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Sample records for gem-bis-phosphonates powerful complexing

  1. Power grid vulnerability: A complex network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arianos, S.; Bompard, E.; Carbone, A.; Xue, F.

    2009-03-01

    Power grids exhibit patterns of reaction to outages similar to complex networks. Blackout sequences follow power laws, as complex systems operating near a critical point. Here, the tolerance of electric power grids to both accidental and malicious outages is analyzed in the framework of complex network theory. In particular, the quantity known as efficiency is modified by introducing a new concept of distance between nodes. As a result, a new parameter called net-ability is proposed to evaluate the performance of power grids. A comparison between efficiency and net-ability is provided by estimating the vulnerability of sample networks, in terms of both the metrics.

  2. Power grid vulnerability: a complex network approach.

    PubMed

    Arianos, S; Bompard, E; Carbone, A; Xue, F

    2009-03-01

    Power grids exhibit patterns of reaction to outages similar to complex networks. Blackout sequences follow power laws, as complex systems operating near a critical point. Here, the tolerance of electric power grids to both accidental and malicious outages is analyzed in the framework of complex network theory. In particular, the quantity known as efficiency is modified by introducing a new concept of distance between nodes. As a result, a new parameter called net-ability is proposed to evaluate the performance of power grids. A comparison between efficiency and net-ability is provided by estimating the vulnerability of sample networks, in terms of both the metrics.

  3. Graphing Powers and Roots of Complex Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embse, Charles Vonder

    1993-01-01

    Using De Moivre's theorem and a parametric graphing utility, examines powers and roots of complex numbers and allows students to establish connections between the visual and numerical representations of complex numbers. Provides a program to numerically verify the roots of complex numbers. (MDH)

  4. Voltage collapse in complex power grids

    PubMed Central

    Simpson-Porco, John W.; Dörfler, Florian; Bullo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale power grid's ability to transfer energy from producers to consumers is constrained by both the network structure and the nonlinear physics of power flow. Violations of these constraints have been observed to result in voltage collapse blackouts, where nodal voltages slowly decline before precipitously falling. However, methods to test for voltage collapse are dominantly simulation-based, offering little theoretical insight into how grid structure influences stability margins. For a simplified power flow model, here we derive a closed-form condition under which a power network is safe from voltage collapse. The condition combines the complex structure of the network with the reactive power demands of loads to produce a node-by-node measure of grid stress, a prediction of the largest nodal voltage deviation, and an estimate of the distance to collapse. We extensively test our predictions on large-scale systems, highlighting how our condition can be leveraged to increase grid stability margins. PMID:26887284

  5. Voltage collapse in complex power grids.

    PubMed

    Simpson-Porco, John W; Dörfler, Florian; Bullo, Francesco

    2016-02-18

    A large-scale power grid's ability to transfer energy from producers to consumers is constrained by both the network structure and the nonlinear physics of power flow. Violations of these constraints have been observed to result in voltage collapse blackouts, where nodal voltages slowly decline before precipitously falling. However, methods to test for voltage collapse are dominantly simulation-based, offering little theoretical insight into how grid structure influences stability margins. For a simplified power flow model, here we derive a closed-form condition under which a power network is safe from voltage collapse. The condition combines the complex structure of the network with the reactive power demands of loads to produce a node-by-node measure of grid stress, a prediction of the largest nodal voltage deviation, and an estimate of the distance to collapse. We extensively test our predictions on large-scale systems, highlighting how our condition can be leveraged to increase grid stability margins.

  6. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  7. Anticipatory regulation of complex power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieno, Thomas Edward

    Electric generation control is performed in a distributed manner to supply power to geographically defined control areas. The goal of generation control is to keep the inadvertent flow of power across a control area's boundary as small as possible. If a difference exists between the power supplied and the power demanded in a control area, the load deficit or surplus would be either borrowed from or stored as the kinetic energy in rotating machines on the grid. This thesis addresses the challenge of matching the power demand of a local area grid with the power delivered by a coal-fired power plant. An anticipatory controller for a model power plant is presented to prescribe the power output into the grid. The control system forecasts what the future demand of the power customers in a control area is likely to be and modifies the fuel input to the power generation facility in order to match the predicted demand. A neural network was found to be an adaptable and robust prediction mechanism for the highly nonlinear data found in the power consumption patterns in a residential area of the Commonwealth Edison grid. The corresponding control schedule of the power plant was tuned to match the anticipated demand using an iterative neural network approach. The use of neural networks and an iterative scheme allows the controller design in this research to be applied to a broad range of control problems. The control methodology presented takes into account limits in the magnitude and rate of control actions. Simulations show that this implementation of anticipatory control of electric power demand is effective and especially well suited to dynamic systems that include a dead time or control limitations. The response of the anticipatory neural network control system was shown to be more energy efficient than feedback control for a typical thermal power regulation facility and to have a much smoother, reduced control effort.

  8. Progress Towards Doubling the Beam Power at Fermilab's Accelerator Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kourbanis, Ioanis

    2014-07-01

    After a 16 month shutdown to reconfigure the Fermilab Accelerators for high power operations, the Fermilab Accelerator Complex is again providing beams for numerous Physics Experiments. By using the Recycler to slip stack protons while the Main Injector is ramping, the beam power at 120 GeV can reach 700 KW, a factor of 2 increase. The progress towards doubling the Fermilab's Accelerator complex beam power will be presented.

  9. Probabilistic Analysis Techniques Applied to Complex Spacecraft Power System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power system performance predictions are critical to spacecraft, such as the International Space Station (ISS), to ensure that sufficient power is available to support all the spacecraft s power needs. In the case of the ISS power system, analyses to date have been deterministic, meaning that each analysis produces a single-valued result for power capability because of the complexity and large size of the model. As a result, the deterministic ISS analyses did not account for the sensitivity of the power capability to uncertainties in model input variables. Over the last 10 years, the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed advanced, computationally fast, probabilistic analysis techniques and successfully applied them to large (thousands of nodes) complex structural analysis models. These same techniques were recently applied to large, complex ISS power system models. This new application enables probabilistic power analyses that account for input uncertainties and produce results that include variations caused by these uncertainties. Specifically, N&R Engineering, under contract to NASA, integrated these advanced probabilistic techniques with Glenn s internationally recognized ISS power system model, System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE).

  10. Probabilistic Analysis Techniques Applied to Complex Spacecraft Power System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power system performance predictions are critical to spacecraft, such as the International Space Station (ISS), to ensure that sufficient power is available to support all the spacecraft s power needs. In the case of the ISS power system, analyses to date have been deterministic, meaning that each analysis produces a single-valued result for power capability because of the complexity and large size of the model. As a result, the deterministic ISS analyses did not account for the sensitivity of the power capability to uncertainties in model input variables. Over the last 10 years, the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed advanced, computationally fast, probabilistic analysis techniques and successfully applied them to large (thousands of nodes) complex structural analysis models. These same techniques were recently applied to large, complex ISS power system models. This new application enables probabilistic power analyses that account for input uncertainties and produce results that include variations caused by these uncertainties. Specifically, N&R Engineering, under contract to NASA, integrated these advanced probabilistic techniques with Glenn s internationally recognized ISS power system model, System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE).

  11. Power distribution in complex environmental negotiations: Does balance matter?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B.L.; Taylor, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    We studied six interagency negotiations covering Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) hydroelectric power licenses. Negotiations occurred between state and federal resource agencies and developers over project operations and natural resource mitigation. We postulated that a balance of power among parties was necessary for successful negotiations. We found a complex relationship between balanced power and success and conclude that a balance of power was associated with success in these negotiations. Power played a dynamic role in the bargaining and illuminates important considerations for regulatory design.

  12. Spacecraft Power Source Installation at Launch Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytal, Paul; Hoffman, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    For certain space missions, an assembly must be integrated onto the spacecraft as late as possible in the launch vehicle processing flow. 12This late integration can be driven for a variety of reasons including thermal or hazardous materials constraints. This paper discusses the process of integrating an assembly onto a spacecraft as late as one week prior to the opening of the launch window. Consideration is given to achieving sufficient access for hardware integration, methods of remotely securing hardware to the spacecraft, maintaining spacecraft cleanliness throughout the integration process, and electrically integrating the component to the spacecraft. Specific examples are taken from the remote mechanical, electrical, and fluid cooling system integration of the power source onto the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover at the Atlas V Vertical Integration Facility (VIF) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.

  13. Spacecraft Power Source Installation at Launch Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytal, Paul; Hoffman, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    For certain space missions, an assembly must be integrated onto the spacecraft as late as possible in the launch vehicle processing flow. 12This late integration can be driven for a variety of reasons including thermal or hazardous materials constraints. This paper discusses the process of integrating an assembly onto a spacecraft as late as one week prior to the opening of the launch window. Consideration is given to achieving sufficient access for hardware integration, methods of remotely securing hardware to the spacecraft, maintaining spacecraft cleanliness throughout the integration process, and electrically integrating the component to the spacecraft. Specific examples are taken from the remote mechanical, electrical, and fluid cooling system integration of the power source onto the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover at the Atlas V Vertical Integration Facility (VIF) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.

  14. POWER ANALYSIS FOR COMPLEX MEDIATIONAL DESIGNS USING MONTE CARLO METHODS

    PubMed Central

    Thoemmes, Felix; MacKinnon, David P.; Reiser, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Applied researchers often include mediation effects in applications of advanced methods such as latent variable models and linear growth curve models. Guidance on how to estimate statistical power to detect mediation for these models has not yet been addressed in the literature. We describe a general framework for power analyses for complex mediational models. The approach is based on the well known technique of generating a large number of samples in a Monte Carlo study, and estimating power as the percentage of cases in which an estimate of interest is significantly different from zero. Examples of power calculation for commonly used mediational models are provided. Power analyses for the single mediator, multiple mediators, three-path mediation, mediation with latent variables, moderated mediation, and mediation in longitudinal designs are described. Annotated sample syntax for Mplus is appended and tabled values of required sample sizes are shown for some models. PMID:23935262

  15. Power Curve Modeling in Complex Terrain Using Statistical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulaevskaya, V.; Wharton, S.; Clifton, A.; Qualley, G.; Miller, W.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional power output curves typically model power only as a function of the wind speed at the turbine hub height. While the latter is an essential predictor of power output, wind speed information in other parts of the vertical profile, as well as additional atmospheric variables, are also important determinants of power. The goal of this work was to determine the gain in predictive ability afforded by adding wind speed information at other heights, as well as other atmospheric variables, to the power prediction model. Using data from a wind farm with a moderately complex terrain in the Altamont Pass region in California, we trained three statistical models, a neural network, a random forest and a Gaussian process model, to predict power output from various sets of aforementioned predictors. The comparison of these predictions to the observed power data revealed that considerable improvements in prediction accuracy can be achieved both through the addition of predictors other than the hub-height wind speed and the use of statistical models. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and was funded by Wind Uncertainty Quantification Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project at LLNL under project tracking code 12-ERD-069.

  16. Architecture of the Florida Power Grid as a Complex Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Gurfinkel, Aleks Jacob; Rikvold, Per Arne

    2014-03-01

    Power grids are the largest engineered systems ever built. Our work presents a simple and self-consistent graph-theoretic analysis of the Florida high-voltage power grid as a technological network embedded in two-dimensional space. We take a new perspective on the mixing patterns of generators and loads in power grids, pointing out that the real grid is usually intermediate between the random mixing and semi-bipartite case (in which generator-generator power transmission lines are disallowed). We propose spatial network models for power grids, which are obtained via a Monte Carlo cooling optimization process. Our results suggest some possible design principles behind the complex architecture of the Florida grid, viz. balancing low construction cost (measured by the total length of transmission lines) and an indispensable redundancy (measured by the clustering coefficient and edge multiplicity) responsible for the robustness of the grid. We also study community structures (modularity) of the real and modeled power-grid networks. Such communities can be electrically separated from each other to limit cascading power failures, a technique known as intentional islanding. Supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1104829.

  17. Network model of bilateral power markets based on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yang; Liu, Junyong; Li, Furong; Yan, Zhanxin; Zhang, Li

    2014-06-01

    The bilateral power transaction (BPT) mode becomes a typical market organization with the restructuring of electric power industry, the proper model which could capture its characteristics is in urgent need. However, the model is lacking because of this market organization's complexity. As a promising approach to modeling complex systems, complex networks could provide a sound theoretical framework for developing proper simulation model. In this paper, a complex network model of the BPT market is proposed. In this model, price advantage mechanism is a precondition. Unlike other general commodity transactions, both of the financial layer and the physical layer are considered in the model. Through simulation analysis, the feasibility and validity of the model are verified. At same time, some typical statistical features of BPT network are identified. Namely, the degree distribution follows the power law, the clustering coefficient is low and the average path length is a bit long. Moreover, the topological stability of the BPT network is tested. The results show that the network displays a topological robustness to random market member's failures while it is fragile against deliberate attacks, and the network could resist cascading failure to some extent. These features are helpful for making decisions and risk management in BPT markets.

  18. Power-Hop: A Pervasive Observation for Real Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Papalexakis, Evangelos; Hooi, Bryan; Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Faloutsos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Complex networks have been shown to exhibit universal properties, with one of the most consistent patterns being the scale-free degree distribution, but are there regularities obeyed by the r-hop neighborhood in real networks? We answer this question by identifying another power-law pattern that describes the relationship between the fractions of node pairs C(r) within r hops and the hop count r. This scale-free distribution is pervasive and describes a large variety of networks, ranging from social and urban to technological and biological networks. In particular, inspired by the definition of the fractal correlation dimension D2 on a point-set, we consider the hop-count r to be the underlying distance metric between two vertices of the network, and we examine the scaling of C(r) with r. We find that this relationship follows a power-law in real networks within the range 2 ≤ r ≤ d, where d is the effective diameter of the network, that is, the 90-th percentile distance. We term this relationship as power-hop and the corresponding power-law exponent as power-hop exponent h. We provide theoretical justification for this pattern under successful existing network models, while we analyze a large set of real and synthetic network datasets and we show the pervasiveness of the power-hop. PMID:26974560

  19. Complex dynamics of blackouts in power transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Carreras, B A; Lynch, V E; Dobson, I; Newman, D E

    2004-09-01

    In order to study the complex global dynamics of a series of blackouts in power transmission systems a dynamical model of such a system has been developed. This model includes a simple representation of the dynamical evolution by incorporating the growth of power demand, the engineering response to system failures, and the upgrade of generator capacity. Two types of blackouts have been identified, each having different dynamical properties. One type of blackout involves the loss of load due to transmission lines reaching their load limits but no line outages. The second type of blackout is associated with multiple line outages. The dominance of one type of blackout over the other depends on operational conditions and the proximity of the system to one of its two critical points. The model displays characteristics such as a probability distribution of blackout sizes with power tails similar to that observed in real blackout data from North America.

  20. Power system cascading risk assessment based on complex network theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuoyang; Hill, David J.; Chen, Guo; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2017-09-01

    When a single failure occurs in a vulnerable part of a power system, this may cause a large area cascading event. Therefore, an advanced method that can assess the risks during cascading events is needed. In this paper, an improved complex network model for power system risk assessment is proposed. Risk is defined by consequence and probability of the failures in this model, which are affected by both power factors and network structure. Compared with existing risk assessment models, the proposed one can evaluate the risk of the system comprehensively during a cascading event by combining the topological and electrical information. A new cascading event simulation module is adopted to identify the power grid cascading chain from a system-level view. In addition, simulations are investigated on the IEEE 14 bus system and IEEE 39 bus system respectively to illustrate the performance of the proposed module. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in a power grid risk assessment during cascading event.

  1. Wind Power Curve Modeling in Simple and Complex Terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Bulaevskaya, V.; Wharton, S.; Irons, Z.; Qualley, G.

    2015-02-09

    Our previous work on wind power curve modeling using statistical models focused on a location with a moderately complex terrain in the Altamont Pass region in northern California (CA). The work described here is the follow-up to that work, but at a location with a simple terrain in northern Oklahoma (OK). The goal of the present analysis was to determine the gain in predictive ability afforded by adding information beyond the hub-height wind speed, such as wind speeds at other heights, as well as other atmospheric variables, to the power prediction model at this new location and compare the results to those obtained at the CA site in the previous study. While we reach some of the same conclusions at both sites, many results reported for the CA site do not hold at the OK site. In particular, using the entire vertical profile of wind speeds improves the accuracy of wind power prediction relative to using the hub-height wind speed alone at both sites. However, in contrast to the CA site, the rotor equivalent wind speed (REWS) performs almost as well as the entire profile at the OK site. Another difference is that at the CA site, adding wind veer as a predictor significantly improved the power prediction accuracy. The same was true for that site when air density was added to the model separately instead of using the standard air density adjustment. At the OK site, these additional variables result in no significant benefit for the prediction accuracy.

  2. Architecture of the Florida power grid as a complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Gurfinkel, Aleks Jacob; Rikvold, Per Arne

    2014-05-01

    We study the Florida high-voltage power grid as a technological network embedded in space. Measurements of geographical lengths of transmission lines, the mixing of generators and loads, the weighted clustering coefficient, as well as the organization of edge conductance weights show a complex architecture quite different from random-graph models usually considered. In particular, we introduce a parametrized mixing matrix to characterize the mixing pattern of generators and loads in the Florida Grid, which is intermediate between the random mixing case and the semi-bipartite case where generator-generator transmission lines are forbidden. Our observations motivate an investigation of optimization (design) principles leading to the structural organization of power grids. We thus propose two network optimization models for the Florida Grid as a case study. Our results show that the Florida Grid is optimized not only by reducing the construction cost (measured by the total length of power lines), but also through reducing the total pairwise edge resistance in the grid, which increases the robustness of power transmission between generators and loads against random line failures. We then embed our models in spatial areas of different aspect ratios and study how this geometric factor affects the network structure, as well as the box-counting fractal dimension of the grids generated by our models.

  3. Power of Competing Strategies of Linkage Analysis for Complex Traits

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jianzhong; Daw, E. Warwick; Amos, Christopher I.

    2010-01-01

    Variance components (VC) and the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis are two of the widely used linkage analysis approaches to mapping genes for complex quantitative traits. Both approaches can handle extended pedigrees and multiple markers and do not require a prespecified genetic model. In this study, we used simulated data to compare the performance of these two approaches with the traditional parametric linkage analysis. Using simulated data sets without linkage between a quantitative trait and the markers, we estimated a critical value for various test scores used in VC or MCMC and the location (LOC) score at a fixed level of significance (5%). These critical values were then used to determine the power for the three methods for simulated data sets with linkage. We found that both the VC and MCMC approaches worked well, compared with the LOC score, when there was only one gene underlying the quantitative trait; however, VC had higher power than the other methods in a simulation study of a complex phenotype influenced by more than one gene. We also compared two implementations of MCMC analysis, finding interpretation of results using the log of placement score was more accurate for linkage inference than the Bayes factor but required much more intensive simulation studies. PMID:20551674

  4. The complexities of power in feminist multicultural psychotherapy supervision.

    PubMed

    Arczynski, Alexis V; Morrow, Susan L

    2017-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to understand how current feminist multicultural supervisors understand and implement their feminist multicultural principles into clinical supervision. We addressed this aim by answering the following research question: How do self-identified feminist multicultural psychotherapy supervisors conceptualize and practice feminist supervision that is explicitly multicultural? The perspectives of 14 participant supervisors were obtained by using semistructured initial interviews, follow-up interviews, and feedback interviews and were investigated via a feminist constructivist grounded theory design and analysis. Most participants identified as counseling psychologists (n = 12), women (n = 11) and temporarily able-bodied (n = 11); but they identified with diverse racial/ethnic, sexual, spiritual/religious, generational, and nationality statuses. A 7-category empirical framework emerged that explained how the participants anticipated and managed power in supervision. The core category, the complexities of power in supervision, explained how participants conceptualized power in supervisory relationships. The 6 remaining categories were bringing history into the supervision room, creating trust through openness and honesty, using a collaborative process, meeting shifting developmental (a)symmetries, cultivating critical reflexivity, and looking at and counterbalancing the impact of context. Limitations of the study, implications for research, and suggestions to use the theoretical framework to transform supervisory practice and training are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Power laws of complex systems from extreme physical information.

    PubMed

    Frieden, B Roy; Gatenby, Robert A

    2005-09-01

    Many complex systems obey allometric, or power, laws y=Y x(a) . Here y > or = 0 is the measured value of some system attribute a , Y> or =0 is a constant, and x is a stochastic variable. Remarkably, for many living systems the exponent a is limited to values n/4 , n=0, +/-1, +/-2.... Here x is the mass of a randomly selected creature in the population. These quarter-power laws hold for many attributes, such as pulse rate (n=-1) . Allometry has, in the past, been theoretically justified on a case-by-case basis. An ultimate goal is to find a common cause for allometry of all types and for both living and nonliving systems. The principle I-J=extremum of extreme physical information is found to provide such a cause. It describes the flow of Fisher information J-->I from an attribute value a on the cell level to its exterior observation y . Data y are formed via a system channel function y identical to f (x,a) , with f (x,a) to be found. Extremizing the difference I-J through variation of f (x,a) results in a general allometric law f (x,a) identical to y=Y x(a) . Darwinian evolution is presumed to cause a second extremization of I-J , now with respect to the choice of a . The solution is a=n/4 , n=0,+/-1,+/-2..., defining the particular powers of biological allometry. Under special circumstances, the model predicts that such biological systems are controlled by only two distinct intracellular information sources. These sources are conjectured to be cellular DNA and cellular transmembrane ion gradients.

  6. Progress Towards Doubling the Beam Power at Fermilab's Accelerator Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kourbanis, ioanis

    2014-06-01

    After a 14 month shutdown accelerator modifications and upgrades are in place to allow us doubling of the Main Injector beam power. We will discuss the past MI high power operation and the current progress towards doubling the power.

  7. Study Integrated DC Power System Complex AMR-36B,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    GUIDED MISSILES, GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT), (*POWER SUPPLIES, INTEGRATED SYSTEMS), LAUNCHING SITES, POWER EQUIPMENT, ELECTRIC CABLES, TELEMETER...SYSTEMS, ELECTRIC CONNECTORS, DISCONNECT FITTINGS, ALKALINE BATTERIES, ELECTROLYTES, ELECTROLYTIC CELLS, STORAGE BATTERIES, WATER ACTIVATED BATTERIES, FUSES( ELECTRICAL ), STATISTICAL ANALYSIS.

  8. Power Analysis for Complex Mediational Designs Using Monte Carlo Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoemmes, Felix; MacKinnon, David P.; Reiser, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Applied researchers often include mediation effects in applications of advanced methods such as latent variable models and linear growth curve models. Guidance on how to estimate statistical power to detect mediation for these models has not yet been addressed in the literature. We describe a general framework for power analyses for complex…

  9. Power Analysis for Complex Mediational Designs Using Monte Carlo Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoemmes, Felix; MacKinnon, David P.; Reiser, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Applied researchers often include mediation effects in applications of advanced methods such as latent variable models and linear growth curve models. Guidance on how to estimate statistical power to detect mediation for these models has not yet been addressed in the literature. We describe a general framework for power analyses for complex…

  10. Fact versus formula in the power spectra of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Nick

    2016-04-01

    More than 100 years ago, Thomson and Tait's classic "Treatise on Natural Philosophy" cautioned its readers against "considering the formula and not the fact as physical reality". Deciding what the facts actually _were, however, was left as an exercise for the reader ... Complex systems offer many examples [1] of the ambiguity Thomson and Tait were trying to point out. This presentation will be about a formula-the "1/f" spectral shape seen in many areas of physics including climate science; and an empirical fact-the growth of rescaled range originally seen in river time series and now known as the Hurst effect. It is well known that Mandelbrot kicked off the study of long range dependence (LRD) in the mid 1960s [2] with a stationary model for 1/f noise and the Hurst effect. This fractional Gaussian model is now so well known that it is often seen as synonymous with both 1/f noise and the Hurst effect. However Mandelbrot himself was aware that there were other models that produced 1/f noise, including a family [3-6] which he called "conditionally stationary", with power law distributions of times between switching of states. Late in his life he re-emphasised the clear contrasts between their behaviour and that of fGn. I will explain why these other models are also physically interesting, and will show why real systems including climate examples may potentially map more closely to one or the other, or may in fact combine both aspects. I will also discuss his proposals for distinguishing between the models and how they may be implemented. [1] Watkins, Bunched Black Swans, Geophys Res. Lett, 2013 [2] Graves et al, A Brief History of Long Memory, arXiv:1406.6018 [stat.OT] [3] Berger and Mandelbrot, "A New Model for Error Clustering in Telephone Circuits", IBM Technical Journal, July 1963. [4] Mandelbrot, "Self-similar error clusters in communications systems, and the concept of conditional stationarity", IEEE Trans. on Communications Technology, COM-13, 71-90, 1965. [5

  11. Formulation of total complex power and energy flows into a discrete system.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Akira; Tanabe, Yosuke

    2015-12-01

    By considering total inputs into a discrete system, this letter analytically formulates and summarizes the relationships in the complex-form power and energy flows and the dissipated power and Lagrangian energy of the system. The matrix inverse method to obtain the force/moment necessary for the power/energy flow is shown as an indirect yet analytically exact method. A 2 degree-of-freedom system is employed to analytically validate the derived formulas, followed by a computational confirmation. A finite element plate-beam model is further utilized to computationally confirm the relationships in the complex power and energy flows.

  12. Complex motion of a vehicle through a series of signals controlled by power-law phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a vehicle moving through the series of traffic signals controlled by the position-dependent phase of power law. All signals are controlled by both cycle time and position-dependent phase. The dynamic model of the vehicular motion is described in terms of the nonlinear map. The vehicular motion varies in a complex manner by varying cycle time for various values of the power of the position-dependent phase. The vehicle displays the periodic motion with a long cycle for the integer power of the phase, while the vehicular motion exhibits the very complex behavior for the non-integer power of the phase.

  13. Powerful decomposition of complex traits in a diploid model

    PubMed Central

    Hallin, Johan; Märtens, Kaspar; Young, Alexander I.; Zackrisson, Martin; Salinas, Francisco; Parts, Leopold; Warringer, Jonas; Liti, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Explaining trait differences between individuals is a core and challenging aim of life sciences. Here, we introduce a powerful framework for complete decomposition of trait variation into its underlying genetic causes in diploid model organisms. We sequence and systematically pair the recombinant gametes of two intercrossed natural genomes into an array of diploid hybrids with fully assembled and phased genomes, termed Phased Outbred Lines (POLs). We demonstrate the capacity of this approach by partitioning fitness traits of 6,642 Saccharomyces cerevisiae POLs across many environments, achieving near complete trait heritability and precisely estimating additive (73%), dominance (10%), second (7%) and third (1.7%) order epistasis components. We map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and find nonadditive QTLs to outnumber (3:1) additive loci, dominant contributions to heterosis to outnumber overdominant, and extensive pleiotropy. The POL framework offers the most complete decomposition of diploid traits to date and can be adapted to most model organisms. PMID:27804950

  14. Topological interactive analysis of power system and its communication module: A complex network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Yu, Jie; Cao, Jinde; Ni, Ming; Yu, Wenjie

    2014-12-01

    Power system and its communication system, which can be called a cyber-physical system, are interconnected and interdependent on each other. This paper considers the interaction problem between power system and its communication module from the perspective of the topological structure. Firstly, some structural properties and centrality measures of complex networks are briefly reviewed. Furthermore, novel interactive measures are proposed to describe the interactive system in terms of topologies. Finally, based on these metrics, the statistical properties and the interactive relationships of the main power system and its communication module (abstracted as two complex heterogeneous networks) of one province in China are investigated.

  15. Wind Power Forecasting techniques in complex terrain: ANN vs. ANN-CFD hybrid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellani, Francesco; Astolfi, Davide; Mana, Matteo; Burlando, Massimiliano; Meißner, Cathérine; Piccioni, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    Due to technology developments, renewable energies are becoming competitive against fossil sources and the number of wind farms is growing, which have to be integrated into power grids. Therefore, accurate power forecast is needed and often operators are charged with penalties in case of imbalance. Yet, wind is a stochastic and very local phenomenon, and therefore hard to predict. It has a high variability in space and time and wind power forecast is challenging. Statistical methods, as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), are often employed for power forecasting, but they have some shortcomings: they require data sets over several years and are not able to capture tails of wind power distributions. In this work a pure ANN power forecast is compared against a hybrid method, based on the combination of ANN and a physical method using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The validation case is a wind farm sited in southern Italy in a very complex terrain, with a wide spread turbine layout.

  16. Understanding the cascading failures in Indian power grids with complex networks theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guidong; Li, Zhong; Zhang, Bo; Halang, Wolfgang A.

    2013-08-01

    Two huge blackouts, occurred separately on 30 and 31 July 2012 in India, spread over half the country when three of its five regional grids collapsed, leaving hundreds of millions of people without government-supplied electricity and ringing once again alarm bells with security problems in electric power grid systems. The first investigation reveals that the outage of the second (backup) 400 kV Bina-Gwalior-Agra line on 29 July 2012 led to the cascading failure through the grid, which can be simulated and explained from the perspective of the complex networks theory. In this paper, a new model of a power grid involving the active and reactive power loads is proposed and then used to analyze the cascading behavior of power grids, which is also used to explain the reason of the blackout happening in India. Furthermore, some strategic advices are given for improving the stability and security of power grids, especially Indian power grids.

  17. The fractal nature of nature: power laws, ecological complexity and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Brown, James H; Gupta, Vijay K; Li, Bai-Lian; Milne, Bruce T; Restrepo, Carla; West, Geoffrey B

    2002-05-29

    Underlying the diversity of life and the complexity of ecology is order that reflects the operation of fundamental physical and biological processes. Power laws describe empirical scaling relationships that are emergent quantitative features of biodiversity. These features are patterns of structure or dynamics that are self-similar or fractal-like over many orders of magnitude. Power laws allow extrapolation and prediction over a wide range of scales. Some appear to be universal, occurring in virtually all taxa of organisms and types of environments. They offer clues to underlying mechanisms that powerfully constrain biodiversity. We describe recent progress and future prospects for understanding the mechanisms that generate these power laws, and for explaining the diversity of species and complexity of ecosystems in terms of fundamental principles of physical and biological science.

  18. The fractal nature of nature: power laws, ecological complexity and biodiversity.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, James H; Gupta, Vijay K; Li, Bai-Lian; Milne, Bruce T; Restrepo, Carla; West, Geoffrey B

    2002-01-01

    Underlying the diversity of life and the complexity of ecology is order that reflects the operation of fundamental physical and biological processes. Power laws describe empirical scaling relationships that are emergent quantitative features of biodiversity. These features are patterns of structure or dynamics that are self-similar or fractal-like over many orders of magnitude. Power laws allow extrapolation and prediction over a wide range of scales. Some appear to be universal, occurring in virtually all taxa of organisms and types of environments. They offer clues to underlying mechanisms that powerfully constrain biodiversity. We describe recent progress and future prospects for understanding the mechanisms that generate these power laws, and for explaining the diversity of species and complexity of ecosystems in terms of fundamental principles of physical and biological science. PMID:12079523

  19. Nuclear power propulsion complex with the turbomachine energy conversion for long interplanetary expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroteev, Anatolii S.; Semenov, Vitalii F.; Vatel', Marina N.; Pavshuk, Vladimir A.; Sakovich, Vadim A.

    Results are presented from Soviet-period studies on the various nuclear power propulsion complex (PPC) options for manned Mars exploration. Attention is given to the options' ballistic effectiveness, mean thrust characteristics, and implementation by a two-vehicle scheme. The basis of the PPC considered is a nuclear reactor with 50 MW(e) of available power after provision of suitable crew radiation shielding.

  20. On efficient learning machine with root-power mean neuron in complex domain.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Bipin Kumar; Kalra, Prem Kumar

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes an artificial neuron structure and an efficient learning procedure in the complex domain. This artificial neuron aims at incorporating an improved aggregation operation on the complex-valued signals. The aggregation operation is based on the idea underlying the weighted root-power mean of input signals. This aggregation operation allows modeling the degree of compensation in a natural manner and includes various aggregation operations as its special cases. The complex resilient propagation algorithm ([Formula: see text]-RPROP) with error-dependent weight backtracking step accelerates the training speed significantly and provides better approximation accuracy. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed complex root-power mean neuron with the [Formula: see text]-RPROP learning algorithm on various typical examples is given to understand the motivation.

  1. 100 Gbps IM/DD links using quad-polarization: Performance, complexity, and power dissipation.

    PubMed

    Cercós, S Saldaña; Piels, M; Estarán, J; Usuga, M; Porto da Silva, E; Fagertun, A Manolova; Monroy, I Tafur

    2015-07-27

    A computational complexity, power consumption, and receiver sensitivity analysis for three different scenarios for short-range direct detection links is presented: 1) quad-polarization, 2) wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and 3) parallel optics. Results show that the power consumption penalty associated to the quad-polarization digital signal processing (DSP) is negligibly small. However, the required analog to digital converters account for 47.6% of the total system power consumption. Transmission of 4×32 Gbps over 2 km standard single mode fiber is achieved with a receiver sensitivity of 4.4 dBm.

  2. A point focusing collector for an integrated water/power complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zewen, H.; Schmidt, G.; Moustafa, S.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization potential of the point focusing parabolic dish is identified. Its main design parameters are summarized. Performance tests and the utilization of the collector as primary energy source in a food-water-power complex are described. Process heat, heat storage, heat transfer, and cogeneration are discussed.

  3. The Effects of Gender Variety and Power Disparity on Group Cognitive Complexity in Collaborative Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curseu, Petru Lucian; Sari, Kimzana

    2015-01-01

    This study sets up to test the extent to which gender variety moderates the impact of power disparity on group cognitive complexity (GCC) and satisfaction with the group in a collaborative learning setting. Using insights from gender differences in perceptions, orientations and conflict handling behavior in negotiation, as well as gender…

  4. Girl Power in a Digital World: Considering the Complexity of Gender, Literacy, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bronwyn T.

    2006-01-01

    The power of culture to shape gender identities becomes particularly crucial for adolescents as they make the transition from child to adult. Yet as adults we offer little coherent, direct instruction in such matters. The author advocates supporting girls as they explore complex and empowering literacy practices, particularly online.

  5. A Study of Power: The Professional Staff in a Complex University. ASHE Annual Meeting 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anselm, Carol W.

    Perceptions of power identified with upper level, noninstructional staff (professional staff) in a complex university were studied based on interviews with professional staff, their superordinates and subordinates, and faculty. Professional staff offices included the upper echelon of the nonacademic staff hierarchy holding such titles as assistant…

  6. Low-Complexity Seizure Prediction From iEEG/sEEG Using Spectral Power and Ratios of Spectral Power.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zisheng; Parhi, Keshab K

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of seizures is a difficult problem as the EEG patterns are not wide-sense stationary and change from seizure to seizure, electrode to electrode, and from patient to patient. This paper presents a novel patient-specific algorithm for prediction of seizures in epileptic patients from either one or two single-channel or bipolar channel intra-cranial or scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings with low hardware complexity. Spectral power features are extracted and their ratios are computed. For each channel, a total of 44 features including 8 absolute spectral powers, 8 relative spectral powers and 28 spectral power ratios are extracted every two seconds using a 4-second window with a 50% overlap. These features are then ranked and selected in a patient-specific manner using a two-step feature selection. Selected features are further processed by a second-order Kalman filter and then input to a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The algorithm is tested on the intra-cranial EEG (iEEG) from the Freiburg database and scalp EEG (sEEG) from the MIT Physionet database. The Freiburg database contains 80 seizures among 18 patients in 427 hours of recordings. The MIT EEG database contains 78 seizures from 17 children in 647 hours of recordings. It is shown that the proposed algorithm can achieve a sensitivity of 100% and an average false positive rate (FPR) of 0.0324 per hour for the iEEG (Freiburg) database and a sensitivity of 98.68% and an average FPR of 0.0465 per hour for the sEEG (MIT) database. These results are obtained with leave-one-out cross-validation where the seizure being tested is always left out from the training set. The proposed algorithm also has a low complexity as the spectral powers can be computed using FFT. The area and power consumption of the proposed linear SVM are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than a radial basis function kernel SVM (RBF-SVM) classifier. Furthermore, the total energy consumption of a system using linear

  7. Complex Dynamics of the Power Transmission Grid (and other Critical Infrastructures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, David

    2015-03-01

    Our modern societies depend crucially on a web of complex critical infrastructures such as power transmission networks, communication systems, transportation networks and many others. These infrastructure systems display a great number of the characteristic properties of complex systems. Important among these characteristics, they exhibit infrequent large cascading failures that often obey a power law distribution in their probability versus size. This power law behavior suggests that conventional risk analysis does not apply to these systems. It is thought that much of this behavior comes from the dynamical evolution of the system as it ages, is repaired, upgraded, and as the operational rules evolve with human decision making playing an important role in the dynamics. In this talk, infrastructure systems as complex dynamical systems will be introduced and some of their properties explored. The majority of the talk will then be focused on the electric power transmission grid though many of the results can be easily applied to other infrastructures. General properties of the grid will be discussed and results from a dynamical complex systems power transmission model will be compared with real world data. Then we will look at a variety of uses of this type of model. As examples, we will discuss the impact of size and network homogeneity on the grid robustness, the change in risk of failure as generation mix (more distributed vs centralized for example) changes, as well as the effect of operational changes such as the changing the operational risk aversion or grid upgrade strategies. One of the important outcomes from this work is the realization that ``improvements'' in the system components and operational efficiency do not always improve the system robustness, and can in fact greatly increase the risk, when measured as a risk of large failure.

  8. Power-law scaling for macroscopic entropy and microscopic complexity: Evidence from human movement and posture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. Lee; Bodfish, James W.; Newell, Karl M.

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the relationship between macroscopic entropy and microscopic complexity of the dynamics of body rocking and sitting still across adults with stereotyped movement disorder and mental retardation (profound and severe) against controls matched for age, height, and weight. This analysis was performed through the examination of center of pressure (COP) motion on the mediolateral (side-to-side) and anteroposterior (fore-aft) dimensions and the entropy of the relative phase between the two dimensions of motion. Intentional body rocking and stereotypical body rocking possessed similar slopes for their respective frequency spectra, but differences were revealed during maintenance of sitting postures. The dynamics of sitting in the control group produced lower spectral slopes and higher complexity (approximate entropy). In the controls, the higher complexity found on each dimension of motion was related to a weaker coupling between dimensions. Information entropy of the relative phase between the two dimensions of COP motion and irregularity (complexity) of their respective motions fitted a power-law function, revealing a relationship between macroscopic entropy and microscopic complexity across both groups and behaviors. This power-law relation affords the postulation that the organization of movement and posture dynamics occurs as a fractal process.

  9. Power-law scaling for macroscopic entropy and microscopic complexity: evidence from human movement and posture.

    PubMed

    Hong, S Lee; Bodfish, James W; Newell, Karl M

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the relationship between macroscopic entropy and microscopic complexity of the dynamics of body rocking and sitting still across adults with stereotyped movement disorder and mental retardation (profound and severe) against controls matched for age, height, and weight. This analysis was performed through the examination of center of pressure (COP) motion on the mediolateral (side-to-side) and anteroposterior (fore-aft) dimensions and the entropy of the relative phase between the two dimensions of motion. Intentional body rocking and stereotypical body rocking possessed similar slopes for their respective frequency spectra, but differences were revealed during maintenance of sitting postures. The dynamics of sitting in the control group produced lower spectral slopes and higher complexity (approximate entropy). In the controls, the higher complexity found on each dimension of motion was related to a weaker coupling between dimensions. Information entropy of the relative phase between the two dimensions of COP motion and irregularity (complexity) of their respective motions fitted a power-law function, revealing a relationship between macroscopic entropy and microscopic complexity across both groups and behaviors. This power-law relation affords the postulation that the organization of movement and posture dynamics occurs as a fractal process.

  10. Renormalization group approach to power-law modeling of complex metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bermejo, Benito

    2010-08-07

    In the modeling of complex biological systems, and especially in the framework of the description of metabolic pathways, the use of power-law models (such as S-systems and GMA systems) often provides a remarkable accuracy over several orders of magnitude in concentrations, an unusually broad range not fully understood at present. In order to provide additional insight in this sense, this article is devoted to the renormalization group analysis of reactions in fractal or self-similar media. In particular, the renormalization group methodology is applied to the investigation of how rate-laws describing such reactions are transformed when the geometric scale is changed. The precise purpose of such analysis is to investigate whether or not power-law rate-laws present some remarkable features accounting for the successes of power-law modeling. As we shall see, according to the renormalization group point of view the answer is positive, as far as power-laws are the critical solutions of the renormalization group transformation, namely power-law rate-laws are the renormalization group invariant solutions. Moreover, it is shown that these results also imply invariance under the group of concentration scalings, thus accounting for the reported power-law model accuracy over several orders of magnitude in metabolite concentrations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrated bioenergy complex for the production of power, heat and bio-ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Taviani, M.; Chiaramonti, D.; Tondi, G.; Grassi, G.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper an integrated bioenergy complex for the production of power, heat and bio-ethanol is presented. Ethanol, in fact, has been recognized as a high-quality transportation fuel. The reduction of petroleum consumption, especially for transport, is a strategic goal especially for those countries that already have or will experience an intensive industrial development in the next future. For these motivations, the production of bio-ethanol from Sweet Sorghum (which is now one of the most promising crop for this application in term of productivity, inputs demand, and flexibility) is of great interest in most of countries. The proposed integrated complex produces power, heat and bio-ethanol: the produced power and heat are partly used for bio-ethanol processing and biomass pre-treatment, partly to be sold to the market. This system has important innovations allowing a decentralized energy and ethanol production and creating new local jobs. The small power plant is based upon a steam cycle with an advanced low emission combustor, capable of burning different biomass resources with a modest decrease in the efficiency value. The Bioenergy Complex, suitable to satisfy the needs of a 3,000 inhabitants village, is composed by the following sub-systems: (1) Sweet Sorghum plantation (250 ha); the main products are: dry bagasse (approximately 3,900 Ton/year), grains (1,300 Ton/y) and sugar (1,850 Ton/y); (2) Cane crushing--sugar juice extraction system; (3) Sugar juice fermentation and distillation ethanol production (approx. 835 Ton/y); (4) Biomass pre-treatment components (grinding, drying, briquetting, storage, etc.); and (5) Cogeneration unit--the expansion unit is constituted by a last generation reciprocating steam engine, coupled with a 500 kWe alternator; the heat of the expanded flow is removed in the condenser, with an available thermal power of approximately 2,000 kWt.

