h and 108±7μg/cm(2)h, respectively, and significantly greater than that measured for a currently available diclofenac sodium topical gel (30±4μg/cm(2)h, p<0.05) or solution formulation (44±6μg/cm(2)h, p<0.05) under identical conditions. Over 24h diclofenac transport from the solid hydrogel film was greater than that measured for any new or commercial diclofenac formulation. Entrapment of temperature-responsive nanogels within the solid hydrogel film provides temperature-activated prolonged release of diclofenac. Diclofenac transport was minimal at 22°C, when diclofenac is entrapped within temperature-responsive nanogels incorporated into the solid hydrogel film, but increased 6-fold when the temperature was increased to skin surface temperature of 32°C. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the semisolid gel and solid hydrogel film formulations that can include thermo-responsive nanogels for development of transdermal drug formulations with adjustable drug transport kinetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of cell-laden double-network hydrogels based on photocrosslinkable gelatin and gellan gum biomacromolecules.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeongho; Olsen, Bradley D; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-04-01

    A major goal in the application of hydrogels for tissue engineering scaffolds, especially for load-bearing tissues such as cartilage, is to develop hydrogels with high mechanical strength. In this study, a double-network (DN) strategy was used to engineer strong hydrogels that can encapsulate cells. We improved upon previously studied double-network (DN) hydrogels by using a processing condition compatible with cell survival. The DN hydrogels were created by a two-step photocrosslinking using gellan gum methacrylate (GGMA) for the rigid and brittle first network, and gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA) for the soft and ductile second network. We controlled the degree of methacrylation of each polymer so that they obtain relevant mechanical properties as each network. The DN was formed by photocrosslinking the GGMA, diffusing GelMA into the first network, and photocrosslinking the GelMA to form the second network. The formation of the DN was examined by diffusion tests of the large GelMA molecules into the GGMA network, the resulting enhancement in the mechanical properties, and the difference in mechanical properties between GGMA/GelMA single networks (SN) and DNs. The resulting DN hydrogels exhibited the compressive failure stress of up to 6.9 MPa, which approaches the strength of cartilage. It was found that there is an optimal range of the crosslink density of the second network for high strength of DN hydrogels. DN hydrogels with a higher mass ratio of GelMA to GGMA exhibited higher strength, which shows promise in developing even stronger DN hydrogels in the future. Three dimensional (3D) encapsulation of NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and the following viability test showed the cell-compatibility of the DN formation process. Given the high strength and the ability to encapsulate cells, the DN hydrogels made from photocrosslinkable macromolecules could be useful for the regeneration of load-bearing tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Injectable self-gelling composites for bone tissue engineering based on gellan gum hydrogel enriched with different bioglasses.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Piwowarczyk, Wojciech; Pamula, Elzbieta; Liskova, Jana; Schaubroeck, David; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Brackman, Gilles; Balcaen, Lieve; Detsch, Rainer; Declercq, Heidi; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Dokupil, Agnieszka; Cuijpers, Vincent M J I; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cornelissen, Ria; Coenye, Tom; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Dubruel, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Hydrogels of biocompatible calcium-crosslinkable polysaccharide gellan gum (GG) were enriched with bioglass particles to enhance (i) mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP); (ii) antibacterial properties and (iii) growth of bone-forming cells for future bone regeneration applications. Three bioglasses were compared, namely one calcium-rich and one calcium-poor preparation both produced by a sol-gel technique (hereafter referred to as A2 and S2, respectively) and one preparation of composition close to that of the commonly used 45S5 type (hereafter referred to as NBG). Incubation in SBF for 7 d, 14 d and 21 d caused apatite formation in bioglass-containing but not in bioglass-free samples, as confirmed by FTIR, XRD, SEM, ICP-OES, and measurements of dry mass, i.e. mass attributable to polymer and mineral and not water. Mechanical testing revealed an increase in compressive modulus in samples containing S2 and NBG but not A2. Antibacterial testing using biofilm-forming meticillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) showed markedly higher antibacterial activity of samples containing A2 and S2 than samples containing NBG and bioglass-free samples. Cell biological characterization using rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) revealed a stimulatory effect of NBG on rMSC differentiation. The addition of bioglass thus promotes GG mineralizability and, depending on bioglass type, antibacterial properties and rMSC differentiation.

  4. Gelation and thermal characteristics of microwave extracted fish gelatin-natural gum composite gels.

    PubMed

    Binsi, P K; Nayak, Natasha; Sarkar, P C; Joshy, C G; Ninan, George; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the gelation and thermal characteristics of microwave extracted fish scale gelatin blended with natural gums such as gum arabic (AG), xanthan gum (XG), guar gum (GG), and tragacanth gum (TG) was evaluated. The nature of interaction and behavior of gelatin in presence of various gums was confirmed by particle size analysis, viscosity profile, FT-IR analysis and turbidity measurements. DSC data revealed that addition of AG, TG and GG remarkably improved the thermal stability of fish gelatin gel. The composite gels of TG, AG, and XG exhibited higher hardness and bloom strength values as compared to pure fish gelatin implying its textural synergy. Based on qualitative descriptive analysis, TG was found to be superior in improving the stability of fish gelatin gel, closely followed by AG. The results suggest that addition of these gums can reduce syneresis and retard melting of gelatin gels at ambient temperature, which are otherwise soft and thermally unstable.

  5. Formulation of Convenient, Easily Scalable, and Efficient Granisetron HCl Intranasal Droppable Gels.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Howida K; Abdel Malak, Nevine S; Abdel Halim, Sally A

    2015-06-01

    Deacetylated gellan gum and two sodium alginate polymer types were used each at three concentrations in the suitable range for their sol-gel transition. The prepared nine droppable gels were evaluated in vitro, ex vivo through sheep nasal mucosa, as well as in vivo in comparison to drug solution given intravenously and orally at the same dose. The prepared formulas gelled instantaneously in simulated nasal fluid and the obtained gels sustained their shear thinning and thixotropic behavior up to 48 h. Polymer type and concentration had significant effects on the apparent viscosities and the in vitro release profile of granisetron from the prepared gels. The drug release data best fitted a modified Higuchi equation with initial burst and followed Fickian diffusion mechanism. A 0.5% gellan-gum-based formula sustained the in vitro drug release up to 3 h and enhanced the drug permeation without need for an enhancer. The histopatholgical study revealed the safety of the tested formula. Intranasal delivery recorded double the drug bioavailabilty in comparison to the oral route. It had an absolute bioavailability of 0.6539 and the maximum plasma drug concentration reached after 1.5 h. The developed formula could be promising for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting regarding its improved bioavailability, patient acceptability, and ease of production.

  6. Nanocellulose reinforced gellan-gum hydrogels as potential biological substitutes for annulus fibrosus tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Diana R; Silva-Correia, Joana; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Reis, Rui L; Pandit, Abhay; Biggs, Manus J

    2018-04-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is associated with both structural damage and aging related degeneration. Annulus fibrosus (AF) defects such as annular tears, herniation and discectomy require novel tissue engineering strategies to functionally repair AF tissue. An ideal construct will repair the AF by providing physical and biological support, facilitating regeneration. The presented strategy herein proposes a gellan gum-based construct reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (nCell) as a biological self-gelling AF substitute. Nanocomposite hydrogels were fabricated and characterized with respect to hydrogel swelling capacity, degradation rate in vitro and mechanical properties. Rheological evaluation on the nanocomposites demonstrated the GGMA reinforcement with nCell promoted matrix entanglement with higher scaffold stiffness observed upon ionic crosslinking. Compressive mechanical tests demonstrated compressive modulus values close to those of the human AF tissue. Furthermore, cell culture studies with encapsulated bovine AF cells indicated that nanocomposite constructs promoted cell viability and a physiologically relevant cell morphology for up to fourteen days in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Retrograded starch/pectin coated gellan gum-microparticles for oral administration of insulin: A technological platform for protection against enzymatic degradation and improvement of intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Meneguin, Andréia B; Beyssac, Eric; Garrait, Ghislain; Hsein, Hassana; Cury, Beatriz S F

    2018-02-01

    Gellan gum microparticles coated with colon-specific films based on retrograded starch and pectin was developed for enhancing the oral release of insulin (INS). The system developed promoted an impressive protection of INS (80%) after 120 min of incubation with trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin, while only 3% of free INS remained intact after the same time, possibility due to the calcium chelating activity of the polymers in inhibiting the proteolytic activity. In vitro INS release in media simulating the gastrointestinal portions revealed a pH-dependent behavior, as well as the significance of the coating in lowering the release rates in relation to their counterparts. The permeability of INS on Caco-2 cells monolayers and excised rat intestine were significantly improved, mainly due to the influence of the anionic polymers on tight junctions opening, along with the excellent mucoadhesive properties of the gellan gum. All these features together contributed greatly to the hypoglycemic effect observed after the oral administration of the INS-loaded MP in diabetic rats, with reduction of up to 51% of blood glucose levels. The important findings of this work should contribute to the advances about the search of alternatives for oral administration of INS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The composite hydrogels of polyvinyl alcohol-gellan gum-Ca(2+) with improved network structure and mechanical property.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Wen, Ying; Bai, Tongchun

    2016-12-01

    The composite hydrogels of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and gellan gum (GG) are of interesting in the biomaterials application. To improve the structure and mechanical property, in this work, Ca(2+) ion was introduced to crosslink the polymer chain, and the PVA-GG-Ca(2+) hydrogel was formed. By analyzing its structure, mechanical properties, swelling and dehydration kinetics, the effect of molecular interaction on hydrogel structure and properties have been observed. Our result indicates that, as GG is added to hydrogel network, the role of Ca(2+) ion is stand out, it reorganizes the network structure, enhances the mechanical properties, and strengthens the electrolytic and hydrogen bonding interactions in PVA-GG-Ca(2+) hydrogels. These observations will benefit the development of hydrogels in biomaterials application. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Self-healing guar gum and guar gum-multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite gels prepared in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Mukesh, Chandrakant; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2013-10-15

    Guar gum is a galactomannan extracted from the seed of the leguminous shrub Cyamopsis tetragonoloba. It was found to form a soft viscoelastic gel in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, an ionic liquid at an optimized concentration of 10%w/v. A nanocomposite gel of the gum with enhanced strength could be prepared with 0.2%w/v of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the ionic liquid. When the gels thus prepared were subjected to surface fractures or bisected completely, they found to self-heal at room temperature without any external interventions. The self-healing process could be repeated several times. These viscoelastic gel systems showed thixotropic nature and recovery of the storage modulus with time for several cycles was observed upon rheological investigations. The interaction took place between ionic liquid, guar gum and MWCNT was studied by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, powder XRD and rheometry. The results suggested that, upon standing at room temperature development of electrostatic interactions and the van der Waals interactions among the ionic liquid molecules facilitated the formation of reversible noncovalent bonds and eventually activated the self-healing in the gel systems through appropriate chain entanglements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Formulation development of smart gel periodontal drug delivery system for local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents with application of experimental design.

    PubMed

    Dabhi, Mahesh R; Nagori, Stavan A; Gohel, Mukesh C; Parikh, Rajesh K; Sheth, Navin R

    2010-01-01

    Smart gel periodontal drug delivery systems (SGPDDS) containing gellan gum (0.1-0.8% w/v), lutrol F127 (14, 16, and 18% w/v), and ornidazole (1% w/v) were designed for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Each formulation was characterized in terms of in vitro gelling capacity, viscosity, rheology, content uniformity, in vitro drug release, and syringeability. In vitro gelation time and the nature of the gel formed in simulated saliva for prepared formulations showed polymeric concentration dependency. Drug release data from all formulations was fitted to different kinetic models and the Korsemeyer-Peppas model was the best fit model. Drug release was significantly decreased as the concentration of each polymer component was increased. Increasing the concentration of each polymeric component significantly increased viscosity, syringeability, and time for 50%, 70%, and 90% drug release. In conclusion, the formulations described offer a wide range of physical and drug release characteristics. The formulation containing 0.8% w/v of gellan gum and 16% w/v of lutrol F127 exhibited superior physical characteristics.

  11. Artocarpus heterophyllus L. seed starch-blended gellan gum mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-04-01

    Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., family: Moraceae) seed starch (JFSS)-gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were developed through ionotropic gelation technique. The effect of GG to JFSS ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h, %) was optimized and analyzed using response surface methodology based on 3(2) factorial design. The optimized JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 92.67±4.46%, R10h of 61.30±2.37%, and mean diameter of 1.67±0.27 mm. The optimized beads showed pH-dependent swelling and mucoadhesivity with the goat intestinal mucosa. The in vitro drug release from all these JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl was followed zero-order pattern (R(2)=0.9907-0.9975) with super case-II transport mechanism over a period of 10 h. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl exhibited significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modification of gellan gum films by halloysite: physicochemical evaluation and drug permeation properties.

    PubMed

    Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of gellan gum (GG) and halloysite (HS) dispersions at different mixing ratios and to investigate the potential of GG-HS dispersions in film formation. To this end, the dispersions and films were characterized. The dispersions formed films with large particles ranging from 3 to 4 μm in size, with a zeta potential of ∼-35 mV. The GG-HS films were fabricated using a solvent-casting technique, which generated films with a white opaque appearance and rough surface. The GG-HS films were formed via hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions at the inner cavity and outer surface, as confirmed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The %water uptake and erosion of the GG-HS film decreased with increasing HS content, whereas both puncture strength and elongation were increased in the GG-HS ratios of 1:0.4 and 1:1.2. Moreover, addition of HS into the GG films could possibly decrease drug permeability coefficient when using higher HS ratio in acidic and neutral media. These results suggested that HS modifies the characteristics of the GG used to coat modified-release tablets.

  13. 3D Nanostructured materials: TiO2 nanoparticles incorporated gellan gum scaffold for photocatalyst and biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasmizam Razali, Mohd; Arifah Ismail, Nur; Zulkafli, Mohd Farhan Azly Mohd; Anuar Mat Amin, Khairul

    2018-03-01

    A unique three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured gellan gum (GG) is fabricated by incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles (GG + TiO2NPs) scaffold by freeze-drying. The fabricated GG + TiO2NPs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study their physiochemical properties. FTIR was used to investigate the intermolecular interactions in the scaffolds. The crystal structure was determined by bulk analysis using XRD and SEM for microstructure observation of scaffold surfaces. The performance of synthesized GG + TiO2NPs scaffold 3D nanostructured materials was evaluated as a photocatalyst for methyl orange (MO) degradation and for biomedical applications. The results showed that the scaffold possessed good photocatalytic activity for removal of methyl orange with 88.24% degradation after 3 h of UV irradiation. The scaffold also induces the cell growth, thus offering a good candidate for biomedical applications.

  14. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is a high molecular weight polysaccharide gum produced..., sodium, calcium, and magnesium salt. The polysaccharide may contain acyl (glyceryl and acetyl) groups as...

  15. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... molecular weight polysaccharide gum produced from Pseudomonas elodea by a pure culture fermentation process... neutralized to a mixed potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium salt. The polysaccharide may contain acyl...

  16. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... molecular weight polysaccharide gum produced from Pseudomonas elodea by a pure culture fermentation process... neutralized to a mixed potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium salt. The polysaccharide may contain acyl...

  17. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... molecular weight polysaccharide gum produced from Pseudomonas elodea by a pure culture fermentation process... neutralized to a mixed potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium salt. The polysaccharide may contain acyl...

  18. Anti-angiogenic potential of VEGF blocker dendron loaded on to gellan gum hydrogels for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Valeria; Guildford, Anna L; Silva-Correia, Joana; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Meikle, Steven T; Reis, Rui L; Santin, Matteo

    2018-02-01

    Damage of non-vascularised tissues such as cartilage and cornea can result in healing processes accompanied by a non-physiological angiogenesis. Peptidic aptamers have recently been reported to block the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, the therapeutic applications of these aptamers are limited due to their short half-life in vivo. In this work, an enhanced stability and bioavailability of a known VEGF blocker aptamer sequence (WHLPFKC) was pursued through its tethering of molecular scaffolds based on hyperbranched peptides, the poly(ɛ-lysine) dendrons, bearing three branching generations. The proposed design allowed simultaneous and orderly-spaced exposure of 16 aptamers per dendrimer to the surrounding biological microenvironent, as well as a relatively hydrophobic core based on di-phenylalanine aiming to promote an hydrophobic interaction with the hydrophobic moieties of ionically crosslinked methacrylated gellan gum (iGG-MA) hydrogels. The VEGF blocker dendrons were entrapped in iGG-MA hydrogels, and their capacity to prevent endothelial cell sprouting was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using 3D in vitro models and the in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. The data demonstrate that at nanoscale concentrations, the dendronised structures were able to enhance control of the biological actvity of WHLPFKC at the material/tissue interface and hence the anti-angiogenic capacity of iGG-MA hydrogels not only preventing blood vessel invasion, but also inducing their regression at the tissue/iGG-MA interface. The in ovo study confirmed that iGG-MA functionalised with the dendron VEGF blockers do inhibit angiogenesis by controlling both size and ramifications of blood vessels in the proximity of the implanted gel surface. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Fabrication of Apigenin loaded gellan gum-chitosan hydrogels (GGCH-HGs) for effective diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rajesh; Kashaw, Sushil K; Jain, Alok Pal; Lodhi, Santram

    2016-10-01

    The Apigenin (APN) was isolated from ethanolic extract of M. alba leaves and screened by in-vivo wound models (Diabetic and Dead space) in rats. Apigenin loaded hydrogel (HGs) was prepared using gellan gum-chitosan (GGCH) with PEG as a cross linker and characterized for various parameter like AFM, swelling property, entrapment efficiency and drug release. Further performance of hydrogel was evaluated by wound healing activity tested against wound contraction, collagen content, dried granuloma weights and antioxidant activity. The percent entrapment efficiency of optimized hydrogel found to be 87.15±1.20. APN loaded GGCH-HGs were able to release 96.11% APN in 24h. The level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were found increased significantly in granuloma tissue of APN treated group. APN GGCH-HGs found higher wound healing effect in diabetic as well as normal wound tissues with significant antioxidant activity. Results proven the utility of prepared hydrogel (APN loaded GGCH-HGs) seems to be highly suitable for wound healing due to its unique properties of biocompatibility, biodegradability, moist nature and antioxidant effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvement in production and quality of gellan gum by Sphingomonas paucimobilis under high dissolved oxygen tension levels.

    PubMed

    Banik, R M; Santhiagu, A

    2006-09-01

    The effect of agitation rate and dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) on growth and gellan production by Sphingomonas paucimobilis was studied. Higher cell growth of 5.4 g l(-1) was obtained at 700 rpm but maximum gellan (15 g l(-1)) was produced at 500 rpm. DOT levels above 20% had no effect on cell growth but gellan yield was increased to 23 g l(-1 )with increase in DOT level to 100%. Higher DOT levels improved the viscosity and molecular weight of the polymer with change in acetate and glycerate content of the polymer.

  1. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii using alginate and gellan gum.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Flores, Walfred; Ramos-Ramírez, Emma Gloria; Salazar-Montoya, Juan Alfredo

    2013-10-15

    Sodium alginate (SA) at 2% (w/v) and low acylated gellan gum (LAG) at 0.2% (w/v) were used to microencapsulate Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp lactis by employing the internal ionic gelation technique through water-oil emulsions at three different stirring rates: 480, 800 and 1200 rpm. The flow behavior of the biopolymer dispersions, the activation energy of the emulsion, the microencapsulation efficiency, the size distribution, the microcapsules morphology and the effect of the stirring rate on the culture viability were analyzed. All of the dispersions exhibited a non-Newtonian shear-thinning flow behavior because the apparent viscosity decreased in value when the shear rate was increased. The activation energy was calculated using the Arrhenius-like equation; the value obtained for the emulsion was 32.59 kJ/mol. It was observed that at 400 rpm, the microencapsulation efficiency was 92.83%, whereas at 800 and 1200 rpm, the stirring rates reduced the efficiency to 15.83% and 4.56%, respectively, evidencing the sensitivity of the microorganisms to the shear rate (13.36 and 20.05 s(-1)). Both optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed spherical microcapsules with irregular topography due to the presence of holes on its surface. The obtained size distribution range was modified when the stirring rate was increased. At 400 rpm, bimodal behavior was observed in the range of 20-420 μm; at 800 and 1200 rpm, the behavior became unimodal and the range was from 20 to 200 μm and 20 to 160 μm, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of gellan gum-based microparticles/hydrogel matrices for application in the intervertebral disc regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Diana Ribeiro; Silva-Correia, Joana; Caridade, Sofia Glória; Oliveira, Joao T; Sousa, Rui A; Salgado, Antonio J; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Mano, João F; Sousa, Nuno; Reis, Rui L

    2011-10-01

    Low back pain is one of the most reported medical conditions associated to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Nucleus pulposus (NP) is often regarded as the structure where IVD degeneration begins. Gellan gum (GG)-based hydrogels for acellular and cellular tissue engineering strategies have been developed for finding applications as NP substitutes. The innovative strategy is based on the reinforcement of the hydrogel matrix with biocompatible and biodegradable GG microparticles (MPs), which are expected to improve the mechanical properties, while allowing to tailor its degradation rate. In this study, several GG MP/hydrogel disc formulations were prepared by means of mixing high acyl GG (0.75% (w/v)) and low acyl GG (2% (w/v)) GG aqueous solutions at different ratios, namely, 75%:25% (v/v), 50%:50% (v/v), and 25%:75% (v/v), respectively. The GG MP size was measured using a stereo microscope, and their dispersion within the hydrogel matrix was evaluated by means of staining the MPs with Toluidine Blue-O. The developed GG MPs/hydrogel discs were physicochemically characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The swelling behavior and degradation rate were assessed by immersion in a phosphate buffer saline for 14 days. The morphology and mechanical behavior were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively. The mechanical properties of the hydrogel disc were improved by mixing the gels with the MPs. In addition, the possible cytotoxicity of the leachables released by MPs/hydrogel discs was screened in vitro, using a mouse lung fibroblast cell line (L929 cells). To investigate the encapsulation efficacy of L929 cells into the GG MPs/hydrogel discs, cells were stained with DAPI blue/Texas Red-Phalloidin and observed by confocal microscopy, after 24, 48, and 72 h of culturing. A cell viability assay was also performed using Calcein AM staining. The cell culture

  3. Tamarind seed gum-hydrolyzed polymethacrylamide-g-gellan beads for extended release of diclofenac sodium using 32 full factorial design.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Gouranga; Nandi, Amit Kumar; Khan, Najim Sarif; Pal, Souvik; Dey, Sibasish

    2018-07-15

    Development of tamarind seed gum (TSG)-hydrolyzed polymethacrylamide-g-gellan (h-Pmaa-g-GG) composite beads for extended release of diclofenac sodium using 3 2 full factorial design is the main purpose of this study. The ratio of h-Pmaa-g-GG and TSG and concentration of cross-linker CaCl 2 were taken as independent factors with three different levels of each. Effects of polymer ratio and CaCl 2 on drug entrapment efficiency (DEE), drug release, bead size and swelling were investigated. Responses such as DEE and different drug release parameters were statistically analyzed by 3 2 full factorial design using Design-Expert software and finally the formulation factors were optimized to obtain USP-reference release profile. Drug release rate was found to decrease with decrease in the ratio of h-Pmaa-g-GG:TSG and increase in the concentration of Ca 2+ ions in cross-linking medium. The optimized formulation showed DEE of 93.25% and an extended drug release profile over a period of 10h with f 2 =80.13. Kinetic modeling unveiled case-I-Fickian diffusion based drug release mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thickening compositions containing xanthomonas gum and hydroxyalkyl ether of guar gum

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jordan, W.A.

    1973-07-24

    Natural and synthetic gums have been used as thickeners for foods, coatings, paints, dyes, explosive slurries, oil-well fluids, and many other applications. Thickening compositions are described which consist of xanthomonas gum and hydroxyalkyl ether of guar gum and are suitable for use in explosive slurries. Aqueous sols of xanthomonas gum are plastic in nature and exhibit higher gel strengths than sols of other gums. Aqueous sols of hydroxyalkyl ether of guar are almost Newtonian and exhibit little or no gel strength. Aqueous sols of the thickening compositions of the present invention are plastic in character. At certain concentrations of themore » thickening compositions in aqueous sols, the sols have higher gel strengths than can be obtained from xanthomonas gum alone. At certain concentrations, the aqueous sols containing the thickening compositions exhibit greater viscosity differentials than do sols containing xanthomonas gum alone. In addition, the aqueous sols exhibit a greater drop in viscosity as the thickening composition concentration is reduced than do aqueous sols of xanthomonas gum alone.(5 claims)« less

  5. Combination of a peptide-modified gellan gum hydrogel with cell therapy in a lumbar spinal cord injury animal model.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Eduardo D; Mendes, Sofia S; Leite-Almeida, Hugo; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Tam, Roger Y; Shoichet, Molly S; Sousa, Nuno; Silva, Nuno A; Salgado, António J

    2016-10-01

    Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a highly incapacitating condition for which there is still no cure. Current clinical approaches are mainly based on palliative care, so there is a need to find possible treatments to SCI. Cellular transplantation is regarded with great expectation due to the therapeutic potential of cells such as Adipose tissue-derived Stromal/Stem Cells (ASCs) or Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs). Both are accessible sources and present positive paracrine and cell-to-cell interactions, previously reported by our group. Additionally, biomaterials such as hydrogels have been applied in SCI repair with promising results. We propose to combine a GRGDS-modified gellan gum hydrogel with ASCs and OECs in order to promote SCI regeneration. In vitro, ASCs and OECs could be co-cultured within GG-GRGDS hydrogels inducing a more robust neurite outgrowth when compared to controls. In vivo experiments in a hemisection SCI rat model revealed that the administration of ASCs and OECs encapsulated in a GG-GRGDS hydrogel led to significant motor improvements when compared to both control (SCI) and hydrogel alone (GG-GRGDS) groups. This was accompanied by a decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells and astrocytes, and by an increased intensity of neurofilament. These results suggest evident gains induced by the encapsulation of ASCs and OECs in GG-GRGDS based hydrogels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gellan gum microspheres crosslinked with trivalent ion: effect of polymer and crosslinker concentrations on drug release and mucoadhesive properties.

    PubMed

    Boni, Fernanda Isadora; Prezotti, Fabíola Garavello; Cury, Beatriz Stringhetti Ferreira

    2016-08-01

    Gellan gum microspheres were obtained by ionotropic gelation technique, using the trivalent ion Al(3+). The percentage of entrapment efficiency ranged from 48.76 to 87.52% and 2(2) randomized full factorial design demonstrated that both the increase of polymer concentration and the decrease of crosslinker concentration presented a positive effect in the amount of encapsulated drug. Microspheres size and circularity ranged from 700.17 to 938.32 μm and from 0.641 to 0.796 μm, respectively. The increase of polymer concentration (1-2%) and crosslinker concentration (3-5%) led to the enlargement of particle size and circularity. However, the association of increased crosslinker concentration and reduced polymer content made the particles more irregular. In vitro and ex vivo tests evidenced the high mucoadhesiveness of microspheres. The high liquid uptake ability of the microspheres was demonstrated and the pH variation did not affect this parameter. Drug release was pH dependent, with low release rates in acid pH (42.40% and 44.93%) and a burst effect in phosphate buffer pH (7.4). The Weibull model had the best correlation with the drug release data, demonstrating that the release process was driven by a complex mechanism involving the erosion and swelling of the matrix or by non-Fickian diffusion.

  7. Novel injectable gellan gum hydrogel composites incorporating Zn- and Sr-enriched bioactive glass microparticles: High-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography, antibacterial and in vitro testing.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Dziadek, Michal; Gorodzha, Svetlana; Lišková, Jana; Brackman, Gilles; Vanhoorne, Valérie; Vervaet, Chris; Balcaen, Lieve; Del Rosario Florez Garcia, Maria; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Weinhardt, Venera; Baumbach, Tilo; Vanhaecke, Frank; Coenye, Tom; Bačáková, Lucie; Surmeneva, Maria A; Surmenev, Roman A; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Skirtach, Andre G

    2018-06-01

    Mineralization of hydrogel biomaterials is desirable to improve their suitability as materials for bone regeneration. In this study, gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were formed by simple mixing of GG solution with bioactive glass microparticles of 45S5 composition, leading to hydrogel formation by ion release from the amorphous bioactive glass microparticles. This resulted in novel injectable, self-gelling composites of GG hydrogels containing 20% bioactive glass. Gelation occurred within 20 min. Composites containing the standard 45S5 bioactive glass preparation were markedly less stiff. X-ray microcomputed tomography proved to be a highly sensitive technique capable of detecting microparticles of diameter approximately 8 μm, that is, individual microparticles, and accurately visualizing the size distribution of bioactive glass microparticles and their aggregates, and their distribution in GG hydrogels. The widely used melt-derived 45S5 preparation served as a standard and was compared with a calcium-rich, sol-gel derived preparation (A2), as well as A2 enriched with zinc (A2Zn5) and strontium (A2Sr5). A2, A2Zn, and A2Sr bioactive glass particles were more homogeneously dispersed in GG hydrogels than 45S5. Composites containing all four bioactive glass preparations exhibited antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Composites containing A2Zn5 and A2Sr5 bioactive glasses supported the adhesion and growth of osteoblast-like cells and were considerably more cytocompatible than 45S5. All composites underwent mineralization with calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite upon incubation in simulated body fluid. The extent of mineralization appeared to be greatest for composites containing A2Zn5 and 45S5. The results underline the importance of the choice of bioactive glass when preparing injectable, self-gelling composites. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Angiogenic potential of gellan-gum-based hydrogels for application in nucleus pulposus regeneration: in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Silva-Correia, Joana; Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Salgado, António J; Sousa, Nuno; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Reis, Rui M; Reis, Rui L

    2012-06-01

    Hydrogels for nucleus pulposus (NP) regeneration should be able to comprise a nonangiogenic or even antiangiogenic feature. Gellan gum (GG)-based hydrogels have been reported to possess adequate properties for being used as NP substitutes in acellular and cellular strategies, due to its ability to support cell encapsulation, adequate mechanical properties, and noncytotoxicity. In this study, the angiogenic response of GG-based hydrogels was investigated by performing the chorioallantoic membrane assay. The convergence of macroscopic blood vessels toward the GG, ionic-crosslinked methacrylated GG (iGG-MA), and photo-crosslinked methacrylated GG (phGG-MA) hydrogel discs was quantified. Gelatin sponge (GSp) and filter paper (FP) alone and with vascular endothelial growth factor were used as controls of angiogenesis. The images obtained were digitally processed and analyzed by three independent observers. The macroscopic blood vessel quantification demonstrated that the GG-based hydrogels are not angiogenic as compared with FP controls. No statistical differences between the GG-based hydrogels tested in respect to its angiogenic ability were observed. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and SNA-lectin immunohistochemistry assay indicated that the iGG-MA and phGG-MA hydrogels do not allow the ingrowth of chick endothelial cells, following 4 days of implantation. On the contrary, GG, GSp, and FP controls allowed cell infiltration. The histological data also indicated that the GG-based hydrogels do not elicit any acute inflammatory response. The results showed that the GG, iGG-MA, and phGG-MA hydrogels present different permeability to cells but functioned as a physical barrier for vascular invasion. These hydrogels present promising and tunable properties for being used as NP substitutes in the treatment of degenerative intervertebral disc.

  9. Physicochemical properties and biological activities of DEAE-derivatized Sphingomonas gellan.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Kyung Hee; Lee, Ji-Soo; Cha, Jaeho; Park, Cheon Seok; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2005-08-10

    Physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of Sphingomonas gellan (S-gellan) were investigated. The S-gellan weight fractions of Glc and GlcUA were 0.45 and 0.25, respectively, and the molar ratio of Glc:Rha:GlcUA was approximately 4:2:3. The S-gellan was chemically derivatized with diethylaminoethyl chloride-HCl (DEAE-HCl), and the resulting modified S-gellan contained both positive and negative charges. The elemental and IR analyses were conducted to confirm the successful incorporation of DEAE groups into S-gellan. A large increase in nitrogen fraction was observed from the derivatized S-gellan by elemental analysis. The IR absorption bands induced by C-H, C-N, and C-O-C stretching were noticeable at 2950, 1310-1380, and 1000-1150 cm(-1), respectively, resulting from the DEAE substitution. The characteristic CH3 and CH2 peaks originated from the DEAE group were detected in the 1H NMR spectrum of the derivatized S-gellan as well. The solubility of native S-gellan was improved almost twice from 40% to 75% after DEAE derivatization, while water holding capacity (WHC) drastically decreased from 10026% to 245%. Oil binding capacity (OBC) of S-gellan also significantly dropped from 1528% to 331% after the derivatization. The bile acid binding capacity of S-gellan was indirectly determined by measuring the holding capability of cholic acid inside the dialysis membrane (MWCO 12,000-14,000 Da). Once S-gellan was DEAE derivatized, there was substantial increase in the cholic acid retardation index (CRI). Up to 9 h of dialysis, the derivatized S-gellan released 29.3% less of cholic acid compared to the control group that did not contain S-gellan. From these results of the improved water solubility and stronger bile acid binding capacity, it would be suggested that the DEAE-derivatized S-gellan has more advantages than gellan itself for functional food applications.

  10. Gellan Gum-based luminal fillers for peripheral nerve regeneration: an in vivo study in the rat sciatic nerve repair model.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, C R; Wrobel, S; Meyer, C; Brandenberger, C; Cengiz, I F; López-Cebral, R; Silva-Correia, J; Ronchi, G; Reis, R L; Grothe, C; Oliveira, J M; Haastert-Talini, K

    2018-05-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) resulting in a gap to be bridged between the transected nerve ends are commonly reconstructed with autologous nerve tissue, but there is a need for valuable alternatives. This experimental work considers the innovative use of the biomaterial Gellan Gum (GG) as a luminal filler for nerve guidance channels made from chitosan with a 5% degree of acetylation. The engineered constructs should remodel the structural support given to regenerating axons by the so-called bands of Büngner. Four different GG formulations were produced by combining varying amounts of High-Acyl GG (HA-GG) and Methacrylated GG (MA-GG). The effective porosity of the freeze-dried networks was analysed by SEM and micro-CT 3D reconstructions, while the degradation and swelling abilities were characterized in vitro for up to 30 days. The metabolic activity and viability of immortalized Schwann cells seeded onto the freeze-dried networks were also evaluated. Finally, the developed hydrogel formulations were freeze-dried within the chitosan nerve guides and implanted in a 10 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Functional and histomorphological analyses after 3, 6, and 12 weeks in vivo revealed that although it did not result in improved nerve regeneration, the NGC25:75 formulations could provide a basis for further development of GG scaffolds as luminal fillers for hollow nerve guidance channels.

  11. Gellan gum-hyaluronic acid spongy-like hydrogels and cells from adipose tissue synergize promoting neoskin vascularization.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Mariana Teixeira; da Silva, Lucília Pereira; Santos, Tírcia Carlos; Pirraco, Rogério Pedro; Correlo, Vítor Manuel; Reis, Rui Luís; Marques, Alexandra Pinto

    2014-11-26

    Currently available substitutes for skin wound healing often result in the formation of nonfunctional neotissue. Thus, urgent care is still needed to promote an effective and complete regeneration. To meet this need, we proposed the assembling of a construct that takes advantage of cell-adhesive gellan gum-hyaluronic acid (GG-HA) spongy-like hydrogels and a powerful cell-machinery obtained from adipose tissue, human adipose stem cells (hASCs), and microvascular endothelial cells (hAMECs). In addition to a cell-adhesive character, GG-HA spongy-like hydrogels overpass limitations of traditional hydrogels, such as reduced physical stability and limited manipulation, due to improved microstructural arrangement characterized by pore wall thickening and increased mean pore size. The proposed constructs combining cellular mediators of the healing process within the spongy-like hydrogels that intend to recapitulate skin matrix aim to promote neoskin vascularization. Stable and off-the-shelf dried GG-HA polymeric networks, rapidly rehydrated at the time of cell seeding then depicting features of both sponges and hydrogels, enabled the natural cell entrapment/encapsulation and attachment supported by cell-polymer interactions. Upon transplantation into mice full-thickness excisional wounds, GG-HA spongy-like hydrogels absorbed the early inflammatory cell infiltrate and led to the formation of a dense granulation tissue. Consequently, spongy-like hydrogel degradation was observed, and progressive wound closure, re-epithelialization, and matrix remodelling was improved in relation to the control condition. More importantly, GG-HA spongy-like hydrogels promoted a superior neovascularization, which was enhanced in the presence of human hAMECs, also found in the formed neovessels. These observations highlight the successful integration of a valuable matrix and prevascularization cues to target angiogenesis/neovascularization in skin full-thickness excisional wounds.

  12. Factors affecting water resistance of alginate/gellan blend films on paper cups for hot drinks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Xu, Jiachao; Gao, Xin; Fu, Xiaoting; Zheng, Di

    2017-01-20

    Enhanced film water resistance of paper cups was achieved by physically blending sodium alginate (NaAlg) and gellan gum with crosslinking treatment. Pure and blended films were prepared and characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). Results demonstrated excellent compatibility between the two polysaccharides. Total mixed solution concentration, component ratio, glycerol content, Ca 2+ concentration, crosslinking time, and dry temperature affected water resistance. Water permeability (WP) and swelling degree (SD) were tested. Optimal conditions were as follows: total mixed solution concentration, 2.4% (m/v); component ratio, 2:1; glycerol content, 0.5% (m/v); Ca 2+ concentration, 5% (m/v); crosslinking time, 5min; and dry temperature, 50°C. WP and SD values were 78.1×10 -8 g/msPa and 66.3%, respectively. Properties of the films showed the synergistic effect between NaAlg and gellan, which can be used for water-resistant film coating on paper cups for hot drinks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Composites of gellan gum hydrogel enzymatically mineralized with calcium-zinc phosphate for bone regeneration with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Pilarz, Magdalena; Lopez-Heredia, Marco; Brackman, Gilles; Schaubroeck, David; Balcaen, Lieve; Bliznuk, Vitaliy; Dubruel, Peter; Knabe-Ducheyne, Christine; Vanhaecke, Frank; Coenye, Tom; Pamula, Elzbieta

    2017-05-01

    Gellan gum hydrogels functionalized with alkaline phosphatase were enzymatically mineralized with phosphates in mineralization medium containing calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) to improve their suitability as biomaterials for bone regeneration. The aims of the study were to endow mineralized hydrogels with antibacterial activity by incorporation of Zn in the inorganic phase, and to investigate the effect of Zn incorporation on the amount and type of mineral formed, the compressive modulus of the mineralized hydrogels and on their ability to support adhesion and growth of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. Mineralization medium contained glycerophosphate (0.05 m) and three different molar Ca:Zn ratios, 0.05:0, 0.04:0.01 and 0.025:0.025 (all mol/dm 3 ), hereafter referred to as A, B and C, respectively. FTIR, SAED and TEM analysis revealed that incubation for 14 days caused the formation of predominantly amorphous mineral phases in sample groups A, B and C. The presence of Zn in sample groups B and C was associated with a drop in the amount of mineral formed and a smaller mineral deposit morphology, as observed by SEM. ICP-OES revealed that Zn was preferentially incorporated into mineral compared to Ca. Mechanical testing revealed a decrease in compressive modulus in sample group C. Sample groups B and C, but not A, showed antibacterial activity against biofilm-forming, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. All sample groups supported cell growth. Zn incorporation increased the viable cell number. The highest values were seen on sample group C. In conclusion, the sample group containing the most Zn, i.e. group C, appears to be the most promising. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Nanometric organisation in blends of gellan/xyloglucan hydrogels.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Clayton F; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C; Cardoso, Mateus B; Ono, Lucy; Lucyszyn, Neoli; Lubambo, Adriana F; Sens, Camila V; Grein-Iankovski, Aline; Sierakowski, Maria Rita

    2014-12-19

    Mixtures of gellan gum (GL) and a xyloglucan (XGJ) extracted from Hymenaea courbaril seeds were prepared in a solution of 0.15 mol L(-1) NaCl. Rheology measurements revealed that 2.4 g L(-1) pure GL formed a brittle hydrogel, and GL-XGJ blends showed improved pseudoplastic character with higher XGJ contents. SAXS analyses showed that the Rg dimensions ranged from 1.3 to 4.9 nm, with larger values occurring as the amount of XGJ increased, and diffusion tests indicated that better diffusion of methylene blue dye was obtained in the network with a higher XGJ content. AFM topographic images of the films deposited onto mica revealed fewer heterogeneous surfaces with increased XGJ contents. The water contact angle revealed more hydrophobic character on all of the films, and the wettability decreased with increasing amounts of XGJ. Therefore, the demonstrated benefit of using XGJ blends is the production of a soft material with improved interface properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mineralization of gellan gum hydrogels with calcium and magnesium carbonates by alternate soaking in solutions of calcium/magnesium and carbonate ion solutions.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Heredia, Marco A; Łapa, Agata; Reczyńska, Katarzyna; Pietryga, Krzysztof; Balcaen, Lieve; Mendes, Ana C; Schaubroeck, David; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Dokupil, Agnieszka; Plis, Agnieszka; Stevens, Chris V; Parakhonskiy, Bogdan V; Samal, Sangram Keshari; Vanhaecke, Frank; Chai, Feng; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Blanchemain, Nicolas; Pamuła, Elżbieta; Skirtach, Andre G; Douglas, Timothy E L

    2018-04-27

    Mineralization of hydrogels is desirable prior to applications in bone regeneration. CaCO 3 is a widely used bone regeneration material and Mg, when used as a component of calcium phosphate biomaterials, has promoted bone-forming cell adhesion and proliferation and bone regeneration. In this study, gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were mineralized with carbonates containing different amounts of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) by alternate soaking in, firstly, a calcium and/or magnesium ion solution and, secondly, a carbonate ion solution. This alternate soaking cycle was repeated five times. Five different calcium and/or magnesium ion solutions, containing different molar ratios of Ca to Mg ranging from Mg-free to Ca-free were compared. Carbonate mineral formed in all sample groups subjected to the Ca:Mg elemental ratio in the carbonate mineral formed was higher than in the respective mineralizing solution. Mineral formed in the absence of Mg was predominantly CaCO 3 in the form of a mixture of calcite and vaterite. Increasing the Mg content in the mineral formed led to the formation of magnesian calcite, decreased the total amount of the mineral formed and its crystallinity. Hydrogel mineralization and increasing Mg content in mineral formed did not obviously improve proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells or differentiation after 7 days. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Enrichment of enzymatically mineralized gellan gum hydrogels with phlorotannin-rich Ecklonia cava extract Seanol(®) to endow antibacterial properties and promote mineralization.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Dokupil, Agnieszka; Reczyńska, Katarzyna; Brackman, Gilles; Krok-Borkowicz, Malgorzata; Keppler, Julia K; Božič, Mojca; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Pietryga, Krzysztof; Samal, Sangram Keshari; Balcaen, Lieve; van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Vanhaecke, Frank; Schwarz, Karin; Coenye, Tom; Pamuła, Elżbieta

    2016-08-10

    Hydrogels offer several advantages as biomaterials for bone regeneration, including ease of incorporation of soluble substances such as mineralization-promoting enzymes and antibacterial agents. Mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP) increases bioactivity, while antibacterial activity reduces the risk of infection. Here, gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were enriched with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and/or Seanol(®), a seaweed extract rich in phlorotannins (brown algae-derived polyphenols), to induce mineralization with CaP and increase antibacterial activity, respectively. The sample groups were unmineralized hydrogels, denoted as GG, GG/ALP, GG/Seanol and GG/Seanol/ALP, and hydrogels incubated in mineralization medium (0.1 M calcium glycerophosphate), denoted as GG/ALP_min, GG/Seanol_min and GG/Seanol/ALP_min. Seanol(®) enhanced mineralization with CaP and also increased compressive modulus. Seanol(®) and ALP interacted in a non-covalent manner. Release of Seanol(®) occurred in a burst phase and was impeded by ALP-mediated mineralization. Groups GG/Seanol and GG/ALP/Seanol exhibited antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. GG/Seanol/ALP_min, but not GG/Seanol_min, retained some antibacterial activity. Eluates taken from groups GG/ALP_min, GG/Seanol_min and GG/ALP/Seanol_min displayed comparable cytotoxicity towards MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. These results suggest that enrichment of hydrogel biomaterials with phlorotannin-rich extracts is a promising strategy to increase mineralizability and antibacterial activity.

  17. Human skin cell fractions fail to self-organize within a gellan gum/hyaluronic acid matrix but positively influence early wound healing.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Mariana T; da Silva, Lucília P; Santos, Tírcia C; Pirraco, Rogério P; Correlo, Vitor M; Marques, Alexandra P; Reis, Rui L

    2014-05-01

    Split-thickness autografts still are the current gold standard to treat skin, upon severe injuries. Nonetheless, autografts are dependent on donor site availability and often associated to poor quality neoskin. The generation of dermal-epidermal substitutes by tissue engineering is seen as a promising strategy to overcome this problematic. However, solutions that can be safely and conveniently transplanted in one single surgical intervention are still very challenging as their production normally requires long culture time, and graft survival is many times compromised by delayed vascularization upon transplantation. This work intended to propose a strategy that circumvents the prolonged and laborious preparation period of skin substitutes and allows skin cells self-organization toward improved healing. Human dermal/epidermal cell fractions were entrapped directly from isolation within a gellan gum/hyaluronic acid (GG-HA) spongy-like hydrogel formed from an off-the-shelf dried polymeric network. Upon transplantation into full-thickness mice wounds, the proposed constructs accelerated the wound closure rate and re-epithelialization, as well as tissue neovascularization. A synergistic effect of the GG-HA matrix and the transplanted cells over those processes was demonstrated at early time points. Despite the human-derived and chimeric blood vessels found, the proposed matrix did not succeed in prolonging cells residence time and in sustaining the self-organization of transplanted human cells possibly due to primitive degradation. Despite this, the herein proposed approach open the opportunity to tackle wound healing at early stages contributing to re-epithelialization and neovascularization.

  18. Human Skin Cell Fractions Fail to Self-Organize Within a Gellan Gum/Hyaluronic Acid Matrix but Positively Influence Early Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueira, Mariana T.; da Silva, Lucília P.; Santos, Tírcia C.; Pirraco, Rogério P.; Correlo, Vitor M.; Reis, Rui L.

    2014-01-01

    Split-thickness autografts still are the current gold standard to treat skin, upon severe injuries. Nonetheless, autografts are dependent on donor site availability and often associated to poor quality neoskin. The generation of dermal–epidermal substitutes by tissue engineering is seen as a promising strategy to overcome this problematic. However, solutions that can be safely and conveniently transplanted in one single surgical intervention are still very challenging as their production normally requires long culture time, and graft survival is many times compromised by delayed vascularization upon transplantation. This work intended to propose a strategy that circumvents the prolonged and laborious preparation period of skin substitutes and allows skin cells self-organization toward improved healing. Human dermal/epidermal cell fractions were entrapped directly from isolation within a gellan gum/hyaluronic acid (GG-HA) spongy-like hydrogel formed from an off-the-shelf dried polymeric network. Upon transplantation into full-thickness mice wounds, the proposed constructs accelerated the wound closure rate and re-epithelialization, as well as tissue neovascularization. A synergistic effect of the GG-HA matrix and the transplanted cells over those processes was demonstrated at early time points. Despite the human-derived and chimeric blood vessels found, the proposed matrix did not succeed in prolonging cells residence time and in sustaining the self-organization of transplanted human cells possibly due to primitive degradation. Despite this, the herein proposed approach open the opportunity to tackle wound healing at early stages contributing to re-epithelialization and neovascularization. PMID:24299468

  19. Entrapment of anaerobic thermophilic and hyperthermophilic marine micro-organisms in a gellan/xanthan matrix.

    PubMed

    Landreau, M; Duthoit, F; Claeys-Bruno, M; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O; Aubry, T; Godfroy, A; Le Blay, G

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to develop a protocol for the entrapment of anaerobic (hyper)thermophilic marine micro-organisms; (ii) to test the use of the chosen polymers in a range of physical and chemical conditions and (iii) to validate the method with batch cultures. The best conditions for immobilization were obtained at 80°C with gellan and xanthan gums. After 5-week incubation, beads showed a good resistance to all tested conditions except those simultaneously including high temperature (100°C), low NaCl (<0∙5 mol l(-1) ) and extreme pH (4/8). To confirm the method efficiency, batch cultures with immobilized Thermosipho sp. strain AT1272 and Thermococcus kodakarensis strain KOD1 showed an absence of detrimental effect on cell viability and a good growth within and outside the beads. This suggests that entrapment in a gellan-xanthan matrix could be employed for the culture of anaerobic (hyper)thermophilic marine micro-organisms. (Hyper)thermophilic marine micro-organisms possess a high biotechnological potential. Generally microbial cells are grown as free-cell cultures. The use of immobilized cells may offer several advantages such as protection against phage attack, high cell biomass and better production rate of desired metabolites. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Novel injectable, self-gelling hydrogel-microparticle composites for bone regeneration consisting of gellan gum and calcium and magnesium carbonate microparticles.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Łapa, Agata; Reczyńska, Katarzyna; Krok-Borkowicz, Małgorzata; Pietryga, Krzysztof; Samal, Sangram Keshari; Declercq, Heidi A; Schaubroeck, David; Boone, Marijn; Van der Voort, Pascal; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Stevens, Christian V; Bliznuk, Vitaliy; Balcaen, Lieve; Parakhonskiy, Bogdan V; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cnudde, Veerle; Pamuła, Elżbieta; Skirtach, Andre G

    2016-11-21

    The suitability of hydrogel biomaterials for bone regeneration can be improved by incorporation of an inorganic phase in particle form, thus maintaining hydrogel injectability. In this study, carbonate microparticles containing different amounts of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were added to solutions of the anionic polysaccharide gellan gum (GG) to crosslink GG by release of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ from microparticles and thereby induce formation of hydrogel-microparticle composites. It was hypothesized that increasing Mg content of microparticles would promote GG hydrogel formation. The effect of Mg incorporation on cytocompatibility and cell growth was also studied. Microparticles were formed by mixing Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ and [Formula: see text] ions in varying concentrations. Microparticles were characterized physiochemically and subsequently mixed with GG solution to form hydrogel-microparticle composites. The elemental Ca:Mg ratio in the mineral formed was similar to the Ca:Mg ratio of the ions added. In the absence of Mg, vaterite was formed. At low Mg content, magnesian calcite was formed. Increasing the Mg content further caused formation of amorphous mineral. Microparticles of vaterite and magnesium calcite did not induce GG hydrogel formation, but addition of Mg-richer amorphous microparticles induced gelation within 20 min. Microparticles were dispersed homogeneously in hydrogels. MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured in eluate from hydrogel-microparticle composites and on the composites themselves. All composites were cytocompatible. Cell growth was highest on composites containing particles with an equimolar Ca:Mg ratio. In summary, carbonate microparticles containing a sufficient amount of Mg induced GG hydrogel formation, resulting in injectable, cytocompatible hydrogel-microparticle composites.

  1. Effect of acid dopants in biodegradable gel polymer electrolyte and the performance in an electrochemical double layer capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, Y. N.; Selvakumar, M.; Krishna Bhat, D.

    2015-09-01

    Proton-conducting biodegradable gellan gum gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) have been prepared using three different dopants, namely ortho-phosphoric (o-H3PO4), sulfuric (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acids (HCl). The GPEs were cross-linked using borax. The polymeric gels were characterized by spectroscopic, thermal, ionic conductivities and dielectric measurements. Proton conductivity was in the range of 5.1 × 10-3 to 3.7 × 10-4 s cm-1 and activation energies were between 0.14 meV and 0.19 meV, at different temperatures. Among the doped acids, the H3PO4 doped GPE exhibited thermal stability at varying temperature. Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) were fabricated using activated carbon as electrode material and GPEs. The EDLCs were tested using cyclic voltammetry, ac impedance spectroscopic and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques. The maximum specific capacitance value was 146 F g-1 at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1. Quite stable values were obtained at a constant current density up to 1000 cycles.

  2. A novel gellan-PVA nanofibrous scaffold for skin tissue regeneration: Fabrication and characterization.

    PubMed

    Vashisth, Priya; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha; Pruthi, Parul A; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-01-20

    In this investigation, we have introduced novel electrospun gellan based nanofibers as a hydrophilic scaffolding material for skin tissue regeneration. These nanofibers were fabricated using a blend mixture of gellan with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA reduced the repulsive force of resulting solution and lead to formation of uniform fibers with improved nanostructure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) confirmed the average diameter of nanofibers down to 50 nm. The infrared spectra (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis evaluated the crosslinking, thermal stability and highly crystalline nature of gellan-PVA nanofibers, respectively. Furthermore, the cell culture studies using human dermal fibroblast (3T3L1) cells established that these gellan based nanofibrous scaffold could induce improved cell adhesion and enhanced cell growth than conventionally proposed gellan based hydrogels and dry films. Importantly, the nanofibrous scaffold are biodegradable and could be potentially used as a temporary substrate/or biomedical graft to induce skin tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enzymatic, urease-mediated mineralization of gellan gum hydrogel with calcium carbonate, magnesium-enriched calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate for bone regeneration applications.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Łapa, Agata; Samal, Sangram Keshari; Declercq, Heidi A; Schaubroeck, David; Mendes, Ana C; der Voort, Pascal Van; Dokupil, Agnieszka; Plis, Agnieszka; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Pamuła, Elżbieta; Skirtach, Andre G

    2017-12-01

    Mineralization of hydrogel biomaterials is considered desirable to improve their suitability as materials for bone regeneration. Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) has been successfully applied as a bone regeneration material, but hydrogel-CaCO 3 composites have received less attention. Magnesium (Mg) has been used as a component of calcium phosphate biomaterials to stimulate bone-forming cell adhesion and proliferation and bone regeneration in vivo, but its effect as a component of carbonate-based biomaterials remains uninvestigated. In the present study, gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were mineralized enzymatically with CaCO 3 , Mg-enriched CaCO 3 and magnesium carbonate to generate composite biomaterials for bone regeneration. Hydrogels loaded with the enzyme urease were mineralized by incubation in mineralization media containing urea and different ratios of calcium and magnesium ions. Increasing the magnesium concentration decreased mineral crystallinity. At low magnesium concentrations calcite was formed, while at higher concentrations magnesian calcite was formed. Hydromagnesite (Mg 5 (CO 3 ) 4 (OH) 2 .4H 2 O) formed at high magnesium concentration in the absence of calcium. The amount of mineral formed and compressive strength decreased with increasing magnesium concentration in the mineralization medium. The calcium:magnesium elemental ratio in the mineral formed was higher than in the respective mineralization media. Mineralization of hydrogels with calcite or magnesian calcite promoted adhesion and growth of osteoblast-like cells. Hydrogels mineralized with hydromagnesite displayed higher cytotoxicity. In conclusion, enzymatic mineralization of GG hydrogels with CaCO 3 in the form of calcite successfully reinforced hydrogels and promoted osteoblast-like cell adhesion and growth, but magnesium enrichment had no definitive positive effect. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Influence of the ratio of amphiphilic copolymers used as emulsifiers on the microstructure, physical stability and rheology of α-pinene emulsions stabilized with gellan gum.

    PubMed

    García, Maria Carmen; Alfaro, Maria Carmen; Muñoz, José

    2015-11-01

    α-Pinene is a terpenic solvent whose use in the formulation of emulsions entails a double benefit from the environmental point of view since it is a green solvent, easily biodegradable, which also has certain antimicrobial properties. In this work a combination of Atlas™ G-5000 and Atlox™ 4913 amphiphilic copolymers was used to obtain O/W emulsions formulated with α-pinene and gellan gum. These emulsions may find applications related to the design of complex biotechnological systems with different uses. In order to investigate the microstructure and the physical stability of these emulsions, a combination of different techniques such as rheology, microscopy, laser diffraction and multiple light scattering turn out to be a useful methodology. The results demonstrated the need to include a minimum amount of Atlas™ G-5000 copolymer in the formulation of these emulsions to improve their stability. These results were supported by the information revealed by optical micrographs, according to which Atlas™ G-5000 is directed to the continuous medium to structure water (this surfactant is particularly effective at forming hydrogen bonds with water). On the other hand Atlox™ 4913 is preferentially adsorbed at the α-pinene-water interface, such that a high Atlox™ 4913/Atlas™ G-5000 mass ratio slows down the kinetics of coalescence as shown by multiple light scattering. However, a very low relative concentration of Atlas™ G-5000 causes creaming to become the dominant destabilization mechanism. Increasing the Atlas™ G-5000/Atlox™ 4913 mass ratio yields emulsions with enhanced viscosity and viscoelasticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of the aerated structure on selected properties of freeze-dried hydrocolloid gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciurzyńska, Agnieszka; Lenart, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The ability to create diverse structures and studies on the effect of the aerated structure on selected properties with the use of freeze-dried gels may provide knowledge about the properties of dried foods. Such gels can be a basis for obtaining innovative food products. For the gel preparation, 3 types of hydrocolloids were used: low-methoxyl pectin, a mixture of xanthan gum and locust-bean gum, and a mixture of xanthan gum and guar gum. Gels were aerated for 3 and 7 min, frozen at a temperature of -45°C 2 h-1, and freeze-dried at a temperature of 30°C. For the samples obtained, structure, porosity, shrinkage, rehydration, and colour were investigated. It was shown that the type of the hydrocolloid and aeration time influence the structure of freeze-dried gels, which determines such properties of samples as porosity, shrinkage, density, rehydration, and colour. The bigger pores of low-methoxyl pectin gels undergo rehydration in the highest degree. The delicate and aerated structure of gels with the mixture of xanthan gum and locust-bean gum was damaged during freeze-drying and shrinkage exhibited the highest value. Small pores of samples with the mixture of xanthan gum and guar gum were responsible for the lower rehydration properties, but the highest porosity value contributed to the highest lightness value.

  6. Generation of composites for bone tissue-engineering applications consisting of gellan gum hydrogels mineralized with calcium and magnesium phosphate phases by enzymatic means.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Krawczyk, Grzegorz; Pamula, Elzbieta; Declercq, Heidi A; Schaubroeck, David; Bucko, Miroslaw M; Balcaen, Lieve; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Bliznuk, Vitaliy; van den Vreken, Natasja M F; Dash, Mamoni; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cornelissen, Maria; Dubruel, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Mineralization of hydrogels, desirable for bone regeneration applications, may be achieved enzymatically by incorporation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). ALP-loaded gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were mineralized by incubation in mineralization media containing calcium and/or magnesium glycerophosphate (CaGP, MgGP). Mineralization media with CaGP:MgGP concentrations 0.1:0, 0.075:0.025, 0.05:0.05, 0.025:0.075 and 0:0.1 (all values mol/dm 3 , denoted A, B, C, D and E, respectively) were compared. Mineral formation was confirmed by IR and Raman, SEM, ICP-OES, XRD, TEM, SAED, TGA and increases in the the mass fraction of the hydrogel not consisting of water. Ca was incorporated into mineral to a greater extent than Mg in samples mineralized in media A-D. Mg content and amorphicity of mineral formed increased in the order A < B < C < D. Mineral formed in media A and B was calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). Mineral formed in medium C was a combination of CDHA and an amorphous phase. Mineral formed in medium D was an amorphous phase. Mineral formed in medium E was a combination of crystalline and amorphous MgP. Young's moduli and storage moduli decreased in dependence of mineralization medium in the order A > B > C > D, but were significantly higher for samples mineralized in medium E. The attachment and vitality of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were higher on samples mineralized in media B-E (containing Mg) than in those mineralized in medium A (not containing Mg). All samples underwent degradation and supported the adhesion of RAW 264.7 monocytic cells, and samples mineralized in media A and B supported osteoclast-like cell formation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Promising ion-sensitive in situ ocular nanoemulsion gels of terbinafine hydrochloride: design, in vitro characterization and in vivo estimation of the ocular irritation and drug pharmacokinetics in the aqueous humor of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Saadia Ahmed; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed; Tadros, Mina Ibrahim; Abd-Elsalam, Wessam Hamdy

    2013-02-25

    Terbinafine hydrochloride (T-HCl) is recommended for the management of fungal keratitis. To maintain effective aqueous humor concentrations, frequent instillation of T-HCl drops is necessary. This work aimed to develop alternative controlled-release in situ ocular drug-loaded nanoemulsion (NE) gels. Twelve pseudoternary-phase diagrams were constructed using oils (isopropyl myristate/Miglyol 812), surfactants (Tween 80/Cremophor EL), a co-surfactant (polyethylene glycol 400) and water. Eight drug-loaded (0.5%, w/v) NEs were evaluated for thermodynamic stability, morphology, droplet size and drug release in simulated tear fluid (pH 7.4). Following dispersion in gellan gum solution (0.2%, w/w), the in situ NE gels were characterized for transparency, rheological behavior, mucoadhesive force, drug release and histopathological assessment of ocular irritation. Drug pharmacokinetics of sterilized F31 [Miglyol 812, Cremophor EL: polyethylene glycol 400 (1:2) and water (5, 55 and 40%, w/w, respectively)] in situ NE gel and oily drug solution were evaluated in rabbit aqueous humor. The NEs were thermodynamically stable and have spherical droplets (<30 nm). The gels were transparent, pseudoplastic, mucoadhesive and showed more retarded zero-order drug release rates. F31 in situ NE gel showed the least ocular irritation potential and significantly (P<0.01) higher C(max), delayed T(max), prolonged mean residence time and increased bioavailability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Early molecular events involved in Pinus pinaster Ait. somatic embryo development under reduced water availability: transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Morel, Alexandre; Teyssier, Caroline; Trontin, Jean-François; Eliášová, Kateřina; Pešek, Bedřich; Beaufour, Martine; Morabito, Domenico; Boizot, Nathalie; Le Metté, Claire; Belal-Bessai, Leila; Reymond, Isabelle; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Corbineau, Françoise; Vágner, Martin; Label, Philippe; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-09-01

    Maritime pine somatic embryos (SEs) require a reduction in water availability (high gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium) to reach the cotyledonary stage. This key switch, reported specifically for pine species, is not yet well understood. To facilitate the use of somatic embryogenesis for mass propagation of conifers, we need a better understanding of embryo development. Comparison of both transcriptome (Illumina RNA sequencing) and proteome [two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (MS) identification] of immature SEs, cultured on either high (9G) or low (4G) gellan gum concentration, was performed, together with analysis of water content, fresh and dry mass, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA; gas chromatography-MS), soluble sugars (high-pressure liquid chromatography), starch and confocal laser microscope observations. This multiscale, integrated analysis was used to unravel early molecular and physiological events involved in SE development. Under unfavorable conditions (4G), the glycolytic pathway was enhanced, possibly in relation to cell proliferation that may be antagonistic to SE development. Under favorable conditions (9G), SEs adapted to culture constraint by activating specific protective pathways, and ABA-mediated molecular and physiological responses promoting embryo development. Our results suggest that on 9G, germin-like protein and ubiquitin-protein ligase could be used as predictive markers of SE development, whereas protein phosphatase 2C could be a biomarker for culture adaptive responses. This is the first characterization of early molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pine SEs following an increase in gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium, and it is also the first report on somatic embryogenesis in conifers combining transcriptomic and proteomic datasets. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. Cyclodextrin–polysaccharide-based, in situ-gelled system for ocular antifungal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; Fernández Bargiela, Noelia; Varela, María Santiago; Martínez, Maria Gil; Pardo, Maria; Piñeiro Ces, Antonio; Méndez, José Blanco; Barcia, Miguel González; Lamas, Maria Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Summary Fluconazole was studied with two different hydrophilic cyclodextrins (hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBECD)) for the formation of inclusion complexes. HPBCD and SBECD showed low cell cytotoxicity in human keratocytes as assessed by the label-free xCELLigence system for real-time monitoring. The fluconazole–HPBCD complex was incorporated into an ion-sensitive ophthalmic gel composed of the natural polysaccharides gellan gum and κ-carrageenan. This system showed good bioadhesive properties and effective control of fluconazole release. PMID:25550757

  10. Structural Modification of Fish Gelatin by the Addition of Gellan, κ-Carrageenan, and Salts Mimics the Critical Physicochemical Properties of Pork Gelatin.

    PubMed

    Sow, Li Cheng; Kong, Karmaine; Yang, Hongshun

    2018-05-01

    Pork gelatin is not suitable for halal and kosher application; however, fish gelatin (FG) can be modified for use as a pork gelatin (PG) mimetic. Herein, low-acyl gellan (GE), κ-carrageenan (KC), and salts (CaCl 2 or KCl) were combined with a 180 Bloom tilapia FG. A formulation comprising 5.925% (w/v) FG + 0.025% (w/v) GE + 3mM CaCl 2 best matched the physicochemical properties of PG. The modification increased the FG gel strength from 115 ± 2 to 149 ± 2 g (matching the 148 ± 2 of PG), while the T m increased from 27.9 ± 1.0 to 32.4 ± 0.8 °C (matching the 33.1 ± 0.3 °C of PG). Nanoaggregates (diameter between 150 and 300 nm) could be an important structural factor affecting the physicochemical properties, as both PG and GE-modified FG showed a similar frequency distribution in this size group (57.4 ± 1.6% (PG) compared with 56.3 ± 2.2% (modified FG)). To further explore the differences between KC and GE in modifying of FG's structure, the FG-KC and FG-GE gels were compared. The zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results for the FG-KC gel supported an associative interaction with complex formation, as indicated from the large aggregates and amorphous phase under atomic force microscopy (AFM). Contrastingly, a segregative FG-GE interaction took place in presence of CaCl 2 . These structures and interaction differences between FG-GE and FG-KC influenced the macro-properties of FG, possibly explaining the differences in the modification of the melting temperature of FG. A diagram representing the interaction-structure-physicochemical properties was proposed to explain the differences between the FG-GE and FG-KC gels. Certain people cannot consume any pork product or derivatives for religious reasons, thus it is essential to find a pork gelatin (PG) substitute for food product development. The commonly used polysaccharides, gellan and carrageenan, together with salt, can be added to fish gelatin (FG) to match the

  11. Effect of xanthan gum on lipid digestion and bioaccessibility of β-carotene-loaded rice starch-based filled hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Park, Shinjae; Mun, Saehun; Kim, Yong-Ro

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of xanthan gum on the lipid digestibility, rheological properties, and β-carotene bioaccessibility of rice starch-based filled hydrogels. β-Carotene was solubilized within lipid droplets of emulsion that were then entrapped within rice starch hydrogels fabricated with different concentrations of xanthan gum. At a low concentration of xanthan gum (<0.5wt%), the viscous characteristics of the filled starch hydrogels increased. Furthermore, these hydrogels had a slower rate of lipid digestion than the β-carotene-loaded emulsion. As the concentration of xanthan gum was increased (to 1.0wt% and 2.0wt%), the filled starch hydrogels became more elastic gel-like than those without xanthan gum, and also had the fastest rate and highest final extent of lipid digestion. The addition of xanthan gum to the filled starch hydrogel lowered the bioaccessibility of β-carotene to varying degrees, depending on the xanthan gum concentration. The results obtained from this study can be useful in designing gel-like food products fortified with lipophilic nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is a polysaccharide gum derived from Xanthomonas... polysaccharide to be tested. Add the blend slowly (approximately 1/2 minute) at the point of maximum agitation to.... In the event that a gel is obtained, make up a 1 percent solution of the polysaccharide to be tested...

  13. Development and Preliminary In vitro Evaluation of Nanomicelles Laden In situ Gel of Dexamethasone for Ophthalmic Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Pallabita

    In our previous work we developed and characterized 0.1% dexamethasone mixed nanomicelles (DMN). DMN were prepared using surfactants polyoxyl 40 stearate (P40S) and polysorbate 80 (P80), which are approved by the FDA for ocular use. The present study builds on the previous work by developing and evaluating nanomicelles laden in situ gel of 0.1% dexamethasone (DMN-ISG) with potential for treating anterior segment eye inflammations. DMN-ISG was prepared by mixing the basic 2X formulation of DMN with appropriate concentrations of gellan gum, mannitol, benzododecinium bromide and tromethamine. DMN-ISG was characterized for gelation, viscosity, transparency, morphology using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), thermoanalysis using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), in vitro drug release and sterility. DMN prepared with an optimized composition of P40S/P80=7/3 by weight were used in the preparation of DMN-ISG. TEM image of DMN-ISG showed the presence of dexamethasone nanomicelles in the size range between 20-40 nm entrapped in the gel structure. More than 50% of the drug was released from DMN-ISG in the first few hours and the remaining drug was released in a sustained manner for up to 30 h. Aseptically prepared DMN-ISG formulation remained sterile for up to 14 days. The preliminary findings of our investigation suggest that DMN-ISG has the potential for use in treating anterior segment eye inflammations. Further in vivo evaluation is warranted.

  14. Exploring the relationship between nanoscale dynamics and macroscopic rheology in natural polymer gums

    DOE PAGES

    Grein-Iankovski, Aline; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C.; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F.; ...

    2016-11-02

    Here, we report a study connecting the nanoscale and macroscale structure and dynamics of Acacia mearnsii gum as probed by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and rheology. Acacia gum, in general, is a complex polysaccharide used extensively in industry. Over the analyzed concentration range (15 to 30 wt%) the A. mearnsii gum is found to have a gel-like linear rheology and to exhibit shear thinning flow behavior under steady shear. The gum exhibited a steadily increasing elastic modulus with increasing time after they were prepared and also the emergence of shear thickening events within the shearmore » thinning behavior, characteristic of associative polymers. XPCS measurements using gold nanoparticles as tracers were used to explore the microscopic dynamics within the biopolymer gels and revealed a two-step relaxation process with a partial decay at inaccessibly short times, suggesting caged motion of the nanoparticles, followed by a slow decay at later delay times. Non-diffusive motion evidenced by a compressed exponential line shape and an inverse relationship between relaxation time and wave vector characterizes the slow dynamics of A. mearnsii gum gels. Surprisingly, we have determined that the nanometer-scale mean square displacement of the nanoparticles showed a close relationship to the values predicted from the macroscopic elastic properties of the material, obtained through the rheology experiments. Our results demonstrate the potential applicability of the XPCS technique in the natural polymers field to connect their macroscale properties with their nanoscale structure and dynamics.« less

  15. Exploring the relationship between nanoscale dynamics and macroscopic rheology in natural polymer gums

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Grein-Iankovski, Aline; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C.; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F.

    Here, we report a study connecting the nanoscale and macroscale structure and dynamics of Acacia mearnsii gum as probed by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and rheology. Acacia gum, in general, is a complex polysaccharide used extensively in industry. Over the analyzed concentration range (15 to 30 wt%) the A. mearnsii gum is found to have a gel-like linear rheology and to exhibit shear thinning flow behavior under steady shear. The gum exhibited a steadily increasing elastic modulus with increasing time after they were prepared and also the emergence of shear thickening events within the shearmore » thinning behavior, characteristic of associative polymers. XPCS measurements using gold nanoparticles as tracers were used to explore the microscopic dynamics within the biopolymer gels and revealed a two-step relaxation process with a partial decay at inaccessibly short times, suggesting caged motion of the nanoparticles, followed by a slow decay at later delay times. Non-diffusive motion evidenced by a compressed exponential line shape and an inverse relationship between relaxation time and wave vector characterizes the slow dynamics of A. mearnsii gum gels. Surprisingly, we have determined that the nanometer-scale mean square displacement of the nanoparticles showed a close relationship to the values predicted from the macroscopic elastic properties of the material, obtained through the rheology experiments. Our results demonstrate the potential applicability of the XPCS technique in the natural polymers field to connect their macroscale properties with their nanoscale structure and dynamics.« less

  16. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; Cinthya, Kuriakose; Jayakrishnan, A; Anilkumar, P R; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2014-10-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of guar and xanthan gums on functional properties of mango (Mangifera indica) kernel starch.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Hasnain, Abid

    2016-12-01

    The effects of different concentrations of guar and xanthan gums on functional properties of mango kernel starch (MKS) were studied. Both guar and xanthan gum enhanced the water absorption of MKS. The addition of xanthan gum appeared to reduce the SP (swelling power) and solubility at higher temperatures while guar gum significantly enhanced the SP as well as solubility of MKS. The addition of both gums produced a reinforcing effect on peak viscosity of MKS as compared to control. Pasting temperature of MKS was higher than that of starch modified by gums indicating ease of gelatinization. Guar gum played an accelerative effect on setback but xanthan gum delayed the setback phenomenon during the cooling of the starch paste. Both gums were found to be effective in reducing the syneresis while gel firmness was markedly improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Young's Modulus, Fracture Stress, and Fracture Strain of Gellan Hydrogels Filled with Whey Protein Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Lam, Cherry Wing Yu; Ikeda, Shinya

    2017-05-01

    Texture modifying abilities of whey protein microparticles are expected to be dependent on pH during heat-induced aggregation of whey protein in the microparticulation process. Therefore, whey protein microparticles were prepared at either pH 5.5 or 6.8 and their effects on small and large deformation properties of gellan gels containing whey protein microparticles as fillers were investigated. The majority of whey protein microparticles had diameters around 2 μm. Atomic force microscopy images showed that whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 6.8 partially collapsed and flatted by air-drying, while those prepared at pH 5.5 did not. The Young's modulus of filled gels adjusted to pH 5.5 decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles, while those of filled gels adjusted to pH 6.8 increased with increasing volume fraction of filler particles. These results suggest that filler particles were weakly bonded to gel matrices at pH 5.5 but strongly at pH 6.8. Whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 showed more enhanced increases in the Young's modulus than those prepared at pH 6.8 at volume fractions between 0.2 and 0.4, indicating that microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 were mechanically stronger. The fracture stress of filled gels showed trends somewhat similar to those of the Young's modulus, while their fracture strains decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles in all examined conditions, indicating that the primary effect of these filler particles was to enhance the brittleness of filled gels. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Biofoam II

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, R.L.

    1994-11-01

    Biofoam is a rigid, microcellular organic foam made from organic materials derived from natural products and biological organisms. Starting materials include agar, agarose, gelatin, algin, alginates, gellan gum, and microcrystalline cellulose. The organic material is dissolved in a polar solvent, typically water, and the mixture is gelled. The water in the gel pores is replaced at least once with another solvent to reduce the pore size of the final biofoam. The solvent in the gel pores may be replaced several times. After the final replacement of solvent, the gel is frozen and freeze-dried to form a biofoam. Translucent biofoams are formed by selecting a final solvent that forms very small crystals. A variety of crystalline, fibrous, amorphous, or metallic additives may be incorporated into the foam structure to produce lightweight composite materials with enhanced strength and insulating properties. 1 fig.

  20. Biofoam II

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Biofoam is a rigid, microcellular organic foam made from organic materials derived from natural products and biological organisms. Starting materials include agar, agarose, gelatin, algin, alginates, gellan gum, and microcrystalline cellulose. The organic material is dissolved in a polar solvent, typically water, and the mixture is gelled. The water in the gel pores is replaced at least once with another solvent to reduce the pore size of the final biofoam. The solvent in the gel pores may be replaced several times. After the final replacement of solvent, the gel is frozen and freeze-dried to form a biofoam. Translucent biofoams are formed by selecting a final solvent that forms very small crystals. A variety of crystalline, fibrous, amorphous, or metallic additives may be incorporated into the foam structure to produce lightweight composite materials with enhanced strength and insulating properties.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1349 - Karaya gum (sterculia gum).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Karaya gum (sterculia gum). 184.1349 Section 184.1349 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... as GRAS § 184.1349 Karaya gum (sterculia gum). (a) Karaya gum (sterculia gum) is the dried gummy...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1349 - Karaya gum (sterculia gum).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Karaya gum (sterculia gum). 184.1349 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1349 Karaya gum (sterculia gum). (a) Karaya gum (sterculia gum) is the dried gummy exudate from the trunk of trees of various species of the genus Sterculia...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1349 - Karaya gum (sterculia gum).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Karaya gum (sterculia gum). 184.1349 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1349 Karaya gum (sterculia gum). (a) Karaya gum (sterculia gum) is the dried gummy exudate from the trunk of trees of various species of the genus Sterculia...

  4. Gel sealants for the mitigation of spontaneous heatings in coal mines. Report of investigations/1995

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Miron, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines evaluated three sealant systems for this purpose, bentonite-water mixtures, silicate gel, and guar gum gels. The guar gum-based gel was the only sealant that possessed the desired properties of elasticity, ease of preparation, adaptability to the mine, and a long life. In addition, since the gel consists mostly of water, it could quench or cool nearby heatings. Optimal formulations were determined in laboratory tests, and then tested in the U.S. Bureau of Mines` Safety Research Coal Mine. Two formulations resulted in stable gels that lasted for at least 12 months in the mine. Semi-continuous preparationmore » of gel using an eductor was evaluated and appears feasible.« less

  5. Obtention and characterization of dried gels prepared with whey proteins, honey and hydrocolloids mixture.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Ana C; Torrez Irigoyen, Martín R; Navarro, Alba S; Yamul, Diego K

    2017-11-01

    Large amounts of honey and liquid whey derived from the dairy industry are produced in Argentina. Honey is exported in bulk and whey is transformed into whey protein concentrates and isolates. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of pH, composition and storage time on the properties of dried gels with honey, whey proteins and hydrocolloids. Color properties varied according to pH and composition. The fracture stress of dried gels prepared with corn starch was higher than that of gels prepared with guar gum in all conditions assayed. Young's modulus was higher at pH 7 for both compositions and increased with storage time. Rubbery characteristics were found in dried gels with guar gum, while both corn starch and guar gum made the microstructure rougher. Multivariate analysis showed that samples could be grouped by pH. Panelists preferred pH 7 products over acidic ones, and no significant differences in sensory properties were found using either corn starch or guar gum in the formulation. The results demonstrated that it is possible to generate a new product, which may open new applications for honey and whey in food formulations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Preparation and characterization of cross-linked excipient of coprocessed xanthan gum-acacia gum as matrix for sustained release tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surini, Silvia; Wati, Dina Risma; Syahdi, Rezi Riadhi

    2018-02-01

    Sustained release tablet is solid dosage form which is designed to release drugs slowly in the body. This research was intended to prepare and characterize the cross-linked excipients of co-processed xanthan gum-acacia gum (CL-Co-XGGA) as matrices for sustained release tablets with gliclazide as a model drug. CL-Co-XGGA excipients were cross-linked materials of co-processed excipients of xanthan gum-acacia gum (Co-XGGA) using sodium trimetaphosphate. Co-processed excipients of xanthan gum-acacia gum were prepared in the ratio of each excipient 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1. Co-XGGA and CL-Co-XGGA excipients were characterized physically, chemically and functionally. Then, the sustained release (SR) tablets were formulated by wet granulation method using CL-Co-XGGA excipients as matrices. Also, the dissolution study of the gliclazide SR tablets was carried out in phosphate buffer medium pH 7,4 containing sodium lauryl sulphate 0.2% for 12 hours. The results showed that the degree of substitution (DS) of CL-Co-XGGA 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 excipients were respectively 0.067, 0.082 and 0.08. Besides that, the excipients gel strengths were 14.03, 17.27 and 20,70 gF, respectively. The cross-linked excipients had improved flow properties and swelling capability compared to the Co-XGGA excipients. The results of the gliclazide SR tablets evaluations showed that all tablets were passed all tablet requirements. Moreover, the gliclazide release from SR tablets F1 - F6 revealed the sustained release profile, which was following zero order kinetics (F1, F2, F3, F6) and Higuchi kinetics (F4 and F5). It could be concluded that the obtained CL-Co-XGGA excipients might be used as matrices for sustained release tablets and could retard drug release up to 8 until 32 hours.

  7. Effect of pH on the rheological properties of borate crosslinked hydroxypropyl guar gum hydrogel and hydroxypropyl guar gum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibin; Tang, Hongbiao; Guo, Jianchun; Wang, Kunjie

    2016-08-20

    pH is an important factor affecting the performance of polymer fluid. The rheological properties of hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) base fluid and the structural strength, rheological properties, viscoelastic properties and thixotropy properties of HPG gel depend largely on the pH values. For the base fluid, an apparent viscosity-increasing effect was observed over the pH range from 7 to 11, and the apparent viscosity gradually decreased at pH 11.5-14, exhibiting electrostatic repulsion behavior and steric effects. For the HPG gel, at pH 7-12.5, the gel possessed higher apparent viscosity, higher elastic modulus (G'), lower tanδ (the ratio of the viscous modulus to the elastic modulus) and an "8"-shaped hysteresis loop, indicating stronger gel structure strength and the elastic dominant property. At pH 13-13.5, the gel samples exhibited the transition from a pseudoplastic fluid to a Newtonian fluid, and their viscosity, elastic modulus decreased but tanδ increased with the increase in pH values, exhibiting gradually weakened elastic properties. When the pH was 14, the gel mainly exhibited viscous characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plant regeneration from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of Phalaenopsis.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, B R; Tokuhara, K; Mii, M

    2007-06-01

    Protoplasts isolated from cell suspension culture of Phalaenopsis "Wataboushi" were cultured by (a) embedding in gellan gum-solidified hormone-free 1/2 New Dogashima medium (1/2 NDM) containing 0.44 M sorbitol, 0.06 M sucrose and 0.1 g/l L-glutamine (standard method) and (b) beads method using beads of gellan gum or sodium alginate as the gelling agents which were surrounded by liquid NDM. Although, the two beads methods gave less frequency of initial protoplast division than the standard method, the former finally resulted in higher frequency of microcolony formation than the latter. The highest frequency of microcolony formation (23%) was obtained when protoplasts were embedded in 1% Ca-alginate beads and subcultured every two weeks by replacing the surrounding liquid culture medium with a decrease in sorbitol concentration by 0.1 M. Colonies visible to the naked eyes were observed within 2 months of culture and the regenerated calluses were transferred onto hormone-free NDM supplemented with 10 g/l maltose and 0.3% (w/v) gellan gum, on which PLBs were formed and proliferated profusely. The PLBs were regenerated into plantlets after changing the carbon source to 10 g/l sorbitol and successfully acclimatized to greenhouse conditions.

  9. Development of gastroretentive metronidazole floating raft system for targeting Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Abou Youssef, Nancy Abdel Hamid; Kassem, Abeer Ahmed; El-Massik, Magda Abd Elsamea; Boraie, Nabila Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The study demonstrates the feasibility of prolonging gastric residence time and release rate of metronidazole (Mz) by preparing floating raft system (FRS) using ion-sensitive in situ gel forming polymers. FRSs contained 3, 4, 5 and 0.5, 0.75, 1% w/v sodium alginate (Alg) and gellan gum (G), respectively, 0.25% w/v sodium citrate and calcium carbonate (C). Lipids: glyceryl mono stearate (GMS), Precirol(®) and Compritol(®) were incorporated into G-based formulations (G1%C1%). Mz:lipid ratio was 1:1, except for Mz:GMS, ratios of 1:1.5 and 1:2 were also investigated. Buoyancy, gelation capacity and viscosity parameters were evaluated. Drug release and kinetics for selected formulae were examined. The selected lipid containing formula was subjected to an accelerated stability testing. Alg4%C2% FRS exhibited short gelation lag time (3s), long duration (>24h), floating lag time 1m in and duration >24h, and a reliable sustained drug release (MDT 6h). Gellan gum FRSs achieved successful floating gastroretention, but failed to achieve the required gelation capacity. Incorporation of GMS (Mz:GMS 1:1) enhanced the gelation lag time and duration (6s and >24h, respectively), keeping sustained drug release and formulation stability. The improved characteristics of the selected FRS make them excellent candidates for gastric targeting to eradicate Helicobacter pylori. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative study of Acacia nilotica exudate gum and acacia gum.

    PubMed

    Bhushette, Pravin R; Annapure, Uday S

    2017-09-01

    Over 900 species of Acacia trees are found on earth, most of them produce gums. Acacia nilotica (Babul tree) is one of the major gum-yielding acacia species found in he Indian subcontinent. A. nilotica gum was collected from Maharashtra, India and characterised for its proximate analysis, physicochemical, functional, rheological and thermal properties. These properties further were compared with commercially available Acacia gum (AG). The sugar composition of the gums indicated the presence of arabinose, galactose, and rhamnose in ANG and AG. FTIR spectrums revealed the typical trend of polysaccharides for both the gums, however, the difference was observed in fingerprint region. The rheological outcomes were derived from flow curve measurements of gums at different concentrations and temperatures. Investigations of the flow curves of both gums revealed the diminutive difference in viscosity profile. The concentration difference in the monosaccharides of polysaccharides and proximate analysis of gums could be the responsible for the difference in rheological and thermal properties of gums. However, ANG shows good resemblance with AG and can be substituted for numerous applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The addition of corn fiber gum improves the long-term stability and retrogradation properties of corn starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the stability and physical properties of starch gels could be improved by adding small amounts of corn fiber gum (CFG). When compared with the starch gel alone, the addition of CFG (0 to 1.0 %) significantly lowered the hardness of the composite s...

  12. Bleeding gums

    MedlinePlus

    ... form of gum and jawbone disease known as periodontitis . Other causes of bleeding gums include: Any bleeding ... if: The bleeding is severe or long-term (chronic) Your gums continue to bleed even after treatment ...

  13. Influence of polysaccharides on the rheology and stabilization of α-pinene emulsions.

    PubMed

    García, Ma Carmen; Alfaro, Ma Carmen; Calero, Nuria; Muñoz, José

    2014-05-25

    This work focuses on the need to include polysaccharides in a slightly concentrated O(α-pinene)/W emulsion, formulated with amphiphilic copolymers as emulsifiers. Rheology, laser diffraction and multiple light scattering were the main techniques used to assess the performance of gellan gum, xanthan gum and a mixture of both hydrocolloids as stabilizers. Small amplitude oscillatory shear results were consistent with the existence of three distinct microstructures and relaxation mechanisms, which depended on the hydrocolloid system used. The mechanical spectrum of the emulsion containing both polysaccharides signalled the occurrence of thermodynamic incompatibility between the two. Flow curves fitted to the Carreau-Yasuda model demonstrated a negative synergistic effect between gellan and xanthan gums. The droplet size distribution was similar for these systems, which highlighted the importance of the continuous phase for emulsion stability. Multiple light scattering illustrated that creaming was practically eliminated by the incorporation of polysaccharides, coalescence being the main destabilization mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sonication-Based Improvement of the Physicochemical Properties of Guar Gum as a Potential Substrate for Modified Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Siddique Akber; Cencetti, Claudia; Carafa, Maria; Mazzuca, Claudia; Capitani, Donatella; Coviello, Tommasina

    2013-01-01

    Guar Gum is a natural polysaccharide that, due to its physicochemical properties, is extensively investigated for biomedical applications as a matrix for modified drug delivery, but it is also used in the food industry as well as in cosmetics. A commercial sample of Guar Gum was sonicated for different periods of time, and the reduction in the average molecular weight was monitored by means of viscometric measurements. At the same time, the rheological behaviour was also followed, in terms of viscoelasticity range, flow curves, and mechanical spectra. Sonicated samples were used for the preparation of gels in the presence of borate ions. The effect of borax on the new samples was investigated by recording mechanical spectra, flow curves, and visible absorption spectra of complexes with Congo Red. The anisotropic elongation, observed in previous studies with tablets of Guar Gum and borax, was remarkably reduced when the sonicated samples were used for the preparation of the gels. PMID:23984426

  15. Effects of the conjugation of whey proteins with gellan polysaccharides on surfactant-induced competitive displacement from the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Cai, B; Ikeda, S

    2016-08-01

    Whey proteins can be used to stabilize foams and emulsions against coalescence because of their ability to form viscoelastic films at the interface that resist film rupture on collision between colloidal particles. However, whey proteins are competitively displaced from the interface if small-molecule surfactants are added, leading to destabilization of the entire system. This is because surfactants are more effective in molecular packing at the interface, and they lower interfacial tension to a greater degree than whey proteins do, but their interfacial films are poor in viscoelasticity. We hypothesized that whey proteins would become more resistant to surfactant-induced competitive displacement if they were conjugated with network-forming polysaccharides. The protein moiety of the conjugate would be expected to enable its adsorption to the interface, and the polysaccharide moiety would be expected to form self-assembled networks, strengthening the interfacial film as a whole. In this study, whey proteins were conjugated with gellan polysaccharides using the Maillard reaction. Atomic force microscopy images of interfacial films formed by the whey protein-gellan conjugate at the air-water interface and transferred onto mica sheets using the Langmuir-Blodgett method revealed that gellan did form self-assembled networks at the interface and that interfacial films also contained a large number of unconjugated whey protein molecules. Following the addition of a small-molecule surfactant (Tween 20) to the sub-phase, surface pressure increased, indicating spontaneous adsorption of surfactants to the interface. Atomic force microscopy images showed decreases in interfacial area coverage by whey proteins as surface pressure increased. At a given surface pressure, the interfacial area coverage by whey protein-gellan conjugates was greater than coverage by unconjugated whey proteins, confirming that whey proteins became more resistant to surfactant-induced displacement after

  16. Gum Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and gums isn't removed by good daily dental care, over time it will harden into a crust called calculus or tartar . Once tartar forms, it starts to destroy gum tissue, causing gums to bleed and pull away from the teeth. This is known as periodontitis (pronounced: pair-ee- ...

  17. Investigation of Transport Properties of a New Biomaterials - GUM Mangosteen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Sourav S.; Sarkar, A.

    2006-06-01

    Biomaterial has occupied leading position in material science for various scientific and technological applications. This present work is carried out over a natural gum extracted from raw fruit of Mangosteen, an east Indian tree (Gercinia Mangostana) following extraction and purification process. Solid specimen of the said gum is developed following sol-gel like process. AC and DC electrical analysis on the dried solid specimen of the gum were carried out and showed high electrical conduction with σ ~ 1 E-03 S/cm, of which ionic and electronic contributions are 70% and 30% respectively. Analysis shows that origin of high electrical conductivity is due to presence of substantial amount of organic acid unit in its polysaccharide background. In fact the observed σ is about 1000 times of that observed in gum Arabica. Optical absorption of this new bio- materials are also studied using UV-VIS analysis. The results show its high absorption co-efficient in UV and blue part of analysed range. A complete electrical characterization of the material have been made. It has also been observed that the electronic conduction can be enhanced to 70% of the total electrical conductivity by forming complex with Iodine and organic (Citric) acid from Lemon fruit. This high potential material is being studied for development of electronic device application.

  18. Improvement on the freeze-thaw stability of corn starch gel by the polysaccharide from leaves of Corchorus olitorius L.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Eiji; Sago, Toru; Kasubuchi, Yoshiaki; Imamura, Kazuhito; Matsuoka, Toshio; Kurita, Osamu; Nambu, Hironobu; Matsumura, Yasuki

    2013-04-15

    Effect of the polysaccharide from leaves of Corchorus olitorius L. (PLC) on the freeze-thaw (FT) stability of corn starch gel was studied. PLC was incorporated into the starch gel at 0.7% and total solid was adjusted to 6.0%. The syneresis was measured by the centrifugal-filtration method and, as a result, addition of PLC reduced effectively the syneresis of the starch gel even after 5 FT cycles, which was less than one third that of the normal starch gel. The rheological changes of the starch/PLC gel during the FT treatments were evaluated while the gel remained on the rheometer plate. The starch/PLC gel had less significant changes in the rheological parameters during the FT cycles than starch/guar gum or xanthan gum gel systems. SEM images showed that PLC stabilized the gel matrix surrounding pores, which would contribute to both a lower syneresis production and a higher stability in the rheological behavior at FT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In Situ Forming Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Madan, M.; Bajaj, A.; Lewis, S.; Udupa, N.; Baig, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DL-lactic acid), poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and poly-caprolactone. The choice of solvents like water, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methyl pyrrolidone, triacetin and 2-pyrrolidone for these formulations depends on the solubility of polymer used. Mainly in situ gels are administered by oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable and intraperitoneal routes. The in situ gel forming polymeric formulations offer several advantages like sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems. The article presents a detailed review of these types of polymeric systems, their evaluation, advancements and their commercial formulations. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost. PMID:20490289

  20. Free radical grafting of gallic acid (GA) on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCS) and evaluation of antioxidant reinforced gellan gum films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criado, P.; Fraschini, C.; Salmieri, S.; Becher, D.; Safrany, A.; Lacroix, M.

    2016-01-01

    Antiradical properties were introduced on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by redox pair (RP) initiator and γ-radiation treatments. Different procedures were tested on CNC, first a 2 h reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/ascorbic acid (AA) was performed on CNC solution. γ-Radiation treatment at 20 kGy dose was then applied and immediately after GA was reacted during 24 h with the pretreated CNCs, giving CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA. The formation of new carboxylic acids and carbonyl groups were characterized by FT-IR at 1650 and 1730 cm-1 respectively. Carboxylic acid functionalities were also analyzed by conductometric titration where an increase from 49 to 134 mmol COOH kg-1 was found from native to irradiated CNCs. A similar increase in the carboxylic acid content (132 mmol kg-1) was observed for CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA, showing the highest radical scavenging properties (8 mM Trolox eq/mg CNC). Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the structural changes onto CNC. Film packaging containing 20% of CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA was then added to a gellan-based film packaging. A significant improvement (p<0.05) of the tensile strength (TS), the tensile modulus (TM) and the elongation at break (EB) and water vapor permeability reduction was observed when CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA was added to the film packaging formulation.

  1. Seed gum of Stryphnodendron barbatiman (Barbatimao)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Reicher, F.; Leitner, S.C.S.; Fontana, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    Stryphnodendron barbatiman (barbatimao) is a native tree that is found throughout the {open_quotes}Cerrados,{close_quotes} a region of Central Brazil. Plant seeds, on water extraction, furnished 28 g% galactomannan (dry-weight basis), the monosaccharide composition of which (galactose to mannose ratio, 1.0:1.5) fits in the legume heteromannan group. This seed gum, after Sevag deproteinization, still retained 6 g% of associated protein and had a molecular weight of about 1.8 MD on gel filtration. A high intrinsic viscosity (1300 cP) was observed for the polysaccharide sample obtained after reflux of the crushed seeds in 80% aqueous methanol.

  2. Gum Graft Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... gum line and reduce sensitivity. What are the benefits of gum graft surgery? A gum graft can ... improve function or esthetics, patients often receive the benefits of both: a beautiful new smile and improved ...

  3. Identification of the Properties of Gum Arabic Used as a Binder in 7.62-mm Ammunition Primers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Solution - LCC Testing (ATK Task 700) 51 Cartridge - Ballistic Testing (ATK Task 800) 51 ATK Elemental Analysis 52 Moisture Loss and Friability...Hummel sample 7 3 SDT summary for Quadra sample 8 4 Particle size analysis summary for gum arabic samples 9 5 SEM images of Colony gum arabic at 230x...strengths 21 16 Color analysis : Colony after 5.0 hrs 23 17 Color analysis : Hummel after 5.0 hrs 23 18 Color analysis : Brenntag after 5.0 hrs 23 19 Gel

  4. Thaumatin and gum arabic allergy in chewing gum factory workers.

    PubMed

    Tschannen, Mattias P; Glück, Ulrich; Bircher, Andreas J; Heijnen, Ingmar; Pletscher, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    Thaumatin is a sweetener and flavor modifier commonly used in the food industry. Likewise, gum arabic is widely used as a food stabilizer and thickening agent. We report here that a powder mixture composed of 10% thaumatin and 90% gum arabic led to allergic symptoms in the upper airways in occupationally exposed individuals: four of eight workers of a chewing gum factory exposed to this powder mixture had pronounced rhinitis. A positive skin prick test result for pure thaumatin was obtained in all four individuals with rhinitis of whom two also had a positive skin prick test result for pure gum arabic and gum arabic-specific IgE. Subsitution of a powdered thaumatin with a liquid form reduced symptoms among the rhinitic workers. Although gum arabic is a well-known potential allergen, we were unable to find prior documentation of allergic symptoms to thaumatin when it is used in the food industry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A nanoparticulate injectable hydrogel as a tissue engineering scaffold for multiple growth factor delivery for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dyondi, Deepti; Webster, Thomas J; Banerjee, Rinti

    2013-01-01

    Gellan xanthan gels have been shown to be excellent carriers for growth factors and as matrices for several tissue engineering applications. Gellan xanthan gels along with chitosan nanoparticles of 297 ± 61 nm diameter, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) were employed in a dual growth factor delivery system to promote the differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts. An injectable system with ionic and temperature gelation was optimized and characterized. The nanoparticle loaded gels showed significantly improved cell proliferation and differentiation due to the sustained release of growth factors. A differentiation marker study was conducted, analyzed, and compared to understand the effect of single vs dual growth factors and free vs encapsulated growth factors. Dual growth factor loaded gels showed a higher alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition compared to single growth factor loaded gels. The results suggest that encapsulation and stabilization of growth factors within nanoparticles and gels are promising for bone regeneration. Gellan xanthan gels also showed antibacterial effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the common pathogens in implant failure.

  6. Rivastigmine-loaded in situ gelling nanostructured lipid carriers for nose to brain delivery.

    PubMed

    Wavikar, Preeti R; Vavia, Pradeep R

    2015-01-01

    In the current research work, rivastigmine (RV)-loaded in situ gelling nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were developed for nose to brain delivery. NLCs were fabricated by ethanol injection method using glyceryl monosterate, Capmul MCM C8, Lecithin and Tween 80. NLCs showed average particle size of 123.2 ± 2.3 nm with entrapment efficiency of 68.34 ± 3.4%. DSC, XRD and IR studies showed complete amorphization and incorporation of the drug into nanoparticles. NLCs were incorporated into an in situ gelling system using 0.8% gellan gum and 15% Lutrol F 127. RV in situ gel showed excellent elasticity, rheology, mucoadhesion and adhesiveness to facilitate its adhesion to the upper nasal mucosa. NLC-based in situ gel showed a 2-fold increase in nasal permeation of the drug over plain RV solution. In situ gelling NLCs showed a 3-fold increase in enzyme inhibition efficacy.

  7. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences.

  8. Structure influence on mechanical and acoustic properties of freeze-dried gels obtained with the use of hydrocolloids.

    PubMed

    Ciurzyńska, Agnieszka; Marzec, Agata; Mieszkowska, Arleta; Lenart, Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    The influence of the structure formed by the type of hydrocolloids (low-methoxyl pectin, the mixture of xanthan gum, and locust bean gum, and mixture of xanthan gum, and guar gum) and the aeration time (3, 5, 7, and 9 min) on textural properties of freeze-dried gels were investigated. The hardest texture generating the strongest acoustic emission was obtained by freeze-dried pectin gel, characterised by the lowest porosity and the largest pore diameter. Aeration time significantly affected mechanical and acoustic properties of the pectin gel lyophilisate. No effect of gel aeration time on tested characteristics of samples with mixture of hydrocolloids was observed. Strong positive correlations between acoustic energy as well as the maximum force and work and negative ones between porosity and pore diameter indicate that greater resilience and stronger acoustic emission of freeze-dried gels was caused by the reduction of porosity and the increase in the pore size of the material. The research is expected to show the phenomenon of structure formation when preparing and freeze-drying gels and explain the influence of the process parameters (time of aeration, the type of hydrocolloids) on the formation of the internal structure and physical properties of a dried product, especially mechanical and acoustic properties. This achievement will contribute to the development of the science of food and human nutrition, especially within the context of the popular research on aerated diet products. The expected result will be the ability to develop a new technology for producing food with a delicate texture, using the phenomenon of sublimation. As a result, designing changes in the structure of freeze-dried fruit gels with a delicate structure will be possible due to the choice of ingredients and aeration parameters in order to develop innovative food characterised by favorable nutritional, health and functional properties, which will be attractive for the consumers. © 2016

  9. Intrinsic viscosity of binary gum mixtures with xanthan gum and guar gum: Effect of NaCl, sucrose, and pH.

    PubMed

    Bak, J H; Yoo, B

    2018-05-01

    The intrinsic viscosity ([η]) values of binary gum mixtures with xanthan gum (XG) and guar gum (GG) mixed with NaCl and sucrose at different concentrations as well as in the presence of different pH levels were examined in dilute solution as a function of XG/GG mixing ratio (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, and 0/100). Experimental values of concentration (C) and relative viscosity (η rel ) or specific viscosity (η sp ) of gums in dilute solution were fitted to five models to determine [η] values of binary gum mixtures including individual gums. A [η] model (η rel =1+[η]C) of Tanglertpaibul and Rao is recommended as the best model to estimate [η] values for the binary gum mixtures with XG and GG as affected by NaCl, sucrose, and pH. Overall, the synergistic interaction of XG-GG mixtures in the presence of NaCl and sucrose showed a greatly positive variation between measured and calculated values of [η]. In contrast, the binary gum mixtures showed synergy only under an acidic condition (pH3). These results suggest that the NaCl and sucrose addition or acidic condition appears to affect the intermolecular interaction occurred between XG and GG at different gum mixing ratios. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chewing gum--facts and fiction: a review of gum-chewing and oral health.