  12. Direct power comparisons between simple LOD scores and NPL scores for linkage analysis in complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Abreu, P C; Greenberg, D A; Hodge, S E

    1999-09-01

    Several methods have been proposed for linkage analysis of complex traits with unknown mode of inheritance. These methods include the LOD score maximized over disease models (MMLS) and the "nonparametric" linkage (NPL) statistic. In previous work, we evaluated the increase of type I error when maximizing over two or more genetic models, and we compared the power of MMLS to detect linkage, in a number of complex modes of inheritance, with analysis assuming the true model. In the present study, we compare MMLS and NPL directly. We simulated 100 data sets with 20 families each, using 26 generating models: (1) 4 intermediate models (penetrance of heterozygote between that of the two homozygotes); (2) 6 two-locus additive models; and (3) 16 two-locus heterogeneity models (admixture alpha = 1.0,.7,.5, and.3; alpha = 1.0 replicates simple Mendelian models). For LOD scores, we assumed dominant and recessive inheritance with 50% penetrance. We took the higher of the two maximum LOD scores and subtracted 0.3 to correct for multiple tests (MMLS-C). We compared expected maximum LOD scores and power, using MMLS-C and NPL as well as the true model. Since NPL uses only the affected family members, we also performed an affecteds-only analysis using MMLS-C. The MMLS-C was both uniformly more powerful than NPL for most cases we examined, except when linkage information was low, and close to the results for the true model under locus heterogeneity. We still found better power for the MMLS-C compared with NPL in affecteds-only analysis. The results show that use of two simple modes of inheritance at a fixed penetrance can have more power than NPL when the trait mode of inheritance is complex and when there is heterogeneity in the data set.

  13. Low complexity interference alignment algorithms for desired signal power maximization problem of MIMO channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cong; Yang, Yunchuan; Yuan, Yaxiang

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we investigate the interference alignment (IA) solution for a K-user MIMO interference channel. Proper users' precoders and decoders are designed through a desired signal power maximization model with IA conditions as constraints, which forms a complex matrix optimization problem. We propose two low complexity algorithms, both of which apply the Courant penalty function technique to combine the leakage interference and the desired signal power together as the new objective function. The first proposed algorithm is the modified alternating minimization algorithm (MAMA), where each subproblem has closed-form solution with an eigenvalue decomposition. To further reduce algorithm complexity, we propose a hybrid algorithm which consists of two parts. As the first part, the algorithm iterates with Householder transformation to preserve the orthogonality of precoders and decoders. In each iteration, the matrix optimization problem is considered in a sequence of 2D subspaces, which leads to one dimensional optimization subproblems. From any initial point, this algorithm obtains precoders and decoders with low leakage interference in short time. In the second part, to exploit the advantage of MAMA, it continues to iterate to perfectly align the interference from the output point of the first part. Analysis shows that in one iteration generally both proposed two algorithms have lower computational complexity than the existed maximum signal power (MSP) algorithm, and the hybrid algorithm enjoys lower complexity than MAMA. Simulations reveal that both proposed algorithms achieve similar performances as the MSP algorithm with less executing time, and show better performances than the existed alternating minimization algorithm in terms of sum rate. Besides, from the view of convergence rate, simulation results show that the MAMA enjoys fastest speed with respect to a certain sum rate value, while hybrid algorithm converges fastest to eliminate interference.

  14. Investigations on Metal Complexes of Thiourea for Frequency Conversion and Low Power Optical Limiting Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girisun, T. C. Sabari; Dhanuskodi, S.; Phillip, J.

    2011-10-01

    Good quality single crystals of metal complexes of thiourea with II group transition metals (Zn, Cd) as central atom and III period element (Cl) were grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. Their structural, optical, thermal and dielectric properties were investigated and reported in detail. Metal complexes show a bathochromic shift in the absorption edge and a blue shift in the optical band gap value. An improved photopyroelectric measurement technique was employed to study the thermal properties of the metal complexes. Dielectric measurements were made as a function of frequency (50 Hz-5 MHz) and temperature (303-423 K) ranges. Laser Damage threshold and powder SHG efficiency of the samples were found using Nd: YAG (1064 nm, 10 ns, 10 Hz) laser. The low power optical limiting properties have been investigated using a 532 nm second harmonics of diode pumped Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 50 mW). The role of II group metal ions (Zn and Cd) in tuning the properties of the metal complexes in (100) has been discussed in detail. Cadmium was found to be more efficient than zinc for short wavelength laser generation and low power optical limiting applications.

  15. Statistical Power of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci for Mapping of Complex Trait Loci in Natural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Schliekelman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A number of recent genomewide surveys have found numerous QTL for gene expression, often with intermediate to high heritability values. As a result, there is currently a great deal of interest in genetical genomics—that is, the combination of genomewide expression data and molecular marker data to elucidate the genetics of complex traits. To date, most genetical genomics studies have focused on generating candidate genes for previously known trait loci or have otherwise leveraged existing knowledge about trait-related genes. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential for genetical genomics approaches in the context of genomewide scans for complex trait loci. I explore the expected strength of association between expression-level traits and a clinical trait, as a function of the underlying genetic model in natural populations. I give calculations of statistical power for detecting differential expression between affected and unaffected individuals. I model both reactive and causative expression-level traits with both additive and multiplicative multilocus models for the relationship between phenotype and genotype and explore a variety of assumptions about dominance, number of segregating loci, and other parameters. There are two key results. If a transcript is causative for the disease (in the sense that disease risk depends directly on transcript level), then the power to detect association between transcript and disease is quite good. Sample sizes on the order of 100 are sufficient for 80% power. On the other hand, if the transcript is reactive to a disease locus, then the correlation between expression-level traits and disease is low unless the expression-level trait shares several causative loci with the disease—that is, the expression-level trait itself is a complex trait. Thus, there is a trade-off between the power to show association between a reactive expression-level trait and the clinical trait of interest and the power to map expression

  16. The power to detect linkage in complex disease by means of simple LOD-score analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, D A; Abreu, P; Hodge, S E

    1998-01-01

    Maximum-likelihood analysis (via LOD score) provides the most powerful method for finding linkage when the mode of inheritance (MOI) is known. However, because one must assume an MOI, the application of LOD-score analysis to complex disease has been questioned. Although it is known that one can legitimately maximize the maximum LOD score with respect to genetic parameters, this approach raises three concerns: (1) multiple testing, (2) effect on power to detect linkage, and (3) adequacy of the approximate MOI for the true MOI. We evaluated the power of LOD scores to detect linkage when the true MOI was complex but a LOD score analysis assumed simple models. We simulated data from 14 different genetic models, including dominant and recessive at high (80%) and low (20%) penetrances, intermediate models, and several additive two-locus models. We calculated LOD scores by assuming two simple models, dominant and recessive, each with 50% penetrance, then took the higher of the two LOD scores as the raw test statistic and corrected for multiple tests. We call this test statistic "MMLS-C." We found that the ELODs for MMLS-C are >=80% of the ELOD under the true model when the ELOD for the true model is >=3. Similarly, the power to reach a given LOD score was usually >=80% that of the true model, when the power under the true model was >=60%. These results underscore that a critical factor in LOD-score analysis is the MOI at the linked locus, not that of the disease or trait per se. Thus, a limited set of simple genetic models in LOD-score analysis can work well in testing for linkage. PMID:9718328

  17. The power to detect linkage in complex disease by means of simple LOD-score analyses.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, D A; Abreu, P; Hodge, S E

    1998-09-01

    Maximum-likelihood analysis (via LOD score) provides the most powerful method for finding linkage when the mode of inheritance (MOI) is known. However, because one must assume an MOI, the application of LOD-score analysis to complex disease has been questioned. Although it is known that one can legitimately maximize the maximum LOD score with respect to genetic parameters, this approach raises three concerns: (1) multiple testing, (2) effect on power to detect linkage, and (3) adequacy of the approximate MOI for the true MOI. We evaluated the power of LOD scores to detect linkage when the true MOI was complex but a LOD score analysis assumed simple models. We simulated data from 14 different genetic models, including dominant and recessive at high (80%) and low (20%) penetrances, intermediate models, and several additive two-locus models. We calculated LOD scores by assuming two simple models, dominant and recessive, each with 50% penetrance, then took the higher of the two LOD scores as the raw test statistic and corrected for multiple tests. We call this test statistic "MMLS-C." We found that the ELODs for MMLS-C are >=80% of the ELOD under the true model when the ELOD for the true model is >=3. Similarly, the power to reach a given LOD score was usually >=80% that of the true model, when the power under the true model was >=60%. These results underscore that a critical factor in LOD-score analysis is the MOI at the linked locus, not that of the disease or trait per se. Thus, a limited set of simple genetic models in LOD-score analysis can work well in testing for linkage.

  18. Transference of Traditional Versus Complex Strength and Power Training to Sprint Performance

    PubMed Central

    Loturco, Irineu; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo; Cal Abad, Cesar Cavinato; Kobal, Ronaldo; Gil, Saulo; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two different strength-power training models on sprint performance. Forty-eight soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG: n = 15, age: 20.2 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.74 ± 0.06 m, and body mass: 66.7 ± 9.8 kg), a traditional training group (TT: n = 18, age: 20.1 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.05 m, and body mass: 64.2 ± 4.7 kg), and a complex training group (CT: n = 15, age: 20.3 ± 0.8 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.07 m; and body mass: 64.0 ± 8.8 kg). Maximum strength (25% and 26%), CMJ height (36% and 39%), mean power (30% and 35%) and mean propulsive power (22% and 28%) in the loaded jump squat exercise, and 20-m sprint speed (16% and 14%) increased significantly (p≤0.05) following the TT and CT, respectively. However, the transfer effect coefficients (TEC) of strength and power performances to 20-m sprint performance following the TT were greater than the CT throughout the 9-week training period. Our data suggest that TT is more effective than CT to improve sprint performance in moderately trained subjects. PMID:25114753

  19. Generalised power graph compression reveals dominant relationship patterns in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Ahnert, Sebastian E.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a framework for the discovery of dominant relationship patterns in complex networks, by compressing the networks into power graphs with overlapping power nodes. When paired with enrichment analysis of node classification terms, the most compressible sets of edges provide a highly informative sketch of the dominant relationship patterns that define the network. In addition, this procedure also gives rise to a novel, link-based definition of overlapping node communities in which nodes are defined by their relationships with sets of other nodes, rather than through connections within the community. We show that this completely general approach can be applied to undirected, directed, and bipartite networks, yielding valuable insights into the large-scale structure of real-world networks, including social networks and food webs. Our approach therefore provides a novel way in which network architecture can be studied, defined and classified. PMID:24663099

  20. Economic and operational implications of a complex of wind-driven generators on a power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, E. D.; Newman, V. G.; Ashmole, P. H.

    1980-06-01

    An assessment is presented of the technical and economic implications of integrating a sizeable complex of aerogenerators into a power system. An important economic and operational factor is the variable and uncertain nature of the wind. However, it is shown that the effects of the more rapid fluctuations are mitigated by the incoherency of different machine outputs; a diversity factor is defined in terms of the spacing of an array of machines and the turbulence length scale. In contrast, the slower variations require a significant enhancement of the operational reserve capacity without addition of dedicated storage in order to accommodate wind-power penetration up to 20% of maximum demand. The increased uncertainty of the residual generation affects the economics of utilization of pumped-storage and gas-turbines as standby plant. The results of an analysis of a year's data, pertaining to demand and wind speed at 4 well separated sites, are presented.

  1. Hardware-Software Complex for a Study of High-Power Microwave Pulse Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal'chenko, V. G.; Gladkova, T. A.

    2016-06-01

    An instrumental complex is developed for a study of high-power microwave pulse parameters. The complex includes a bench for calibrating detectors and a measuring instrument for evaluating the microwave pulse parameters. The calibration of the measurement channels of microwave pulses propagating through different elements of the experimental setup is an important problem of experimental research. The available software for calibration of the measuring channels has a significant disadvantage related with the necessity of input of a number of additional parameters directly into the program. The software realized in the Qt 4.5 C++ medium is presented, which significantly simplifies the process of calibration data input in the dialog mode of setting the parameters of the medium of microwave pulse propagation.

  2. A low-complexity method to generate delay power profile in wideband high frequency channel simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-juan; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Yu-ming

    2011-10-01

    Delay power profile (DPP) characterizes the delay dispersion in wide-band high frequency (WBHF) channels, which determines whether the WBHF channel simulator can be used for the evaluation of WBHF communication systems. Newton's iterative method is commonly used to generate DPP for WBHF channels. But it has large computational complexity, so is not fit for applying to the implementation of WBHF channel simulators. We propose a new method to generate DPP based on look-up table. Compared to Newton's iterative method, Look-up table needs fewer multiplications and additions operations and avoids log operations, having lower computational complexity. Simulation results demonstrate that the decline of precision of DPP brought by look-up table can be neglected if the memory resources are great.

  3. Natural substances (acetogenins) from the family Annonaceae are powerful inhibitors of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I).

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, M; Ghelli, A; Ratta, M; Cortes, D; Estornell, E

    1994-01-01

    Natural products from the plants of the family Annonaceae, collectively called Annonaceous acetogenins, are very potent inhibitors of the NADH-ubiquinone reductase (Complex I) activity of mammalian mitochondria. The properties of five of such acetogenins are compared with those of rotenone and piericidin, classical potent inhibitors of Complex I. Rolliniastatin-1 and rolliniastatin-2 are more powerful than piericidin in terms of both their inhibitory constant and the protein-dependence of their titre in bovine submitochondrial particles. These acetogenins could be considered therefore the most potent inhibitors of mammalian Complex I. Squamocin and otivarin also have an inhibitory constant lower than that of piericidin, but display a larger protein-dependence of the titre. Squamocin and otivarin, contrary to the other acetogenins, behave qualitatively like rotenone. Rolliniastatin-2 shows unique properties as its interaction, although mutually exclusive to that of piericidin, appears to be mutually non-exclusive to that of rotenone. It is the first time that a potent inhibitor of Complex I is found not to overlap the active site of rotenone. PMID:8037664

  4. Power-law ansatz in complex systems: Excessive loss of information.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sun-Ting; Chang, Chin-De; Chang, Ching-Hao; Tsai, Meng-Xue; Hsu, Nan-Jung; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquity of power-law relations in empirical data displays physicists' love of simple laws and uncovering common causes among seemingly unrelated phenomena. However, many reported power laws lack statistical support and mechanistic backings, not to mention discrepancies with real data are often explained away as corrections due to finite size or other variables. We propose a simple experiment and rigorous statistical procedures to look into these issues. Making use of the fact that the occurrence rate and pulse intensity of crumple sound obey a power law with an exponent that varies with material, we simulate a complex system with two driving mechanisms by crumpling two different sheets together. The probability function of the crumple sound is found to transit from two power-law terms to a bona fide power law as compaction increases. In addition to showing the vicinity of these two distributions in the phase space, this observation nicely demonstrates the effect of interactions to bring about a subtle change in macroscopic behavior and more information may be retrieved if the data are subject to sorting. Our analyses are based on the Akaike information criterion that is a direct measurement of information loss and emphasizes the need to strike a balance between model simplicity and goodness of fit. As a show of force, the Akaike information criterion also found the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes and the scale-free model for a brain functional network, a two-dimensional sandpile, and solar flare intensity to suffer an excessive loss of information. They resemble more the crumpled-together ball at low compactions in that there appear to be two driving mechanisms that take turns occurring.

  5. Power-law ansatz in complex systems: Excessive loss of information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Sun-Ting; Chang, Chin-De; Chang, Ching-Hao; Tsai, Meng-Xue; Hsu, Nan-Jung; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquity of power-law relations in empirical data displays physicists' love of simple laws and uncovering common causes among seemingly unrelated phenomena. However, many reported power laws lack statistical support and mechanistic backings, not to mention discrepancies with real data are often explained away as corrections due to finite size or other variables. We propose a simple experiment and rigorous statistical procedures to look into these issues. Making use of the fact that the occurrence rate and pulse intensity of crumple sound obey a power law with an exponent that varies with material, we simulate a complex system with two driving mechanisms by crumpling two different sheets together. The probability function of the crumple sound is found to transit from two power-law terms to a bona fide power law as compaction increases. In addition to showing the vicinity of these two distributions in the phase space, this observation nicely demonstrates the effect of interactions to bring about a subtle change in macroscopic behavior and more information may be retrieved if the data are subject to sorting. Our analyses are based on the Akaike information criterion that is a direct measurement of information loss and emphasizes the need to strike a balance between model simplicity and goodness of fit. As a show of force, the Akaike information criterion also found the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes and the scale-free model for a brain functional network, a two-dimensional sandpile, and solar flare intensity to suffer an excessive loss of information. They resemble more the crumpled-together ball at low compactions in that there appear to be two driving mechanisms that take turns occurring.

  6. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  7. Role of design complexity in forecasting reliability and availability for electric-power-generating units. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berkey, D.M.; Balaban, H.S.

    1982-10-01

    This report examines the relationship between design complexity and reliability and availability performance for fossil-fueled electric-power-generating units. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to design complexity and reliability and availability performance data gathered from a representative sample of electric-power-generating units. Twelve predictive relationships or equations were developed as a result of employing this statistical procedure. Each equation was verified and assessed. Guidelines for applying the predictive relationships, including confidence limits, were also developed and are presented in this report. A major result of this examination is a quantitative predictive tool that should be useful to the electric-power industry.

  8. The acute effects of conventional, complex, and contrast protocols on lower-body power.

    PubMed

    Talpey, Scott W; Young, Warren B; Saunders, Natalie

    2014-02-01

    This study compared conventional, complex, and contrast protocols on peak power (PP) output. Static vs. dynamic contractions were also manipulated to determine the effect of these confounding variables. Eighteen recreationally trained men [age, 21.1 ± 3.3 years; body mass, 81.7 ± 15.9 kg; height, 182.8 ± 6.2 cm; 5 repetition maximum (5RM) half back squat, 119.2 ± 25.4 kg; 5RM/BW, 1.5 ± 0.2 kg] involved in sports including Australian Rules football, basketball, soccer, and rugby participated in this investigation. Five protocols were executed in a randomized order, a conventional protocol in which 3 sets of 4 countermovement jumps (CMJs) were performed 2 minutes apart. Contrast protocols using a heavy resistance conditioning action of either 4 repetitions with a 5RM load or a 5-second static back squat were alternated with sets of 4 CMJs. Complex conditions with 3 sets of 4 repetitions of a 5RM back squat or a 5-second static back squat were performed before the 3 sets of CMJs. In all conditions, 4 minutes of rest followed sets of heavy resistance exercises and 2 minutes of rest followed each set of CMJs. Individual set means and a total session mean were calculated from each CMJ performed during the session. Results showed that the conventional protocol produced significantly greater PP than all conditions except for the dynamic complex and the static contrast. Results suggest that the use of the complex and contrast protocols used in this investigation should not be used for acute increases in lower-body PP in recreationally trained individuals.

  9. Double-layer clustering method to predict protein complexes based on power-law distribution and protein sublocalization.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jianxin; Huan, Jun; Wu, Fang-Xiang

    2016-04-21

    Identifying protein complexes from Protein-protein Interaction Networks (PINs) is fundamental for understanding protein functions and activities in cell. Based on the assumption that protein complexes are highly connected areas in PINs, many algorithms were proposed to identify protein complexes from PINs. However, most of these approaches neglected that not all proteins in complexes are highly connected, and proteins in PINs with different topological properties may form protein complexes in different ways and should be treated differently. In this paper, we proposed a double-layer clustering method based on the power-law distribution (PLCluster). To calculate the centrality scores of nodes, we proposed a Dense-Spread Centrality method. The centrality scores calculated by Dense-Spread Centrality method follow a power-law distribution. Based on the power-law distribution of the centrality scores, PLCluster divides the nodes into two categories: the nodes with very high centrality scores and the nodes with lower centrality scores. Then different strategies are applied to nodes in different categories for detecting protein complexes from the PIN, respectively. Furthermore, the predicted protein complexes, which are inconsistent with the fact that all proteins in a protein complex should be in the same subcellular compartment, are filtered out. Compared with other nine existing methods on a high reliable yeast PIN, PLCluster shows great advantages in terms of the number of known complexes that are identified, Sensitivity, Specificity, f-measure and the number of perfect matches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management at Chernobyle Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ahner, S.; Fomin, V. V.

    2002-02-26

    In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) an Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) will be built under the EC TACIS Program in the vicinity of ChNPP. The paper will present the proposed concepts and their integration into existing buildings and installations. Further, the paper will consider the safety cases, as well as the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian regulations and licensing requirements. The paper will provide information on the status of the interim design and the effects of value engineering on the output of basic design phase. The paper therefor summarizes the design results of the involved design engineers of the Design and Process Providers BNFL (LOT 1), RWE NUKEM GmbH (LOT 2 and General) and INITEC (LOT 3).

  11. A new slip stacking RF system for a twofold power upgrade of Fermilab's Accelerator Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Madrak, Robyn

    2014-05-15

    Fermilab's Accelerator Complex has been recently upgraded, in order to increase the 120 GeV proton beam power on target from about 400 kW to over 700 kW for NOvA and other future intensity frontier experiments. One of the key ingredients of the upgrade is the offloading of some Main Injector synchrotron operations - beam injection and RF manipulation called ''slip stacking'' - to the 8GeV Recycler Ring, which had until recently been used only for low-intensity antiproton storage and cooling. This required construction of two new 53 MHz RF systems for the slip-stacking manipulations. The cavities operate simultaneously at Vpeak ≲150 kV, but at slightly different frequencies (Δf=1260 Hz). Their installation was completed in September 2013. This article describes the novel solutions used in the design of the new cavities, their tuning system, and the associated high power RF system. First results showing effective operation of the RF system, beam capture and successful slip-stacking in the Recycler Ring are presented.

  12. The US business cycle: power law scaling for interacting units with complex internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Paul

    2002-11-01

    In the social sciences, there is increasing evidence of the existence of power law distributions. The distribution of recessions in capitalist economies has recently been shown to follow such a distribution. The preferred explanation for this is self-organised criticality. Gene Stanley and colleagues propose an alternative, namely that power law scaling can arise from the interplay between random multiplicative growth and the complex structure of the units composing the system. This paper offers a parsimonious model of the US business cycle based on similar principles. The business cycle, along with long-term growth, is one of the two features which distinguishes capitalism from all previously existing societies. Yet, economics lacks a satisfactory theory of the cycle. The source of cycles is posited in economic theory to be a series of random shocks which are external to the system. In this model, the cycle is an internal feature of the system, arising from the level of industrial concentration of the agents and the interactions between them. The model-in contrast to existing economic theories of the cycle-accounts for the key features of output growth in the US business cycle in the 20th century.

  13. Powerful Set-Based Gene-Environment Interaction Testing Framework for Complex Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shuo; Peters, Ulrike; Berndt, Sonja; Bézieau, Stéphane; Brenner, Hermann; Campbell, Peter T; Chan, Andrew T; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Lemire, Mathieu; Newcomb, Polly A; Potter, John D; Slattery, Martha L; Woods, Michael O; Hsu, Li

    2015-12-01

    Identification of gene-environment interaction (G × E) is important in understanding the etiology of complex diseases. Based on our previously developed Set Based gene EnviRonment InterAction test (SBERIA), in this paper we propose a powerful framework for enhanced set-based G × E testing (eSBERIA). The major challenge of signal aggregation within a set is how to tell signals from noise. eSBERIA tackles this challenge by adaptively aggregating the interaction signals within a set weighted by the strength of the marginal and correlation screening signals. eSBERIA then combines the screening-informed aggregate test with a variance component test to account for the residual signals. Additionally, we develop a case-only extension for eSBERIA (coSBERIA) and an existing set-based method, which boosts the power not only by exploiting the G-E independence assumption but also by avoiding the need to specify main effects for a large number of variants in the set. Through extensive simulation, we show that coSBERIA and eSBERIA are considerably more powerful than existing methods within the case-only and the case-control method categories across a wide range of scenarios. We conduct a genome-wide G × E search by applying our methods to Illumina HumanExome Beadchip data of 10,446 colorectal cancer cases and 10,191 controls and identify two novel interactions between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and MINK1 and PTCHD3. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  14. Seasonal differences in SO2 ground-level impacts from a power plant plume on complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Palau, J L; Meliá, J; Segarra, D; Pérez-Landa, G; Santa-Cruz, F; Millán, M M

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the seasonal differences in SO2 ground-level fumigations from a power plant situated on very complex terrain in the Iberian Peninsula within the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The study area extends more than 80 km around the power plant on very complex semi-arid terrain. Considering different plume-rise schemes, by experimentation and modelling this study attempts to characterise the seasonal differences in both the plume footprint 80 km around the power plant and the turbulent regime (diurnal or nocturnal) driving the main contribution to the accumulated plume footprints at different distances from the power plant within a complex terrain region. Two markedly different SO2 ground-level distributions around the power plant are presented for the typical summer and winter dispersive scenarios in the area. Simulations show that the SO2 footprint of a plume being advected more than 450 m above ground level in complex terrain is highly dependent on the prevailing meteorological conditions and on the mesoscale perturbations of the synoptic flows within the lower layers of the troposphere. The results obtained show how on complex terrain, despite seasonal meteorological differences and under stable dispersive conditions, the simulated mechanical turbulence leeward of the mountain ranges reproduces highly concentrated SO2 fumigations on the ground more than 50 km away from the power plant. Besides, under summer convective activity, plume fumigations have been successfully simulated less than 15 km from the power plant. In conclusion, this study shows how measurements from air quality networks together with information obtained from atmospheric transport and diffusion models are able to characterise different transport scenarios. This is a clear advantage for the end-users and decision-makers who manage and optimise the regional air quality networks.

  15. Discriminatory power and reproducibility of novel DNA typing methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Kristin; Arnold, Catherine; Cataldi, Angel; Gutiérrez, M Cristina; Haas, Walter H; Panaiotov, Stefan; Skuce, Robin A; Supply, Philip; van der Zanden, Adri G M; van Soolingen, Dick

    2005-11-01

    In recent years various novel DNA typing methods have been developed which are faster and easier to perform than the current internationally standardized IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing method. However, there has been no overview of the utility of these novel typing methods, and it is largely unknown how they compare to previously published methods. In this study, the discriminative power and reproducibility of nine recently described PCR-based typing methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were investigated using the strain collection of the interlaboratory study of Kremer et al. This strain collection contains 90 M. tuberculosis complex and 10 non-M. tuberculosis complex mycobacterial strains, as well as 31 duplicated DNA samples to assess reproducibility. The highest reproducibility was found with variable numbers of tandem repeat typing using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU VNTR) and fast ligation-mediated PCR (FLiP), followed by second-generation spoligotyping, ligation-mediated PCR (LM-PCR), VNTR typing using five repeat loci identified at the Queens University of Belfast (QUB VNTR), and the Amadio speciation PCR. Poor reproducibility was associated with fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism typing, which was performed in three different laboratories. The methods were ordered from highest discrimination to lowest by the Hunter-Gaston discriminative index as follows: QUB VNTR typing, MIRU VNTR typing, FLiP, LM-PCR, and spoligotyping. We conclude that both VNTR typing methods and FLiP typing are rapid, highly reliable, and discriminative epidemiological typing methods for M. tuberculosis and that VNTR typing is the epidemiological typing method of choice for the near future.

  16. Identification of piezoelectric complex parameters in rings for power ultrasound applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, N.; Andrade, M. A.; Carbonari, R. C.; Buiochi, F.; Adamowski, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Power ultrasonic devices frequently use Langevin type transducers. These types of transducers are essentially constructed using a sandwich of piezoelectric rings and two metal masses at the ends. The whole assembly is tuned to resonate in a desired main frequency and the total length corresponds to a half of the wavelength of that frequency. Finite element simulations (FEM) are used in the design of such complex structures; however the accuracy of the results is limited by the knowledge of the constitutive properties for the materials used in the transducer construction. Metals like aluminum or steel are well characterized, but the complete set of piezoelectric parameters for piezoceramics are difficult to find in the literature. In the few cases where the manufacturer gives the complete set of parameters, strong differences are observed between simulated and experimental data. In this work a novel methodology proposed by our research group is applied in the case of piezoelectric rings made with a hard piezoelectric material. The results are evaluated in rings with internal diameter 8 mm, external diameter 27 mm and thickness 5 mm. Finally the results are validated using an optical interferometer showing a good agreement.

  17. The complex contribution of sociodemographics to decision-making power in gay male couples.

    PubMed

    Perry, Nicholas S; Huebner, David M; Baucom, Brian R W; Hoff, Colleen C

    2016-12-01

    Relationship power is an important dyadic construct in close relationships that is associated with relationship health and partner's individual health. Understanding what predicts power in heterosexual couples has proven difficult, and even less is known about gay couples. Resource models of power posit that demographic characteristics associated with social status (e.g., age, income) confer power within the relationship, which in turn shapes relationship outcomes. We tested this model in a sample of gay male couples (N = 566 couples) and extended it by examining race and HIV status. Multilevel modeling was used to test associations between demographic bases of power and decision-making power. We also examined relative associations among demographic bases and decision-making power with relationship satisfaction given the literature on power imbalances and overall relationship functioning. Results showed that individual income was positively associated with decision-making power, as was participant's HIV status, with HIV-positive men reporting greater power. Age differences within the relationship interacted with relationship length to predict decision-making power, but not satisfaction. HIV-concordant positive couples were less satisfied than concordant negative couples. Higher power partners were less satisfied than lower power partners. Demographic factors contributing to decision-making power among same-sex male couples appear to share some similarities with heterosexual couples (e.g., income is associated with power) and have unique features (e.g., HIV status influences power). However, these same demographics did not reliably predict relationship satisfaction in the manner that existing power theories suggest. Findings indicate important considerations for theories of power among same-sex male couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The first experimental confirmation of the fractional kinetics containing the complex-power-law exponents: Dielectric measurements of polymerization reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigmatullin, R. R.; Arbuzov, A. A.; Salehli, F.; Giz, A.; Bayrak, I.; Catalgil-Giz, H.

    2007-01-01

    For the first time we achieved incontestable evidence that the real process of dielectric relaxation during the polymerization reaction of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is described in terms of the fractional kinetic equations containing complex-power-law exponents. The possibility of the existence of the fractional kinetics containing non-integer complex-power-law exponents follows from the general theory of dielectric relaxation that has been suggested recently by one of the authors (R.R.N). Based on the physical/geometrical meaning of the fractional integral with complex exponents there is a possibility to develop a general theory of dielectric relaxation based on the self-similar (fractal) character of the reduced (averaged) microprocesses that take place in the mesoscale region. This theory contains some essential predictions related to existence of the non-integer power-law kinetics and the results of this paper can be considered as the first confirmation of existence of the kinetic phenomena that are described by fractional derivatives with complex-power-law exponents. We want to stress here that with the help of a new complex fitting function for the complex permittivity it becomes possible to describe the whole process for real and imaginary parts simultaneously throughout the admissible frequency range (30 Hz-13 MHz). The fitting parameters obtained for the complex permittivity function for three temperatures (70, 90 and 110 °C) confirm in general the picture of reaction that was known qualitatively before. They also reveal some new features, which improve the interpretation of the whole polymerization process. We hope that these first results obtained in the paper will serve as a good stimulus for other researches to find the traces of the existence of new fractional kinetics in other relaxation processes unrelated to the dielectric relaxation. These results should lead to the reconsideration and generalization of irreversibility and kinetic phenomena that

  19. Analysis of Power Laws, Shape Collapses, and Neural Complexity: New Techniques and MATLAB Support via the NCC Toolbox.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Najja; Timme, Nicholas M; Bennett, Nicholas; Ripp, Monica; Lautzenhiser, Edward; Beggs, John M

    2016-01-01

    Neural systems include interactions that occur across many scales. Two divergent methods for characterizing such interactions have drawn on the physical analysis of critical phenomena and the mathematical study of information. Inferring criticality in neural systems has traditionally rested on fitting power laws to the property distributions of "neural avalanches" (contiguous bursts of activity), but the fractal nature of avalanche shapes has recently emerged as another signature of criticality. On the other hand, neural complexity, an information theoretic measure, has been used to capture the interplay between the functional localization of brain regions and their integration for higher cognitive functions. Unfortunately, treatments of all three methods-power-law fitting, avalanche shape collapse, and neural complexity-have suffered from shortcomings. Empirical data often contain biases that introduce deviations from true power law in the tail and head of the distribution, but deviations in the tail have often been unconsidered; avalanche shape collapse has required manual parameter tuning; and the estimation of neural complexity has relied on small data sets or statistical assumptions for the sake of computational efficiency. In this paper we present technical advancements in the analysis of criticality and complexity in neural systems. We use maximum-likelihood estimation to automatically fit power laws with left and right cutoffs, present the first automated shape collapse algorithm, and describe new techniques to account for large numbers of neural variables and small data sets in the calculation of neural complexity. In order to facilitate future research in criticality and complexity, we have made the software utilized in this analysis freely available online in the MATLAB NCC (Neural Complexity and Criticality) Toolbox.

  20. Electronic load as part of the test complex of the power processing unit of electric and plasma propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubov, S. V.; Soldatov, A. I.

    2017-02-01

    This article provides the advantages and technical solutions for the use of electronic loads as part of a testing complex of power and management systems of electric and plasma propulsion of three types. The paper shows the parameters that were applied to select the electronic loads and describes their functionality.

  1. A growth model for directed complex networks with power-law shape in the out-degree distribution

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Gómez, J.; Stevens-Navarro, E.; Pineda-Rico, U.; Acosta-Elias, J.

    2015-01-01

    Many growth models have been published to model the behavior of real complex networks. These models are able to reproduce several of the topological properties of such networks. However, in most of these growth models, the number of outgoing links (i.e., out-degree) of nodes added to the network is constant, that is all nodes in the network are born with the same number of outgoing links. In other models, the resultant out-degree distribution decays as a poisson or an exponential distribution. However, it has been found that in real complex networks, the out-degree distribution decays as a power-law. In order to obtain out-degree distribution with power-law behavior some models have been proposed. This work introduces a new model that allows to obtain out-degree distributions that decay as a power-law with an exponent in the range from 0 to 1. PMID:25567141

  2. Analysis of Power Laws, Shape Collapses, and Neural Complexity: New Techniques and MATLAB Support via the NCC Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Najja; Timme, Nicholas M.; Bennett, Nicholas; Ripp, Monica; Lautzenhiser, Edward; Beggs, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Neural systems include interactions that occur across many scales. Two divergent methods for characterizing such interactions have drawn on the physical analysis of critical phenomena and the mathematical study of information. Inferring criticality in neural systems has traditionally rested on fitting power laws to the property distributions of “neural avalanches” (contiguous bursts of activity), but the fractal nature of avalanche shapes has recently emerged as another signature of criticality. On the other hand, neural complexity, an information theoretic measure, has been used to capture the interplay between the functional localization of brain regions and their integration for higher cognitive functions. Unfortunately, treatments of all three methods—power-law fitting, avalanche shape collapse, and neural complexity—have suffered from shortcomings. Empirical data often contain biases that introduce deviations from true power law in the tail and head of the distribution, but deviations in the tail have often been unconsidered; avalanche shape collapse has required manual parameter tuning; and the estimation of neural complexity has relied on small data sets or statistical assumptions for the sake of computational efficiency. In this paper we present technical advancements in the analysis of criticality and complexity in neural systems. We use maximum-likelihood estimation to automatically fit power laws with left and right cutoffs, present the first automated shape collapse algorithm, and describe new techniques to account for large numbers of neural variables and small data sets in the calculation of neural complexity. In order to facilitate future research in criticality and complexity, we have made the software utilized in this analysis freely available online in the MATLAB NCC (Neural Complexity and Criticality) Toolbox. PMID:27445842

  3. Muscle Strength, Power, and Morphologic Adaptations After 6 Weeks of Compound vs. Complex Training in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Gloumis, Giorgos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Blazevich, Anthony J; Zaras, Nikolaos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of compound vs. complex resistance training on strength, high-speed movement performance, and muscle composition. Eighteen young men completed compound (strength and power sessions on alternate days) or complex training (strength and power sets within a single session) 3 times per week for 6 weeks using bench press, leg press, Smith machine box squat, and jumping exercises. Pre- and posttraining, jumping and throwing performance and maximum bench press, leg press, and Smith machine box squat strength were evaluated. The architecture of vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Vastus lateralis morphology was assessed from muscle biopsies. Jumping (4 ± 3%) and throwing (9 ± 8%) performance increased only with compound training (p < 0.02). Bench press (5 vs. 18%), leg press (17 vs. 28%), and Smith machine box squat (27 vs. 35%) strength increased after both compound and complex training. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicle angle and gastrocnemius fascicle angle were increased with both compound and complex training. Gastrocnemius fascicle length decreased only after complex training (-11.8 ± 9.4%, p = 0.006). Muscle fiber cross-sectional areas increased only after complex training (p ≤ 0.05). Fiber type composition was not affected by either intervention. These results suggest that short-term strength and power training on alternate days is more effective for enhancing lower-limb and whole-body power, whereas training on the same day may induce greater increases in strength and fiber hypertrophy.

  4. The theoretical limits to the power output of a muscle-tendon complex with inertial and gravitational loads.

    PubMed Central

    Galantis, Apostolos; Woledge, Roger C

    2003-01-01

    When a muscle delivers power to an inertial load through a spring, the peak power can exceed the maximum that the muscle alone could produce. Using normalized differential equations relating dimensionless quantities we show, by solving the equations either analytically or numerically, that one dimensionless constant (Xi), representing the inertial load, is sufficient to specify the behaviour during shortening of a muscle-tendon complex with linear force-velocity and force-extension properties. In the presence of gravity, an additional constant (Gamma), representing the gravitational acceleration, is required. Nonlinear force-velocity and force-extension relationships each introduce an additional constant, representing their curvature. In the absence of gravity the power output delivered to an inertial load is limited to approximately 1.4 times the maximum power of the muscle alone, and when gravity is present the power delivered is limited to approximately twice the power of muscle alone. These limits are found for the purely inertial load at Xi ca. 1 and with gravity acting at XiGamma = 0.5 with Xi arbitrarily small. The effects of nonlinear muscle and tendon properties tend to cancel each other out and do not produce large deviations from these optima. A lever system of constant ratio between muscle and load does not alter these limits. Cams and catches are required to exceed these limits and attain the high power outputs sometimes observed during explosive animal movement. PMID:12965015

  5. The theoretical limits to the power output of a muscle-tendon complex with inertial and gravitational loads.

    PubMed

    Galantis, Apostolos; Woledge, Roger C

    2003-07-22

    When a muscle delivers power to an inertial load through a spring, the peak power can exceed the maximum that the muscle alone could produce. Using normalized differential equations relating dimensionless quantities we show, by solving the equations either analytically or numerically, that one dimensionless constant (Xi), representing the inertial load, is sufficient to specify the behaviour during shortening of a muscle-tendon complex with linear force-velocity and force-extension properties. In the presence of gravity, an additional constant (Gamma), representing the gravitational acceleration, is required. Nonlinear force-velocity and force-extension relationships each introduce an additional constant, representing their curvature. In the absence of gravity the power output delivered to an inertial load is limited to approximately 1.4 times the maximum power of the muscle alone, and when gravity is present the power delivered is limited to approximately twice the power of muscle alone. These limits are found for the purely inertial load at Xi ca. 1 and with gravity acting at XiGamma = 0.5 with Xi arbitrarily small. The effects of nonlinear muscle and tendon properties tend to cancel each other out and do not produce large deviations from these optima. A lever system of constant ratio between muscle and load does not alter these limits. Cams and catches are required to exceed these limits and attain the high power outputs sometimes observed during explosive animal movement.

  6. Power-law relaxation in a complex system: Omori law after a financial market crash.

    PubMed

    Lillo, F; Mantegna, R N

    2003-07-01

    We study the relaxation dynamics of a financial market just after the occurrence of a crash by investigating the number of times the absolute value of an index return is exceeding a given threshold value. We show that the empirical observation of a power law evolution of the number of events exceeding the selected threshold (a behavior known as the Omori law in geophysics) is consistent with the simultaneous occurrence of (i) a return probability density function characterized by a power law asymptotic behavior and (ii) a power-law relaxation decay of its typical scale. Our empirical observation cannot be explained within the framework of simple and widespread stochastic volatility models.

  7. The characterization of secondary lithium-ion battery degradation when operating complex, ultra-high power pulsed loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Derek N.

    The US Navy is actively developing all electric fleets, raising serious questions about what is required of onboard power supplies in order to properly power the ship's electrical systems. This is especially relevant when choosing a viable power source to drive high power propulsion and electric weapon systems in addition to the conventional loads deployed aboard these types of vessels. Especially when high pulsed power loads are supplied, the issue of maintaining power quality becomes important and increasingly complex. Conventionally, a vessel's electrical power is generated using gas turbine or diesel driven motor-generator sets that are very inefficient when they are used outside of their most efficient load condition. What this means is that if the generator is not being utilized continuously at its most efficient load capacity, the quality of the output power may also be effected and fall outside of the acceptable power quality limits imposed through military standards. As a solution to this potential problem, the Navy has proposed using electrochemical storage devices since they are able to buffer conventional generators when the load is operating below the generator's most efficient power level or able to efficiently augment a generator when the load is operating in excess of the generator's most efficient power rating. Specifically, the US Navy is interested in using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) lithium-ion batteries within an intelligently controlled energy storage module that could act as either a prime power supply for on-board pulsed power systems or as a backup generator to other shipboard power systems. Due to the unique load profile of high-rate pulsed power systems, the implementation of lithium-ion batteries within these complex systems requires them to be operated at very high rates and the effects these things have on cell degradation has been an area of focus. There is very little published research into the effects that high power transient

  8. A reduced complexity highly power/bandwidth efficient coded FQPSK system with iterative decoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Divsalar, D.