    PubMed

    Imfeld, T

    1999-01-01

    The world market for chewing gum is estimated to be 560,000 tons per year, representing approximately US $5 billion. Some 374 billion pieces of chewing gum are sold worldwide every year, representing 187 billion hours of gum-chewing if each piece of gum is chewed for 30 minutes. Chewing gum can thus be expected to have an influence on oral health. The labeling of sugar-substituted chewing gum as "safe for teeth" or "tooth-friendly" has been proven beneficial to the informed consumer. Such claims are allowed for products having been shown in vivo not to depress plaque pH below 5.7, neither during nor for 30 minutes after the consumption. However, various chewing gum manufacturers have recently begun to make distinct health promotion claims, suggesting, e.g., reparative action or substitution for mechanical hygiene. The aim of this critical review--covering the effects of the physical properties of chewing gum and those of different ingredients both of conventional and of functional chewing gum--is to provide a set of guidelines for the interpretation of such claims and to assist oral health care professionals in counseling patients.

  11. Effects of corn fiber gum (CFG) on the pasting and thermal behaviors of maize starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) is a novel arabinoxylan hydrocolloid. Recent research showed its considerable potential in food processing. In this study, the interactions of maize starch and CFG were studied. Maize starch/CFG blend gels were prepared from maize starch suspension mixed with 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, ...

  12. Improving adhesion of seasonings to crackers with hydrocolloid solutions.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Matthew E; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2013-11-01

    Food powders were applied on crackers that had been coated using water, oil, emulsion, sucrose, or hydrocolloid solutions. The hydrocolloids that were used include gellan gum, kappa-carrageenan, methylcellulose, gum karaya, gum tragacanth, gum arabic, guar gum, modified starch, and maltodextrin. Solutions of similar hydrophobicity to the powder gave the greatest adhesion. NaCl, barbecue (BBQ), ranch, and sour cream & onion (SC&O) seasoning showed greatest adhesion with water, cheese powder with an emulsion of 12.5% to 25% oil, and cocoa powder with oil. For NaCl, BBQ, ranch, and SC&O seasoning, hydrocolloids improved the adhesion over using water alone, with gellan gum providing the greatest adhesion. Hydrocolloid structural differences, including the presence or absence of branching, substitution of sugar units, and molecular weight affect water binding and thickening of the hydrocolloid spray that seemed to be significant factors affecting adhesion of powders to the target surface. For cheese powder, hydrocolloids were capable of replacing the oil within an emulsion while improving or maintaining the same level of adhesion, with gum arabic providing the greatest adhesion. For cocoa powder, hydrocolloid solutions were ineffective adhesives due to differences in hydrophilicity that result in insolubility. The effect of hydrocolloid concentration on adhesion was dependent both on the hydrocolloid type and the concentration that is sprayable, with 0.5% being the optimum concentration for most gums. Adhesion using sucrose solutions was determined by particle size and relative hydrophobicity. Increasing sucrose concentration decreased adhesion of smaller particles, but increased adhesion of larger particles. Adhesion of NaCl significantly increased with decreasing NaCl size using oil, water, and sucrose solutions. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B.

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm−1 (–OH), 1660 cm−1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632 cm−1 (–COO–), 1414 cm−1 (–COO–), and 1219 cm−1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  14. Structural, thermal and rheological characterization of modified Dalbergia sissoo gum--A medicinal gum.

    PubMed

    Munir, Hira; Shahid, Muhammad; Anjum, Fozia; Mudgil, Deepak

    2016-03-01

    Dalbergia sissoo gum was purified by ethanol precipitation. The purified gum was modified and hydrolyzed. Gum was modified by performing polyacrylamide grafting and carboxymethylation methods. The hydrolysis was carried out by using mannanase, barium hydroxide and trifluoroacetic acid. The modified and hydrolyzed gums were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The decrease in viscosity was studied by performing the flow test. The modified and hydrolyzed gums were thermally stable as compared to crude gum. There was increase in crystallinity after modification and hydrolysis, determined through XRD. FTIR analysis exhibits no major transformation of functional group, only there was change in the intensity of transmittance. It is concluded that the modified and hydrolyzed gum can be used for pharmaceutical and food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1349 - Karaya gum (sterculia gum).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; stabilizer and thickener, § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. All other food categories .002 Formulation aid... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Karaya gum (sterculia gum). 184.1349 Section 184.1349 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1349 - Karaya gum (sterculia gum).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; stabilizer and thickener, § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. All other food categories .002 Formulation aid... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Karaya gum (sterculia gum). 184.1349 Section 184.1349 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  17. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and... Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.319 Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums... been associated with the ingestion of water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids...

  18. Core-shell alginate-ghatti gum modified montmorillonite composite matrices for stomach-specific flurbiprofen delivery.

    PubMed

    Bera, Hriday; Ippagunta, Sohitha Reddy; Kumar, Sanoj; Vangala, Pavani

    2017-07-01

    Novel alginate-arabic gum (AG) gel membrane coated alginate-ghatti gum (GG) modified montmorillonite (MMT) composite matrices were developed for intragastric flurbiprofen (FLU) delivery by combining floating and mucoadhesion mechanisms. The clay-biopolymer composite matrices containing FLU as core were accomplished by ionic-gelation technique. Effects of polymer-blend (alginate:GG) ratios and crosslinker (CaCl 2 ) concentrations on drug entrapment efficiency (DEE, %) and cumulative drug release after 8h (Q 8h , %) were studied to optimize the core matrices by a 3 2 factorial design. The optimized matrices (F-O) demonstrated DEE of 91.69±1.43% and Q 8h of 74.96±1.56% with minimum errors in prediction. The alginate-AG gel membrane enveloped optimized matrices (F-O, coated) exhibited superior buoyancy, better ex vivo mucoadhesion and slower drug release rate. The drug release profile of FLU-loaded uncoated and coated optimized matrices was best fitted in Korsmeyer-Peppas model with anomalous diffusion and case-II transport driven mechanism, respectively. The uncoated and coated matrices containing FLU were also characterized for drug-excipients compatibility, drug crystallinity, thermal behaviour and surface morphology. Thus, the newly developed alginate-AG gel membrane coated alginate-GG modified MMT composite matrices are appropriate for intragastric delivery of FLU over an extended period of time with improved therapeutic benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as..., methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil, tragacanth, and xanthan gum. Esophageal obstruction and...

  20. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as..., methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil, tragacanth, and xanthan gum. Esophageal obstruction and...

  1. Nicotine Gum

    MedlinePlus

    ... every 1 to 2 hours for the first 6 weeks, followed by one piece every 2 to 4 hours for 3 weeks, ... chances of quitting smoking, chew at least 9 pieces of nicotine gum each day for the first 6 weeks.Chew nicotine gum slowly until you can ...

  2. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is a high... and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call... container shall bear, in addition to other information required by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  3. Fluoroacetic acid in guar gum.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, T; Gynther, J

    1984-04-01

    The toxicity of guar gum, derived from the Indian leguminous plant Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, is thought to be due to a globulin which can be denaturated and made non-toxic. Another very toxic compound, fluoroacetic acid, has been detected at a low level in raw samples of guar gum (0.07-1.42 micrograms fluoroacetic acid/g). A sample of a guar-gum pharmaceutical formulation contained only 0.08 ppm fluoroacetate. One exceptionally high value of 9.5 micrograms/g was found in a guar-gum powder. The low concentrations of fluoroacetate found in guar gum dispel any considerations about possible health risks associated with fluoroacetate during the prolonged use of guar gum at the recommended doses.

  4. A novel approach to determine the thermal transition of gum powder/hydro-gels using dynamic mechanical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamadhu, M.; Jeyaraj, P.; Kumar, G. C. Mohan

    2018-04-01

    The dynamic characterization of materials plays a major role in the present area. The many researchers are worked on solid materials and its characterization, it can be tested using dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), however, no such work on powder a semiliquid samples. The powder and liquid samples can also easily characterization as like solid samples using DMA. These powder samples are analyzed with a material pocket method which can be used to accurately determine very low levels of variation in powder properties, due to the high sensitivity of DMA to glass transitions. No such DMA studies on hydrogel and Gum powders. The gum powders are used in various applications start from food industries, pharmacy, natural gums paste, biomedical applications etc. among all this applications gum Ghatti is one of the powders using for varies applications. Around 50 milligrams of Ghatti powders are placed inside material pocket and analyzed storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″) and tan delta (δ). Also, understand the curing and glass transition effect using water, glycerin and superplastic from room temperature to 200°C. The result shows that storage modulus decreases with increase in temperature in pure Ghatti powder. The surprising improvement in storage modulus was found with an increase in temperature with addition of water, glycerin, and superplastic. However, loss modulus and tan delta are also having very significant influence and also shows a clear peak of the tan delta. The loss modulus results were found to be improved by adding solidifying agents, along with this water and superplastic better influence. But glycerine found to be hydrogel in nature and thermodynamic properties are much influenced by frequency.

  5. Rheological characterizations of concentrated binary gum mixtures with xanthan gum and galactomannans.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wonjun; Bak, June Ha; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2018-03-20

    The steady and dynamic shear rheological properties of binary gum mixtures with xanthan gum (XG) and galactomannans (guar gum (GG) and locust bean gum (LBG)) were examined in a concentrated solution (1% w/w) as a function of gum mixing ratio (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, and 0/100). All samples, except for individual GG and LBG, showed high shear-thinning behavior with yield stress. The values of flow (K, η a,50 , and σ oc ) and dynamic rheological parameters (G' and G″) of XG-GG and XG-LBG mixtures were significantly higher compared to XG alone, indicating that the flow and viscoelastic properties of binary gum mixtures were greatly affected by the addition of GG and LBG. The maximum elasticity synergistic interaction for XG-galactomannans mixtures was observed at a mixing ratio of 50/50, showing a greatly positive deviation between measured and calculated values of G'. These results suggest that the synergistic effect of GG and LBG addition on rheological properties of XG appears to be due to intermolecular interaction occurred between XG and galactomannans, as confirmed by dynamic rheological properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gum ghatti. 184.1333 Section 184.1333 Food and....1333 Gum ghatti. (a) Gum ghatti (Indian gum) is an exudate from wounds in the bark of Anogeissus... cold 1-in-100 aqueous solution of the gum. An immediate, voluminous, opaque precipitate indicates...

  7. Gum Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Academy of Periodontology Names New Executive Director Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Gum Disease Risk Gum ... Bylaws Amendments AAP Grants Periodontal Societies AAP Member Benefits AAP Professional Education AAP Networking Opportunities AAP/Colgate ...

  8. Rheological and interfacial properties at the equilibrium of almond gum tree exudate (Prunus dulcis) in comparison with gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Sessa, Mariarenata; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem; Donsi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50  ℃) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations.The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum ghatti. 184.1333 Section 184.1333 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1333 Gum ghatti. (a) Gum ghatti (Indian gum) is an exudate from wounds in..._locations.html.), to 5 ml of a cold 1-in-100 aqueous solution of the gum. An immediate, voluminous, opaque...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum ghatti. 184.1333 Section 184.1333 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1333 Gum ghatti. (a) Gum ghatti (Indian gum) is an exudate from wounds in..._locations.html.), to 5 ml of a cold 1-in-100 aqueous solution of the gum. An immediate, voluminous, opaque...

  11. In Situ Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles in a Hydrogel of Carboxymethyl Cellulose with Phthalated-Cashew Gum as a Promising Antibacterial and Healing Agent.

    PubMed

    Lustosa, Ana Karina Marques Fortes; de Jesus Oliveira, Antônia Carla; Quelemes, Patrick Veras; Plácido, Alexandra; da Silva, Francilene Vieira; Oliveira, Irisdalva Sousa; de Almeida, Miguel Peixoto; Amorim, Adriany das Graças Nascimento; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; de Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; da Silva, Durcilene Alves; Eaton, Peter; de Almeida Leite, José Roberto de Souza

    2017-11-12

    Silver nanoparticles have been shown to possess considerable antibacterial activity, but in vivo applications have been limited due to the inherent, but low, toxicity of silver. On the other hand, silver nanoparticles could provide cutaneous protection against infection, due to their ability to liberate silver ions via a slow release mechanism, and their broad-spectrum antimicrobial action. Thus, in this work, we describe the development of a carboxymethyl cellulose-based hydrogel containing silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared in the hydrogel in situ, utilizing two variants of cashew gum as a capping agent, and sodium borohydride as the reducing agent. This gum is non-toxic and comes from a renewable natural source. The particles and gel were thoroughly characterized through using rheological measurements, UV-vis spectroscopy, nanoparticles tracking analysis, and transmission electron microscopy analysis (TEM). Antibacterial tests were carried out, confirming antimicrobial action of the silver nanoparticle-loaded gels. Furthermore, rat wound-healing models were used and demonstrated that the gels exhibited improved wound healing when compared to the base hydrogel as a control. Thus, these gels are proposed as excellent candidates for use as wound-healing treatments.

  12. In Situ Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles in a Hydrogel of Carboxymethyl Cellulose with Phthalated-Cashew Gum as a Promising Antibacterial and Healing Agent

    PubMed Central

    Lustosa, Ana Karina Marques Fortes; de Jesus Oliveira, Antônia Carla; Quelemes, Patrick Veras; Plácido, Alexandra; da Silva, Francilene Vieira; Oliveira, Irisdalva Sousa; de Almeida, Miguel Peixoto; Amorim, Adriany das Graças Nascimento; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; de Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; da Silva, Durcilene Alves

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been shown to possess considerable antibacterial activity, but in vivo applications have been limited due to the inherent, but low, toxicity of silver. On the other hand, silver nanoparticles could provide cutaneous protection against infection, due to their ability to liberate silver ions via a slow release mechanism, and their broad-spectrum antimicrobial action. Thus, in this work, we describe the development of a carboxymethyl cellulose-based hydrogel containing silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared in the hydrogel in situ, utilizing two variants of cashew gum as a capping agent, and sodium borohydride as the reducing agent. This gum is non-toxic and comes from a renewable natural source. The particles and gel were thoroughly characterized through using rheological measurements, UV-vis spectroscopy, nanoparticles tracking analysis, and transmission electron microscopy analysis (TEM). Antibacterial tests were carried out, confirming antimicrobial action of the silver nanoparticle-loaded gels. Furthermore, rat wound-healing models were used and demonstrated that the gels exhibited improved wound healing when compared to the base hydrogel as a control. Thus, these gels are proposed as excellent candidates for use as wound-healing treatments. PMID:29137157

  13. Characterization of rheological and structural properties of a gum from Balangu seeds.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Mohammad; Tabarsa, Mehdi; Amraie, Milad; Anvari, Mohammad; Rezaei, Masoud; Smith, Brennan M

    2018-05-07

    With the growing interest in all-natural foods, there has been increased study of sustainable natural sources of polysaccharides with suitable functional properties. Lallemantia royleana seed polysaccharide is one such material. Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from L. royleana seed to evaluate their chemical structure and rheological properties. The polysaccharide was consisted of neutral (62.9% w/w) and acidic (16.7% w/w) sugars. The backbone of the isolated rhamnoarabinogalactan was composed of (1 → 4)-linked galactopyranose residues. The weight average molecular weight (M w ) of the polysaccharide was 0.777 × 10 6  g/mol. Rheological behavior of extracted gum was studied at different concentrations (0.1-2.0%; w/v) and temperatures of 5-50 °C. The extracted gum showed typical non-Newtonian and shear thinning behavior at all concentrations and temperatures. However, higher apparent viscosity was observed with increasing gum concentration or decreasing temperature. The quantification of flow activation energy using Arrhenius model showed a decrease from 29,931 to 8339 kJ/mol -1 . The mechanical spectra indicated viscoelastic behavior of the gum in all samples. Dynamic moduli increased with increased frequency and G' was always greater than G″, indicating a weak gel system. The results of this study will help to increase potential applications of L. royleana polysaccharide in various food formulations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Biofoam

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Biofoam is a rigid, opaque microcellular organic foam made from organic materials derived from natural products and biological organisms. Typical organic materials are agar, agarose, gelatin, algin, alginates, gellan gum, and microcrystalline cellulose. The organic material is dissolved in a polar solvent, typically water, and the solution can be gelled immediately. The gel is frozen and freeze-dried to form the biofoam. Alternatively, a nonpolar solvent is added to the solution and emulsified. The resulting emulsion is then gelled, frozen, and freeze-dried. A variety of crystalline, fibrous, or metallic additives may be added to produce lightweight composite materials with enhanced strength and insulating properties. The amount of dilution of the organic material in the solvent(s) determines the density of the resulting biofoams, which ranges from about 1.0 mg/cm.sup.3 to about 500 mg/cm.sup.3.

  15. Biofoam

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, R.L.

    1995-01-17

    Biofoam is a rigid, opaque microcellular organic foam made from organic materials derived from natural products and biological organisms. Typical organic materials are agar, agarose, gelatin, algin, alginates, gellan gum, and microcrystalline cellulose. The organic material is dissolved in a polar solvent, typically water, and the solution can be gelled immediately. The gel is frozen and freeze-dried to form the biofoam. Alternatively, a nonpolar solvent is added to the solution and emulsified. The resulting emulsion is then gelled, frozen, and freeze-dried. A variety of crystalline, fibrous, or metallic additives may be added to produce lightweight composite materials with enhanced strength and insulating properties. The amount of dilution of the organic material in the solvent(s) determines the density of the resulting biofoams, which ranges from about 1.0 mg/cm[sup 3] to about 500 mg/cm[sup 3]. 4 figures.

  16. What Happens to Swallowed Gum?

    MedlinePlus

    ... chew a lot of sugary gum. But the human digestive tract can't digest the gum resin. It's moved through the digestive tract by the normal pushing (peristaltic) actions of the gut. The gum's journey ends during a trip to ...

  17. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya..., carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya gum, kelp...

  18. 21 CFR 582.7349 - Sterculia gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sterculia gum. 582.7349 Section 582.7349 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7349 Sterculia gum. (a) Product. Sterculia gum (karaya gum). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 582.7349 - Sterculia gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sterculia gum. 582.7349 Section 582.7349 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7349 Sterculia gum. (a) Product. Sterculia gum (karaya gum). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.7349 - Sterculia gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sterculia gum. 582.7349 Section 582.7349 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7349 Sterculia gum. (a) Product. Sterculia gum (karaya gum). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. Assessing DNA recovery from chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Eychner, Alison M; Schott, Kelly M; Elkins, Kelly M

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate which DNA extraction method yields the highest quantity of DNA from chewing gum. In this study, several popular extraction methods were tested, including Chelex-100, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCIA), DNA IQ, PrepFiler, and QIAamp Investigator, and the quantity of DNA recovered from chewing gum was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction with Quantifiler. Chewed gum control samples were submitted by anonymous healthy adult donors, and discarded environmental chewing gum samples simulating forensic evidence were collected from outside public areas (e.g., campus bus stops, streets, and sidewalks). As expected, results indicate that all methods tested yielded sufficient amplifiable human DNA from chewing gum using the wet-swab method. The QIAamp performed best when DNA was extracted from whole pieces of control gum (142.7 ng on average), and the DNA IQ method performed best on the environmental whole gum samples (29.0 ng on average). On average, the QIAamp kit also recovered the most DNA from saliva swabs. The PCIA method demonstrated the highest yield with wet swabs of the environmental gum (26.4 ng of DNA on average). However, this method should be avoided with whole gum samples (no DNA yield) due to the action of the organic reagents in dissolving and softening the gum and inhibiting DNA recovery during the extraction.

  2. Characterization and relevance of physicochemical interactions among components of a novel multiparticulate formulation for colonic delivery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahma N; Kim, Kwon H

    2007-08-16

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate potential interactions among a model drug (azathioprine; AZA), polymers and a divalent metal ion, which were utilized in the development of a novel multiparticulate formulation for colonic delivery. The approach involved preparation of beads by ionotropic gelation of deacylated gellan gum (DGG) in the presence of Ca(2+) ions, followed by coating with Eudragit S-100. Various possible physicochemical interactions among formulation components were characterized by DSC, FT-IR, XRPD, (1)H-NMR, and an isothermal stress test. Results of isothermal stress testing indicated that there was no significant interaction of AZA with DGG and Eudragit S-100. However, results of DSC and XRPD studies suggested that there could be interactions between AZA and DGG, and ionotropic gelation can affect the physical state of AZA, which may have implications for drug release characteristics and, physical and chemical stability. The results of FT-IR studies were suggestive of interactions of DGG with AZA and Eudragit S-100, and provided evidence for interactions of AZA and DGG with Ca(2+) ions. The electrostatic interaction of DGG with Ca(2+) was also supported by results of DSC studies while that between AZA and Ca(2+) was confirmed by (1)H-NMR studies. This study, to our knowledge, is first reported investigation in which the unique thermal property of gellan gum gels, and possible interactions between a drug and counter ions of an ionotropic agent have been demonstrated through bead characterization studies. The formation of AZA-Ca(2+) complex could have an impact on drug release kinetics, product stability and clinical efficacy for treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases or other diseases, which merit further investigation.

  3. 75 FR 77521 - National Organic Program; Amendments to the National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...-08-06FR] RIN 0581-AC91 National Organic Program; Amendments to the National List of Allowed and... (Secretary) by the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) from November 30, 2007, and May 22, 2008. This... restrictive annotations, for use in organic crop production, and adds gellan gum, fortified cooking wine...

  4. Utilizing whey protein isolate and polysaccharide complexes to stabilize aerated dairy gels.

    PubMed

    O'Chiu, Emily; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2017-05-01

    Heated soluble complexes of whey protein isolate (WPI) with polysaccharides may be used to modify the properties of aerated dairy gels, which could be formulated into novel-textured high-protein desserts. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of polysaccharide charge density and concentration within a WPI-polysaccharide complex on the physical properties of aerated gels. Three polysaccharides having different degrees of charge density were chosen: low-methoxyl pectin, high-methoxyl type D pectin, and guar gum. Heated complexes were prepared by heating the mixed dispersions (8% protein, 0 to 1% polysaccharide) at pH 7. To form aerated gels, 2% glucono-δ-lactone was added to the dispersions of skim milk powder and heated complex and foam was generated by whipping with a handheld frother. The foam set into a gel as the glucono-δ-lactone acidified to a final pH of 4.5. The aerated gels were evaluated for overrun, drainage, gel strength, and viscoelastic properties. Without heated complexes, stable aerated gels could not be formed. Overrun of aerated gel decreased (up to 73%) as polysaccharide concentration increased from 0.105 to 0.315% due to increased viscosity, which limited air incorporation. A negative relationship was found between percent drainage and dispersion viscosity. However, plotting of drainage against dispersion viscosity separated by polysaccharide type revealed that drainage decreased most in samples with high-charge-density, low-methoxyl pectin followed by those with low-charge-density, high-methoxyl type D pectin. Aerated gels with guar gum (no charge) did not show improvement to stability. Rheological results showed no significant difference in gelation time among samples; therefore, stronger interactions between WPI and high-charge-density polysaccharide were likely responsible for increased stability. Stable dairy aerated gels can be created from WPI-polysaccharide complexes. High-charge-density polysaccharides, at

  5. Plant gum identification in historic artworks

    PubMed Central

    Granzotto, Clara; Arslanoglu, Julie; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    We describe an integrated and straightforward new analytical protocol that identifies plant gums from various sample sources including cultural heritage. Our approach is based on the identification of saccharidic fingerprints using mass spectrometry following controlled enzymatic hydrolysis. We developed an enzyme cocktail suitable for plant gums of unknown composition. Distinctive MS profiles of gums such as arabic, cherry and locust-bean gums were successfully identified. A wide range of oligosaccharidic combinations of pentose, hexose, deoxyhexose and hexuronic acid were accurately identified in gum arabic whereas cherry and locust bean gums showed respectively PentxHexy and Hexn profiles. Optimized for low sample quantities, the analytical protocol was successfully applied to contemporary and historic samples including ‘Colour Box Charles Roberson & Co’ dating 1870s and drawings from the American painter Arthur Dove (1880–1946). This is the first time that a gum is accurately identified in a cultural heritage sample using structural information. Furthermore, this methodology is applicable to other domains (food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, biomedical). PMID:28425501

  6. Gum Disease in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Academy of Periodontology Names New Executive Director Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Gum Disease Risk Gum ... Bylaws Amendments AAP Grants Periodontal Societies AAP Member Benefits AAP Professional Education AAP Networking Opportunities AAP/Colgate ...

  7. Gum Disease and Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Academy of Periodontology Names New Executive Director Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Gum Disease Risk Gum ... Bylaws Amendments AAP Grants Periodontal Societies AAP Member Benefits AAP Professional Education AAP Networking Opportunities AAP/Colgate ...

  8. Gum Disease and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Academy of Periodontology Names New Executive Director Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Gum Disease Risk Gum ... Bylaws Amendments AAP Grants Periodontal Societies AAP Member Benefits AAP Professional Education AAP Networking Opportunities AAP/Colgate ...

  9. Mind Your Mouth: Preventing Gum Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to gum disease—technically known as periodontal disease. The most common and mild type of ... up and professional cleaning. Don’t smoke. Links Periodontal (Gum) Disease NIH Senior Health: Gum Disease Taking ...

  10. Effect of GutsyGum(tm), A Novel Gum, on Subjective Ratings of Gastro Esophageal Reflux Following A Refluxogenic Meal.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel; Sam, Cecilia H Y; Green, Tim; Wood, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Chewing gum alleviates symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) following a refluxogenic meal. GutsyGum(tm), a chewing gum developed to alleviate the symptoms of GER contains calcium carbonate, with a proprietary blend of licorice extract, papain, and apple cider vinegar (GiGs®). The efficacy of GutsyGum(tm) was determined in alleviating the symptoms of GER after a refluxogenic meal compared to placebo gum. This double-blind, placebo-controlled-crossover trial with a one-week washout between treatments had 24 participants with a history of GER consume a refluxogenic meal and then chew GutsyGum(tm) or placebo gum. Participants completed GER symptom questionnaires, consisting of symptom based 10 cm Visual Analogue Scales, immediately following the meal and then at regular intervals out to four hours postmeal. Adjusted mean ± SEM heartburn score (15-min postmeal to 240 min) was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo gum treatment (0.81 ± 0.20 vs. 1.45 ± 0.20 cm; p = 0.034). Mean acid reflux score was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo treatment (0.72 ± 0.19 vs. 1.46 ± 0.19 cm; p = 0.013). There were no significant differences for any of the secondary outcomes. However, pain approached significance with less pain reported in GutsyGum(tm) versus placebo treatment (0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 cm; p = 0.081). Although nausea (p = 0.114) and belching (p = 0.154) were lower following GutsyGum(tm), the difference was not statistically significant. GutsyGum(tm) is more effective than a placebo gum in alleviating primary symptoms of heartburn and acid reflux (Clinical Trial Registration: ACTRN12612000973819).

  11. Occupational allergic rhinitis from guar gum.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Tupasela, O; Jolanki, R; Vaheri, E; Estlander, T; Keskinen, H

    1988-05-01

    Three cases of allergic rhinitis from a vegetable gum, guar gum, have been detected. Two subjects were exposed to fine guar gum powder (Emco Gum 563, Meyhall Chemical AG, Switzerland), an insulator in rubber cables, when opening cables in a power cable laboratory. After 1-2 years' exposure the patients developed rhinitis. Scratch-chamber tests, nasal provocation tests, nasal eosinophilia and a RAST test proved their allergy. A third subject developed allergic rhinitis from another guar gum product (Meyproid 5306, Meyhall Chemical AG) after 2 years' exposure in a paper factory. A positive skin test and nasal provocation test confirmed the diagnosis. A fourth case of possible allergy to guar gum after exposure to Meyproid 5306 in a paper factory is also presented. No final diagnosis was reached in this case (in 1974). The present subjects, only one of whom was atopic, developed allergy within 2 years, although their exposure to guar gum was not especially heavy. Therefore, when handling guar, adequate ventilation facilities should be provided and protective clothing, including a respiratory mask, should be worn.

  12. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Jalilian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine which exists in drinks such as coffee as well as in drug dosage forms in the global market is among the materials that increase alertness and decrease fatigue. Compared to other forms of caffeine, caffeine gum can create faster and more prominent effects. In this study, the main goal is to design a new formulation of caffeine gum with desirable taste and assess its physicochemical properties. Caffeine gum was prepared by softening of gum bases and then mixing with other formulation ingredients. To decrease the bitterness of caffeine, sugar, aspartame, liquid glucose, sorbitol, manitol, xylitol, and various flavors were used. Caffeine release from gum base was investigated by mechanical chewing set. Content uniformity test was also performed on the gums. The gums were evaluated in terms of organoleptic properties by the Latin-Square design at different stages. After making 22 formulations of caffeine gums, F11 from 20 mg caffeine gums and F22 from 50 mg caffeine gums were chosen as the best formulation in organoleptic properties. Both types of gum released about 90% of their own drug content after 30 min. Drug content of 20 and 50 mg caffeine gum was about 18.2-21.3 mg and 45.7-53.6 mg respectively. In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release) were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  13. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Jalilian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Caffeine which exists in drinks such as coffee as well as in drug dosage forms in the global market is among the materials that increase alertness and decrease fatigue. Compared to other forms of caffeine, caffeine gum can create faster and more prominent effects. In this study, the main goal is to design a new formulation of caffeine gum with desirable taste and assess its physicochemical properties. Materials and Methods: Caffeine gum was prepared by softening of gum bases and then mixing with other formulation ingredients. To decrease the bitterness of caffeine, sugar, aspartame, liquid glucose, sorbitol, manitol, xylitol, and various flavors were used. Caffeine release from gum base was investigated by mechanical chewing set. Content uniformity test was also performed on the gums. The gums were evaluated in terms of organoleptic properties by the Latin-Square design at different stages. Results: After making 22 formulations of caffeine gums, F11 from 20 mg caffeine gums and F22 from 50 mg caffeine gums were chosen as the best formulation in organoleptic properties. Both types of gum released about 90% of their own drug content after 30 min. Drug content of 20 and 50 mg caffeine gum was about 18.2-21.3 mg and 45.7-53.6 mg respectively. Conclusion: In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release) were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test. PMID:24223387

  14. Xanthan gum as a fat replacer in goshtaba-a traditional meat product of India: effects on quality and oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Rather, Sajad A; Masoodi, F A; Akhter, Rehana; Gani, Adil; Wani, S M; Malik, A H

    2015-12-01

    Goshtaba is a restructured meat product of Kashmiri wazwan prepared from meat emulsion with added fat (20 %), salt, spices and condiments and cooked in the curd. The present study was undertaken for the development of low fat goshtaba with the addition of xanthan gum as a fat replacer and was evaluated for proximate composition, pH, colour, lipid and protein oxidation, texture, microstructure and sensory properties. Low fat goshtaba formulations containing xanthan gum were higher in protein and moisture contents but, lower in fat content and pH value than the high fat control (p < 0.05). Colour evaluation revealed that high fat goshtaba had significantly higher L* value, but lower a* value than its low fat counterparts (p < 0.05). The significant decrease of TBARS values, protein carbonyls and loss of protein sulphydryl groups in low fat goshtaba formulations reflects the potential antioxidant activity of xanthan gum (p < 0.05). Hardness was significantly higher in high fat control but, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness did not show any significant difference. Springiness increased with the increasing concentration of xanthan gum (0.5-1.5 %) and was higher in low fat product containing 1.5 % xanthan gum. SEM results indicate that xanthan gum lead to formation of an additional gel network which holds more water. Sensory evaluation revealed that goshtaba product with 0.5 % xanthan gum had quality characteristics that were similar to the control product containing 20 % fat.

  15. Progress in the development of gelling agents for improved culturability of microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nabajit; Tripathi, Naveen; Basu, Srijoni; Bose, Chandra; Maitra, Susmit; Khurana, Sukant

    2015-01-01

    Gelling agents are required for formulating both solid and semisolid media, vital for the isolation of microorganisms. Gelatin was the first gelling agent to be discovered but it soon paved the way for agar, which has far superior material qualities. Source depletion, issues with polymerase-chain-reaction and inability to sustain extermophiles etc., necessitate the need of other gelling agents. Many new gelling agents, such as xantham gum, gellan gum, carrageenan, isubgol, and guar gum have been formulated, raising the hopes for the growth of previously unculturable microorganisms. We evaluate the progress in the development of gelling agents, with the hope that our synthesis would help accelerate research in the field. PMID:26257708

  16. Determination of locust bean gum and guar gum by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, K; Rosa, C; Hischenhuber, C; Meyer, R

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to differentiate the thickening agents locust bean gum (LBG) and the cheaper guar gum in finished food products. Universal primers for amplification of the intergenic spacer region between trnL 3' (UAA) exon and trnF (GAA) gene in the chloroplast (cp) genome and subsequent restriction analysis were applied to differentiate guar gum and LBG. The presence of <5% (w/w) guar gum powder added to LBG powder was detectable. Based on data obtained from sequencing this intergenic spacer region, a second PCR method for the specific detection of guar gum DNA was also developed. This assay detected guar gum powder in LBG in amounts as low as 1% (w/w). Both methods successfully detected guar gum and/or LBG in ice cream stabilizers and in foodstuffs, such as dairy products, ice cream, dry seasoning mixes, a finished roasting sauce, and a fruit jelly product, but not in products with highly degraded DNA, such as tomato ketchup and sterilized chocolate cream. Both methods detected guar gum and LBG in ice cream and fresh cheese at levels <0.1%.

  17. The comparative effect of propolis in two different vehicles; mouthwash and chewing-gum on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Nuray; Erdemir, Ebru Olgun; Ozkan, Serdar Yucel; Hendek, Meltem Karsiyaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In general, chemical plaque agents have been used in mouthwashes, gels, and dentifrices. In some situations, application of mouthwashes and dentifrices can be difficult. Therefore, different approaches for oral health-care have been needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of propolis chewing-gum compared to propolis-containing mouthwash on gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation on patients that refrained from daily oral hygiene procedures for 5 days. Materials and Methods: 10 college students with systemically healthy and very good oral hygiene and gingival health were included in this randomized, single-blind, crossover 5-day plaque regrowth with a 3-day washout period clinical study. After plaque scores were reduced to zero, participants were asked to refrain from oral hygiene procedures and allocated to either propolis mouthwash or chewing-gum group. Chewing-gum was performed after meals 3 times a day for 20 min mouthwash group was instructed to rinse mouthwash 2 times a day for 1 min. On day 5, the clinical periodontal measurements containing plaque and gingival indexes were taken from the participants. Results: The both plaque and gingival indexes of propolis mouthwash group were significantly lower than that of the propolis chewing-gum group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the propolis mouthwash was more effective than the propolis chewing gum on the plaque inhibition and the gingival inflammation. PMID:26038663

  18. Occupational asthma caused by guar gum.

    PubMed

    Lagier, F; Cartier, A; Somer, J; Dolovich, J; Malo, J L

    1990-04-01

    Some vegetable gums have been reported to cause asthma. We describe three subjects who were exposed at work to guar gum, which is derived from the outer part of Cyanopsis tetragonolobus, a vegetable that grows in India. The first subject worked for a pharmaceutical company; the second and third subjects worked at a carpet-manufacturing plant. All three subjects developed symptoms of rhinitis and asthma after the onset of exposure to guar gum. All subjects were atopic and demonstrated mild bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled histamine at the time they were observed. Skin prick tests demonstrated an immediate skin reaction to guar gum. All three subjects had high levels of serum IgE antibodies to guar gum. Specific inhalation challenges in which the three subjects were exposed for short intervals (less than or equal to 4 minutes) to powder of guar gum elicited isolated immediate bronchospastic reactions in two subjects and a dual reaction in the other subject.

  19. Effects of a gel forming dietary fiber, guar gum, on the absorption of glibenclamide and metabolic control and serum lipids in patients with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes.

    PubMed

    Uusitupa, M; Södervik, H; Silvasti, M; Karttunen, P

    1990-04-01

    Nine patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) treated with glibenclamide (3.5 mg b.i.d.) participated in this randomized double-blind placebo controlled crossover study to evaluate the effects of granulated guar gum (5 g t.i.d. with meals) on the absorption of glibenclamide and metabolic control and serum lipids. Each treatment period lasted for 4 weeks, and there was a wash-out period of one week between the treatments. The fasting blood glucose (10.5 +/- 3.4 mmol/l on guar gum vs 11.3 +/- 3.7 mmol/l on placebo, p less than 0.05) and serum total cholesterol (5.9 +/- 1.4 mmol/l on guar gum vs 6.6 +/- 1.6 mmol/l on placebo; p less than 0.05) levels were lower after the treatment with guar gum than placebo. No significant differences were observed in serum triglycerides or HDL cholesterol between guar gum and placebo treatments. The administration of guar gum together with glibenclamide did not change significantly the maximum concentration (223 +/- 196 ng/ml on guar gum vs 184 +/- 138 ng/ml on placebo; n = 7, NS) or area under the curve (AUC0-6) [729 +/- 813 (ng/ml) X h on guar gum vs 560 +/- 513 (ng/ml) X h on placebo; NS] of glibenclamide. The fasting serum glibenclamide concentrations were similar at the end of the 4-week treatment period with guar gum and placebo. In conclusion, guar gum improved the metabolic control and decreased serum lipids of patients with NIDDM. In addition, guar gum ingested with glibenclamide did not interfere with the absorption of glibenclamide.

  20. Flavour-enhanced cortisol release during gum chewing

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Tachibana, Yoshihisa; Ono, Takahiro; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu

    2017-01-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that chewing gum reduces chronic stress. However, it remains controversial how the taste and odour properties of chewing gum influence stress. The present study was designed to investigate this issue in human subjects. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we tested salivary cortisol concentration, which is thought to be a stress marker, in 96 adults who chewed gum with different combinations of taste and odour. Subjects could discriminate between the types of gum without prior information. Salivary cortisol concentrations were highest and lowest for the subjects who chewed the most flavourful gum and the least flavourful gum, respectively. These findings suggest that the salivary cortisol level during gum chewing is not a marker of negative emotions (i.e., stressful conditions) as traditionally considered but, rather, an index of positive emotions that can facilitate biological responses to overcome stressful conditions. PMID:28379983

  1. Flavour-enhanced cortisol release during gum chewing.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Tachibana, Yoshihisa; Ono, Takahiro; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu

    2017-01-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that chewing gum reduces chronic stress. However, it remains controversial how the taste and odour properties of chewing gum influence stress. The present study was designed to investigate this issue in human subjects. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we tested salivary cortisol concentration, which is thought to be a stress marker, in 96 adults who chewed gum with different combinations of taste and odour. Subjects could discriminate between the types of gum without prior information. Salivary cortisol concentrations were highest and lowest for the subjects who chewed the most flavourful gum and the least flavourful gum, respectively. These findings suggest that the salivary cortisol level during gum chewing is not a marker of negative emotions (i.e., stressful conditions) as traditionally considered but, rather, an index of positive emotions that can facilitate biological responses to overcome stressful conditions.

  2. 21 CFR 582.7351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 582.7351 Section 582.7351 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Product. Tragacanth (gum tragacanth). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  3. 21 CFR 582.7351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 582.7351 Section 582.7351 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Product. Tragacanth (gum tragacanth). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 582.7351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 582.7351 Section 582.7351 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Product. Tragacanth (gum tragacanth). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. Effect of CMC and arabic gum in the manufacture of jackfruit velva (Artocarpus heterophyllus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudhistira, B.; Riyadi, N. H.; Pangestika, A. D.; Pertiwi, S. R.

    2018-03-01

    Velva is one type of frozen dessert which is made from fruit/vegetable with ice cream maker, low fat and high fiber content. Jackfruit is a raw material for the manufacture of velva because of the high fiber content of 2.31 gr. The use of a stabilizers combination of CMC and arabic gum in the manufacture of velva will provide a better gel mix than single use. The purpose of this research is to know the influence of variation of CMC and arabic gum stabilizer on the characteristics (physical, chemical, and sensory) of jackfruit velva (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and determine variations in the most appropriate combinations of stabilizers to produce jackfruit velva with the best quality. This research applied Completely Randomized Design consist of one factor which is the combination of CMC and arabic gum levels in the making of jackfruit velva with two replicates and two replications of the analysis. The data obtained then analyzed statistically using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), when there is a significant difference, then followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance level of 0.05. The results of this study concluded that the jackfruit velva with the addition of various concentrations of CMC and arabic gum is significantly affecting the taste, texture and overall parameters, but no significant difference on the color and flavor parameters of jackfruit velva. Based on the results of physical characteristics, chemical and sensory jackfruit velva with the addition of a stabilizing concentration of CMC and arabic gum 1: 1 result in best jackfruit velva. The best jackfruit velva with stabilizing the concentration of CMC and arabic gum 1: 1 contains a water content of 61.95%, dietary fiber 2.231%, total dissolved solids 20.38 °Brix, overrun 19.709%, meltdown 28.215 minutes. As for the color attribute score 3.72; Taste 4; flavor 3.60; Texture 3.68, and overall 3.88.

  6. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Gum guaiac. (a) Product. Gum guaiac. (b) Tolerance. 0.1 percent (equivalent antioxidant activity 0.01...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Gum guaiac. (a) Product. Gum guaiac. (b) Tolerance. 0.1 percent (equivalent antioxidant activity 0.01...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Gum guaiac. (a) Product. Gum guaiac. (b) Tolerance. 0.1 percent (equivalent antioxidant activity 0.01...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Gum guaiac. (a) Product. Gum guaiac. (b) Tolerance. 0.1 percent (equivalent antioxidant activity 0.01...

  10. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  11. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  12. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  13. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya... active ingredients; required warnings and directions. 201.319 Section 201.319 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  14. Production of bio-based fiber gums from the waste streams resulting from the commercial processing of corn bran and oat hulls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. food and non-food industries would benefit from the development of a domestically produced crude, semi-pure and pure bio-based fiber gum from corn bran and oat hulls processing waste streams. When corn bran and oat hulls are processed to produce a commercial cellulose enriched fiber gel, th...

  15. 21 CFR 582.7333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum ghatti. 582.7333 Section 582.7333 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7333 Gum ghatti. (a) Product. Gum ghatti. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  16. 21 CFR 582.7333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum ghatti. 582.7333 Section 582.7333 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7333 Gum ghatti. (a) Product. Gum ghatti. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  17. 21 CFR 582.7333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gum ghatti. 582.7333 Section 582.7333 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7333 Gum ghatti. (a) Product. Gum ghatti. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  18. Assessment of physical and structural characteristics of almond gum.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Mudasir; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2016-12-01

    Almond gum was investigated for its physical and structural characteristics in comparison to gum arabic. Among physical properties, bulk density was found to be 0.600±0.12g/mL and 0.502±0.20g/mL for almond and gum arabic respectively. Almond gum (0.820±0.13g/mL) displayed the maximum value for tapped density. Compressibility index of exudate gum powders varied from 26.79±1.47 to 37.46±0.50% and follow the order gum arabic>almond gum. Almond gum demonstrated good flow characteristics when compared to gum arabic. True density showed significant difference (p<0.05) among the exudate samples and it was recorded higher for gum arabic. The maximum value of porosity recorded in case of gum arabic indicates the presence of large number of interstitial spaces among its particles. Almond gum had fair flow character while good for the other exudate gum powder. Almond gum had relatively higher mineral content than gum arabic. The oil holding capacity of exudate gums varied from 0.87±0.05 to 0.92±0.02g/g. Exudate powder samples were found to lie in the first quadrant of the hue angle (0-90°) corresponding to the range of reddish-purple to yellow. The absence of peaks in the X-ray diffractograms of exudate samples reflects their amorphous nature. SEM micrographs revealed a lot of variability in shape and size of the exudate particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR 582.7339 - Guar gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guar gum. 582.7339 Section 582.7339 Food and Drugs..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7339 Guar gum. (a) Product. Guar gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 184.1351 Section 184.1351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Gum tragacanth is the exudate from one of several...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 184.1351 Section 184.1351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Gum tragacanth is the exudate from one of several...

  2. 21 CFR 582.7339 - Guar gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Guar gum. 582.7339 Section 582.7339 Food and Drugs..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7339 Guar gum. (a) Product. Guar gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1339 - Guar gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guar gum. 184.1339 Section 184.1339 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1339 Guar gum. (a) Guar gum is the natural substance obtained from the...

  4. 21 CFR 582.7339 - Guar gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guar gum. 582.7339 Section 582.7339 Food and Drugs..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7339 Guar gum. (a) Product. Guar gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1339 - Guar gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Guar gum. 184.1339 Section 184.1339 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1339 Guar gum. (a) Guar gum is the natural substance obtained from the...

  6. Manual: Modern Gum Naval Stores Methods

    Treesearch

    Ralph W. Clements

    1974-01-01

    Modern gum naval stores methods have been developed to benefit both the gum producer and the timber owner. Following the methods described in this booklet will bring maximum gum yields, whill reduce chipping-labor requirements about 50 percent, and will make the worked-out tree saleable for other wood products. If these modern turpentining mehods are used, naval...

  7. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as follows: (a) The food additive is xanthan gum as defined in § 172.695 of this chapter and meets all of the...

  8. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as follows: (a) The food additive is xanthan gum as defined in § 172.695 of this chapter and meets all of the...

  9. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as follows: (a) The food additive is xanthan gum as defined in § 172.695 of this chapter and meets all of the...

  10. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as follows: (a) The food additive is xanthan gum as defined in § 172.695 of this chapter and meets all of the...

  11. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as follows: (a) The food additive is xanthan gum as defined in § 172.695 of this chapter and meets all of the...

  12. Effect of Different Gums on Rheological Properties of Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weikey, Yogita; Sinha, S. L.; Dewangan, S. K.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the effect of different natural gums on water-bentonite slurry, which is used as based fluid in water based drilling fluid. The gums used are Babul gum (Acacia nilotica), Dhawda gum (Anogeissus latifolia), Katira gum (Cochlospermum religiosum) and Semal gum (Bombax ceiba). For present investigation, samples have been prepared by varying concentration of gums. The variation of shear stress and shear rate has been plotted and on the basis of this behaviour of fluids has been explained. The value of k and n are calculated by using Power law. R 2 values are also calculated to support the choice of gum selection.

  13. Gum Producers Can Improve Quality Of Gum Marketed and Get Higher Prices

    Treesearch

    Ralph W. Clements

    1979-01-01

    Acid waste from over-treatment and old, wornout iron cups have contributed significantly to the generally poor quality of gum marketed. Today producers are reluctant to purchase new cups and gutters and invest up to $1.80 per tree for production when the market price for gum averages 14.54 per pound annually. Guidelines are given for improving the quality by...

  14. Earthquakes Promote Bacterial Genetic Exchange in Serpentinite Crevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoto, Yoshida; Fujiura, Nori

    2009-04-01

    We report the results of our efforts to study the effects of seismic shaking on simulated biofilms within serpentinite fissures. A colloidal solution consisting of recipient bacterial cells (Pseudomonas sp. or Bacillus subtilis), donor plasmid DNA encoded for antibiotic resistance, and chrysotile (an acicular clay mineral that forms in crevices of serpentinite layers) were placed onto an elastic body made from gellan gum, which acted as the biofilm matrix. Silica beads, as rock analogues (i.e., chemically inert mechanical serpentinite), were placed on the gellan surface, which was coated with the colloidal solution. A rolling vibration similar to vibrations generated by earthquakes was applied, and the silica beads moved randomly across the surface of the gellan. This resulted in the recipient cells' acquiring plasmid DNA and thus becoming genetically transformed to demonstrate marked antibiotic resistance. Neither Pseudomonas sp. nor B. subtilis were transformed by plasmid DNA when chrysotile was substituted for by kaolinite or bentonite in the colloidal solution. Tough gellan (1.0%) promoted the introduction of plasmid DNA into Pseudomonas sp., but soft gellan (0.3%) had no such effect. Genetic transformation of bacteria on the surface of gellan by exposure to exogenous plasmid DNA required seismic shaking and exposure to the acicular clay mineral chrysotile. These experimental results suggest that bacterial genetic exchange readily occurs when biofilms that form in crevices of serpentinite are exposed to seismic shaking. Seismic activity may be a key factor in bacterial evolution along with the formation of biofilms within crevices of serpentinite.

  15. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Tachibana, Yoshihisa; Sakagami, Joe; Zhang, Min; Urade, Masahiro; Ono, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Flavor perception, the integration of taste and odor, is a critical factor in eating behavior. It remains unclear how such sensory signals influence the human brain systems that execute the eating behavior. WE TESTED CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (CBF) IN THE FRONTAL LOBES BILATERALLY WHILE SUBJECTS CHEWED THREE TYPES OF GUM WITH DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF TASTE AND ODOR: no taste/no odor gum (C-gum), sweet taste/no odor gum (T-gum), and sweet taste/lemon odor gum (TO-gum). Simultaneous recordings of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) and near infrared spectrometer (NIRS) were used to measure CBF during gum chewing in 25 healthy volunteers. Bilateral masseter muscle activity was also monitored. We found that subjects could discriminate the type of gum without prior information. Subjects rated the TO-gum as the most flavorful gum and the C-gum as the least flavorful. Analysis of masseter muscle activity indicated that masticatory motor output during gum chewing was not affected by taste and odor. The TCD/NIRS measurements revealed significantly higher hemodynamic signals when subjects chewed the TO-gum compared to when they chewed the C-gum and T-gum. These data suggest that taste and odor can influence brain activation during chewing in sensory, cognitive, and motivational processes rather than in motor control.

  16. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rostami, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    New formulations and technologies have been developed through oral drug delivery systems’ researches. Such researches display significance of oral route amongst patients. We’ve reviewed all the features associated with medicated chewing gum as a modern drug delivery by introducing the history, advantages and disadvantages, methods of manufacturing, composition differences, evaluation tests and examples of varieties of medicated chewing gums. Acceptance of medicated chewing gum has been augmented through years. The advantages and therapeutic benefits of chewing gum support its development as we can see new formulations with new drugs contained have been produced from past and are going to find a place in market by formulation of new medicated chewing gums. Potential applications of medicated chewing gums are highly widespread as they will be recognized in future. Nowadays standards for qualifying chewing gums are the same as tablets. Patient-centered studies include medicated chewing gums as a delivery system too which creates compliance for patients. PMID:26109999

  17. Rheological Differences of Waxy Barley Flour Dispersions Mixed with Various Gums

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chong-Yeon; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2017-01-01

    Rheological properties of waxy barley flour (WBF) dispersions mixed with various gums (carboxyl methyl celluleose, guar gum, gum arabic, konjac gum, locust bean gum, tara gum, and xanthan gum) at different gum concentrations were examined in steady and dynamic shear. WBF-gum mixture samples showed a clear trend of shear-thinning behavior and had a non-Newtonian nature with yield stress. Rheological tests indicated that the flow and dynamic rheological parameter (apparent viscosity, consistency index, yield stress, storage modulus, and loss modulus) values of WBF dispersions mixed with gums, except for gum arabic, were significantly higher than those of WBF with no gum, and also increased with an increase in gum concentration. In particular, konjac gum at 0.6% among other gums showed the highest rheological parameter values. Tan δ values of WBF-xanthan gum mixtures were lower than those of other gums, showing that there is a more pronounced synergistic effect on the elastic properties of WBF in the presence of xanthan gum. Such synergistic effect was hypothesized by considering thermodynamic compatibility between xanthan gum and WBF. These rheological results suggest that in the WBF-gum mixture systems, the addition of gums modified the flow and viscoelastic properties of WBF, and that these modifications were dependent on the type of gum and gum concentration. PMID:28401089

  18. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Tachibana, Yoshihisa; Sakagami, Joe; Zhang, Min; Urade, Masahiro; Ono, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Background Flavor perception, the integration of taste and odor, is a critical factor in eating behavior. It remains unclear how such sensory signals influence the human brain systems that execute the eating behavior. Methods We tested cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the frontal lobes bilaterally while subjects chewed three types of gum with different combinations of taste and odor: no taste/no odor gum (C-gum), sweet taste/no odor gum (T-gum), and sweet taste/lemon odor gum (TO-gum). Simultaneous recordings of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) and near infrared spectrometer (NIRS) were used to measure CBF during gum chewing in 25 healthy volunteers. Bilateral masseter muscle activity was also monitored. Results We found that subjects could discriminate the type of gum without prior information. Subjects rated the TO-gum as the most flavorful gum and the C-gum as the least flavorful. Analysis of masseter muscle activity indicated that masticatory motor output during gum chewing was not affected by taste and odor. The TCD/NIRS measurements revealed significantly higher hemodynamic signals when subjects chewed the TO-gum compared to when they chewed the C-gum and T-gum. Conclusions These data suggest that taste and odor can influence brain activation during chewing in sensory, cognitive, and motivational processes rather than in motor control. PMID:23840440

  19. Stabilization of water in oil in water (W/O/W) emulsion using whey protein isolate-conjugated durian seed gum: enhancement of interfacial activity through conjugation process.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaee Amid, Bahareh; Mirhosseini, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    The present work was conducted to investigate the effect of purification and conjugation processes on functional properties of durian seed gum (DSG) used for stabilization of water in oil in water (W/O/W) emulsion. Whey protein isolate (WPI) was conjugated to durian seed gum through the covalent linkage. In order to prepare WPI-DSG conjugate, covalent linkage of whey protein isolate to durian seed gum was obtained by Maillard reaction induced by heating at 60 °C and 80% (±1%) relative humidity. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to test the formation of the covalent linkage between whey protein isolate and durian seed gum after conjugation process. In this study, W/O/W stabilized by WPI-conjugated DSG A showed the highest interface activity and lowest creaming layer among all prepared emulsions. This indicated that the partial conjugation of WPI to DSG significantly improved its functional characteristics in W/O/W emulsion. The addition of WPI-conjugated DSG to W/O/W emulsion increased the viscosity more than non-conjugated durian seed gum (or control). This might be due to possible increment of the molecular weight after linking the protein fraction to the structure of durian seed gum through the conjugation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 7 CFR 160.7 - Gum spirits of turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gum spirits of turpentine. 160.7 Section 160.7... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.7 Gum spirits of turpentine. The designation “gum spirits of turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by distillation of the oleoresin (gum...

  1. 7 CFR 160.7 - Gum spirits of turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gum spirits of turpentine. 160.7 Section 160.7... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.7 Gum spirits of turpentine. The designation “gum spirits of turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by distillation of the oleoresin (gum...

  2. 7 CFR 160.7 - Gum spirits of turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gum spirits of turpentine. 160.7 Section 160.7... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.7 Gum spirits of turpentine. The designation “gum spirits of turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by distillation of the oleoresin (gum...

  3. 7 CFR 160.7 - Gum spirits of turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gum spirits of turpentine. 160.7 Section 160.7... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.7 Gum spirits of turpentine. The designation “gum spirits of turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by distillation of the oleoresin (gum...

  4. 7 CFR 160.7 - Gum spirits of turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gum spirits of turpentine. 160.7 Section 160.7... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.7 Gum spirits of turpentine. The designation “gum spirits of turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by distillation of the oleoresin (gum...

  5. Viscoelasticity measurement of gel formed at the liquid-liquid reactive interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujiie, Tomohiro

    2012-11-01

    We have experimentally studied a reacting liquid flow with gel formation by using viscous fingering (VF) as a flow field. Here, two systems were employed. In one system, sodium polyacrylate (SPA) solution and ferric ion solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. In another system, xthantan gum (XG) solution and the ferric ion solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. We showed that influence of gel formation on VF were qualitatively different in these two systems. We consider that the difference in the two systems will be caused by the difference in the properties of the gels. Therefore, we have measured the rheological properties of the gels by means of a rheometer. In the present study, viscoelasticity measurement was performed by two methods. One is the method which uses Double Wall Ring sensor (TA instrument) and another is the method using parallel plate. In both viscoelasticity measurements, the behavior of the formed gel was qualitatively consistent. We have found that the gel in the SPA system shows viscoelastic fluid like behavior. Moreover, we have found that the gel in the XG system shows solid like behavior.

  6. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-chewed into gum and chewed gums were molded to standard dimensions, sonicated and plated to determine numbers of colony-forming-units incorporated, yielding calibration curves of colony-forming-units retrieved versus finger-chewed in. In a second method, calibration curves were created by finger-chewing known numbers of bacteria into gum and subsequently dissolving the gum in a mixture of chloroform and tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (TE)-buffer. The TE-buffer was analyzed using quantitative Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (qPCR), yielding calibration curves of total numbers of bacteria versus finger-chewed in. Next, five volunteers were requested to chew gum up to 10 min after which numbers of colony-forming-units and total numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum were determined using the above methods. The qPCR method, involving both dead and live bacteria yielded higher numbers of retrieved bacteria than plating, involving only viable bacteria. Numbers of trapped bacteria were maximal during initial chewing after which a slow decrease over time up to 10 min was observed. Around 108 bacteria were detected per gum piece depending on the method and gum considered. The number of species trapped in chewed gum increased with chewing time. Trapped bacteria were clearly visualized in chewed gum using scanning-electron-microscopy. Summarizing, using novel methods to quantify and qualify oral bacteria trapped in chewed gum, the hypothesis is confirmed that chewing of gum can trap

  7. Effect of freezing on microstructure and degree of syneresis in differently formulated fruit fillings.

    PubMed

    Cropotova, Janna; Tylewicz, Urszula; Dellarosa, Nicolò; Laghi, Luca; Romani, Santina; Dalla Rosa, Marco

    2016-03-15

    This study describes the syneresis and its effect on microstructure in fruit fillings within a wide range of the total soluble solids content and with or without hydrocolloids upon freezing. Linear models showed the relevance of the addition of pectin and gellan gum to fillings to prevent syneresis, increasing the water-holding capacity especially after freezing. Microstructural experiments by means of NMR spin-spin relaxometry combined with fluorescence microscopy allowed to observe that the continuous hydrocolloid gel, containing the dispersed solution of native fruit parts with the addition of inulin and sugars, changed its structure/distribution according to the amount of each ingredient and due to the freezing process. Relaxometry results confirmed that hydrocolloids strength was correlated (R(2)>0.92) with water-holding capacity, due to a relationship between the signal given by the water chemically exchanging with biopolymers, and the changes in the degree of syneresis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What do GUM physicians think should be taught in a modern undergraduate GUM module? A qualitative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Fernando, I

    2015-10-01

    Traditional undergraduate Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) teaching in the UK concentrated on the management of individual sexually transmitted infections. There is significant variation, however, in the GUM teaching provided by different medical schools today. I undertook a qualitative interview study to gather views of GUM and other sexual health clinicians regarding what should be taught within a modern undergraduate GUM module. Nine GUM clinicians and two Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) clinicians participated in the study; all were directly involved in undergraduate teaching. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with study participants by a single interviewer, focusing on three key topics: their individual opinions regarding important learning outcomes (LOs) for a modern model GUM curriculum, their preferred teaching methods and the total recommended teaching time required. Interviews were audio-recorded with consent and professionally transcribed. Data were analysed by the content analysis method. Interviewees frequently stressed skill and attitudinal LOs, even above knowledge. Recommended important skills included sexual history taking, HIV risk assessment and testing, and male and female genital examination. Recommended attitudinal LOs were developing an open and non-judgemental approach to sexual health issues and understanding sexual well-being to be an important component of general health. Respondents were keen for a mixture of teaching methods, but generally agreed that clinic attendance and experiential learning were beneficial. They preferred that GUM teaching should be delivered in the latter years of the undergraduate curriculum. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  13. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. Effects of gel properties produced by chemical reactions on viscous fingering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujiie, Tomohiro; Nagatsu, Yuichiro; Ban, Mitsumasa; Iwata, Shuichi; Kato, Yoshihito; Tada, Yutaka

    2011-11-01

    We have experimentally investigated viscous fingering with chemical reaction producing gel. Here, two systems were employed. In one system, sodium polyacrylate (SPA) solution and ferric ion solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. In another system, xthantan gum (XG) solution and the ferric ion solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. For high concentration of ferric ion, viscous fingering pattern was changed into spiral pattern in the former system, whereas into fracture pattern in the latter system. We consider that the difference in the change of the patterns in the two systems will be caused by the difference in the properties of the gels. Therefore, we have measured the rheological properties of the gels by means of a rheometer. We have found that the gel in the former case is more elastic. Furthermore, we have discussed the relationship between the measured rheological properties and the observed spiral or fracturing patterns.

  15. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is...

  18. Extraction and Characterization of Boswellia Serrata Gum as Pharmaceutical Excipient.

    PubMed

    Panta, Sumedha; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript deals with the purification and characterization of Boswellia serrata gum as a suspending agent. The Boswellia serrata gum was purchased as crude material, purified and further characterized in terms of organoleptic properties and further micromeritic studies were carried out to characterize the polymer as a pharmaceutical excipient. The suspending properties of the polymer were also evaluated. The results showed that the extracted gum possesses optimum organoleptic as well as micromeritic and suspending properties. To characterize Boswellia serrata gum as a natural excipient. Boswellia serrata gum, paracetamol, distilled water. The results showed that the extracted gum possesses optimum organoleptic as well as micromeritic and suspending properties. It is concluded from the research work that the gum extracted from Boswellia serrata shows the presence of carbohydrates after chemical tests. All the organoleptic properties evaluated were found to be acceptable. The pH was found to be slightly acidic. Swelling Index reveals that the gum swells well in water. Total ash value was within the limits. The values of angle of repose and Carr's Index of powdered gum powder showed that the flow property was good. IR spectra confirmed the presence of alcohol, amines, ketones, anhydrides and aromatic rings. The suspending properties of Boswellia serrata gum were found to be higher as compared to gum acacia while the flow rate of Boswellia serrata gum (1% suspension) was less than gum acacia (1% suspension). The viscosity measurement of both Boswellia serrata gum suspension and gum acacia suspension showed approximately similar results.

  19. One-step formation and sterilization of gellan and hyaluronan nanohydrogels using autoclave.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Elita; De Rugeriis, Maria Cristina; Di Meo, Chiara; Censi, Roberta; Coviello, Tommasina; Alhaique, Franco; Matricardi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The sterilization of nanoparticles for biomedical applications is one of the challenges that must be faced in the development of nanoparticulate systems. Usually, autoclave sterilization cannot be applied because of stability concerns when polymeric nanoparticles are involved. This paper describes an innovative method which allows to obtain, using a single step autoclave procedure, the preparation and, at the same time, the sterilization of self-assembling nanohydrogels (NHs) obtained with cholesterol-derivatized gellan and hyaluronic acid. Moreover, by using this approach, NHs, while formed in the autoclave, can be easily loaded with drugs. The obtained NHs dispersion can be lyophilized in the presence of a cryoprotectant, leading to the original NHs after re-dispersion in water.

  20. Physicochemical, functional and rheological investigation of Soymida febrifuga exudate gum.

    PubMed

    Bhushette, Pravin R; Annapure, Uday S

    2018-05-01

    Acacia gum is a well-known and most used exudate gum. High solubility with low viscosity is one of the best property of this gum. Many studies were conducted to find out a substitute for acacia gum but very few gum had shown properties as good as acacia gum. The exudates collected from Soymida febrifuga also shows high solubility with low viscosity as acacia gum. Purified Soymida febrifuga gum (SFG) was characterised for physicochemical, functional, rheological and thermal properties. The FTIR spectra of SFG revealed a typical trend of polysaccharides. The monosaccharide composition of the gums indicated the presence arabinose, galactose, and ribose. Element composition of SFG shows resemblance with AG. However, the molecular weight of SFG is less than the AG. The rheological outcome was derived from flow curve measurements of gum at different concentrations and temperatures. Alikeness was observed in Viscosity profile of both the gums. SFG shows semblance with AG and can be use in food and pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy...

  2. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and...

  4. Fractionation of Mastic Gum in Relation to Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Sharif Sharifi, Mohammad; Hazell, Stuart Loyd

    2009-04-01

    Mastic gum is a viscous light-green liquid obtained from the bark of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia. which belongs to the Anacardiaceae family. The gum has been fractionated to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the whole gum and its fractions against various strains of Helicobacter pylori. The polymeric gum fraction was separated from the essential oil and the resin (trunk exudates without essential oil) to assess and compare the anti-H. pylori activity of the polymer fraction against lower molecular weight fractions, the gum itself and masticated gum. The polymer fraction was also oxidized and assessed for antimicrobial activity.

  5. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food....780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of...

  6. Gum Arabic as a Cause of Occupational Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Viinanen, Arja; Salokannel, Maija; Lammintausta, Kaija

    2011-01-01

    Background. Gum arabic is a potential sensitizer in food industry. Methods. We examined 11 candy factory workers referred to examinations due to respiratory and skin symptoms paying attention to exposure and sensitization to gum arabic. Skin tests, pulmonary function tests, and respiratory provocation tests were carried out as indicated by the symptoms and findings. Results. Occupational asthma, caused by gum arabic was diagnosed in 4/11 candy factory workers and two of them had also occupational contact urticaria and one had occupational rhinitis. One of them had oral symptoms associated with ingestion of products containing gum arabic. Conclusions. Airborne exposure to gum arabic may cause sensitization leading to allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria. PMID:21747872

  7. Nicotine Gum and Behavioral Treatment: A Placebo Controlled Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assigned 139 subjects to intensive behavioral or to low-contact smoking treatment and to 2-milligram nicotine gum or to placebo gum in a 2x2 factorial design. Nicotine gum produced higher abstinence rates than did placebo. Subjects receiving low-contact condition plus nicotine gum had excellent abstinence rates at both 26 weeks and 52 weeks.…

  8. Black Gum Mortality (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    A large number of black gum trees (Nyssa Sylvatica) have been found dying in North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia. The observed trees have been in the mountains of these States. The trees are often associated with dogwood trees infected with Disculd sp., which causes dogwood anthracnose. The symptoms on black gums include leaf spots, leaf blotches, leaves...

  9. Formulation and evaluation of in situ gelling systems for intranasal administration of gastrodin.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zheng; Song, Xiangrong; Sun, Feng; Yang, Zhaoxiang; Hou, Shixiang; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2011-12-01

    Gastrodin is the major bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese drug "Tianma." It is used in the treatment of some nervous system diseases and can be transported to the brain via intranasal administration. In the current paper, the development of a novel ion-activated in situ gelling system for the nasal delivery of gastrodin is discussed. An in situ perfusion model was used to determine the absorption-rate constant of gastrodin through rat nasal mucosa. The optimal formulation was determined by measuring the critical cation concentration, anti-dilution capacity, gel expansion coefficient, water-holding capacity, and adhesive capacity. The best formulation consisted of 10% gastrodin, 0.5% deacetylated gellan gum as the gelatinizer, and 0.03% ethylparaben as the preservative. The rheological properties of gastrodin nasal in situ gels were also investigated. The viscosity and elasticity sharply increased at temperatures below 25°C. When physiological concentrations of cations were added into the preparation, the mixture gelled into a semi-solid. The results of an accelerated stability test show that gastrodin nasal in situ gels can be stable for more than 2 years. Mucociliary toxicity was evaluated using the in situ toad palate model and the rat nasal mucociliary method; both models demonstrated no measurable ciliotoxicity. Pharmacodynamic studies suggest that similar acesodyne and sedative effects were induced following intranasal administration of 50 mg/kg gastrodin nasal in situ gels or oral administration of 100 mg/kg gastrodin solution. The in situ gel preparation is a safe and effective nasal delivery system for gastrodin.

  10. Colon targeted curcumin delivery using guar gum.

    PubMed

    Elias, Edwin J; Anil, Singhal; Ahmad, Showkat; Daud, Anwar

    2010-06-01

    Curcumin is used in the treatment of colon cancer, but its very poor absorption in the upper part of the GIT is a major concern. As a site for drug delivery, the colon offers a near neutral pH, reduced digestive enzymatic activity, a long transit time and an increased responsiveness to absorption enhancers. The aim of the present study was to identify a suitable polymer (guar gum) based matrix tablet for curcumin with sufficient mechanical strength and promising in vitro mouth-to-colon release profile. Three formulations of curcumin were prepared using varying concentrations of guar gum containing 50 mg curcumin by the wet granulation method. Tablets were subjected to evaluation by studying parameter like hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, and in-vitro drug release. In vitro drug release was evaluated using simulated stomach, intestinal and colonic fluids. The susceptibility of guar gum to colonic bacteria was also assessed by a drug release study with rat caecal contents. The 40% guar gum containing formulation (F-1) showed better drug release (91.1%) after 24 hours in the presence of rat caecal contents in comparison with the 50% guar gum containing formulation (F-2) (82.1%). Curcumin could, thus, be positively delivered to the colon for effective colon cancer treatment using guar gum.

  11. Flavor improvement does not increase abuse liability of nicotine chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Houtsmuller, Elisabeth J; Fant, Reginald V; Eissenberg, Thomas E; Henningfield, Jack E; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2002-06-01

    Because the taste of nicotine gum has impeded compliance with dosing recommendations, nicotine gum with improved taste (mint, orange) was developed and marketed. Prior to marketing, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required a rigorous abuse liability assessment to examine whether enhanced palatability of nicotine gum would increase its abuse liability. Subjective, physiological, and psychomotor effects of mint flavor and original nicotine gum were tested in adult smokers (22-55 years old); a group of younger subjects (18-21 years old) was also included to allow for assessment of abuse liability in young adults specifically. Amphetamine and confectionery gum served as positive controls for abuse liability and palatability. Subjects rated palatability of mint gum higher than original nicotine gum, but substantially lower than confectionery gum. Palatability decreased with increasing dose of nicotine. Neither original nor mint gum increased ratings of traditional abuse liability predictors [Good Effect, Like Effect, Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG) scales of Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI)], while amphetamine increased ratings of all these measures. Both flavors of nicotine gum decreased craving during 2 h of abstinence. These effects were more pronounced in the adult group and mint gum was more effective than original gum. Younger subjects reported fewer withdrawal symptoms and lower ratings for drug effects and flavor. Improved flavor of nicotine gum does not increase abuse liability, but may be associated with enhanced craving reduction.

  12. Interstellar gas in the Gum Nebula

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wallerstein, G.; Silk, J.; Jenkins, E.B.

    1980-09-15

    We have surveyed the interstellar gas in and around the Gum Nebula by optically observing 67 stars at Ca II, 42 stars at Na I, and 14 stars in the ultraviolet with the Copernicus satellite. Velocity dispersions for gas in the Gum Nebula, excluding the region of Vela remnant filaments, are not significantly larger than in the general interstellar medium. The ionization structure is predominantly that of an H II region with moderately high ionization, i.e., strong Si III and S III, in clouds with Vertical BarV/sub LSR/Vertical Bar> or approx. =10 km s/sup -1/. Furthermore, we find an increasemore » in fine-structure excitation with increasing component LSR velocity, suggestive of ram-pressure confinement for the intermediate-velocity clouds. These denser, more highly ionized clouds appear to be concentrated toward the inner Gum Nebula, where a somewhat higher velocity dispersion is found than in the outer regions. Clouds in the Gum Nebula do not show the anomalously high ionization seen in the Vela remnant clouds. The observational data are generally consistent with a model of the Gum Nebula as an H II region ionized by OB stars and stirred up by multiple stellar winds.« less

  13. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne), a leguminous evergreen...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  18. Evaluation of carboxymethyl moringa gum as nanometric carrier.

    PubMed

    Rimpy; Abhishek; Ahuja, Munish

    2017-10-15

    In the present study, carboxymethylation of Moringa oleifera gum was carried out by reacting with monochloroacetic acid. Modified gum was characterised employing Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Rheology study. The carboxymethyl modification of moringa gum was found to increase its degree of crystallinity, reduce viscosity and swelling, increase the surface roughness and render its more anionic. The interaction between carboxymethyl moringa gum and chitosan was optimised by 2-factor, 3-level central composite experimental design to prepare polyelectrolyte nanoparticle using ofloxacin, as a model drug. The optimal calculated parameters were found to be carboxymethyl moringa gum- 0.016% (w/v), chitosan- 0.012% (w/v) which provided polyelectrolyte nanoparticle of average particle size 231nm and zeta potential 28mV. Carboxymethyl moringa gum-chitosan polyelectrolyte nanoparticles show sustained in vitro release of ofloxacin upto 6h which followed first order kinetics with mechanism of release being erosion of polymer matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immobilization of infant fecal microbiota and utilization in an in vitro colonic fermentation model.

    PubMed

    Cinquin, C; Le Blay, G; Fliss, I; Lacroix, C

    2004-07-01

    Bacteria isolated from infant feces were immobilized in polysaccharide gel beads (2.5% gellan gum, 0.25% xanthan gum) using a two-phase dispersion process. A 52-day continuous culture was carried out in a single-stage chemostat containing precolonized beads and fed with a medium formulated to approximate the composition of infant chyme. Different dilution rates and pH conditions were tested to simulate the proximal (PCS), transverse (TCS), and distal (DCS) colons. Immobilization preserved all nine bacterial groups tested with survival rates between 3 and 56%. After 1 week fermentation, beads were highly colonized with all populations tested (excepted Staphylococcus spp. present in low numbers), which remained stable throughout the 7.5 weeks of fermentation, with variations below 1 log unit. However, free-cell populations in the circulating liquid medium, produced by immobilized cell growth, cell-release activity from gel beads, and free-cell growth, were altered considerably by culture conditions. Compared to the stabilization period, PCS was characterized by a considerable and rapid increase in Bifidobacterium spp. concentrations (7.4 to 9.6 log CFU/mL), whereas Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Clostridium spp. concentrations decreased and Staphylococcus spp. and coliforms increased during TCS and DCS. Under pseudo-steady-state conditions, the community structure developed in the chemostat reflected the relative proportions of viable bacterial numbers and metabolites generally encountered in infant feces. This work showed that a complex microbiota such as infant fecal bacteria can be immobilized and used in a continuous in vitro intestinal fermentation model to reproduce the high bacterial concentration and bacterial diversity of the feces inoculum, at least at the genera level, with a high stability during long-term experiment.

  20. Relationships Between Gum-Chewing and Stress.

    PubMed

    Konno, Michiyo; Takeda, Tomotaka; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Kazunori; Ozawa, Takamitsu; Ishigami, Keiichi; Takemura, Naohiro; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that chewing is thought to affect stress modification in humans. Also, studies in animals have demonstrated that active chewing of a wooden stick during immobilization stress ameliorates the stress-impaired synaptic plasticity and prevents stress-induced noradrenaline release in the amygdala. On the other hand, studies have suggested that the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) dominates the regulation of the stress response system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The International Affective Digitized Sounds-2 (IADS) is widely used in the study of emotions and neuropsychological research. Therefore, in this study, the effects of gum-chewing on physiological and psychological (including PFC activity measured by NIRS) responses to a negative stimulus selected from the IADS were measured and analyzed. The study design was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tokyo Dental College (No. 436). We studied 11 normal adults using: cerebral blood oxygenation in the right medial PFC by multi-channel NIRS; alpha wave intensity by EEG; autonomic nervous function by heart rate; and emotional conditions by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) test and the 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Auditory stimuli selected were fewer than 3.00 in Pleasure value. Sounds were recorded in 3 s and reproduced at random using software. Every task session was designed in a block manner; seven rests: Brown Noise (30 s) and six task blocks: auditory stimuli or auditory stimuli with gum-chewing (30 s). During the test, the participants' eyes were closed. Paired Student's t-test was used for the comparison (P<0.05). Gum-chewing showed a significantly greater activation in the PFC, alpha wave appearance rate and HR. Gum-chewing also showed a significantly higher VAS score and a smaller STAI level indicating 'pleasant'. Gum-chewing affected physiological and psychological responses including PFC activity. This PFC activation change might influence the HPA axis

  1. Genetic transformation system in the archaebacterium Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg.

    PubMed Central

    Worrell, V E; Nagle, D P; McCarthy, D; Eisenbraun, A

    1988-01-01

    A wild-type strain of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg was transformed by DNA from strains resistant to 5-fluorouracil. Recipient cells were grown without selection on gellan gum (GELRITE) plates with DNA. Drug-resistant cells were recovered by replica plating the resulting colonies onto drug plates. Transformation required high-molecular-weight DNA with appropriate markers and was not observed on agar or in liquid media under a variety of conditions. PMID:3422229

  2. 21 CFR 582.7351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 582.7351 Section 582.7351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7351 Gum...

  3. 21 CFR 582.7351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 582.7351 Section 582.7351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7351 Gum...

  4. Neem gum as a binder in a formulated paracetamol tablet with reference to Acacia gum BP.

    PubMed

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-04-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing strength-friability/disintegration time ratio were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration time and dissolution times. Tablet formulations containing NMG exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower mechanical strength; however, the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate was lower when compared to those containing ACA. Inclusion of NMG improved the balance between binding and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets produced than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower disintegration and dissolution times than those containing ACA.

  5. Brief Report: Gum Chewing Affects Standardized Math Scores in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Craig A.; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum…

  6. Mango kernel starch-gum composite films: Physical, mechanical and barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Lutfi, Zubala; Hasnain, Abid

    2017-05-01

    Composite films were developed by the casting method using mango kernel starch (MKS) and guar and xanthan gums. The concentration of both gums ranged from 0% to 30% (w/w of starch; db). Mechanical properties, oxygen permeability (OP), water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility in water and color parameters of composite films were evaluated. The crystallinity and homogeneity between the starch and gums were also evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scanning electron micrographs showed homogeneous matrix, with no signs of phase separation between the components. XRD analysis demonstrated diminished crystalline peak. Regardless of gum type the tensile strength (TS) of composite films increased with increasing gum concentration while reverse trend was noted for elongation at break (EAB) which found to be decreased with increasing gum concentration. The addition of both guar and xanthan gums increased solubility and WVP of the composite films. However, the OP was found to be lower than that of the control with both gums. Furthermore, addition of both gums led to changes in transparency and opacity of MKS films. Films containing 10% (w/w) xanthan gum showed lower values for solubility, WVP and OP, while film containing 20% guar gum showed good mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Interstellar gas in the Gum Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallerstein, G.; Jenkins, E. B.; Silk, J.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the interstellar gas near the Gum Nebula by optical observation of 67 stars at Ca II, 42 stars at Na I, and 14 stars in the UV with the Copernicus satellite provided radial velocities and column densities for all resolved absorption components. Velocity dispersions for gas in the Gum Nebula are not significantly larger than in the general interstellar medium; the ionization structure is predominantly that of an H II region with moderately high ionization. Denser, more highly ionized clouds are concentrated toward the Gum Nebula; these clouds do not show the anomalously high ionization observed in the Vela remnant clouds.

  8. 21 CFR 582.7349 - Sterculia gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterculia gum. 582.7349 Section 582.7349 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7349 Sterculia gum...

  9. 21 CFR 582.7339 - Guar gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guar gum. 582.7339 Section 582.7339 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7339 Guar gum. (a...

  10. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic...

  11. 21 CFR 582.7333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum ghatti. 582.7333 Section 582.7333 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7333 Gum ghatti...

  12. 21 CFR 582.7339 - Guar gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guar gum. 582.7339 Section 582.7339 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7339 Guar gum. (a...

  13. 21 CFR 582.7349 - Sterculia gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sterculia gum. 582.7349 Section 582.7349 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7349 Sterculia gum...

  14. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic...

  15. 21 CFR 582.7333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gum ghatti. 582.7333 Section 582.7333 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7333 Gum ghatti...

  16. Gum Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage to the tissue and bone supporting the teeth. In the worst cases, you can lose teeth. In gingivitis, the gums become red and swollen. ... flossing and regular cleanings by a dentist or dental hygienist. Untreated gingivitis can lead to periodontitis. If ...

  17. Gum chewing modulates heart rate variability under noise stress.

    PubMed

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Takeuchi, Noriko; Morita, Manabu

    2012-12-01

    Gum chewing may relieve stress, although this hypothesis has not been proven. Heart-rate variability (HRV) is commonly used to measure stress levels. However, it is not known if gum chewing modulates HRV under acute stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of gum chewing on HRV under acute stress. A cross-over study involving 47 non-smoking healthy subjects, aged 22-27 years, was carried out. The subjects received a stress procedure with gum chewing (GS group) and without gum chewing (S group). Additionally, the other 20 subjects were allocated to the gum chewing without stress group (G group). The GS and S groups were exposed to noise for 5 min (75 dBA) as stress. Before and after stress exposure/gum chewing, participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s) and a single Stress Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) measurement. HRV measurement was performed before and during stress/gum chewing for 5 min. After the stress procedure, VAS score significantly increased in the GS and S groups. During the stress procedure, the GS group showed a significantly lower level of high frequency (HF) and higher levels of low frequency (LF) and LF/HF than the S group. However, there were no significant differences in the scores of the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s) and VAS between the two stress groups. These findings suggest that gum chewing modulates HRV, but may not relieve acute stress caused by noise.

  18. Biobased alternatives to guar gum as tackifiers for hydromulch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Guar gum, obtained from guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] seeds, is currently the principal gum used as a tackifier (binder) for hydraulically-applied mulches (hydromulches) used in erosion control. The oil industry’s increased use of guar gum in hydraulic fracturing together with lower glo...

  19. The impact of chewing gum on halitosis parameters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes; Friedrich, Stephanie Anagnostopoulos; Silveira, Carina Folgearini; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2017-02-17

    This study aimed to analyze the impact of chewing gum on halitosis parameters. Three databases were searched with the following focused question: 'Can chewing gum additionally reduce halitosis parameters, such as organoleptic scores and volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), when compared to a control treatment'? Controlled clinical trials presenting at least two halitosis measurements (organoleptic scores and/or VSC) were included. Ten studies were included, and different active ingredients were used. One study was performed using a chewing gum without any active ingredient. Chewing gum containing probiotic bacterium was shown to significantly reduce the organoleptic scores. Chewing gums containing zinc acetate and magnolia bark extract as well as allylisothiocyanate (AITC) with zinc lactate significantly reduced the levels of VSC in comparison to a placebo chewing gum. Furthermore, a sodium bicarbonate-containing chewing gum significantly reduced the VSC levels in comparison to rinsing with water. Furthermore, eucalyptus-extract chewing gum showed significant reductions in both organoleptic scores and VSC when compared with a control chewing gum. Chewing gum containing sucrose was able to reduce the VSC levels, in comparison to xylitol and zinc citrate chewing gum, but only for 5 min. It was concluded that chewing gums containing probiotics Lactobaccilus, zinc acetate and magnolia bark extract, eucalyptus-extract, and AITC with zinc lactate may be suitable for halitosis management. However, the low number of included studies and the high heterogeneity among the selected studies may limit the clinical applications of these findings.

  20. Grewia gum as a potential aqueous film coating agent. I: Some physicochemical characteristics of fractions of grewia gum

    PubMed Central

    Ogaji, Ikoni J.; Okafor, Ignatius S.; Hoag, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grewia gum has received attention as a polymeric pharmaceutical excipient in the recent times, being employed as a suspending, film coating, mucoadhesive, and binding agent. The low aqueous solubility, however, has limited its characterization and application. Objective: The purpose of this study was to fractionate and evaluate some physicochemical properties of the gum. Materials and Methods: Aqueous dispersion of the gum was treated at 80°C for 30 min in the presence of sodium chloride and was subsequently fractionated by successively centrifuging it at 3445 rpm for 30 min. Skeletal density, solubility, particle size, and rheological as well as thermal characteristics of the fractions were evaluated. The 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and near infrared (NIR) profiles of the fractions were also investigated. The solubility of the gum increased up to fourfold while the viscosity decreased from 244 to as low as70 cP at 40 rpm with some fractions. Results: Grewia gum and the fractions showed good thermal stability exhibiting no thermal events, but charred irreversibly at 297°C irrespective of the fraction. The molecular weight averages by weight and by number of the fractions were between 233,100 and 235,000. The 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra showed broad peaks. The NMR and NIR spectra suggested the presence of –OH and –OCH3 functional groups in this gum. Conclusion: The fractionation improved solubility and facilitated further investigations on its characteristics that may have implication on its processing, application, and optimization as a potential pharmaceutical excipient. PMID:23559825

  1. Influence of graphene-oxide nanosheets impregnation on properties of sterculia gum-polyacrylamide hydrogel formed by radiation induced polymerization.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljit; Singh, Baldev

    2017-06-01

    Present work is an attempt, to explore the potential of graphene oxide nanoplates impregnation, on the mechanical and drug delivery properties of sterculia gum-polyacrylamide composite hydrogel formed by radiation induced polymerization. These polymers were characterized by SEM, cryo-SEM, AFM, FTIR's, 13 C NMR and swelling studies. Release profile of an anticancer drug 'gemcitabine' was studied to determine the drug release mechanism and best fit kinetic model. Furthermore, some important biomedical properties of the polymers such as blood compatibility, mucoadhesion, antioxidant properties and gel strength were also studied. Impregnation of GO into sterculia gum-poly(AAm) hydrogels decreased the swelling of hydrogels but improved the mechanical, drug loading and drug release properties of the hydrogels. Release of gemcitabine from drug loaded hydrogels occurred through non-Fickian diffusion mechanism and release profile was best fitted in first order kinetic model. These hydrogels have been found as haemocompatible, mucoadhesive, and antioxidant in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Carnation (Dianthus caryophylus L.).

    PubMed

    Nontaswatsri, Chalermsri; Fukai, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    Carnation is a valuable crop for the cut flower industry and demand for new and improved varieties is growing. However, genetic transformation of carnations is currently limited because of a lack of efficient routine technique. In this chapter, we present an easy and effective protocol for gene transfer to carnation node explants and subsequent adventitious shoot regeneration. For high-adventitious shoot regeneration, node explants from first to third node of 5- to 8-cm long shoots were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1.0 mg/Lthidiazuron (TDZ), 0.1 mg/L alpha-napthalenoacetic acid (NAA), 20 g/L sucrose, and 2 g/L Gellan gum for 10 d. Then the explants were cut into 8 radial segments and subcultured onto MS medium, containing 1.0 mg/L BA, 0.1 mg/L NAA, 20 g/L sucrose and 2 g/L Gellan Gum. For effective genetic transformation, 3- to 5-d precultured node explants were submerged in an Agrobacerium suspension for 10 min, then cocultivated on filter paper soaked with water and 50 microM acetosyringone (AS). After cocultivation, the explants were cut into eight radial segments and subcultured onto selection medium until transformed shoots regenerated from the explants.

  3. Impact of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate-gypsum hydration

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ma Lei, E-mail: malei198713@163.com; Zhao Qinglin, E-mail: zhaoqinglin@whut.edu.cn; Yao Chukang

    The retarding effect of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate-gypsum hydration, as a partial system of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) hydration, was investigated with several methods. The tricalcium aluminate-gypsum hydration behavior in the presence or absence of welan gum was researched by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and zeta potential analysis. Meanwhile, we studied the surface electrochemical properties and adsorption characteristics of welan gum by utilizing a zeta potential analyzer and UV-VIS absorption spectrophotometer. By adding welan gum, the morphology change of ettringite and retardation of hydration stages in tricalcium aluminate-gypsum system was observed. Moreover, we detected themore » adsorption behavior and zeta potential inversion of tricalcium aluminate and ettringite, as well as a rapid decrease in the zeta potential of tricalcium aluminate-gypsum system. The reduction on nucleation rate of ettringite and hydration activity of C{sub 3}A was also demonstrated. Thus, through the adsorption effect, welan gum induces a retarding behavior in tricalcium aluminate-gypsum hydration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption characteristics of welan gum on C{sub 3}A and ettringite have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub 3}A-gypsum hydration behavior and the hydration products are examined in L/S = 3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Welan gum retards the process of C{sub 3}A-gypsum hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of welan gum changes the nucleation growth of ettringite.« less

  4. Anti-malarial effect of gum arabic

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gum Arabic (GA), a nonabsorbable nutrient from the exudate of Acacia senegal, exerts a powerful immunomodulatory effect on dendritic cells, antigen-presenting cells involved in the initiation of both innate and adaptive immunity. On the other hand GA degradation delivers short chain fatty acids, which in turn have been shown to foster the expression of foetal haemoglobin in erythrocytes. Increased levels of erythrocyte foetal haemoglobin are known to impede the intraerythrocytic growth of Plasmodium and thus confer some protection against malaria. The present study tested whether gum arabic may influence the clinical course of malaria. Methods Human erythrocytes were in vitro infected with Plasmodium falciparum in the absence and presence of butyrate and mice were in vivo infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA by injecting parasitized murine erythrocytes (1 × 106) intraperitoneally. Half of the mice received gum arabic (10% in drinking water starting 10 days before the day of infection). Results According to the in vitro experiments butyrate significantly blunted parasitaemia only at concentrations much higher (3 mM) than those encountered in vivo following GA ingestion (<1 μM). According to the in vivo experiments the administration of gum arabic slightly but significantly decreased the parasitaemia and significantly extended the life span of infected mice. Discussion GA moderately influences the parasitaemia and survival of Plasmodium-infected mice. The underlying mechanism remained, however, elusive. Conclusions Gum arabic favourably influences the course of murine malaria. PMID:21599958

  5. Masticatory performance alters stress relief effect of gum chewing.

    PubMed

    Nishigawa, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Matsuka, Yoshizo

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of gum chewing on the response to psychological stress induced by a calculation task and investigated the relationship between this response and masticatory performance. Nineteen healthy adult volunteers without dental problems undertook the Uchida-Kraepelin (UK) test (30 min of reiterating additions of one-digit numbers). Before and immediately after the test, saliva samples were collected from the sublingual area of the participants. Three min after the UK test, the participants were made to chew flavorless gum for 3 min, and the final saliva samples were collected 10 min after the UK test. The experiment was performed without gum chewing on a different day. Masticatory performance was evaluated using color-changing chewing gum. Salivary CgA levels at immediately and 10 min after the UK test were compared with and without gum chewing condition. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant interaction between gum chewing condition and changes in CgA levels during post 10 min UK test period. A significant correlation was found between changes in CgA levels and masticatory performance in all participants. Our results indicate that gum chewing may relieve stress responses; however, high masticatory performance is required to achieve this effect. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Single-Dose and Multiple-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine 6 mg Gum.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Anna; Rasmussen, Thomas; Kraiczi, Holger

    2017-04-01

    Under-dosing is a recognized problem with current nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Therefore, a new 6mg nicotine gum has been developed. To compare the nicotine uptake from the 6mg gum versus currently available NRT products, two pharmacokinetic studies were performed. In one randomized crossover study, 44 healthy adult smokers received single doses of 6, 4, and 2mg nicotine gum, and 4mg nicotine lozenge on separate occasions. In a separate randomized crossover multiple-dose study over 11 hours, 50 healthy adult smokers received one 6mg gum every hour and 90 minutes, respectively, one 4mg gum every hour, and one 4mg lozenge every hour. In both studies, blood samples were collected over 12 hours to determine single-dose and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic variables. In the single-dose study, the amount of nicotine released from the 2, 4, and 6mg gums (1.44, 3.36, and 4.94mg) as well as the resulting maximum concentration and area under the curve (5.9, 10.1, and 13.8ng/mL, and 17.1, 30.7, 46.2ng/mL × h, respectively) increased with dose. The maximum concentration and area under the curve of the 6mg gum were 44% and 30% greater, respectively, than those for 4mg lozenge. Upon hourly administration, the steady-state average plasma nicotine concentration with 6mg gum (37.4ng/mL) was significantly higher than those for 4mg lozenge (28.3ng/mL) and 4mg gum (27.1ng/mL). Nicotine delivery via the 6mg gum results in higher plasma nicotine concentrations after a single dose and at steady state than with currently available oral NRT. Under-dosing is a recognized problem with current NRT. Therefore, a new 6mg nicotine gum has been developed. Our studies show that upon single-dose and multiple-dose administration, the 6mg gum releases and delivers more nicotine to the systemic circulation than 2mg gum, 4mg gum, and 4mg lozenge. Thus, each 6mg nicotine gum provides a higher degree of nicotine substitution and/or lasts for a longer period of time than currently available nicotine

  7. Design, formulation and evaluation of green tea chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Khalafi, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study is to design, formulate and evaluate the green tea gums with a suitable taste and quality in order to produce an anti-oxidant chewing gum. Materials and Methods: Fresh green tea leaves obtained from Northern Iran for extraction. Maceration is the extraction method that is used in this study. The contents of caffeine, catechin and flavonoids of the hydro alcoholic extract were measured. Various formulations of the 120 mg green tea extract chewing gums with different sweeteners, flavoring agents and various gum bases were prepared afterward release pattern, content uniformity, organoleptic results and other properties were characterized. Results: The contents of caffeine, catechin and flavonoid of the hydro alcoholic extraction were 207.32 mg/g, 130.00 mg/g and 200.82 mg/g, respectively. Release pattern of green tea chewing gum with different gum base ratios and various sweeteners in phosphate buffer were prepared. A total of 60 persons who were 20-30 years of age, participated in our panel test for organoleptic properties such as taste, stiffness, stickiness, etc., Acceptable gum was the one with the same ratio of the used rubber bases. Cinnamon selected as the preferred taste by volunteers. Combination of aspartame, sugar and maltitol has appropriate taste. The effect of various sweetener on release pattern was negligible, on the other hand rubber bases ratio variation, changed the release pattern obviously. Conclusion: The green tea chewing gum with sugar, maltitol and aspartame sweeteners and cinnamon flavor, using the same rubber bases ratio may be a desirable antioxidant product. PMID:25161989

  8. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. Thus, it is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of guar gum.

  9. Gum chewing affects academic performance in adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chewing gum may have an impact on improved memory during specific tasks of recognition and sustained attention. Research objective was to determine the effect of gum chewing on standardized test scores and math class grades of eighth grade students. Four math classes, 108 students, were randomized i...

  10. In situ effect of CPP-ACP chewing gum upon erosive enamel loss.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Catarina Ribeiro Barros de; Oliveira, Gabriela Cristina de; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Honório, Heitor Marques; Rios, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group) of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI - Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII - Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII - No chewing gum (control). Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day). After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm). Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). The use of chewing gum (CPP and No CPP) resulted in lower erosive enamel loss compared with the control group (p<0.05). CPP-ACP chewing gum (CPP) did not improve the protection against erosive enamel loss compared with conventional chewing gum (No CPP) (p>0.05). The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss.

  11. Effect of oil gum massage therapy on common pathogenic oral microorganisms - A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Nishu; Acharya, Shashidhar; Martena, Suganthi; Singla, Ritesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: (i) To assess reduction in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species count in saliva sample after ten minutes of oil gum massage therapy (massage of gingival tissues) per day for three weeks with sesame oil, olive oil, and coconut oil in three different groups of subjects. (ii) To compare the efficacy between three different oils and the “gold standard” chlorhexidine gel. (iii) To assess reduction in gingival scores and plaque scores of study subjects. Materials and Methods: Study design – Single center, parallel design, and triple blind randomized clinical study with four treatment groups. Participants: 32 of the 40 study subjects working as housekeeping personnel at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal; aged 18-55 years completed the three-week study period. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned to massage their gingiva everyday for three weeks with sesame oil, olive oil, coconut oil (tests), and Chlorhexidine gel (control). Oral health status and paraffin stimulated saliva samples were obtained at baseline and after three weeks of oil gum massage therapy. Outcome measures: Microbial culture, plaque index, and gingival index. Statistical analysis: Paired t test and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: There was a significant reduction in mean Streptococcus mutans count, Lactobacillus count, plaque scores, and gingival scores in all four groups after the study. However, there was no significant difference found in percentage reduction of these variables between the four groups. Conclusion: These oils can be used as valuable preventive agents in maintaining and improving oral health in low socioeconomic status population. However, it is recommended that further research should be conducted in other populations with a larger sample and longer duration of follow-up period. PMID:25210256

  12. The appearance of the Gum nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bok, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    The dimensions of the Gum nebula complex appear to be overestimated. The distance of 460 parsecs to the central pulsar is rather on the large side, and likely contributions from gamma Velorum and zeta Puppis were underestimated. The multiorigin character of the Gum nebula is reaffirmed. The parts produced by traditional ultraviolet thermal radiation and by processes directly related to the supernova outburst must be defined.

  13. Occurrence of gum spots in black cherry after partial harvest cutting

    Treesearch

    Charles O. Rexrode; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1990-01-01

    Bark beetles, primarily the bark beetle Phlosotribus liminori (Harris), are the major cause of gum spots in sawtimber-size black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Approximately 90 percent of all gum spots in the bole sections are caused by bark beetles. Gum spots were studied in 95 black cherry trees near Parsons, West Virginia. Over 50 percent of the bark beetle-caused gum...

  14. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Gums...

  15. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Gums...

  16. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Gums...

  17. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Gums...

  18. Rapid screening of guar gum using portable Raman spectral identification methods.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Hirsch K; Wolfgang, Steven; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-01-25

    Guar gum is a well-known inactive ingredient (excipient) used in a variety of oral pharmaceutical dosage forms as a thickener and stabilizer of suspensions and as a binder of powders. It is also widely used as a food ingredient in which case alternatives with similar properties, including chemically similar gums, are readily available. Recent supply shortages and price fluctuations have caused guar gum to come under increasing scrutiny for possible adulteration by substitution of cheaper alternatives. One way that the U.S. FDA is attempting to screen pharmaceutical ingredients at risk for adulteration or substitution is through field-deployable spectroscopic screening. Here we report a comprehensive approach to evaluate two field-deployable Raman methods--spectral correlation and principal component analysis--to differentiate guar gum from other gums. We report a comparison of the sensitivity of the spectroscopic screening methods with current compendial identification tests. The ability of the spectroscopic methods to perform unambiguous identification of guar gum compared to other gums makes them an enhanced surveillance alternative to the current compendial identification tests, which are largely subjective in nature. Our findings indicate that Raman spectral identification methods perform better than compendial identification methods and are able to distinguish guar gum from other gums with 100% accuracy for samples tested by spectral correlation and principal component analysis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Glycinin-gum arabic complex formation: Turbidity measurement and charge neutralization analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Die; Hua, Yufei

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between glycinin and anionic polysaccharides has gained considerable attention recently because of its scientific impact on the stability of acid soymilk systems. In this study, the formation of glycinin/gum arabic complexes driven by electrostatic interactions was investigated. Turbidity titrations at different glycinin/gum arabic ratios were conducted and critical pH values (pH φ1 ) where insoluble complexes began forming were determined firstly. The corresponding pH φ1 values at glycinin/gum arabic ratios of 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, 4:1 and 8:1 were 2.85, 3.25, 3.70, 4.40, 4.85 and 5.35, respectively. Afterwards, electromobilities for glycinin and gum arabic at the pH values between 4.1 and 2.6 were measured, and charge densities (ZN) for glycinin and gum arabic were calculated based on the soft particle analysis theory. Further analysis indicated that the product of glycinin/gum arabic ratio (ρ) and ZN ratio of glycinin/gum arabic was approximate 1 at any pH φ1 values. It was revealed that charge neutralization was achieved when glycinin/gum arabic insoluble complexes began forming. NaCl displayed multiple effects on glycinin/gum arabic complex formation according to turbidity and compositional analysis. The present study could provide basic guidance in acid soymilk designing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Shear flow behaviour and emulsion-stabilizing effect of natural polysaccharide-protein gum in aqueous system and oil/water (O/W) emulsion.