    2001-01-01

    Based on a representation of FQPSK as a trellis-coded modulation, this paper investigates the potential improvement in power efficiency obtained from the application of simple outer codes to form a concatenated coding arrangement with iterative decoding.

  9. Genetic structure of the LXS panel of recombinant inbred mouse strains: a powerful resource for complex trait analysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert W; Bennett, Beth; Lu, Lu; Gu, Jing; DeFries, John C; Carosone-Link, Phyllis J; Rikke, Brad A; Belknap, John K; Johnson, Thomas E

    2004-08-01

    The set of LXS recombinant inbred (RI) strains is a new and exceptionally large mapping panel that is suitable for the analysis of complex traits with comparatively high power. This panel consists of 77 strains-more than twice the size of other RI sets--and will typically provide sufficient statistical power (beta = 0.8) to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that account for approximately 25% of genetic variance with a genomewide p < 0.05. To characterize the genetic architecture of this new set of RI strains, we genotyped 330 MIT microsatellite markers distributed on all autosomes and the X Chromosome and assembled error-checked meiotic recombination maps that have an average F2-adjusted marker spacing of approximately 4 cM. The LXS panel has a genetic structure consistent with random segregation and subsequent fixation of alleles, the expected 3-4 x map expansion, a low level of nonsyntenic association among loci, and complete independence among all 77 strains. Although the parental inbred strains-Inbred Long-Sleep (ILS) and Inbred Short-Sleep (ISS)--were derived originally by selection from an 8-way heterogeneous stock selected for differential sensitivity to sedative effects of ethanol, the LXS panel is also segregating for many other traits. Thus, the LXS panel provides a powerful new resource for mapping complex traits across many systems and disciplines and should prove to be of great utility in modeling the genetics of complex diseases in human populations.

  10. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  11. Measurements of complex impedance in microwave high power systems with a new bluetooth integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Roussy, Georges; Dichtel, Bernard; Chaabane, Haykel

    2003-01-01

    By using a new integrated circuit, which is marketed for bluetooth applications, it is possible to simplify the method of measuring the complex impedance, complex reflection coefficient and complex transmission coefficient in an industrial microwave setup. The Analog Devices circuit AD 8302, which measures gain and phase up to 2.7 GHz, operates with variable level input signals and is less sensitive to both amplitude and frequency fluctuations of the industrial magnetrons than are mixers and AM crystal detectors. Therefore, accurate gain and phase measurements can be performed with low stability generators. A mechanical setup with an AD 8302 is described; the calibration procedure and its performance are presented.

  12. Wave Power Assessment in the Presence of Currents: an Overview of Analytical Versus Complex Numerical Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, M. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Neill, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    Resource characterization studies at wave energy sites generally ignore the effect of tidal currents, due to the difficulties associated with running coupled wave-tide models. Further, there is a need to estimate the significance of wave-tide interaction effects on the wave power using simplified methods, before investing in time consuming and costly numerical models. Additionally, many wave buoy measurements are collected in deep waters, where wave-current interaction effects may not be significant; this makes validation of coupled models more challenging. Here, we give an overview of the application of simplified analytical methods as well as fully coupled wave-tide models to address this problem. Firstly, we present and validate a simplified analytical method, based on linear wave theory, to estimate the influence of tidal currents on the wave power resource. The method estimates the resulting increase (or decrease) in wave height and wavelength for opposing (or following) currents, as well as quantifying the change in wave power. Results demonstrate a high level of accuracy for the simplified analytical approach, which can thus be used as an efficient tool for making rapid estimates of likely tidal effects on the wave power resource. Secondly, we discuss the application of a coupled modelling system, COAWST (Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport), and present issues such as computational cost, as well as the success of this approach in characterizing wave power in the presence of currents.

  13. A software system used for load distribution at a combined heat and power plant with the complex mix of the equipment and complex schemes of heat and electric power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarch'yan, V. A.; Chernyaev, A. N.; Andryushin, A. V.; Pechenkin, S. P.; Lisitsa, V. I.; Logvinov, E. I.; Molchanov, A. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    The authors describe various approaches to construction of an algorithm for the solution of the problem of load distribution at a combined heat and power (CHP) plant with the complex mix of the equipment and complex schemes of heat and electrical energy supply on the basis of which the software system has been developed. Methods of obtaining energy characteristics of the equipment used for solving the problem of load distribution were studied. The results of the implementation of the software system for load distribution at the CHP-23 plant belonging to OAO Mosenergo are given. Realization of recommendations on maintaining an operational mode of the equipment with due regard for its optimal loading makes it possible to obtain fuel savings of up to 1%.

  14. The effect of a complex training and detraining programme on selected strength and power variables in early pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Lee; Sleap, Mike; Tolfrey, Keith

    2006-09-01

    Complex training, a combination of resistance training and plyometrics is growing in popularity, despite limited support for its efficacy. In pre- and early pubertal children, the study of complex training has been limited, and to our knowledge an examination of its effect on anaerobic performance characteristics of the upper and lower body has not been undertaken. Furthermore, the effect of detraining after complex training requires clarification. The physical characteristics (mean+/-s) of the 54 male participants in the present study were as follows: age 12.3 +/- 0.3 years, height 1.57 +/- 0.07 m, body mass 50.3 +/- 11.0 kg. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 33) or control group (n = 21). The training, which was performed three times a week for 12 weeks, included a combination of dynamic constant external resistance and plyometrics. After training, participants completed 12 weeks of detraining. At baseline, after training and after detraining, peak and mean anaerobic power, dynamic strength and athletic performance were assessed. Twenty-six participants completed the training and none reported any training-related injury. Complex training was associated with small increases (< or =5.5%) in peak and mean power during training, followed by decreases of a similar magnitude (< or = -5.9%) during detraining (P < 0.05). No changes or minor, progressive increases (< or =1.5%) were evident in the control group (P > 0.05). In the experimental group, dynamic strength was increased by 24.3 - 71.4% (dependent on muscle group; P < 0.01), whereas growth-related changes in the control group varied from 0 to 4.4% (P > 0.05). For 40-m sprint running, basketball chest pass and vertical jump test performance, the experimental group saw a small improvement (< or =4.0%) after training followed by a decline (< or = -4.4%) towards baseline during detraining (P < 0.05), whereas the control group experienced no change (P > 0.05). In conclusion, in pre- and early

  15. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications

    PubMed Central

    Revathy, M.; Saravanan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax), and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC) decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures. PMID:26065017

  16. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications.

    PubMed

    Revathy, M; Saravanan, R

    2015-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax), and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC) decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures.

  17. Methodological aspects of assessing atmospheric contamination with metal aerosols in the vicinity of thermal power complexes.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, S M

    1986-01-01

    A study of metal aerosols content in waste steam-containing gases from a thermal power station operating on oil fuel revealed that the concentrations of V2O5, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO2 and Cr2O3 are not influenced by the operational mode, type of boiler, the mean ratios being 1 : 0, 3 : 0, 27 : 0, 2 : 0, 03 : 0 and 0.25 respectively. Comparing the metal content in oil fuel and waste gases showed that no more than 10% of the studied compounds are sorbed on the boiler walls, the remaining 90% being released into the atmosphere. It is suggested that V2O5 be determined as an integral indicator with the aim of rapid hygienic assessment of the extent of atmospheric contamination with metal aerosols. The presented results may be used in preventive and regular sanitary surveillance during thermal power plant designing, construction and reconstruction.

  18. Phase-Contrast versus Off-Axis Illumination: Is a More Complex Microscope Always More Powerful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostounsky, Zdenek; Pelc, Radek

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a practical demonstration suitable for any biology college classroom is presented. With the examples of a complex biological specimen (slug's radula) and a simple reference specimen (electron microscopical grid imprint in gelatin), both of which can be easily prepared, the capabilities of two imaging modes commonly used in optical…

  19. Phase-Contrast versus Off-Axis Illumination: Is a More Complex Microscope Always More Powerful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostounsky, Zdenek; Pelc, Radek

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a practical demonstration suitable for any biology college classroom is presented. With the examples of a complex biological specimen (slug's radula) and a simple reference specimen (electron microscopical grid imprint in gelatin), both of which can be easily prepared, the capabilities of two imaging modes commonly used in optical…

  20. Boundaries and the Use and Misuse of Power and Authority: Ethical Complexities for Clergy Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Ingeborg E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the vulnerabilities and complexities clergy psychotherapists encounter particularly in matters of multiple relationships, confidentiality, and practice policies. Proposes several preventive actions to raise awareness and safeguard ethical conduct including education in ethics and professional issues, education in all dimensions of…

  1. Preliminary experimental investigation of a complex dual-band high power microwave source

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Yangmei; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhong, Huihuang; Qian, Baoliang

    2015-10-15

    In order to promote the power conversion efficiency of a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) and obtain microwaves in dual bands, an axially extracted C-band virtual cathode oscillator (VCO) with multiple resonant cavities is introduced to partially utilize the load current of an S-band MILO. The formed novel dual-band high power microwave source called MILO and VCO is investigated with simulation and experimentally. A dual-band radiation antenna is designed to effectively radiate microwaves generated by the MILO and the VCO, respectively, while avoiding them being influenced by the microwave reflection and diffraction. The preliminary experimental results measured by the dual-band diagnostic system show that both the MILO and the VCO operate normally under repeated shots. A microwave of 2.1 GHz, 1.70 GW is generated from the MILO and a 0.37 GW microwave at frequencies of 4.1 GHz and 3.8 GHz is generated from the VCO under the condition of about 440 kV and 35 kA. Compared with a single MILO (10.6%), a MILO and VCO achieves higher total power and efficiency (13.4%) in both S and C bands, indicating that the load current of the MILO partially couples into the beam-wave interaction in the VCO and then contributes to the output microwaves. However, more works are needed regarding the spectrum purification of the VCO and promotion of the output power of both the MILO and the VCO.

  2. Preliminary experimental investigation of a complex dual-band high power microwave source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Yangmei; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhong, Huihuang; Qian, Baoliang

    2015-10-01

    In order to promote the power conversion efficiency of a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) and obtain microwaves in dual bands, an axially extracted C-band virtual cathode oscillator (VCO) with multiple resonant cavities is introduced to partially utilize the load current of an S-band MILO. The formed novel dual-band high power microwave source called MILO and VCO is investigated with simulation and experimentally. A dual-band radiation antenna is designed to effectively radiate microwaves generated by the MILO and the VCO, respectively, while avoiding them being influenced by the microwave reflection and diffraction. The preliminary experimental results measured by the dual-band diagnostic system show that both the MILO and the VCO operate normally under repeated shots. A microwave of 2.1 GHz, 1.70 GW is generated from the MILO and a 0.37 GW microwave at frequencies of 4.1 GHz and 3.8 GHz is generated from the VCO under the condition of about 440 kV and 35 kA. Compared with a single MILO (10.6%), a MILO and VCO achieves higher total power and efficiency (13.4%) in both S and C bands, indicating that the load current of the MILO partially couples into the beam-wave interaction in the VCO and then contributes to the output microwaves. However, more works are needed regarding the spectrum purification of the VCO and promotion of the output power of both the MILO and the VCO.

  3. Preliminary experimental investigation of a complex dual-band high power microwave source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Yangmei; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhong, Huihuang; Qian, Baoliang

    2015-10-01

    In order to promote the power conversion efficiency of a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) and obtain microwaves in dual bands, an axially extracted C-band virtual cathode oscillator (VCO) with multiple resonant cavities is introduced to partially utilize the load current of an S-band MILO. The formed novel dual-band high power microwave source called MILO and VCO is investigated with simulation and experimentally. A dual-band radiation antenna is designed to effectively radiate microwaves generated by the MILO and the VCO, respectively, while avoiding them being influenced by the microwave reflection and diffraction. The preliminary experimental results measured by the dual-band diagnostic system show that both the MILO and the VCO operate normally under repeated shots. A microwave of 2.1 GHz, 1.70 GW is generated from the MILO and a 0.37 GW microwave at frequencies of 4.1 GHz and 3.8 GHz is generated from the VCO under the condition of about 440 kV and 35 kA. Compared with a single MILO (10.6%), a MILO and VCO achieves higher total power and efficiency (13.4%) in both S and C bands, indicating that the load current of the MILO partially couples into the beam-wave interaction in the VCO and then contributes to the output microwaves. However, more works are needed regarding the spectrum purification of the VCO and promotion of the output power of both the MILO and the VCO.

  4. Spatial distribution of hydrogen sulfide from two geothermal power plants in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olafsdottir, S.; Gardarsson, S. M.; Andradottir, H. O.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns have arisen about the health impact and odor annoyance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions associated with geothermal power production. Measurements have been made at stationary measuring stations in inhabited areas but little is known about the spatial behavior of the H2S plumes. This study presents field measurements of the spatial distribution of the ground concentration of H2S within a 30 km radius of two geothermal power plants during 20 distinct events spanning one year. The results showed that high H2S concentration was correlated with high air stability, low wind speed and absence of precipitation. The odor threshold (11 μg m-3) was exceeded in all events. The instantaneous measurements exceeded the 24-h average national health limit (50 μg m-3) up to 26 km from the power plants. The shape of the measured plumes at the same location was similar between events, indicating repeated patterns in plume distribution. Convergence of plumes was observed due to spatial variability in wind direction. Plumes were found to follow mountain passes and accumulate alongside a mountain range. AERMOD modeling demonstrated that narrower plumes with higher concentration can be expected for smoother terrain, such as lakes, consistent with measurements.

  5. Wind power forecasting for a real onshore wind farm on complex terrain using WRF high resolution simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel Prósper Fernández, Miguel; Casal, Carlos Otero; Canoura Fernández, Felipe; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2017-04-01

    Regional meteorological models are becoming a generalized tool for forecasting wind resource, due to their capacity to simulate local flow dynamics impacting wind farm production. This study focuses on the production forecast and validation of a real onshore wind farm using high horizontal and vertical resolution WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model simulations. The wind farm is located in Galicia, in the northwest of Spain, in a complex terrain region with high wind resource. Utilizing the Fitch scheme, specific for wind farms, a period of one year is simulated with a daily operational forecasting set-up. Power and wind predictions are obtained and compared with real data provided by the management company. Results show that WRF is able to yield good wind power operational predictions for this kind of wind farms, due to a good representation of the planetary boundary layer behaviour of the region and the good performance of the Fitch scheme under these conditions.

  6. Effect of effluents of a thermal power plant complex on reproductive processs of a winter season weed

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, F.A.; Iqbal, M.; Ghouse, A.K.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The Kasimpur Thermal Power Plant Complex (located in the District Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India) runs on a low grade, sulphur rich, bituminous type of coal with a daily average consumption rte of about 3,192 metric tons during winter season. Its effluents, mainly consisting of oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and carbon as well as particulate matters, were noted to affect the reproductive behavior of Melilotus indica-a winter season weed growing wild as a component of a grassland community. The samples consisting of 10 plants were collected at monthly intervals from 5 sites located about 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 20 km leaward from the Complex. Emergence of inflorescence was delayed at the polluted sites. However, fruit formation started simultaneously (in March) at all the five sites. The pollution induced senescence of floral buds, flowers and fruits, but did not alter markedly weight of seed and fruit.

  7. Boron-selective reactions as powerful tools for modular synthesis of diverse complex molecules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Pengfei

    2015-12-21

    In the context of modular and rapid construction of molecular diversity and complexity for applications in organic synthesis, biomedical and materials sciences, a generally useful strategy has emerged based on boron-selective chemical transformations. In the last decade, these types of reactions have evolved from proof-of-concept to some advanced applications in the efficient preparation of complex natural products and even automated precise manufacturing on the molecular level. These advances have shown the great potential of boron-selective reactions in simplifying synthetic design and experimental operations, and should inspire new developments in related chemical and technological areas. This tutorial review will highlight the original contributions and representative advances in this emerging field.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF A DYNAMIC POWER LINE RATING CONCEPT FOR IMPROVED WIND ENERGY INTEGRATION OVER COMPLEX TERRAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S Myers; Tyler B Phillips; Inanc Senocak; Phil Anderson

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of power line to be based on real-time conductor temperature dependent on local weather conditions. In current practice overhead power lines are generally given a conservative rating based on worst case weather conditions. Using historical weather data collected over a test bed area, we demonstrate there is often additional transmission capacity not being utilized with the current static rating practice. We investigate a new dynamic line rating methodology using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine wind conditions along transmission lines at dense intervals. Simulated results are used to determine conductor temperature by calculating the transient thermal response of the conductor under variable environmental conditions. In calculating the conductor temperature, we use both a calculation with steady-state assumption and a transient calculation. Under low wind conditions, steady-state assumption predicts higher conductor temperatures that could lead to curtailments, whereas transient calculations produce conductor temperatures that are significantly lower, implying the availability of additional transmission capacity.

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of ten docking programs on a diverse set of protein-ligand complexes: the prediction accuracy of sampling power and scoring power.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Sun, Huiyong; Yao, Xiaojun; Li, Dan; Xu, Lei; Li, Youyong; Tian, Sheng; Hou, Tingjun

    2016-05-14

    As one of the most popular computational approaches in modern structure-based drug design, molecular docking can be used not only to identify the correct conformation of a ligand within the target binding pocket but also to estimate the strength of the interaction between a target and a ligand. Nowadays, as a variety of docking programs are available for the scientific community, a comprehensive understanding of the advantages and limitations of each docking program is fundamentally important to conduct more reasonable docking studies and docking-based virtual screening. In the present study, based on an extensive dataset of 2002 protein-ligand complexes from the PDBbind database (version 2014), the performance of ten docking programs, including five commercial programs (LigandFit, Glide, GOLD, MOE Dock, and Surflex-Dock) and five academic programs (AutoDock, AutoDock Vina, LeDock, rDock, and UCSF DOCK), was systematically evaluated by examining the accuracies of binding pose prediction (sampling power) and binding affinity estimation (scoring power). Our results showed that GOLD and LeDock had the best sampling power (GOLD: 59.8% accuracy for the top scored poses; LeDock: 80.8% accuracy for the best poses) and AutoDock Vina had the best scoring power (rp/rs of 0.564/0.580 and 0.569/0.584 for the top scored poses and best poses), suggesting that the commercial programs did not show the expected better performance than the academic ones. Overall, the ligand binding poses could be identified in most cases by the evaluated docking programs but the ranks of the binding affinities for the entire dataset could not be well predicted by most docking programs. However, for some types of protein families, relatively high linear correlations between docking scores and experimental binding affinities could be achieved. To our knowledge, this study has been the most extensive evaluation of popular molecular docking programs in the last five years. It is expected that our work

  10. An Advanced User Interface Approach for Complex Parameter Study Process Specification in the Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarrow, Maurice; McCann, Karen M.; Biswas, Rupak; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Yan, Jerry C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The creation of parameter study suites has recently become a more challenging problem as the parameter studies have now become multi-tiered and the computational environment has become a supercomputer grid. The parameter spaces are vast, the individual problem sizes are getting larger, and researchers are now seeking to combine several successive stages of parameterization and computation. Simultaneously, grid-based computing offers great resource opportunity but at the expense of great difficulty of use. We present an approach to this problem which stresses intuitive visual design tools for parameter study creation and complex process specification, and also offers programming-free access to grid-based supercomputer resources and process automation.

  11. Photosynthetic Complexes: Molecularly Activated Bioswitches and Agents for Light Powered Molecular Circuitry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-11

    absorb light and channel it to the center, acting as a highly efficient antenna. There are also 15-25 carotenoid molecules that absorb light at wavelengths ...sophistication. This is reflected in the additional functionality of PSI, which performs the antenna role of LH2 but also dissociates the absorbed light into...AAAAAAK), and the other Native PSI complexes are isolated from spinach leaves as anionic V6D (VVVVVVD).6-’ Then we depo~sit a thin described earlier.’ 7 A

  12. Anthropogenic and technogenic factors of operational risk at hazardous industrial objects of fuel-power complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magid, S. I.; Arkhipova, E. N.; Kulichikhin, V. V.; Zagretdinov, I. Sh.

    2016-12-01

    Technogenic and anthropogenic accidence at hazardous industrial objects (HIO) in the Russian Federation has been considered. The accidence level at HIO, including power plants and network enterprises, is determined by anthropogenic reasons, so-called "human factor", in 70% of all cases. The analysis of incidents caused by personnel has shown that errors occur most often during accidental situations, launches, holdups, routine switches, and other effects on equipment controls. It has been demonstrated that skills needed to perform type and routine switches can be learned, to certain limits, on real operating equipment, while combating emergency and accidental situations can be learned only with the help of modern training simulators developed based on information technologies. Problems arising during the following processes have been considered: development of mathematical and software support of modern training equipment associated, in one way or another, with adequate power-generating object modeling in accordance with human operator specifics; modeling and/or simulation of the corresponding control and management systems; organization of the education system (functional supply of the instructor, education and methodological resources (EMR)); organization of the program-technical, scalable and adaptable, platform for modeling of the main and secondary functions of the training simulator. It has been concluded that the systemic approach principle on the necessity and sufficiency in the applied methodology allows to reproduce all technological characteristics of the equipment, its topological completeness, as well as to achieve the acceptable counting rate. The initial "rough" models of processes in the equipment are based on the normative techniques and equation coefficients taken from the normative materials as well. Then, the synthesis of "fine" models has been carried out following the global practice in modeling and training simulator building, i

  13. Power-law distributed temporal heterogeneity of human activities promotes cooperation on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Li, Rong

    2016-09-01

    An evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) with players located on Barabási-Albert scale-free networks is studied. The impact of players' heterogeneous temporal activity pattern on the evolution of cooperation is investigated. To this end, the normal procedure that players update their strategies immediately after a round of game is discarded. Instead, players update strategies according to their assigned reproduction time, which follows a power-law distribution. We find that the temporal heterogeneity of players' activities facilitates the prosperity of cooperation, indicating the important role of hubs in the maintenance of cooperation on scale-free networks. When the reproduction time is assigned to individuals negatively related to their degrees, a fluctuation of the cooperation level with the increase of the exponent β is observed.

  14. Optimizing synchronization stability of the Kuramoto model in complex networks and power grids.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wong, K Y Michael

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining the stability of synchronization state is crucial for the functioning of many natural and artificial systems. In this study, we develop methods to optimize the synchronization stability of the Kuramoto model by minimizing the dominant Lyapunov exponent. Using the recently proposed cut-set space approximation of the steady states, we greatly simplify the objective function, and further derive its gradient and Hessian with respect to natural frequencies, which leads to an efficient algorithm with the quasi-Newton's method. The optimized systems are demonstrated to achieve better synchronization stability for the Kuramoto model with or without inertia in certain regimes. Hence our method is applicable in improving the stability of power grids. It is also viable to adjust the coupling strength of each link to improve the stability of the system. Various operational constraints can also be easily integrated into our scope by employing the interior point method in convex optimization. The properties of the optimized networks are also discussed.

  15. Optimizing synchronization stability of the Kuramoto model in complex networks and power grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining the stability of synchronization state is crucial for the functioning of many natural and artificial systems. In this study, we develop methods to optimize the synchronization stability of the Kuramoto model by minimizing the dominant Lyapunov exponent. Using the recently proposed cut-set space approximation of the steady states, we greatly simplify the objective function, and further derive its gradient and Hessian with respect to natural frequencies, which leads to an efficient algorithm with the quasi-Newton's method. The optimized systems are demonstrated to achieve better synchronization stability for the Kuramoto model with or without inertia in certain regimes. Hence our method is applicable in improving the stability of power grids. It is also viable to adjust the coupling strength of each link to improve the stability of the system. Various operational constraints can also be easily integrated into our scope by employing the interior point method in convex optimization. The properties of the optimized networks are also discussed.

  16. Phase-contrast versus off-axis illumination: is a more complex microscope always more powerful?

    PubMed

    Hostounský, Zdenek; Pelc, Radek

    2007-06-01

    In this article, a practical demonstration suitable for any biology college classroom is presented. With the examples of a complex biological specimen (slug's radula) and a simple reference specimen (electron microscopical grid imprint in gelatin), both of which can be easily prepared, the capabilities of two imaging modes commonly used in optical microscopy are demonstrated. The results obtained under phase contrast (a rather sophisticated method, 1953 Nobel Prize to Zernike) and off-axis illumination (a very simple method) are compared. The off-axis illumination setup is capable of delivering noticeably better microscopic images of these two particular specimens, yet it can be easily assembled in a laboratory classroom. The outcome of such a demonstration is expected to be the realization on the part of the students that one needs to carefully choose the apparatus to address a given biological problem, with the "bottom line" being that a more complex one may not necessarily yield better results. An attempt to explain this "paradox" is presented, in the particular case presented here, partly from the physiology of vision perspective (the shape-from-shading problem). The overall aim of the present article is to induce in students critical thinking about the capabilities of a laboratory equipment in general and about data interpretation.

  17. Complex use of waste in wastewater and circulating water treatment from oil in heat power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Iskhakova, R. Ya.

    2017-06-01

    Sewage and circulating water from oil of thermal power plants (TPP) generated in fuel-oil shops during washing of electrical equipment and its running into the storm drainage system from the industrial site has been considered in the paper. It has been suggested to use the carbonate sludge of water treatment modified with hydrophobing emulsion as a sorption material for waste and circulating water treatment in thermal power plants. The carbonate sludge is waste accumulated in clarifiers at the stage of natural water pretreatment. General technical characteristics of the sludge, such as moisture, bulk density, total pore volume, ash, etc., have been determined. It has been found that the sludge without additional treatment is a hydrophilic material that has low adsorption capacity and wettability with nonpolar compounds. Therefore, the sludge is treated with organosilicon compounds to reduce the moisture capacity and increase its floatation. Several types of sorption materials based on the carbonate sludge subjected to surface and volume hydrophobization have been developed. During the volume treatment, the hydrophobing compound has been introduced into the material along with the plastifier. In case of the surface treatment, heat-treated granules have been soaked into hydrophobing emulsion. It has been shown that surface hydrophobization is most economically advantageous, because it reduces the consumption of water-repelling agent, wherein the total pore volume and sorption capacity during surface hydrophobization increase by 45 and 25% compared to that during volume hydrophobization. Based on the obtained results, the most effective sorption material has been chosen. To produce this material, it is necessary to sequentially carry out mixing of carbonate sludge with the binder, granulation, calcination, impregnation with a waterrepellent emulsion, and drying of the finished material. The suggested technology to produce the material and use it as a sorbent allows

  18. Applications of Microwave Antenna Array for Wireless Power Transmission and Radar Imaging in Complex Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ce

    The focus of my research interests lies in the application of microwave antenna array system and array signal processing techniques to problems in wireless power transmission and radar imaging. The two research areas share the same underlying mathematical principle of time reversality of electromagnetic wave propagation. Based on this principle, the array antenna system and the associated signal processing algorithm are further improved to adapt to different scenarios. In my dissertation, the rest part presents an optimal algorithm for wireless power transmission with beamforming array. The optimal weight distribution on antenna array elements is found based on time reversal eigenmode technique. Our method is adaptive to the medium of the channel and can be applied to arbitrarily positioned antenna without degradation of efficiency. This novel method is analytically studied and verified with numerical electromagnetic simulations. The second part presents a new problem called "Hard-Wall Radar Imaging" (HWRI) has been proposed when the electromagnetic waves cannot penetrate the shielding walls (such as metallic walls). The research methodology involves algorithm development combined with experimental results to gain more insights into the real microwave imaging system. First, we implemented the imaging system with the conventional time reversal DORT (Decomposition of Time-Reversal Operator) imaging algorithm and adapted it into a new signal processing technique (multiplicative array technique) to obtain the image in the proposed scenario. Second, after having identified the drawbacks of the rest imaging system, the imaging system is improved to distributed MIMO radar configuration. The new imaging algorithm is also developed based on the techniques of Direction-of-Arrival(DoA) estimation and adaptive nulling. From this algorithm, the experimental results show that the new imaging system can localize two targets correctly. To resolve the problem of spurious clutter

  19. Stability enhanced polyelectrolyte-coated gold nanorod-photosensitizer complexes for high/low power density photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhenzhi; Ren, Wenzhi; Gong, An; Zhao, Xinmei; Zou, Yuehong; Brown, Eric Michael Bratsolias; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for cancer and other malignant diseases, however safety and efficacy improvements are required before it reaches its full potential and wider clinical use. Herein, we investigated a highly efficient and safe photodynamic therapy procedure by developing a high/low power density photodynamic therapy mode (high/low PDT mode) using methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) thiol (mPEG-SH) modified gold nanorod (GNR)-AlPcS4 photosensitizer complexes. mPEG-SH conjugated to the surface of simple polyelectrolyte-coated GNRs was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; this improved stability, reduced cytotoxicity, and increased the encapsulation and loading efficiency of the nanoparticle dispersions. The GNR-photosensitizer complexes were exposed to the high/low PDT mode (high light dose = 80 mW/cm2 for 0.5 min; low light dose = 25 mW/cm2 for 1.5 min), and a high PDT efficacy leads to approximately 90% tumor cell killing. Due to synergistic plasmonic photothermal properties of the complexes, the high/low PDT mode demonstrated improved efficacy over using single wavelength continuous laser irradiation. Additionally, no significant loss in viability was observed in cells exposed to free AlPcS4 photosensitizer under the same irradiation conditions. Consequently, free AlPcS4 released from GNRs prior to cellular entry did not contribute to cytotoxicity of normal cells or impose limitations on the use of the high power density laser. This high/low PDT mode may effectively lead to a safer and more efficient photodynamic therapy for superficial tumors. PMID:24855961

  20. Origins of Taylor's power law for fluctuation scaling in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2010-06-01

    Taylor’s fluctuation scaling (FS) has been observed in many natural and man-made systems revealing an amazing universality of the law. Here, we give a reliable explanation for the origins and abundance of Taylor’s FS in different complex systems. The universality of our approach is validated against real world data ranging from bird and insect populations through human chromosomes and traffic intensity in transportation networks to stock market dynamics. Using fundamental principles of statistical physics (both equilibrium and nonequilibrium) we prove that Taylor’s law results from the well-defined number of states of a system characterized by the same value of a macroscopic parameter (i.e., the number of birds observed in a given area, traffic intensity measured as a number of cars passing trough a given observation point or daily activity in the stock market measured in millions of dollars).

  1. A Polychaete's powerful punch: venom gland transcriptomics of Glycera reveals a complex cocktail of toxin homologs.

    PubMed

    von Reumont, Björn M; Campbell, Lahcen I; Richter, Sandy; Hering, Lars; Sykes, Dan; Hetmank, Jörg; Jenner, Ronald A; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2014-09-05

    Glycerids are marine annelids commonly known as bloodworms. Bloodworms have an eversible proboscis adorned with jaws connected to venom glands. Bloodworms prey on invertebrates, and it is known that the venom glands produce compounds that can induce toxic effects in animals. Yet, none of these putative toxins has been characterized on a molecular basis. Here we present the transcriptomic profiles of the venom glands of three species of bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, Glycera fallax and Glycera tridactyla, as well as the body tissue of G. tridactyla. The venom glands express a complex mixture of transcripts coding for putative toxin precursors. These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins. The toxins represent five functional categories: Pore-forming and membrane-disrupting toxins, neurotoxins, protease inhibitors, other enzymes, and CAP domain toxins. Many of the transcripts coding for putative Glycera toxins belong to classes that have been widely recruited into venoms, but some are homologs of toxins previously only known from the venoms of scorpaeniform fish and monotremes (stonustoxin-like toxin), turrid gastropods (turripeptide-like peptides), and sea anemones (gigantoxin I-like neurotoxin). This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore. Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Complex modes expansion with vector projection using power flow to simulate Lamb waves scattering from horizontal cracks and disbonds.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Banibrata; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an inexpensive but accurate analytical method to calculate the scattering of straight-crested Lamb waves from cracks parallel to the plate surface. The same method is applicable for the disbond problem. In this method, the scatter field is expanded in terms of complex Lamb wave modes with unknown amplitudes. These unknown amplitudes are obtained from the boundary conditions using vector projection utilizing the power expression. The process works by projecting the stress conditions onto the displacement eigen-spaces of complex Lamb wave modes and vice versa. The authors call this technique "complex modes expansion with vector projection" (CMEP). The CMEP approach is versatile and can be readily applied to corrosion, cracks, or disbonds. In this paper, the CMEP method is applied to a horizontal crack in a plate. For verification of the results the authors compared them with the results obtained by using the finite element method (FEM) and literature. The FEM analysis was conducted in the frequency domain with non-reflecting boundaries. It was found that CMEP results correspond very well with FEM results over a wide frequency-thickness range up to 1.5 MHz mm with CMEP being orders of magnitude faster than FEM.

  3. Complex additive systems for Mn-Zn ferrites with low power loss

    SciTech Connect

    Töpfer, J. Angermann, A.

    2015-05-07

    Mn-Zn ferrites were prepared via an oxalate-based wet-chemical synthesis process. Nanocrystalline ferrite powders with particle size of 50 nm were sintered at 1150 °C with 500 ppm CaO and 100 ppm SiO{sub 2} as standard additives. A fine-grained, dense microstructure with grain size of 4–5 μm was obtained. Simultaneous addition of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ZrO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and SnO{sub 2} results low power losses, e.g., 65 mW/cm{sup 3} (500 kHz, 50 mT, 80 °C) and 55 mW/cm{sup 3} (1 MHz, 25 mT, 80 °C). Loss analysis shows that eddy current and residual losses were minimized through formation of insulating grain boundary phases, which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Addition of SnO{sub 2} increases the ferrous ion concentration and affects anisotropy as reflected in permeability measurements μ(T)

  4. Simulations of Complex and Microscopic Models of Cardiac Electrophysiology Powered by Multi-GPU Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa de Barros, Bruno; Sachetto Oliveira, Rafael; Meira, Wagner; Lobosco, Marcelo; Weber dos Santos, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Key aspects of cardiac electrophysiology, such as slow conduction, conduction block, and saltatory effects have been the research topic of many studies since they are strongly related to cardiac arrhythmia, reentry, fibrillation, or defibrillation. However, to reproduce these phenomena the numerical models need to use subcellular discretization for the solution of the PDEs and nonuniform, heterogeneous tissue electric conductivity. Due to the high computational costs of simulations that reproduce the fine microstructure of cardiac tissue, previous studies have considered tissue experiments of small or moderate sizes and used simple cardiac cell models. In this paper, we develop a cardiac electrophysiology model that captures the microstructure of cardiac tissue by using a very fine spatial discretization (8 μm) and uses a very modern and complex cell model based on Markov chains for the characterization of ion channel's structure and dynamics. To cope with the computational challenges, the model was parallelized using a hybrid approach: cluster computing and GPGPUs (general-purpose computing on graphics processing units). Our parallel implementation of this model using a multi-GPU platform was able to reduce the execution times of the simulations from more than 6 days (on a single processor) to 21 minutes (on a small 8-node cluster equipped with 16 GPUs, i.e., 2 GPUs per node). PMID:23227109

  5. Markers for enhancing team cognition in complex environments: the power of team performance diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Burke, C Shawn; Nicholson, Denise; Howse, William R

    2007-05-01

    Team cognition has been identified as a key component to achieve mission goals in dynamic, team-based, stressful, distributed and multicultural operations. Effective team performance in complex environments requires that team members hold a shared understanding of the task, their equipment, and their teammates. So, many of the simulation-based training (SBT) systems and programs have been designed (partly) to enhance shared/team cognition. However, these simulation systems lack the sufficient robustness in their performance assessment tools or capabilities (if they have any) to allow for a rich and deep understanding of team cognition. Therefore, the purpose of this article is fourfold: I) to present a brief account of team cognition; 2) to develop the concept of performance diagnosis and present SBT as an approach to the performance diagnosis of team cognition; 3) to present a set of illustrative behavioral markers of team cognition; and 4) to explicate how these elements (performance diagnosis, team cognition, and SBT) can be leveraged to increase training effectiveness through the development of performance profiles--a rich, detailed, and informative set of metrics--and cognitive and behavioral indicators or illustrative markers of team cognition. Research needs are discussed in terms of realizing the potential of this approach in operational and embedded training contexts.

  6. Materials irradiation facilities at the high-power Swiss proton accelerator complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Werner; Dai, Yong; Glasbrenner, Heike; Aebersold, Hans-Ulrich

    2007-04-01

    Within the Swiss proton accelerator complex at the Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), several irradiation facilities are operated for investigation of materials behavior under high-dose irradiation conditions as well as for neutron activation analysis and isotope production. In LiSoR (liquid solid reaction), a liquid metal loop connected to the 72 MeV proton accelerator Injector 1, steel samples are irradiated while being in contact with flowing lead-bismuth-eutectic (LBE) at elevated temperatures and under tensile stress. In the spallation neutron source SINQ, the STIP program (SINQ Target Irradiation Program) allows materials irradiation under realistic spallation conditions, i.e. in a mixed spectrum of 570 MeV protons and spallation neutrons. Hundreds of samples, mainly austenitic and ferritic-martensitic steels such as 316L, T91 or F82H, were irradiated to doses up to 20 dpa as part of STIP. These also included steel samples in contact with liquid Hg and liquid LBE. MEGAPIE (MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment), a liquid metal target employing LBE, operated in SINQ during the second half of 2006, can be taken as a materials irradiation facility on its own. Adjacent to the target position, SINQ houses a neutron irradiation rabbit system serving activation analysis and isotope production.

  7. Mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy with high-power holmium YAG laser in pediatric patients with staghorn and complex calculi.

    PubMed

    Bujons, Anna; Millán, Félix; Centeno, Clara; Emiliani, Esteban; Sánchez Martín, Francisco; Angerri, Oriol; Caffaratti, Jorge; Villavicencio, Humberto

    2016-08-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is the treatment of choice for most cases of renal lithiasis in children. Some cases, however, are refractory to SWL and may be associated with anatomic and metabolic changes or a large stone burden. In these circumstances, mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) is an option. The aim was to assess the safety and efficacy of high-power holmium YAG (Ho:YAG) laser in mini-PCNL for staghorn calculi. The clinical records relating to 35 mini-PCNLs (Table) performed between January 2008 and December 2012 in 33 patients (27 boys and 6 girls; mean age 7 years, range 2-18 years) were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-two (66.7%) of the patients had undergone a previous SWL (28.6% three sessions). The mini-PCNL puncture technique used involved fluoroscopic guidance with the C arm at 0-90° in the supine position. An 18F tract was used. Stone fragmentation was performed with a high-power Ho:YAG laser (Lumenis 100 W). Ten of the mini-PCNLs (28.6%) were right sided, and 25 were left sided (71.4%). Stones were located in the lower calyceal group in 64% of patients and in the renal pelvis in 50%. The mean stone size was 4.46 cm(2) (range 3-13.20 cm(2)). The number of stones varied between one and 20, and 83.3% were radiopaque. The laser was set at 70 W (range 50-100 W) (3.5 J/pulse with a frequency of 20 pulses/s). The mean surgical time was 150 min. In 78% of patients, complete stone clearance was achieved, and the overall stone-free rate rose to 85% when residual stones were treated with either SWL or retrograde intrarenal surgery. No perioperative complications were seen. There are few reports in the literature concerning the use of a high-power laser for treatment of complex stones and the few that do exist relate to adults have similar results, showing it to be highly effective and safe, with low morbidity. Some limitations of the present study must be acknowledged. It was retrospective and a relatively small number of patients were

  8. Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. ); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. )

    1993-11-01

    Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Atmospheric radionuclides transported to Fukuoka, Japan remote from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power complex following the nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Momoshima, N; Sugihara, S; Ichikawa, R; Yokoyama, H

    2012-09-01

    Radionuclides were detected from the Fukushima nuclear accident at Fukuoka, Japan, 1000 km west of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power complex. Iodine-131 was first detected 3 d after the accident, indicating that it was probably transported dispersively because of local meteorological conditions, and not global air circulation. The maximum concentrations, 5.07 mBq m(-3) for (131)I, 4.04 mBq m(-3) for (134)Cs, and 4.12 mBq m(-3) for (137)Cs, were recorded in particles collected on April 6, 2011. However, these concentration levels decreased below the detection limit by April 26, 2011. Gaseous (131)I accounted for 30%-67% of the total (131)I content. The increase in dose by inhalation was negligible at Fukuoka. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental results for the behavior of MSMAs subjected to loads seen in power harvesting applications and complex loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocanel, C.; Feigenbaum, H. P.

    2012-04-01

    The microstructure of magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) is comprised of tetragonal martensite variants, each with their preferred internal magnetization orientation. In the presence of an external magnetic field, the martensite variants tend to reorient so that the preferred internal magnetization aligns with the external magnetic field. Thus MSMAs exhibit the shape memory effect when there is a magnetic field in the vicinity of a material point. Furthermore, the tetragonal nature of the martensite variants allows for a compressive stress to cause variant reorientation. This paper focuses on the experimental evaluation of MSMAs in power harvesting as well as on the response of the material under complex loading conditions. The experimental data reported here provides a basis for the evaluation of MSMAs suitability for applications other than the traditional actuation under a constant magnetic field. For power harvesting applications, consider an MSMA element subject to a large enough magnetic field so that all the variants begin in a field preferred state. Keeping the magnetic field constant and adding a variable compressive stress in a direction normal to that of the magnetic field, some or all of the martensitic variants may rotate into a stress preferred state. As the variants reorient, the internal magnetization vectors rotate, and the specimen's magnetization changes. The change in magnetization induces a current in a pick-up coil, resulting in an output voltage at its terminals according to Faraday's law of inductance. For other applications, the loads that an MSMA element is subject to may be different. Investigation into other potential loadings of an MSMA will give a better overall understanding of the magneto-mechanical behavior of MSMAs and perhaps highlight potential applications of these materials. Thus complex loads on MSMAs should be investigated experimentally and eventually modeled mathematically. For example, this work will study variable field

  11. The effect of a complex agonist and antagonist resistance training protocol on volume load, power output, electromyographic responses, and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W; Young, Warren B; Behm, David G; Payne, Warren R

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effects of performing traditional set (TS) vs. complex set (CS) agonist-antagonist training over 3 consecutive sets, on bench press throw (BPT) throw height (TH), peak velocity (PV), peak power (PP), bench pull volume load (VL), and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Eighteen trained men performed 2 testing protocols: TS comprising 3 sets of Bpull followed by 3 sets of BPT performed in approximately 20 minutes or CS comprising 3 sets of both Bpull and BPT performed in an alternating manner in approximately 10 minutes. Throw height, PV, PP, and EMG activity were not different within, or between, the 2 conditions. Bench pull VL decreased significantly from set 1 to sets 2 and 3, under both conditions. Decreases from set 1 to set 2 were 14.55 +/- 26.11 and 9.07 +/- 13.89% and from set 1 to set 3 were 16.87 +/- 29.90 and 14.17 +/- 18.37% under CS and TS, respectively. There was no difference in VL per set, or session, between the conditions. Although there was no augmentation of the power measures, CS was determined to have approximately twice the efficiency (ouput/time) as compared to TS. Efficiency calculations for VL, TH, PV, and PP are 103.47 kg.min, 26.25 cm.min, 1.98 m.s.min, 890.39 W.min under CS and 54.71 kg.min, 13.02 cm.min, 0.99 m.s.min, 459.28 W.min under TS. Comparison of EMG activity between the protocols suggests the level of neuromuscular fatigue did not differ under the 2 conditions. Complex set training would appear to be an effective method of exercise with respect to efficiency and the maintenance of TH, PV, PP, and VL.

  12. The DisVis and PowerFit Web Servers: Explorative and Integrative Modeling of Biomolecular Complexes.

    PubMed

    van Zundert, G C P; Trellet, M; Schaarschmidt, J; Kurkcuoglu, Z; David, M; Verlato, M; Rosato, A; Bonvin, A M J J

    2017-02-03

    Structure determination of complex molecular machines requires a combination of an increasing number of experimental methods with highly specialized software geared toward each data source to properly handle the gathered data. Recently, we introduced the two software packages PowerFit and DisVis. These combine high-resolution structures of atomic subunits with density maps from cryo-electron microscopy or distance restraints, typically acquired by chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry, respectively. Here, we report on recent advances in both GPGPU-accelerated software packages: PowerFit is a tool for rigid body fitting of atomic structures in cryo-electron density maps and has been updated to also output reliability indicators for the success of fitting, through the use of the Fisher z-transformation and associated confidence intervals; DisVis aims at quantifying the information content of distance restraints and identifying false-positive restraints. We extended its analysis capabilities to include an analysis of putative interface residues and to output an average shape representing the putative location of the ligand. To facilitate their use by a broad community, they have been implemented as web portals harvesting both local CPU resources and GPGPU-accelerated EGI grid resources. They offer user-friendly interfaces, while minimizing computational requirements, and provide a first interactive view of the results. The portals can be accessed freely after registration via http://milou.science.uu.nl/services/DISVIS and http://milou.science.uu.nl/services/POWERFIT.

  13. A comparison of common spatial patterns with complex band power features in a four-class BCI experiment.

    PubMed

    Townsend, George; Graimann, Bernhard; Pfurtscheller, Gert

    2006-04-01

    We report on the offline analysis of four-class brain-computer interface (BCI) data recordings. Although the analysis is done within defined time windows (cue-based BCI), our goal is to work toward an approach which classifies on-going electroencephalogram (EEG) signals without the use of such windows (un-cued BCI). To that end, we provide some elements of that analysis related to timing issues that will become important as we pursue this goal in the future. A new set of features called complex band power (CBP) features which make explicit use of phase are introduced and are shown to produce good results. As reference methods we used traditional band power features and the method of common spatial patterns. We consider also for the first time in the context of a four-class problem the issue of variability of the features over time and how much data is required to give good classification results. We do this in a practical way where training data precedes testing data in time.

  14. Wind speed and wind power short and medium range predictions for complex terrain using artificial neural networks and ensemble calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schicker, Irene; Papazek, Petrina; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Reliable predictions of wind speed and wind power are vital for balancing the electricity network. Within the last two decades the amount of energy stemming from renewable sources increased substantially relying heavily on the prevailing synoptic conditions. Especially for regions with complex terrain and forested surfaces providing reliable predictions is a challenging task. Forecasts in the nowcasting as well as in the (two) day-ahead range are thus essential for the network balancing. Predictions of wind speed and wind power from the nowcasting to the +72-hour forecast range using NWP models in regions with complex terrain need a suitable horizontal, vertical and temporal resolution (e.g. 10 - 15 minute forecasts for the Nowcasting range) requiring high performance computing. To be able to provide sub-hourly to hourly forecasts different approaches such as model output statistics (MOS) or artificial neural networks (ANN) - including feed forward recurrent neural networks, fuzzy logic, particle swarm optimizations - are needed as computational costs are too high. To represent the forecast uncertainties additional probabilistic ensemble predictions are required increasing the computational needs. Ensemble prediction systems account for errors and uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, parameterizations, numeric, etc. Due to the underestimation of model and sampling errors ensemble predictions tend to be underdispersive and biased. They lack, too, sharpness and reliability. These shortcomings can be accounted for using statistical post-processing methods such as the non-homogeneous Gaussian regression (NGR) to calibrate an ensemble. These calibrated ensembles provide forecasts in the medium range for any arbitrary location where observations are available. In this study an ANN is used to provide forecasts for the nowcasting and medium-range with sub-hourly to hourly predictions for different Austrian sites, including high alpine sites as well as low

  15. Relationships Between Lower-Body Muscle Structure and Lower-Body Strength, Power, and Muscle-Tendon Complex Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Secomb, Josh L; Lundgren, Lina E; Farley, Oliver R L; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any relationships were present between lower-body muscle structure and strength and power qualities. Fifteen elite male surfing athletes performed a battery of lower-body strength and power tests, including countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), isometric midthigh pull (IMTP), and had their lower-body muscle structure assessed with ultrasonography. In addition, lower-body muscle-tendon complex (MTC) stiffness and dynamic strength deficit (DSD) ratio were calculated from the CMJ and IMTP. Significant relationships of large to very large strength were observed between the vastus lateralis (VL) thickness of the left (LVL) and right (RVL) leg and peak force (PF) (r = 0.54-0.77, p < 0.01-0.04), peak velocity (PV) (r = 0.66-0.83, p < 0.01), and peak jump height (r = 0.62-0.80, p < 0.01) in the CMJ and SJ, as well as IMTP PF (r = 0.53-0.60, p = 0.02-0.04). Furthermore, large relationships were found between left lateral gastrocnemius (LG) pennation angle and SJ and IMTP PF (r = 0.53, p = 0.04, and r = 0.70, p < 0.01, respectively) and between LG and IMTP relative PF (r = 0.63, p = 0.01). Additionally, large relationships were identified between lower-body MTC stiffness and DSD ratio (r = 0.68, p < 0.01), right (LG) pennation angle (r = 0.51, p = 0.05), CMJ PF (r = 0.60, p = 0.02), and jump height (r = 0.53, p = 0.04). These results indicate that greater VL thickness and increased LG pennation angle are related to improved performance in the CMJ, SJ, and IMTP. Furthermore, these results suggest that lower-body MTC stiffness explains a large amount of variance in determining an athlete's ability to rapidly apply force during a dynamic movement.

  16. [Report from Minamisoma City: diversity and complexity of psychological distress in local residents after a nuclear power plant accident].

    PubMed

    Hori, Arinobu; Tsumuraya, Kunihiro; Kanamori, Ryo; Maeda, Masaharu; Yabe, Hirooki; Niwa, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Natural disasters can severely impact local communities. When a disaster is limited in type or scope, the loss and distress felt by individual residents can be sympathetically visualized and shared, and this can help bring the community together. In 2011, however, Japan experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake and accompanying tsunami, and the scale of this disaster was compounded by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. As a result of this complex disaster, residents experienced very different problems, particularly in Fukushima Prefecture. In this paper, we describe the situation in Minamisoma City, which is located to the north of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. After the accident, the city was divided into three zones. The southern part of the city, which is within 20 km of the plant, was designated as a restricted area; the middle section, located between 20 and 30 km of the plant, was initially designated as an evacuation readiness area; and the northern part of the city received no evacuation-related designation. In April 2012, ordinary residents were finally allowed to visit the restricted area, but utilities and municipal services in the area had not yet been restored, and residents were still prohibited from staying overnight even in August 2013. The overall situation was further complicated by the existence of conflicting opinions regarding exposure to low dose ionizing radiation and compensation for subsequent distress. Things became so complex that residents of the same city sometimes struggled to imagine their neighbors' feelings and state of mind. After the disaster, aging of the city accelerated dramatically. The proportion of elders (those aged 65 or older) in the population stood at 25.9% in March 2011, but this had increased to 32.9% by March 2013. Elders tend to have strong emotional ties to their hometowns, while younger generations are more likely to move away and start over. As some young people have left the area or

  17. On a growth model for complex networks capable of producing power-law out-degree distributions with wide range exponents

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Gómez, J.; Arjona-Villicaña, P. D.; Stevens-Navarro, E.; Pineda-Rico, U.; Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; Acosta-Elias, J.

    2015-01-01

    The out-degree distribution is one of the most reported topological properties to characterize real complex networks. This property describes the probability that a node in the network has a particular number of outgoing links. It has been found that in many real complex networks the out-degree has a behavior similar to a power-law distribution, therefore some network growth models have been proposed to approximate this behavior. This paper introduces a new growth model that allows to produce out-degree distributions that decay as a power-law with an exponent in the range from 1 to ∞. PMID:25765763

  18. Development of Quality Assessment Techniques for Large Eddy Simulation of Propulsion and Power Systems in Complex Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Lacaze, Guilhem; Oefelein, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Large-eddy-simulation (LES) is quickly becoming a method of choice for studying complex thermo-physics in a wide range of propulsion and power systems. It provides a means to study coupled turbulent combustion and flow processes in parameter spaces that are unattainable using direct-numerical-simulation (DNS), with a degree of fidelity that can be far more accurate than conventional engineering methods such as the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approx- imation. However, development of predictive LES is complicated by the complex interdependence of different type of errors coming from numerical methods, algorithms, models and boundary con- ditions. On the other hand, control of accuracy has become a critical aspect in the development of predictive LES for design. The objective of this project is to create a framework of metrics aimed at quantifying the quality and accuracy of state-of-the-art LES in a manner that addresses the myriad of competing interdependencies. In a typical simulation cycle, only 20% of the computational time is actually usable. The rest is spent in case preparation, assessment, and validation, because of the lack of guidelines. This work increases confidence in the accuracy of a given solution while min- imizing the time obtaining the solution. The approach facilitates control of the tradeoffs between cost, accuracy, and uncertainties as a function of fidelity and methods employed. The analysis is coupled with advanced Uncertainty Quantification techniques employed to estimate confidence in model predictions and calibrate model's parameters. This work has provided positive conse- quences on the accuracy of the results delivered by LES and will soon have a broad impact on research supported both by the DOE and elsewhere.

  19. Power budget of direct-detection ultra-dense WDM-Nyquist-SCM PON with low-complexity SSBI mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soeiro, Ricardo O. J.; Alves, Tiago M. F.; Cartaxo, Adolfo V. T.

    2017-07-01

    The power budget (PB) of a direct-detection ultra-dense wavelength division/subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) passive optical network (PON) is assessed numerically for downstream, when a low-complexity iterative signal-to-signal beat interference (SSBI) mitigation technique is employed. Each SCM signal, inserted in a 12.5 GHz width optical channel, is comprised of two or three electrically generated and multiplexed 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) or 32-QAM Nyquist pulse-shaped subcarriers, each with a 7% forward error correction bit rate of 10.7 Gbit/s. The PB and maximum number of optical network units (ONUs) served by each optical line terminal (OLT) are compared with and without SSBI mitigation. When SSBI mitigation is realized, PB gains up to 4.5 dB are attained relative to the PB in the absence of SSBI mitigation. The PB gain enabled by the SSBI mitigation technique proposed in this work increases the number of ONUs served per OLT at least by a factor of 2, for the cases of higher spectral efficiency. In particular, for a SCM signal comprised of three subcarriers, the maximum number of ONUs served per OLT is between 2 and 32, and between 8 and 64, in the absence of SSBI mitigation, and when SSBI mitigation is employed, respectively, depending on the fiber length (up to 50 km) and order of QAM.

  20. A power study of bivariate LOD score analysis of a complex trait and fear/discomfort with strangers.

    PubMed

    Ji, Fei; Lee, Dayoung; Mendell, Nancy Role

    2005-12-30

    Complex diseases are often reported along with disease-related traits (DRT). Sometimes investigators consider both disease and DRT phenotypes separately and sometimes they consider individuals as affected if they have either the disease or the DRT, or both. We propose instead to consider the joint distribution of the disease and the DRT and do a linkage analysis assuming a pleiotropic model. We evaluated our results through analysis of the simulated datasets provided by Genetic Analysis Workshop 14. We first conducted univariate linkage analysis of the simulated disease, Kofendrerd Personality Disorder and one of its simulated associated traits, phenotype b (fear/discomfort with strangers). Subsequently, we considered the bivariate phenotype, which combined the information on Kofendrerd Personality Disorder and fear/discomfort with strangers. We developed a program to perform bivariate linkage analysis using an extension to the Elston-Stewart peeling method of likelihood calculation. Using this program we considered the microsatellites within 30 cM of the gene pleiotropic for this simulated disease and DRT. Based on 100 simulations of 300 families we observed excellent power to detect linkage within 10 cM of the disease locus using the DRT and the bivariate trait.

  1. Complex of technologies and prototype systems for eco-friendly shutdown of the power-generating, process, capacitive, and transport equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorodin, A. I.; Red'kin, V. V.; Frolov, Y. D.; Korobkov, A. A.; Kemaev, O. V.; Kulik, M. V.; Shabalin, O. V.

    2015-07-01

    A set of technologies and prototype systems for eco-friendly shutdown of the power-generating, process, capacitive, and transport equipment is offered. The following technologies are regarded as core technologies for the complex: cryogenic technology nitrogen for displacement of hydrogen from the cooling circuit of turbine generators, cryo blasting of the power units by dioxide granules, preservation of the shutdown power units by dehydrated air, and dismantling and severing of equipment and structural materials of power units. Four prototype systems for eco-friendly shutdown of the power units may be built on the basis of selected technologies: Multimode nitrogen cryogenic system with four subsystems, cryo blasting system with CO2 granules for thermal-mechanical and electrical equipment of power units, and compressionless air-drainage systems for drying and storage of the shutdown power units and cryo-gas system for general severing of the steam-turbine power units. Results of the research and pilot and demonstration tests of the operational units of the considered technological systems allow applying the proposed technologies and systems in the prototype systems for shutdown of the power-generating, process, capacitive, and transport equipment.

  2. Fourth- through sixth-grade students' representations of area-of-rectangle problems: influences of relational complexity and cognitive holding power.

    PubMed

    Xin, Ziqiang

    2008-11-01

    The relational complexity of variables in a problem and characteristics of the learning settings may affect students' representations of word problems. The settings that pressure students into using and developing 1st- or 2nd-order cognitive procedures are known to have 1st- or 2nd-order cognitive holding power. In the present study, the author explored 382 4th-6th-grade students' representation levels of area-of-rectangle problems, which belonged to 4 templates with different relational complexity and influences of cognitive holding power. Students' representation levels improved across grades and their representation levels of 4 templates had a clear hierarchical order. The higher the relational complexity and knowledge requirements of a problem, the greater the grade differences in representations of the problem. 1st- and 2nd-order cognitive holding power significantly predicted the representation levels of each template. Moreover, the predictive power increased from Template 1 to Template 4, but the predictive directions were opposite.

  3. The Acute Effect of Upper-Body Complex Training on Power Output of Martial Art Athletes as Measured by the Bench Press Throw Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Liossis, Loudovikos Dimitrios; Forsyth, Jacky; Liossis, Ceorge; Tsolakis, Charilaos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of upper body complex training on power output, as well as to determine the requisite preload intensity and intra-complex recovery interval needed to induce power output increases. Nine amateur-level combat/martial art athletes completed four distinct experimental protocols, which consisted of 5 bench press repetitions at either: 65% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) with a 4 min rest interval; 65% of 1RM with an 8 min rest; 85% of 1RM with a 4 min rest; or 85% of 1RM with an 8 min rest interval, performed on different days. Before (pre-conditioning) and after (post-conditioning) each experimental protocol, three bench press throws at 30% of 1RM were performed. Significant differences in power output pre-post conditioning were observed across all experimental protocols (F=26.489, partial eta2=0.768, p=0.001). Mean power output significantly increased when the preload stimulus of 65% 1RM was matched with 4 min of rest (p=0.001), and when the 85% 1RM preload stimulus was matched with 8 min of rest (p=0.001). Moreover, a statistically significant difference in power output was observed between the four conditioning protocols (F= 21.101, partial eta2=0.913, p=0.001). It was concluded that, in complex training, matching a heavy preload stimulus with a longer rest interval, and a lighter preload stimulus with a shorter rest interval is important for athletes wishing to increase their power production before training or competition. PMID:24511352

  4. ENGINEERED NEAR SURFACE DISPOSAL FACILITY OF THE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX FOR SOLID RADWASTE MANAGEMENT AT CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ziehm, Ronny; Pichurin, Sergey Grigorevich

    2003-02-27

    As a part of the turnkey project ''Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP)'' an Engineered Near Surface Disposal Facility (ENSDF, LOT 3) will be built on the VEKTOR site within the 30 km Exclusion Zone of the ChNPP. This will be performed by RWE NUKEM GmbH, Germany, and it governs the design, licensing support, fabrication, assembly, testing, inspection, delivery, erection, installation and commissioning of the ENSDF. The ENSDF will receive low to intermediate level, short lived, processed/conditioned wastes from the ICSRM Solid Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, LOT 2), the ChNPP Liquid Radwaste Treatment Plant (LRTP) and the ChNPP Interim Storage Facility for RBMK Fuel Assemblies (ISF). The ENSDF has a capacity of 55,000 m{sup 3}. The primary functions of the ENSDF are: to receive, monitor and record waste packages, to load the waste packages into concrete disposal units, to enable capping and closure of the disposal unit s, to allow monitoring following closure. The ENSDF comprises the turnkey installation of a near surface repository in the form of an engineered facility for the final disposal of LILW-SL conditioned in the ICSRM SWPF and other sources of Chernobyl waste. The project has to deal with the challenges of the Chernobyl environment, the fulfillment of both Western and Ukrainian standards, and the installation and coordination of an international project team. It will be shown that proven technologies and processes can be assembled into a unique Management Concept dealing with all the necessary demands and requirements of a turnkey project. The paper emphasizes the proposed concepts for the ENSDF and their integration into existing infrastructure and installations of the VEKTOR site. Further, the paper will consider the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian

  5. Dramatic Enhancement of Power Conversion Efficiency in Polymer Solar Cells by Conjugating Very Low Ratio of Triplet Iridium Complexes to PTB7.

    PubMed

    Qian, Min; Zhang, Ran; Hao, Jingyu; Zhang, Wenjun; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Jianpu; Tao, Youtian; Chen, Shufen; Fang, Junfeng; Huang, Wei

    2015-06-17

    Various low ratios of triplet iridium complexes (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.5, and 5 mol%) are conjugated to the backbone of the famous champion donor polymer PTB7. At the same conditions, the power conversion efficiency for polymer containing 1% of Ir increases by 45%, 39%, and 31% in three batches of devices compared with control Ir-free PTB7. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. EFFECT OF MICROWAVE POWER ON SHAPE OF EPR SPECTRA--APPLICATION TO EXAMINATION OF COMPLEX FREE RADICAL SYSTEM IN THERMALLY STERILIZED ACIDUM BORICUM.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paweł; Pieprzyca, Małgorzata; Pilawa, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Complex free radical system in thermally sterilized acidum boricum (AB) was studied. Acidum boricum was sterilized at temperatures and times given by pharmaceutical norms: 160 degrees C and 120 min, 170 degrees C and 60 min and 180 degrees C and 30 min. The advanced spectroscopic tests were performed. The EPR spectra of free radicals were measured as the first derivatives with microwaves of 9.3 GHz frequency and magnetic modulation of 100 kHz. The Polish X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer of Radiopan (Poznań) was used. EPR lines were not observed for the nonheated AB. The broad EPR asymmetric lines were obtained for all the heated AB samples. The influence of microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW on the shape of EPR spectra of the heated drug samples was tested. The following asymmetry parameters: A1/A2, A1-A2, B1/B2, and B1-B2, were analyzed. The changes of these parameters with microwave power were observed. The strong dependence of shape and its parameters on microwave power proved the complex character of free radical system in thermally sterilized AB. Changes of microwave power during the detection of EPR spectra indicated complex character of free radicals in AB sterilized in hot air under all the tested conditions. Thermolysis, interactions between free radicals and interactions of free radicals with oxygen may be responsible for the complex free radicals system in thermally treated AB. Usefulness of continuous microwave saturation of EPR lines and shape analysis to examine free radicals in thermally sterilized drugs was confirmed.

  7. Cyano-decorated ligands: a powerful alternative to fluorination for tuning the photochemical properties of cyclometalated Ir(iii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mills, Isaac N; Kagalwala, Husain N; Bernhard, Stefan

    2016-06-21

    A new cyclometalating ligand, featuring nitrile moieties to enhance the photophysical and consequently photocatalytic properties of bis-cyclometalated Ir(iii) complexes, was synthesized. Nitrile moieties were selected to replace expensive and environmentally problematic fluoride moieties commonly employed for synthetic tuning of chromophores. Two new chromophores bearing the new nitrile-decorated ligand were synthesized with strong electron-donating and electron-withdrawing ancillary ligands to probe extremes of the complexes' tunability. These complexes possessed rich and drastically different electrochemical and photophysical properties. One chromophore possessed a particularly long lifetime of approximately 8 μs; it was also a remarkably efficient triplet emitter with a quantum yield of 63%. The complexes were finally assessed as photosensitizers of water reduction with Pt colloids, where both complexes produced hydrogen with optimized conditions reaching 2000 and 1400 turnovers.

  8. High-frequency power within the QRS complex in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients with ventricular arrhythmias: Insights from a clinical study and computer simulation of cardiac fibrous tissue.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Yoshiwo; Takano, Nami; Wakatsuki, Daisuke; Tomaru, Takanobu; Nakajima, Toshiaki

    2017-08-01

    The distribution of frequency power (DFP) within the QRS complex (QRS) is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the DFP within the QRS in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) with lethal ventricular arrhythmias (L-VA). A computer simulation was performed to explore the mechanism of abnormal frequency power. The study included 31 ICM patients with and without L-VA (n = 10 and 21, respectively). We applied the continuous wavelet transform to measure the time-frequency power within the QRS. Integrated time-frequency power (ITFP) was measured within the frequency range of 5-300 Hz. The simulation model consisted of two-dimensional myocardial tissues intermingled with fibroblasts. We examined the relation between frequency power calculated from the simulated QRS and the fibroblast-to-myocyte ratio (r) of the model. The frequency powers significantly increased from 180 to 300 Hz and from 5 to 15 Hz, and also decreased from 45 to 80 Hz in patients with ICM and L-VA compared with the normal individuals. They increased from 110 Hz to 250 Hz in ICM alone. In the simulation, the high-frequency power increased when the ratio (r) were 2.0-2.5. Functional reentry was initiated if the ratio (r) increased to 2.0. Abnormal higher-frequency power (180-300 Hz) may provide arrhythmogenic signals in ICM with L-VA that may be associated with the fibrous tissue proliferation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The power of gene-based rare variant methods to detect disease-associated variation and test hypotheses about complex disease.

    PubMed

    Moutsianas, Loukas; Agarwala, Vineeta; Fuchsberger, Christian; Flannick, Jason; Rivas, Manuel A; Gaulton, Kyle J; Albers, Patrick K; McVean, Gil; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David; McCarthy, Mark I

    2015-04-01

    Genome and exome sequencing in large cohorts enables characterization of the role of rare variation in complex diseases. Success in this endeavor, however, requires investigators to test a diverse array of genetic hypotheses which differ in the number, frequency and effect sizes of underlying causal variants. In this study, we evaluated the power of gene-based association methods to interrogate such hypotheses, and examined the implications for study design. We developed a flexible simulation approach, using 1000 Genomes data, to (a) generate sequence variation at human genes in up to 10K case-control samples, and (b) quantify the statistical power of a panel of widely used gene-based association tests under a variety of allelic architectures, locus effect sizes, and significance thresholds. For loci explaining ~1% of phenotypic variance underlying a common dichotomous trait, we find that all methods have low absolute power to achieve exome-wide significance (~5-20% power at α = 2.5 × 10(-6)) in 3K individuals; even in 10K samples, power is modest (~60%). The combined application of multiple methods increases sensitivity, but does so at the expense of a higher false positive rate. MiST, SKAT-O, and KBAC have the highest individual mean power across simulated datasets, but we observe wide architecture-dependent variability in the individual loci detected by each test, suggesting that inferences about disease architecture from analysis of sequencing studies can differ depending on which methods are used. Our results imply that tens of thousands of individuals, extensive functional annotation, or highly targeted hypothesis testing will be required to confidently detect or exclude rare variant signals at complex disease loci.

  10. The Power of Gene-Based Rare Variant Methods to Detect Disease-Associated Variation and Test Hypotheses About Complex Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fuchsberger, Christian; Flannick, Jason; Rivas, Manuel A.; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Albers, Patrick K.; McVean, Gil; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Genome and exome sequencing in large cohorts enables characterization of the role of rare variation in complex diseases. Success in this endeavor, however, requires investigators to test a diverse array of genetic hypotheses which differ in the number, frequency and effect sizes of underlying causal variants. In this study, we evaluated the power of gene-based association methods to interrogate such hypotheses, and examined the implications for study design. We developed a flexible simulation approach, using 1000 Genomes data, to (a) generate sequence variation at human genes in up to 10K case-control samples, and (b) quantify the statistical power of a panel of widely used gene-based association tests under a variety of allelic architectures, locus effect sizes, and significance thresholds. For loci explaining ~1% of phenotypic variance underlying a common dichotomous trait, we find that all methods have low absolute power to achieve exome-wide significance (~5-20% power at α=2.5×10-6) in 3K individuals; even in 10K samples, power is modest (~60%). The combined application of multiple methods increases sensitivity, but does so at the expense of a higher false positive rate. MiST, SKAT-O, and KBAC have the highest individual mean power across simulated datasets, but we observe wide architecture-dependent variability in the individual loci detected by each test, suggesting that inferences about disease architecture from analysis of sequencing studies can differ depending on which methods are used. Our results imply that tens of thousands of individuals, extensive functional annotation, or highly targeted hypothesis testing will be required to confidently detect or exclude rare variant signals at complex disease loci. PMID:25906071

  11. Why wind-farm developers should care about measuring atmospheric turbulence? [Chaos in the Air: Unraveling the Complex Relationship Between Wind Power and Atmospheric turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Wharton, Sonia; Newman, Jennifer F.

    2017-09-11

    The role of atmospheric turbulence in influencing wind-turbine power production remains an unsolved mystery despite a growing number of researchers who have attempted to make sense of this issue. Turbulence, a term for short-term deviations around the average wind speed, can cause fluctuations in turbine power production and structural loads. While research strongly suggests that ignoring atmospheric turbulence can result in significant errors in power-curve measurements and annual energy production, it appears that there may be no universal relationship between turbulence and power production. Typically when we think of a wind farm operating in a turbulent atmosphere, we picture amore » waked turbine, battered by vortex eddies (circular wind flow) shed from turbine blades upwind. However, turbulence is present nearly everywhere, and is constantly produced and diminished over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. This article aims to unravel some of the complex factors that remain unsolved regarding turbulence and wind power« less

  12. Effects of complex symmetry-breakings on alpha particle power loads on first wall structures and equilibrium in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, K.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Spong, D.; Asunta, O.; Tani, K.; Strumberger, E.; Briguglio, S.; Koskela, T.; Vlad, G.; Günter, S.; Kramer, G.; Putvinski, S.; Hamamatsu, K.; ITPA Topical Group on Energetic Particles

    2011-06-01

    Within the ITPA Topical Group on Energetic Particles, we have investigated the impact that various mechanisms breaking the tokamak axisymmetry can have on the fusion alpha particle confinement in ITER as well as on the wall power loads due to these alphas. In addition to the well-known TF ripple, the 3D effect due to ferromagnetic materials (in ferritic inserts and test blanket modules) and ELM mitigation coils are included in these mechanisms. ITER scenario 4 was chosen since, due to its lower plasma current, it is more vulnerable for various off-normal features. First, the validity of using a 2D equilibrium was investigated: a 3D equilibrium was reconstructed using the VMEC code, and it was verified that no 3D equilibrium reconstruction is needed but it is sufficient to add the vacuum field perturbations onto an axisymmetric equilibrium. Then the alpha particle confinement was studied using three independent codes, ASCOT, DELTA5D and F3D OFMC, all of which assume MHD quiescent background plasma and no anomalous diffusion. All the codes gave a loss power fraction of about 0.2%. The distribution of the peak power load was found to depend on the first wall shape. We also made the first attempt to accommodate the effect of fast-ion-related MHD on the wall loads in ITER using the HMGC and ASCOT codes. The power flux to the wall was found to increase due to the redistribution of fast ions by the MHD activity. Furthermore, the effect of the ELM mitigation field on the fast-ion confinement was addressed by simulating NBI ions with the F3D OFMC code. The loss power fraction of NBI ions was found to increase from 0.3% without the ELM mitigation field to 4-5% with the ELM mitigation field.

  13. Computer Simulation of Interactions between High-Power Electromagnetic Fields and Electronic Systems in a Complex Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    and immune to interior resonance corruption. This work lays a foundation for the development of a very useful and powerful technique, which...show that the resulting solution has a good efficiency and accuracy and is completely immune to the problem of interior resonance . The technical...electromagnetic modeling for high-frequency MRI applications," International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Fifth Scientific Meeting, Vancouver, Canada

  14. Short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment via an integrated modeling system for nuclear power plants in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Weng, Yu-Chi

    2013-03-01

    Short-term predictions of potential impacts from accidental release of various radionuclides at nuclear power plants are acutely needed, especially after the Fukushima accident in Japan. An integrated modeling system that provides expert services to assess the consequences of accidental or intentional releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere has received wide attention. These scenarios can be initiated either by accident due to human, software, or mechanical failures, or from intentional acts such as sabotage and radiological dispersal devices. Stringent action might be required just minutes after the occurrence of accidental or intentional release. To fulfill the basic functions of emergency preparedness and response systems, previous studies seldom consider the suitability of air pollutant dispersion models or the connectivity between source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models in a holistic context for decision support. Therefore, the Gaussian plume and puff models, which are only suitable for illustrating neutral air pollutants in flat terrain conditional to limited meteorological situations, are frequently used to predict the impact from accidental release of industrial sources. In situations with complex terrain or special meteorological conditions, the proposing emergency response actions might be questionable and even intractable to decisionmakers responsible for maintaining public health and environmental quality. This study is a preliminary effort to integrate the source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models into a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to tackle the complex issues for short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment at nuclear power plants. Through a series model screening procedures, we found that the diagnostic (objective) wind field model with the aid of sufficient on-site meteorological monitoring data was the most applicable model to promptly address the trend of local wind field patterns

  15. Probing the multiscale interplay between gravity and turbulence - power-law-like gravitational energy spectra of the Orion Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang-Xing; Burkert, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Gravity plays a determining role in the evolution of the molecular ISM. In 2016, we proposed a measure called gravitational energy spectrum to quantify the importance of gravity on multiple physical scales. In this paper, using a wavelet-based decomposition technique, we derive the gravitational energy spectra of the Orion A and the Orion B molecular cloud from observational data. The gravitational energy spectra exhibit power-law-like behaviours. From a few parsec down to ˜0.1 pc scale, the Orion A and Orion B molecular cloud have Ep(k) ˜ k-1.88 and Ep(k) ˜ k-2.09, respectively. These scaling exponents are close to the scaling exponents of the kinetic energy power spectrum of compressible turbulence (where E ˜ k-2), with a near-equipartition of turbulent versus gravitational energy on multiple scales. This provides a clear evidence that gravity is able to counteract effectively against turbulent motion for these length-scales. The results confirm our earlier analytical estimates. For the Orion A molecular cloud, gravity inevitably dominates turbulence inside the cloud. Our results provide a clear observational proof that gravity is playing a determining role in the evolution these molecular clouds from the cloud scale down to ˜ 0.1 pc. However, turbulence is likely to dominate in clouds such as California. The method is general and should be applicable to all the astrophysical problems where gravity plays a role.

  16. Evaluation of Interconnect-Complexity-Aware Low-Power VLSI Design Using Multiple Supply and Threshold Voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waidyasooriya, Hasitha Muthumala; Hariyama, Masanori; Kameyama, Michitaka

    This paper presents a high-level synthesis approach to minimize the total power consumption in behavioral synthesis under time and area constraints. The proposed method has two stages, functional unit (FU) energy optimization and interconnect energy optimization. In the first stage, active and inactive energies of the FUs are optimized using a multiple supply and threshold voltage scheme. Genetic algorithm (GA) based simultaneous assignment of supply and threshold voltages and module selection is proposed. The proposed GA based searching method can be used in large size problems to find a near-optimal solution in a reasonable time. In the second stage, interconnects are simplified by increasing their sharing. This is done by exploiting similar data transfer patterns among FUs. The proposed method is evaluated for several benchmarks under 90nm CMOS technology. The experimental results show that more than 40% of energy savings can be achieved by our proposed method.

  17. Development of the millimeter-wave complex, intended for environmental control of nuclear, chemical, and power production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosov, A. S.; Vald-Perlov, V. M.; Strukov, I. A.

    1997-08-01

    The paper is concerned with the development of the millimeter wave complex, intended for environmental control. To organize a reliable system for control and monitoring of the atmosphere one needs an adequate set of the measurement methods and devices for carrying out the needed measurements. At best, the devices must be capable of the remote sensing of the atmosphere in the continuous mode and should have proper means for communication with the central data acquisition system. The most informative methods for the atmospheric measurements are based on the microwave remote sensing. Particularly, using a 5-millimeter receiver (radiometer) it is possible to measure temperature vs. height dependence up to 1 km with required for temperature and height resolutions. Besides, a 3-millimeter coherent radar can be used for measuring the amount of condensed water (fog, rain, clouds) and smoke. Such hydrometers and other small particles support a dissipation of pollution from the accident to the distant areas. Besides, the radar allows us to measure the speed and direction of wind, which is very important for prediction of the danger for the other areas. So, the microwave complex, consisting of a 5-mm radiometer and a 3-mm coherent radar enables us to obtain needed information about the atmosphere state and to predict situation after the accident took place.

  18. Positive Darwinian Selection in the Piston That Powers Proton Pumps in Complex I of the Mitochondria of Pacific Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Michael R.; Bielawski, Joseph P.; Gharrett, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation is well understood, but evolution of the proteins involved is not. We combined phylogenetic, genomic, and structural biology analyses to examine the evolution of twelve mitochondrial encoded proteins of closely related, yet phenotypically diverse, Pacific salmon. Two separate analyses identified the same seven positively selected sites in ND5. A strong signal was also detected at three sites of ND2. An energetic coupling analysis revealed several structures in the ND5 protein that may have co-evolved with the selected sites. These data implicate Complex I, specifically the piston arm of ND5 where it connects the proton pumps, as important in the evolution of Pacific salmon. Lastly, the lineage to Chinook experienced rapid evolution at the piston arm. PMID:21969854

  19. Species limits, interspecific hybridization and phylogeny in the cryptic land snail complex Pyramidula: The power of RADseq data.

    PubMed

    Razkin, Oihana; Sonet, Gontran; Breugelmans, Karin; Madeira, María José; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín Juan; Backeljau, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) was used to jointly assess phylogenetic relationships, interspecific hybridization and species delimitation in the cryptic, non-model land snail complex Pyramidula. A robust phylogeny was inferred using a matrix of concatenated sequences of almost 1,500,000bp long, containing >97,000 polymorphic sites. Maximum likelihood analyses fully resolved the phylogenetic relationships among species and drastically improved phylogenetic trees obtained from mtDNA and nDNA gene trees (COI, 16S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, ITS2 and 28S rRNA sequence data). The best species delimitation scenario was selected on the basis of 875 unlinked single nucleotide polymorphisms, showing that nine Pyramidula species should be distinguished in Europe. Applying D-statistics provided no or weak evidence of interspecific hybridization among Pyramidula, except for some evidence of gene flow between two species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Polychaete’s Powerful Punch: Venom Gland Transcriptomics of Glycera Reveals a Complex Cocktail of Toxin Homologs

    PubMed Central

    von Reumont, Björn M.; Richter, Sandy; Hering, Lars; Sykes, Dan; Hetmank, Jörg; Jenner, Ronald A.; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Glycerids are marine annelids commonly known as bloodworms. Bloodworms have an eversible proboscis adorned with jaws connected to venom glands. Bloodworms prey on invertebrates, and it is known that the venom glands produce compounds that can induce toxic effects in animals. Yet, none of these putative toxins has been characterized on a molecular basis. Here we present the transcriptomic profiles of the venom glands of three species of bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, Glycera fallax and Glycera tridactyla, as well as the body tissue of G. tridactyla. The venom glands express a complex mixture of transcripts coding for putative toxin precursors. These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins. The toxins represent five functional categories: Pore-forming and membrane-disrupting toxins, neurotoxins, protease inhibitors, other enzymes, and CAP domain toxins. Many of the transcripts coding for putative Glycera toxins belong to classes that have been widely recruited into venoms, but some are homologs of toxins previously only known from the venoms of scorpaeniform fish and monotremes (stonustoxin-like toxin), turrid gastropods (turripeptide-like peptides), and sea anemones (gigantoxin I-like neurotoxin). This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore. Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands. PMID:25193302

  1. Patient Power: Complex Issues Need Complex Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Carolyn; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses ethical and practical questions that arise in physician/patient interactions as a result of the rising prevalence of chronic illness, the growth of medical technology, and the increased differentiation of medical specialization. Issues considered include patients' rights, medical malpractice, informed consent, and the patient self-help…

  2. Antigen 85 complex as a powerful Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunogene: Biology, immune-pathogenicity, applications in diagnosis, and vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Karbalaei Zadeh Babaki, Mohsen; Soleimanpour, Saman; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2017-09-20

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of the most life-threatening mycobacterial species which is increasing the death rate due to emerging multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Concerned health authorities worldwide are interested in developing an effective vaccine to prevent the spread of Mtb. After years of research, including successful identification of many Mtb immunogenic molecules, effective therapeutic agents or a vaccine have yet to be found. However, among the identified Mtb immunogenes, antigen 85 (Ag85) complex (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C) is receiving attention from scientists as it allows bacteria to evade the host immune response by preventing formation of phagolysosomes for eradication of infection. Due to their importance, A85 molecules are being utilized as tools in diagnostic methods and in the construction of new vaccines, such as recombinant attenuated vaccines, DNA vaccines, and subunit vaccines. This paper represents a comprehensive review of studies on Mtb molecules examining pathogenicity, biochemistry, immunology, and the role of Mtb in therapeutic or vaccine research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effects of a nuclear power plant thermal discharge on habitat complexity and fish community structure in Ilha Grande Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Tatiana Pires; Neves, Leonardo Mitrano; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2009-10-01

    Fish communities and habitat structures were evaluated by underwater visual censuses a rocky location impacted by thermal discharge (I) and at two control locations, one in a Sargassum bed (C1) and the other in a rocky shore with higher structural complexity (C2). Habitat indicators and fish communities exhibited significant differences between the impacted and control locations, with the impacted one showing a significant decrease in fish species richness and diversity, as well as a decrease in benthic cover. At the I location, only 13 fish species were described, and the average water temperature was 32+/-0.4 degrees C, compared with 44 species at C1 (25.9+/-0.3 degrees C) and 33 species at C2 (24.6+/-0.2 degrees C). Significant differences in fish communities among locations were found by ANOSIM with Eucinostomus argenteus, Mugil sp. and Haemulon steindachneri typical of location I, while Abudefduf saxatilis, Stegastes fuscus and Malacoctenus delalandi were typical of the control locations. Our study shows that thermal pollution alters benthic cover and influences fish assemblages by altering composition and decreasing richness.

  4. Automated Microwave Complex on the Basis of a Continuous-Wave Gyrotron with an Operating Frequency of 263 GHz and an Output Power of 1 kW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Morozkin, M. V.; Tsvetkov, A. I.; Lubyako, L. V.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Kuftin, A. N.; Zapevalov, V. E.; V. Kholoptsev, V.; Eremeev, A. G.; Sedov, A. S.; Malygin, V. I.; Chirkov, A. V.; Fokin, A. P.; Sokolov, E. V.; Denisov, G. G.

    2016-02-01

    We study experimentally the automated microwave complex for microwave spectroscopy and diagnostics of various media, which was developed at the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in cooperation with GYCOM Ltd. on the basis of a gyrotron with a frequency of 263 GHz and operated at the first gyrofrequency harmonic. In the process of the experiments, a controllable output power of 0 .1 -1 kW was achieved with an efficiency of up to 17 % in the continuous-wave generation regime. The measured radiation spectrum with a relative width of about 10 -6 and the frequency values measured at various parameters of the device are presented. The results of measuring the parameters of the wave beam, which was formed by a built-in quasioptical converter, as well as the data obtained by measuring the heat loss in the cavity and the vacuum output window are analyzed.