    PubMed

    Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee; Mirhosseini, Hamed

    2013-03-01

    The main objective of the current work was to characterize the shear rheological flow behaviour and emulsifying properties of the natural biopolymer from durian seed. The present study revealed that the extraction condition significantly affected the physical and functional characteristics of the natural biopolymer from durian seed. The dynamic oscillatory test indicated that the biopolymer from durian seed showed more gel (or solid) like behaviour than the viscous (or liquid) like behaviour (G'>G″) at a relatively high concentration (20%) in the fixed frequency (0.1 Hz). This might be explained by the fact that the gum coils disentangle at low frequencies during the long period of oscillation, thus resulting in more gel like behaviour than the viscous like behaviour. The average droplet size of oil in water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by durian seed gum significantly varied from 0.42 to 7.48 μm. The results indicated that O/W emulsions showed significant different stability after 4 months storage. This might be interpreted by the considerable effect of the extraction condition on the chemical and molecular structure of the biopolymer, thus affecting its emulsifying capacity. The biopolymer extracted by using low water to seed (W/S) ratio at the low temperature under the alkaline condition showed a relatively high emulsifying activity in O/W emulsion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of caffeine in chewing gum on mood and attention.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Recent research has shown that even small doses (<40mg) of caffeine can improve alertness and increase performance efficiency on attention tasks. Previous studies have given the caffeine in a variety of beverages or in capsules and it was of interest to see whether similar effects could be observed when the caffeine was given in gum. In addition, chewing gum has been shown to have behavioural effects and the present study extended our knowledge of this topic. To compare the effects of caffeinated gum (40 mg), placebo gum and no gum conditions on mood and attention. A double blind placebo controlled study was conducted with volunteers being randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Baseline measures of mood and attention were taken prior to chewing and a test session was then conducted. One hundred and eighteen young adults participated in the study. Caffeinated gum was associated with a more positive mood and better performance on tasks requiring sustained attention. The caffeine improved the speed of encoding of new information which is consistent with previous findings. Chewing placebo gum was also found to be associated with more positive mood, both shortly after chewing and at the end of the study. The implications of the present study are that chewing caffeinated gum has been shown to improve performance efficiency and mood by its alerting and energising effects. The profile of caffeine effects is what one would predict from the existing caffeine literature and such effects may be extremely beneficial in real-life situations. Prior chewing of placebo gum was associated with a more positive mood and this also confirms previous findings.

  2. Guar gum as biosourced building block to generate highly conductive and elastic ionogels with poly(ionic liquid) and ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biao; Sudre, Guillaume; Quintard, Guilhem; Serghei, Anatoli; David, Laurent; Bernard, Julien; Fleury, Etienne; Charlot, Aurélia

    2017-02-10

    In this study, we report on the simple and straightforward preparation of ionogels arising from the addition of guar gum (a plant-based polysaccharide) in a solution of precisely-defined poly(ionic liquid) chains (PIL) in imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL). The development of intermolecular polar interactions (mainly hydrogen bonds) and topologic chain entanglements induces the formation of physical biohybrid ionogels, whose elastic properties can be easily tuned by varying the composition (up to 30000Pa). The combined presence of guar gum and PIL confers excellent dimensional stability to the ionogels with no IL exudation combined with high thermal properties (up to 310°C). The resulting materials are shown to exhibit gel scattering profiles and high conductivities (> 10 -4 S/cm at 30°C). The benefit linked to the formation of guar/PIL associations in IL medium enables to find a good compromise between the mechanical cohesion and the mobility ensuring the ionic transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew P.; Smith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance. PMID:26075253

  4. Application of high-pressure homogenization on gums.

    PubMed

    Belmiro, Ricardo Henrique; Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2018-04-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) is an emerging process during which a fluid product is pumped by pressure intensifiers, forcing it to flow through a narrow gap, usually measured in the order of micrometers. Gums are polysaccharides from vegetal, animal or microbial origin and are widely employed in food and chemical industries as thickeners, stabilizers, gelling agents and emulsifiers. The choice of a specific gum depends on its application and purpose because each form of gum has particular values with respect to viscosity, intrinsic viscosity, stability, and emulsifying and gelling properties, with these parameters being determined by its structure. HPH is able to alter those properties positively by inducing changes in the original polymer, allowing for new applications and improvements with respect to the technical properties of gums. This review highlights the most important advances when this process is applied to change polysaccharides from distinct sources and molecular structures, as well as the future challenges that remain. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of Albizia stipulata Boiv. gum exudates.

    PubMed

    Thanzami, K; Malsawmtluangi, C; Lalhlenmawia, H; Seelan, T Veenus; Palanisamy, Selvamani; Kandasamy, Ruckmani; Pachuau, Lalduhsanga

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study is to characterize the physicochemical properties and to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of Albizia stipulata Boiv. gum exudates collected from Northeast India. The total carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein contents, monosaccharide composition and the molecular weight distribution of the purified gum was determined. The powder flow property and preliminary compressibility test were performed on the dried gum exudates. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study was performed to analyze the functional groups present in the structure. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA/DTA) analyses were performed to study the thermal stability of the gum. The antioxidant properties of the gum were evaluated by determining 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl scavenging activities and reducing power. The total carbohydrate and protein contents of the gum were found to be 75.17±3.21% and 2.60±1.05% respectively. The viscosity of 2% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited non-Newtonian type of flow showing pH dependent swelling. Arabinose and galactose were found to be the main monosaccharides present in the gum exudates and the molecular weight distribution of the gum was also found to be polydispersed. Results from DPPH, hydroxyl scavenging and reducing power studies showed the gum possesses antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Method for the quantitation of gastric emptying time of gel test meals.

    PubMed

    Russell, J; Bass, P

    1984-09-01

    Isotopic markers were developed to allow measurement of the gastric emptying times of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous gel meals. Meals containing the dietary fibers psyllium and guar gum presented as homogeneous, viscous gels while meals containing the synthetic polymer polycarbophil presented as discrete gel particle-water mixtures. Fiber meals were labeled differently than polycarbophil meals. Fiber meals were labeled with 51Cr-CM-Sephadex. The marker was uniformly suspended in meals containing at least 1% guar or 2% psyllium. In contrast, polycarbophil particles were labeled by hydrating the dried granules with saline in which Na2(51)CrO4 had been dissolved. Use of the markers to measure gastric emptying was demonstrated in dogs fitted with duodenal cannulas. Half of the fiber meals emptied from the stomach in about 40 min without significant dilution by secretions. In contrast, only 8% of the polycarbophil particles emptied by 90 min. Particle-specific labeling of polycarbophil was important because the meal effluent was diluted extensively by secretions. We conclude that 51Cr-CM-Sephadex and soluble Cr-51 may be used as meal markers for estimation of the gastric emptying times of certain homogeneous and nonhomogeneous gel-type meals, respectively.

  7. Effect of enzymatic depolymerization on physicochemical and rheological properties of guar gum.

    PubMed

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-09-01

    Depolymerization of guar gum using enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to obtain depolymerized guar gum having functional application as soluble dietary fiber. Enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum significantly affected the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of guar gum. The depolymerized guar gum showed a significant increase in crystallinity index from 3.86% to 13.2% and flow behavior index from 0.31 to 1.7 as compared to native guar gum. Remarkable decrease in intrinsic viscosity and consistency index was also observed from 9 to 0.28 and 4.04 to 0.07, respectively. Results revealed that enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum resulted in a polysaccharide with low degree of polymerization, viscosity and consistency which could make it useful for incorporation in food products as dietary fiber without affecting the rheology, consistency and texture of the products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chewing gum modifies state anxiety and alertness under conditions of social stress.

    PubMed

    Sketchley-Kaye, Kathryn; Jenks, Rebecca; Miles, Christopher; Johnson, Andrew J

    2011-11-01

    The finding that chewing gum can moderate state anxiety under conditions of acute stress has proved difficult to replicate. The present study examines the extent to which chewing gum can moderate state anxiety under conditions of acute social stress. In a between-participants design, 36 participants completed a task comprising a mock job interview (a variation on the Trier Social Stress Task, which included a mental arithmetic component) while either chewing gum or without chewing gum. Self-rated measures of mood and anxiety were taken at baseline, after a 10-minute presentation preparation stage, after the 10-minute presentation, and following a 5-minute recovery stage. Post-presentation measures reflected increased state anxiety and decreased self-rated calmness and contentedness. Chewing gum attenuated the rise in state anxiety while increasing self-rated alertness. Chewing gum did not affect contentedness or calmness. The findings indicate that chewing gum can act to reduce anxiety under conditions of acute social stress: a finding consistent with Scholey et al. Furthermore, the data add to the growing body of literature demonstrating that chewing gum can increase alertness.

  9. Physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of Prunus cerasoides D. Don gum exudates.

    PubMed

    Malsawmtluangi, C; Thanzami, K; Lalhlenmawia, H; Selvan, Veenus; Palanisamy, Selvamani; Kandasamy, Ruckmani; Pachuau, Lalduhsanga

    2014-08-01

    The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of Prunus cerasoides D. Don gum exudates was investigated in this study. The total carbohydrate and protein content were found to be 73.72±2.44% and 2.33±1.25%, respectively. Analysis of monosaccharide composition by HPLC-RI system after acid hydrolysis of the gum showed the presence of arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose and xylose. The molecular weight of the gum was also found to be 5.55×10(5)Da. FTIR and DSC studies showed characteristics typical of a natural polysaccharide. The viscosity of 2% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited non-Newtonian type of flow and the gum was also found to show pH dependent swelling. Determination of the angle of repose, Carr's index and Hausner ratio indicate the gum possess fairly good powder flow property. The antioxidant properties of the gum were evaluated by determining DPPH and hydroxyl scavenging activities, reducing power and total phenolic contents which showed the gum possess antioxidant property. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH.

    PubMed

    Karami Nogourani, Maryam; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Kowsari Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2012-01-01

    Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women) healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1-3, and 3-6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (P < 0.001). The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1-3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  11. Compatibility of chewing gum excipients with the amino acid L-cysteine and stability of the active substance in directly compressed chewing gum formulation.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Alma; Björkqvist, Mikko; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Juppo, Anne Mari; Marvola, Martti; Sivén, Mia

    2008-09-01

    Using L-cysteine chewing gum to eliminate carcinogenic acetaldehyde in the mouth during smoking has recently been introduced. Besides its efficacy, optimal properties of the gum include stability of the formulation. However, only a limited number of studies exist on the compatibility of chewing gum excipients and stability of gum formulations. In this study we used the solid-state stability method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and isothermal microcalorimetry to investigate the interactions between L-cysteine (as a free base or as a salt) and excipients commonly used in gum. These excipients include xylitol, sorbitol, magnesium stearate, Pharmagum S, Every T Toco and Smily 2 Toco. The influence of temperature and relative humidity during a three-month storage period on gum formulation was also studied. Cysteine alone was stable at 25 degrees C/60% RH and 45 degrees C/75% RH whether stored in open or closed glass ambers. As a component of binary mixtures, cysteine base remained stable at lower temperature and humidity but the salt form was incompatible with all the studied excipients. The results obtained with the different methods corresponded with each other. At high temperature and humidity, excipient incompatibility with both forms of cysteine was obvious. Such sensitivity to heat and humidity during storage was also seen in studies on gum formulations. It was also found that cysteine is sensitive to high pressure and increase in temperature induced by compression. The results suggest that the final product should be well protected from temperature and humidity and, for example, cooling process before compression should be considered.

  12. Gum and deposit formation from jet turbine and diesel fuels

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mayo, F.R.; Lan, B.Y.

    1983-09-01

    The present paper describes measurements of rates of oxidation and soluble gum formation in both pure hydrocarbons and in mixed hydrocarbon fuels. Some patterns which appear can be explained on the basis of what is known about co-oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures. The oxidations were conducted in an oil bath at 130/sup 0/C. Gum formation is closely associated with oxidation. The compounds that copolymerize with oxygen to produce polyperoxides require the least amount of oxygen to yield a mg of gum; among other pure hydrocarbons and fuels, the rates of gum formation and oxygen absorption decrease together. The most useful approachmore » to understanding and reducing gum and deposit formation will come through understanding the effects of condensed aromatic and heterocyclic compounds on the oxidation rates of fuels. 4 figures. 4 tables.« less

  13. In situ effect of CPP-ACP chewing gum upon erosive enamel loss

    PubMed Central

    de ALENCAR, Catarina Ribeiro Barros; de OLIVEIRA, Gabriela Cristina; MAGALHÃES, Ana Carolina; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; MACHADO, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; RIOS, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group) of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI – Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII – Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII – No chewing gum (control). Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day). After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm). Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p<0.05). Results The use of chewing gum (CPP and No CPP) resulted in lower erosive enamel loss compared with the control group (p<0.05). CPP-ACP chewing gum (CPP) did not improve the protection against erosive enamel loss compared with conventional chewing gum (No CPP) (p>0.05). Conclusion The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss. PMID:28678944

  14. Three-Dimensional Root Phenotyping with a Novel Imaging and Software Platform1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Randy T.; MacCurdy, Robert B.; Jung, Janelle K.; Shaff, Jon E.; McCouch, Susan R.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.; Kochian, Leon V.

    2011-01-01

    A novel imaging and software platform was developed for the high-throughput phenotyping of three-dimensional root traits during seedling development. To demonstrate the platform’s capacity, plants of two rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes, Azucena and IR64, were grown in a transparent gellan gum system and imaged daily for 10 d. Rotational image sequences consisting of 40 two-dimensional images were captured using an optically corrected digital imaging system. Three-dimensional root reconstructions were generated and analyzed using a custom-designed software, RootReader3D. Using the automated and interactive capabilities of RootReader3D, five rice root types were classified and 27 phenotypic root traits were measured to characterize these two genotypes. Where possible, measurements from the three-dimensional platform were validated and were highly correlated with conventional two-dimensional measurements. When comparing gellan gum-grown plants with those grown under hydroponic and sand culture, significant differences were detected in morphological root traits (P < 0.05). This highly flexible platform provides the capacity to measure root traits with a high degree of spatial and temporal resolution and will facilitate novel investigations into the development of entire root systems or selected components of root systems. In combination with the extensive genetic resources that are now available, this platform will be a powerful resource to further explore the molecular and genetic determinants of root system architecture. PMID:21454799

  15. Plant regeneration from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of Primula malacoides and Primula obconica.

    PubMed

    Mizuhiro, M; Kenichi, Y; Ito, K; Kadowaki, S; Ohashi, H; Mii, M

    2001-05-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from cell suspension cultures of Primula malacoides cv. 'Lovely Tokyo' and P. obconica cv. 'Aalsmeer Giant White'. P. obconica protoplasts were embedded in 0.1% (w/v) gellan gum-solidified discs comprising MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l of 2,4-D or picloram, 0.1 mg/l of zeatin, 0.2 M glucose and 0.2 M mannitol, and surrounded by a liquid medium of the same composition except for the addition of 0.1% (w/v) activated charcoal. The protoplasts formed visible colonies, which were transferred to the regeneration medium containing 30 g/l of sucrose, 0.1 mg/l of picloram and 2 mg/l of zeatin for shoot induction. P. malacoides protoplasts formed visible colonies when cultured in disc culture using 0.1% (w/v) gellan gum-solidified MS medium containing 5 mg/l of 2,4-D, 1 mg/l of NAA, 0.1 mg/l of zeatin and 0.4 M glucose. Small calli were transferred to MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l of zeatin for shoot regeneration. The shoots of both species readily rooted on plant growth regulator-free 1/2 MS medium and successfully acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. The protoplast-derived plants showed some alterations in morphological characteristics from those of the in-vitro-germinated control plants.

  16. Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may increase alertness and lead to changes in cognitive performance. The present study examined effects of chewing gum on these functions within the context of a single study. This study had four main aims. The first was to examine whether chewing gum improved learning and memory of information in a story. The second aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved test performance on a validated intellectual task (the Alice Heim task). A third aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved performance on short memory tasks (immediate and delayed recall of a list of words, delayed recognition memory, retrieval from semantic memory, and a working memory task). The final aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved mood (alertness, calm and hedonic tone). A cross-over design was used with gum and no-gum sessions being on consecutive weeks. In each week, volunteers attended for two sessions, two days apart. The first session assessed mood, immediate recall of information from a story and performance on short memory tasks. The second session assessed mood, delayed recall of information from a story and performance of an intelligence test (the Alice Heim test). There were no significant effects of chewing gum on any aspect of recall of the story. Chewing gum improved the accuracy of performing the Alice Heim test which confirms the benefits of gum on test performance seen in an earlier study. Chewing gum had no significant effect on the short memory tasks. Chewing gum increased alertness at the end of the test session in both parts of the study. This effect was in the region of a 10% increase and was highly significant (P < 0.001). The results of this study showed that chewing gum increases alertness. In contrast, no significant effects of chewing gum were observed in the memory tasks. Intellectual performance was improved in the gum condition. Overall, the results suggest further research on the alerting effects of

  17. Xylitol gum and maternal transmission of mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Y; Shinga-Ishihara, C; Kaji, M; Moriya, K; Murakami-Yamanaka, K; Takimura, M

    2010-01-01

    An important caries prevention strategy for children includes measures to interfere with transmission of mutans streptococci (MS). This study confirmed the effectiveness of maternal early exposure to xylitol chewing gum on mother-child transmission of MS. After screening, 107 pregnant women with high salivary MS were randomized into two groups: xylitol gum (Xylitol; n = 56) and no gum (Control; n = 51) groups. Maternal chewing started at the sixth month of pregnancy and terminated 13 months later in the Xylitol group. Outcome measures were the presence of MS in saliva or plaque of the children until age 24 months. The Xylitol-group children were significantly less likely to show MS colonization than Control-group children aged 9-24 months. The Control-group children acquired MS 8.8 months earlier than those in the Xylitol group, suggesting that maternal xylitol gum chewing in Japan shows beneficial effects similar to those demonstrated in Nordic countries.

  18. Chitosan/cashew gum nanogels for essential oil encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Flávia O M S; Oliveira, Erick F; Paula, Haroldo C B; de Paula, Regina C M

    2012-08-01

    Nanogels based on chitosan and cashew gum were prepared and loaded with Lippia sidoides oil. Several parameters such as cashew gum concentration and relative oil content in the matrix had their influence on nanogel properties investigated. Nanogels were characterized regarding their morphologies, particle size distributions, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and essential oil contents. The release profile was investigated by UV/vis spectroscopy and its efficacy was determined through bioassays. Results showed that samples designed using relative ratios matrix:oil 10:2, gum:chitosan 1:1 and 5% gum concentration showed high loading (11.8%) and encapsulation efficiency (70%). Nanogels were found to exhibit average sizes in the range 335-558 nm. In vitro release profiles showed that nanoparticles presented slower and sustained release. Bioassays showed that larval mortality was related mainly to oil loading, with samples presenting more effective larvicide efficacies than the pure L. sidoides oil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Xylitol Chewing Gums on the Market: Do They Prevent Caries?

    PubMed

    Alanzi, Abrar; Soderling, Eva; Varghese, Anisha; Honkala, Eino

    To measure the xylitol content in sugar-free chewing gums available on the market in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in the Middle East, in order to identify those products that can provide the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention (6-7 g). Acid production from chewing gums was also measured in vitro and in vivo. Twenty-one chewing gums containing xylitol were identified and collected from the GCC market (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Oman). Xylitol was extracted and its concentration was analysed using a special enzymatic kit. The pH of extracts was measured during 30-min incubation with Streptococcus mutans. Changes in saliva and plaque pH were noted in four subjects after the consumption of highly concentrated xylitol gums. The xylitol content in grams was clearly mentioned only on one product's label. Twelve products stated the percentage of xylitol (3.5% to 35%). The rest did not specify the amount. The mean measured weight of one piece of gum was 1.67 ± 0.38 g. The mean measured xylitol content/piece was 0.33 ± 0.21 g. Xylitol content was < 0.3 g/ piece in 9 products, 0.3-0.5 g in 7 and > 0.5 g in 5 products. None of the highly concentrated xylitol gums showed a pH drop in vitro or in vivo. One chewing gum, containing xylitol and glucose, resulted in a low pH level (< 5.5) when tested in vitro. The majority of xylitol chewing gums sold on the GCC market do not provide the consumers with the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention. Clear, accurate labeling is recommended.

  20. The effects of gum chewing while walking on physical and physiological functions.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yuka; Yanaoka, Takuma; Kashiwabara, Kyoko; Kurata, Kuran; Yamamoto, Ryo; Kanno, Susumu; Ando, Tomonori; Miyashita, Masashi

    2018-04-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of gum chewing while walking on physical and physiological functions. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled 46 male and female participants aged 21-69 years. In the experimental trial, participants walked at natural paces for 15 minutes while chewing two gum pellets after a 1-hour rest period. In the control trial, participants walked at natural paces for 15 minutes after ingesting powder containing the same ingredient, except the gum base, as the chewing gum. Heart rates, walking distances, walking speeds, steps, and energy expenditure were measured. [Results] Heart rates during walking and heart rate changes (i.e., from at rest to during walking) significantly increased during the gum trial compared with the control trial. Walking distance, walking speed, walking heart rate, and heart rate changes in male participants and walking heart rate and heart rate changes in female participants were significantly higher during the gum trial than the control trial. In middle-aged and elderly male participants aged ≥40 years, walking distance, walking speed, steps, and energy expenditure significantly increased during the gum trial than the control trial. [Conclusion] Gum chewing while walking measurably affects physical and physiological functions.

  1. The effect of chewing gum's flavor on salivary flow rate and pH.

    PubMed

    Karami-Nogourani, Maryam; Kowsari-Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini-Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2011-12-01

    Chewing sugar-free gums is a convenient way to increase salivary flow. Salivary flow increases in response to both gustatory (taste) and mechanical (chewing) stimuli, and chewing gum can provide both of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of five different flavors of sugar-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH. Fifteen dental students volunteered at the same time on six consecutive days, to collect one minute unstimulated saliva. After five minutes, while some volunteers continued to collect only unstimulated saliva, the others asked to start chewing one of the five flavored gums randomly. The flavors were spearmint, cinnamon, watermelon, strawberry, and apple. The whole saliva was collected over time periods of 0 - 1, 1 - 3, and 3 - 6 minutes, and the SFR and pH were also measured. The data were subjected to pair t-test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and Duncan tests. Compared to the unstimulated rate, all five different flavored gums significantly increased the SFR within six minutes. Although the flow rate peaked during the first minute of stimulation with all five products, it reduced gradually, but still remained above the unstimulated saliva, after six minutes. In the first minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest weight, yet, it only induced a significantly higher SFR compared to the cinnamon-flavored gums. During one to three minutes, strawberry and apple-flavored gums showed significantly higher SFR, respectively, compared to cinnamon-flavored gums. There were no significant differences in the flow rates elicited by each flavored gum through the three-to-six minute interval, although the spearmint-flavored gums induced slightly higher SFR. Only the spearmint and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased the salivary pH. Gum flavor can affect the SFR and special flavors may be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  2. Electrospray-assisted drying of live probiotics in acacia gum microparticles matrix.

    PubMed

    Zaeim, Davood; Sarabi-Jamab, Mahboobe; Ghorani, Behrouz; Kadkhodaee, Rassoul; Tromp, R Hans

    2018-03-01

    Acacia gum solution was employed as a carrier for electrospray-assisted drying of probiotic cells. To optimize the process, effect of gum concentration, thermal sterilization as a prerequisite for microbial studies, and surfactant addition on physical properties of feed solution was investigated. Increasing gum concentration from 20 to 40 wt.% led to a viscosity increase, whilst surface tension did not change meaningfully and electrical conductivity declined after an increasing trend up to 30 wt.% of the gum. Thermal sterilization increased the viscosity without any significant effect on the conductivity and surface tension. Surfactant addition reduced the surface tension and conductivity but the viscosity increased. Highly uniform particles were formed by electrospray-assisted drying of autoclaved 35 wt.% acacia gum solution containing 1 wt.% Tween 80. Thermal sterilization and surfactant addition improved electrospray-ability of acacia gum solution. Bacterial count showed that more than 96 percent of probiotic cells passed the process viably. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    Locust bean gum or carob gum is a galactomannan obtained from seed endosperm of carob tree i.e. Ceratonia siliqua. It is widely utilized as an additive in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, oil well drilling and cosmetics. Industrial applications of locust bean gum are due to its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer due to its dietary fiber action. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of locust bean gum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of guar gum added to the diet of patients with duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Harju, E J; Larmi, T K

    1985-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical study, the effects of 5 g of guar gum, a dietary fiber composed of galactose and mannose, or placebo added to the diet of 20 patients with duodenal ulcer for 1 wk each were examined. Ten patients derived evident benefit and five some help from guar gum, on comparing symptoms during administration of guar gum with those experienced earlier or during the placebo week, whereas four patients found that neither guar gum nor placebo had any effect (p less than 0.001). The beneficial effect was associated with increased feelings of repletion after meals. Patients with fewest symptoms benefited only slightly, or not at all, from guar gum. In one patient, guar gum abolished pain felt earlier and on placebo, but also caused severe gastric retention after meals. This patient had pyloric stenosis. In patients who were intolerant to berries, fruits, sugar, sweet rolls, and pizza these foodstuffs were better tolerated during guar gum administration. The diarrhea which occurs in some patients ingesting guar gum was avoided by giving low initial doses. In three patients unpalatability of guar gum was a minor complaint. It is concluded that guar gum is helpful to many patients with uncomplicated duodenal ulcer, but that it is harmful to those having increased gastric emptying, eg, pyloric stenosis patients, and that guar gum may exert its effects by increasing gastric emptying time.

  5. Characterization and inhibitive study of gel-grown hydroxyapatite crystals at physiological temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Bharat; Joshi, Mihir; Vaidya, Ashok

    2008-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite is very useful for various biomedical applications, due to its chemical similarity with mineralized bone of human. Hydroxyapatite is also responsible for arthropathy (joint disease). In the present study, the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals was carried out by using single-diffusion gel growth technique in silica hydro gel media, at physiological temperature. The growth of hydroxyapatite crystals under slow and controlled environment in gel medium can be simulated in a simple manner to the growth in human body. The crystals, formed in the Liesegang rings, were characterized by powder XRD, FTIR and dielectric study. The diffusion study is also carried out for the hydroxyapatite crystals using the moving boundary model. The inhibitive influence of various Ayurvedic medicinal plant extracts such as Boswellia serrata gum resin , Tribulus terrestris fruits, Rotula aquatica roots, Boerhaavia diffusa roots and Commiphora wightii, on the growth of hydroxyapatite was studied. Roots of R. aquatica and B. diffusa show some inhibition of the hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro. This preclinical study will be helpful to design the therapy for prevention of hydroxyapatite-based ailments.

  6. The Gum Nebula and Related Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Proceedings of a symposium concerning the Gum Nebula (GN) and related topics are reported. Papers presented include: Colin Gum and the discovery of the GN; identification of the GN as the fossil Stromgren sphere of Vela X Supernova; size and shape of GN; formation of giant H-2 regions following supernova explosions; radio astronomy Explorer 1 observations of GN; cosmic ray effects in the GN; low intensity H beta emission from the interstellar medium; and how to recognize and analyze GN. Astronomical charts and diagrams are included.

  7. Ultrasound assisted enzymatic depolymerization of aqueous guar gum solution.

    PubMed

    Prajapat, Amrutlal L; Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-03-01

    The present work investigates the effectiveness of application of low intensity ultrasonic irradiation for the intensification of enzymatic depolymerization of aqueous guar gum solution. The extent of depolymerization of guar gum has been analyzed in terms of intrinsic viscosity reduction. The effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters related to the enzyme activity as well as the intrinsic viscosity reduction of guar gum using enzymatic approach has been evaluated. The kinetic rate constant has been found to increase with an increase in the temperature and cellulase loading. It has been observed that application of ultrasound not only enhances the extent of depolymerization but also reduces the time of depolymerization as compared to conventional enzymatic degradation technique. In the presence of cellulase enzyme, the maximum extent of depolymerization of guar gum has been observed at 60 W of ultrasonic rated power and ultrasonic treatment time of 30 min. The effect of ultrasound on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters as well as the molecular structure of cellulase enzyme was evaluated with the help of the chemical reaction kinetics model and fluorescence spectroscopy. Application of ultrasound resulted in a reduction in the thermodynamic parameters of activation energy (Ea), enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS) and free energy (ΔG) by 47%, 50%, 65% and 1.97%, respectively. The changes in the chemical structure of guar gum treated using ultrasound assisted enzymatic approach in comparison to the native guar gum were also characterized by FTIR. The results revealed that enzymatic depolymerization of guar gum resulted in a polysaccharide with low degree of polymerization, viscosity and consistency index without any change in the core chemical structure which could make it useful for incorporation in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Solís, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P < 0.05). The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber) and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber). The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber) and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber). In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry. PMID:26904622

  9. The effects of gum chewing while walking on physical and physiological functions

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Yuka; Yanaoka, Takuma; Kashiwabara, Kyoko; Kurata, Kuran; Yamamoto, Ryo; Kanno, Susumu; Ando, Tomonori; Miyashita, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of gum chewing while walking on physical and physiological functions. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled 46 male and female participants aged 21–69 years. In the experimental trial, participants walked at natural paces for 15 minutes while chewing two gum pellets after a 1-hour rest period. In the control trial, participants walked at natural paces for 15 minutes after ingesting powder containing the same ingredient, except the gum base, as the chewing gum. Heart rates, walking distances, walking speeds, steps, and energy expenditure were measured. [Results] Heart rates during walking and heart rate changes (i.e., from at rest to during walking) significantly increased during the gum trial compared with the control trial. Walking distance, walking speed, walking heart rate, and heart rate changes in male participants and walking heart rate and heart rate changes in female participants were significantly higher during the gum trial than the control trial. In middle-aged and elderly male participants aged ≥40 years, walking distance, walking speed, steps, and energy expenditure significantly increased during the gum trial than the control trial. [Conclusion] Gum chewing while walking measurably affects physical and physiological functions. PMID:29706720

  10. Thiol derivatization of Xanthan gum and its evaluation as a mucoadhesive polymer.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Meenakshi; Ahuja, Munish; Mehta, Heena

    2015-10-20

    Thiol-derivatization of xanthan gum polysaccharide was carried out by esterification with mercaptopropionic acid and thioglycolic acid. Thiol-derivatization was confirmed by Fourier-transformed infra-red spectroscopy. Xanthan-mercaptopropionic acid conjugate and xanthan-thioglycolic acid conjugate were found to possess 432.68mM and 465.02mM of thiol groups as determined by Ellman's method respectively. Comparative evaluation of mucoadhesive property of metronidazole loaded buccal pellets of xanthan and thiolated xanthan gum using chicken buccal pouch membrane revealed higher ex vivo bioadhesion time of thiolated xanthan gum as compared to xanthan gum. Improved mucoadhesive property of thiolated xanthan gum over the xanthan gum can be attributed to the formation of disulfide bond between mucus and thiolated xanthan gum. In vitro release study conducted using phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) revealed a sustained release profile of metronidazole from thiolated xanthan pellets as compared to xanthan pellets. In conclusion, thiolation of xanthan improves its mucoadhesive property and sustained the release of metronidazole over a prolonged period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Gum nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The distance from the sun to the center of the star, Gamma Velorium, is determined in an effort to draw a physical model and identify the ionized energy source of the Gum nebula. The distance is calculated from the local hydrogen density of radio astronomy studies and the hydrogen measure.

  12. Rheological and fracturing characteristics of a novel sulfonated hydroxypropyl guar gum.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Liewei; Shen, Yiding; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chen

    2018-05-15

    A series of sulfonated hydroxypropyl guar gum (SHG) samples with different degrees of substitution (DSs) were prepared, and the SHG solution and SHG fracturing fluid were prepared and analyzed. The SHG aqueous solutions with different DSs all exhibit shear thinning behavior, which is well correlated with the Ostwald-deWaele model. Owing to the electrostatic repulsion of SHG molecular chains, SHG solutions with a higher DS will exhibit weaker thixotropic performance and strong anti-salinity ability. In addition, the SHG fracturing fluids, which were formed by interactions between SHG and organic zirconium, exhibit good temperature- and shear-resistant properties, proppant suspension properties, and salt tolerance. Furthermore, SHG gel-breaking fluids show low interfacial and surface tensions, with low residue content and small core permeability damage. These results provide useful indicators for the applications of SHG in the oil field industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Potential utilization of guar gum industrial waste in vermicompost production.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surendra

    2006-12-01

    Recycling of guar gum industrial waste through vermitechnology was studied under laboratory conditions by using composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus (Perrier). Three different combination of guar gum industrial waste namely guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 40:30:30 ratio (T1), guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 60:20:20 ratio (T2), and guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 75:15:10 ratio (T3) were used for vermicomposting experiments. Chemical changes during vermicomposting were measured and comparatively T2 showed great increase (from its initial level) for total N (25.4%), phosphorus (72.8%) and potassium (20.9%) than the other treatments. T2 also showed higher vermicomposting coefficient (VC), higher mean biomass for P. excavatus (146.68 mg) and higher cocoon production (about 21.9% and 645.5% more than the T1 and T3, respectively). Maximum earthworm mortality during vermicomposting was recorded with T3 treatment while zero mortality was recorded for T2 treatment after 150 days. Overall, T2 treatment appeared to be an ideal combination for enhancing maximum biopotential of earthworms to management guar gum industrial waste as well as for earthworm biomass and cocoon production.

  14. Role of glucose in chewing gum-related facilitation of cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Richard; Tunney, Richard J

    2004-10-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that chewing gum leads to cognitive benefits through improved delivery of glucose to the brain, by comparing the cognitive performance effects of gum and glucose administered separately and together. Participants completed a battery of cognitive tests in a fully related 2 x 2 design, where one factor was Chewing Gum (gum vs. mint sweet) and the other factor was Glucose Co-administration (consuming a 25 g glucose drink vs. consuming water). For four tests (AVLT Immediate Recall, Digit Span, Spatial Span and Grammatical Transformation), beneficial effects of chewing and glucose were found, supporting the study hypothesis. However, on AVLT Delayed Recall, enhancement due to chewing gum was not paralleled by glucose enhancement, suggesting an alternative mechanism. The glucose delivery model is supported with respect to the cognitive domains: working memory, immediate episodic long-term memory and language-based attention and processing speed. However, some other mechanism is more likely to underlie the facilitatory effect of chewing gum on delayed episodic long-term memory.

  15. Application of xanthan gum as polysaccharide in tissue engineering: A review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj; Rao, Kummara Madhusudana; Han, Sung Soo

    2018-01-15

    Xanthan gum is a microbial high molecular weight exo-polysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas bacteria (a Gram-negative bacteria genus that exhibits several different species) and it has widely been used as an additive in various industrial and biomedical applications such as food and food packaging, cosmetics, water-based paints, toiletries, petroleum, oil-recovery, construction and building materials, and drug delivery. Recently, it has shown great potential in issue engineering applications and a variety of modification methods have been employed to modify xanthan gum as polysaccharide for this purpose. However, xanthan gum-based biomaterials need further modification for several targeted applications due to some disadvantages (e.g., processing and mechanical performance of xanthan gum), where modified xanthan gum will be well suited for tissue engineering products. In this review, the current scenario of the use of xanthan gum for various tissue engineering applications, including its origin, structure, properties, modification, and processing for the preparation of the hydrogels and/or the scaffolds is precisely reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Benefits of sodium hexametaphosphate-containing chewing gum for extrinsic stain inhibition.

    PubMed

    Walters, Patricia A; Biesbrock, Aaron R; Bartizek, Robert D

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the ability of sodium hexametaphosphate delivered from a chewing gum to prevent extrinsic tooth stain formation. This study was a negative-controlled, randomized, two-period crossover design, with a 10-day washout period between treatments. The two treatments were a chewing gum containing 5.6% sodium hexametaphosphate and a negative control chewing gum. Eleven subjects who met study criteria were enrolled, and 10 completed the study over a two-week period. Each treatment period lasted approximately 48 hours and was separated by a washout period. After a dental prophylaxis, a digital image of the anterior teeth was taken to assess baseline stain. The three-day stain induction phase consisted of the patient using a 10 ml 0.2% chlorhexidine rinse for 60 seconds, followed by chewing two pellets/sticks of their assigned gum for five minutes and rinsing with 10 ml of cold tea solution for 60 seconds. No oral hygiene was permitted other than use of the test products. During both treatment periods, each subject followed the same regimen eight times, once per hour, throughout the day. On Days 2 and 3, the adjusted mean L* measurement was statistically significantly greater for the sodium hexametaphosphate gum than for the control gum. Moreover, nine of the 10 subjects had whiter teeth while on the experimental gum treatment at both Day 2 and Day 3. The results of this study support that sodium hexametaphosphate delivered from a chewing gum prevents dental stain formation and leads to a patient-desired whitening benefit.

  17. Dietary guar gum effects on postprandial blood glucose, insulin and hydroxyproline in humans.

    PubMed

    Torsdottir, I; Alpsten, M; Andersson, H; Einarsson, S

    1989-12-01

    Meals (425 kcal) containing various doses of guar gum (0, 2.5, 7.5 or 12.5 g) were ingested by nine healthy male subjects after a 12-h fast. The rise in blood glucose was higher after the control meal without guar gum than after the guar gum-containing meals, which all gave a similar rise in glucose. In contrast, increased doses of guar gum led to a greater reduction in the postprandial rise in insulin. The postprandial increase in serum hydroxyproline, an amino acid added to all meals, was decreased in a similar manner by all of the guar gum doses. Gastric emptying was measured after the control meal without guar gum and the meal containing 12.5 g of guar gum by monitoring 51Cr, which was added to the meals. Guar gum was found to reduce the variation between individuals, as well as the initial rate of gastric emptying, which correlated with changes in both serum hydroxyproline (rs = 0.93, P less than 0.01) and blood glucose (rs = 0.83, P less than 0.01). The effectiveness of guar gum in reducing postprandial response was lost after heating and homogenization for canning. A threshold in the reduction in rise of glucose or hydroxyproline was reached with the lowest dose (2.5 g) of viscous guar gum; larger doses had no additional effects. The reduced absorption seems to be an effect of a slower gastric emptying rate.

  18. Fabrication of electrospun almond gum/PVA nanofibers as a thermostable delivery system for vanillin.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Atefe; Tavanai, Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the fabrication of vanillin incorporated almond gum/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers through electrospinning has been investigated. Electrospinning of only almond gum was proved impossible. It was found that the aqueous solution of almond gum/PVA (80:20, concentration=7% (w/w)) containing 3% (w/w) vanillin could have successfully electrospun to uniform nanofibers with diameters as low as 77nm. According to the thermal analysis, incorporated vanillin in almond gum/PVA nanofibers showed higher thermal stability than free vanillin, making this composite especially suitable for high temperature applications. XRD and FTIR analyses proved the presence of vanillin in the almond gum/PVA nanofibers. It was also found that vanillin was dispersed as big crystallites in the matrix of almond gum/PVA nanofibers. FTIR analysis showed almond gum and PVA had chemical cross-linking by etheric bonds between COH groups of almond gum and OH groups of PVA. Also, in the nanofibers, there were no major interaction between vanillin and either almond gum or PVA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant Effect of Xanthan Gum on Ram Sperm after Freezing and Thawing.

    PubMed

    Gastal, G DA; Silva, E F; Mion, B; Varela Junior, A S; Rosa, C E; Corcini, C D; Mondadori, R G; Vieira, A D; Bianchi, I; Lucia, T

    Xanthan gum is used as thickener in media to preserve food products, having cryoprotectant and antioxidant properties that may be relevant for sperm cryopreservation. To evaluate the effects of adding xanthan gum to freezing extenders on post-thawing quality and oxidant activity of ram sperm. Ejaculates from seven rams extended TRIS-egg yolk-glycerol were split in three treatments including xanthan gum (0.15%; 0.20%; and 0.25%) and a control with no xanthan gum. After thawing, motility and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with 0.20% and 0.25% xanthan gum were lower than for the control (P < 0.05), but mitochondrial functionality and integrity of membrane, acrosome and DNA did not differ (P > 0.05). Xanthan gum at 0.20% and 0.25% may be an efficient antioxidant for frozen-thawed ram sperm, due to the reduction in ROS production.

  20. Selective depression behavior of guar gum on talc-type scheelite flotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-zhong; Gu, Guo-hua; Wu, Xiang-bin; Zhao, Kai-le

    2017-08-01

    The depression behavior and mechanism of guar gum on talc-type scheelite flotation were systematically investigated by flotation experiments, adsorption tests, zeta-potential measurements, and infrared spectroscopic analyses. The flotation results for monominerals, mixed minerals, and actual mineral samples indicated that guar gum exhibited much higher selective depression for talc than for scheelite. Bench-scale closed-circuit tests showed that a tungsten concentrate with a WO3 grade of 51.43% and a WO3 recovery of 76.18% was obtained. Adsorption tests, zeta-potential measurements, and infrared spectral analyses confirmed that guar gum absorbed more strongly onto the talc surface than onto the scheelite surface because of chemisorption between guar gum and talc. This chemisorption is responsible for the guar gum's highly selective depression for talc and small depression for scheelite. The flotation results provide technical support for talc-type scheelite flotation.

  1. Gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants: effects on lipid oxidation of peanuts.

    PubMed

    Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Azam, Mahmood; Hasnain, Abid

    2015-04-01

    Performance of antioxidants is improved by incorporating them into polymer matrix such as polysaccharides based edible coatings. Gum cordia, an anionic polysaccharide extracted from the fruits of Cordia.myxa could be used as carrier of antioxidants by virtue of its strong adhering and emulsifying properties. This study aimed to explore the potential of gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants when applied as edible coating on peanuts. Gum Cordia was compared with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in delivering of antioxidants: butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (AA). Coated and uncoated peanuts were stored at 35 °C for 126 days and coating carrier effectiveness was measured by following lipid oxidation using chemical parameters (peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive species) and sensory evaluation (oxidized flavor). Significant differences (p < 0.05) between coated and uncoated samples were observed. Gum cordia was found better than CMC to deliver the antioxidants. Gum cordia based coating in combination with BHA/BHT exhibited highest protection (290 % higher shelf life than control) based on peroxide value (40 meq.O2 kg(-1)) followed by gum codia plus BHT (244 %), gum cordia plus BHA (232 %), CMC plus BHA/BHT (184 %), CMC plus BHA (139 %), CMC plus BHT (119 %), gum cordia plus AA (96 %) and CMC plus AA (46 %).

  2. Design, formulation, and evaluation of ginger medicated chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Rostami, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various ginger compounds improve gastrointestinal problems and motion sickness. The main effects of ginger allocate to some phenolics such as gingerols and shogaols that act as their active agents. Chewing gums are among convenient dosage forms which patients prefer due to their advantages. Hence, this study tried to design, formulate, and evaluate ginger chewing gum of favorable taste and texture to avoid motion sickness and have gastro-protective and anti-oxidant effect. Materials and Methods: Dried ginger rhizomes were percolated to extract ginger compounds. Total phenolics were measured in 70% hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger by gallic and tannic acid standards using Folin–Ciocalteu’s reagent. Chewing gums containing 50 mg of concentrated extract were prepared. Content uniformity, weight variation, release pattern, organoleptic, and mechanical properties were evaluated. Results: Phenolic content was measured 61.50 ± 5.27 mg/g and 76.75 ± 5.45 mg/g of concentrated extract as gallic acid and tannic acid equivalents, respectively. Release pattern of formulations with different gum bases and sweeteners demonstrated almost 100% release of drug. Evaluation of organoleptic properties was on 10 healthy volunteers and later prepared formulations exhibited better characteristics. Formulations without any flavorants have higher acceptability. Evaluation of mechanical properties showed higher stiffness of F15. Conclusion: Ginger chewing gum comprises admissible properties to be used as a modern drug delivery system due to its advantageous results in motion sickness. It passed all the specified tests for an acceptable chewing gum. Thus, it may be successfully produced to help GI problems. PMID:27563640

  3. [Sugar of substitute stevioside in chewing gum: comparative double blind controllable study].

    PubMed

    Rumiantsev, V A; Beliaev, V V; Zubtsov, V A; Esaian, L K; Namestnikova, I V

    2011-01-01

    In double blind controllable study on 126 volunteers - students of medical academy - influence on рН the mixed saliva of 5 kinds of chewing gums with the different contents of substitute of sugar as xylitol and sorbitol, and also the chewing sweets R.O.C.S., two kinds of chewing gums containing a basis with substitute of sugar stevioside (1.25 and 2.5%) and placebo (a basis without additives) were investigated. Products chewed within 10 minutes. In one of groups surveyed such chewing was preceded with rinsing a mouth by a test solution of saccharose. рН determined within 30 minutes. At chewing gums with substitute of sugar displacement рН the mixed saliva in the alkaline side was revealed a different degree. Thus gums with stevioside did not concede and even surpassed in this action of chewing gums with other substitutes of sugar. In comparison with placebo chewing gums and sweets restored acid-alkaline balance of oral cavities faster. Hence, use of stevioside in structure of chewing gum allows at preservation of its positive actions in oral cavity essentially to reduce concentration substitute of sugar and, hence, its collateral action by an organism.

  4. Circulatory response and autonomic nervous activity during gum chewing.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Sakagami, Joe; Ono, Takahiro; Hori, Kazuhiro; Zhang, Min; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2009-08-01

    Mastication has been proven to enhance the systemic circulation, with circulatory responses seeming to be largely regulated by autonomic nervous activity via a more complex regulatory system than those of other activities. However, few studies have examined the relationships between changes in autonomic nervous activity and the systemic circulation that are induced by masticatory movement. We investigated changes in the systemic circulation and autonomic nervous activity during gum chewing to clarify the influence of mastication. Electrocardiograms, arterial blood pressure, and masseter electromyograms were taken while chewing gum continuously as indicators of systemic circulation in 10 healthy subjects with normal dentition. Cardiac sympathetic activity and vagus nervous activity, as well as vasomotor sympathetic nervous activity, were evaluated by fluctuation analysis of heart rate and blood pressure. Repeated analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were performed to determine chronological changes in each indicator during gum chewing. Gum chewing increased the heart rate and the mean arterial pressure. Although cardiac sympathetic activity and vagus nervous activity showed significant changes, vasomotor sympathetic nervous activity did not. These results suggest that changes in the autonomic nervous activity of the heart are mainly involved in the enhancement of systemic circulation with gum chewing. This explains some characteristics of autonomic nervous regulation in masticatory movement.

  5. The potential of dental-protective chewing gum in oral health interventions.

    PubMed

    Ly, Kiet A; Milgrom, Peter; Rothen, Marilynn

    2008-05-01

    The authors provide an overview of chewing gum as a delivery vehicle for dental-protective agents, highlighting xylitol and its potential application in caries-prevention programs for children. The authors reviewed selected clinical investigations and previous reviews associated with chewing gum containing substances such as calcium, bicarbonate, carbamide, chlorhexidine, fluoride and xylitol and their effects on reducing caries. They searched the MEDLINE database by using the key words "dental caries," "oral health," "calcium," "bicarbonate," "carbamide," "chlorhexidine," "fluoride" and "xylitol." Chewing gum is being used as a delivery vehicle for substances such as calcium, bicarbonate, carbamide, chlorhexidine, fluoride and xylitol to improve oral health and reduce caries. These substances exhibit properties that are protective of the oral environment and mediate common oral diseases. The debate for advocating xylitol use in caries prevention is advancing; however, chewing gum use by young schoolchildren in the United States is hindered by choking hazard concerns and lack of specific xylitol dosing recommendations. The use of chewing gum containing dental-protective substances, particularly xylitol, in caries-prevention programs can reduce the tooth decay epidemic. Chewing gum use by children in the school setting should be reconsidered.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of grafting polystyrene from guar gum using atom transfer radical addition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Fu; Chen, Qi; He, Jie; Bu, Tao; He, Xuemei

    2017-11-15

    To broaden the application fields for guar gum, this natural polymer is often grafted to/from the surface to modify its properties. Polystyrene-guar gum (PS-guar gum) is successfully synthesized using atom transfer radical addition based n-BuBr(C 4 H 9 Br), Cu(I)Cl and N,N,N',N″,N‴-penthamethyldiethylenetriamine (C 9 H 23 N 3 ,PMDETA) as initiator, electronating agent and ligand respectively in an inert atmosphere. The graft copolymer is characterized by FT-IR, 1 H NMR, XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that styrene is successfully introduced onto guar gum and particles of PS-guar gum adopt a disordered morphology with diameters of 100nm, and PS-guar gum are largely amorphous with poor crystallinity. Besides, add on shows an increasing trend on increasing the concentration of PS. Swelling behavior, hydrophobicity and thermal stability of PS-guar gum indicate that PS-guar gum has great thickening capacity and thermal stability. Nevertheless, modification of guar gum via ATRA truly is convenient to industrial production since facilitating the manufacturing process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of guar gum on gastric emptying in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rainbird, A L; Low, A G

    1986-01-01

    1. Simple gastric cannulas were surgically fitted to four pigs, initially of 30 kg live weight, to examine the effects of guar gum on gastric emptying. 2. Four semi-purified high-fat diets based on starch, casein, soya-bean oil and tallow were given to each pig. They contained 0 (control), 20, 40 or 60 g powdered guar gum/kg diet. The meals as fed contained 257 g dry matter (DM)/kg. 3. The contents of the stomach were evacuated, with rinsing, before feeding or 0.5, 1, 2 or 4 h after feeding. 4. The mean pH of the digesta was unaffected by guar gum until 4 h after feeding when the value increased as the amount of guar gum in the diet rose. 5. The only significant effects of guar gum on the emptying of digesta and its components (compared with the control diet) were to reduce the rate of emptying of (a) digesta 1 h after feeding (60 g/kg diet) and 4 h after feeding (40 and 60 g/kg diets), (b) dry matter and glucose 1 h after feeding (60 g/kg diet), (c) nitrogen 1 h after feeding (60 g/kg diet) and 4 h after feeding (40 and 60 g/kg diets). 6. When expressed on a half-time (T50) basis, the emptying of digesta and N (but not of DM and glucose) were significantly slower for diets containing 40 and 60 g guar gum/kg than for the control diet. 7. The apparent viscosity of the gastric digesta ranged between 0.5 and 23.7% of the values for the diets as consumed. 8. It was concluded that the effects of guar gum on gastric emptying of high-solid meals were small, and that this was unlikely to be an important aspect of the mechanism by which guar gum reduces postprandial blood glucose concentrations.