  5. On the complex ageing characteristics of high-power LiFePO4/graphite battery cells cycled with high charge and discharge currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groot, Jens; Swierczynski, Maciej; Stan, Ana Irina; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2015-07-01

    Li-ion batteries are known to undergo complex ageing processes, where the operating conditions have a profound and non-linear effect on both calendar life and cycle life. This is especially a challenge for the automotive industry, where the requirements on product lifetime and reliability are demanding. The aim of the present work is to quantify the ageing in terms of capacity fade and impedance growth as a function of operating conditions typical to high-power automotive applications; high charge and discharge rate, elevated temperatures and wide state-of-charge windows. The cycle life of 34 power-optimised LiFePO4/graphite cells was quantified by testing with charge and discharge rates between 1 and 4C-rate, temperatures between +23 °C and +53 °C, and a depth-of-discharge of either 100% or 60%. Although all cells show similar ageing pattern in general, the cycle life and the impedance growth is remarkably different for the tested cases. In addition, it is concluded that high charging rates, high temperatures or intensive cycling do not always lead to a shorter cycle life. One specifically interesting finding is that the combination of 1C-rate discharge in combination with 3.75C-rate charging was found to degrade the tested cells more rapidly than a symmetric cycle with 3.75C-rate in both directions.

  6. The Power of Simplicity: Sea Urchin Embryos as in Vivo Developmental Models for Studying Complex Cell-to-cell Signaling Network Interactions.

    PubMed

    Range, Ryan C; Martinez-Bartolomé, Marina; Burr, Stephanie D

    2017-02-16

    Remarkably few cell-to-cell signal transduction pathways are necessary during embryonic development to generate the large variety of cell types and tissues in the adult body form. Yet, each year more components of individual signaling pathways are discovered, and studies indicate that depending on the context there is significant cross-talk among most of these pathways. This complexity makes studying cell-to-cell signaling in any in vivo developmental model system a difficult task. In addition, efficient functional analyses are required to characterize molecules associated with signaling pathways identified from the large data sets generated by next generation differential screens. Here, we illustrate a straightforward method to efficiently identify components of signal transduction pathways governing cell fate and axis specification in sea urchin embryos. The genomic and morphological simplicity of embryos similar to those of the sea urchin make them powerful in vivo developmental models for understanding complex signaling interactions. The methodology described here can be used as a template for identifying novel signal transduction molecules in individual pathways as well as the interactions among the molecules in the various pathways in many other organisms.

  7. Electrochemiluminescence Biosensor Based on 3-D DNA Nanomachine Signal Probe Powered by Protein-Aptamer Binding Complex for Ultrasensitive Mucin 1 Detection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinya; Wang, Haijun; Wang, Huijun; Zhuo, Ying; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2017-04-04

    Herein, we fabricated a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of mucin 1 (MUC1) based on a three-dimensional (3-D) DNA nanomachine signal probe powered by protein-aptamer binding complex. The assembly of 3-D DNA nanomachine signal probe achieved the cyclic reuse of target protein based on the protein-aptamer binding complex induced catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA), which overcame the shortcoming of protein conversion with enzyme cleavage or polymerization in the traditional examination of protein. In addition, CoFe2O4, a mimic peroxidase, was used as the nanocarrier of the 3-D DNA nanomachine signal probe to catalyze the decomposition of coreactant H2O2 to generate numerous reactive hydroxyl radical OH(•) as the efficient accelerator of N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) ECL reaction to amplify the luminescence signal. Simultaneously, the assembly of 3-D DNA nanomachine signal probe was executed in solution, which led to abundant luminophore ABEI be immobilized around the CoFe2O4 surface with amplified ECL signal output since the CHA reaction was occurred unencumberedly in all directions under homogeneous environment. The prepared ECL biosensor showed a favorable linear response for MUC1 detection with a relatively low detection limit of 0.62 fg mL(-1). With excellent sensitivity, the strategy may provide an efficient method for clinical application, especially in trace protein determination.

  8. “The One Who Chases You Away Does Not Tell You Go”: Silent Refusals and Complex Power Relations in Research Consent Processes in Coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kamuya, Dorcas M.; Theobald, Sally J.; Marsh, Vicki; Parker, Michael; Geissler, Wenzel P.; Molyneux, Sassy C.

    2015-01-01

    Consent processes have attracted significant research attention over the last decade, including in the global south. Although relevant studies suggest consent is a complex negotiated process involving multiple actors, most guidelines assume consent is a one-off encounter with a clear ‘yes’ or ‘no’ decision. In this paper we explore the concept of ‘silent refusals’, a situation where it is not clear whether potential participants want to join studies or those in studies want to withdraw from research, as they were not actively saying no. We draw on participant observation, in-depth interviews and group discussions conducted with a range of stakeholders in two large community based studies conducted by the KEMRI Wellcome Trust programme in coastal Kenya. We identified three broad inter-related rationales for silent refusals: 1) a strategy to avoid conflicts and safeguard relations within households, - for young women in particular—to appear to conform to the wishes of elders; 2) an approach to maintain friendly, appreciative and reciprocal relationships with fieldworkers, and the broader research programme; and 3) an effort to retain study benefits, either for individuals, whole households or wider communities. That refusals and underlying rationales were silent posed multiple dilemmas for fieldworkers, who are increasingly recognised to play a key interface role between researchers and communities in many settings. Silent refusals reflect and reinforce complex power relations embedded in decisions about research participation, with important implications for consent processes and broader research ethics practice. Fieldworkers need support to reflect upon and respond to the ethically charged environment they work in. PMID:25978465

  9. SSH2S: Hydrogen storage in complex hydrides for an auxiliary power unit based on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricco, Marcello; Bang, Mads; Fichtner, Maximilian; Hauback, Bjorn; Linder, Marc; Luetto, Carlo; Moretto, Pietro; Sgroi, Mauro

    2017-02-01

    The main objective of the SSH2S (Fuel Cell Coupled Solid State Hydrogen Storage Tank) project was to develop a solid state hydrogen storage tank based on complex hydrides and to fully integrate it with a High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell stack. A mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system was used as the main storage material for the tank, due to its high gravimetric storage capacity and relatively low hydrogen desorption temperature. The mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system was coupled with a standard intermetallic compound to take advantage of its capability to release hydrogen at ambient temperature and to ensure a fast start-up of the system. The hydrogen storage tank was designed to feed a 1 kW HT-PEM stack for 2 h to be used for an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). A full thermal integration was possible thanks to the high operation temperature of the fuel cell and to the relative low temperature (170 °C) for hydrogen release from the mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system.

  10. Detection of potential genetic hazards in complex environmental mixtures using plant cytogenetics and microbial mutagenesis assays. [Arsenic-contaminated groundwater and power plant fly ash extract

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, M J; Lowe, K; Rao, T K; Larimer, F W; Epler, J L

    1980-01-01

    Solid wastes have been characterized to determine their potential hazards to humans and the environment. An arsenic-contaminated ground water sample increased the frequency of histidine revertants in Salmonella typhimurium (TA-98) at 0.025 to 5.000 ..mu..l per plate with Aroclor-induced S-9 liver microsomes. When 2.5 to 75 ..mu..l of the XAD-2 concentrate (12.5-fold, v:v) were used, the mutant frequency was increased in strains TA-98, TA-100, and TA-1537; metabolic activation was not required. Only the XAD-2 concentrate was mutagenic in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid strain XL-7-10B; metabolic activation was not required. The mutagenic principal, which is not known, appears to be at the limit of resolution; hence, the XAD-2 concentration is necessary to demonstrate mutagenic activity. The arsenic-contaminated ground water (0.0625 and 0.125 dilutions) and the power plant fly ash extract (undiluted) increased the frequency of bridges and fragements at anaphase in root tip cells of Hordeum. The fly ash sample was negative in the microbial assays. Results emphasize (1) the need for a battery of assays with different organisms and (2) the potential of a simple assay using plant root tip cells to detect mutagenic activity in complex environmental mixtures.

  11. Prospective power calculations for the Four Lab study of a multigenerational reproductive/developmental toxicity rodent bioassay using a complex mixture of disinfection by-products in the low-response region.

    PubMed

    Dingus, Cheryl A; Teuschler, Linda K; Rice, Glenn E; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Narotsky, Michael G

    2011-10-01

    In complex mixture toxicology, there is growing emphasis on testing environmentally representative doses that improve the relevance of results for health risk assessment, but are typically much lower than those used in traditional toxicology studies. Traditional experimental designs with typical sample sizes may have insufficient statistical power to detect effects caused by environmentally relevant doses. Proper study design, with adequate statistical power, is critical to ensuring that experimental results are useful for environmental health risk assessment. Studies with environmentally realistic complex mixtures have practical constraints on sample concentration factor and sample volume as well as the number of animals that can be accommodated. This article describes methodology for calculation of statistical power for non-independent observations for a multigenerational rodent reproductive/developmental bioassay. The use of the methodology is illustrated using the U.S. EPA's Four Lab study in which rodents were exposed to chlorinated water concentrates containing complex mixtures of drinking water disinfection by-products. Possible experimental designs included two single-block designs and a two-block design. Considering the possible study designs and constraints, a design of two blocks of 100 females with a 40:60 ratio of control:treated animals and a significance level of 0.05 yielded maximum prospective power (~90%) to detect pup weight decreases, while providing the most power to detect increased prenatal loss.

  12. Prospective Power Calculations for the Four Lab Study of A Multigenerational Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity Rodent Bioassay Using A Complex Mixture of Disinfection By-Products in the Low-Response Region

    PubMed Central

    Dingus, Cheryl A.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Rice, Glenn E.; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Narotsky, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    In complex mixture toxicology, there is growing emphasis on testing environmentally representative doses that improve the relevance of results for health risk assessment, but are typically much lower than those used in traditional toxicology studies. Traditional experimental designs with typical sample sizes may have insufficient statistical power to detect effects caused by environmentally relevant doses. Proper study design, with adequate statistical power, is critical to ensuring that experimental results are useful for environmental health risk assessment. Studies with environmentally realistic complex mixtures have practical constraints on sample concentration factor and sample volume as well as the number of animals that can be accommodated. This article describes methodology for calculation of statistical power for non-independent observations for a multigenerational rodent reproductive/developmental bioassay. The use of the methodology is illustrated using the U.S. EPA’s Four Lab study in which rodents were exposed to chlorinated water concentrates containing complex mixtures of drinking water disinfection by-products. Possible experimental designs included two single-block designs and a two-block design. Considering the possible study designs and constraints, a design of two blocks of 100 females with a 40:60 ratio of control:treated animals and a significance level of 0.05 yielded maximum prospective power (~90%) to detect pup weight decreases, while providing the most power to detect increased prenatal loss. PMID:22073030

  13. Predictive complexation models of the impact of natural organic matter and cations on scaling in cooling water pipes: A case study of power generation plants in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosire, G. O.; Ngila, J. C.; Mbugua, J. M.

    This work discusses simulative models of Ca and Mg complexation with natural organic matter (NOM), in order to control the incidence of scaling in pipes carrying cooling water at the Eskom power generating stations in South Africa. In particular, the paper reports how parameters such as pH and trace element levels influence the distribution of scaling species and their interactions, over and above mineral phase saturation indices. In order to generate modelling inputs, two experimental scenarios were created in the model solutions: Firstly, the trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn were used as markers for Ca and Mg complexation to humic acid and secondly the effect of natural organic matter in cooling water was determined by spiking model solutions. Labile metal ions and total elements in model solutions and water samples were analysed by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. ICP-OES results revealed high levels of K, Na, S, Mg and Ca and low levels of trace elements (Cd, Se, Pb, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Al and Zn) in the cooling water samples. Using the Tipping and Hurley's database WHAM in PHREEQC format (T_H.DAT), the total elemental concentrations were run as inputs on a PHREEQC code, at pH 6.8 and defined charge as alkalinity (as HCO3-) For model solutions, PHREEQC inputs were based on (i) free metal differences attributed to competitive effect of Ca and the effect of Ca + Mg, respectively; (ii) total Ca and Mg used in the model solutions and (iii) alkalinity described as hydrogen carbonate. Anodic stripping peak heights were used to calculate the concentration of the free/uncomplexed/labile metal ions (used as tracers) in the model solutions. The objective of modelling was to describe scaling in terms of saturation indices of mineral phases. Accordingly, the minerals most likely to generate scale were further simulated (over a range of pH (3-10) to yield results that mimicked changing p

  14. Hg and Se capture and fly ash carbons from combustion of complex pulverized feed blends mainly of anthracitic coal rank in Spanish power plants

    SciTech Connect

    I. Surez-Ruiz; J.C. Hower; G.A. Thomas

    2007-01-15

    In this work, the petrology and chemistry of fly ashes produced in a Spanish power plant from the combustion of complex pulverized feed blends made up of anthracitic/meta-anthracitic coals, petroleum, and natural coke are investigated. It was found that the behavior of fly ash carbons derived from anthracitic coals follows relatively similar patterns to those established for the carbons from the combustion of bituminous coals. Fly ashes were sampled in eight hoppers from two electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows. The characterization of the raw ashes and their five sieved fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) showed that glassy material, quartz, oxides, and spinels in different proportions are the main inorganic components. As for the organic fraction, the dominant fly ash carbons are anisotropic carbons, mainly unburned carbons derived from anthracitic vitrinite. The concentration of Se and Hg increased in ashes of the second ESP row, this increase being related to the higher proportion of anisotropic unburned carbons, particularly those largely derived from anthracitic vitrinite in the cooler ashes of the ESP (second row) and also related to the decrease in the flue gas temperature. This suggests that the flue gas temperature plays a major role in the concentration of mercury for similar ratios of unburned carbons. It was also found that Hg is highly concentrated in the medium-coarser fractions of the fly ashes ({gt} 45 {mu}m), there being a positive relationship between the amount of these carbons, which are apparently little modified during the combustion process, in the medium-coarse fractions of the ashes and the Hg retention. According to the results obtained, further research on this type of fly ash could be highly productive. 28 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. High power density of one-compartment H2O2 fuel cells using pyrazine-bridged Fe[M(C)(CN)4] (M(C) = Pt2+ and Pd2+) complexes as the cathode.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yusuke; Yoneda, Masaki; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2014-02-03

    Pyrazine-bridged Fe[M(C)(CN)4] complexes (M(C) = Pt(2+) and Pd(2+)) with 3D porous structures were utilized as the cathode of one-compartment H2O2 fuel cells, which operated in 0.3 M H2O2, using a nickel mesh as an anode. The power density of a H2O2 fuel cell using pyrazine-bridged Fe[Pt(CN)4] reached 4.2 mW cm(-2), which is the highest value reported for the one-compartment H2O2 fuel cells. On the other hand, H2O2 fuel cells using pyrazine-bridged M(N)[Pt(CN)4] (M(N) = Co(2+) and Mn(2+)) as the cathodes exhibited power densities lower than 0.01 mW cm(-2), indicating that Fe(2+) ions are indispensable to achieve the high power density.

  16. Validation of a refined short-term adult fish reproductive test with improved power for mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) to test complex effluents.

    PubMed

    Bosker, Thijs; Hewitt, L Mark; Munkittrick, Kelly R; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2010-10-01

    Short-term adult fish reproductive tests are widely used to assess the toxicity of chemicals and waste streams. However, these tests often have low power to detect differences in egg production among treatments, due to high variance and small sample sizes, limiting their effectiveness for informing regulatory decisions. A protocol for a fish reproductive test using mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) was refined to increase statistical power. Three studies using the original protocol were compared with three studies using the refined protocol. Tank pre-selection and sample size increased the a priori power from 11.2% to 85.7%. After exposure, average power levels were 62.0%, a more than five-fold increase compared to studies that used the original protocol (power of 15.0%). There was a high level of consistency compared to the original protocol; differences >33% in female and male gonad size and egg production could be detected among treatments. This study demonstrates that a refinement process can address shortcomings in short-term adult fish reproductive protocols, creating a solid foundation for further standardization and possible regulatory use.

  17. THE POWER TO DETECT A DIFFERENCE: DETERMINING SAMPLE SIZE REQUIREMENTS FOR EVALUATION OF REPRODUCTIVE/DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO COMPLEX MIXTURES OF DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicological assessment of environmentally-realistic complex mixtures of drinking-water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are needed to address concerns raised by some epidemiological studies showing associations between exposure to chemically disinfected water and adverse reproduc...

  18. Synthesis and strong photooxidation power of a supramolecular hybrid comprising a polyoxometalate and Ru(II) polypyridyl complex with zinc(II).

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kenji; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Koike, Kazuhide; Ishitani, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for constructing supramolecular hybrids composed of polyoxometalates and photofunctional metal complexes was developed. A Ru(II) complex with phosphonate groups (RuP) strongly interacted with Zn(II) to afford a 2 : 1 trinuclear metal complex ([(RuP)2Zn](3+)). In dimethylsulfoxide, [(RuP)2Zn](3+) strongly interacted with a Keggin-type heteropolyoxometalate (Si-WPOM) to form a 1 : 1 hybrid ([(RuP)2Zn]-POM). Irradiation of [(RuP)2Zn]-POM in the presence of diethanolamine caused rapid accumulation of the one-electron reduced hybrid with a quantum yield of 0.99.

  19. Evaluation of the conservation potential of a refit energy management system (using a power line subcarrier) in a large, high-rise apartment complex. Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschfeld, H.E.

    1981-09-01

    An energy conservation study of the application of an energy management system (EMS) utilizing power line subcarrier communication equipment was made in a large apartment building in New York, New York. The building utilized individual cooling and resistance heating units in each apartment. The EMS turned the individual units on and off (with override by tenants) on a schedule determined by the building operator. Summer savings were found to be 11%; winter savings were 20%. Annual savings were projected to be 19%. The study demonstrated the conservation value of power line subcarrier technology as an alternative to submetering. It also developed and evaluated control strategies for the system and served as a field test to accelerate commercialization of the technology.

  20. Wind Power Curve Modeling Using Statistical Models: An Investigation of Atmospheric Input Variables at a Flat and Complex Terrain Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S.; Bulaevskaya, V.; Irons, Z.; Qualley, G.; Newman, J. F.; Miller, W. O.

    2015-09-28

    The goal of our FY15 project was to explore the use of statistical models and high-resolution atmospheric input data to develop more accurate prediction models for turbine power generation. We modeled power for two operational wind farms in two regions of the country. The first site is a 235 MW wind farm in Northern Oklahoma with 140 GE 1.68 turbines. Our second site is a 38 MW wind farm in the Altamont Pass Region of Northern California with 38 Mitsubishi 1 MW turbines. The farms are very different in topography, climatology, and turbine technology; however, both occupy high wind resource areas in the U.S. and are representative of typical wind farms found in their respective areas.

  1. New palladium–oxazoline complexes: Synthesis and evaluation of the optical properties and the catalytic power during the oxidation of textile dyes

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Rym; Jabli, Mahjoub; Kacem, Yakdhane; Marrot, Jérôme; Prim, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Summary The present paper describes the synthesis of new palladium–oxazoline complexes in one step with good to high yields (68–95%). The oxazolines were prepared from enantiomerically pure α-aminoalcohols. The structures of the synthesized palladium complexes were confirmed by NMR, FTIR, TOFMS, UV–visible spectroscopic analysis and X–ray diffraction. The optical properties of the complexes were evaluated by the determination of the gap energy values (E g) ranging between 2.34 and 3.21 eV. Their catalytic activities were tested for the degradation of Eriochrome Blue Black B (a model of azo dyes) in the presence of an ecological oxidant (H2O2). The efficiency of the decolorization has been confirmed via UV–visible spectroscopic analysis and the factors affecting the degradation phenomenon have been studied. The removal of the Eriochrome reached high yields. We have found that the complex 9 promoted 84% of color elimination within 5 min (C 0 = 30 mg/L, T = 22 °C, pH 7, H2O2 = 0.5 mL) and the energetic parameters have been also determined. PMID:26425176

  2. New palladium-oxazoline complexes: Synthesis and evaluation of the optical properties and the catalytic power during the oxidation of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Rym; Jabli, Mahjoub; Kacem, Yakdhane; Marrot, Jérôme; Prim, Damien; Ben Hassine, Béchir

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis of new palladium-oxazoline complexes in one step with good to high yields (68-95%). The oxazolines were prepared from enantiomerically pure α-aminoalcohols. The structures of the synthesized palladium complexes were confirmed by NMR, FTIR, TOFMS, UV-visible spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction. The optical properties of the complexes were evaluated by the determination of the gap energy values (E g) ranging between 2.34 and 3.21 eV. Their catalytic activities were tested for the degradation of Eriochrome Blue Black B (a model of azo dyes) in the presence of an ecological oxidant (H2O2). The efficiency of the decolorization has been confirmed via UV-visible spectroscopic analysis and the factors affecting the degradation phenomenon have been studied. The removal of the Eriochrome reached high yields. We have found that the complex 9 promoted 84% of color elimination within 5 min (C 0 = 30 mg/L, T = 22 °C, pH 7, H2O2 = 0.5 mL) and the energetic parameters have been also determined.

  3. Complex Laparoscopic Myomectomy with Severe Adhesions Performed with Proper Preventive Measures and Power Morcellation Provides a Safe Choice in Certain Infertility Cases

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro-Alfaro, Jaime; Flores-Manzur, María de los Ángeles; Nevarez-Bernal, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic myomectomy offers a real benefit to infertile patients with uterine fibroids and peritoneal adhesions. The procedure requires a skilled surgeon and laparoscopy technique to minimize adhesion formation and other proven benefits. Restrictions arise since this procedure requires power morcellation for fibroid tissue extraction. Two years ago, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States of America (FDA) issued the alert on power morcellation for uterine leiomyomas, addressing the risk of malignant cell spreading within the abdominal cavity (actual risk assessment from 1 in 360 to 1 in 7400 cases). We review a 30-year-old female, without previous gestations, hypermenorrhea, intermenstrual bleeding, and chronic pelvic pain. Transvaginal ultrasound reports multiple fibroids in the right portion of a bicornuate uterus. Relevant history includes open myomectomy 6 years before and a complicated appendectomy, developing peritonitis within a year. Laparoscopy revealed multiple adhesions blocking uterine access, a bicornuate uterus, and myomas in the expected site. Myomectomy was performed utilizing power morcellation with good results. FDA recommendations have diminished this procedure's selection, converting many to open variants. This particular case was technically challenging, requiring morcellation, and safety device deployment was impossible, yet the infertility issue was properly addressed. Patient evaluation, safety measures, and laparoscopy benefits may outweigh the risks in particular cases as this one. PMID:27668110

  4. Characterizing rapid capacity fade and impedance evolution in high rate pulsed discharged lithium iron phosphate cells for complex, high power loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Derek N.; Wetz, David A.; Heinzel, John M.; Mansour, Azzam N.

    2016-10-01

    Three 26650 LiFePO4 (LFP) cells are cycled using a 40 A pulsed charge/discharge profile to study their performance in high rate pulsed applications. This profile is used to simulate naval pulsed power loads planned for deployment aboard future vessels. The LFP cells studied experienced an exponential drop in their usable high-rate recharge capacity within sixty cycles due to a rapid rise in their internal resistance. Differential capacitance shows that the voltage window for charge storage is pushed outside of the recommended voltage cutoff limits. Investigation into the state of health of the electrodes shows minimal loss of active material from the cathode to side reactions. Post-mortem examination of the anodic surface films reveals a large increase in the concentration of reduced salt compounds indicating that the pulsed profile creates highly favorable conditions for LiPF6 salt to break down into LiF. This film slows the ionic movement at the interface, affecting transfer kinetics, resulting in charge buildup in the bulk anode without successful energy storage. The results indicate that the use of these cells as a power supply for high pulsed power loads is hindered because of ionically resistant film development and not by an increasing rate of active material loss.

  5. Function Allocation in Complex Socio-Technical Systems: Procedure usage in nuclear power and the Context Analysis Method for Identifying Design Solutions (CAMIDS) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Kara Anne

    This research aims to prove that strict adherence to procedures and rigid compliance to process in the US Nuclear Industry may not prevent incidents or increase safety. According to the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, the nuclear power industry has seen a recent rise in events, and this research claims that a contributing factor to this rise is organizational, cultural, and based on peoples overreliance on procedures and policy. Understanding the proper balance of function allocation, automation and human decision-making is imperative to creating a nuclear power plant that is safe, efficient, and reliable. This research claims that new generations of operators are less engaged and thinking because they have been instructed to follow procedures to a fault. According to operators, they were once to know the plant and its interrelations, but organizationally more importance is now put on following procedure and policy. Literature reviews were performed, experts were questioned, and a model for context analysis was developed. The Context Analysis Method for Identifying Design Solutions (CAMIDS) Model was created, verified and validated through both peer review and application in real world scenarios in active nuclear power plant simulators. These experiments supported the claim that strict adherence and rigid compliance to procedures may not increase safety by studying the industry's propensity for following incorrect procedures, and when it directly affects the outcome of safety or security of the plant. The findings of this research indicate that the younger generations of operators rely highly on procedures, and the organizational pressures of required compliance to procedures may lead to incidents within the plant because operators feel pressured into following the rules and policy above performing the correct actions in a timely manner. The findings support computer based procedures, efficient alarm systems, and skill of the craft matrices. The solution to

  6. The search for new powerful energetic transition metal complexes based on 3,3'-dinitro-5,5'-bis-1,2,4-triazole-1,1'-diolate anion: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Kou, Bo; Zhang, Zewu; Hang, Zusheng; Zhu, Weihua

    2017-09-01

    In this study, employing a new high oxygen balance energetic 3,3'-dinitro-5,5'-bis-1,2,4-triazole-1,1'-diolate anion (DNBTDO) as the bidentate ligand, NH3 and NH2NO2 as short energetic ligands, and Cu/Ni as the metal atoms, two series of novel energetic metal complexes were computationally designed. Their structures and properties were studied by density functional theory, electrostatic potential data, and molecular mechanics methods. The results showed that the designed metal complexes have high detonation performance and acceptable sensitivity: Cu/Ni(DNBTDO)(NH2NO2)2 (A3/B3) have better detonation properties and lower sensitivity than the most powerful CHNO explosive hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane, Cu/Ni(DNBTDO)(NH3)(NH2NO2) (A2/B2) have comparable energetic performance and sensitivity with 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane, Ni(DNBTDO)(NH3)2 (B1) has comparative energy level and sensitivity with 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane. These five energetic metal complexes may be attractive to energetic materials researchers. Besides, both the energetic ligands and metal atoms could have a great influence on the structures, heats of formation, detonation properties, and stability of energetic metal complexes, and the effects are coupled with each other. This study may be helpful in the search for and development of new improved energetic materials.

  7. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  8. Quality control considerations for size exclusion chromatography with online ICP-MS: a powerful tool for evaluating the size dependence of metal-organic matter complexation.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Erica R; Young, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), which separates molecules based on molecular volume, can be coupled with online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to explore size-dependent metal-natural organic matter (NOM) complexation. To make effective use of this analytical dual detector system, the operator should be mindful of quality control measures. Al, Cr, Fe, Se, and Sn all exhibited columnless attenuation, which indicated unintended interactions with system components. Based on signal-to-noise ratio and peak reproducibility between duplicate analyses of environmental samples, consistent peak time and height were observed for Mg, Cl, Mn, Cu, Br, and Pb. Al, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Cd, Sn, and Sb were less consistent overall, but produced consistent measurements in select samples. Ultrafiltering and centrifuging produced similar peak distributions, but glass fiber filtration produced more high molecular weight (MW) peaks. Storage in glass also produced more high MW peaks than did plastic bottles.

  9. Quality control considerations for size exclusion chromatography with online ICP-MS: a powerful tool for evaluating the size dependence of metal-organic matter complexation

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Erica R.; Young, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), which separates molecules based on molecular volume, can be coupled with online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to explore size-dependent metal-natural organic matter (NOM) complexation. To make effective use of this analytical dual detector system, the operator should be mindful of quality control measures. Al, Cr, Fe, Se, and Sn all exhibited columnless attenuation, which indicated unintended interactions with system components. Based on signal-to-noise ratio and peak reproducibility between duplicate analyses of environmental samples, consistent peak time and height were observed for Mg, Cl, Mn, Cu, Br, and Pb. Al, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Cd, Sn, and Sb were less consistent overall, but produced consistent measurements in select samples. Ultrafiltering and centrifuging produced similar peak distributions, but glass fiber filtration produced more high molecular weight peaks. Storage in glass also produced more high molecular weight peaks than did plastic bottles. PMID:23416600

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex CRISPR genotyping: improving efficiency, throughput and discriminative power of 'spoligotyping' with new spacers and a microbead-based hybridization assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Abadia, Edgar; Refregier, Guislaine; Tafaj, Silva; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Guillard, Bertrand; Andremont, Antoine; Ruimy, Raymond; Sola, Christophe

    2010-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to implement a microbead-based 'spoligotyping' technique and to evaluate improvements by the addition of a panel of 25 extra spacers that we expected to provide an increased resolution on principal genetic group 1 (PGG 1) strains. We confirmed the high sensitivity and reproducibility of the classical technique using the 43 spacer panel and we obtained perfect agreement between the membrane-based and the microbead-based techniques. We further demonstrated an increase in the discriminative power of an extended 68 spacer format for differentiation of PGG 1 clinical isolates, in particular for the East African-Indian clade. Finally, we define a limited yet highly informative reduced 10 spacer panel set which could offer a more cost-effective option for implementation in resource-limited countries and that could decrease the need for additional VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) genotyping work in molecular epidemiological studies. We also present an economic analysis comparing membrane-based and microbead-based techniques.

  11. Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kengo; Svendsen, Erik Robert; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 1 was severely damaged from the chain reaction of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and the consequent meltdown and hydrogen gas explosions. This resulted in the worst nuclear accident since the Chernobyl accident of 1986. Just as in the case of Chernobyl, emergency workers were recruited to conduct a wide range of tasks, including disaster response, rescuing activities, NPP containment, and radiation decontamination. This paper describes the types and efficacy of the various occupational health interventions introduced to the Fukushima NPP radiation workers. Such interventions were implemented in order to prevent unnecessary radiation overexposure and associated adverse health effects and work injuries. Less than 1% of all emergency workers were exposed to external radiation of >100 mSv, and to date no deaths or health adversities from radiation have been reported for those workers. Several occupational health interventions were conducted, including setting of new regulatory exposure limits, improving workers' radiation dosimetry, administration of stable iodine, running an occupational health tracking system, and improving occupational medicine and preventative care. Those interventions were not only vital for preventing unnecessary radiation, but also for managing other general health issues such as mental health, heat illness and infectious diseases. Long-term administration of the aforementioned occupational health interventions is essential to ensure the ongoing support and care for these workers, who were put under one of the most severe occupational health risk conditions ever encountered. PMID:25413928

  12. Nuclear Power in Space

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  13. The crystal structure of the active domain of Anopheles anti-platelet protein, a powerful anti-coagulant, in complex with an antibody.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kanako; Iyori, Mitsuhiro; Sawaguchi, Asuka; Akashi, Satoko; Tame, Jeremy R H; Park, Sam-Yong; Yoshida, Shigeto

    2014-06-06

    Blood clotting is a vitally important process that must be carefully regulated to prevent blood loss on one hand and thrombosis on the other. Severe injury and hemophilia may be treated with pro-coagulants, whereas risk of obstructive clotting or embolism may be reduced with anti-coagulants. Anti-coagulants are an extremely important class of drug, one of the most widely used types of medication, but there remains a pressing need for novel treatments, however, as present drugs such as warfarin have significant drawbacks. Nature provides a number of examples of anti-coagulant proteins produced by blood-sucking animals, which may provide templates for the development of new small molecules with similar physiological effects. We have, therefore, studied an Anopheles anti-platelet protein from a malaria vector mosquito and report its crystal structure in complex with an antibody. Overall the protein is extremely sensitive to proteolysis, but the crystal structure reveals a stable domain built from two helices and a turn, which corresponds to the functional region. The antibody raised against Anopheles anti-platelet protein prevents it from binding collagen. Our work, therefore, opens new avenues to the development of both novel small molecule anti-clotting agents and anti-malarials.

  14. Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kengo; Svendsen, Erik Robert; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 1 was severely damaged from the chain reaction of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and the consequent meltdown and hydrogen gas explosions. This resulted in the worst nuclear accident since the Chernobyl accident of 1986. Just as in the case of Chernobyl, emergency workers were recruited to conduct a wide range of tasks, including disaster response, rescuing activities, NPP containment, and radiation decontamination. This paper describes the types and efficacy of the various occupational health interventions introduced to the Fukushima NPP radiation workers. Such interventions were implemented in order to prevent unnecessary radiation overexposure and associated adverse health effects and work injuries. Less than 1% of all emergency workers were exposed to external radiation of >100 mSv, and to date no deaths or health adversities from radiation have been reported for those workers. Several occupational health interventions were conducted, including setting of new regulatory exposure limits, improving workers' radiation dosimetry, administration of stable iodine, running an occupational health tracking system, and improving occupational medicine and preventative care. Those interventions were not only vital for preventing unnecessary radiation, but also for managing other general health issues such as mental health, heat illness and infectious diseases. Long-term administration of the aforementioned occupational health interventions is essential to ensure the ongoing support and care for these workers, who were put under one of the most severe occupational health risk conditions ever encountered. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  15. Inventing a co-axial atomic resolution patch clamp to study a single resonating protein complex and ultra-low power communication deep inside a living neuron cell.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subrata; Sahu, Satyajit; Agrawal, Lokesh; Shiga, Takashi; Bandyopadhyay, Anirban

    2016-12-01

    To read the signals of single molecules in vitro on a surface, or inside a living cell or organ, we introduce a coaxial atom tip (coat) and a coaxial atomic patch clamp (COAPAP). The metal-insulator-metal cavity of these probes extends to the atomic scale (0.1[Formula: see text]nm), it eliminates the cellular or environmental noise with a S/N ratio 10(5). Five ac signals are simultaneously applied during a measurement by COAT and COAPAP to shield a true signal under environmental noise in five unique ways. The electromagnetic drive in the triaxial atomic tips is specifically designed to sense anharmonic vibrational and transmission signals for any system between 0.1[Formula: see text]nm and 50[Formula: see text]nm where the smallest nanopatch clamp cannot reach. COAT and COAPAP reliably pick up the atomic scale vibrations under the extreme noise of a living cell. Each protein's distinct electromagnetic, mechanical, electrical and ionic vibrational signature studied in vitro in a protected environment is found to match with the ones studied inside a live neuron. Thus, we could confirm that by using our probe blindly we could hold on to a single molecule or its complex in the invisible domain of a living cell. Our decade long investigations on perfecting the tools to measure bio-resonance of all forms and simultaneously in all frequency domains are summarized. It shows that the ratio of emission to absorption resonance frequencies of a biomaterial is around [Formula: see text], only a few in the entire em spectrum are active that regulates all other resonances, like mechanical, ionic, etc.

  16. A Bayesian framework to account for complex non-genetic factors in gene expression levels greatly increases power in eQTL studies.

    PubMed

    Stegle, Oliver; Parts, Leopold; Durbin, Richard; Winn, John

    2010-05-06

    Gene expression measurements are influenced by a wide range of factors, such as the state of the cell, experimental conditions and variants in the sequence of regulatory regions. To understand the effect of a variable of interest, such as the genotype of a locus, it is important to account for variation that is due to confounding causes. Here, we present VBQTL, a probabilistic approach for mapping expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) that jointly models contributions from genotype as well as known and hidden confounding factors. VBQTL is implemented within an efficient and flexible inference framework, making it fast and tractable on large-scale problems. We compare the performance of VBQTL with alternative methods for dealing with confounding variability on eQTL mapping datasets from simulations, yeast, mouse, and human. Employing Bayesian complexity control and joint modelling is shown to result in more precise estimates of the contribution of different confounding factors resulting in additional associations to measured transcript levels compared to alternative approaches. We present a threefold larger collection of cis eQTLs than previously found in a whole-genome eQTL scan of an outbred human population. Altogether, 27% of the tested probes show a significant genetic association in cis, and we validate that the additional eQTLs are likely to be real by replicating them in different sets of individuals. Our method is the next step in the analysis of high-dimensional phenotype data, and its application has revealed insights into genetic regulation of gene expression by demonstrating more abundant cis-acting eQTLs in human than previously shown. Our software is freely available online at http://www.sanger.ac.uk/resources/software/peer/.

  17. A mineralogical and geochemical investigation of street sediment near a coal-fired power plant in Hamilton, Ohio: an example of complex pollution and cause for community health concerns.

    PubMed

    LeGalley, Erin; Krekeler, Mark P S

    2013-05-01

    The Hamilton Municipal Electric Plant is a 125 MW coal-fired power plant, owned and operated by the City of Hamilton in Butler County, Ohio. The plant is located within 110 m of 50 homes. Bulk chemical investigation of street sediment near these homes indicates average concentrations of 25 ppm Cr, 40 ppm Cu, 15 ppm Ni, 215 ppm Pb, and 500 ppm Zn. Lead and Zn have maximum concentrations of 1207 ppm and 1512 ppm, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicates coal ash spherules are present in the street sediment as well as a variety of Pb, Ni, Cr, W, and BaSO4 particulates. Transmission electron microscopy indicates heavy metals are sorbed onto clay particles with some preference for illite over chlorite. This investigation shows bulk chemistry and electron microscopy approaches are very effective tools to investigate particulate pollutants and identify contexts in complex urban settings involving coal pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High Power, High Voltage Electric Power System for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aintablian, Harry; Kirkham, Harold; Timmerman, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the 30 KW, 600 V MRHE power subsystem. Descriptions of the power subsystem elements, the mode of power transfer, and power and mass estimates are presented. A direct-drive architecture for electric propulsion is considered which reduces mass and complexity. Solar arrays with concentrators are used for increased efficiency. Finally, the challenges due to the environment of a hypothetical lunar mission as well as due to the advanced technologies considered are outlined.

  19. Power-functional network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong; Kurths, Jürgen; Zhan, Meng

    2017-08-01

    Power grids and their properties have been studied broadly in many aspects. In this paper, we propose a novel concept, power-flow-based power grid, as a typical power-functional network, based on the calculation of power flow distribution from power electrical engineering. We compare it with structural networks based on the shortest path length and effective networks based on the effective electrical distance and study the relationship among these three kinds of networks. We find that they have roughly positive correlations with each other, indicating that in general any close nodes in the topological structure are actually connected in function. However, we do observe some counter-examples that two close nodes in a structural network can have a long distance in a power-functional network, namely, two physically connected nodes can actually be separated in function. In addition, we find that power grids in the structural network tend to be heterogeneous, whereas those in the effective and power-functional networks tend to be homogeneous. These findings are expected to be significant not only for power grids but also for various other complex networks.

  20. Nanosatellite Power System Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robyn, M.; Thaller, L.; Scott, D.

    1995-01-01

    The capability to build complex electronic functions into compact packages is opening the path to miniature satellites on the order of 1 kg mass, 10 cm across, packed with the computing processors, motion controllers, measurement sensors, and communications hardware necessary for operation. Power generation will be from short strings of silicon or gallium arsenide-based solar photovoltaic cells with the array power maximized by a peak power tracker (PPT). Energy storage will utilize a low voltage battery with nickel cadmium or lithium ion cells as the most likely selections for rechargeables and lithium (MnO2-Li) primary batteries for one shot short missions.

  1. Wind power prediction models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

  2. Laughter, Power, and Motivation in Religious Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Jerome W.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the connections among laughter, power, and motivation for religious education by reviewing the history of laughter and four models for laughter. Discusses complexity and the laughter of complexity. Concludes that the laughter of complexity can be a guide towards the appropriate use of power by using intrinsic motivation. (CMK)

  3. Patient Power!

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Crowdsourcing & Rare Diseases Patient Power! Past Issues / Winter 2016 Table of Contents Social ... Porzecanski couldn't be happier that such "patient power" efforts will help SCLS patients who otherwise would ...

  4. Power Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aho, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how to integrate technology into old buildings beginning with an evaluation of the electric power systems. A case study is highlighted showing the process in determining existing conditions, assessing electric power needs, and designing upgrades. (GR)

  5. Pulsed power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, David H.

    Pulsed power systems are critical elements for such prospective weapons technologies as high-power microwaves, electrothermal and electromagnetic projectile launchers, neutral particle beams, space-based FELs, ground-based lasers, and charged particle beams. Pulsed power will also be essential for the development of nonweapon military systems such as lidars and ultrawideband radars, and could serve as the bases for nuclear weapon effect simulators. The pulsed power generation requirements for each of these systems is considered.

  6. Power processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    Processing of electric power has been presented as a discipline that draws on almost every field of electrical engineering, including system and control theory, communications theory, electronic network design, and power component technology. The cost of power processing equipment, which often equals that of expensive, sophisticated, and unconventional sources of electrical energy, such as solar batteries, is a significant consideration in the choice of electric power systems.

  7. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  8. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  9. Solar Sea Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  10. Solar Sea Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  11. 137. POWER PANEL A (208 VOLTS) AND POWER PANEL B ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    137. POWER PANEL A (208 VOLTS) AND POWER PANEL B (480 VOLTS) ON EAST WALL OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (212), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. Electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, M.

    1988-01-01

    This text examines the critical problems faced by the electric power industry, shown in the context of a detailed description of the history and development of the industry. A new industry initiative is proposed that will allow for a more effective response to industry fluctuations. Topics covered include developments in power technology federal nuclear power regulation and legislation, environmentalism and conservationism, industry financial problems, capital minimization, and responses to utility responsibility.

  13. Satellite power system operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugh, F. L.; Gordon, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    A projection of the electrical energy demands over the next 30 to 50 years, coupled with reasonable assessments of known or developable energy sources, indicates that a shortage of electrical energy will occur about the turn of the century. Recognizing the criticality of such a shortage, the Department of Energy is currently evaluating alternative power generation concepts. One of these candidate concepts is the Satellite Power System. The power levels considered during the evaluation of the various satellite systems have ranged from 5 to 10 GW. It is apparent that, with this power level, both the satellite and the rectenna must be very large and encompass a large number of complex operational system activities. Major elements of the Satellite Power System (SPS) consist of a power satellite placed in a geosynchronous equatorial orbit, and a dedicated ground receiving station (GRS) located at a selected site within the continental United States. The nominal power output of the SPS is established at 5 gigawatts (5 million kilowatts) although, because of various system constraints or losses, it may actually produce between 4 and 5 gigawatts.

  14. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  15. Powerful Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Jim, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Tett, Lyn, Ed.

    These 15 papers share a common theme: seeking to promote literacy as a powerful tool for challenging existing inequalities and dependencies. "Powerful Literacies" (Jim Crowther et al.) is an introduction. Section 1 establishes the theoretical and policy frameworks that underpin the book and shows how literacy is situated in different…

  16. Powerful Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Jim, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Tett, Lyn, Ed.

    These 15 papers share a common theme: seeking to promote literacy as a powerful tool for challenging existing inequalities and dependencies. "Powerful Literacies" (Jim Crowther et al.) is an introduction. Section 1 establishes the theoretical and policy frameworks that underpin the book and shows how literacy is situated in different…

  17. Diastatic power

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    diastatic power: Diastatic power, abbreviated DP, is the total activity of malt starch degrading enzymes that hydrolyze starch to fermentable sugars. The starch degrading enzymes contributing to this process are a-amylase, ß-amylase, limit dextrinase, and a-glucosidase. The driving force for DP a...

  18. Power Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Power Teaching weaves four factors into a seamless whole: standards, teaching thinking, research based strategies, and critical inquiry. As a prototype in its first year of development with an urban fifth grade class, the power teaching model connects selected district standards, thinking routines from Harvard University Project Zero Research…

  19. Power Source

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooley, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Principals are powerful: They are the primary catalysts for creating a lasting foundation for learning, driving school and student performance, and shaping the long-term impact of school improvement efforts. Yet few principals would characterize themselves as powerful. Rather, they're self-effacing, adaptable, pragmatic, and quick to share credit…

  20. Power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, G.

    1982-01-01

    Significant events in current, prototype, and experimental utility power generating systems in 1981 are reviewed. The acceleration of licensing and the renewal of plans for reprocessing of fuel for nuclear power plants are discussed, including the rise of French reactor-produced electricity to over 40% of the country's electrical output. A 4.5 MW fuel cell neared completion in New York City, while three 2.5 MW NASA-designed windpowered generators began producing power in the state of Washington. Static bar compensators, nonflammable-liquid cooled power transformers, and ZnO surge arrestors were used by utilities for the first time, and the integration of a coal gasifier-combined cycle power plant approached the planning phase. An MHD generator was run for 1000 hours and produced 50-60 kWe, while a 20 MVA superconducting generator was readied for testing.

  1. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  2. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  3. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  4. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  5. Complex oxides useful for thermoelectric energy conversion

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar, Arunava [Orinda, CA; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy [Moraga, CA; Yu, Choongho [College Station, TX; Scullin, Matthew L [Berkeley, CA; Huijben, Mark [Enschede, NL

    2012-07-17

    The invention provides for a thermoelectric system comprising a substrate comprising a first complex oxide, wherein the substrate is optionally embedded with a second complex oxide. The thermoelectric system can be used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  6. Power performance

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1996-04-01

    Two power generation engineering and construction firms with international markets are briefly described in this article. Bibb and Associates and Black & Veatch, both Kansas-based companies, are discussed. Current projects and services provided by the companies are described.

  7. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  8. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  9. Power combiner

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  10. Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-01-01

    Maxwell Laboratories capacitor charging power supply is the first commercial spinoff from the NASA CCDS program - a consortia of industries and government establishments to accelerate development of ground and space based commercial applications of NASA technology. The power supply transforms and conditions large voltages to charge capacitors used in x-ray sources, medical accelerators, etc. It is lighter, more reliable, more compact and efficient. Originally developed for space lasers, its commercial potential was soon recognized.

  11. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  12. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  13. Power Systems Control Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    James Davidson

    2005-01-01

    A diagram provided in the report depicts the complexity of the power systems control architecture used by the national power structure. It shows the structural hierarchy and the relationship of the each system to those other systems interconnected to it. Each of these levels provides a different focus for vulnerability testing and has its own weaknesses. In evaluating each level, of prime concern is what vulnerabilities exist that provide a path into the system, either to cause the system to malfunction or to take control of a field device. An additional vulnerability to consider is can the system be compromised in such a manner that the attacker can obtain critical information about the system and the portion of the national power structure that it controls.

  14. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  15. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  16. Complexity and emergent phenomena.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla; Bates, Jason H T; Frey, Urs

    2011-04-01

    Complex biological systems operate under non-equilibrium conditions and exhibit emergent properties associated with correlated spatial and temporal structures. These properties may be individually unpredictable, but tend to be governed by power-law probability distributions and/or correlation. This article reviews the concepts that are invoked in the treatment of complex systems through a wide range of respiratory-related examples. Following a brief historical overview, some of the tools to characterize structural variabilities and temporal fluctuations associated with complex systems are introduced. By invoking the concept of percolation, the notion of multiscale behavior and related modeling issues are discussed. Spatial complexity is then examined in the airway and parenchymal structures with implications for gas exchange followed by a short glimpse of complexity at the cellular and subcellular network levels. Variability and complexity in the time domain are then reviewed in relation to temporal fluctuations in airway function. Next, an attempt is given to link spatial and temporal complexities through examples of airway opening and lung tissue viscoelasticity. Specific examples of possible and more direct clinical implications are also offered through examples of optimal future treatment of fibrosis, exacerbation risk prediction in asthma, and a novel method in mechanical ventilation. Finally, the potential role of the science of complexity in the future of physiology, biology, and medicine is discussed.

  17. Communication complexity and information complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  18. Increasing complexity with quantum physics.

    PubMed

    Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline

    2011-09-01

    We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task.

  19. Power inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David H; Korich, Mark D; Smith, Gregory S

    2011-11-15

    Power inverters include a frame and a power module. The frame has a sidewall including an opening and defining a fluid passageway. The power module is coupled to the frame over the opening and includes a substrate, die, and an encasement. The substrate includes a first side, a second side, a center, an outer periphery, and an outer edge, and the first side of the substrate comprises a first outer layer including a metal material. The die are positioned in the substrate center and are coupled to the substrate first side. The encasement is molded over the outer periphery on the substrate first side, the substrate second side, and the substrate outer edge and around the die. The encasement, coupled to the substrate, forms a seal with the metal material. The second side of the substrate is positioned to directly contact a fluid flowing through the fluid passageway.

  20. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Yale, O.S.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a power transmission. It comprises: in combination, a master gear having at least one annular tooth set, means for drivingly engaging the master gear with a power source, driven shaft, a yoke member attached to the shaft and including a screw pump housing extending radially with respect to the shaft with a pair of ports in spaced relation, a pump screw rotatable in the housing and a pump gear attached to the screw and engaging the annular tooth set, and a casing for transmission fluid. The pump housing being located for immersion in the fluid.

  1. Active impedance matching of complex structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active impedance matching of complex structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: traveling wave model; dereverberated mobility model; computation of dereverberated mobility; control problem: optimal impedance matching; H2 optimal solution; statistical energy analysis (SEA) solution; experimental transfer functions; interferometer actuator and sensor locations; active strut configurations; power dual variables; dereverberation of complex structure; dereverberated transfer function; compensators; and relative power flow.

  2. Capitalizing Resolving Power of Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation by Freezing and Precisely Slicing Centrifuged Solution: Enabling Identification of Complex Proteins from Mitochondria by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiqing; Lu, Joann J.; Rao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Density gradient centrifugation is widely utilized for various high purity sample preparations, and density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) is often used for more resolution-demanding purification of organelles and protein complexes. Accurately locating different isopycnic layers and precisely extracting solutions from these layers play a critical role in achieving high-resolution DGU separations. In this technique note, we develop a DGU procedure by freezing the solution rapidly (but gently) after centrifugation to fix the resolved layers and by slicing the frozen solution to fractionate the sample. Because the thickness of each slice can be controlled to be as thin as 10 micrometers, we retain virtually all the resolution produced by DGU. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, we fractionate complex V from HeLa mitochondria using a conventional technique and this freezing-slicing (F-S) method. The comparison indicates that our F-S method can reduce complex V layer thicknesses by ~40%. After fractionation, we analyze complex V proteins directly on a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Twelve out of fifteen subunits of complex V are positively identified. Our method provides a practical protocol to identify proteins from complexes, which is useful to investigate biomolecular complexes and pathways in various conditions and cell types. PMID:27668122

  3. Power, Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    Power is a core theoretical construct in the field with amazing utility across substantive areas, levels of analysis and methodologies. Yet, its use along with associated assumptions--assumptions surrounding constraint vs. action and specifically organizational structure and rationality--remain problematic. In this article, and following an…

  4. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  5. POWER SEWING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLINGER, YVONNE M.

    ALTHOUGH THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO PROVIDE A TEXT IN POWER SEWING FOR DEAF PUPILS, IT CAN ALSO BE USED FOR STUDENTS WITH READING OR LEARNING DIFFICULTIES. DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTOR WITH FACULTY HELP, THE TEXT FOLLOWS A COURSE OF STUDY APPROVED BY THE BOARD OF EDUCATION AND HAS BEEN TESTED IN VARIOUS CLASSROOMS. UNITS ARE --…

  6. Power Struggle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    California's "power struggle" will probably not be replicated in the other 23 states that have deregulated electricity, but costs are rising everywhere. The Environmental Protection Agency/Department of Energy's new Energy Star online rating system should help school officials measure their buildings' efficiency and remove barriers to…

  7. Stigma power.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo

    2014-02-01

    When people have an interest in keeping other people down, in or away, stigma is a resource that allows them to obtain ends they desire. We call this resource "stigma power" and use the term to refer to instances in which stigma processes achieve the aims of stigmatizers with respect to the exploitation, control or exclusion of others. We draw on Bourdieu (1987, 1990) who notes that power is often most effectively deployed when it is hidden or "misrecognized." To explore the utility of the stigma-power concept we examine ways in which the goals of stigmatizers are achieved but hidden in the stigma coping efforts of people with mental illnesses. We developed new self-report measures and administered them to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness to test whether results are consistent with the possibility that, in response to negative societal conceptions, the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of people with psychosis lead them to be concerned with staying in, propelled to stay away and induced to feel downwardly placed - precisely the outcomes stigmatizers might desire. Our introduction of the stigma-power concept carries the possibility of seeing stigmatizing circumstances in a new light. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Power sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, M. M. J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper explains how a large number of sprouts were used as a battery of cells and connected together to power a set of LED Christmas lights. All relevant calculations to find the number of sprouts needed, their arrangement in series and parallel, the charge stored on the required capacitor and the capacitor charging time are illustrated.

  9. Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukuk, Marvin; Mathis, Joe

    This curriculum guide is part of a series designed to teach students about diesel engines. The materials in this power trains guide apply to both on-road and off-road vehicles and include information about chain and belt drives used in tractors and combines. These instructional materials, containing nine units, are written in terms of student…

  10. Star Power

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  11. Power, Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    Power is a core theoretical construct in the field with amazing utility across substantive areas, levels of analysis and methodologies. Yet, its use along with associated assumptions--assumptions surrounding constraint vs. action and specifically organizational structure and rationality--remain problematic. In this article, and following an…

  12. Perpetual Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2010-02-16

    This is a submission to Innovation Magazine for its January 2010 Clean-tech issue. The article discusses PNNL's award-winning Thermoelectric Ambient Energy Harvester technology, its license to Perpetua Power Source Technologies, Perpetua's subsequent product based on the PNNL technology, and where they're headed with it.

  13. Power Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    The power factor controller (PFC) senses shifts in the relationship between voltage and current, and matches them with a motor's need. This prevents waste as motors do not need a high voltage when they are not operating at full load conditions. PFC is manufactured by Nordic Controls Company, among others, and has proved extremely cost effective.

  14. Power Struggle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    California's "power struggle" will probably not be replicated in the other 23 states that have deregulated electricity, but costs are rising everywhere. The Environmental Protection Agency/Department of Energy's new Energy Star online rating system should help school officials measure their buildings' efficiency and remove barriers to…

  15. Complex Training: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Ebben, William P.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of plyometric training is well supported by research. Complex training has gained popularity as a training strategy combining weight training and plyometric training. Anecdotal reports recommend training in this fashion in order to improve muscular power and athletic performance. Recently, several studies have examined complex training. Despite the fact that questions remain about the potential effectiveness and implementation of this type of training, results of recent studies are useful in guiding practitioners in the development and implementation of complex training programs. In some cases, research suggests that complex training has an acute ergogenic effect on upper body power and the results of acute and chronic complex training include improved jumping performance. Improved performance may require three to four minutes rest between the weight training and plyometrics sets and the use of heavy weight training loads. PMID:24688269

  16. Complex Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Cooper, Valentino

    2016-07-12

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  17. Metal-mediated controllable creation of secondary, tertiary, and quaternary carbon centers: a powerful strategy for the synthesis of iron, cobalt, and copper complexes with in situ generated substituted 1-pyridineimidazo[1,5-a]pyridine ligands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanmei; Li, Lei; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Yonglu; Hu, Hailiang; Chen, Wenqian; Liu, Wei; Li, Yahong; Lei, Tao; Cao, Yanyuan; Kang, Zhenghui; Lin, Miaoshui; Li, Wu

    2012-09-17

    An efficient strategy for the synthesis of a wide variety of coordination complexes has been developed. The synthetic protocol involves a solvothermal in situ metal-ligand reaction of picolinaldehyde, ammonium acetate, and transition-metal ions, leading to the generation of 12 coordination complexes supported by a novel class of substituted 1-pyridineimidazo[1,5-a]pyridine ligands (L1-L5). The ligands L1-L5 were afforded by metal-mediated controllable conversion of the aldehyde group of picolialdehyde into a ketone and secondary, tertiary, and quaternary carbon centers, respectively. Complexes of various nuclearities were obtained: from mono-, di-, and tetranuclear to 1D chain polymers. The structures of the in situ formed complexes could be controlled rationally via the choice of appropriate starting materials and tuning of the ratio of the starting materials. The plausible mechanisms for the formation of the ligands L1-L5 were proposed.

  18. Complex odontoma.

    PubMed

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  19. Designing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanville, Ranulph

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the nature of complexity and design, as well as relationships between the two, and suggests that design may have much potential as an approach to improving human performance in situations seen as complex. It is developed against two backgrounds. The first is a world view that derives from second order cybernetics and radical…

  20. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  1. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  2. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  3. Power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A dc-to-dc converter employs four transistor switches in a bridge to chop dc power from a source, and a voltage multiplying diode rectifying ladder network to rectify and filter the chopped dc power for delivery to a load. The bridge switches are cross coupled in order for diagonally opposite pairs to turn on and off together using RC networks for the cross coupling to achieve the mode of operation of a free running multivibrator, and the diode rectifying ladder is configured to operate in a push-pull mode driven from opposite sides of the multivibrator outputs of the ridge switches. The four transistor switches provide a square-wave output voltage which as a peak-to-peak amplitude that is twice the input dc voltage, and is thus useful as a dc-to-ac inverter.

  4. Learning Platform for Study of Power Electronic Application in Power Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, P.; Rompelman, O.

    2005-01-01

    Present engineering has to deal with increasingly complex systems. In particular, this is the case in electrical engineering. Though this is obvious in microelectronics, also in the field of power systems engineers have to design, operate and maintain highly complex systems such as power grids, energy converters and electrical drives. This is…

  5. Learning Platform for Study of Power Electronic Application in Power Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, P.; Rompelman, O.

    2005-01-01

    Present engineering has to deal with increasingly complex systems. In particular, this is the case in electrical engineering. Though this is obvious in microelectronics, also in the field of power systems engineers have to design, operate and maintain highly complex systems such as power grids, energy converters and electrical drives. This is…

  6. Power saw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Jimmy D. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A power saw is disclosed for space or robotic operations with jaw members for clamping to a work piece by an operation of a lever arm. The saw assembly is slidably mounted on the jaw assembly and fed into the work piece by a hand operated feed screw. The saw assembly includes a motor and gear belt. A current sensing circuit provides a current signal which actuates colored lights to visually depict the load on the saw blade during the cutting operations.

  7. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  8. Power sources.

    PubMed

    Luciano, A A

    1995-09-01

    The rapid development of endoscopic surgery has created an ever-increasing demand for new instruments, such as lasers of various wavelengths, and new applications of high-frequency electrosurgery. The technology has advanced rapidly and it is sometimes difficult to understand the different applications of these new instruments and take full advantage of these developments. This article has reviewed the basic principles of the various power sources commonly utilized in gynecologic surgery and described the clinical applications of each of them.

  9. Stigma Power

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo

    2015-01-01

    When people have an interest in keeping other people down, in or away, stigma is a resource that allows them to obtain ends they desire. We call this resource “stigma power” and use the term to refer to instances in which stigma processes achieve the aims of stigmatizers with respect to the exploitation, control or exclusion of others. We draw on Bourdieu (1987; 1990) who notes that power is often most effectively deployed when it is hidden or “misrecognized.” To explore the utility of the stigma power concept we examine ways in which the goals of stigmatizers are achieved but hidden in the stigma coping efforts of people with mental illnesses. We developed new self-report measures and administered them to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness to test whether results are consistent with the possibility that, in response to negative societal conceptions, the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of people with psychosis lead them to be concerned with staying in, propelled to stay away and induced to feel downwardly placed –precisely the outcomes stigmatizers might desire. Our introduction of the stigma power concept carries the possibility of seeing stigmatizing circumstances in a new light. PMID:24507908

  10. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  11. Softball Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jim

    1977-01-01

    The Parks and Recreation Department of Montgomery, Alabama, has developed a five-field softball complex as part of a growing community park with facilities for camping, golf, aquatics, tennis, and picnicking. (MJB)

  12. IPD 100% Power Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Integrated Powerhead Demonstration engine was fired at 100 percent power for the first time July 12, 2006 at NASA Stennis Space Center's E Test Complex. The IPD, which can generate about 250,000 pounds of thrust, is a reusable engine system whose technologies could one day help Americans return to the moon, and travel to Mars and beyond. The IPD engine has been designed, developed and tested through the combined efforts of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne and Aerojet, under the direction of the Air Force Research Laboratory and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center.

  13. IPD 100% Power Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Integrated Powerhead Demonstration engine was fired at 100 percent power for the first time July 12, 2006 at NASA Stennis Space Center's E Test Complex. The IPD, which can generate about 250,000 pounds of thrust, is a reusable engine system whose technologies could one day help Americans return to the moon, and travel to Mars and beyond. The IPD engine has been designed, developed and tested through the combined efforts of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne and Aerojet, under the direction of the Air Force Research Laboratory and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center.

  14. IPD 100% Power Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-12

    The Integrated Powerhead Demonstration engine was fired at 100 percent power for the first time July 12, 2006 at NASA Stennis Space Center's E Test Complex. The IPD, which can generate about 250,000 pounds of thrust, is a reusable engine system whose technologies could one day help Americans return to the moon, and travel to Mars and beyond. The IPD engine has been designed, developed and tested through the combined efforts of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne and Aerojet, under the direction of the Air Force Research Laboratory and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. Autonomous power system intelligent diagnosis and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

  16. Cyber Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    concept of A’s power over B is for the description of the policy possibilities open to A.”5 In Max Weber’s view, we want to know the probability that an...name system of internet addresses starts in 1983, and the first computer viruses were created about that time. The World Wide Web begins in 1989...carrier task forces and submarine fleets create enor- mous barriers to entry and make it still possible to speak of American naval dominance. While

  17. It is complicated! - misunderstanding the complexities of 'complex'.

    PubMed

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M; Katerndahl, David A

    2017-04-01

    Terminology matters - as Lakoff emphasised, words and phrases evoke powerful images and frames of understanding. It is for that reason that we need to discern and use appropriately the term complex/complexity in the health science/professional/policy domain. Complex is the fashionable term used when in reality one means 'complicated', 'difficult to understand' or 'multiple simultaneous actions'. However, this is not what complex means. The Latin term means 'entwined/interwoven' - a structural characteristic describing systems. Complexity arises from the interactions between structurally connected entities - a functional characteristic of a system. The basis of scientific rigor is a clear understanding of a discipline's epistemology. Complexity refers to the emergence of outcomes from the interactions of a system's constituent components (and thus has nothing in common with the colloquial meaning of complicatedness). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. More Power to the President?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keohane, Nannerl O.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that with the increasing complexity of American college and university governance, the presidency should be strengthened, and the president's goal should be to use the powers of the office in serious, not cosmetic, collaboration with others who have responsibility and interests in the institution, and to bring partial views together in a…

  19. More Power to the President?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keohane, Nannerl O.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that with the increasing complexity of American college and university governance, the presidency should be strengthened, and the president's goal should be to use the powers of the office in serious, not cosmetic, collaboration with others who have responsibility and interests in the institution, and to bring partial views together in a…

  20. Complex chimerism

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Kimberly K.; Petroff, Margaret G.; Coscia, Lisa A.; Armenti, Vincent T.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant. PMID:23974274

  1. Mixed real/complex factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, L.T.G. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Martines, N.; Pinto, H.J.C.P. . Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Electrica)

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes a mixed real/complex sparse matrix factorization and solution scheme applied to a large matrix problem. Large system eigenanalysis and frequency domain methods will directly benefit from the proposed scheme, which can reduce both memory and CPU time requirements when compared to conventional complex-only solutions. The application in hand is the small signal electromechanical stability analysis of large power systems. The savings obtained are significant considering the CPU intensive nature of these matrix problems.

  2. Power optics

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonov, V V

    2014-02-28

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The

  3. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  4. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  5. 9. Interior view, west side of power plant, electrical panels ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view, west side of power plant, electrical panels in place in center of photograph, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  6. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  7. 8. EXTERIOR DETAIL, BUILDING 18 (POWER PLANT RESEARCH LABORATORY) (1991). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EXTERIOR DETAIL, BUILDING 18 (POWER PLANT RESEARCH LABORATORY) (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 18, Power Plant Laboratory Complex, Northeast corner of C & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  8. 7. EXTERIOR NORTHWEST VIEW, BUILDING 18 (POWER PLANT RESEARCH LABORATORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EXTERIOR NORTHWEST VIEW, BUILDING 18 (POWER PLANT RESEARCH LABORATORY) (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 18, Power Plant Laboratory Complex, Northeast corner of C & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  9. 15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  10. Power oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Gitsevich, Aleksandr

    2001-01-01

    An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  11. POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  12. Rotary Power Transformer and Inverter Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.; Bridgeforth, A. O.

    1985-01-01

    Noise lower than with sliprings. Rotary transformer transfers electric power across rotary joint. No wearing contacts, no contact noise, and no contamination from lubricants or wear debris. Because additional inductor not required, size and complexity of circuit reduced considerably.

  13. Rotary Power Transformer and Inverter Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.; Bridgeforth, A. O.

    1985-01-01

    Noise lower than with sliprings. Rotary transformer transfers electric power across rotary joint. No wearing contacts, no contact noise, and no contamination from lubricants or wear debris. Because additional inductor not required, size and complexity of circuit reduced considerably.

  14. POWER GRID DYNAMICS: ENHANCING POWER SYSTEM OPERATION THROUGH PRONY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, C.; Huang, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Prony Analysis is a technique used to decompose a signal into a series consisting of weighted complex exponentials and promises to be an effi cient way of recognizing sensitive lines during faults in power systems such as the U.S. Power grid. Positive Sequence Load Flow (PSLF) was used to simulate the performance of a simple two-area-four-generator system and the reaction of the system during a line fault. The Dynamic System Identifi cation (DSI) Toolbox was used to perform Prony analysis and use modal information to identify key transmission lines for power fl ow adjustment to improve system damping. The success of the application of Prony analysis methods to the data obtained from PSLF is reported, and the key transmission line for adjustment is identifi ed. Future work will focus on larger systems and improving the current algorithms to deal with networks such as large portions of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) power grid.

  15. A new bipolar Qtrim power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, C.; Bruno, D.; Drozd, J.; Nolan, T.; Orsatti, F.; Heppener, G.; Di Lieto, A.; Schultheiss, C.; Samms, T.; Zapasek, R.; Sandberg, J.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run of RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) operations. The reliability of superconducting magnet power supplies is one of the essential factors in the entire accelerator complex. Besides maintaining existing power supplies and their associated equipment, newly designed systems are also required based on the physicist’s latest requirements. A bipolar power supply was required for this year’s main quadruple trim power supply. This paper will explain the design, prototype, testing, installation and operation of this recently installed power supply system.

  16. Complex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Régules, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Complexity science - which describes phenomena such as collective and emergent behaviour - is the focus of a new centre where researchers are examining everything from the spread of influenza to what a healthy heartbeat looks like. Sergio de Régules reports.

  17. Amorphic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, G.; Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce amorphic complexity as a new topological invariant that measures the complexity of dynamical systems in the regime of zero entropy. Its main purpose is to detect the very onset of disorder in the asymptotic behaviour. For instance, it gives positive value to Denjoy examples on the circle and Sturmian subshifts, while being zero for all isometries and Morse-Smale systems. After discussing basic properties and examples, we show that amorphic complexity and the underlying asymptotic separation numbers can be used to distinguish almost automorphic minimal systems from equicontinuous ones. For symbolic systems, amorphic complexity equals the box dimension of the associated Besicovitch space. In this context, we concentrate on regular Toeplitz flows and give a detailed description of the relation to the scaling behaviour of the densities of the p-skeletons. Finally, we take a look at strange non-chaotic attractors appearing in so-called pinched skew product systems. Continuous-time systems, more general group actions and the application to cut and project quasicrystals will be treated in subsequent work.

  18. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  19. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  20. The power of genomic control.

    PubMed Central

    Bacanu, S A; Devlin, B; Roeder, K

    2000-01-01

    Although association analysis is a useful tool for uncovering the genetic underpinnings of complex traits, its utility is diminished by population substructure, which can produce spurious association between phenotype and genotype within population-based samples. Because family-based designs are robust against substructure, they have risen to the fore of association analysis. Yet, if population substructure could be ignored, this robustness can come at the price of power. Unfortunately it is rarely evident when population substructure can be ignored. Devlin and Roeder recently have proposed a method, termed "genomic control" (GC), which has the robustness of family-based designs even though it uses population-based data. GC uses the genome itself to determine appropriate corrections for population-based association tests. Using the GC method, we contrast the power of two study designs, family trios (i.e., father, mother, and affected progeny) versus case-control. For analysis of trios, we use the TDT test. When population substructure is absent, we find GC is always more powerful than TDT; furthermore, contrary to previous results, we show that as a disease becomes more prevalent the discrepancy in power becomes more extreme. When population substructure is present, however, the results are more complex: TDT is more powerful when population substructure is substantial, and GC is more powerful otherwise. We also explore general issues of power and implementation of GC within the case-control setting and find that, economically, GC is at least comparable to and often less expensive than family-based methods. Therefore, GC methods should prove a useful complement to family-based methods for the genetic analysis of complex traits. PMID:10801388

  1. Exponentiated power Lindley distribution

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, Samir K.; Eltehiwy, Mahmoud A.

    2014-01-01

    A new generalization of the Lindley distribution is recently proposed by Ghitany et al. [1], called as the power Lindley distribution. Another generalization of the Lindley distribution was introduced by Nadarajah et al. [2], named as the generalized Lindley distribution. This paper proposes a more generalization of the Lindley distribution which generalizes the two. We refer to this new generalization as the exponentiated power Lindley distribution. The new distribution is important since it contains as special sub-models some widely well-known distributions in addition to the above two models, such as the Lindley distribution among many others. It also provides more flexibility to analyze complex real data sets. We study some statistical properties for the new distribution. We discuss maximum likelihood estimation of the distribution parameters. Least square estimation is used to evaluate the parameters. Three algorithms are proposed for generating random data from the proposed distribution. An application of the model to a real data set is analyzed using the new distribution, which shows that the exponentiated power Lindley distribution can be used quite effectively in analyzing real lifetime data. PMID:26644927

  2. Exponentiated power Lindley distribution.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Samir K; Eltehiwy, Mahmoud A

    2015-11-01

    A new generalization of the Lindley distribution is recently proposed by Ghitany et al. [1], called as the power Lindley distribution. Another generalization of the Lindley distribution was introduced by Nadarajah et al. [2], named as the generalized Lindley distribution. This paper proposes a more generalization of the Lindley distribution which generalizes the two. We refer to this new generalization as the exponentiated power Lindley distribution. The new distribution is important since it contains as special sub-models some widely well-known distributions in addition to the above two models, such as the Lindley distribution among many others. It also provides more flexibility to analyze complex real data sets. We study some statistical properties for the new distribution. We discuss maximum likelihood estimation of the distribution parameters. Least square estimation is used to evaluate the parameters. Three algorithms are proposed for generating random data from the proposed distribution. An application of the model to a real data set is analyzed using the new distribution, which shows that the exponentiated power Lindley distribution can be used quite effectively in analyzing real lifetime data.

  3. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Robert; Asai, M.; Brand, H.; Chiera, N. M.; Di Nitto, A.; Dressler, R.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Even, J.; Fangli, F.; Goetz, M.; Haba, H.; Hartmann, W.; Jäger, E.; Kaji, D.; Kanaya, J.; Kaneya, Y.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Komori, Y.; Kraus, B.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Kudou, Y.; Kurz, N.; Miyashita, S.; Morimoto, K.; Morita, K.; Murakami, M.; Nagame, Y.; Ooe, K.; Piguet, D.; Sato, N.; Sato, T. K.; Steiner, J.; Steinegger, P.; Sumita, T.; Takeyama, M.; Tanaka, K.; Tomitsuka, T.; Toyoshima, A.; Tsukada, K.; Türler, A.; Usoltsev, I.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wiehl, N.; Wittwer, Y.; Yakushev, A.; Yamaki, S.; Yano, S.; Yamaki, S.; Qin, Z.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO)6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  4. A power flow based model for the analysis of vulnerability in power networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuoyang; Chen, Guo; Hill, David J.; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2016-10-01

    An innovative model which considers power flow, one of the most important characteristics in a power system, is proposed for the analysis of power grid vulnerability. Moreover, based on the complex network theory and the Max-Flow theorem, a new vulnerability index is presented to identify the vulnerable lines in a power grid. In addition, comparative simulations between the power flow based model and existing models are investigated on the IEEE 118-bus system. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model and the index are more effective in power grid vulnerability analysis.

  5. Power management system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  6. Green Power Partnership Videos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  7. E-Learning for Power Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Pavol; Nagy, Istvan

    E-learning with pre-solved animations can provide a better understanding of the status and different network options, compared to complex simulation or a set of equations. In this paper, examples of such animations for e-learning for power quality are presented. Different network options in a centralized or distributed power system and power electronics based compensators are introduced in the form of a new web-based, software learning tool. Power flow congestion and the impact of power electronic compensators on the system, including detailed operations of power electronic based compensators are presented. These compensators include SVCs, Statcom and UPFC presented in this paper. Using these animated tools, both system level and component level operation of these devices are presented. Further the frequent solutions of power factor correction (PFC) applied on low power level of several hundred watts are treated in the paper.

  8. Power Management for Space Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2001-01-01

    Space power systems include the power source, storage, and management subsystems. In current crewed spacecraft, solar cells are the power source, batteries provide storage, and the crew performs any required load scheduling. For future crewed planetary surface systems using Advanced Life Support, we assume that plants will be grown to produce much of the crew's food and that nuclear power will be employed. Battery storage is much more costly than nuclear power capacity and so is not likely to be used. We investigate the scheduling of power demands by the crew or automatic control, to reduce the peak power load and the required generating capacity. The peak to average power ratio is a good measure of power use efficiency. We can easily schedule power demands to reduce the peak power from its maximum, but simple scheduling approaches may not find the lowest possible peak to average power ratio. An initial power scheduling example was simple enough for a human to solve, but a more complex example with many intermittent load demands required automatic scheduling. Excess power is a free resource and can be used even for minor benefits.

  9. Debating complexity in modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    1999-01-01

    As scientists trying to understand the natural world, how should our effort be apportioned? We know that the natural world is characterized by complex and interrelated processes. Yet do we need to explicitly incorporate these intricacies to perform the tasks we are charged with? In this era of expanding computer power and development of sophisticated preprocessors and postprocessors, are bigger machines making better models? Put another way, do we understand the natural world better now with all these advancements in our simulation ability? Today the public's patience for long-term projects producing indeterminate results is wearing thin. This increases pressure on the investigator to use the appropriate technology efficiently. On the other hand, bringing scientific results into the legal arena opens up a new dimension to the issue: to the layperson, a tool that includes more of the complexity known to exist in the real world is expected to provide the more scientifically valid answer.

  10. Persistent homology in graph power filtrations

    PubMed Central

    Marchette, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of homological features in simplicial complex representations of big datasets in Rn resulting from Vietoris–Rips or Čech filtrations is commonly used to probe the topological structure of such datasets. In this paper, the notion of homological persistence in simplicial complexes obtained from power filtrations of graphs is introduced. Specifically, the rth complex, r ≥ 1, in such a power filtration is the clique complex of the rth power Gr of a simple graph G. Because the graph distance in G is the relevant proximity parameter, unlike a Euclidean filtration of a dataset where regional scale differences can be an issue, persistence in power filtrations provides a scale-free insight into the topology of G. It is shown that for a power filtration of G, the girth of G defines an r range over which the homology of the complexes in the filtration are guaranteed to persist in all dimensions. The role of chordal graphs as trivial homology delimiters in power filtrations is also discussed and the related notions of ‘persistent triviality’, ‘transient noise’ and ‘persistent periodicity’ in power filtrations are introduced. PMID:27853540

  11. The energetics of genome complexity.

    PubMed

    Lane, Nick; Martin, William

    2010-10-21

    All complex life is composed of eukaryotic (nucleated) cells. The eukaryotic cell arose from prokaryotes just once in four billion years, and otherwise prokaryotes show no tendency to evolve greater complexity. Why not? Prokaryotic genome size is constrained by bioenergetics. The endosymbiosis that gave rise to mitochondria restructured the distribution of DNA in relation to bioenergetic membranes, permitting a remarkable 200,000-fold expansion in the number of genes expressed. This vast leap in genomic capacity was strictly dependent on mitochondrial power, and prerequisite to eukaryote complexity: the key innovation en route to multicellular life.

  12. How PowerPoint Is Killing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isseks, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Although it is essential to incorporate new technologies into the classroom, says Isseks, one trend has negatively affected instruction--the misuse of PowerPoint presentations. The author describes how poorly designed PowerPoint presentations reduce complex thoughts to bullet points and reduce the act of learning to transferring text from slide to…

  13. How PowerPoint Is Killing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isseks, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Although it is essential to incorporate new technologies into the classroom, says Isseks, one trend has negatively affected instruction--the misuse of PowerPoint presentations. The author describes how poorly designed PowerPoint presentations reduce complex thoughts to bullet points and reduce the act of learning to transferring text from slide to…

  14. Language Networks as Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Max Kueiming; Ou, Sheue-Jen

    2008-01-01

    Starting in the late eighties, with a growing discontent with analytical methods in science and the growing power of computers, researchers began to study complex systems such as living organisms, evolution of genes, biological systems, brain neural networks, epidemics, ecology, economy, social networks, etc. In the early nineties, the research…

  15. Complex Questions Promote Complex Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, Sophie; Berne, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate-grade teachers often express concerns about meeting the Common Core State Standards for Reading, primarily because of the emphasis on deep understanding of complex texts. No matter how difficult the text, if teachers demand little of the reading, student meaning making is not challenged. This article offers a tool for teachers to…

  16. NPS-SCAT: Electrical Power System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    dimensions and weight limits, the complexity or simplicity of power systems is left up to the user. Pumpkin has designed an integrated power supply for...Flight Module The Pumpkin FM430 flight module is the SCAT’s main processor, and is based on Texas Instruments MSP430 series of ultra low power...not connected to other components like the Pumpkin development board. 1. If not already attached, stack 1U battery board onto 1U EPS. 2

  17. Power Sources for Ultra Low Power Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-12

    DARPA asked JASON to examine the issue of power sources for low power electronics with a specific emphasis on the properties of nuclear batteries and...integrated power sources combining power and electronics. During the 1998 Summer Study a workshop was held to provide background for the study, with

  18. Complex magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Yuwei; Zhong Huihuang; Shu Ting; Li Zhiqiang

    2008-08-15

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is a crossed-field device designed specifically to generate microwave power at the gigawatt level, which is a major hotspot in the field of high-power microwaves (HPM) research at present. It is one of the major thrust for MILO development to improve the power conversion efficiency. In order to improve the power conversion efficiency of MILO, a complex MILO is presented and investigated theoretically and numerically, which comprises the MILO-1 and MILO-2. The MILO-2 is used as the load of the MILO-1. The theoretical analyses show that the maximum power conversion efficiency of the complex MILO has an increase of about 50% over the conventional load-limited MILO. The complex MILO is optimized with KARAT code (V. P. Tarakanov, Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., 1992), and the simulation results agree with the theoretical results.

  19. Soldier System Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-31

    capability 21 Photovoltaic Power Sources 23 Maximum Power Tracking in Solar Arrays 23 Optimum Configuration of Solar Array for Enhanced Power Generation...Sources", IEEE Transactions on Power Elec- tronics, vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 244-253, Jan. 2005. 9. S. Liu, R. Dougal, E. Solodovnik, "Maximum Power Tracking and...eguate FRetulat Fig. 5.5. Flow chart of control algorithm. 22 Soldier System Power Sources Final Project Report PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SOURCES MAXIMUM POWER

  20. Power modules and projected power systems evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W.

    1978-01-01

    Photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear power systems are considered to supply future earth orbital electrical power requirements. A growth scenario from a 25-kW Power Module in the early Shuttle era to the 5- to 10-GW Satellite Power System in the year 2000 is presented. Photovoltaic systems are presently baselined in this evolution. The Photovoltaic Power System and subsystem growth projections, consistent with this scenario, were developed and are summarized.

  1. Women, Power, and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuman, Patricia Glass

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of power in the context of women and the library profession, citing views of power by Max Weber, John Kenneth Galbraith, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, and Rosabeth Moss Kantor. Male power and female submission, defining power, organizing for power, and sharing power are highlighted. A 12-item bibliography is included. (EJS)

  2. Women, Power, and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuman, Patricia Glass

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of power in the context of women and the library profession, citing views of power by Max Weber, John Kenneth Galbraith, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, and Rosabeth Moss Kantor. Male power and female submission, defining power, organizing for power, and sharing power are highlighted. A 12-item bibliography is included. (EJS)

  3. Complexity matching in dyadic conversation.

    PubMed

    Abney, Drew H; Paxton, Alexandra; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies of dyadic interaction have examined phenomena of synchronization, entrainment, alignment, and convergence. All these forms of behavioral matching have been hypothesized to play a supportive role in establishing coordination and common ground between interlocutors. In the present study, evidence is found for a new kind of coordination termed complexity matching. Temporal dynamics in conversational speech signals were analyzed through time series of acoustic onset events. Timing in periods of acoustic energy was found to exhibit behavioral matching that reflects complementary timing in turn-taking. In addition, acoustic onset times were found to exhibit power law clustering across a range of timescales, and these power law functions were found to exhibit complexity matching that is distinct from behavioral matching. Complexity matching is discussed in terms of interactive alignment and other theoretical principles that lead to new hypotheses about information exchange in dyadic conversation and interaction in general.

  4. Direct Drive for Low Power Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Due to recent studies, NASA has initiated the development of a low power Hall thruster for discovery class missions. The potential advantages of a low power Hall thruster is primarily due to its high efficiency operation at low power and its lower complexity compared to ion engines. Direct drive is another method of reducing the complexity of a Hall thruster system while improving its efficiency. The technical challenges associated with this technology are reported. Additionally, the benefits of this technology are discussed based on parametric studies and mission analysis.

  5. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  6. Dynamic power flow controllers

    DOEpatents

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish

    2017-03-07

    Dynamic power flow controllers are provided. A dynamic power flow controller may comprise a transformer and a power converter. The power converter is subject to low voltage stresses and not floated at line voltage. In addition, the power converter is rated at a fraction of the total power controlled. A dynamic power flow controller controls both the real and the reactive power flow between two AC sources having the same frequency. A dynamic power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between two AC sources.

  7. Information Power Grid Posters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi

    2003-01-01

    This document is a summary of the accomplishments of the Information Power Grid (IPG). Grids are an emerging technology that provide seamless and uniform access to the geographically dispersed, computational, data storage, networking, instruments, and software resources needed for solving large-scale scientific and engineering problems. The goal of the NASA IPG is to use NASA's remotely located computing and data system resources to build distributed systems that can address problems that are too large or complex for a single site. The accomplishments outlined in this poster presentation are: access to distributed data, IPG heterogeneous computing, integration of large-scale computing node into distributed environment, remote access to high data rate instruments,and exploratory grid environment.

  8. The Applied Mathematics for Power Systems (AMPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael

    2012-07-24

    Increased deployment of new technologies, e.g., renewable generation and electric vehicles, is rapidly transforming electrical power networks by crossing previously distinct spatiotemporal scales and invalidating many traditional approaches for designing, analyzing, and operating power grids. This trend is expected to accelerate over the coming years, bringing the disruptive challenge of complexity, but also opportunities to deliver unprecedented efficiency and reliability. Our Applied Mathematics for Power Systems (AMPS) Center will discover, enable, and solve emerging mathematics challenges arising in power systems and, more generally, in complex engineered networks. We will develop foundational applied mathematics resulting in rigorous algorithms and simulation toolboxes for modern and future engineered networks. The AMPS Center deconstruction/reconstruction approach 'deconstructs' complex networks into sub-problems within non-separable spatiotemporal scales, a missing step in 20th century modeling of engineered networks. These sub-problems are addressed within the appropriate AMPS foundational pillar - complex systems, control theory, and optimization theory - and merged or 'reconstructed' at their boundaries into more general mathematical descriptions of complex engineered networks where important new questions are formulated and attacked. These two steps, iterated multiple times, will bridge the growing chasm between the legacy power grid and its future as a complex engineered network.