  8. Application of cashew tree gum on the production and stability of spray-dried fish oil.

    PubMed

    Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Antoniassi, Rosemar; de Faria-Machado, Adelia Ferreira; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa de Andrade; de Paula, Regina Celia Monteiro

    2017-04-15

    Evaluation of cashew gum compared to conventional materials was conducted regarding properties and oxidative stability of spray-dried fish oil. Emulsions produced with cashew gum showed lower viscosity when compared to Arabic gum. The particle size was larger (29.9μm) when cashew gum was used, and the encapsulation efficiency reached 76%, similar to that of modified starch but higher than that for Arabic gum (60%). The oxidation process for the surface oil was conducted and a relative lower formation of oxidation compounds was observed for the cashew gum treatment. GAB model was chosen to describe the moisture adsorption isotherm behaviours. Microparticles produced using Arabic and cashew gums showed greater water adsorption when exposed to higher relative humidities. Microparticles produced using cashew gum were more hygroscopic however encapsulation efficiency were higher and surface oil oxidation were less pronounced. Cashew gum can be further explored as an encapuslant material for spray drying processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum as a potential prebiotic source.

    PubMed

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Patel, Ami; Shah, Nihir

    2018-06-01

    Guar galactomannan was enzymatically hydrolyzed to obtain partially hydrolyzed guar gum which can be utilized as prebiotic source. In present study, growth of probiotics (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains) were studied with glucose, partially hydrolyzed guar gum and native guar gum. All the six strains were galactose &/or mannose positive using the API CHl 50 test. Almost all these strains showed an ability to assimilate partially hydrolyzed guar gum with respect to increase in optical density and viable cell count with concomitant decrease in the pH of the growth medium. Streptococcus thermophilus MD2 exhibited higher growth (7.78 log cfu/ml) while P. parvulus AI1 showed comparatively less growth (7.24 log cfu/ml) as compared to used lactobacillus and Weissella strains. Outcomes of the current study suggest that partially hydrolyzed guar can be considered as potential prebiotic compound that may further stimulate the growth of potentially probiotic bacteria or native gut microflora. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation induced degradation of xanthan gum in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayrabolulu, Hande; Demeter, Maria; Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Güven, Olgun; Şen, Murat

    2018-03-01

    In our previous study, we have investigated the effect of gamma rays on xanthan gum in the solid state and it was determined that dose rate was an important factor effecting the radiation degradation of xanthan gum. In the present study, in order to provide a better understanding of how ionizing radiation effect xanthan gum, we have investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on aqueous solutions of xanthan at various concentrations (0.5-4%). Xanthan solutions were irradiated with gamma rays in air, at ambient temperature, at different dose rates (0.1-3.3-7.0 kGy/h) and doses (2.5-50 kGy). Change in their molecular weights was followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Chain scission yield (G(S)), and degradation rate constants (k) were calculated. It was determined that, solution concentration was a factor effecting the degradation chemical yield and degradation rate of xanthan gum. Chain scission reactions were more effective for lower solution concentrations.

  11. The Role of Xylitol Gum Chewing in Restoring Postoperative Bowel Activity After Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jian Tao; Hsieh, Mei-Hui; Cheng, Po-Jen; Lin, Jr-Rung

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of xylitol gum chewing on gastrointestinal recovery after cesarean section. Women who underwent cesarean section (N = 120) were randomly allocated into Group A (xylitol gum), Group B (nonxylitol gum), or the control group (no chewing gum). Every 2 hr post-cesarean section and until first flatus, Groups A and B received two pellets of chewing gum and were asked to chew for 15 min. The times to first bowel sounds, first flatus, and first defecation were then compared among the three groups. Group A had the shortest mean time to first bowel sounds (6.9 ± 1.7 hr), followed by Group B (8 ± 1.6 hr) and the control group (12.8 ± 2.5 hr; one-way analysis of variance, p < .001; Scheffe's post hoc comparisons, p < .05). The gum-chewing groups demonstrated a faster return of flatus than the control group did (p < .001), but the time to flatus did not differ significantly between the gum-chewing groups. Additionally, the differences in the time to first defecation were not significant. After cesarean section, chewing gum increased participants' return of bowel activity, as measured by the appearance of bowel sounds and the passage of flatus. In this context, xylitol-containing gum may be superior to xylitol-free gum. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Steady and dynamic shear rheological behavior of semi dilute Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum solutions: influence of concentration, temperature and heating-cooling rate.

    PubMed

    Alaeddini, Behzad; Koocheki, Arash; Mohammadzadeh Milani, Jafar; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak

    2018-05-01

    Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) solution exhibits high viscosity at low shear rates and has anionic features. However there is no information regarding the flow and dynamic properties of this gum in semi-dilute solutions. The present study aimed to investigate the dynamic and steady shear behavior of AHSG in the semi-dilute region. The viscosity profile demonestrated a shear thinning behavior at all temperatures and concentrations. An increase in the AHSG concentration was acompanied by an increase in the pseudoplasticity degree, whereas, by increasing the temperature, the pseudoplasticity of AHSG decreased. At low gum concentration, solutions had more viscosity dependence on temperature. The mechanical spectra obtained from the frequency sweep experiment demonstrated viscoelastic properties for gum solutions. AHSG solutions showed typical weak gel-like behavior, revealing G' greater than G' within the experimental range of frequency (Hz), with slight frequency dependency. The influence of temperature on viscoelastic properties of AHSG solutions was studied during both heating (5-85 °C) and cooling (85-5 °C) processes. The complex viscosity of AHSG was greater compared to the apparent viscosity, indicating the disruption of AHSG network structure under continuous shear rates and deviation from the Cox-Merz rule. During the initial heating, the storage modulus showed a decreasing trend and, with a further increase in temperature, the magnitude of storage modulus increased. The influence of temperature on the storage modulus was considerable when a higher heating rate was applied. AHSG can be applied as a thickening and stabilizing agents in food products that require good stability against temperature. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Enterocutaneous Fistula: Different Surgical Intervention Techniques for Closure along with Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Paint, Karaya Gum (Hollister) and Gum Acacia for Peristomal Skin Care

    PubMed Central

    Namrata; Ahmad, Shabi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal fistulas are serious complications and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In majority of the patients, fistulas are treatable. However, the treatment is very complex and often multiple therapies are required. These highly beneficial treatment options which could shorten fistula closure time also result in considerable hospital cost savings. Aim This study was planned to study aetiology, clinical presentation, morbidity and mortality of enterocutaneous fistula and to evaluate the different surgical intervention techniques for closure of enterocutaneous fistula along with a comparative evaluation of different techniques for management of peristomal skin with special emphasis on aluminum paint, Karaya gum (Hollister) and Gum Acacia. Materials and Methods This prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Surgery, M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad and its associated hospital (S.R.N. Hospital, Allahabad) for a period of five years. Results Majority of enterocutaneous fistula were of small bowel and medium output fistulas (500-1000 ml/24hours). Most of the patients were treated with conservative treatment as compared to surgical intervention. Large bowel fistula has maximum spontaneous closure rate compare to small bowel and duodenum. Number of orifice whether single or multiple does not appear to play statistically significant role in spontaneous closure of fistula. Serum Albumin is a significantly important predictor of spontaneous fistula closure and mortality. Surgical management appeared to be the treatment of choice in distal bowel fistula. The application of karaya gum (Hollister kit), Gum Acacia and Aluminum Paint gave similar outcome. Conclusion Postoperative fistulas are the most common aetiology of enterocutaneous fistula and various factors do play role in management. Peristomal skin care done with Karaya Gum, Gum Acacia and Aluminum Paint has almost equal efficiency in management of skin

  14. Chewing gum decreases energy intake at lunch following a controlled breakfast.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Kresge, Daniel L

    2017-11-01

    The impact of chewing gum on fasting appetite or meal intake has not been studied. We tested the hypothesis that chewing gum would decrease lunch intake after a controlled breakfast, and reduce hunger in fasting and fed states. Seventeen males and sixteen females (21.4 ± 6.3y, BMI 23.8 ± 2.7 kg/m 2 ) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum a total of 1 h on the test day (GC), and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). The 1 h of gum chewing included 20 min while fasting, and two 20-min sessions between breakfast and lunch. Subjects rated their appetite and mood on visual analog scales. After completing the fasting measures, subjects consumed a breakfast shake containing 30% of their measured resting energy expenditure. Three hours later they consumed an ad libitum lunch with water. Fasting ratings of hunger were lower in GC than NG (t = 2.66, p = 0.01). Subjects consumed significantly less pasta (41 g, 68 kcals, t = 2.32, p = 0.03) during GC than NG. In conclusion, gum chewing decreased fasting hunger ratings and lunch energy consumed. Chewing gum may be a useful tool impacting energy balance in this population. Longer studies, especially in other populations, will be required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, heart rate, EEG and mood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew P; Jacob, Tim J C; Smith, Andrew P

    2014-06-22

    Research has shown that chewing gum improves attention, although the mechanism for this effect remains unclear. This study investigated the effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, mood, heart rate and EEG. Participants completed a vigilance task four times; at baseline, with or without chewing gum, and twice post-chewing. EEG alpha and beta power at left frontal and temporal lobes, subjective mood and heart rate were assessed. Chewing gum shortened reaction time and increased the rate of hits, although hits fell during the second post-chewing task. Chewing gum heightened heart rate, but only during chewing. Gum also increased beta power at F7 and T3 immediately post-chewing, but not following the post-chewing tasks. The findings show that chewing gum affects several different indicators of alertness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative efficacy of rapid-release nicotine gum versus nicotine polacrilex gum in relieving smoking cue-provoked craving.

    PubMed

    Niaura, Raymond; Sayette, Michael; Shiffman, Saul; Glover, Elbert D; Nides, Mitch; Shelanski, Morris; Shadel, William; Koslo, Randy; Robbins, Bruce; Sorrentino, Jim

    2005-11-01

    Most relapse episodes occur when smokers are confronted with craving provoked by situational cues. Current nicotine gum can help relieve cue-provoked cravings, but faster effects may result in more rapid relief. We tested a prototype formulation of a new rapid-release nicotine gum (RRNG) that provides more rapid release and absorption of nicotine, for its ability to provide faster and better craving relief compared to current nicotine polacrilex gum (NPG). Random assignment to RRNG or NPG, used during a smoking cue provocation procedure. Participants and setting A total of 319 smokers were exposed to a smoking cue in the laboratory by being asked to light but not smoke a cigarette of their preferred brand. Subjects then chewed a piece of 2 mg RRNG (n = 159) or 2 mg NPG (n = 160) according to randomized assignment. Craving assessments were completed at regular intervals before and after cue exposure (baseline, pre-cue, and 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 25, 30 and 35 minutes after the cue). Smokers chewing RRNG showed significantly lower craving than NPG subjects starting with the first assessment at 3 minutes (P < 0.025). Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant treatment x time interaction (P < 0.05)-craving scores dropped more rapidly in RRNG subjects compared to NPG subjects. Survival analyses also indicated superiority of RRNG in achieving more rapid self-reported meaningful relief (P < 0.05) and complete relief (P < 0.05) of craving. Rapid-release nicotine gum reduced cue-provoked craving more rapidly compared to NPG, and thus merits further study in cessation efficacy trials.

  17. 78 FR 43226 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigations... injury by reason of imports from China of xanthan gum provided for in subheading 3913.90.20 of the... China of xanthan gum. Background The Commission instituted these investigations effective June 5, 2012...

  18. Effects of guar gum ingestion on postprandial blood pressure in older adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, A L; Hwang, S K; Kim, D U

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of guar gum on postprandial blood pressure in older people. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Community senior centers in B city, South Korea. Twenty-two older female adults aged 67 to 88 with postprandial hypotension. The participants were randomly assigned to guar gum (semi-fluid food with 9 gram) or placebo intervention during the first treatment phase. After a washout period of 1 week, the two interventions were switched to the other in the second treatment phase. Blood pressure was measured during both phases before having a meal and every 15 minutes during 120 minutes after a meal with automated sphygmomanometer. Change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) over time was significantly different between guar gum and placebo groups (F=4.07, p=0.001). Compared with placebo group, guar gum group had significantly low prevalence of postprandial hypotension (PPH) (guar gum group=18.2% vs. placebo group=72.7%; χ² =13.20, p<0.001). It also had significant difference in change of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over time between guar gum and placebo groups (F=2.49, p=0.027). This findings show that guar gum could be effective on postprandial drops in blood pressure in older female adults.

  19. Gum and deposit formation in diesel fuels. Final report, 1984-1988

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mayo, F.R.; Mill, T.

    1988-05-15

    The authors examined two aspects of the stability of diesel fuels in storage: the formation of sediments in suspension, which subsequently clog filters, and the formation of soluble gum, which passes the filters but then forms hard deposits on hot engine parts. Research on fuel stability at SRI during the last 6 years has shown that soluble gum appears first on storage, and then part of it grows into sediment. If the oxidation mixture is agitated gently, the precipitating gum grows on the surface gum, and no loose sediment is formed. Three mechanisms of gum formation were distinguished: (1) amore » process intimately associated with chain propagation and termination during oxidation, (2) a coupling of fuel molecules by decomposing peroxides in the absence of oxygen, and (3) a condensation of naphthols and aldehydes from the oxidation of alkylnaphthalenes. The polymeric oxidation products from a JP-8 fuel are shown to be largely responsible for deposits in the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT).« less

  20. Wire-Active Microrheology to Differentiate Viscoelastic Liquids from Soft Solids.

    PubMed

    Loosli, Frédéric; Najm, Matthieu; Chan, Raymond; Oikonomou, Evdokia; Grados, Arnaud; Receveur, Mathieu; Berret, Jean-François

    2016-12-15

    Viscoelastic liquids are characterized by a finite static viscosity and a yield stress of zero, whereas soft solids have an infinite viscosity and a non-zero yield stress. The rheological nature of viscoelastic materials has long been a challenge and is still a matter of debate. Here, we provide for the first time the constitutive equations of linear viscoelasticity for magnetic wires in yield-stress materials, together with experimental measurements by using magnetic rotational spectroscopy (MRS). In MRS, the wires were subjected to a rotational magnetic field as a function of frequency and the motion of the wire was monitored by using time-lapse microscopy. The studied soft solids were aqueous dispersions of gel-forming polysaccharide (gellan gum) at concentrations above the gelification point. It was found that soft solids exhibited a clear and distinctive signature compared with viscous and viscoelastic liquids. In particular, the average wire rotation velocity equaled zero over a broad frequency range. We also showed that the MRS technique is quantitative. The equilibrium elastic modulus was retrieved from the wire oscillation amplitudes, and agrees with polymer-dynamics theory. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The addition of locust bean gum but not water delayed the gastric emptying rate of a nutrient semisolid meal in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Darwiche, Gassan; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-olof

    2003-01-01

    Background Most of the previous studies regarding the effects of gel-forming fibres have considered the gastric emptying of liquid or solid meals after the addition of pectin or guar gum. The influence of locust bean gum, on gastric emptying of nutrient semisolid meals in humans has been less well studied, despite its common occurrence in foods. Using a standardised ultrasound method, this study was aimed at investigating if the gastric emptying in healthy subjects could be influenced by adding locust been gum, a widely used thickening agent, or water directly into a nutrient semisolid test meal. Methods The viscosity of a basic test meal (300 g rice pudding, 330 kcal) was increased by adding Nestargel (6 g, 2.4 kcal), containing viscous dietary fibres (96.5%) provided as seed flour of locust bean gum, and decreased by adding 100 ml of water. Gastric emptying of these three test meals were evaluated in fifteen healthy non-smoking volunteers, using ultrasound measurements of the gastric antral area to estimate the gastric emptying rate (GER). Results The median value of GER with the basic test meal (rice pudding) was estimated at 63 %, (range 47 to 84 %), (the first quartile = 61 %, the third quartile = 69 %). Increasing the viscosity of the rice pudding by adding Nestargel, resulted in significantly lower gastric emptying rates (p < 0.01), median GER 54 %, (range 7 to 71 %), (the first quartile = 48 %, the third quartile = 60 %). When the viscosity of the rice pudding was decreased (basic test meal added with water), the difference in median GER 65 %, (range 38 to 79 %), (the first quartile = 56 %, the third quartile = 71 %) was not significantly different (p = 0.28) compared to the GER of the basic test meal. Conclusions We conclude that the addition of locust bean gum to a nutrient semisolid meal has a major impact on gastric emptying by delaying the emptying rate, but that the addition of water to this test meal has no influence on gastric emptying in healthy

  2. The addition of locust bean gum but not water delayed the gastric emptying rate of a nutrient semisolid meal in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Darwiche, Gassan; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-Olof

    2003-06-06

    Most of the previous studies regarding the effects of gel-forming fibres have considered the gastric emptying of liquid or solid meals after the addition of pectin or guar gum. The influence of locust bean gum, on gastric emptying of nutrient semisolid meals in humans has been less well studied, despite its common occurrence in foods. Using a standardised ultrasound method, this study was aimed at investigating if the gastric emptying in healthy subjects could be influenced by adding locust been gum, a widely used thickening agent, or water directly into a nutrient semisolid test meal. The viscosity of a basic test meal (300 g rice pudding, 330 kcal) was increased by adding Nestargel (6 g, 2.4 kcal), containing viscous dietary fibres (96.5%) provided as seed flour of locust bean gum, and decreased by adding 100 ml of water. Gastric emptying of these three test meals were evaluated in fifteen healthy non-smoking volunteers, using ultrasound measurements of the gastric antral area to estimate the gastric emptying rate (GER). The median value of GER with the basic test meal (rice pudding) was estimated at 63%, (range 47 to 84%), (the first quartile = 61%, the third quartile = 69%). Increasing the viscosity of the rice pudding by adding Nestargel, resulted in significantly lower gastric emptying rates (p < 0.01), median GER 54%, (range 7 to 71%), (the first quartile = 48%, the third quartile = 60%). When the viscosity of the rice pudding was decreased (basic test meal added with water), the difference in median GER 65%, (range 38 to 79%), (the first quartile = 56%, the third quartile = 71%) was not significantly different (p = 0.28) compared to the GER of the basic test meal. We conclude that the addition of locust bean gum to a nutrient semisolid meal has a major impact on gastric emptying by delaying the emptying rate, but that the addition of water to this test meal has no influence on gastric emptying in healthy subjects.

  3. Studies on gum of Moringa oleifera for its emulsifying properties.

    PubMed

    Panda, Dibya Sundar

    2014-04-01

    Emulsion has been a form of presenting water insoluble substances for a long period of time. Now a day, it has been a way of presenting various intravenous additives and diagnostic agents in X-ray examinations. Various substances can be used as emulsifying agent, which can be operationally defined as a stabilizer of the droplets formed of the internal phase. Gum from Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its emulsifying properties. Castor oil emulsions 30 percent (o/w), containing 2 to 4% Moringa oleifera gum was prepared. Emulsions containing equivalent concentration of acacia were also prepared for comparison. All the emulsions prepared were stored at room temperature and studied for stability at various time intervals for 8 weeks. The prepared emulsions were evaluated for creaming rate, globule size and rate of coalescence. 23 factorial design was chosen to investigate the effects of centrifugation, pH, temperature changes and electrolytes on the creaming rate and globule size. The results of the investigations show that the gum of Moringa oleifera possesses better emulsifying properties as compared to gum acacia. Gum of Moringa oleifera could be used in pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical preparation.

  4. The impact of chewing gum resistance on immediate free recall.

    PubMed

    Rickman, Sarah; Johnson, Andrew; Miles, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Although the facilitative effects of chewing gum on free recall have proved contentious (e.g., Tucha, Mecklinger, Maier, Hammerl, & Lange, 2004; Wilkinson, Scholey, & Wesnes, 2002), there are strong physiological grounds, for example, increased cerebral activity and blood flow following the act of mastication, to suppose facilitation. The present study manipulated resistance to mastication, that is, chewing four pellets versus one pellet of gum, with the assumption that increased resistance will accentuate cerebral activity and blood flow. Additionally, chewing rate was recorded for all participants. In a within-participants design, participants performed a series of immediate free recall tasks while chewing gum at learning (one or four pellets) and recall (one or four pellets). Increased chewing resistance was not associated with increased memory performance, despite consistent chewing rates for both the one and four pellet conditions at both learning and recall. However, a pattern of recall consistent with context-dependent memory was observed. Here, participants who chewed the equivalent number of gum pellets at both learning and recall experienced significantly superior word recall compared to those conditions where the number of gum pellets differed. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  5. QbD based synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide grafted corn fibre gum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akashdeep; Mangla, Bhumika; Sethi, Sheshank; Kamboj, Sunil; Sharma, Radhika; Rana, Vikas

    2017-01-20

    The aim of present investigation was to utilize quality by design approach for the synthesis of polyacrylamide corn fibre gum (PAAm-g-CFG) from corn fibre gum (CFG) by varying concentration of acrylamide and initiator. The spectral analysis (ATR-FTIR, 1 H NMR, DSC, X-ray and Mass spectroscopy) was conducted to assure grafting copolymerization of CFG with acrylamide. The powder flow properties confirm the porous nature of PAAm-g-CFG. The grafted copolymer dispersion showed shear thinning behaviour that follows Herschel Bulkley model. The viscoelastic analysis suggested viscous liquid like nature of PAAm-g-CFG and its viscosity increases with increase in concentration of PAAm-g-CFG. The mucoadhesive strength of synthesized PAAm-g-CFG was found to be higher than moringa oleifera gum, karaya gum, guar gum, xanthan gum, chitosan and gelatin. Further, the results pointed toward enhanced thermal stability of PAAm-g-CFG. Thus, PAAm-g-CFG has a great potential to be used in food and pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Emulsifying properties of succinylated arabinoxylan-protein gum produced from corn ethanol residuals

    DOE PAGES

    Xiang, Zhouyang; Runge, Troy

    2015-07-21

    This study investigated the possibilities of making valuable products from corn ethanol byproducts and providing the beverage industries more variety of high quality emulsifiers other than gum arabic. An arabinoxylan-protein gum (APG) was extracted from distillers' grains (DG), a low-value corn ethanol byproduct, and modified through acylation with succinic anhydride. The effects of pH and degree of substitution (DS) on the emulsifying properties of succinylated APG, referred to as SAPG, were investigated. Emulsion particle size and stability of APG and gum arabic were comparable at pH 3.5–6.5. Succinylation could enhance the emulsifying properties of APG. Compared to gum arabic, atmore » pH < 5, SAPG emulsions had larger particle size but comparable stability, whereas at pH > 5, SAPG had much smaller particle size and better stability than gum arabic. The results suggested that SAPG, compared to gum arabic, could be a comparable emulsifier at low pH values and a better emulsifier at neutral pH values.« less

  7. Emulsifying properties of succinylated arabinoxylan-protein gum produced from corn ethanol residuals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xiang, Zhouyang; Runge, Troy

    This study investigated the possibilities of making valuable products from corn ethanol byproducts and providing the beverage industries more variety of high quality emulsifiers other than gum arabic. An arabinoxylan-protein gum (APG) was extracted from distillers' grains (DG), a low-value corn ethanol byproduct, and modified through acylation with succinic anhydride. The effects of pH and degree of substitution (DS) on the emulsifying properties of succinylated APG, referred to as SAPG, were investigated. Emulsion particle size and stability of APG and gum arabic were comparable at pH 3.5–6.5. Succinylation could enhance the emulsifying properties of APG. Compared to gum arabic, atmore » pH < 5, SAPG emulsions had larger particle size but comparable stability, whereas at pH > 5, SAPG had much smaller particle size and better stability than gum arabic. The results suggested that SAPG, compared to gum arabic, could be a comparable emulsifier at low pH values and a better emulsifier at neutral pH values.« less

  8. Flavor release measurement from gum model system.

    PubMed

    Ovejero-López, Isabel; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans; Bredie, Wender L P

    2004-12-29

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio-scaled using the signal from acetone in the breath of subjects. Next, APCI-MS and sensory TI curves are smoothed by low-pass filtering. Principal component analysis of the individual curves is used to display graphically the product differentiation by APCI-MS or TI signals. It is shown that differences in gum composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory adaptation and sensitivity differences of human perception versus APCI-MS detection might explain the divergence between the two dynamic measurement methods.

  9. Colin Gum and the discovery of the Gum nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, F. J.

    1971-01-01

    The research of Colin Gum in the field of astronomy is reviewed. It includes a radio survey at 200 MHz, a photographic survey for HII regions in the Southern Milky Way from longitude 220 deg to 20 deg, and a catalogue of 85 physically separate regions. He suggested that certain faint nebulosities were part of a large, nearby H II region excited by gamma Velorum and zeta Puppis. He was also concerned with 21-cm studies.

  10. Reported gum disease as a cardiovascular risk factor in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, K; Murthy, S; Heller, T; Rimmer, J H; Yen, G

    2018-03-01

    Several risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been identified among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Periodontitis has been reported to increase the risk of developing a CVD in the general population. Given that individuals with ID have been reported to have a higher prevalence of poor oral health than the general population, the purpose of this study was to determine whether adults with ID with informant reported gum disease present greater reported CVD than those who do not have reported gum disease and whether gum disease can be considered a risk factor for CVD. Using baseline data from the Longitudinal Health and Intellectual Disability Study from which informant survey data were collected, 128 participants with reported gum disease and 1252 subjects without reported gum disease were identified. A series of univariate logistic regressions was conducted to identify potential confounding factors for a multiple logistic regression. The series of univariate logistic regressions identified age, Down syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, reported gum disease, daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and the addition of table salt as significant risk factors for reported CVD. When the significant factors from the univariate logistic regression were included in the multiple logistic analysis, reported gum disease remained as an independent risk factor for reported CVD after adjusting for the remaining risk factors. Compared with the adults with ID without reported gum disease, adults in the gum disease group demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence of reported CVD (19.5% vs. 9.7%; P = .001). After controlling for other risk factors, reported gum disease among adults with ID may be associated with a higher risk of CVD. However, further research that also includes clinical indices of periodontal disease and CVD for this population is needed to determine if there is a causal relationship between gum disease and CVD. © 2017 MENCAP

  11. Gum spots caused by cambium miners in black cherry in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Charles O. Rexrode; John E. Baumgras

    1980-01-01

    Six types of gum spots in black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh. were associated with parenchyma flecks caused by the cambium miner Phytobia pruni (Gross). The number of parenchyma flecks and associated gum spots increased with the height of the tree. Four percent of the flecks produced gum spots in the first 18 to 20 feet of the...

  12. X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed guar gum.

    PubMed

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-05-01

    Guar gum was hydrolyzed using cellulase from Aspergillus niger at 5.6 pH and 50°C temperature. Hydrolyzed guar gum sample was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, dilute solution viscometry and rotational viscometry. Viscometry analysis of native guar gum showed a molecular weight of 889742.06, whereas, after enzymatic hydrolysis, the resultant product had a molecular weight of 7936.5. IR spectral analysis suggests that after enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum there was no major transformation of functional group. Thermal analysis revealed no major change in thermal behavior of hydrolyzed guar gum. It was shown that partial hydrolysis of guar gum could be achieved by inexpensive and food grade cellulase (Aspergillus niger) having commercial importance and utilization as a functional soluble dietary fiber for food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Analysis of constituents of ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives].

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Masuda, Aino; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yamagata, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2007-12-01

    The differences in the constituents of ten ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives in Japan (urushi wax, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, rice bran wax, shellac wax, jojoba wax, bees wax, Japan wax, montan wax, and lanolin) were investigated. Several kinds of gum bases showed characteristic TLC patterns of lipids. In addition, compositions of fatty acid and alcohol moieties of esters in the gum bases were analyzed by GC/MS after methanolysis and hydrolysis, respectively. The results indicated that the varieties of fatty acids and alcohols and their compositions were characteristic for each gum base. These results will be useful for identification and discrimination of the ester-type gum bases.

  14. Long-term effects of guar gum in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Groop, P H; Aro, A; Stenman, S; Groop, L

    1993-10-01

    The effects of 15 g guar gum/d on glycemic control, lipids, and insulin secretion were studied in 15 (8 male, 7 female) diet-treated subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus for 48 wk. Mean age (+/- SD) was 60 +/- 2 y (range 45-70 y), body mass index (in kg/m2) 28.6 +/- 0.9 (range 21.6 +/- 39.2), and duration of diabetes 6 +/- 1 y (range 2-14 y). Guar gum was preceded and followed by 8-wk placebo periods. Guar gum improved long-term glycemic control, postprandial glucose tolerance and lipid concentrations. The C-peptide response to a test meal increased by time during guar gum treatment, whereas the insulin response remained unchanged. This indicates that insulin secretion is enhanced by guar gum as reflected by increased C-peptide. A decreased molar ratio of insulin to C-peptide suggests that guar gum may increase hepatic insulin extraction. In conclusion, guar gum has favorable long-term effects on glycemic control and lipid concentrations.

  15. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  16. Rheological and Quality Characteristics of Taftoon Bread as Affected by Salep and Persian Gums.

    PubMed

    Sahari, M A; Mohammadi, R; Hamidi Esfehani, Z

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salep gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w flour basis) and the Persian gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 3% (w/w flour basis) and combination of the two gums at concentrations of 0.5% + 0.5%, 0.75% + 0.25%, and 0.25% + 0.75% on rheological properties of the wheat flour dough and quality of Taftoon bread were studied with regard to retardation of staling. Rheological (farinograph and extensograph) characteristics, staling, and organoleptic evaluations were performed on the dough and the resulting Taftoon bread. Statistical results showed that the salep gum at 5% and Persian gum at 3% (w/w flour basis) had a significant effect on the dough properties. Salep and Persian gums when each separately added increased and decreased dough water absorption, respectively. Both hydrocolloids increased the dough resistance to extension and decreased its extensibility. Persian gum shows dual nature in water absorption and some other baking properties. Textural studies revealed that addition of 5% salep gum (w/w flour basis) reduced the bread crumb firmness and delayed the staling process of the Taftoon bread. X-ray diffraction study also confirmed this result.

  17. Evaluation of mucoadhesive potential of gum cordia, an anionic polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Munish; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-04-01

    The study involves mucoadhesive evaluation by formulating buccal discs using fluconazole as the model drug. The effect of compression pressure and gum cordia/lactose ratio on the ex vivo bioadhesion time and in vitro release of fluconazole was optimized using central composite experimental design. It was observed that the response ex vivo bioadhesion time was affected significantly by the proportion of gum cordia in the buccal discs while the in vitro release of fluconazole from the buccal discs was influenced significantly by the compression pressure. The optimized batch of buccal discs comprised of gum cordia/lactose - 0.66, fluconazole - 20 mg and was compressed at the pressure of 6600 kg. Further, it provided the ex vivo bioadhesion of 22 h and in vitro release of 80% in 24h. In conclusion, gum cordia is a promising bucoadhesive polymer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chewing gum, occupational stress, work performance and wellbeing. An intervention study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew P; Chaplin, Katherine; Wadsworth, Emma

    2012-06-01

    An intervention study was carried out to examine the effects of chewing gum on occupational stress and related outcomes. 101 volunteers from Cardiff University completed the study. The results showed that chewing gum reduced stress (both at work and outside work), reduced fatigue, reduced anxiety and depression and led to a more positive mood. Chewing gum was also associated with perceptions of better performance (both at work and outside). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Task-induced activation and hemispheric dominance in cerebral circulation during gum chewing.

    PubMed

    Ono, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hori, K; Nokubi, T; Hamasaki, T

    2007-10-01

    In elderly persons, it is thought that maintenance of masticatory function may have a beneficial effect on maintenance of cerebral function. However, few studies on cerebral circulation during mastication exist. This study aimed to verify a possible increase in cerebral circulation and the presence of cerebral hemispheric dominance during gum chewing. Twelve healthy, young right-handed subjects with normal dentition were enrolled. Bilateral middle cerebral arterial blood flow velocities (MCAV), heart rate, and arterial carbon dioxide levels were measured during a handgrip exercise and gum chewing. During gum chewing, electromyography of the bilateral masseter muscle was recorded.MCAV and heart rate significantly increased during exercise compared to values at rest. During gum chewing, there were no differences in the rate of increase in MCAV between the working and non-working sides, but during the handgrip exercise, the rate of increase in MCAV was significantly greater for the non-working side than for the working side. During gum chewing,muscle activity on the working side was significantly greater than that on the non-working side. These results suggest that during gum chewing, cerebral circulation increases bilaterally and does not show contralateral dominance, as it does during the handgrip exercise.

  20. Gum Disease by the Numbers | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... us Gum Disease by the Numbers Gum (or periodontal) disease is one of the leading threats to dental health. It's typically caused by poor brushing and flossing habits that allow plaque—a sticky film of bacteria—to build up on teeth and harden. In ...

  1. Effect of CMC addition on steady and dynamic shear rheological properties of binary systems of xanthan gum and guar gum.

    PubMed

    Bak, J H; Yoo, B

    2018-04-12

    The effect of CMC on the steady and dynamic shear rheological properties of binary mixtures of XG and GG was examined at different mixing ratios. All XG-GG-CMC ternary mixtures had high shear-thinning behavior and the n value of the sample with 5% CMC was the smallest compared with those of other samples. A marked increase in K and η a,50 values was observed for ternary mixtures at a lower content (5%) of CMC, indicating that the synergistic interactions of the XG-GG binary mixture were affected by the content of CMC. The effect of temperature on the η a,50 was well described by the Arrhenius equation for all samples. The activation energy values of all ternary gum mixtures are higher than that of binary gum mixture, and these values also decreased with an increase in CMC content from 5 to 15%. The dynamic moduli of ternary gum mixtures decreased with an increase in CMC content. The tan δ value of the ternary gum mixture with 5% CMC was much lower than those of other ternary mixtures. In general, these results suggest that the flow and dynamic shear rheological properties of XG-GG binary mixtures are strongly influenced by a small addition of CMC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets.

    PubMed

    Christrup, L L; Angelo, H R; Bonde, J; Kristensen, F; Rasmussen, S N

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum and tablets (p greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts.

  3. Gum formation tendencies of olefinic structures in gasoline and synergistic effect of sulphur compounds

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nagpal, J.M.; Joshi, G.C.; Aswal, D.S.

    1995-04-01

    The high octane gasoline pool contains varying amounts of cracked naphthas as an important ingredient in formulating high octane lead free gasoline. The cracked naphthas are largely from Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units and to lesser extend from thermal cracking units. While the role of olefinic unsaturation in gum formation during storage of gasoline has been extensively studied, there is little published work on contribution of individual olefin types in storage stability and gum formation tendency of gasoline containing these compound types. In the present work we report our results on storage stability and gum formation tendency of different olefinmore » types present in cracked naphthas through model compound matrix. It is found that cyclic olefins and cyclic diolefins are the most prolific gum formers. We have also studied the role of sulfur compounds present in the gasolines on gum formation tendency of olefins. While thiols enhance gum formation from all olefinic types, sulfides and disulfides interact depending on the structure of olefins. These can have either an accelerating, or inhibiting effect on gum formation.« less

  4. Direct photography of the Gum Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Roosen, R. G.; Thompson, J.; Ludden, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses a series of wide-angle photographs taken of the Gum Nebula in the traditional region including H-alpha with the aid of a 40-cm and an 80-cm lens in both the red and the green. The photographs support the large dimensions (75 deg in galactic longitude by 40 deg in galactic latitude) of the Gum Nebula suggested earlier, and the appearance is consistent with an origin due to photons from a supernova outburst. The relatively high-density gas has cooled and is visible on the red plates. The low-density gas has remained at a high temperature and may be visible as diffuse emission on the green plates.

  5. Effects of xanthan, guar, carrageenan and locust bean gum addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Zeynep Ozben; Yılmaz, Ismail; Demirci, Ahmet Şukru

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan and locust bean gum on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs. Meatball samples were produced with three different formulations including of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% each gum addition and gum added samples were compared with the control meatballs. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on raw and cooked samples separately. Moisture contents of raw samples decreased by addition of gums. There were significant decreases (p < 0.05) in moisture and fat contents of raw and cooked meatball samples formulated with gum when compared with control. Ash contents and texture values increased with gum addition to meatballs. Meatball redness decreased with more gum addition in raw and cooked meatball samples, which means that addition of gums resulted in a lighter-coloured product. According to sensory analysis results, locust bean gum added (1%) samples were much preferred by the panelists.

  6. [Gum-like exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) as culture media for fungi].

    PubMed

    Mesa, L M; León-Pinto, G

    1993-01-01

    Morphological studies of eight species of fungus: Aspergillus flavus Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Curvularia lunata, Cladosporium carrionii, Natrassia mangífera (Edo. Scytalidium), Sporotrix schenckii y Rhizophus oligosporus, which belong to families Mucedinaceae, Dematiaceae and Mucoraceae have been carried out in support medium based in gum exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (mangle blanco). This native polimer contains galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, uronic acid and proteins. Nitrogen calcium and magnesium are microconstituents of the gum. An economical substrate which contained gum exudate (4%) and agar (1.5%) was used in these studies. The results obtained showed that gum exudate-agar medium (EGA) permits an adequate identification of the studied species, therefore, it is a possible substitute for Sabouraud. It is important to know that the gum exudate is a natural product, economical and easy to obtain.

  7. Influence of gas injection on viscous and viscoelastic properties of Xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Bobade, Veena; Cheetham, Madalyn; Hashim, Jamal; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2018-05-01

    Xanthan gum is widely used as a model fluid for sludge to mimic the rheological behaviour under various conditions including impact of gas injection in sludge. However, there is no study to show the influence of gas injection on rheological properties of xanthan gum specifically at the concentrations at which it is used as a model fluid for sludge with solids concentration above 2%. In this paper, the rheological properties of aqueous xanthan gum solutions at different concentrations were measured over a range of gas injection flow rates. The effect of gas injection on both the flow and viscoelastic behaviour of Xanthan gum (using two different methods - a creep test and a time sweep test) was evaluated. The viscosity curve of different solid concentrations of digested sludge and waste activated sludge were compared with different solid concentrations of Xanthan gum and the results showed that Xanthan gum can mimic the flow behaviour of sludge in flow regime. The results in linear viscoelastic regime showed that increasing gas flow rate increases storage modulus (G'), indicating an increase in the intermolecular associations within the material structure leading to an increase in material strength and solid behaviour. Similarly, in creep test an increase in the gas flow rate decreased strain%, signifying that the material has become more resistant to flow. Both observed behaviour is opposite to what occurs in sludge under similar conditions. The results of both the creep test and the time sweep test indicated that choosing Xanthan gum aqueous solution as a transparent model fluid for sludge in viscoelastic regime under similar conditions involving gas injection in a concentration range studied is not feasible. However Xanthan gum can be used as a model material for sludge in flow regime; because it shows a similar behaviour to sludge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Construction and application of a Xanthomonas campestris CGMCC15155 strain that produces white xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaohui; Gao, Ge; Wu, Mengmeng; Wei, Weiying; Qu, Jianmei; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2018-04-15

    In the industrial production of xanthan gum using Xanthomonas campestris CGMCC15155, large amounts of ethanol are required to extract xanthan gum from the fermentation broth and remove xanthomonadin impurities. To reduce the amount of ethanol and the overall production cost of xanthan gum, a xanthomonadin-deficient strain of CGMCC15155 was constructed by inserting the Vitreoscilla globin (vgb) gene, under the control of the LacZ promoter, into the region of the pigA gene, which is involved in xanthomonadin synthesis. The insertion of vgb inactivated pigA, resulting in the production of white xanthan gum. The lack of xanthomonadins resulted in a decreased yield of xanthan gum. However, the expression product of vgb gene, VHb, could increase the metabolism of X. campestris, which allowed the production of xanthan gum to reach wild-type levels in the engineered strain. The yield, molecular weight, and rheological properties of the xanthan gum synthesized by the engineered and wild-type bacteria were essentially the same. When the same volume of ethanol was used, the whiteness values of the xanthan gum extracted from engineered and wild-type bacteria were 65.20 and 38.17, respectively. To extract xanthan gum with the same whiteness, three and seven times the fermentation volume of ethanol was required for the engineered and wild-type strains, respectively. Thus, the engineered train reduced the requirement for ethanol in xanthan gum production by 133.3%. The results demonstrated that the engineered bacteria used less ethanol, thus reducing the downstream processing cost in xanthan gum production. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Gum spots in black cherry caused by natural attacks of peach bark beetle

    Treesearch

    Charles O. Rexrode

    1981-01-01

    Peach bark beetles, Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris), made abortive attacks on healthy black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh., trees. The beetle attacks caused five types of gum spots in the wood and a gummy exudate on the bark. The most extensive and common types of gum spot were single and multiple rows of interray gum spots that...

  10. [Effect of chewing gum on halitosis].

    PubMed

    De Luca-Monasterios, Fiorella; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; López-López, José

    2014-07-22

    This study aims to estimate the prevalence of oral halitosis in a young population and show the effect of chewing gum on their breath. Prospective, descriptive correlational cross section study. We selected a convenience sample of 121 young individuals and 98 completed the study. It was carried out at the University Dental Hospital-University of Barcelona. The protocol consisted of: questionnaire, oral clinical evaluation, organoleptic tests (OT) and measurement of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) with sulphide monitoring before and after chewing gum during 15 min, with 2 calibrated investigators. A percentage of 87.8 had adequate oral hygiene, 17.3% reported bad breath and 29.6% had xerostomia. Forty-four subjects had a OT grade ≥2; the agreement of examiners was 75%. The VSC in 53 individuals were ≤100 parts per billion (ppb) and in 45 subjects, it was>100 ppb. A post-reduction of VSC of 17.34% was obtained with a mean decrease of 1.8-9.0 ppb (P=.003). The prevalence of halitosis was 36.7%. The use of chewing gum as an adjunct in cases of halitosis decreases the VSC, improving the perception of others and the patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of a Treatment Approach Combining Nicotine Gum with Self-Guided Behavioral Treatments for Smoking Relapse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Joel D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Randomly assigned 1,218 smokers to cells in 4 (nicotine gum delivered ad lib, fixed regimen nicotine gum, placebo gum, no gum) x 3 (self-selected relapse prevention modules, randomly administered modules, no modules) design. Subjects receiving nicotine gum were more likely to be abstinent at 2- and 6-month followups. Fixed regimen accounted for…

  12. Water adsorption isotherms of carboxymethyl cellulose, guar, locust bean, tragacanth and xanthan gums.

    PubMed

    Torres, María D; Moreira, Ramón; Chenlo, Francisco; Vázquez, María J

    2012-06-20

    Water adsorption isotherms of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), guar gum (GG), locust bean gum (LBG), tragacanth gum (TG) and xanthan gum (XG) were determined at different temperatures (20, 35, 50, and 65°C) using a gravimetric method. Several saturated salt solutions were selected to obtain different water activities in the range from 0.09 to 0.91. Water adsorption isotherms of tested hydrocolloids were classified like type II isotherms. In all cases, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature at each water activity value. Three-parameter Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was employed to fit the experimental data in the water activity range and statistical analysis indicated that this model gave satisfactory results. CMC and GG were the most and the least hygroscopic gums, respectively. Sorption heats decreased with increasing moisture content. Monolayer moisture content evaluated with GAB model was consistent with equilibrium conditions of maximum stability calculated from thermodynamic analysis of net integral entropy. Values of equilibrium relative humidity at 20°C are proposed to storage adequately the tested gums. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of xanthan gum from a chemically defined medium introduction

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Weisrock, W.P.; Klein, H.S.

    1983-02-22

    Heteropolysaccharides produced by the action of Xanthomonas bacteria on carbohydrate media have a potential application as film forming agents, as thickeners in oil field drilling fluids and fracturing liquids and as emulsifying, stabilizing, and sizing agents. Heteropolysaccharides, particularly, xanthan gum, have a significant potential as mobility control agents in micellar polymer flooding. Xanthan gum has excellent viscosifying properties at low concentration, is resistant to shear degradation and exhibits only minimal losses in viscosity as a function of temperature, pH, and ionic strength. For these reasons, xanthan gum is an attractive alternative to synthetic polyacrylamides for enhanced oil recovery operations. 15more » claims.« less

  14. Glucose absorption, hormonal release and hepatic metabolism after guar gum ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoes Nunes, C.; Malmlof, K.

    1992-01-01

    Six non-anaesthetized Large White pigs (mean body weight 59 +/- 1.7 kg) were fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein, the brachiocephalic artery and the right hepatic vein and with electromagnetic flow probes around the portal vein and the hepatic artery. The animals were provided a basal none-fibre diet (diet A) alone or together with 6% guar gum (diet B) or 15% purified cellulose (diet C). The diets were given for 1 week and according to a replicated 3 x 3 latin-square design. On the last day of each adaptation period test meals of 800 g were given prior to blood sampling. The sampling was continued for 8 h. Guar gum strongly reduced the glucose absorption as well as the insulin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production. However, the reduction in peripheral blood insulin levels caused by guar gum was not associated with a change in hepatic insulin extraction. IGF-1 appeared to be strongly produced by the gut. The liver had a net uptake of the peptide. Ingestion of guar gum increased the hepatic extraction coefficient of gut produced IGF-1. Guar gum ingestion also appeared to decrease pancreatic glucagon secretion. Cellulose at the level consumed had very little effect on the parameters considered. It is suggested that the modulation of intestinal mechanisms by guar gum was sufficient to mediate the latter internal metabolic effects.

  15. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2014-08-01

    Guar gum is a polysaccharide obtained from guar seed endosperm portion. Enzymatically hydrolyzed guar gum is low in viscosity and has several health benefits as dietary fiber. In this study, response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum conditions for hydrolysis that give minimum viscosity of guar gum. Central composite was employed to investigate the effects of pH (3-7), temperature (20-60 °C), reaction time (1-5 h) and cellulase concentration (0.25-1.25 mg/g) on viscosity during enzymatic hydrolysis of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus) gum. A second order polynomial model was developed for viscosity using regression analysis. Results revealed statistical significance of model as evidenced from high value of coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.9472) and P < 0.05. Viscosity was primarily affected by cellulase concentration, pH and hydrolysis time. Maximum viscosity reduction was obtained when pH, temperature, hydrolysis time and cellulase concentration were 6, 50 °C, 4 h and 1.00 mg/g, respectively. The study is important in optimizing the enzymatic process for hydrolysis of guar gum as potential source of soluble dietary fiber for human health benefits.

  16. Effect of chewing gums on the production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rösing, Cassiano K; Gomes, Sabrina C; Bassani, Diego G; Oppermann, Rui V

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two chewing gums on the production of volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSC) in vivo. Fourteen periodontally healthy participants (20-35 years old) were included in the test panel. Test gum 1 (TG1) contained sucrose and Test gum 2 (TG2) contained xylitol and zinc citrate. Two series of tests were conducted with a double-blind cross-over design. Following an overnight refrain from oral hygiene, VSC was measured before and at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes of chewing the test gums. In the second series, VSC production was monitored prior to and up to 30 minutes after a rinse with cysteine 6 mM alone or after a rinse followed by chewing the test gums. For the first test, the results were analyzed by repeated measurements ANOVA for intra-group and paired sample t test for intergroup comparisons. In the second series, percent reduction of VSC was compared by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests (p < .05). The test gums did not differ in terms of VSC production, with values ranging from 146 ppb after 5 minutes to 86 ppb after 60 minutes. Similar reductions in VSC production following cysteine were observed for both test gums, with the largest reductions (71% to 52%) observed after 5 and 15 minutes. It can be concluded that VSC production is diminished after chewing gum and that the use of chewing gums reduces temporarily the VSC production enhanced by cysteine rinses.

  17. Effect of chewing gum on the postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Wei; Chen, Gang; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction remains a source of morbidity and the major determinant of length of stay after abdominal operation. There are many different reasons for postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction such as stress response, perioperative interventions, bowel manipulation and so on. The mechanism of enhanced recovery from postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction with the help of chewing gum is believed to be the cephalic-vagal stimulation of digestion which increases the promotability of neural and humoral factors that act on different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, there were a series of randomized controlled trials to confirm the role of chewing gum in the recovery of gastrointestinal function. The results suggested that chewing gum enhanced early recovery of bowel function following abdominal surgery expect the gastrointestinal surgery. However, the effect of chewing gum in gastrointestinal surgery was controversial. PMID:26550107

  18. Structural, Thermal, Physical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Chitosan Films with the Addition of Xanthan Gum.

    PubMed

    de Morais Lima, Maria; Carneiro, Lucia Cesar; Bianchini, Daniela; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Prentice, Carlos; Moreira, Angelita da Silveira

    2017-03-01

    Films based on chitosan and xanthan gum were prepared using casting technique aiming to investigate the potential of these polymers as packaging materials. Six formulations of films were studied varying the proportion of chitosan and xanthan gum: 100:0 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C100XG0 film); 90:10 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C90XG10 film); 80:20 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C80XG20 film); 70:30 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C70XG30 film); 60:40 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C60XG40 film); and 50:50 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C50XG50 film). The total quantity of solids (chitosan and xanthan gum) in the filmogenic solution was 1.5 g per 100 mL of aqueous solution for all treatments, according to the proportion of each polymer. The films were evaluated by their functional groups, structural, thermal, morphological, physical, mechanical, and barrier properties. All films have presented endothermic peaks in the range of 122 to 175 °C and broad exothermic peaks above 200 °C, which were assigned to the melting temperature and thermal decomposition, respectively. These results demonstrated that films with xanthan gum have the highest T m and Δ m H. The films containing higher content of xanthan gum show also the highest tensile strength and the lowest elongation. Xanthan gum addition did not affect the water vapor permeability, solubility, and moisture of films. This set of data suggests the formation of chitosan-xanthan complexes in the films. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Gum and deposit formation from jet-turbine and diesel fuels at 130C

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mayo, F.R.; Lan, Bosco Y.