  9. Power in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pamela K; Hofmann, Wilhelm

    2016-09-06

    How does power manifest itself in everyday life? Using experience-sampling methodology, we investigated the prevalence, sources, and correlates of power in people's natural environments. Participants experienced power-relevant situations regularly, though not frequently. High power was not restricted to a limited few: almost half of the sample reported experiencing high-power positions. Positional power and subjective feelings of power were strongly related but had unique relations with several individual difference measures and independent effects on participants' affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations. Subjective feelings of power resulted more from within-participant situational fluctuation, such as the social roles participants held at different times, than from stable differences between people. Our data supported some theoretical predictions about power's effects on affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations, but qualified others, particularly highlighting the role of responsibility in power's effects. Although the power literature has focused on high power, we found stronger effects of low power than high power.

  10. Power flow control using quadrature boosters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanandan, Sandeep N.

    A power system that can be controlled within security constraints would be an advantage to power planners and real-time operators. Controlling flows can lessen reliability issues such as thermal limit violations, power stability problems, and/or voltage stability conditions. Control of flows can also mitigate market issues by reducing congestion on some lines and rerouting power to less loaded lines or onto preferable paths. In the traditional control of power flows, phase shifters are often used. More advanced methods include using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) Controllers. Some examples include Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors, Synchronous Series Static Compensators, and Unified Power Flow Controllers. Quadrature Boosters (QBs) have similar structures to phase-shifters, but allow for higher voltage magnitude during real power flow control. In comparison with other FACTS controllers QBs are not as complex and not as expensive. The present study proposes to use QBs to control power flows on a power system. With the inclusion of QBs, real power flows can be controlled to desired scheduled values. In this thesis, the linearized power flow equations used for power flow analysis were modified for the control problem. This included modifying the Jacobian matrix, the power error vector, and calculating the voltage injected by the quadrature booster for the scheduled real power flow. Two scenarios were examined using the proposed power flow control method. First, the power flow in a line in a 5-bus system was modified with a QB using the method developed in this thesis. Simulation was carried out using Matlab. Second, the method was applied to a 30-bus system and then to a 118-bus system using several QBs. In all the cases, the calculated values of the QB voltages led to desired power flows in the designated line.

  11. Finding Complex Roots: Can You Trust Your Calculator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciesla, Barbara A.; Watson, John W.

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates a specific instance when the textbook answer for finding a root of a complex number differed with the answer given by the TI-83. After explaining the reason for the difference the article then expands the definition of the integral root of a complex number to an arbitrary complex power of a complex number.

  12. Agent-based modeling of complex infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.

    2001-06-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investigation of the electric power infrastructure, the natural gas infrastructure and their interdependencies.

  13. Complex amine-based reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, S. Yu.; Kirilina, A. V.; Sergeev, I. A.; Zezyulya, T. V.; Sokolova, E. A.; Eremina, E. V.; Timofeev, N. V.

    2017-03-01

    Amines for a long time have been applied to maintaining water chemistry conditions (WCC) at power plants. However, making use of complex reagents that are the mixture of neutralizing and the filmforming amines, which may also contain other organic components, causes many disputes. This is mainly due to lack of reliable information about these components. The protective properties of any amine with regard to metal surfaces depend on several factors, which are considered in this article. The results of applying complex reagents to the protection of heating surfaces in industrial conditions and estimated behavior forecasts for various reagents under maintaining WCC on heat-recovery boilers with different thermal circuits are presented. The case of a two-drum heat-recovery boiler with in-line drums was used as an example, for which we present the calculated pH values for various brands of reagents under the same conditions. Work with different reagent brands and its analysis enabled us to derive a composition best suitable for the conditions of their practical applications in heat-recovery boilers at different pressures. Testing the new amine reagent performed at a CCPP power unit shows that this reagent is an adequate base for further development of reagents based on amine compounds. An example of testing a complex reagent is shown created with the participation of the authors within the framework the program of import substitution and its possible use is demonstrated for maintaining WCC of power-generating units of combined-cycle power plants (CCPP) and TPP. The compliance of the employed reagents with the standards of water chemistry conditions and protection of heating surfaces were assessed. The application of amine-containing reagents at power-generating units of TPP makes it possible to solve complex problems aimed at ensuring the sparing cleaning of heating surfaces from deposits and the implementation of conservation and management of water chemistry condition

  14. Revitalization of Nuclear Powered Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    There needs to be a better way, and the USAF might look to the past to do it. Nuclear Powered Aircraft History On July 16, 1945, the first atomic ...weapon was detonated in New Mexico, subsequently starting the Atomic Age. In its beginning, the United States’ population was very positive about the...creation of the Atomic Energy Commission. President Eisenhower distrusted the military industrial complex, suspecting companies were pushing

  15. Power electronics for low power arcjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.

    1991-01-01

    In anticipation of the needs of future light-weight low-power spacecraft, arcjet power electronics in the 100- to 400-W operating range were developed. Power topologies similar to those in the higher 2-kW and 5- to 30-kW power range were implemented, including a four-transistor bridge-switching circuit, current-mode pulse-width modulated control, and an output current averaging inductor with an integral pulse generation winding. Reduction of switching transients was accomplished using a low inductance power distribution network, and no passive snubber circuits were necessary for power switch protection. Phase shift control of the power bridge was accomplished using an improved pulse width modulation to phase shift converter circuit. These features, along with conservative magnetics designs, allowed power conversion efficiencies of greater than 92.5 percent to be achieved into resistive loads over the entire operating range of the converter.

  16. The distrust of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Hohenemser, C; Kasperson, R; Kates, R

    1977-04-01

    Society seems content to strike a more moderate or uncertain balance with other technologies than with nuclear power. This attitude is traced to the social history of nuclear power, the genuine uncertainty and complexity of safety issues, underestimation of the regulatory task, and the rancorous nature of the debate. Nuclear power is not just another problem of technology, of environment, or of health. It is unique in our time. To be more demanding of nuclear safety may be to apply a double standard, but not necessarily an irrational one. Our best course appears to be to keep the nuclear option open, work toward the rapid resolution of problems such as waste disposal, but postpone recycling and the breeder reactor. Time is needed to resolve immediate problems such as transport and disposal of nuclear wastes; to come to terms with trans-scientific issues such as plutonium toxicity, sabotage, and weapons proliferation; and to evaluate long-term energy alternatives.

  17. Power Struggles. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Bonnie; Duffy, Roslyn; Garbarino, James; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Presents four articles about children's power struggles: (1) "The Personal Side of Power" (Bonnie Neugebauer); (2) "Learning To Harness Human Power" (Roslyn Duffy); (3) "Power Struggles: Early Experiences Matter" (James Garbarino); and (4) "Personal Power: Creating New Realities" (Janet Gonzalez-Mena). (DLH)

  18. The Powers of Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the concept of power and how it relates to school libraries. Topics include personal power; organizational sources of power; organization versus power; the climate within a school, which influences decision making and collaboration; and the role of the library in sharing the power of resources and information. (LRW)

  19. Quantization Effects on Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Lin; Yang, Wen; Wang, Xiaofan

    2016-01-01

    Weights of edges in many complex networks we constructed are quantized values of the real weights. To what extent does the quantization affect the properties of a network? In this work, quantization effects on network properties are investigated based on the spectrum of the corresponding Laplacian. In contrast to the intuition that larger quantization level always implies a better approximation of the quantized network to the original one, we find a ubiquitous periodic jumping phenomenon with peak-value decreasing in a power-law relationship in all the real-world weighted networks that we investigated. We supply theoretical analysis on the critical quantization level and the power laws. PMID:27226049

  20. Infrared power cells for satellite power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical investigation is performed to assess the feasibility of long-wavelength power converters for the direct conversion of IR radiation onto electrical power. Because theses devices need to operate between 5 and 30 um the only material system possible for this application is the HgCdTe system which is currently being developed for IR detectors. Thus solar cell and IR detector theories and technologies are combined. The following subject areas are covered: electronic and optical properties of HgCdTe alloys; optimum device geometry; junction theory; model calculation for homojunction power cell efficiency; and calculation for HgCdTe power cell and power beaming.

  1. Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrou, A. N.; Durgin, W. W.; Cohn, R. F.; Olinger, D. J.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Chan, Agnes; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Conley, Kristin; Crivelli, Paul M.; Javorski, Christian T.

    1992-01-01

    Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design included minimizing the power requirements and maximizing the strength-to-weight and lift-to-drag ratios. Given the design constraints, Surya (the code-name given to the aircraft), is a lightweight aircraft primarily built using composite materials and capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar energy.

  2. Green Power Partner Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  3. Green Power Community News

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page features news about EPA's Green Power Communities. GPCs are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements.

  4. 8. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #211, battery equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #211, battery equipment room; showing battery racks. The dc power of these batteries is distributed to motor-control centers, the annunciator system, and fire alarm and tripping circuits - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  5. 9. View southeast corner of perimeter acquisition radar power plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View southeast corner of perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #214, control room; showing central monitoring station console in foreground. Well and booster control panel in left background and electric power management panel on far right - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  6. Multiscale simulation of complex coacervates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Kyle Q.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Qin, Jian; Priftis, Dimitris; Perry, Sarah; Leon, Lorraine; Kade, Matthew; Tirrell, Matthew; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2014-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of polymers having opposite charge can separate into a coacervate phase and a supernatant water phase.The conditions leading to such behavior, including chain lenght, ionization fraction, ionic strength, molecular structure, and temperature are poorly understood. Though thermodynamic models of this phase separation exist, they offer little descriptive power for the mechanism of complex coacervation, and the internal structure of the coacervate and precipitate phases. Here we use atomic-level and coarse-grained representations of polypeptides to study features of the phase diagram, scaling relations, and microstructure of complex coacervates, comparing results to experimental data and model calculations.

  7. Power electronics for low power arcjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.

    1991-01-01

    In anticipation of the needs of future light-weight, low-power spacecraft, arcjet power electronics in the 100 to 400 W operating range were developed. Limited spacecraft power and thermal control capacity of these small spacecraft emphasized the need for high efficiency. Power topologies similar to those in the higher 2 kW and 5 to 30 kW power range were implemented, including a four transistor bridge switching circuit, current mode pulse-width modulated control, and an output current averaging inductor with an integral pulse generation winding. Reduction of switching transients was accomplished using a low inductance power distribution network, and no passive snubber circuits were necessary for power switch protection. Phase shift control of the power bridge was accomplished using an improved pulse width modulation to phase shift converter circuit. These features, along with conservative magnetics designs allowed power conversion efficiencies of greater than 92.5 percent to be achieved into resistive loads over the entire operating range of the converter. Electromagnetic compatibility requirements were not considered in this work, and control power for the converter was derived from AC mains. Addition of input filters and control power converters would result in an efficiency of on the order of 90 percent for a flight unit. Due to the developmental nature of arcjet systems at this power level, the exact nature of the thruster/power processor interface was not quantified. Output regulation and current ripple requirements of 1 and 20 percent respectively, as well as starting techniques, were derived from the characteristics of the 2 kW system but an open circuit voltage in excess of 175 V was specified. Arcjet integration tests were performed, resulting in successful starts and stable arcjet operation at power levels as low as 240 W with simulated hydrazine propellants.

  8. Power and Control in Kathmandu: A Comparison of Attempted Power, Actual Power, and Achieved Power.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Thapa, Sirjana; Wu, Shali

    2016-05-05

    We argue that the concept of power has been inadvertently sidelined in recent theory and research on husband violence. Three types of relationship power may matter with respect to husband violence: attempted power, actual power, and achieved power. Analyses of a randomly selected representative sample of 270 married or partnered women in Kathmandu showed that actual power was related to husband violence prevalence, severity, and injury. Achieved power was related to husband violence prevalence and severity, and attempted power was related to husband violence injury. Implications are discussed.

  9. Venus Exploration Power Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surampudi, R.; Bugga, K.; Grandidier, J.; Cutts, J. A.; Beauchamp, P. M.

    2017-02-01

    Venus with its severe temperatures and pressures presents formidable challenges for powering in situ exploration vehicles. This paper describes possible approaches for both power generation and energy storage.

  10. Fault diagnosis of power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sekine, Y. ); Akimoto, Y. ); Kunugi, M. )

    1992-05-01

    Fault diagnosis of power systems plays a crucial role in power system monitoring and control that ensures stable supply of electrical power to consumers. In the case of multiple faults or incorrect operation of protective devices, fault diagnosis requires judgment of complex conditions at various levels. For this reason, research into application of knowledge-based systems go an early start and reports of such systems have appeared in may papers. In this paper, these systems are classified by the method of inference utilized in the knowledge-based systems for fault diagnosis of power systems. The characteristics of each class and corresponding issues as well as the state-of-the-art techniques for improving their performance are presented. Additional topics covered are user interfaces, interfaces with energy management systems (EMS's), and expert system development tools for fault diagnosis. Results and evaluation of actual operation in the field are also discussed. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis of power systems will continue to disseminate.

  11. Space power subsystem automation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, J. R. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The technology issues involved in power subsystem automation and the reasonable objectives to be sought in such a program were discussed. The complexities, uncertainties, and alternatives of power subsystem automation, along with the advantages from both an economic and a technological perspective were considered. Whereas most spacecraft power subsystems now use certain automated functions, the idea of complete autonomy for long periods of time is almost inconceivable. Thus, it seems prudent that the technology program for power subsystem automation be based upon a growth scenario which should provide a structured framework of deliberate steps to enable the evolution of space power subsystems from the current practice of limited autonomy to a greater use of automation with each step being justified on a cost/benefit basis. Each accomplishment should move toward the objectives of decreased requirement for ground control, increased system reliability through onboard management, and ultimately lower energy cost through longer life systems that require fewer resources to operate and maintain. This approach seems well-suited to the evolution of more sophisticated algorithms and eventually perhaps even the use of some sort of artificial intelligence. Multi-hundred kilowatt systems of the future will probably require an advanced level of autonomy if they are to be affordable and manageable.

  12. The Complex Cepstrum - Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemerait, R. C., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    Since this paper comes at the twilight of my career, it is appropriate to share my views on a subject very dear to my heart and to my long career. In 2004 "From Frequency to Quefrency: A History of the Cepstrum" was published in the IEEE Signal Processing magazine. There is no question that the authors, Alan V. Oppenheim and Ronald W. Schafer, were pioneers in this area of research, and this publication documents their involvement quite nicely. In parallel research also performed in the 1960's, Childers, et. al., renamed the original "Cepstrum" to the "Power Cepstrum" to avoid confusion with the principal topic of their research, that being the "Complex Cepstrum." The term "Power Cepstrum" has become widely used in the literature since that time. The Childers team, including Dr. Kemerait, published a summary of their work, as of that date, in the IEEE Proceedings of October 1977, and titled the article "The Cepstrum: A Guide to Processing." In the subsequent 40 years, Dr. Kemerait has continued to research cepstral techniques applied to many diverse problems; however, his primary research has been on estimating the depth of underground and underwater events. He has also applied these techniques to biomedical data: EEG, EKG, and Visua-evoked responses as well as on hydroacoustic data ; thereby, determining the "bubble pulse frequency", and the depths of the explosion and the ocean depth at the explosion point. He has also used cepstral techniques in the processing of ground penetrating radar, speech, machine diagnostics, and, throughout these years, seismic data. This paper emphasizes his recent improvements in processing primarily seismic and infrasound data associated with nuclear treaty monitoring. The emphasis is mainly on the recent improvements and the automation of the Complex Cepstrum process.

  13. Military power requirements and backup power considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Botts, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    All US Air Force (USAF) facilities have certain critical power requirements that must be met in order to carry out their mission successfully. Internal USAF studies have shown that the mission can degrade precipitously as the available power decreases below the mission critical level. Now, more than ever before, the military and private industry are finding that certain functions, such as automated data processing and automated process control, respond catastrophically to power reductions. Furthermore, increased reliance on electrical power means, in the case of the Air Force, that critical power requirements are anticipated to increase by half over the next 15 yr. For these reasons and others, the USAF is investigating several means of improving the availability of electric power under adverse conditions above that which can be provided by an off-base supplier. Among the approaches to this problem being pursued at this time are a program to improve all sorts of generator sets on a service-wide basis and the Multimegawatt Terrestrial Power (MTP) Program, which is pursuing the design and testing of a small dedicated nuclear power source to provide critical mission power. The purpose of this paper is to provide some insight into some of the issues associated with USAF power programs.

  14. Materials and Fuels Complex Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Materials and Fuels Complex at Idaho National Laboratory is home to several facilities used for the research and development of nuclear fuels. Stops include the Fuel Conditioning Facility, the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (post-irradiation examination), and the Space and Security Power System Facility, where radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are assembled for deep space missions. You can learn more about INL research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Materials and Fuels Complex Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Materials and Fuels Complex at Idaho National Laboratory is home to several facilities used for the research and development of nuclear fuels. Stops include the Fuel Conditioning Facility, the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (post-irradiation examination), and the Space and Security Power System Facility, where radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are assembled for deep space missions. You can learn more about INL research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  16. Multiscale vulnerability of complex networks.

    PubMed

    Boccaletti, Stefano; Buldú, Javier; Criado, Regino; Flores, Julio; Latora, Vito; Pello, Javier; Romance, Miguel

    2007-12-01

    We present a novel approach to quantify the vulnerability of a complex network, i.e., the capacity of a graph to maintain its functional performance under random damages or malicious attacks. The proposed measure represents a multiscale evaluation of vulnerability, and makes use of combined powers of the links' betweenness. We show that the proposed approach is able to properly describe some cases for which earlier measures of vulnerability fail. The relevant applications of our method for technological network design are outlined.

  17. Power conditioning unit for photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghin, G.; Nguyen Phuoc, V. T.

    Operational features and components of a power conditioning unit for interconnecting solar cell module powers with a utility grid are outlined. The two-stage unit first modifies the voltage to desired levels on an internal dc link, then inverts the current in 2 power transformers connected to a vector summation control to neutralize harmonic distortion up to the 11th harmonic. The system operates in parallel with the grid with extra inductors to absorb line-to-line voltage and phase differences, and permits peak power use from the PV array. Reactive power is gained internally, and a power system controller monitors voltages, frequencies, and currents. A booster preregulator adjusts the input voltage from the array to provide voltage regulation for the inverter, and can commutate 450 amps. A total harmonic distortion of less than 5 percent is claimed, with a rating of 5 kVA, 50/60 Hz, 3-phase, and 4-wire.

  18. Recent Power Quality Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Mutsumu; Kobayashi, Naoki

    With prevalence of high-specified equipment such as power electronics applied device, power quality problems are becoming concerned for both electric utilities and customers. This paper firstly describes what power quality problem is, and then, it outlines recent power quality technologies classified into those of immunity or emission side from the viewpoint of EMC concept, which is practical approach to consider these problems.

  19. Human Powered Centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M. (Inventor); Vernikos, Joan (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A human powered centrifuge has independently established turntable angular velocity and human power input. A control system allows excess input power to be stored as electric energy in a battery or dissipated as heat through a resistors. In a mechanical embodiment, the excess power is dissipated in a friction brake.

  20. Ideological Power in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Per F.

    2006-01-01

    This article agues that ideological power plays an important role in education and that it is part of a general trend in policy and social sciences to underestimate ideological and overestimate the role of political and economic power. The article sketches a concept of power in general and especially of ideological power based primarily on the…

  1. Wind Power Now!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  2. Planning for Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failla, Victor A.; Birk, Thomas A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the electrical power problems that can arise when schools try to integrate educational technology components into an existing facility, and how to plan the electrical power design to avoid power failures. Examines setting objectives, evaluating current electrical conditions, and developing the technology power design. (GR)

  3. Wind Power Now!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  4. Power system restoration issues

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes some of the problems encountered in the three phases of power system restoration (PSR). The three phases of PSR are: Planning for restart and reintegration of the bulk power supply; Actions during system degradation for saving and retaining critical sources of power; Restoration when the power system has stabilized at some degraded level.

  5. Tidal power in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Aisiks, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    This presentation describes the tidal power potential of Argentina and the current status of its utilization. The topics of the presentation include tidal power potential, electric production of the region and the Argentine share of production and consumption, conventional hydroelectric potential, economic feasibility of tidal power production, and the general design and feasibility of a tidal power plant planned for the San Jose Gulf.

  6. Planning for Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failla, Victor A.; Birk, Thomas A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the electrical power problems that can arise when schools try to integrate educational technology components into an existing facility, and how to plan the electrical power design to avoid power failures. Examines setting objectives, evaluating current electrical conditions, and developing the technology power design. (GR)

  7. Power sector policy reforms

    SciTech Connect

    Moscote, R.A. . LAC Technical Dept.)

    1994-06-01

    This article discusses the changes in energy policy of most countries in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. The topics of the article include the new legal and regulatory frameworks being developed, investment, privatized power producers, government regulation, power distribution, power transmission, access to transmission lines, pricing regulations, and increasing capacity of the power systems.

  8. Ideological Power in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Per F.

    2006-01-01

    This article agues that ideological power plays an important role in education and that it is part of a general trend in policy and social sciences to underestimate ideological and overestimate the role of political and economic power. The article sketches a concept of power in general and especially of ideological power based primarily on the…

  9. Hydro power flexibility for power systems with variable renewable energy sources: an IEA Task 25 collaboration: Hydro power flexibility for power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Huertas-Hernando, Daniel; Farahmand, Hossein; Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; Rinne, Erkka; Söder, Lennart; Milligan, Michael; Ibanez, Eduardo; Martínez, Sergio Martín; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio; Estanqueiro, Ana; Rodrigues, Luis; Carr, Luis; van Roon, Serafin; Orths, Antje Gesa; Eriksen, Peter Børre; Forcione, Alain; Menemenlis, Nickie

    2016-06-20

    Hydro power is one of the most flexible sources of electricity production. Power systems with considerable amounts of flexible hydro power potentially offer easier integration of variable generation, e.g., wind and solar. However, there exist operational constraints to ensure mid-/long-term security of supply while keeping river flows and reservoirs levels within permitted limits. In order to properly assess the effective available hydro power flexibility and its value for storage, a detailed assessment of hydro power is essential. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the weather-dependent hydrological cycle, regulation constraints on the hydro system, and uncertainty of internal load as well as variable generation (wind and solar), this assessment is complex. Hence, it requires proper modeling of all the underlying interactions between hydro power and the power system, with a large share of other variable renewables. A summary of existing experience of wind integration in hydro-dominated power systems clearly points to strict simulation methodologies. Recommendations include requirements for techno-economic models to correctly assess strategies for hydro power and pumped storage dispatch. These models are based not only on seasonal water inflow variations but also on variable generation, and all these are in time horizons from very short term up to multiple years, depending on the studied system. Another important recommendation is to include a geographically detailed description of hydro power systems, rivers' flows, and reservoirs as well as grid topology and congestion.

  10. Modeling of DC spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, F. C.

    1995-01-01

    Future spacecraft power systems must be capable of supplying power to various loads. This delivery of power may necessitate the use of high-voltage, high-power dc distribution systems to transmit power from the source to the loads. Using state-of-the-art power conditioning electronics such as dc-dc converters, complex series and parallel configurations may be required at the interface between the source and the distribution system and between the loads and the distribution system. This research will use state-variables to model and simulate a dc spacecraft power system. Each component of the dc power system will be treated as a multiport network, and a state model will be written with the port voltages as the inputs. The state model of a component will be solved independently from the other components using its state transition matrix. A state-space averaging method is developed first in general for any dc-dc switching converter, and then demonstrated in detail for the particular case of the boost power stage. General equations for both steady-state (dc) and dynamic effects (ac) are obtained, from which important transfer functions are derived and applied to a special case of the boost power stage.

  11. NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER ON BASIC APPROACH AND AVOIDANCE TENDENCIES.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pamela K; Bargh, John A

    2008-02-01

    According to the approach/inhibition theory of power (Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003), having power should be associated with the approach system, and lacking power with the avoidance system. However, to this point research has focused solely on whether power leads to more action, particularly approach-related action, or not. In three experiments, we extend this research by exploring the direct, unintentional relation between power and both approach and avoidance tendencies. Priming high power led to greater relative BAS strength than priming low power, but did not affect the BIS (Exp. 1). High-power priming also facilitated both simple and complex approach behavior, but did not affect avoidance behavior (Exp. 2-3). These effects of power occurred even in power-irrelevant situations. They also cannot be explained by priming of general positive versus negative constructs, nor by changes in positive, negative, approach-related, or avoidance-related affect.

  12. NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER ON BASIC APPROACH AND AVOIDANCE TENDENCIES

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pamela K.; Bargh, John A.

    2008-01-01

    According to the approach/inhibition theory of power (Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003), having power should be associated with the approach system, and lacking power with the avoidance system. However, to this point research has focused solely on whether power leads to more action, particularly approach-related action, or not. In three experiments, we extend this research by exploring the direct, unintentional relation between power and both approach and avoidance tendencies. Priming high power led to greater relative BAS strength than priming low power, but did not affect the BIS (Exp. 1). High-power priming also facilitated both simple and complex approach behavior, but did not affect avoidance behavior (Exp. 2−3). These effects of power occurred even in power-irrelevant situations. They also cannot be explained by priming of general positive versus negative constructs, nor by changes in positive, negative, approach-related, or avoidance-related affect. PMID:18568085

  13. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  14. Mobile Uninterruptible Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mears, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed mobile unit provides 20 kVA of uninterruptible power. Used with mobile secondary power-distribution centers to provide power to test equipment with minimal cabling, hazards, and obstacles. Wheeled close to test equipment and system being tested so only short cable connections needed. Quickly moved and set up in new location. Uninterruptible power supply intended for tests which data lost or equipment damaged during even transient power failure.

  15. Powering Future Naval Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Ground Renewable Expeditionary Energy System Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell 9  Long endurance fuel cell power (26hr flight Nov 2009)  Low noise...Near Mid Long EMRG Solid State Lights for Submarines Power Node Switching Center Perovskite - based Pyroelectrics 3 Power & Energy Technologies...Fuel Power Generation Energy Storage Distribution& Control Power Loads Fuels Chemistry Alternative Fuels Gas Turbine Generators Fuel Cells Aircraft

  16. Models for the modern power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardelli, Pedro H. J.; Rubido, Nicolas; Wang, Chengwei; Baptista, Murilo S.; Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos; Cardieri, Paulo; Latva-aho, Matti

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews different kinds of models for the electric power grid that can be used to understand the modern power system, the smart grid. From the physical network to abstract energy markets, we identify in the literature different aspects that co-determine the spatio-temporal multilayer dynamics of power system. We start our review by showing how the generation, transmission and distribution characteristics of the traditional power grids are already subject to complex behaviour appearing as a result of the the interplay between dynamics of the nodes and topology, namely synchronisation and cascade effects. When dealing with smart grids, the system complexity increases even more: on top of the physical network of power lines and controllable sources of electricity, the modernisation brings information networks, renewable intermittent generation, market liberalisation, prosumers, among other aspects. In this case, we forecast a dynamical co-evolution of the smart grid and other kind of networked systems that cannot be understood isolated. This review compiles recent results that model electric power grids as complex systems, going beyond pure technological aspects. From this perspective, we then indicate possible ways to incorporate the diverse co-evolving systems into the smart grid model using, for example, network theory and multi-agent simulation.

  17. More Meaning Power to the Zero Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Julian

    1982-01-01

    Explorations of problems involving the zero power are presented as routes through which instructors can take their students to reduce pupil uneasiness with the concept. Initial examination begins with routines for calculators, and discussion proceeds to more formal mathematics to generate more support for the definition of zero power. (MP)

  18. The power of PowerPoint.

    PubMed

    Niamtu, J

    2001-08-01

    Carousel slide presentations have been used for academic and clinical presentations since the late 1950s. However, advances in computer technology have caused a paradigm shift, and digital presentations are quickly becoming standard for clinical presentations. The advantages of digital presentations include cost savings; portability; easy updating capability; Internet access; multimedia functions, such as animation, pictures, video, and sound; and customization to augment audience interest and attention. Microsoft PowerPoint has emerged as the most popular digital presentation software and is currently used by many practitioners with and without significant computer expertise. The user-friendly platform of PowerPoint enables even the novice presenter to incorporate digital presentations into his or her profession. PowerPoint offers many advanced options that, with a minimal investment of time, can be used to create more interactive and professional presentations for lectures, patient education, and marketing. Examples of advanced PowerPoint applications are presented in a stepwise manner to unveil the full power of PowerPoint. By incorporating these techniques, medical practitioners can easily personalize, customize, and enhance their PowerPoint presentations. Complications, pitfalls, and caveats are discussed to detour and prevent misadventures in digital presentations. Relevant Web sites are listed to further update, customize, and communicate PowerPoint techniques.

  19. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  20. Power grid complex network evolutions for the smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2014-02-01

    The shift towards an energy grid dominated by prosumers (consumers and producers of energy) will inevitably have repercussions on the electricity distribution infrastructure. Today the grid is a hierarchical one delivering energy from large scale facilities to end-users. Tomorrow it will be a capillary infrastructure at the medium and low voltage levels that will support local energy trading among prosumers. We investigate how different network topologies and growth models facilitate a more efficient and reliable network, and how they can facilitate the emergence of a decentralized electricity market. We show how connectivity plays an important role in improving the properties of reliability and path-cost reduction. Our results indicate that a specific type of evolution balances best the ratio between increased connectivity and costs to achieve the network growth.

  1. Air quality modeling of geothermal power plants in complex terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, T.W.

    1982-10-01

    Commercial energy development at the Geysers KGRA, California--the world's largest producing geothermal field--is confronted with increasingly more stringent air quality impact assessment requirements for not only regulated pollutants (e.g., hydrogen sulfide and primary particulates) but also unregulated species including benzene, ammonia, arsenic, Radon/sup 222/, boron, and mercury. An integrated program of ambient aerometric monitoring, tracer diffusion experiments, cooling tower plume rise studies, and numerical air quality simulation modeling was conducted for this mountainous region to provide estimates of potential short term (i.e., about 1 hour) impacts attributable to development of the Geysers steam resource. A series of atmospheric tracer diffusion experiments, focusing on aerodynamic downwash, nocturnal drainage, fumigation, and limited vertical mixing were conducted to provide a basis for air quality model performance evaluation. Upper air meteorological measurements and cooling tower plume rise studies were performed to develop data useful in evaluating windfield and plume rise submodels.

  2. Aptamer–nanoparticle complexes as powerful diagnostic and therapeutic tools

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hunho; Ban, Changill

    2016-01-01

    Correct diagnosis and successful therapy are extremely important to enjoy a healthy life when suffering from a disease. To achieve these aims, various cutting-edge technologies have been designed and fabricated to diagnose and treat specific diseases. Among these technologies, aptamer–nanomaterial hybrids have received considerable attention from scientists and doctors because they have numerous advantages over other methods, such as good biocompatibility, low immunogenicity and controllable selectivity. In particular, aptamers, oligonucleic acids or peptides that bind to a specific target molecule, are regarded as outstanding biomolecules. In this review, several screening techniques for aptamers, also called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) methods, are introduced, and diagnostic and therapeutic aptamer applications are also presented. Furthermore, we describe diverse aptamer–nanomaterial conjugate designs and their applications for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27151454

  3. Power-Efficient Design Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangrle, Barry

    Design teams find themselves facing decreasing power budgets while simultaneously the products that they design continue to require the integration of increasingly complex levels of functionality. The market place (driven by consumer preferences) and new regulations and guidelines on energy efficiency and environmental impact are the key drivers. This in turn has generated new approaches in all IC and electronic system design domains from the architecture to the physical layout of ICs, to design-for-test, as well as for design verification to insure that the design implementation actually meets the intended requirements and specifications. This chapter covers key aspects of these forces from a technological and market perspective that are driving designers to produce more energy-efficient products. Observations by significant industry leaders from AMD, ARM, IBM, Intel, nVidia and TSMC are cited, and the emerging techniques and technologies used to address these issues now and into the future are explored. Topic areas include: System level: Architectural analysis and transaction-level modeling. How architectural decisions can dramatically reduce the design power and the importance of modeling hardware and software together. IC (Chip) level: The impact of creating on-chip power domains for selectively turning power off and/or multi-voltage operation on: (1) chip verification, (2) multi-corner multi-mode analysis during placement and routing of logic cells and (3) changes to design-for-test, all in order to accommodate for power-gating and multi-voltage control logic, retention registers, isolation cells and level shifters needed to implement these power saving techniques. Process level: The disappearing impact of body-bias techniques on leakage control and why new approaches like High-K Metal Gate (HKMG) technology help but don't eliminate power issues. Power-efficient design is impacting the way chip designers work today, and this chapter focuses on where the most

  4. Status of the SNS Power Ramp Up

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator complex consists of a 2.5 MeV H front-end injector system, a 186 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, and associated beam transport lines. Since formal operations began in 2006, the beam power has been steadily increasing toward the design goal of 1.4 MW. In September 2009 the power surpassed 1 MW for the first time, and operation at the 1 MW level is now routine. The status of the beam power ramp-up program and present operational limitations will be described.

  5. Laser Powered Launch Vehicle Performance Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Liu, Jiwen; Wang, Ten-See (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish the technical ground for modeling the physics of laser powered pulse detonation phenomenon. Laser powered propulsion systems involve complex fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer processes. Successful predictions of the performance of laser powered launch vehicle concepts depend on the sophisticate models that reflects the underlying flow physics including the laser ray tracing the focusing, inverse Bremsstrahlung (IB) effects, finite-rate air chemistry, thermal non-equilibrium, plasma radiation and detonation wave propagation, etc. The proposed work will extend the base-line numerical model to an efficient design analysis tool. The proposed model is suitable for 3-D analysis using parallel computing methods.

  6. Power and revenge.

    PubMed

    Strelan, Peter; Weick, Mario; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2014-09-01

    We took an individual differences approach to explain revenge tendencies in powerholders. Across four experimental studies, chronically powerless individuals sought more revenge than chronically powerful individuals following a high power episode (Studies 1 and 2), when striking a powerful pose (Study 3), and when making a powerful hand gesture (Study 4). This relationship vanished when participants were not exposed to incidental power. A meta-analysis revealed that, relative to a lack of power or a neutral context, exposure to incidental power increased vengeance among the chronically powerless and reduced vengeance among the chronically powerful. These findings add to previous research on relations between power and aggression, and underscore the role of individual differences as a determinant of powerholders' destructive responses.

  7. From power to action.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, Adam D; Gruenfeld, Deborah H; Magee, Joe C

    2003-09-01

    Three experiments investigated the hypothesis that power increases an action orientation in the power holder, even in contexts where power is not directly experienced. In Experiment 1, participants who possessed structural power in a group task were more likely to take a card in a simulated game of blackjack than those who lacked power. In Experiment 2, participants primed with high power were more likely to act against an annoying stimulus (a fan) in the environment, suggesting that the experience of power leads to the performance of goal-directed behavior. In Experiment 3, priming high power led to action in a social dilemma regardless of whether that action had prosocial or antisocial consequences. The effects of priming power are discussed in relation to the broader literature on conceptual and mind-set priming.

  8. Controlling power systems during emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschen, D.S.; Wollenberg, B.F.; Irisarri, G.D.; Bann, J.J.; Miller, B.N.

    1989-04-01

    Economic and social factors in many parts of the world now require power systems to be operated at less generation reserve and closer to transmission flow and contingency voltage limits than formerly practiced. The result has been an increase in the complexity of power systems operations. The installation of computerized Energy Management Systems (EMS) has helped alleviate some of these difficulties: Supervisory Control And Data-Acquisition (SCADA) systems have made possible the centralization of the decision-making process. Advanced applications such as optimal power flow and security analysis have helped operators maintain the system in a secure and optimal state. Expert system technology is now being implemented in EMS installations to provide operators with the tools necessary to meet the needs just described. This article explores some applications of expert systems to power system control and shows how they can be used to alleviate the burden on the operators during emergency periods. To this end, the design and implementation of two applications are presented: An intelligent alarm processor (IAP); and A program for the diagnosis of system faults (DSF).

  9. Power transmission behaviour of coplanar superconducting waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salz, U.; Hofschen, S.; Schneider, R.

    1993-03-01

    The authors describe the complex behavior of superconducting coplanar waveguides of varying geometries under the influence of temperature and transmitted power. For this reason high power levels up to 35 dBm have been applied to characterize the saturation behavior of the waveguides at 18 GHz. At low temperatures the transmitted power is shown to drop drastically (about 30 dB) when the waveguide leaves the superconducting state. At higher temperatures a kind of saturation state can be observed. The transmitted power coefficient first remains high and then drops slowly with increasing incident power. The superconducting waveguide recovered reversibly from the state of saturation during the entire measurement. It is shown that it is possible to calculate the current-carrying capacity by using the ratio of the area of the current flow to the complete cross section.

  10. Microwave Power for Smart Membrane Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Golembiewski, Walter T.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; King, Glen C.

    2002-01-01

    The concept of microwave-driven smart membrane actuators is envisioned as the best option to alleviate the complexity associated with hard-wired control circuitry. A large, ultra-light space structure, such as solar sails and Gossamer spacecrafts, requires a distribution of power into individual membrane actuators to control them in an effective way. A patch rectenna array with a high voltage output was developed to drive smart membrane actuators. Networked patch rectenna array receives and converts microwave power into a DC power for an array of smart actuators. To use microwave power effectively, the concept of a power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuit is developed and tested for networking a rectenna/actuator patch array. For the future development, the PAD circuit could be imbedded into a single embodiment of rectenna and actuator array with the thin-film microcircuit embodiment. Preliminary design and fabrication of PAD circuitry that consists of a sixteen nodal elements were made for laboratory testing.

  11. Integrated Surface Power Strategy for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) study team evaluated surface power needs for a conceptual crewed 500-day Mars mission. This study had four goals: 1. Determine estimated surface power needed to support the reference mission; 2. Explore alternatives to minimize landed power system mass; 3. Explore alternatives to minimize Mars Lander power self-sufficiency burden; and 4. Explore alternatives to minimize power system handling and surface transportation mass. The study team concluded that Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) oxygen propellant production drives the overall surface power needed for the reference mission. Switching to multiple, small Kilopower fission systems can potentially save four to eight metric tons of landed mass, as compared to a single, large Fission Surface Power (FSP) concept. Breaking the power system up into modular packages creates new operational opportunities, with benefits ranging from reduced lander self-sufficiency for power, to extending the exploration distance from a single landing site. Although a large FSP trades well for operational complexity, a modular approach potentially allows Program Managers more flexibility to absorb late mission changes with less schedule or mass risk, better supports small precursor missions, and allows a program to slowly build up mission capability over time. A number of Kilopower disadvantages-and mitigation strategies-were also explored.

  12. Photovoltaic power systems workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killian, H. J.; Given, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discussions are presented on apparent deficiencies in NASA planning and technology development relating to a standard power module (25-35 kW) and to future photovoltaic power systems in general. Topics of discussion consider the following: (1) adequate studies on power systems; (2) whether a standard power system module should be developed from a standard spacecraft; (3) identification of proper approaches to cost reduction; (4) energy storage avoidance; (5) attitude control; (6) thermal effects of heat rejection on solar array configuration stability; (7) assembly of large power systems in space; and (8) factoring terrestrial photovoltaic work into space power systems for possible payoff.

  13. Power beaming providing a space power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; Coomes, E.P.

    1992-08-01

    This study, based on two levels of technology, applies the power beaming concept to four planned satellite constellations. The analysis shows that with currently available technology, power beaming can provide mass savings to constellations in orbits ranging from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Two constellations, space surveillance and tracking system and space based radar, can be supported with current technology. The other two constellations, space-based laser array and boost surveillance and tracking system, will require power and transmission system improvements before their breakeven specific mass is achieved. A doubling of SP-100 conversion efficiency from 10 to 20/% would meet or exceed breakeven for these constellations.

  14. High Performance Power Module for Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Peterson, Peter Y.; Bowers, Glen E.

    2002-01-01

    Previous efforts to develop power electronics for Hall thruster systems have targeted the 1 to 5 kW power range and an output voltage of approximately 300 V. New Hall thrusters are being developed for higher power, higher specific impulse, and multi-mode operation. These thrusters require up to 50 kW of power and a discharge voltage in excess of 600 V. Modular power supplies can process more power with higher efficiency at the expense of complexity. A 1 kW discharge power module was designed, built and integrated with a Hall thruster. The breadboard module has a power conversion efficiency in excess of 96 percent and weighs only 0.765 kg. This module will be used to develop a kW, multi-kW, and high voltage power processors.

  15. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  16. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  17. Spatiotemporal imaging of complexity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stephen E.; Mandell, Arnold J.; Coppola, Richard

    2013-01-01

    What are the functional neuroimaging measurements required for more fully characterizing the events and locations of neocortical activity? A prime assumption has been that modulation of cortical activity will inevitably be reflected in changes in energy utilization (for the most part) changes of glucose and oxygen consumption. Are such a measures complete and sufficient? More direct measures of cortical electrophysiological activity show event or task-related modulation of amplitude or band-limited oscillatory power. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), these measures have been shown to correlate well with energy utilization sensitive BOLD fMRI. In this paper, we explore the existence of state changes in electrophysiological cortical activity that can occur independently of changes in averaged amplitude, source power or indices of metabolic rates. In addition, we demonstrate that such state changes can be described by applying a new measure of complexity, rank vector entropy (RVE), to source waveform estimates from beamformer-processed MEG. RVE is a non-parametric symbolic dynamic informational entropy measure that accommodates the wide dynamic range of measured brain signals while resolving its temporal variations. By representing the measurements by their rank values, RVE overcomes the problem of defining embedding space partitions without resorting to signal compression. This renders RVE-independent of absolute signal amplitude. In addition, this approach is robust, being relatively free of tunable parameters. We present examples of task-free and task-dependent MEG demonstrating that RVE provides new information by uncovering hidden dynamical structure in the apparent turbulent (or chaotic) dynamics of spontaneous cortical activity. PMID:23355820

  18. Green Power Partner List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  19. Minnesota Power Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and DOJ announced a Clean Air Act settlement with Minnesota Power, an ALLETE company based in Duluth, that will cover its three coal-fired power plants and one biomass-and-coal-fired steam and electricity cogeneration plan

  20. Technologies. [space power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Energy technologies to meet the power requirements of future space missions are reviewed. Photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and solar thermal technologies are discussed along with techniques for energy storage and power management and distribution.