    1986-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this work is to devise an accelerated test to compare rates of soluble gum and deposit formation from jet-turbine and diesel fuels in storage and of hard deposits in engines. This paper describes rates of oxygen absorption and gum formation in air at 130 C. For a single fuel or hydrocarbon, the rate of gum formation is closely proportional to the oxygen absorbed, even when this rate varies with purification and additives. In general, pure hydrocarbons absorb oxygen much faster than the fuels, but the fuels and 2-ethylnaphthalene give more gum for the oxygen absorbed thanmore » the other pure hydrocarbons. Gum has two main sources; one appears to be associated with the chain termination mechanism in oxidation, the other coupling of fuel molecules in the absence of oxygen. Other possibilities are discussed.« less

  20. Formulation development and evaluation of metformin chewing gum with bitter taste masking

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Sayed Abolfazl; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Arabian, Saber

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medicated gums are intended to be chewed and act either locally, absorbed via the buccal mucosa or swallowed with saliva. We prepared the metformin gum to overcome its side effects including vomiting, diarrhea, and abdomen discomfort. Furthermore, it could be useful for those who have swallowing problems. Materials and Methods: Metformin hydrochloride (250 mg) with suitable sweeteners was mixed manually for 5 min. This mixture was spray dried, freeze dried, or directly mixed with chewing gum base. Glycerin, xylitol, and menthol were added and the produced paste was kept in the freezer for 2 h to be stable. As the metformin shows bitter taste, we tried to mask this unpleasant taste with using different methods explained. The releasing pattern was evaluated by using a mechanical chewing machine. The best formulation with the optimized releasing pattern, suitable physicochemical properties and pleasant taste were selected. Content uniformity, releasing percent, and other physicochemical properties were identified as well. Taste, flavor, and appearance characteristics were evaluated by using a self-made questionnaire based on the hedonic test method. Results: The chewing gum dosage content was about 86.2%. The release rate of metformin chewing gum was about 70% after 5 min of mastication. Masking the bitter taste of drug was achieved by using acesulfame-isomalt as sweeteners and prepared it by freeze drying equipment. Conclusion: Metfornin chewing gum had suitable appearance and appropriate invitro characteristics that fallow the pharmacopeia suggestions. This chewable gum showed bitterness suppression with a suitable release rate. PMID:24800181

  1. [Infrared Spectrum Analysis of Propolis and Tree Gum Collected from Different Areas].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huo-lin; Liu, Xing-xing; Gong, Shang-ji; Guo, Xia-li; Luo, Li-ping

    2015-11-01

    Propolis possesses functions of antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, and liver protection, and is known as the "purple gold", however, the phenomenon which making and selling of counterfeit are growing in intensity. In order to establish a authenticity and quality of propolis evaluation model, in this paper, forty-one Chinese propolis, one proplis from United States and two tree gums were used for experimental materials. The infrared spectrum collection was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data analysis. The result showed that, the intrared spectrum of propolis and tree gum were significantly different. The propolis characteristic peak only appeared in 2500-3500 and 400-1800 cm⁻¹. All propolis had two frequency region of characteristic peaks, 2849.08-2848.53 and 2917.74- 2916.76 cm⁻¹, but tree gum did not have characteristic peak in this region. The characteristic peaks of gum were in 1150-1300 and 1550-1650 cm⁻¹. Differences in these aspects can be used to distinguish propolis and gum, and can be used to identify true and false propolis. We use Qinghai propolis as a standard sample, in 42 samples, the matching degree of other propolis is > 80%. In addition, the result of PCA shows that tree gum and the propolis from different climate zone, or with different colors could be distinguished well. This paper firstly performed analysis on different propolis and gum by infrared spectrum, and a new method, for authenticity and quality of propolis identification, could be developed.

  2. Functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Maphalla, Thabelang Gladys; Emmambux, Mohammad Naushad

    2016-01-20

    Consumer concerns to synthetic chemicals have led to strong preference for 'clean' label starches. Lipid and hydrocolloids are food friendly chemicals. This study determines the effects of stearic acid and xanthan gum alone and in combination on the functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches. An increase in viscosity was observed for all starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum compared to the controls with cassava having the least increase. A further increase in viscosity was observed for the cereal starches with combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum. Stearic acid reduced retrogradation, resulting in soft textured pastes. Combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum reduced the formation of type IIb amylose-lipid complexes, syneresis, and hysteresis in cereal starches compared to stearic acid alone. A combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum produce higher viscosity non-gelling starches and xanthan gum addition increases physical stability to freezing and better structural recovery after shear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of tragacanth gum in egg white based bioplastics: Thermomechanical and water uptake properties.

    PubMed

    López-Castejón, María Luisa; Bengoechea, Carlos; García-Morales, Moisés; Martínez, Inmaculada

    2016-11-05

    This study aims to extend the range of applications of tragacanth gum by studying its incorporation into bioplastics formulation, exploring the influence that different gum contents (0-20wt.%) exert over the thermomechanical and water uptake properties of bioplastics based on egg white albumen protein (EW). The effect of plasticizer nature was also evaluated through the modification of the water/glycerol ratio within the plasticizer fraction (fixed at 40wt.%). The addition of tragacanth gum generally yielded an enhancement of the water uptake capacity, being doubled at the highest content. Conversely, presence of tragacanth gum resulted in a considerable decrease in the bioplastic mechanical properties: both tensile strength and maximum elongation were reduced up to 75% approximately when compared to the gum-free system. Ageing of selected samples was also studied, revealing an important effect of storage time when tragacanth gum is present, possibly due to its hydrophilic character. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic Effects of Nicotine Gum and Cigarette Smoking: Potential Implications for Postcessation Weight Gain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klesges, Robert C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twenty smoking women participated in nicotine gum and smoking administration, after which resting energy expenditures (REEs) were measured. Results indicated acute increase in REE for both nicotine gum and cigarettes. Metabolic rates for nicotine gum slowly returned to baseline; rates for cigarettes quickly fell significantly below baseline.…

  5. Characterisation and molecular association of Nigerian and Sudanese Acacia gum exudates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The chemical and physicochemical characteristics of gum exudate samples harvested from mature trees of Acacia senegal at two specific locations in Nigeria have been investigated together with gum samples harvested from Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal originating from Sudan. The monosaccharide sugar ...

  6. Gum and deposit formation from jet-turbine and diesel fuels at 100 C

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mayo, F.R.; Lan, B.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of oxidation and gum formation for six hydrocarbons, three jet-turbine fuels and three diesel fuels have been measured at 100 C in the presence of t-Bu2O2 tert-butyl-peroxide as initiator. Four of six fuels oxidize faster at 100 C than in previous work at 130 C with initiator. Four any single substrate, the amount of gum produced for the oxygen absorbed is similar at 100 and 130 C even with large changes in rates and t-Bu2O2 concentrations. Thus, one mechanism of gum formation is intimately associated with oxidation. The effects of t-Bu2O2 concentration on the rates of oxygen absorption andmore » gum formation show that gum formation is associated with chain termination by two peroxy radicals. In general, the pure hydrocarbons have long kinetic chains and give good yields of hydroperoxides. The fuels give short kinetic chains and produce little hydroperoxide but but much more gum formation is the coupling of substrates by peroxides in the absence of oxygen. The mechanism, condensation of oxidation products from alkylnaphthalenes, is also proposed.« less

  7. Design and Development of Repaglinide Microemulsion Gel for Transdermal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Ujwala A; Modani, Sheela H; Singh, Kavita H

    2018-01-01

    Microemulsion formulation of repaglinide, a BCS class II hypoglycemic agent with limited oral bioavailability, was developed considering its solubility in various oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams for microemulsion regions were constructed by water titration method at K m 1:1 and characterized for optical birefringence, percentage transmittance, pH, refractive index, globule size, zeta potential, viscosity, drug content, and thermodynamic stability. To enhance the drug permeation and residence time, the optimized microemulsions having mean globule size of 36.15 ± 9.89 nm was gelled with xanthan gum. The developed microemulsion-based gel was characterized for globule size, zeta potential, pH, and drug content. All evaluation parameters upon gelling were found to be satisfactory. Ex vivo permeability study across rat skin demonstrated higher steady-state flux (P < 0.05) for microemulsion of repaglinide in comparison to the repaglinide microemulsion gel. At the end of 24 h, the cumulative drug permeation from microemulsion and microemulsion gel was found to be 229.19 ± 24.34 and 180.84 ± 17.40 μg/cm 2 , respectively. The microemulsion formulation showed 12.30-fold increase in flux as compared to drug suspension with highest enhancement ratio (E r ) of 12.36. Whereas microemulsion gel exhibited 10.97-fold increase in flux (with highest E r , 11.78) as compared to repaglinide (RPG) suspension. In vivo efficacy study was performed in normal Sprague-Dawley rats by using oral glucose tolerance test. Results of RPG transdermal microemulsion gel demonstrated remarkable advantage over orally administered RPG by reducing the glucose level in controlled manner. Hence, it could be a new, alternative dosage form for effective therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Efficacy of bupropion alone and in combination with nicotine gum

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Megan E.; Federman, E. Belle; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Smith, Stevens S.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    In this double-blind placebo-controlled smoking cessation treatment study, 608 participants were randomly assigned to receive active bupropion and active 4-mg gum (AA, n = 228), active bupropion and placebo gum (AP, n = 224), or placebo bupropion and placebo gum (PP, n = 156). Relative to the PP group, the AA and AP groups were each significantly more likely to be abstinent at one week, end of treatment and six months, but not twelve months post-quit. After the first week post-quit there were no differences in abstinence rates between the AA and AP groups. There were no significant individual difference variables that moderated outcome beyond one week post-quit. PMID:17763111

  9. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric characterisation of plant gums in samples from painted works of art.

    PubMed

    Bonaduce, Ilaria; Brecoulaki, Hariclia; Colombini, Maria Perla; Lluveras, Anna; Restivo, Vincenzo; Ribechini, Erika

    2007-12-21

    This paper presents an analytical GC-MS procedure to study the chemical composition of plant gums, determining aldoses and uronic acids in one step. The procedure is based on the silylation of aldoses and uronic acids, released from plant gums by microwave assisted hydrolysis, and previously converted into the corresponding diethyl-dithioacetals and diethyl-dithioacetal lactones. Using this method only one peak for each compound is obtained, thus providing simple and highly reproducible chromatograms. The analytical procedure was optimised using reference samples of raw plant gums (arabic, karaya, ghatti, guar, locust bean and tragacanth, cherry, plum and peach gums), commercial watercolours and paint layers prepared according to ancient recipes at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure of Florence (Italy). To identify gum media in samples of unknown composition, a decisional schema for the gum identification and the principal component analysis of the relative sugar percentage contents were employed. The procedure was used to study samples collected from wall paintings from Macedonian tombs (4th-3rd centuries bc) and from the Mycenaean "Palace of Nestor" (13th century bc) in Pylos, Greece. The presence of carbohydrates was ascertained and plant gum binders (fruit and a mixture of tragacanth and fruit tree gums) were identified in some of the samples.

  10. Effects of Dorema ammoniacum Gum on Neuronal Epileptiform Activity-Induced by Pentylenetetrazole

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Fatemeh; Tamadon, Hanieh; Hosseinmardi, Narges; Janahmadi, Mahyar

    2018-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease which disrupts the neuronal electrical activity. One-third of patients are resistant to treatment with available antiepileptic agents. The use of herbal medicine for treating several diseases including epilepsy is on the rise. Therefore, further investigation is required to verify the safety and effectiveness of Phytomedicine in treating diseases. The current study is an attempt to elucidate the electrophysiological mechanism of the effect of Dorema ammoniacum gum on a cellular model of epilepsy, using intracellular recording method. The gum was applied either after or before pentylenetetrazole, as an epileptic drug, in order to explore the possible therapeutic and preventive effects of gum. Treatment with D. ammoniacum gum alone increased the neuronal excitability and when applied before or after treatment with PTZ not only did not prevent or change the electrophysiological changes induced by PTZ but also re-enhanced the induction of hyperexcitability and epileptiform activity through depolarizing membrane potential, increasing the firing frequency and decreasing the AHP amplitude. However, phenobarbital, as a standard anti-epileptic agent, almost reversed the effect of PTZ and preserved the normal firing properties of F1 neurons. The possible candidate mechanism of the effect of gum on neuronal excitability could be suppressive effects of gum on voltage and/or Ca2+ dependent K+ channels currents underlying AHP. PMID:29881430

  11. Development of a Sustained Antiplaque and Antimicrobial Chewing Gum of a Decapeptide.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghananeem, Abeer M; Leung, Kai P; Faraj, Jabar; DeLuca, Patrick P

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to design a chewing gum formulation delivery system in situations where typical dental hygiene practice is not practical. Thus, an analog of decapeptide KSL (KSL-W), known to possess antimicrobial and antiplaque activity, was incorporated into a chewing gum formulation containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). The effect of the excipients, xylitol, and peppermint oil on active ingredients in vitro release was also assessed. Gum formulations were prepared with different excipient parameters, including heating xylitol and gum base at 65 or 85°C, using ground and unground xylitol, and the addition of 1.5, 3, and 7% peppermint oil, to determine the effect of these changes on the in vitro release of KSL-W and CPC using a chewing machine. The antimicrobial and antiplaque activities of solutions released from chewed gum formulation as well as prepared standard solutions with different concentrations were tested against placebo. The optimal temperature to avoid crystallization of xylitol during preparation was 65°C. Grinding xylitol to 104.5 μm improved release of active ingredients as compared to commercially unground xylitol. Peppermint oil had opposite effects on release of KSL-W and CPC. Peppermint oil at 1.5% was determined to be suitable (91 and 88% of KSL-W and CPC released, respectively, after 40 min). The gum formulation illustrated good sustained release of KSL-W and CPC with antibacterial and antiplaque activities after chewing. An effective antimicrobial and antiplaque chewing gum formulation was developed. This formulation has the potential to overcome oral hygiene issues in those unable to follow normal dental protocols.

  12. Effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the oral microbiome.

    PubMed

    Söderling, Eva; ElSalhy, Mohamed; Honkala, Eino; Fontana, Margherita; Flannagan, Susan; Eckert, George; Kokaras, Alexis; Paster, Bruce; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Honkala, Sisko

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the salivary microbiota of children. The study was a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial. Healthy children used xylitol chewing gum (xylitol group, n = 35) or sorbitol chewing gum (control group, n = 38) for 5 weeks. The daily dose of xylitol/sorbitol was approximately 6 g/day. At baseline and at the end of the test period, unstimulated and paraffin-stimulated saliva were collected. The microbial composition of the saliva was assessed using human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM). Mutans streptococci (MS) were plate cultured. As judged by HOMIM results, no xylitol-induced changes in the salivary microbiota took place in the xylitol group. In the control group, Veillonella atypica showed a significant decrease (p = 0.0001). The xylitol gum chewing decreased viable counts of MS in both stimulated (p = 0.006) and unstimulated (p = 0.002) saliva, but similar effects were also seen in the control group. The use of xylitol gum decreased MS, in general, but did not change the salivary microbial composition. Short-term consumption of xylitol had no impact on the composition of the salivary microbiota, but resulted in a decrease in the levels of MS.

  13. Behavioral economic substitutability of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew W; Johnson, Patrick S; Rass, Olga; Pacek, Lauren R

    2017-07-01

    The public health impact of e-cigarettes may depend on their substitutability for tobacco cigarettes. Dual users of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes completed purchasing tasks in which they specified daily use levels under hypothetical conditions that varied the availability and price of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum (for those with nicotine gum experience). When either e-cigarettes or tobacco cigarettes were the only available commodity, as price per puff increased, purchasing decreased, revealing similar reinforcement profiles. When available concurrently, as the price of tobacco puffs increased, purchasing of tobacco puffs decreased while purchasing of fixed-price e-cigarette puffs increased. Among those with nicotine gum experience, when the price of tobacco puffs was closest to the actual market value of tobacco puffs, e-cigarette availability decreased median tobacco puff purchases by 44% compared to when tobacco was available alone. In contrast, nicotine gum availability caused no decrease in tobacco puff purchases. E-cigarettes may serve as a behavioral economic substitute for tobacco cigarettes, and may be a superior substitute compared to nicotine gum in their ability to decrease tobacco use. Although important questions remain regarding the health impacts of e-cigarettes, these data are consistent with the possibility that e-cigarettes may serve as smoking cessation/reduction aids.

  14. Surface analysis characterisation of gum binders used in modern watercolour paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Naoko; Cumpson, Peter J.

    2016-02-01

    Conducting this study has demonstrated that not only SEM-EDX but also XPS can be an efficient tool for characterising watercolour paint surfaces. We find that surface effects are mediated by water. Once the powdered components in the watercolour come into contact with water they dramatically transform their chemical structures at the surface and show the presence of pigment components with a random dispersion within the gum layer. Hence the topmost surface of the paint is confirmed as being composed of the gum binder components. This result is difficult to confirm using just one analytical technique (either XPS or SEM-EDX). In addition, peak fitting of C1s XPS spectra suggests that the gum binder in the commercial watercolour paints is probably gum arabic (by comparison with the reference materials). This identification is not conclusive, but the combination techniques of XPS and SEM shows the surface structure with material distribution of the gum binder and the other ingredients of the watercolour paints. Therefore as a unique technique, XPS combined with SEM-EDX may prove a useful method in the study of surface structure for not only watercolour objects but also other art objects; which may in future help in the conservation for art.

  15. The deformation of gum metal under nanoindentation and sub-micron pillar compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withey, Elizabeth Ann

    Reaching ideal strength has proven to be difficult in most materials. Dislocation slip, phase transformations, twinning, and fracture all tend to occur at stresses well below the ideal strength of a material. Only on very small scales has it been possible to approach ideal strength. Thus, it was of great interest when a set of beta-Ti alloys, Gum Metal, were found to have a bulk yield strength close to half of its ideal strength. However, some recent studies have questioned the reliability of this claim. Several studies have suggested Gum Metal deforms by dislocation slip. Others have suggested the possibility of transformation-induced plasticity. The present study was undertaken in order to help clarify if and how Gum Metal can reach ideal strength. Two different experiments, ex situ nanoindentation and quantitative in situ nanopillar compression in a transmission electron microscope to correlate real-time deformation behavior, were performed on a single composition of Gum Metal, Ti-23Nb-0.7Ta-2Zr-1.20 at. %, obtained from Toyota Central R&D Laboratories. Nanoindented specimens were thinned from the bottom surface until the pits of multiple indentations became electron-transparent allowing for qualitative analysis of the deformation microstructure in both fully cold-worked and solution-treated specimens. Real-time load-displacement behavior from the nanopillar compression tests was correlated with real-time video recorded during each compression to determine both the compressive strength of each pillar and the timing and strengths of different deformation behaviors observed. Combining the results from both experiments provided several important conclusions. First, Gum Metal approaches and can attain ideal strength in nanopillars regardless of processing condition. While dislocations exist in Gum Metal, they can be tightly pinned by obstacles with spacing less than ˜20 nm, which should inhibit their motion at strengths below the ideal shear strength. The plastic

  16. The size and shape of Gum's nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. M.

    1971-01-01

    The ionizing light of the supernova which produced the Gum nebula is now fossilized in the still live, though failing, H II region. The main body of the nebula suggests a hollow center or shell form, with a characteristic radius of about half the distance to the outlying fragments. The edges of the main body patches are typically sharp and often bright. The structure of the Gum nebula appears to be dependent on the event of ionization and possibly on the details of heating. It is not now an unstructured ambient medium, as it may have been before the recent ionization. Several hypotheses are presented for a structured ambient medium.

  17. 40 CFR 454.20 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. 454.20 Section 454.20 Protection of Environment... the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine. ...

  18. Effects of dietary oat, barley, and guar gums on serum and liver lipid concentrations in diet-induced hypertriglyceridemic rats.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Aoe, S; Imanishi, S; Kanazawa, Y; Sanada, H; Ayano, Y

    1994-04-01

    Effects of dietary oat, barley, and guar gums on serum and liver triglyceride or cholesterol concentrations were examined in diet-induced hypertriglyceridemic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a hypertriglyceridemic diet that contained 20% coconut oil, 17.5% fructose, 17.5% sucrose, and 5% cellulose at 4 weeks of age for 14 days. In the gum-supplemented diets, 2% cellulose was replaced by oat gum, barley gum, or guar gum. Hypertriglyceridemia was observed in the control group, whereas serum cholesterol concentration was not increased. All of the gums lowered serum and liver cholesterol concentrations except barley gum which had no significant effect on liver cholesterol. Both oat and barley gums suppressed the elevation of serum and liver triglyceride concentrations but guar gum had no effect.

  19. Short-term germ-killing effect of sugar-sweetened cinnamon chewing gum on salivary anaerobes associated with halitosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Carvalho, Regina; Scher, Aubrey; Wu, Christine D

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the short-term germ-killing effect of sugar-sweetened cinnamon chewing gum on total and H2S-producing salivary anaerobes. Fifteen healthy adult subjects were recruited in the double-blind, crossover clinical study. The three test chewing gums included: 1) sugared chewing gum containing cinnamic aldehyde and natural flavors (CinA+); 2) sugared chewing gum without cinnamic aldehyde but with natural flavors (CinA-); and 3) non-sugared chewing gum base (GB) without any flavors and without cinnamic aldehyde. A three-day "washout" period followed each treatment. Each subject chewed gum under supervision for 20 minutes at 60 chews/minute. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected before the subjects chewed the gum and at 20 minutes after expectoration of the gum. All saliva samples were serially diluted, plated on blood agar or agar plates that select for bacteria producing H2S, incubated anaerobically for three days, and enumerated for viable colony counts of total and H2S-producing salivary anaerobes. Significant reductions in total salivary anaerobes (p < 0.01) and H2S-producing salivary anaerobes (p < 0.01) were observed 20 minutes after subjects chewed the CinA+ gum. The chewing of CinA- gum also significantly reduced total salivary anaerobes (p < 0.05) and H2S-producing salivary anaerobes (p < 0.05). However, no statistically significant difference in germ-killing effect was detected between the CinA+ and CinA- gums, although there was a numeric difference. The chewing of a gum base (GB) alone did not result in a significant reduction in the total or H2S-producing salivary anaerobes (p > 0.05). The commercially available sugar-sweetened cinnamon chewing gum may benefit halitosis by reducing volatile sulfur compounds producing anaerobes in the oral cavity.

  20. A comparison of corn fiber gum, hydrophobically modified starch, gum arabic and soybean soluble polysaccharide: interfacial dynamics, viscoelastic response at oil/water interfaces and emulsion stabilization mechanisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The interfacial rheology of polysaccharide adsorption layers of corn fiber gum (CFG), octenyl succinate anhydride-modified starch (OSA-s), gum arabic (GA) and soybean soluble polysaccharides (SSPS) at the oil/water interface and their emulsifying properties in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were compa...

  1. The next GUM and its proposals: a comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasceno, J. C.; Couto, P. R. G.

    2018-03-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is currently under revision. New proposals for its implementation were circulated in the form of a draft document. Two of the main changes are explored in this work using a Brinell hardness model example. Changes in the evaluation of uncertainty for repeated indications and in the construction of coverage intervals are compared with the classic GUM and with Monte Carlo simulation method.

  2. Enhancement of welan gum production in Sphingomonas sp. HT-1 via heterologous expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoliu; Zhu, Ping; Jiang, Ruifan; Wu, Lingtian; Feng, Xiaohai; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong

    2017-01-20

    Welan gum is a microbial polysaccharide produced by Sphingomonas sp. Its production is limited by the dissolved oxygen levels in the highly viscous fermentation. A strategy of heterologous expression of the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene in Sphingomonas sp. HT-1 was investigated to alleviate oxygen limitation and improve the yield of welan gum. Ultimately, the welan gum production increased from 25.3g/L to 34.6g/L, whereas the rheological behavior of welan gum solutions remained virtually unchanged. The transcriptional levels of the key genes in the electron transfer chain, TCA cycle and welan gum synthesis pathway, as well as ATP level revealed that the VHb expression in Sphingomonas sp. HT-1 enhanced welan gum biosynthesis by improving respiration and ATP supply. This study would pave the genetic manipulation way for enhancing welan gum yield, and it's also of great importance for the industrial applications of welan gum under harsh conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhance the anti-microorganism activity of cinnamon oil by xanthan gum as emulsifying agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieu, Dong M.; Dang, Thuy T. K.; Nguyen, Huong T.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of emulsifying agents (tween 20, DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) and xanthan gum) to inhibit Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus; Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger by cinnamon oil (Cinnamomum Cassia). Cinnamon oil was added in the emulsifying agents independently: tween 20 (0.3% v/v). DMSO (0.3% v/v) and xanthan gum (0.3% w/v) at different concentrations and evaluated their anti-microorganism activity by agar disk diffusion, mycelial growth inhibition and growth inhibition in liquid phase. The result indicated that, cinnamon oil diluted in different emulsifying agents showed the difference of the anti-microorganism activity, in which DMSO showed the lowest result. Xanthan gum and tween 20 show good stable emulsion. The anti-microorganism effect of cinnamon oil in tween 20 and xanthan gum was not significant difference. However, cinnamon oil in xanthan gum showed anti-microorganism activity better than tween 20 at low concentration in agar disk diffusion. This suggests that, cinnamon oil could be encapsulated by xanthan gum to enhance the anti-microorganism activity.

  4. Texture of low-fat Iranian White cheese as influenced by gum tragacanth as a fat replacer.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, J; Khosrowshahi, A; Madadlou, A; Aziznia, S

    2007-09-01

    The effect of different concentrations of gum tragacanth on the textural characteristics of low-fat Iranian White cheese was studied during ripening. A batch of full-fat and 5 batches of low-fat Iranian White cheeses with different gum tragacanth concentrations (without gum or with 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1 g of gum/kg of milk) were produced to study the effects of fat content reduction and gum concentration on the textural and functional properties of the product during ripening. Cheese samples were analyzed with respect to chemical, color, and sensory characteristics, rheological parameters (uniaxial compression and small-amplitude oscillatory shear), and microstructure. Reducing the fat content had an adverse effect on cheese yield, sensory characteristics, and the texture of Iranian White cheese, and it increased the instrumental hardness parameters (i.e., fracture stress, elastic modulus, storage modulus, and complex modulus). However, increasing the gum tragacanth concentration reduced the values of instrumental hardness parameters and increased the whiteness of cheese. Although when the gum concentration was increased, the low-fat cheese somewhat resembled its full-fat counterpart, the interaction of the gum concentration with ripening time caused visible undesirable effects on cheese characteristics by the sixth week of ripening. Cheeses with a high gum tragacanth concentration became very soft and their solid texture declined somewhat.

  5. 40 CFR 454.20 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. 454.20 Section 454.20 Protection of Environment... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gum Rosin and Turpentine Subcategory § 454.20 Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  6. 40 CFR 454.20 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. 454.20 Section 454.20 Protection of Environment... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gum Rosin and Turpentine Subcategory § 454.20 Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  7. 40 CFR 454.20 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. 454.20 Section 454.20 Protection of Environment... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gum Rosin and Turpentine Subcategory § 454.20 Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  8. 40 CFR 454.20 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. 454.20 Section 454.20 Protection of Environment... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gum Rosin and Turpentine Subcategory § 454.20 Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  9. 76 FR 44811 - Carboxymethyl Guar Gum Sodium Salt and Carboxymethyl-Hydroxypropyl Guar; Exemption From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Guar Gum Sodium Salt and Carboxymethyl- Hydroxypropyl Guar; Exemption From the Requirement of a... establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of carboxymethyl guar gum sodium... carboxymethyl guar gum sodium salt and carboxymethyl- hydroxypropyl guar. DATES: This regulation is effective...

  10. Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Gum Chewing After Gynecologic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Hi; Choi, Myung Sook

    2018-05-01

    To describe the scientific evidence related to gum chewing to reduce ileus after gynecologic surgery. A literature search was performed using Ovid Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the use of gum chewing after gynecologic surgery in which the main outcomes measured were time to first flatus, time to defecation, and length of hospital stay. Data on authors, country, randomization method, the type of disease, surgical and anesthetic methods, sample characteristics such as age and body mass index, gum chewing program, and study results were extracted from selected articles. Of 493 publications, eight RCTs conducted between 2013 and 2017 involving 1,077 women were included in our meta-analysis. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the eight studies with the use of Cochrane Review Manager Version 5.3 (RevMan; 2014). The pooled results showed that gum chewing was superior to no gum chewing, with a reduction in WMD for time to first flatus of -6.20 hours (95% confidence interval [CI] [-9.51, -2.88]), WMD for time to first defecation of -9.03 hours (95% CI [-14.02, -4.04]), and WMD for length of hospital stay of -0.36 days (95% CI [-0.72, -0.01]). Gum chewing significantly reduced the time to first flatus and defecation after gynecologic surgery and should be recommended by health care providers. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    ETTER, Jean-François; EISSENBERG, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Design Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale, the Cigarette Dependence Scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Results Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (<=3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Conclusions Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. PMID:25561385

  12. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: (a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; (b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); (c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence, the nicotine dependence syndrome scale, the cigarette dependence scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (≤3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Matrix Effect on the Spray Drying Nanoencapsulation of Lippia sidoides Essential Oil in Chitosan-Native Gum Blends.

    PubMed

    Paula, Haroldo C B; Oliveira, Erick F; Carneiro, Maria J M; de Paula, Regina C M

    2017-03-01

    Essential oils have many applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and food fields, however, their use is limited to the fact that they are very labile, requiring their a priori encapsulation, aiming to preserve their properties.This work reports on the preparation of chitosan-gum nanoparticles loaded with thymol containing Lippia sidoides essential oil, using exudates of Anacardium Occidentale (cashew gum), Sterculia striata (chichá gum), and Anadenanthera macrocarpa trees (angico gum). Nanoparticles were produced by spray drying an emulsion of L. sidoides essential oil and aqueous solution of gums with different chitosan : gum ratios. Samples were characterized by FTIR and UV/VIS spectroscopy, particle size, volume distribution, and zeta potential. The FTIR spectrum showed the main signals of chitosan and the gums. Data obtained revealed that the samples had sizes in the nano range, varying from 17 nm to 800 nm. The zeta potential varied from + 30 mV to - 40 mV. Nanoparticle loading values varied from 6.7 % to 15.6 %, with an average encapsulating efficiency of 62 %, where the samples with high ratios of cashew gum and chichá gum presented high oil loading values. The data revealed that both the chitosan : gum ratio and polysaccharide characteristics play major roles in nanoencapsulation processes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Influence of gamma radiation on the physicochemical and rheological properties of sterculia gum polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Baljit; Sharma, Vikrant

    2013-11-01

    Keeping in view the influence of gamma radiation on the physiochemical properties of the polysaccharides and their importance in the food and pharmaceutical industry, in the present study attempt has been made to investigate the effects of absorbed dose on FTIR, XRD, SEMs, absorbance, pH, solubility, water absorption capacity, emulsion stability and rheology of sterculia gum. Increase in solubility and decrease in swellability of gum has been observed on increasing the absorbed dose. The emulsion stability has improved for the gum sample irradiated with total dose of 8.1±0.2 kGy. Apparent viscosity of gum solution first increased with increase in dose from 0 to 8.1±0.2 kGy than decreased with regular trends with further increase in total absorbed dose. Flow behavior of gum solution shifted to Newtonian from non-Newtonian with increasing the dose.

  15. Medicated chewing gum--a potential drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Shivang A; Shahiwala, Aliasgar F

    2010-07-01

    Over the years, patient convenience and patient compliance-orientated research in the field of drug delivery has resulted in bringing out potential innovative drug delivery options. Out of which, medicated chewing gum (MCG) offers a highly convenient patient-compliant way of dosing medications, not only for special population groups with swallowing difficulties such as children and the elderly, but also for the general population, including the young generation. In this review, various formulation ingredients, different manufacturing processes, and assessment of in vivo and in vitro drug release from MCG are thoroughly discussed along with the therapeutic potential and limitations of MCG. Readers will gain knowledge about the rationale and prominent formulation and performance evaluation strategies behind chewing gum as a drug delivery system. The availability of directly compressible co-processed gum material enables rapid, safe and low-cost development of MCG as a drug delivery option. By MCG formulation, revitalization of old products and reformulation of new patented products is possible, to differentiate them from upcoming generics competition in the market.

  16. Gum acacia mitigates genetic damage in adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, B H; Al Balushi, K; Al-Husseini, I; Mandel, P; Nemmar, A; Schupp, N; Ribeiro, D A

    2015-12-01

    Subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF) exhibit oxidative genome damage, which may predispose to carcinogenesis, and Gum acacia (GumA) ameliorates this condition in humans and animals. We evaluated here renal DNA damage and urinary excretion of four nucleic acid oxidation adducts namely 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 8-oxoguanosine (8-oxoGuo) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanisone (8-OHdg) in rats with adenine (ADE)-induced CRF with and without GumA treatment. Twenty-four rats were divided into four equal groups and treated for 4 weeks. The first group was given normal food and water (control). The second group was given normal food and GumA (15% w/v) in drinking water. The third group was fed powder diet containing adenine (ADE) (0·75% w/w in feed). The fourth group was fed like in the third group, plus GumA in drinking water (15%, w/v). ADE feeding induced CRF (as measured by several physiological, biochemical and histological indices) and also caused a significant genetic damage and significant decreases in urinary 8-oxo Gua and 8-oxoGuo, but not in the other nucleic acids. However, concomitant GumA treatment reduced the level of genetic damage in kidney cells as detected by Comet assay and significantly reversed the effect of adenine on urinary 8-oxoGuo. Treatment with GumA is able to mitigate genetic damage in renal tissues of rats with ADE-induced CRF. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  17. Realistic Evaluation of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Exposure in Chewing Gum.

    PubMed

    Fiordaliso, Fabio; Foray, Claudia; Salio, Monica; Salmona, Mario; Diomede, Luisa

    2018-06-20

    There is growing concern about the presence of nanoparticles (NPs) in titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) as food additive (E171). To realistically estimate the number and the amount of TiO 2 NPs ingested with food, we applied a transmission electron microscopy method combined with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Different percentages of TiO 2 NPs (6-18%) were detected in E171 from various suppliers. In the eight chewing gums analyzed as food prototypes, TiO 2 NPs were absent in one sample and ranged 0.01-0.66 mg/gum, corresponding to 7-568 billion NPs/gum, in the other seven. We estimated that the mass-based TiO 2 NPs ingested with chewing gums by the European population ranged from 0.28 to 112.40 μg/kg b.w./day, and children ingested more nanosized titanium than adolescents and adults. Although this level may appear negligible it corresponds to 0.1-84 billion TiO 2 NPs/kg b.w/day, raising important questions regarding their potential accumulation in the body, possibly causing long-term effects on consumers' health.

  18. Influence of gum-chewing on postoperative bowel activity after laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ge, Bujun; Zhao, Hongmei; Lin, Rui; Wang, Jialiang; Chen, Quanning; Liu, Liming; Huang, Qi

    2017-03-01

    In some studies, gum-chewing was demonstrated to have a beneficial effect on resumption of bowel function; however, other contradictory findings in other studies refute the effects of gum-chewing on peristaltic movements and digestive system stimulation. In addition, most previous studies were after colorectal or gynecology surgery, whereas few reports focused on the effect of gum-chewing after gastrectomy. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the effectiveness of gum-chewing on postoperative bowel function in patients who had undergone laparoscopic gastrectomy. From March 2014 to March 2016, 75 patients with gastric cancer received elective laparoscopic surgery in Shanghai Tongji hospital and were postoperatively randomly divided into 2 groups: 38 in a gum-chewing (Gum) group and 37 in a control (No gum) group. The patients in the Gum group chewed sugarless gum 3 times daily, each time for at least 15 minutes, until the day of postoperative exhaust defecation. The mean time to first flatus (83.4 ± 35.6 vs. 79.2 ± 24.2 hours; P = 0.554) and the mean time to first defecation (125.7 ± 41.2 vs. 115.4 ± 34.2 hours; P = 0.192) were no different between the no gum and Gum groups. There was also no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative ileus (P = 0.896) and postoperative hospital stay (P = 0.109) between the 2 groups. The postoperative pain score at 48 hours (P = 0.032) in the Gum group was significantly higher than in the no gum group. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in regards to patient demographics, comorbidities, duration of surgery, complications, and nausea/vomiting score. Gum-chewing after laparoscopic gastrectomy did not hasten the return of gastrointestinal function. In addition, gum-chewing may increase patient pain on the second postoperative day.

  19. Gum chewing improves adolescents’ math performance in an SAT preparatory course

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of gum chewing on students’ performance in a preparatory course for the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). A total of 182 adolescents enrolled in an SAT preparatory class were randomized into one of two treatments: 1) gum chewing condition (G...

  20. Xanthan gum: an economical substitute for agar in plant tissue culture media.

    PubMed

    Jain, R; Babbar, S B

    2006-03-01

    Xanthan gum, a microbial desiccation-resistant polysaccharide prepared commercially by aerobic submerged fermentation from Xanthomonas campestris, has been successfully used as a solidifying agent for plant tissue culture media. Its suitability as a substitute to agar was demonstrated for in vitro seed germination, caulogenesis and rhizogenesis of Albizzia lebbeck, androgenesis in anther cultures of Datura innoxia, and somatic embryogenesis in callus cultures of Calliandra tweedii. Culture media used for eliciting these morphogenic responses were gelled with either 1% xanthan gum or 0.9% agar. Xanthan gum, like agar, supported all these responses.

  1. Influence of xanthan, guar, CMC and gum acacia on functional properties of water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa) starch.

    PubMed

    Lutfi, Zubala; Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Hasnain, Abid; Haider, Syed Zia

    2017-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of xanthan, guar, CMC and gum acacia on functional and pasting properties of starch isolated from water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa). Morphological properties of water chestnut starch with CMC were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of hydrocolloids significantly enhanced the solubility of water chestnut starch (WCS) while reduced swelling power and freeze-thaw stability. The hydrophilic tendency of WCS was increased by xanthan gum; however, with addition of gum acacia it decreased significantly. Starch was modified with guar and gum acacia exhibited highest% syneresis. Guar gum was found to be effective in increasing the clarity of water chestnut starch paste. The addition of CMC significantly reduced the pasting temperature of WCS indicating ease of gelatinization. The setback was accelerated in the presence of xanthan gum but gum acacia delayed this effect during the cooling of the starch paste. Only xanthan gum was found to be effective in increasing breakdown showing good paste stability of WCS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Naturalistic assessment of demand for cigarettes, snus, and nicotine gum.

    PubMed

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Wilson, A George; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Judd, Michael C; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral economic measures of demand provide estimates of tobacco product abuse liability and may predict effects of policy-related price regulation on consumption of existing and emerging tobacco products. In the present study, we examined demand for snus, a smokeless tobacco product, in comparison to both cigarettes and medicinal nicotine. We used both a naturalistic method in which participants purchased these products for use outside the laboratory, as well as laboratory-based self-administration procedures. Cigarette smokers (N = 42) used an experimental income to purchase their usual brand of cigarettes and either snus or gum (only one product available per session) across a range of prices, while receiving all products they purchased from one randomly selected price. In a separate portion of the study, participants self-administered these products during laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions. Demand elasticity (sensitivity of purchasing to price) was significantly greater for snus than cigarettes. Elasticity for gum was intermediate between snus and cigarettes but was not significantly different than either. Demand intensity (purchasing unconstrained by price) was significantly lower for gum compared to cigarettes, with no significant difference observed between snus and cigarettes. Results of the laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions were generally discordant with measures of demand elasticity, with significantly higher "breakpoints" for cigarettes compared to gum and no significant differences between other study products. Moreover, breakpoints and product purchasing were generally uncorrelated across tasks. Under naturalistic conditions, snus appears more sensitive to price manipulation than either cigarettes or nicotine gum in existing smokers.

  3. Naturalistic assessment of demand for cigarettes, snus, and nicotine gum

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Jeffrey S.; Wilson, A. George; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Judd, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Behavioral economic measures of demand provide estimates of tobacco product abuse liability and may predict effects of policy-related price regulation on consumption of existing and emerging tobacco products. Objective In the present study, we examined demand for snus, a smokeless tobacco product, in comparison to both cigarettes and medicinal nicotine. We used both a naturalistic method in which participants purchased these products for use outside the laboratory, as well as laboratory-based self-administration procedures. Methods Cigarette smokers (N = 42) used an experimental income to purchase their usual brand of cigarettes and either snus or gum (only one product available per session) across a range of prices, while receiving all products they purchased from one randomly selected price. In a separate portion of the study, participants self-administered these products during laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions. Result Demand elasticity (sensitivity of purchasing to price) was significantly greater for snus than cigarettes. Elasticity for gum was intermediate between snus and cigarettes but was not significantly different than either. Demand intensity (purchasing unconstrained by price) was significantly lower for gum compared to cigarettes, with no significant difference observed between snus and cigarettes. Results of the laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions were generally discordant with measures of demand elasticity, with significantly higher “breakpoints” for cigarettes compared to gum and no significant differences between other study products. Moreover, breakpoints and product purchasing were generally uncorrelated across tasks. Conclusions Under naturalistic conditions, snus appears more sensitive to price manipulation than either cigarettes or nicotine gum in existing smokers. PMID:27730273

  4. Evaluation of accelerated stability test conditions for medicated chewing gums.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Lauretta; Conte, Ubaldo; Nhamias, Alain; Grenier, Pascal; Vergnault, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The overall stability of medicated chewing gums is investigated under different storage conditions. Active substances with different chemical stabilities in solid state are chosen as model drugs. The dosage form is a three layer tablet obtained by direct compression. The gum core contains the active ingredient while the external layers are formulated to prevent gum adhesion to the punches of the tableting machine. Two accelerated test conditions (40°C/75% RH and 30°C/65% RH) are performed for 6 months. Furthermore, a long-term stability test at room conditions is conducted to verify the predictability of the results obtained from the stress tests. Some drugs are stable in all the conditions tested, but other drugs, generally considered stable in solid dosage forms, have shown relevant stability problems particularly when stress test conditions are applied to this particular semi-solid dosage forms. For less stable drugs, the stress conditions of 40°C/75% RH are not always predictable of chewing gum stability at room temperature and may produce false negative; intermediate conditions, 30°C/65% RH, are more predictive for this purpose, the results of drug content found after 6 months at intermediate stress conditions and 12 months at room conditions are generally comparable. But the results obtained show that only long-term conditions stability tests gave consistent results. During aging, the semi solid nature of the gum base itself, may also influence the drug delivery rate during chewing and great attention should be given also to the dissolution stability.

  5. Synthesis and devolatilization of M-97 NVB silicone gum compounded into silica reinforced silicone base

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schneider, J.W.

    1986-06-01

    Silica reinforced silicon bases having 0.31 weight percent vinyl content were prepared by using a blend of low and high vinyl content devolatilized M-97 NVB silicone gum. The M-97 NVB is a custom dimethyl-, diphenyl-, methylvinylsiloxane gum. The silicon gum was devolatilized to evaluate the anticipated improved handling characteristics. Previous procured batches of M-97 NVB had not been devolatilized and difficult handling problems were encountered. The synthesis, devolatilization, and compound processes for the M-97 NVB silicone gum are discussed.

  6. Preparation of gellan-cholesterol nanohydrogels embedding baicalin and evaluation of their wound healing activity.

    PubMed

    Manconi, Maria; Manca, Maria Letizia; Caddeo, Carla; Cencetti, Claudia; di Meo, Chiara; Zoratto, Nicole; Nacher, Amparo; Fadda, Anna Maria; Matricardi, Pietro

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, the preparation, characterization and therapeutic potential of baicalin-loaded nanohydrogels are reported. The nanohydrogels were prepared by sonicating (S nanohydrogel) or autoclaving (A nanohydrogel) a dispersion of cholesterol-derivatized gellan in phosphate buffer. The nanohydrogel obtained by autoclave treatment showed the most promising results: smaller particles (∼362 nm vs. ∼530 nm), higher homogeneity (polydispersity index = ∼0.24 vs. ∼0.47), and lower viscosity than those obtained by sonication. In vitro studies demonstrated the ability of the nanohydrogels to favour the deposition of baicalin in the epidermis. A high biocompatibility was found for baicalin-loaded nanohydrogels, along with a great ability to counteract the toxic effect induced by hydrogen peroxide in cells, as the nanohydrogels re-established the normal conditions (∼100% viability). Further, the potential of baicalin-loaded nanohydrogels in skin wound healing was demonstrated in vivo in mice by complete skin restoration and inhibition of specific inflammatory markers (i.e., myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and oedema). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. GUM Analysis for TIMS and SIMS Isotopic Ratios in Graphite

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Gerlach, David C.; Cliff, John B.

    2007-04-01

    This report describes GUM calculations for TIMS and SIMS isotopic ratio measurements of reactor graphite samples. These isotopic ratios are used to estimate reactor burn-up, and currently consist of various ratios of U, Pu, and Boron impurities in the graphite samples. The GUM calculation is a propagation of error methodology that assigns uncertainties (in the form of standard error and confidence bound) to the final estimates.

  8. Gum Disease - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Русский) Somali (Af-Soomaali ) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (українська ) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) HealthReach resources will open in a ... Gingivitis - українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Gum Disease: A Guide ...

  9. Effect of Guar Gum with Sorbitol Coating on the Properties and Oil Absorption of French Fries.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bo; Fan, Daming; Li, Jinwei; Duan, Zhenhua; Fan, Liuping

    2017-12-13

    This paper investigated the effects of guar gum with sorbitol coating on the oil absorption of French fries by combined dye oil methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that pretreatment of blanching with calcium ions and coating with guar gum and sorbitol could significantly reduce the structural oil (STO) and penetrated surface oil (PSO) of French fries and have no negative effects on its texture and also effectively control the final moisture content ( p < 0.05). Compared with control or samples coated with guar gum (blanching with or without calcium ions), the total oil (TO) of French fries with guar gum and sorbitol reduced by 50.8%, 33.1% and 30.6%, respectively. CLSM photographs confirmed that STO significantly reduced after coating with guar gum and sorbitol, followed by PSO. In the process of frying, the coatings of guar gum or guar gum with sorbitol could effectively prevent oil from infiltrating the potato tissue, which can be seen in the SEM photographs. The barrier properties of French fries were enhanced by coating guar gum, and sorbitol was added to avoid pores and cracks. Blanching with calcium ion can significantly reduce the final moisture content of coating French fries.

  10. Effect of Guar Gum with Sorbitol Coating on the Properties and Oil Absorption of French Fries

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Bo; Fan, Daming; Li, Jinwei; Duan, Zhenhua; Fan, Liuping

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigated the effects of guar gum with sorbitol coating on the oil absorption of French fries by combined dye oil methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that pretreatment of blanching with calcium ions and coating with guar gum and sorbitol could significantly reduce the structural oil (STO) and penetrated surface oil (PSO) of French fries and have no negative effects on its texture and also effectively control the final moisture content (p < 0.05). Compared with control or samples coated with guar gum (blanching with or without calcium ions), the total oil (TO) of French fries with guar gum and sorbitol reduced by 50.8%, 33.1% and 30.6%, respectively. CLSM photographs confirmed that STO significantly reduced after coating with guar gum and sorbitol, followed by PSO. In the process of frying, the coatings of guar gum or guar gum with sorbitol could effectively prevent oil from infiltrating the potato tissue, which can be seen in the SEM photographs. The barrier properties of French fries were enhanced by coating guar gum, and sorbitol was added to avoid pores and cracks. Blanching with calcium ion can significantly reduce the final moisture content of coating French fries. PMID:29236044

  11. Influence of flavor solvent on flavor release and perception in sugar-free chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Potineni, Rajesh V; Peterson, Devin G

    2008-05-14

    The influence of flavor solvent [triacetin (TA), propylene glycol (PG), medium chained triglycerides (MCT), or no flavor solvent (NFS)] on the flavor release profile, the textural properties, and the sensory perception of a sugar-free chewing gum was investigated. Time course analysis of the exhaled breath and saliva during chewing gum mastication indicated that flavor solvent addition or type did not influence the aroma release profile; however, the sorbitol release rate was statistically lower for the TA formulated sample in comparison to those with PG, MCT, or NFS. Sensory time-intensity analysis also indicated that the TA formulated sample was statistically lower in perceived sweetness intensity, in comparison with the other chewing gum samples, and also had lower cinnamon-like aroma intensity, presumably due to an interaction between sweetness intensity on aroma perception. Measurement of the chewing gum macroscopic texture by compression analysis during consumption was not correlated to the unique flavor release properties of the TA-chewing gum. However, a relationship between gum base plasticity and retention of sugar alcohol during mastication was proposed to explain the different flavor properties of the TA sample.

  12. Chewing gum in the preoperative fasting period: an analysis of de-identified incidents reported to webAIRS.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, S; Goulding, G; Gibbs, N M; Taraporewalla, K; Culwick, M

    2016-03-01

    The role of preoperative fasting is well established in current anaesthetic practice with different guidelines for clear fluids and food. However, chewing gum may not be categorised as either food or drink by some patients, and may not always be specified in instructions given to patients about preoperative fasting. The aim of this paper was to review anaesthesia incidents involving gum chewing reported to webAIRS to obtain information on the risks, if any, of gum chewing during the preoperative fasting period. There were nine incidents involving chewing gum reported between late 2009 and early 2015. There were no adverse outcomes from the nine incidents other than postponement of surgery in three cases and cancellation in one. In particular, there were no reports of aspiration or airway obstruction. Nevertheless, there were five cases in which the gum was not detected preoperatively and was found in the patient's mouth either intraoperatively or postoperatively. These cases of undetected gum occurred despite patient and staff compliance with their current preoperative checklists. While the risk of increased gastric secretions related to chewing gum preoperatively are not known, the potential for airway obstruction if the gum is not detected and removed preoperatively is very real. We recommend that patients should be specifically advised to avoid gum chewing once fasting from clear fluids is commenced, and that a specific question regarding the presence of chewing gum should be added to all preoperative checklists.

  13. Potential benefits of chewing gum for the delivery of oral therapeutics and its possible role in oral healthcare.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Stefan W; van der Mei, Henny C; Maitra, Amarnath; Dodds, Michael W J; Busscher, Henk J

    2016-10-01

    Over the years, chewing gum has developed from a candy towards an oral health-promoting nutraceutical. This review summarizes evidence for the oral health benefits of chewing gum, emphasizing identification of active ingredients in gum that facilitate prevention and removal of oral biofilm. Chewing of sugar-free gum yields oral health benefits that include clearance of food debris, reduction in oral dryness, increase of biofilm pH and remineralization of enamel. These basic effects of chewing gum are attributed to increased mastication and salivation. Active ingredients incorporated in chewing gums aim to expand these effects to inhibition of extrinsic tooth stain and calculus formation, enhanced enamel remineralization, reduction of the numbers of bacteria in saliva and amount of oral biofilm, neutralization of biofilm pH, and reduction of volatile sulfur compounds. Evidence for oral-health benefits of chewing gum additives is hard to obtain due to their relatively low concentrations and rapid wash-out. Clinical effects of gum additives are overshadowed by effects of increased mastication and salivation due to the chewing of gum and require daily chewing of gum for prolonged periods of time. Future studies on active ingredients should focus on specifically targeting pathogenic bacteria, whilst leaving the healthy microbiome unaffected.

  14. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress

    PubMed Central

    de Mello Luvielmo, Márcia; Borges, Caroline Dellinghausen; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Vendruscolo, Claire Tondo; Scamparini, Adilma Regina Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24 h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on gum purification are required to remove excess sodium, verify the efficiency loss and the consequent increase in the polymer viscosity. Alkali stress altered the structure of xanthan gum from a polygon-like shape to a star-like form. At the end of the fermentation, early structural changes in the bacterium were observed. After alkali stress, marked structural differences were observed in the cells. A more vacuolated cytoplasm and discontinuities in the membrane cells evidenced the cell lysis. Xanthan was observed in the form of concentric circles instead of agglomerates as observed prior to the alkali stress. PMID:26887232

  15. Natural gum-assisted phthalocyanine immobilization in electroactive nanocomposites: physicochemical characterization and sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Zampa, Maysa F; de Brito, Ana Cristina F; Kitagawa, Igor L; Constantino, Carlos J L; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; da Cunha, Helder N; Zucolotto, Valtencir; dos Santos, José Ribeiro; Eiras, Carla

    2007-11-01

    Natural gums have been traditionally applied in cosmetics and the food industry, mainly as emulsification agents. Due to their biodegradability and excellent mechanical properties, new technological applications have been proposed involving their use with conventional polymers forming blends and composites. In this study, we take advantage of the polyelectrolyte character exhibited by the natural gum ChichA (Sterculia striata), extracted in the Northeastern region of Brazil, to produce electroactive nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were fabricated in the form of ultrathin films by combining a metallic phthalocyanine (nickel tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine, NiTsPc) and the ChichA gum in a tetralayer architecture, in conjunction with conventional polyelectrolytes. The presence of the gum led to an efficient adsorption of the phthalocyanine and enhanced the electrochemical response of the films. Upon combining the electrochemical and UV-vis absorption data, energy diagrams of the ChichA/NiTsPc-based system were obtained. Furthermore, modified electrodes based on gum/phthalocyanine films were able to detect dopamine at concentrations as low as 10-5 M.

  16. Deformation Mechanisms of Gum Metals Under Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Rohini Priya

    Gum Metal is a set of multi-component beta-Ti alloys designed and developed by Toyota Central R&D Labs in 2003 to have a nearly zero shear modulus in the direction. After significant amounts of cold-work (>90%), these alloys were found to have yield strengths at a significant fraction of the predicted ideal strengths and exhibited very little work hardening. It has been speculated that this mechanical behavior may be realized through an ideal shear mechanism as opposed to conventional plastic deformation mechanisms, such as slip, and that such a mechanism may be realized through a defect structure termed "nanodisturbance". It is furthermore theorized that for near ideal strength to be attained, dislocations need to be pinned at sufficiently high stresses. It is the search for these defects and pinning points that motivates the present study. However, the mechanism of plastic deformation and the true origin of specific defect structures unique to gum metals is still controversial, mainly due to the complexity of the beta-Ti alloy system and the heavily distorted lattice exhibited in cold worked gum metals, rendering interpretation of images difficult. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to clarify the starting as-received microstructures of gum metal alloys through conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration-corrected high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with high-angle annular dark field detector (HAADF-HRSTEM) imaging. To elucidate the effects of beta-stability and starting microstructure on the deformation behavior of gum metals and thus to provide adequate context for potentially novel deformation structures, we investigate three alloy conditions: gum metal that has undergone solution heat treatment (STGM), gum metal that has been heavily cold worked (CWGM), and a solution treated alloy of nominal gum metal composition, but leaner in beta-stabilizing content (ST Ref-1). In order to directly relate observed

  17. Guar gum effects on food intake, blood serum lipids and glucose levels of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Frias, A C; Sgarbieri, V C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of guar gum derived from the endosperm of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (75% soluble fiber, 7.6% insoluble fiber, 2.16% crude protein, 0.78% total lipids, 0.54% ash and 9.55% moisture) on food intake, levels of blood serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glucose and LDL and HDL-cholesterol were studied. The effects of guar gum on indices of protein absorption and utilization were also investigated. Diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% (w/w) guar gum or 10% and 20% cellulose powder (reference) were fed to normal rats for 60 days. The rats fed the guar gum diets showed significantly (p < or = 0.05) lower levels of blood serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, reduced food intake and body weight gain. Furthermore, a concomitant increase in HDL-cholesterol with a substantial elevation of the HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio were noted. Guar gum decreased blood serum glucose only during the first month of the experiment, and no changes in the indices of protein absorption and utilization were found. The guar gum caused a 10% increase in the small intestine length and a 25% retardation in the intestinal transit. The results of this research suggested that guar gum could potentially be effective in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and obesity in humans.

  18. Guar gum coupled microscale ZVI for in situ treatment of CAHs: continuous-flow column study.

    PubMed

    Velimirovic, Milica; Simons, Queenie; Bastiaens, Leen

    2014-01-30

    A column study was performed under in situ conditions to evaluate to which extend the inactivation of the microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) by guar gum occurs under continuous flow conditions. Five aquifer containing columns were set up under different conditions. Efficient removal of trichloroethene was observed for the column amended by mZVI. Stabilization of the mZVI with guar gum led to slightly reduced activity. More reduced reactivity was observed in the poisoned column containing guar gum stabilized mZVI. This confirms that soil microorganisms can degrade guar gum and that subsequent removal of the oligosaccharides by the groundwater flow (flushing effect) can reactivate the mZVI. After more than six months of continuous operation the columns were dismantled. DNA-based qPCR analysis revealed that mZVI does not significantly affect the bacterial community, while guar gum stabilized mZVI particles can even induce bacterial growth. Overall, this study suggests that the temporarily decreased mZVI reactivity due to guar gum, has a rather limited impact on the performance of in situ reactive zones. The presence of guar gum slightly reduced the reactivity of iron, but also slowed down the iron corrosion rate which prolongs the life time of reactive zone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating the masticatory function after mandibulectomy with colour-changing chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Y; Ishida, S; Hasegawa, T; Kobayashi, M; Nibu, K; Komori, T

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the usefulness of colour-changing gum in evaluating masticatory performance after mandibulectomy. Thirty-nine patients who underwent mandibulectomy between 1982 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were recruited in this study. There were 21 male and 18 female subjects with a mean age of 64·7 years (range: 12-89 years) at the time of surgery. The participants included six patients who underwent marginal mandibulectomy, 21 patients who underwent segmental mandibulectomy and 12 patients who underwent hemimandibulectomy. The masticatory function was evaluated using colour-changing chewing gum, gummy jelly and a modified Sato's questionnaire. In all cases, the data were obtained more than 3 months after completing the patient's final prosthesis. The colour-changing gum scores correlated with both the gummy jelly scores (r = 0·634, P < 0·001) and the total scores of the modified Sato's questionnaire (r = 0·537, P < 0·001). In conclusion, colour-changing gum is a useful item for evaluating masticatory performance after mandibulectomy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Gum Nebula.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, S. P.

    1971-01-01

    A historical review of observations on the Gum Nebula is given together with a survey of knowledge on its size, emission features, and dynamics of expansion. The ultraviolet spectrum of Zeta Puppis is examined in terms of features caused by various absorption lines, and radio emission from Vela X is analyzed, together with the effects of nebular plasma on the propagation of radio pulses from pulsars in the Nebula. The density distribution and the possibility of being produced by the Vela X supernova are discussed.

  1. Natural gums of plant origin as edible coatings for food industry applications.

    PubMed

    Saha, Anuradha; Tyagi, Shvetambri; Gupta, Rajinder K; Tyagi, Yogesh K

    2017-12-01

    Natural plant-based gums and their derivatives are widely utilized in food industries, however, their applications as edible coatings to extend fresh fruits and vegetable shelf-life has been explored recently. These natural polymeric polysaccharides have many advantages as compared to synthetic polymers, because they are biodegradable, nontoxic, economical and easily available in the environment. Natural gums can also be semi synthetically modified to produce derivatives, which can easily compete with the synthetic preservatives available on the food market. In this review, the recent developments in the use of natural gums and their derivatives as edible coatings have been explored and discussed.

  2. In vitro studies on guar gum based formulation for the colon targeted delivery of Sennosides.

    PubMed

    Momin, Munira; Pundarikakshudu, K

    2004-09-24

    The objective of the present study is to develop colon targeted drug delivery systems for sennosides using guar gum as a carrier. Matrix tablets containing various proportions of guar gum were prepared by wet granulation technique using starch paste as a binder. The tablets were evaluated for content uniformity and in vitro drug release study as per BP method. T(50) % value from the dissolution studies was taken for selecting the best formulation. Guar gum matrix tablets released 4-18% sennosides in the physiological environment of gastrointestinal tract depending on the proportion of the guar gum used in the formulation. The matrix tablets containing 50% of guar gum were found to be suitable for targeting of sennosides for local action in the colon. Compared to tablets having 30% and 40% of guar gum, those with 50% guar gum gave better T(50)% (11.7 h) le and fewer amounts (5-8%) of drug release in upper GIT. These tablets with 50% guar gum released 43% and 96% sennosides with and without rat caecal fluids. This suggests the susceptibility of matrix to the colonic micro flora. The similarity factor (f2 value) for drug release with and without rat caecal fluids was found to be less than 30. When hydroxy propyl methylcellulose phthalate (10%) was used as a coat material on the matrix tablets, the initial loss of 5-8% sennosides in stomach could be completely averted. These tablets showed no change in physical appearance, content and dissolution profile upon storage at 45 degrees C / 75% relative humidity for 3 months. The results of our study indicates that matrix tablets containing 50% guar gum and coated with 10% hydroxy propyl methylcellulose phthalate are most suitable for drugs like sennosides which are mainly active in the lower GIT.

  3. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray analysis of bioglass-enriched hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Gorodzha, Svetlana; Douglas, Timothy E L; Samal, Sangram K; Detsch, Rainer; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Braeckmans, Kevin; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Skirtach, Andre G; Weinhardt, Venera; Baumbach, Tilo; Surmeneva, Maria A; Surmenev, Roman A

    2016-05-01

    Enrichment of hydrogels with inorganic particles improves their suitability for bone regeneration by enhancing their mechanical properties, mineralizability, and bioactivity as well as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of bone-forming cells, while maintaining injectability. Low aggregation and homogeneous distribution maximize particle surface area, promoting mineralization, cell-particle interactions, and homogenous tissue regeneration. Hence, determination of the size and distribution of particles/particle agglomerates in the hydrogel is desirable. Commonly used techniques have drawbacks. High-resolution techniques (e.g., SEM) require drying. Distribution in the dry state is not representative of the wet state. Techniques in the wet state (histology, µCT) are of lower resolution. Here, self-gelling, injectable composites of Gellan Gum (GG) hydrogel and two different types of sol-gel-derived bioactive glass (bioglass) particles were analyzed in the wet state using Synchrotron X-ray radiation, enabling high-resolution determination of particle size and spatial distribution. The lower detection limit volume was 9 × 10(-5) mm(3) . Bioglass particle suspensions were also studied using zeta potential measurements and Coulter analysis. Aggregation of bioglass particles in the GG hydrogels occurred and aggregate distribution was inhomogeneous. Bioglass promoted attachment of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSC) and mineralization. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Influence of Different ECM-Like Hydrogels on Neurite Outgrowth Induced by Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, E.; Assunção-Silva, R. C.; Teixeira, F. G.

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed for spinal cord injury (SCI) applications due to their capacity to secrete growth factors and vesicles—secretome—that impacts important phenomena in SCI regeneration. To improve MSC survival into SCI sites, hydrogels have been used as transplantation vehicles. Herein, we hypothesized if different hydrogels could interact differently with adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ASCs). The efficacy of three natural hydrogels, gellan gum (functionalized with a fibronectin peptide), collagen, and a hydrogel rich in laminin epitopes (NVR-gel) in promoting neuritogenesis (alone and cocultured with ASCs), was evaluated in the present study. Their impact on ASC survival, metabolic activity, and gene expression was also evaluated. Our results indicated that all hydrogels supported ASC survival and viability, being this more evident for the functionalized GG hydrogels. Moreover, the presence of different ECM-derived biological cues within the hydrogels appears to differently affect the mRNA levels of growth factors involved in neuronal survival, differentiation, and axonal outgrowth. All the hydrogel-based systems supported axonal growth mediated by ASCs, but this effect was more robust in functionalized GG. The data herein presented highlights the importance of biological cues within hydrogel-based biomaterials as possible modulators of ASC secretome and its effects for SCI applications. PMID:29333166

  5. Rhythm and amplitude of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity during sleep in bruxers - comparison with gum chewing.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shinpei; Yamaguchi, Taihiko; Mikami, Saki; Okada, Kazuki; Gotouda, Akihito; Sano, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate characteristics of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) during sleep by comparing masseteric EMG (electromyogram) activities of RMMA with gum chewing. The parts of five or more consecutive phasic bursts in RMMA of 23 bruxers were analyzed. Wilcoxon signed-rank test for matched pairs and Spearman's correlation coefficient by the rank test were used for statistical analysis. Root mean square value of RMMA phasic burst was smaller than that during gum chewing, but correlates to that of gum chewing. The cycle of RMMA was longer than that of gum chewing due to the longer burst duration of RMMA, and variation in the cycles of RMMA was wider. These findings suggest that the longer but smaller EMG burst in comparison with gum chewing is one of the characteristics of RMMA. The relation between size of RMMA phasic bursts and gum chewing is also suggested.

  6. Evaluation of masticatory function after maxillectomy using a colour-changing chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Y; Ishida, S; Kobayashi, M; Hasegawa, T; Nibu, K; Komori, T

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the masticatory dysfunction after maxillectomy using a colour-changing chewing gum. Thirty-nine patients who underwent maxillectomy between January 2002 and May 2010 in the Department of Kobe University Hospital were recruited for this study. There were 20 male and 19 female subjects, with a median age of 73·3 years (range of 44-90) at the time of surgery. The intra-oral conditions after maxillectomy were classified by HS classification, and the masticatory function was evaluated by a colour-changing chewing gum and the results of a modified Sato's questionnaire. The scores of the colour-changing gum were closely correlated with the scores of the modified Sato's questionnaire (r = 0·661, P < 0·01). A logistic regression analysis with the outcome variable of the gum test <4 demonstrated that significant predictors for the masticatory dysfunction were the number of anchor teeth ≤2 and a soft palate defect. A colour-changing gum was found to be useful for evaluating the post-operative masticatory function, and it was important to conserve the anchor teeth and the soft palate to avoid masticatory dysfunction. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Prosopis alba exudate gum as excipient for improving fish oil stability in alginate-chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Vasile, Franco Emanuel; Romero, Ana María; Judis, María Alicia; Mazzobre, María Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to employ an exudate gum obtained from a South American wild tree (Prosopis alba), as wall material component to enhance the oxidative stability of fish oil encapsulated in alginate-chitosan beads. For this purpose, beads were vacuum-dried and stored under controlled conditions. Oxidation products, fatty acid profiles and lipid health indices were measured during storage. Alginate-chitosan interactions and the effect of gum were manifested in the FT-IR spectra. The inclusion of the gum in the gelation media allowed decreasing the oxidative damage during storage in comparison to the free oil and alginate-chitosan beads. The gum also improved wall material properties, providing higher oil retention during the drying step and subsequent storage. Fatty acids quality and lipid health indices were widely preserved in beads containing the gum. Present results showed a positive influence of the gum on oil encapsulation and stability, being the main mechanism attributed to a physical barrier effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of guar gum based triple-layer matrix tablet of diclofenac sodium

    PubMed Central

    Chavda, H.V.; Patel, M.S.; Patel, C.N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to design an oral controlled drug delivery system for sparingly soluble diclofenac sodium (DCL) using guar gum as triple-layer matrix tablets. Matrix tablet granules containing 30% (D1), 40% (D2) or 50% (D3) of guar gum were prepared by the conventional wet granulation technique. Matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium were prepared by compressing three layers one by one. Centre layer of sandwich like structure was incorporated with matrix granules containing DCL which was covered on either side by guar gum granule layers containing either 70, 80 or 87% of guar gum as release retardant layers. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, thickness, drug content, and drug release studies. To ascertain the kinetics of drug release, the dissolution profiles were fitted to various mathematical models. The in vitro drug release from proposed system was best explained by the Hopfenberg model indicating that the release of drug from tablets displayed heterogeneous erosion. D3G3, containing 87% of guar gum in guar gum layers and 50% of guar gum in DCL matrix granule layer was found to provide the release rate for prolonged period of time. The results clearly indicate that guar gum could be a potential hydrophilic carrier in the development of oral controlled drug delivery systems. PMID:23181081

  9. Relationships Between Gum Chewing and Stroop Test: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Y; Takeda, T; Konno, M; Suzuki, Y; Kawano, Y; Ozawa, T; Kondo, Y; Sakatani, K

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive function tends to decrease with aging, therefore maintenance of this function in an aging society is an important issue. The role of chewing in nutrition is important. Although several studies indicate that gum chewing is thought to improve cognitive function, it remains debatable whether gum-chewing does in fact improve cognitive function. The Stroop test is a psychological tool used to measure cognition. A shorter reaction time indicates a mean higher behavioral performance and higher levels of oxy-Hb concentration. fNIRS is a powerful, non-invasive imaging technique offering many advantages, including compact size, no need for specially equipped facilities, and the potential for real-time measurement. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seems to be mainly involved in the Stroop task.The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that gum-chewing changes cerebral blood flow in the left DLPFC during the Stroop test, and also changes the reaction time. Fourteen healthy volunteers (mean age 26.9 years) participated in this study after providing written informed consent. A piece of tasteless gum weighing 1.0 g was used. Each session was designed in a block manner, i.e. 4 rests (30 s) and 3 blocks of task (30 s). A computerized Stroop test was used (including both congruent and incongruent Stroop tasks) which calculates a response time automatically. The Binominal test was used for comparisons (p < 0.05). The results show activation of the left DLPFC during the Stroop task and that gum chewing significantly increases responses/oxy-Hb concentration and significantly shortens the reaction time.

  10. The Efficacy of a Chewing Gum Containing Phyllanthus emblica Fruit Extract in Improving Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Li, Xuemei; Huang, Haitao; Guan, Ying; Mi, Qili; Yao, Jianhua

    2018-05-01

    Phyllanthus emblica: (PE) fruit extract has pharmacological activity and exert anti-bacterial, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, but few study exist for evaluating its improved effects on the imbalance of oral ecology, which may contribute to series of oral diseases. In this study, an examiner-blinded, randomized, and gum-base-controlled crossover manner was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a sugar-free chewing gum containing PE fruit extract in changing the oral microbiome. Twenty healthy young adults were randomly instructed to chew either PE gum or placebo gum. Saliva samples were collected at baseline and from 0 to 2, 2 to 5, 5 to 10, 10 to 15, and 75 to 80 min after each intervention. The following outcomes were measured: (i) salivary flow rate and pH value; (ii) total bacteria, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) counts; and (iii) volatile sulfur compound (VSC) concentrations. The results showed similar data between groups at baseline and significantly higher salivary flow rates and pH levels in the PE fruit gum group after 0-2, 2-5, and 5-10 min of chewing. Assessment of total bacteria, S. mutans, P. gingivalis, and VSC levels revealed significant differences between the PE and control gum groups at 75-80 min. No adverse effects were registered. The present finding indicated chewing gum containing PE fruit extract stimulated salivary flow and significantly reduced clinical test indexes in the short term. Chewing PE gum might be a safe means of improving oral hygiene.

  11. Nicotine-substitute gum-induced milk alkali syndrome: a look at unexpected sources of calcium.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Christine M; Mackey, Patricia A; Westphal, Sydney A; Argueta, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a 64-year-old woman with recurrent hypercalcemia. Her laboratory evaluation was consistent with milk-alkali syndrome. It was eventually discovered that the source of the excessive calcium consumption was nicotine-replacement chewing gum and carbonated water. An extensive literature search was performed to see if milk-alkali syndrome due to nicotine-replacement gum and carbonated water has been previously reported. No prior report describing the association of milk alkali syndrome with nicotine-replacement gum and carbonated water was found. We present a unique case of milk-alkali syndrome due to nicotine-replacement gum and carbonated water. It serves as a lesson to evaluate other sources besides calcium supplements as the cause of excessive calcium intake.

  12. Rheological Behavior of Xanthan Gum Solution Related to Shear Thinning Fluid Delivery for Subsurface Remediation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.

    Xanthan gum, a biopolymer, forms shear thinning fluids which can be used as delivery media to improve the distribution of remedial amendments injected into heterogeneous subsurface environments. The rheological behavior of the shear thinning solution needs to be known to develop an appropriate design for field injection. In this study, the rheological properties of xanthan gum solutions were obtained under various chemical and environmental conditions relevant to delivery of remedial amendments to groundwater. Higher xanthan concentration raised the absolute solution viscosity and increased the degree of shear thinning. Addition of remedial amendments (e.g., phosphate, sodium lactate, ethyl lactate) caused themore » dynamic viscosity of xanthan gum to decrease, but the solutions maintained shear-thinning properties. Use of simple salt (e.g. Na+, Ca2+) to increase the solution ionic strength also decreased the dynamic viscosity of xanthan and the degree of shear thinning, although the effect is a function of xanthan gum concentration and diminished as the xanthan gum concentration was increased. At high xanthan concentration, addition of salt to the solution increased dynamic viscosity. In the absence of sediments, xanthan gum solutions maintain their viscosity properties for months. However, xanthan gum solutions were shown to lose dynamic viscosity over a period of days to weeks when contacted with saturated site sediment. Loss of viscosity is attributed to physical and biodegradation processes.« less

  13. Gum chewing improves swallow frequency and latency in Parkinson patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    South, Angela R; Somers, Stephanie M; Jog, Mandar S

    2010-04-13

    Reduced swallowing frequency affects secretion management in Parkinson disease (PD). Gum chewing increases saliva flow and swallow frequency. This study uses chewing gum to modify swallow frequency and latency between swallows in patients with PD. 1) Assess the frequency and latency of swallow at baseline (BL), during gum chewing (GC), and post gum chewing (PGC) for participants with PD (stage 2-4) nonsymptomatic for prandial dysphagia; and 2) assess carryover after gum is expectorated. Twenty participants were studied across 3 tasks, each of 5 minutes in duration: BL, GC, and PGC. Respiratory and laryngeal signals were continuously recorded using PowerLab (version 5.5.5; ADI Instruments, Castle Hill, Australia). Frequency and latency of swallow events were calculated. Differences (analysis of variance) are reported for frequency (p < 0.000001) and latency (p < 0.000001). Swallow frequency (mean +/- SD) increased during GC (14.95 +/- 3.02) compared with BL (3.1 +/- 2.85) and PGC (7.0 +/- 2.57). Latency in seconds (mean +/- SD) decreased during GC (24.1 +/- 4.174) and increased with BL (131.8 +/- 59.52) and PGC (mean = 60.74 +/- 25.25). Intertask comparisons (t test) found differences in swallow frequency and latency between tasks: BL vs GC (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001), BL vs PGC (p < 0.0011, p < 0.0009), and GC vs PGC (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0002), respectively. Post hoc analysis showed carryover to 5.317 minutes. Modifying sensorimotor input by chewing gum alters frequency and latency of swallowing and may be an effective strategy for secretion management in Parkinson disease. This study provides Class III evidence that chewing gum increases swallow frequency and decreases latency of swallowing in an experiment in patients with stage 2 to 4 Parkinson disease who are nonsymptomatic for significant prandial dysphagia.

  14. Temperature dependency of the interaction between xanthan gum and sage seed gum: An interpretation of dynamic rheology and thixotropy based on creep test.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed M A; Behrouzian, Fataneh; Alghooneh, Ali

    2017-10-01

    The viscoelastic (transient and dynamic) and time-dependent rheological behaviors of XG (xanthan gum), SSG (sage seed gum) and their blends at various ratios (1-3, 1-1, and 3-1 SSG-XG) and temperatures (10, 30, and 50C) were investigated using creep and recovery analyses. The creep compliance was converted to stress relaxation data; then, the structural kinetic model satisfactorily fitted the time-dependent relaxation modulus. Furthermore, dynamic rheology of mixtures was investigated using creep analyses. The most important contribution of the Maxwell spring to deformation (53.51%), was that corresponding to the SSG at 50C and the most important contribution of the Maxwell dashpot to the maximum deformation, were those corresponding to the XG (61.44%) and 1-3 SSG-XG (58.91%) samples both at 50C. The breakdown rate constant ( α) of the crosslinked gum structure in SSG and 3-1 SSG-XG under the application of external shear stress increases with temperature from 10 to 50C in the range of 0.14-0.32 (1/s) and 0.14-0.24 (1/s), respectively, whereas other dispersions showed the reverse trend. Among all dispersions, only XG and 1-3 SSG-XG demonstrated crossover frequency at 9.95 and 31.47 rad/s, respectively, at 50C, indicative of the lowest entanglement density for 1-3 SSG-XG. The greatest interaction between SSG and XG occurred for 3-1 ratio at 50C, which was confirmed by the Han curves. Hydrocolloid blends, particularly those consisting of xanthan gum and a galactomannan from new source can provide a range of attractive textural properties. Rheological studies contribute to the description of the molecular structure and prediction of the structural changes during their manufacturing processes. Sage seed gum (SSG), as a polyelectrolyte galactomannan, has a great potential to exert stabilizing, thickening, gelling and binding properties in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical systems. Therefore, we elaborate the interactions between SSG and xanthan gum and also the

  15. Whey protein concentrate and gum tragacanth as fat replacers in nonfat yogurt: chemical, physical, and microstructural properties.

    PubMed

    Aziznia, S; Khosrowshahi, A; Madadlou, A; Rahimi, J

    2008-07-01

    The effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and gum tragacanth (GT) as fat replacers on the chemical, physical, and microstructural properties of nonfat yogurt was investigated. The WPC (7.5, 15, and 20 g/L) and GT (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g/L) were incorporated into the skim milk slowly at 40 to 45 degrees C with agitation. The yogurt mixes were pasteurized at 90 degrees C for 10 min, inoculated with 0.1% starter culture, and incubated at 42 degrees C to pH 4.6, then refrigerated overnight at 5 degrees C. A control nonfat yogurt and control full fat yogurt were prepared as described, but without addition of WPC and GT. Increasing amount of WPC led to the increase in total solids, total protein, acidity, and ash content, whereas GT did not affect chemical parameters. Increasing WPC caused a more compact structure consisting of robust casein particles and large aggregates. Firmness was increased and susceptibility to syneresis was decreased as WPC increased. No significant difference was observed for firmness and syneresis of yogurt fortified with GT up to 0.5 g/L compared with control nonfat yogurt. Increasing the amount of gum above 0.5 g/L produced softer gels with a greater tendency for syneresis than the ones prepared without it. Addition of GT led to the coarser and more open structure compared with control yogurt.

  16. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition

    PubMed Central

    Keijser, Bart J. F.; van den Broek, Tim J.; Slot, Dagmar E.; van Twillert, Lodewic; Kool, Jolanda; Thabuis, Clémentine; Ossendrijver, Michel; van der Weijden, Fridus A.; Montijn, Roy C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis. Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165). One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative) aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA). Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism. Conclusion: The results showed that chewing itself

  17. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition.

    PubMed

    Keijser, Bart J F; van den Broek, Tim J; Slot, Dagmar E; van Twillert, Lodewic; Kool, Jolanda; Thabuis, Clémentine; Ossendrijver, Michel; van der Weijden, Fridus A; Montijn, Roy C

    2018-01-01

    Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis. Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165). One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative) aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA). Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism. Conclusion: The results showed that chewing itself

  18. Chewing gum for intestinal function recovery after caesarean section: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Meifen; Wu, Chao; Ding, Jianping; Mei, Binbin

    2017-04-18

    Gum chewing has been reported to enhance the intestinal function recovery after caesarean section, current perspectives and practice guidelines vary widely on the use of gum chewing, more studies on the role of gum chewing after caesarean section are needed. We performed a comprehensive, systematic meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of gum chewing after caesarean section. Studies were identified by searching EMBASE et al database (until June 30, 2016). Summary odd ratios or weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each outcome with fixed- or random-effects model. Ten RCTs with a total of 1659 women were included in our meta-analysis. Gum chewing provided significant benefits in reducing the time to first passage of flatus, first defecation, first bowel sound, first bowel movement and the length of hospital stay, but not in the time to first feeling of hunger. Gun chewing hastens the intestinal function recovery after caesarean section and offers a safe and inexpensive option. High-quality and larger-scale RCTs are still warranted to clarify the role of gum chewing in intestinal function recovery after caesarean section.

  19. Smokeless tobacco cessation: report of a preliminary trial using nicotine chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Sinusas, K; Coroso, J G

    1993-09-01

    Smokeless tobacco use is a major public health hazard whose incidence is increasing, particularly among male adolescents. Little research has been done on cessation programs designed to assist smokeless tobacco users in ending their habit. There have been no studies on the use of nicotine polacrilex chewing gum as an adjunct to cessation. Fourteen of 88 male smokeless tobacco users in a professional baseball organization enrolled in a cessation program and were followed for up to 12 months. The program consisted of two support group sessions at the spring training camp followed by adjunctive use of nicotine polacrilex chewing gum during the baseball season as monitored by the athletic trainers. At 2 to 4 months, only 3 of 14 participants were completely abstinent from smokeless tobacco. Follow-up data at 6 to 12 months revealed that only one participant was abstinent. The 14 ballplayers experienced various side effects of nicotine chewing gum: bad taste (6), nausea (4), headache (4), jaw discomfort (3), and dizziness (1). Despite these side effects, 11 of the 14 participants replied that they would recommend the gum to others trying to quit. Most participants (10) felt that quitting the smokeless tobacco habit was "very difficult." We conclude that nicotine chewing gum as an adjunct to smokeless tobacco cessation had limited effectiveness. Further study on smokeless tobacco cessation methods is needed.

  20. Development of eco-friendly submicron emulsions stabilized by a bio-derived gum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mosqueda, Luis María; Ramírez, Pablo; Trujillo-Cayado, Luis Alfonso; Santos, Jenifer; Muñoz, José

    2014-11-01

    Many traditional organic solvents are being gradually replaced by ecofriendly alternatives. D-Limonene is a terpenic (bio)-solvent that fulfils the requirements to be considered a green solvent. D-Limonene sub-micron emulsions suffer from Ostwald ripening destabilization. In this study, we examined the influence of the addition of a natural gum (rosin gum) to D-limonene in order to prevent Ostwald ripening. This contribution deals with the study of emulsions formulated with a mixture of D-limonene and rosin gum as dispersed phase and Pluronic PE9400 as emulsifier. The procedure followed for the development of these formulations was based on the application of product design principles. This led to the optimum ratio rosin gum/D-limonene and subsequently to the optimum surfactant concentration. The combination of different techniques (rheology, laser diffraction and multiple light scattering) was demonstrated to be a powerful tool to assist in the prediction of the emulsions destabilization process. Not only did the addition of rosin gum highly increase the stability of these emulsions by inhibiting the Ostwald ripening, but it also reduced the emulsions droplet size. Thus, we found that stable sub-micron D-limonene-in-water emulsions have been obtained in the range 3-6 wt% Pluronic PE-9400 by means of a single-step rotor/stator homogenizing process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis: comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Bots, Casper P; Brand, Henk S; Veerman, Enno C I; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; Van Amerongen, Barbara M; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Valentijn, Robert M; Vos, Pieter F; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bezemer, Pieter D; ter Wee, Piet M

    2005-04-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White) and a xanthan gum-based artificial saliva (Xialine) in the management of xerostomia in chronic HD patients. Sixty-five HD patients participated in a 6-week crossover trial. The artificial saliva was rated significantly lower than the chewing gum for effectiveness, taste and a global assessment. No preference differences were found for gender and age, although older subjects rated the artificial saliva with a higher mark. Thirty-nine subjects (60%) preferred chewing gum, 15% (n=10) preferred the artificial saliva. Therefore, both chewing gum and artificial saliva could play an important role in the palliative care of xerostomia in HD patients.

  2. Effect of Angum gum in combination with tragacanth gum on rheological and sensory properties of ketchup.

    PubMed

    Komeilyfard, Ahmadreza; Fazel, Mohammad; Akhavan, Hamidreza; Mousakhani Ganjeh, Alireza

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Angum gum (AnG) alone and in combination with tragacanth gum (TG) on the stability, texture, sensory, and rheological properties of tomato ketchup. AnG, TG, and Angum gum and tragacanth gum mixture (AnGT; 1:1 ratio) were added at levels of 0.5, 1, and 1.5%. Ten tomato ketchup formulations were produced: control (without hydrocolloid), AnG (0.5-1.5%), TG (0.5-1.5%), AnGT (0.5-1.5%). It was observed that the hydrocolloids addition to tomato ketchup significantly decreased the Bostwick consistency value and serum separation at 2200, 5000, and 8800 g. Textural properties of tomato ketchup by using back extrusion test and particle size analysis were significantly increased with hydrocolloid addition. All tomato ketchup formulations showed shear thinning behavior and the addition of hydrocolloids increased apparent viscosity. The power law and Herschel-Bulkley models were successfully fitted with experimental data. The flow behavior indices of Herschel-Bulkley and power law models were changed in the range of 0.19-0.24 and 0.14-0.30, respectively. The consistency coefficients of these models were in the range of 16.31-79.57 and 11.19-146.06 Pa s n , respectively. The storage modulus (G') of all tomato ketchups was higher than the loss modulus (G″). Hydrocolloid addition showed no significant effect on the color indices (L*, a*, b*, hue angle, chroma, and total color differences) of tomato ketchup. The overall acceptability of 1.5% AnG, 0.5% TG, 1 and 1.5% AnGT were significantly higher than other samples. Therefore, AnG can be used alone and in combination with TG as stabilizer in tomato ketchup. The consistency of tomato ketchup is an important attribute from both engineering and consumer viewpoints. It was observed that addition of TG, AnG, and AnGT to tomato ketchups significantly decreased their Bostwick consistency values and their serum separation. In addition, hydrocolloid addition showed no significant effect

  3. Discovery of X-ray emission associated with the Gum Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, D. A.; Nousek, J.; Garmire, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Gum Nebula was observed by the A-2 LED proportional counters on the HEAO-1 satellite as part of the all-sky survey. The first detection of X-ray emission associated with the Gum Nebula is reported. Soft X-ray spectra were constructed from the A-2 LED PHA data. Single temperature Raymond-Smith models were fitted to the observed spectra to yield temperature, column density and emission measure. The temperature is 6 x 10 exp 5 K, the column density 4 x 10 exp 20/sq cm, and the emission measure 5 cm exp-6 pc. The X-ray and optical properties of the Gum Nebula are consistent with a supernova remnant in the shell stage of evolution, which was the product of an energetic (3 x 10 exp 51 ergs) supernova explosion which occurred about 2 x 10 exp 6 yr ago.

  4. TECHNICAL NOTE: The effect of the green additive guar gum on the properties of magnetorheological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chen; Zhao, Bin Yuan; Chen, LeSheng; Wu, Qing; Liu, Nan; Hu, Ke Ao

    2005-02-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluid containing guar gum was prepared for the first time by ball-milling the guar gum powder together with silicone oil and carbonyl iron powder. By forming a coating layer over the ground carbonyl iron powder, the guar gum improves the sedimentation stability and thixotropy of the MR fluid effectively.

  5. SUGAR-FREE CHEWING GUM AND DENTAL CARIES – A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Yengopal, Veerasamy; Bezerra, Ana Cristina; Cruvinel, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To appraise existing evidence for a therapeutic / anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum for patients. Method: 9 English and 2 Portuguese databases were searched using English and Portuguese keywords. Relevant articles in English, German, Portuguese and Spanish were included for review. Trials were excluded on lack of randomisation, control group, blinding and baseline data, drop out rate >33%, no statistical adjustment of baseline differences and no assessment of clinically important outcomes. Reviews were excluded on lack of information, article selection criteria, search strategy followed, search keywords, searched databases or lack of study-by-study critique tables. In cases of multiple reports from the same study, the report covering the longest period was included. Two reviewers independently reviewed and assessed the quality of accepted articles. Results: Thirty-nine articles were included for review. Thirty were excluded and 9 accepted. Of the 9 accepted, 2 trials of reasonable and good evidence value did not demonstrate any anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum. However, 7 articles, with 1 of strong, and 6 of good evidence value, demonstrated anti-cariogenic effects of chewing Sorbitol, Xylitol or Sorbitol/Xylitol gum. This effect can be ascribed to saliva stimulation through the chewing process, particularly when gum is used immediately after meals; the lack of sucrose and the inability of bacteria to metabolize polyols into acids. Conclusion: The evidence suggests that sugar-free chewing gum has a caries-reducing effect. Further well-designed randomised trials are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:19089107

  6. Reduction of lipid oxidation by formation of caseinate-oil-oat gum emulsions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The concentration of oat gum, though important for formation of stable emulsion, has no effect on oxidation of Omega 3 oil; this is most prominent in fish-oil based Omega 3 oil. The optimal concentration of oat gum is about 0.2% wt for emulsion stability and visual appearance. We found that concentr...

  7. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Raksha K; Bhat, Sham S; Ramdas, Shenoy Shailesh; Ballal, Shrinidhi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of chewing gum on the salivary pH and to compare the effect of chewing bicarbonate-containing sugar-free gum on salivary pH against that of standard sugar-free gum. The experiment was carried out on 30 volunteers aged 20-22 years (mean age = 21 years) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The test gum was sugar-free greenmint-flavored bicarbonate-containing gum and the standard control was sugar-free spearmint-flavored gum. The pH was measured immediately using pH strips. According to statistical analysis, the mean salivary pH of the bicarbonate gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.9713, 6.5667, 6.4267, 6.3867 and 6.3233 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes, but there was a significant difference in salivary pH from 5 to 20 minutes (p = 0.014). The mean salivary pH of the standard gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.8767, 6.6067, 6.4200, 6.4027 and 6.3000 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 5 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes. Thus, the higher salivary pH achieved with chewing bicarbonate gum compared with a standard sugar-free gum may have important oral health implications. How to cite this article: Ballal RK, Bhat SS, Ramdas SS, Ballal S. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):35-38.

  8. Application of guar-xanthan gum mixture as a partial fat replacer in meat emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rather, Sajad A; Masoodi, F A; Akhter, Rehana; Rather, Jahangir A; Gani, Adil; Wani, S M; Malik, A H

    2016-06-01

    The physicochemical, oxidative, texture and microstructure properties were evaluated for low fat meat emulsions containing varying levels of guar/xanthan gum mixture (1:1 ratio) as a fat substitute. Partial replacement of fat with guar/xanthan gum resulted in higher emulsion stability and cooking yield but lower penetration force. Proximate composition revealed that high fat control had significantly higher fat and lower moisture content due to the difference in basic formulation. Colour evaluation revealed that low fat formulations containing gum mixture had significantly lower lightness and higher yellowness values than high fat control formulation. However non-significant difference was observed in redness values between low fat formulations and the high fat control. The pH values of the low fat formulations containing gum mixture were lower than the control formulations (T0 and TC). The MetMb% of the high fat emulsion formulation was higher than low fat formulations. The significant increase of TBARS value, protein carbonyl groups and loss of protein sulphydryl groups in high fat formulation reflect the more oxidative degradation of lipids and muscle proteins during the preparation of meat emulsion than low fat formulations. The SEM showed a porous matrix in the treatments containing gum mixture. Thus, the guar/xanthan gum mixture improved the physicochemical and oxidative quality of low fat meat emulsions than the control formulations.

  9. Rheologically interesting polysaccharides from yeasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Nelson, G. A.; Cathey, C. A.; Fuller, G. G.

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the relationships between primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of polysaccharides exhibiting the rheological property of friction (drag) reduction in turbulent flows. We found an example of an exopolysaccharide from the yeast Cryptococcus laurentii that possessed high molecular weight but exhibited lower than expected drag reducing activity. Earlier correlations by Hoyt showing that beta 1 --> 3, beta 2 --> 4, and alpha 1 --> 3 linkages in polysaccharides favored drag reduction were expanded to include correlations to secondary structure. The effect of sidechains in a series of gellan gums was shown to be related to sidechain length and position. Disruption of secondary structure in drag reducing polysaccharides reduced drag reducing activity for some but not all exopolysaccharides. The polymer from C. laurentii was shown to be more stable than xanthan gum and other exopolysaccharides under the most vigorous of denaturing conditions. We also showed a direct relationship between extensional viscosity measurements and the drag reducing coefficient for four exopolysaccharides.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of Chios mastic gum is associated with inhibition of TNF-alpha induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gum of Chios mastic (Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) is a natural antimicrobial agent that has found extensive use in pharmaceutical products and as a nutritional supplement. The molecular mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory activity, however, are not clear. In this work, the potential role of antioxidant activity of Chios mastic gum has been evaluated. Methods Scavenging of superoxide radical was investigated by electron spin resonance and spin trapping technique using EMPO spin trap in xanthine oxidase system. Superoxide production in endothelial and smooth muscle cells stimulated with TNF-α or angiotensin II and treated with vehicle (DMSO) or mastic gum (0.1-10 μg/ml) was measured by DHE and HPLC. Cellular H2O2 was measured by Amplex Red. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) with mastic gum was determined by the decrease of purified PKC activity, by inhibition of PKC activity in cellular homogenate and by attenuation of superoxide production in cells treated with PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Results Spin trapping study did not show significant scavenging of superoxide by mastic gum itself. However, mastic gum inhibited cellular production of superoxide and H2O2 in dose dependent manner in TNF-α treated rat aortic smooth muscle cells but did not affect unstimulated cells. TNF-α significantly increased the cellular superoxide production by NADPH oxidase, while mastic gum completely abolished this stimulation. Mastic gum inhibited the activity of purified PKC, decreased PKC activity in cell homogenate, and attenuated superoxide production in cells stimulated with PKC activator PMA and PKC-dependent angiotensin II in endothelial cells. Conclusion We suggest that mastic gum inhibits PKC which attenuates production of superoxide and H2O2 by NADPH oxidases. This antioxidant property may have direct implication to the anti-inflammatory activity of the Chios mastic gum. PMID:21645369

  11. Linear Mixed Models: Gum and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendacká, Barbora; Täubner, Angelika; Eichstädt, Sascha; Bruns, Thomas; Elster, Clemens

    2014-04-01

    In Annex H.5, the Guide to the Evaluation of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) [1] recognizes the necessity to analyze certain types of experiments by applying random effects ANOVA models. These belong to the more general family of linear mixed models that we focus on in the current paper. Extending the short introduction provided by the GUM, our aim is to show that the more general, linear mixed models cover a wider range of situations occurring in practice and can be beneficial when employed in data analysis of long-term repeated experiments. Namely, we point out their potential as an aid in establishing an uncertainty budget and as means for gaining more insight into the measurement process. We also comment on computational issues and to make the explanations less abstract, we illustrate all the concepts with the help of a measurement campaign conducted in order to challenge the uncertainty budget in calibration of accelerometers.

  12. Fastidian gum: the Xylella fastidiosa exopolysaccharide possibly involved in bacterial pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    da Silva, F R; Vettore, A L; Kemper, E L; Leite, A; Arruda, P

    2001-09-25

    The Gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was the first plant pathogen to be completely sequenced. This species causes several economically important plant diseases, including citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC). Analysis of the genomic sequence of X. fastidiosa revealed a 12 kb DNA fragment containing an operon closely related to the gum operon of Xanthomonas campestris. The presence of all genes involved in the synthesis of sugar precursors, existence of exopolysaccharide (EPS) production regulators in the genome, and the absence of three of the X. campestris gum genes suggested that X. fastidiosa is able to synthesize an EPS different from that of xanthan gum. This novel EPS probably consists of polymerized tetrasaccharide repeating units assembled by the sequential addition of glucose-1-phosphate, glucose, mannose and glucuronic acid on a polyprenol phosphate carrier.

  13. Simultaneous degumming and production of a natural gum from Crotalaria juncea seeds: Physicochemical and rheological characterization.

    PubMed

    Sadhukhan, Suvra; Bhattacharjee, Annesha; Sarkar, Ujjaini; Baidya, Pabitra Kumar; Baksi, Sibashish

    2018-05-01

    The oil extracted from Crotalaria juncea (Sunn-hemp) contains 70% of gum. Several methods of degumming are attempted in order to maximize the yield of gum. During appropriate water induced degumming, about 95-98% of phosphatides are separated. The maximum oil yield for two types of degummimg processes are 0.59% and 0.69% corresponding to hot water and pure O-phosphoric acid (19.88 N) treatment respectively. The % oil yield obtained for TOP degumming is about 0.78%. Physico-chemical characteristics of the isolated gum such as moisture, ash, protein, fat and aqueous solubility along with FTIR and TGA analysis are studied in order to evaluate the effect of extraction process. The behaviour of gum on the molecular scale is evaluated through alcohol treatment. Chromatographic analysis determines the monosaccharide content of the gum with glucose: xylose: arabinose::54: 34:1. Rheological characterization shows that the juncea gum solutions are shear rate dependent and the behaviour is shear-thinning (or pseudoplastic). Results show that the temperature dependent viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of postcompressional textural tests to evaluate the mechanical properties of medicated chewing gum tablets with high drug loadings.

    PubMed

    Al Hagbani, Turki; Nazzal, Sami

    2018-02-01

    Medicated chewing gum tablets (CGTs) represent a unique platform for drug delivery. Loading directly compressible gums with high concentrations of powdered medication, however, results in compacts with hybrid properties between a chewable gum and a brittle tablet. The aim of the present study was to develop textural tests that can identify the point at which CGTs begin to behave like a solid tablet upon drug incorporation. Curcumin (CUR) CGTs made with Health in gum were prepared with increasing CUR load from 0 to 100% and were characterized for their mechanical properties by a single-bite (knife) and a two-bite tests. From each test several parameters were extracted and correlated with drug loading. In the single-bite test, the change in the resistance of the compacts to plastic deformation was found to give a definitive guide on whether they behave as gums or tablets. A more in depth analysis of the impact of CUR loading on the chewability of the CGTs was provided by the two-bite test where CUR loading was found to have a nonlinear impact on the mechanical properties of compacts. An upper limit of 10% was found to yield compacts with gum-like properties, which were abolished at higher CUR loads. The textural test procedure outlined in this study are expected to assist those involved in the formulation of medicated gums for pharmaceutical applications in making an informed decision on the impact of drug loading on gum behavior before proceeding with clinical testing. There is a growing interest in utilizing medicated chewing gums for drug delivery, especially those made using directly compressible gum bases, such as Health in gum. Directly compressing a gum base with high amounts of solid drug powder, however, poses a challenge as it may result in compressed compacts with hybrid properties between a chewing gum and a hard tablet. Currently, official Pharmacopeias do not specify a testing procedure for the estimation of the mechanical and textural properties of

  15. The influence of guar gum on intestinal cholesterol transport in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gee, J M; Blackburn, N A; Johnson, I T

    1983-09-01

    Everted sacs of rat proximal small intestine were used to determine the effect of guar gum (5 g/l) on the uptake of cholesterol (0.1 mM) from a solution of micelles. The uptake of cholesterol was found to be linear both in the presence and absence of guar gum. When guar was present throughout the whole of the incubation medium, the uptake of cholesterol was reduced to approximately 40% of control values. Sacs which had been pre-incubated in guar gum before exposure to cholesterol in a guar-free medium also showed a reduction in cholesterol uptake but this was less pronounced. A two-stage perfusion technique, previously described (Blackburn & Johnson, 1981), was used to determine the effect of a guar layer adsorbed to the mucosal surface on cholesterol absorption in vivo. Such a layer leads to a reduction of approximately 36%; it was concluded that guar slows the absorption of cholesterol from micelles by a mechanism, or mechanisms, involving an increased resistance to diffusion in the aqueous medium. Groups of rats were meal-fed for at least 30 d on semi-synthetic diets with or without the inclusion of guar gum (20 g/kg). Rates of intestinal absorption of cholesterol, glucose and fluid were then determined by the perfusion technique in vivo. There was no reduction in absorption in the test animals compared with the controls. It is proposed that guar gum is able to slow the intestinal transport of cholesterol from a suspension of pre-formed micelles, but only when both are present in the lumen together. No evidence was obtained to suggest that the consumption by rats of a diet containing guar gum, at a level similar to that used in human studies, leads to any adaptive reduction in their rates of cholesterol or glucose absorption.

  16. Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

  17. Take Care of Your Teeth and Gums

    MedlinePlus

    ... This Topic En español Take Care of Your Teeth and Gums Browse Sections The Basics Overview Take ... Brushing Tips 3 of 5 sections Take Action: Dental Checkups Get regular checkups at the dentist. Visit ...

  18. Safety Assessment of Microbial Polysaccharide Gums as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of 34 microbial polysaccharide gums for use in cosmetics, finding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. The microbial polysaccharide gums named in this report have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, including emulsion stabilizer, film former, binder, viscosity-increasing agent, and skin-conditioning agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Enzymatic production and characterization of manno-oligosaccharides from Gleditsia sinensis galactomannan gum.

    PubMed

    Jian, Hong-Lei; Zhu, Li-Wei; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Sun, Da-Feng; Jiang, Jian-Xin

    2013-04-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of Gleditsia sinensis gum was performed to produce manno-oligosaccharides having functional applications as dietary fiber and prebiotics. The optimum hydrolysis conditions, including enzyme loading, temperature and time, from response surface methodology were 8.1 U/g, 57.4 °C and 34.1 h, respectively. The yield of DP 1-5 oligosaccharides was 75.9% (29.1 g/L). The Michaelis-Menten kinetics and molecular weight distribution were determined. The obtained oligosaccharides were further separated by HPLC and SEC, and the galactose distribution of G. sinensis gum was elucidated. Results indicated that G. sinensis gum has potential to produce value-added oligosaccharides in food industries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3336...