  1. What Is Green Power?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  2. Maximum power tracking

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, G.

    1983-03-01

    By definition, a maximum power tracking device causes the photovoltaic array to operate on the locus of maximum power points within a specified accuracy. There are limitations to the application of maximum power tracking. A prerequisite is that the load be capable of absorbing all of the power availble at all times. Battery chargers, electrical heaters, water pumps, and most significantly, returning power to the utility grid, are prime examples of applications that are adaptable to maximum power tracking. Maximum power tracking is available to either dc or ac loads. An inverter equipped with a means of changing input voltage by controlling its input impedance can deliver maximum power to ac loads. The inverter can be fixed or variable frequency and fixed or variable voltage, but must be compatible with the ac load. The discussion includes applications, techniques, and cost factors.

  3. Green Power Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  4. Green Power Community Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn more about becoming a Green Power Community, including recognition opportunities.

  5. Green Power Markets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  6. Optical complexity in external cavity semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondoni, Lamberto; Ariffin, M. R. K.; Varatharajoo, Renuganth; Mukherjee, Sayan; Palit, Sanjay K.; Banerjee, Santo

    2017-03-01

    In this article, the window based complexity and output modulation of a time delayed chaotic semiconductor laser (SL) model has been investigated. The window based optical complexity (OC), is measured by introducing the recurrence sample entropy (SampEn). The analysis has been done without and in the presence of external noise. The significant changes in the dynamics can be observed under induced noise with weak strength. It has also been found that there is a strong positive correlation between the output power and the complexity of the system with various sets of parameters. The laser intensity, as well as the OC can be increased with the incremental noise strength and the associated system parameters. Thus, optical complexity quantifies the system dynamics and its instabilities, since is strongly correlated with the laser outputs. This analysis can be applied to measure the laser instabilities and modulation of output power.

  7. Electrical power generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

  8. Switched power workshop. [Switched power electron guns

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a switched power electron gun. Particular topics discussed are: vacuum photodiode switch; laser switched solid state diodes; gun performance; charging supply; and laser requirements. (LSP)

  9. The Power of Powerlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Gerald; Johnson, Jackie

    1980-01-01

    Power and the paradox of powerlessness are defined in terms of the resource exchange theory of Foa and Foa. Power is conceptualized as the possession of resources, e.g., love, status, and money. The Karpman triangle is used to illustrate the power behind the victim's powerlessness. (Author)

  10. Power in everyday life

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    How does power manifest itself in everyday life? Using experience-sampling methodology, we investigated the prevalence, sources, and correlates of power in people’s natural environments. Participants experienced power-relevant situations regularly, though not frequently. High power was not restricted to a limited few: almost half of the sample reported experiencing high-power positions. Positional power and subjective feelings of power were strongly related but had unique relations with several individual difference measures and independent effects on participants’ affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations. Subjective feelings of power resulted more from within-participant situational fluctuation, such as the social roles participants held at different times, than from stable differences between people. Our data supported some theoretical predictions about power’s effects on affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations, but qualified others, particularly highlighting the role of responsibility in power’s effects. Although the power literature has focused on high power, we found stronger effects of low power than high power. PMID:27551069

  11. Fluid Power Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Fluid power technicians, sometimes called hydraulic and pneumatic technicians, work with equipment that utilizes the pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed container to transmit, multiply, or control power. Working under the supervision of an engineer or engineering staff, they assemble, install, maintain, and test fluid power equipment.…

  12. The Powerfully Literate Citizen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on a "powerfully literate citizen" in Statement Four of the Australian Association for the Teaching of English (AATE) "Statements of Belief". He discusses the definition of "literacy" and the creation of the powerfully literate citizen. He stresses that a powerfully literate…

  13. Green Power Communities Brochure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Communities Brochure provides basic information about GPP's Green Power Communities (GPCs). The four-page brochure includes information about how to become a GPC, the benefits of procuring green power, and examples of how current GPCs are u

  14. Wind power soars

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  15. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  16. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  17. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  18. Power and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, James MacGregor

    1981-01-01

    There are two essentials of power: resources and motives. The power of leaders ultimately depends on the power of the followers, and the hope and strength of leaders resides in their ability to mobilize and transform followers who in turn transform leaders. (Author/GC)

  19. Silicon Power MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Campola, Michael; Ladbury, Raymond; Label, Kenneth; Wilcox, Ted; Phan, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Topper, Alyson

    2017-01-01

    Recent work for the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program Power MOSFET task is presented. The Task technology focus, roadmap, and partners are given. Recent single-event effect test results on commercial, automotive, and radiation hardened trench power MOSFETs are summarized with an emphasis on risk of using commercial and automotive trench-gate power MOSFETs in space applications.

  20. Fluid Power Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Fluid power technicians, sometimes called hydraulic and pneumatic technicians, work with equipment that utilizes the pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed container to transmit, multiply, or control power. Working under the supervision of an engineer or engineering staff, they assemble, install, maintain, and test fluid power equipment.…

  1. Militarized Thermoelectric Power Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Thermoelectric power sources are being developed to provide multifuel, silent, maintenance free tactical power generators for forward area...applications. Recent technology improvements, state of development, and performance characteristics of the 100-Watt and 500-Watt Thermoelectric Power Sources are presented. (Author)

  2. Solar lunar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Current and projected technology is assessed for photovoltaic power for a lunar base. The following topics are discussed: requirements for power during the lunar day and night; solar cell efficiencies, specific power, temperature sensitivity, and availability; storage options for the lunar night; array and system integration; the potential for in situ production of photovoltaic arrays and storage medium.

  3. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  4. Mass Spectrometry of Intact Membrane Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Laganowsky, Arthur; Reading, Eamonn; Hopper, Jonathan T.S.; Robinson, Carol V.

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of intact soluble protein complexes has emerged as a powerful technique to study the stoichiometry, structure-function and dynamics of protein assemblies. Recent developments have extended this technique to the study of membrane protein complexes where it has already revealed subunit stoichiometries and specific phospholipid interactions. Here, we describe a protocol for mass spectrometry of membrane protein complexes. The protocol begins with preparation of the membrane protein complex enabling not only the direct assessment of stoichiometry, delipidation, and quality of the target complex, but also evaluation of the purification strategy. A detailed list of compatible non-ionic detergents is included, along with a protocol for screening detergents to find an optimal one for mass spectrometry, biochemical and structural studies. This protocol also covers the preparation of lipids for protein-lipid binding studies and includes detailed settings for a Q-ToF mass spectrometer after introduction of complexes from gold-coated nanoflow capillaries. PMID:23471109

  5. Method and apparatus for thermal power generation

    DOEpatents

    Mangus, James D.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for power generation from a recirculating superheat-reheat circuit with multiple expansion stages which alleviates complex control systems and minimizes thermal cycling of system components, particularly the reheater. The invention includes preheating cold reheat fluid from the first expansion stage prior to its entering the reheater with fluid from the evaporator or drum component.

  6. Lost in Translation: The Power of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Sandy; Fitzsimons, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines some philosophical aspects of translation as a metaphor for education--a metaphor that avoids the closure of final definitions, in favour of an ongoing and tentative process of interpretation and revision. Translation, it is argued, is a complex process involving language, within and among cultures, and in the exercise of power.…

  7. Powerful TV Satellite Prepared for Launch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaway, Howard; Witten, Donald E.

    This document presents complete descriptions of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW)-funded education experiments with the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS) program. Special note is made of the ATS-F program which is considered as the most complex, versatile, and powerful communications spacecraft ever developed. This spacecraft will serve…

  8. Complexity is the Science of Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Guilera, Albert

    From my personal point of view, complexity is the science of integration: integrating different mechanisms, scales, and dynamical rules to generate a new and emergent system. It integrates other traditional scientific disciplines in a common framework. Complexity science makes use of powerful tools of statistical physics, mathematics, and computer science, to bring back answers and even predictions to the originating disciplines. In particular, networks provide the topological skeleton through which interactions take place...

  9. Modeling Power System Operation with Intermittent Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Marinovici, Maria C.; Kirkham, Harold; Glass, Kevin A.; Carlsen, Leif C.

    2013-02-27

    Electricity generating companies and power system operators face the need to minimize total fuel cost or maximize total profit over a given time period. These issues become optimization problems subject to a large number of constraints that must be satisfied simultaneously. The grid updates due to smart-grid technologies plus the penetration of intermittent re- sources in electrical grid introduce additional complexity to the optimization problem. The Renewable Integration Model (RIM) is a computer model of interconnected power system. It is intended to provide insight and advice on complex power systems management, as well as answers to integration of renewable energy questions. This paper describes RIM basic design concept, solution method, and the initial suite of modules that it supports.

  10. Revealing power in truth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Jeremy Shiffman’s editorial appropriately calls on making all forms of power more apparent and accountable, notably productive power derived from expertise and claims to moral authority. This commentary argues that relationships based on productive power can be especially difficult to reveal in global health policy because of embedded notions about the nature of power and politics. Yet, it is essential to recognize that global health is shot through with power relationships, that they can take many forms, and that their explicit acknowledgement should be part of, rather than factored out of, any reform of global health governance. PMID:25844390

  11. ADEPT: Efficient Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    ADEPT Project: In today’s increasingly electrified world, power conversion—the process of converting electricity between different currents, voltage levels, and frequencies—forms a vital link between the electronic devices we use every day and the sources of power required to run them. The 14 projects that make up ARPA-E’s ADEPT Project, short for “Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,” are paving the way for more energy efficient power conversion and advancing the basic building blocks of power conversion: circuits, transistors, inductors, transformers, and capacitors.

  12. Multimegawatt space power reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearien, J. A.; Whitbeck, J. F.

    In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space.

  13. Multimegawatt space power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space. 31 figs.

  14. Can We Power Future Mars Missions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Sturm, Erick J., II; Woolley, Ryan C.; Jordan, James F.

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration identified the exploration of Mars as one of the key pathways. In response, NASAs Mars Program Office is developing a detailed mission lineup for the next decade that would lead to future explorations. Mission architectures for the next decade include both orbiters and landers. Existing power technologies, which could include solar panels, batteries, radioisotope power systems, and in the future fission power, could support these missions. Second and third decade explorations could target human precursor and human in-situ missions, building on increasingly complex architectures. Some of these could use potential feed forward from earlier Constellation missions to the Moon, discussed in the ESAS study. From a potential Mars Sample Return mission to human missions the complexity of the architectures increases, and with it the delivered mass and power requirements also amplify. The delivered mass at Mars mostly depends on the launch vehicle, while the landed mass might be further limited by EDL technologies, including the aeroshell, parachutes, landing platform, and pinpoint landing. The resulting in-situ mass could be further divided into payload elements and suitable supporting power systems. These power systems can range from tens of watts to multi-kilowatts, influenced by mission type, mission configuration, landing location, mission duration, and season. Regardless, the power system design should match the power needs of these surface assets within a given architecture. Consequently, in this paper we will identify potential needs and bounds of delivered mass and architecture dependent power requirements to surface assets that would enable future in-situ exploration of Mars.

  15. Power spectral density specifications for high-power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, J.K.; Aikens, D.A.; English, R.E. Jr.; Wolfe, C.R.

    1996-04-22

    This paper describes the use of Fourier techniques to characterize the transmitted and reflected wavefront of optical components. Specifically, a power spectral density, (PSD), approach is used. High power solid-state lasers exhibit non-linear amplification of specific spatial frequencies. Thus, specifications that limit the amplitude of these spatial frequencies are necessary in the design of these systems. Further, NIF optical components have square, rectangular or irregularly shaped apertures with major dimensions up-to 800 mm. Components with non-circular apertures can not be analyzed correctly with Zernicke polynomials since these functions are an orthogonal set for circular apertures only. A more complete and powerful representation of the optical wavefront can be obtained by Fourier analysis in 1 or 2 dimensions. The PSD is obtained from the amplitude of frequency components present in the Fourier spectrum. The shape of a resultant wavefront or the focal spot of a complex multicomponent laser system can be calculated and optimized using PSDs of the individual optical components which comprise the system. Surface roughness can be calculated over a range of spatial scale-lengths by integrating the PSD. Finally, since the optical transfer function (OTF) of the instruments used to measure the wavefront degrades at high spatial frequencies, the PSD of an optical component is underestimated. We can correct for this error by modifying the PSD function to restore high spatial frequency information. The strengths of PSD analysis are leading us to develop optical specifications incorporating this function for the planned National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  16. Multimode power processor

    DOEpatents

    O'Sullivan, G.A.; O'Sullivan, J.A.

    1999-07-27

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources. 31 figs.

  17. Multimode power processor

    DOEpatents

    O'Sullivan, George A.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

  18. Strain powered antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domann, John P.; Carman, Greg P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the creation of strain powered antennas that radiate electromagnetic energy by mechanically vibrating a piezoelectric or piezomagnetic material. A closed form analytic model of electromagnetic radiation from a strain powered electrically small antenna is derived and analyzed. Fundamental scaling laws and the frequency dependence of strain powered antennas are discussed. The radiation efficiency of strain powered electrically small antennas is contrasted with a conventional electric dipole. Analytical results show that operating at the first mechanical resonance produces the most efficient strain powered radiation relative to electric dipole antennas. A resonant analysis is exploited to determine the material property space that produces efficient strain powered antennas. These results show how a properly designed strain powered antenna can radiate more efficiently than an equally sized electric dipole antenna.

  19. Anatomy of F1-ATPase powered rotation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, James L.; Ishmukhametov, Robert; Hornung, Tassilo; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Frasch, Wayne D.

    2014-01-01

    F1-ATPase, the catalytic complex of the ATP synthase, is a molecular motor that can consume ATP to drive rotation of the γ-subunit inside the ring of three αβ-subunit heterodimers in 120° power strokes. To elucidate the mechanism of ATPase-powered rotation, we determined the angular velocity as a function of rotational position from single-molecule data collected at 200,000 frames per second with unprecedented signal-to-noise. Power stroke rotation is more complex than previously understood. This paper reports the unexpected discovery that a series of angular accelerations and decelerations occur during the power stroke. The decreases in angular velocity that occurred with the lower-affinity substrate ITP, which could not be explained by an increase in substrate-binding dwells, provides direct evidence that rotation depends on substrate binding affinity. The presence of elevated ADP concentrations not only increased dwells at 35° from the catalytic dwell consistent with competitive product inhibition but also decreased the angular velocity from 85° to 120°, indicating that ADP can remain bound to the catalytic site where product release occurs for the duration of the power stroke. The angular velocity profile also supports a model in which rotation is powered by Van der Waals repulsive forces during the final 85° of rotation, consistent with a transition from F1 structures 2HLD1 and 1H8E (Protein Data Bank). PMID:24567403

  20. 6. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant, generator M1 (lower level), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant, generator M1 (lower level), air intakes - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  1. Wealth dynamics on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlaschelli, Diego; Loffredo, Maria I.

    2004-07-01

    We study a model of wealth dynamics (Physica A 282 (2000) 536) which mimics transactions among economic agents. The outcomes of the model are shown to depend strongly on the topological properties of the underlying transaction network. The extreme cases of a fully connected and a fully disconnected network yield power-law and log-normal forms of the wealth distribution, respectively. We perform numerical simulations in order to test the model on more complex network topologies. We show that the mixed form of most empirical distributions (displaying a non-smooth transition from a log-normal to a power-law form) can be traced back to a heterogeneous topology with varying link density, which on the other hand is a recently observed property of real networks.

  2. 27. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #301, power supply assembly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #301, power supply assembly - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. 58. HAIWEE POWER PLANT LOOKING NORTH ALONG PATH OF AQUEDUCT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. HAIWEE POWER PLANT LOOKING NORTH ALONG PATH OF AQUEDUCT - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 8. General layout of power plant, piping and fuel tanks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. General layout of power plant, piping and fuel tanks, sheet 93 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Fuel Tanks, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  5. 47. BASE OF UMBILICAL MAST, WITH ELECTRICAL POWER CABLES ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. BASE OF UMBILICAL MAST, WITH ELECTRICAL POWER CABLES ON LEFT; AIR-CONDITIONER DUCTS ON RIGHT - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. DETAIL VIEW OF THE POWER CONNECTIONS (FRONT) AND COMPUTER PANELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE POWER CONNECTIONS (FRONT) AND COMPUTER PANELS (REAR), ROOM 8A - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  7. 99. POWER DISTRIBUTION UNITS FOR BATTERIES AND RECTIFIERS, NORTHEAST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. POWER DISTRIBUTION UNITS FOR BATTERIES AND RECTIFIERS, NORTHEAST SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. A novel power block for CSP systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mittelman, Gur; Epstein, Michael

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) and in particular parabolic trough, is a proven large-scale solar power technology. However, CSP cost is not yet competitive with conventional alternatives unless subsidized. Current CSP plants typically include a condensing steam cycle power block which was preferably designed for a continuous operation and higher operating conditions and therefore, limits the overall plant cost effectiveness and deployment. The drawbacks of this power block are as follows: (i) no power generation during low insolation periods (ii) expensive, large condenser (typically water cooled) due to the poor extracted steam properties (high specific volume, sub-atmospheric pressure) and (iii) high installation and operation costs. In the current study, a different power block scheme is proposed to eliminate these obstacles. This power block includes a top Rankine cycle with a back pressure steam turbine and a bottoming Kalina cycle comprising another back pressure turbine and using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid. The bottoming (moderate temperature) cycle allows power production during low insolation periods. Because of the superior ammonia-water vapor properties, the condensing system requirements are much less demanding and the operation costs are lowered. Accordingly, air cooled condensers can be used with lower economical penalty. Another advantage is that back pressure steam turbines have a less complex design than condensing steam turbines which make their costs lower. All of these improvements could make the combined cycle unit more cost effective. This unit can be applicable in both parabolic trough and central receiver (solar tower) plants. The potential advantage of the new power block is illustrated by a detailed techno-economical analysis of two 50 MW parabolic trough power plants, comparing between the standard and the novel power block. The results indicate that the proposed plant suggests a 4-11% electricity cost saving

  9. Three essays on "making" electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kench, Brian Thomas

    2000-10-01

    Technological change over the past three decades has altered most of the basic conditions in the electric power industry. Because of technical progress, the dominant paradigm has shifted from the provision of electric power by regulated and vertically integrated local natural monopolies to competition and vertical separation. In the first essay I provide a historical context of the electric industry's power current deregulation debate. Then a dynamic model of induced institutional change is used to investigate how endogenous technological advancements have induced radical institutional change in the generation and transmission segments of the electric power industry. Because the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ordered regulated utilities to provide open access to their transmission networks and to separate their generation and transmission functions, transmission networks have been used more intensively and in much different ways then in the past. The second essay tests experimentally the predictions of neoclassical theory for a radial electric power market under two alternative deregulated transmission institutions: financial transmission rights and physical transmission rights. Experimental evidence presented there demonstrates that an electric power market with physical transmission rights governing its transmission network generates more "right" market signals relative to a transmission network governed by financial transmission rights. The move to a greater reliance on markets for electric power is an idea that has animated sweeping and dramatic changes in the traditional business of electric power. The third essay examines two of the most innovative and complex initiatives of making electric power markets in the United States: California and PJM. As those markets mature and others are made, they must revise their governance mechanisms to eliminate rules that create inefficiency and adopt rules that work efficiently elsewhere. I argue that

  10. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  11. Complex dimensions and their observability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-08-01

    We show that the dimension of spacetime becomes complex-valued when its short-scale geometry is invariant under a discrete scaling symmetry. This characteristic can generically arise in quantum gravities, for instance, in those based on combinatorial or multifractal structures or as the partial breaking of continuous dilation symmetry in any conformal-invariant theory. With its infinite scale hierarchy, discrete scale invariance overlaps with the traditional separation between ultraviolet and infrared physics and it can leave an all-range observable imprint, such as a pattern of log oscillations and sharp features in the cosmic microwave background primordial power spectrum.

  12. Sinh-domain complex integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotis, George-Drosos; Khanday, Farooq A.; Psychalinos, Costas

    2015-07-01

    The basic building blocks for performing complex signal processing in the Sinh-domain are introduced in this article. Attractive offered benefits are the capabilities for achieving resistorless realisations with electronic adjustment of their frequency characteristics, independent tuning of centre frequency and bandwidth and operating in a low-voltage environment. In addition, the inherent class-AB operation of Sinh-domain filters allows the handling of signals greater than the bias current, leading to a power saving. The aforementioned benefits have been evaluated through simulation results, using the Analog Design Environment of the Cadence software.

  13. Addiction Science: Uncovering Neurobiological Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, N. D.; Baler, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    Until very recently addiction-research was limited by existing tools and strategies that were inadequate for studying the inherent complexity at each of the different phenomenological levels. However, powerful new tools (e.g., optogenetics and designer drug receptors) and high throughput protocols are starting to give researchers the potential to systematically interrogate “all” genes, epigenetic marks, and neuronal circuits. These advances, combined with imaging technologies (both for preclinical and clinical studies) and a paradigm shift towards open access have spurred an unlimited growth of datasets transforming the way we investigate the neurobiology of substance use disorders (SUD) and the factors that modulate risk and resilience. PMID:23688927

  14. Small and lightweight power amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Fox, Robert L.; Moses, Robert W.; Bryant, Robert G.; Robinson, Paul C.; Shirvani, Mir

    2002-07-01

    The control of u wanted structural vibration is implicit in most of NASA's programs. Currently several approaches to control vibrations in large, lightweight, deployable structures and twin tail aircraft at high angles of attack are being evaluated. The Air Force has been examining a vertical tail buffet load alleviation system that can be integrated onboard an F/A-18 and flown. Previous wind tunnel and full-scale ground tests using distributed actuators have shown that the concept works; however, there is insufficient rom available onboard an F/A-18 to store current state-of- the-art system components such as amplifiers, DC-to-DC converter and a computer for performing vibration suppression. Sensor processing, power electronics, DC-to-DC converters, and control electronics that may be collocated with distributed actuators, are particularly desirable. Such electronic system would obviate the need for complex, centralized, control processing and power distribution components that will eliminate the weight associated with lengthy wiring and cabling networks. Several small and lightweight power amplifiers ranging from 300V pp to 650V pp have been designed using off the shelf components for different applications. In this paper, the design and testing of these amplifiers will be presented under various electrical loads.

  15. Natural complexity, computational complexity and depth.

    PubMed

    Machta, J

    2011-09-01

    Depth is a complexity measure for natural systems of the kind studied in statistical physics and is defined in terms of computational complexity. Depth quantifies the length of the shortest parallel computation required to construct a typical system state or history starting from simple initial conditions. The properties of depth are discussed and it is compared with other complexity measures. Depth can only be large for systems with embedded computation.

  16. On power and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Pratto, Felicia

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a conceptual analysis of social power. The most common theories of power are social-relational, an approach instantiated in a range of contemporary experiments that give participants the chance to control other people's outcomes. The relational approach is also reflected in various analyses of international relations. In comparing and contrasting relational theories of power, I identify logical inconsistencies and shortcomings in their ability to address empowerment and reductions in inequality. In turn, I propose a new ecological conceptualization of empowerment as the state of being able to achieve one's goals and of power as stemming from a combination of the capacity of the party and the affordances of the environment. I explain how this new conceptualization can describe the main kinds of power social relations, avoid logical contradictions, and moreover, distinguish power from agency and from control. This new conceptualization of power as the possibility of meeting goals, coupled with recognizing survival as the fundamental goal of all living things, implies an absolute and not relative or relational standard for power, namely well-being. It also allows us to conceive of power in ways that help address the many social concerns that have motivated research on power.

  17. Computational complexity in electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, James Daniel; Love, Peter John; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2013-01-14

    In quantum chemistry, the price paid by all known efficient model chemistries is either the truncation of the Hilbert space or uncontrolled approximations. Theoretical computer science suggests that these restrictions are not mere shortcomings of the algorithm designers and programmers but could stem from the inherent difficulty of simulating quantum systems. Extensions of computer science and information processing exploiting quantum mechanics has led to new ways of understanding the ultimate limitations of computational power. Interestingly, this perspective helps us understand widely used model chemistries in a new light. In this article, the fundamentals of computational complexity will be reviewed and motivated from the vantage point of chemistry. Then recent results from the computational complexity literature regarding common model chemistries including Hartree-Fock and density functional theory are discussed.

  18. Bionic Vision-Based Intelligent Power Line Inspection System.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingwu; Ma, Yunpeng; He, Feijia; Xi, Shuya; Xu, Jinxin

    2017-01-01

    Detecting the threats of the external obstacles to the power lines can ensure the stability of the power system. Inspired by the attention mechanism and binocular vision of human visual system, an intelligent power line inspection system is presented in this paper. Human visual attention mechanism in this intelligent inspection system is used to detect and track power lines in image sequences according to the shape information of power lines, and the binocular visual model is used to calculate the 3D coordinate information of obstacles and power lines. In order to improve the real time and accuracy of the system, we propose a new matching strategy based on the traditional SURF algorithm. The experimental results show that the system is able to accurately locate the position of the obstacles around power lines automatically, and the designed power line inspection system is effective in complex backgrounds, and there are no missing detection instances under different conditions.

  19. Bionic Vision-Based Intelligent Power Line Inspection System

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yunpeng; He, Feijia; Xu, Jinxin

    2017-01-01

    Detecting the threats of the external obstacles to the power lines can ensure the stability of the power system. Inspired by the attention mechanism and binocular vision of human visual system, an intelligent power line inspection system is presented in this paper. Human visual attention mechanism in this intelligent inspection system is used to detect and track power lines in image sequences according to the shape information of power lines, and the binocular visual model is used to calculate the 3D coordinate information of obstacles and power lines. In order to improve the real time and accuracy of the system, we propose a new matching strategy based on the traditional SURF algorithm. The experimental results show that the system is able to accurately locate the position of the obstacles around power lines automatically, and the designed power line inspection system is effective in complex backgrounds, and there are no missing detection instances under different conditions. PMID:28203269

  20. Computational complexity of projected entangled pair states.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Norbert; Wolf, Michael M; Verstraete, Frank; Cirac, J Ignacio

    2007-04-06

    We determine the computational power of preparing projected entangled pair states (PEPS), as well as the complexity of classically simulating them, and generally the complexity of contracting tensor networks. While creating PEPS allows us to solve PP problems, the latter two tasks are both proven to be #P-complete. We further show how PEPS can be used to approximate ground states of gapped Hamiltonians and that creating them is easier than creating arbitrary PEPS. The main tool for our proofs is a duality between PEPS and postselection which allows us to use existing results from quantum complexity.

  1. Power-constrained supercomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Peter E.

    As we approach exascale systems, power is turning from an optimization goal to a critical operating constraint. With power bounds imposed by both stakeholders and the limitations of existing infrastructure, achieving practical exascale computing will therefore rely on optimizing performance subject to a power constraint. However, this requirement should not add to the burden of application developers; optimizing the runtime environment given restricted power will primarily be the job of high-performance system software. In this dissertation, we explore this area and develop new techniques that extract maximum performance subject to a particular power constraint. These techniques include a method to find theoretical optimal performance, a runtime system that shifts power in real time to improve performance, and a node-level prediction model for selecting power-efficient operating points. We use a linear programming (LP) formulation to optimize application schedules under various power constraints, where a schedule consists of a DVFS state and number of OpenMP threads for each section of computation between consecutive message passing events. We also provide a more flexible mixed integer-linear (ILP) formulation and show that the resulting schedules closely match schedules from the LP formulation. Across four applications, we use our LP-derived upper bounds to show that current approaches trail optimal, power-constrained performance by up to 41%. This demonstrates limitations of current systems, and our LP formulation provides future optimization approaches with a quantitative optimization target. We also introduce Conductor, a run-time system that intelligently distributes available power to nodes and cores to improve performance. The key techniques used are configuration space exploration and adaptive power balancing. Configuration exploration dynamically selects the optimal thread concurrency level and DVFS state subject to a hardware-enforced power bound

  2. Feasible eigenvalue sensitivity for large power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smed, T. . Dept. of Electric Power Systems)

    1993-05-01

    Traditional eigenvalue sensitivity for power systems requires the formulation of the system matrix, which lacks sparsity. In this paper, a new sensitivity analysis, derived for a sparse formulation, is presented. Variables that are computed as intermediate results in established eigen value programs for power systems, but not used further, are given a new interpretation. The effect of virtually any control action can be assessed based on a single eigenvalue-eigenvector calculation. In particular, the effect of active and reactive power modulation can be found as a multiplication of two or three complex numbers. The method is illustrated in an example for a large power system when applied to the control design for an HVDC-link.

  3. Computing aspects of power for multiple regression.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, William P; Xin, Xue; Myers, Leann

    2004-11-01

    Rules of thumb for power in multiple regression research abound. Most such rules dictate the necessary sample size, but they are based only upon the number of predictor variables, usually ignoring other critical factors necessary to compute power accurately. Other guides to power in multiple regression typically use approximate rather than precise equations for the underlying distribution; entail complex preparatory computations; require interpolation with tabular presentation formats; run only under software such as Mathmatica or SAS that may not be immediately available to the user; or are sold to the user as parts of power computation packages. In contrast, the program we offer herein is immediately downloadable at no charge, runs under Windows, is interactive, self-explanatory, flexible to fit the user's own regression problems, and is as accurate as single precision computation ordinarily permits.

  4. Powerful Winds in Extreme RBS quasars (POWER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piconcelli, Enrico

    2013-10-01

    This proposal aims at studying powerful outflows in ultra-luminous (log Lx >45) Radio-Quiet Quasars (RQQ). We propose to observe four objects extracted from a luminosity limited sample in the ROSAT Bright Survey for a full orbit (130 ks) each. Both models and observations suggest that the efficiency of driving energetic outflows increases with the AGN luminosity. Therefore, our targets are potentially the best objects to hunt for very powerful outflows expected in the AGN/galaxy feedback scenario. Our observations represent the first attempt ever to obtain deep, high-resolution-driven spectroscopy of a representative sample of RQQ in this high-luminosity regime.

  5. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

  6. Embracing the Complexity of Educational Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govers, Elly

    2016-01-01

    Systems of monitoring and control have left many educators and organisations in the field of post-compulsory education struggling to find ways to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society. Education is complex. Many educators would agree that it is influenced by many, often contradictory, voices and power structures. Based on the findings…

  7. A Complexity Theory of Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-14

    Significant results have been obtained on the computation complexity of analog neural networks , and distribute voting. The computing power and...learning algorithms for limited precision analog neural networks have been investigated. Lower bounds for constant depth, polynomial size analog neural ... networks , and a limited version of discrete neural networks have been obtained. The work on distributed voting has important applications for distributed

  8. Global Categorical Framework for Complexity and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    In this Chapter, we present a global structural framework for complexity and control, given by modern algebraic and computational machinery of categories, functors and derived natural structures. Category theory provides us with what amounts to a powerful abstraction that hides and unifies the details of various individual theories and models. The central concept is that of transformations between objects that preserve structure.

  9. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  10. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  11. Power Subscription Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-21

    This document lays out the Bonneville Power Administration`s Power Subscription Strategy, a process that will enable the people of the Pacific Northwest to share the benefits of the Federal Columbia river Power System after 2001 while retaining those benefits within the region for future generations. The strategy also addresses how those who receive the benefits of the region`s low-cost federal power should share a corresponding measure of the risks. This strategy seeks to implement the subscription concept created by the Comprehensive Review in 1996 through contracts for the sale of power and the distribution of federal power benefits in the deregulated wholesale electricity market. The success of the subscription process is fundamental to BPA`s overall business purpose to provide public benefits to the Northwest through commercially successful businesses.

  12. Entangling power of permutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarisse, Lieven; Ghosh, Sibasish; Severini, Simone; Sudbery, Anthony

    2005-07-01

    The notion of entangling power of unitary matrices was introduced by Zanardi , [Phys. Rev. A 62, 030301 (2000)]. We study the entangling power of permutations, given in terms of a combinatorial formula. We show that the permutation matrices with zero entangling power are, up to local unitaries, the identity and the swap. We construct the permutations with the minimum nonzero entangling power for every dimension. With the use of orthogonal latin squares, we construct the permutations with the maximum entangling power for every dimension. Moreover, we show that the value obtained is maximum over all unitaries of the same dimension, with a possible exception for 36. Our result enables us to construct generic examples of 4-qudit maximally entangled states for all dimensions except for 2 and 6. We numerically classify, according to their entangling power, the permutation matrices of dimensions 4 and 9, and we give some estimates for higher dimensions.

  13. [Complexity of land ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Wu, Cifang; Chen, Meiqiu

    2002-06-01

    In recent years, complexity studies has become a new research region and been widely applied in engineering, biology, economy, management, military, police and sociology. In this paper, from the view of complex science, the main complexity characteristics of land ecosystem were described, furthermore, the application of fractal, chaos, and artificial neural network on the complexity of land ecosystem were also discussed.

  14. 3. View from doorway of perimeter acquisition radar power plant, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View from doorway of perimeter acquisition radar power plant, generator M1 (lower level), room #115 - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  15. Literacy and Power--The Cases of Tanzania and Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedin, Asa

    2008-01-01

    In this paper it is claimed that the relation between literacy and power is complex. What people do with literacy has effects on power relations but literacy is not democratic "per se". Drawing from two cases from Tanzania and Rwanda it is argued that plans for adult education and literacy education should consider the perspectives of…

  16. 12. Interior view, fuel tanks on east side of power ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view, fuel tanks on east side of power plant, electrical panels on the left and fuel tanks in the center looking north - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  17. 10. Interior view, east side of power plant, generator bases ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view, east side of power plant, generator bases in foreground, electrical panels and fuel tanks in background looking northeast - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  18. Literacy and Power--The Cases of Tanzania and Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedin, Asa

    2008-01-01

    In this paper it is claimed that the relation between literacy and power is complex. What people do with literacy has effects on power relations but literacy is not democratic "per se". Drawing from two cases from Tanzania and Rwanda it is argued that plans for adult education and literacy education should consider the perspectives of…

  19. On the reliability of voltage and power as input parameters for the characterization of high power ultrasound applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, Julian; Wilkens, Volker

    2012-11-01

    For power levels up to 200 W and sonication times up to 60 s, the electrical power, the voltage and the electrical impedance (more exactly: the ratio of RMS voltage and RMS current) have been measured for a piezocomposite high intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) transducer with integrated matching network, two piezoceramic HITU transducers with external matching networks and for a passive dummy 50 Ω load. The electrical power and the voltage were measured during high power application with an inline power meter and an RMS voltage meter, respectively, and the complex electrical impedance was indirectly measured with a current probe, a 100:1 voltage probe and a digital scope. The results clearly show that the input RMS voltage and the input RMS power change unequally during the application. Hence, the indication of only the electrical input power or only the voltage as the input parameter may not be sufficient for reliable characterizations of ultrasound transducers for high power applications in some cases.

  20. Nuclear power browning out

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1996-05-01

    When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

  1. Power subsystem automation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Sewy, D.; Pickering, C.; Sauers, R.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the phase 2 of the power subsystem automation study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using computer software to manage an aspect of the electrical power subsystem on a space station. The state of the art in expert systems software was investigated in this study. This effort resulted in the demonstration of prototype expert system software for managing one aspect of a simulated space station power subsystem.

  2. Unified powered flight guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

  3. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  4. NEP power subsystem modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harty, Richard B.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system optimization code consists of a master module and various submodules. Each of the submodules represents a subsystem within the total NEP power system. The master module sends commands and input data to each of the submodules and receives output data back. Rocketdyne was responsible for preparing submodules for the power conversion (both K-Rankine and Brayton), heat rejection, and power management and distribution.

  5. Interleaved power converter

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-11-13

    A power converter architecture interleaves full bridge converters to alleviate thermal management problems in high current applications, and may, for example, double the output power capability while reducing parts count and costs. For example, one phase of a three phase inverter is shared between two transformers, which provide power to a rectifier such as a current doubler rectifier to provide two full bridge DC/DC converters with three rather than four high voltage inverter legs.

  6. Electric power annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-08

    This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

  7. 100 most powerful.

    PubMed

    Romano, Michael

    2002-08-26

    Compiling a list of the 100 Most Powerful People in Healthcare requires some contemplation. Exactly what is power in this industry? C. Thomas Smith, president and CEO of VHA, calls power simply "the ability to make a difference." The influential figures chosen by Modern Healthcare readers represent a broadly varied and diverse group of movers and shakers. But they share the ability to change things.

  8. NEP power subsystem modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, Richard B.

    The Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system optimization code consists of a master module and various submodules. Each of the submodules represents a subsystem within the total NEP power system. The master module sends commands and input data to each of the submodules and receives output data back. Rocketdyne was responsible for preparing submodules for the power conversion (both K-Rankine and Brayton), heat rejection, and power management and distribution.

  9. Power Systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    Power systems integration in large flexible space structures is discussed with emphasis upon body control. A solar array is discussed as a typical example of spacecraft configuration problems. Information on how electric batteries dominate life-cycle costs is presented in chart form. Information is given on liquid metal droplet generators and collectors, hot spot analysis, power dissipation in solar arrays, solar array protection optimization, and electromagnetic compatibility for a power system platform.

  10. Hand and Power Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Hand and Power Tools U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA 3080 1998 (Revised) Report Documentation Page Report...Date 00001998 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Hand and Power Tools Contract Number Grant Number Program...basic safety procedures and safeguards associated with hand and portable power tools . Material in this booklet is based on the standards of the

  11. 7. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #202, battery equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #202, battery equipment room; showing battery room (in background) and multiple source power converter (in foreground). The picture offers another look at the shock-isolation system developed for each platform - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  12. Improvement Plans of Fermilab's Proton Accelerator Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The flagship of Fermilab's long term research program is the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), located Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, which will study neutrino oscillations with a baseline of 1300 km. The neutrinos will be produced in the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), a proposed new beam line from Fermilab's Main Injector. The physics goals of the DUNE require a proton beam with a power of some 2.4 MW at 120 GeV, which is roughly four times the current maximum power. Here I discuss current performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex, our plans for construction of the SRF proton linac as key part of the Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), outline the main challenges toward multi-MW beam power operation of the Fermilab accelerator complex and the staged plan to achieve the required performance over the next 15 years.

  13. Study on Early Warning of Cascading Failure for Power Grid Considering Wind Power Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guchao; Chen, Yixi; Ma, Gang; Zhao, Xinhong; Ju, Rong; Wang, Jiaming

    2017-05-01

    With the rapid development of wind power and the increasing degree of grid interconnection, the structure of power grid is becoming more and more complicated, and the operation mode is also more diversified. Some small disturbances may lead to cascading failure, or even collapse of grid. So it is important to study on cascading failure of complex grid. In this paper, the power model of wind power is first established, and the brittleness is used to evaluate the risk of brittle chain of cascading failure from two aspects: probability and severity. The brittle chain with high risk is forecasted. Then a method of early warning for cascading failure with power grid integration is proposed. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the early warning method are verified by IEEE 30-node example with wind farm. This method provides support for early warning of cascading failures.

  14. Powerful drivers for maintenance.

    PubMed

    Mason, Steve

    2013-10-01

    A UPS system is the central building block of a Power Continuity Plan in medical facilities, but such equipment requires careful maintenance to continue fulfilling its vital role in delivering power resilience, and avoid catastrophic downtime, and potentially tens of thousands of pounds in costs to rectify the issues caused by poor maintenance. In our latest technical guidance article, Steve Mason, MD at Bender UK, one of the leading providers of isolated power supplies, theatre control panels, UPS systems, and Steris surgical products, and a turnkey provider of solutions for safe handling of electrical power and advanced provision of critical care products, examines some of the issue surrounding UPS maintenance.

  15. Can solar power deliver?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jenny; Emmott, Christopher J M

    2013-08-13

    Solar power represents a vast resource which could, in principle, meet the world's needs for clean power generation. Recent growth in the use of photovoltaic (PV) technology has demonstrated the potential of solar power to deliver on a large scale. Whilst the dominant PV technology is based on crystalline silicon, a wide variety of alternative PV materials and device concepts have been explored in an attempt to decrease the cost of the photovoltaic electricity. This article explores the potential for such emerging technologies to deliver cost reductions, scalability of manufacture, rapid carbon mitigation and new science in order to accelerate the uptake of solar power technologies.

  16. Power beaming options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rather, John D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Some large scale power beaming applications are proposed for the purpose of stimulating research. The first proposal is for a combination of large phased arrays on the ground near power stations and passive reflectors in geostationary orbit. The systems would beam excess electrical power in microwave form to areas in need of electrical power. Another proposal is to build solar arrays in deserts and beam the energy around the world. Another proposal is to use lasers to beam energy from earth to orbiting spacecraft.

  17. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  18. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  19. CSTI High Capacity Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  20. Power conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Haigh, R E

    1998-01-01

    The Power Conservation Technologies thrust area supports initiatives that enhance the core competencies of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Engineering Directorate in the area of solid-state power electronics. Through partnerships with LLNL programs, projects focus on the development of enabling technologies for existing and emerging programs that have unique power conversion requirements. This year, a multi-disciplinary effort was supported which demonstrated solid-state, high voltage generation by using a dense, monolithic photovoltaic array. This effort builds upon Engineering's strengths in the core technology areas of power conversion, photonics, and microtechnologies.