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Sample records for gen-probe aptima combo

  1. Evaluation of the Hologic gen-probe PANTHER, APTIMA Combo 2 assay in a tertiary care teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Annie; Kirby, James E

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of the Hologic Gen-Probe (San Diego, CA) PANTHER system. The performance of PANTHER was compared with the Hologic Gen-Probe TIGRIS and/or Roche (Indianapolis, IN) COBAS AMPLICOR systems through testing of patient specimens and the spiked-urine matrix. After discrepant resolution, PANTHER demonstrated a 99.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 96.0%-99.9%) positive and 100% (98.5%-100.0%) negative agreement for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and 100% (96.6%-100.0%) positive and 100% (98.6%-100.0%) negative agreement for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) for all male, female, unsexed, and NG-spiked female urine specimens combined. For other specimen types collectively, the PANTHER demonstrated 100% (95% CI, 90.6%-100.0%) positive and 100% (88.3%-100.0%) negative agreement for CT and 90.9% (62.8%-98.4%) positive and 100% (93.5%-100.0%) negative agreement for NG. Analytical sensitivity of the PANTHER in urine matrix was similar to the TIGRIS system. The PANTHER system provides an excellent new addition to options for detecting CT and NG, is appropriate for testing urine samples, and will facilitate high-throughput testing in the clinical laboratory.

  2. Comparison of the BD Viper System with XTR Technology to the Gen-Probe APTIMA COMBO 2 Assay using the TIGRIS DTS system for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Mushanski, Linda M; Brandt, Ken; Coffin, Nicolette; Levett, Paul N; Horsman, Gregory B; Rank, Elliot L

    2012-07-01

    Performances of the BD ProbeTec Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)/Neisseria Gonorrhoeae (GC) Q(x) Amplified DNA Assay reagents on a BD Viper System with XTR Technology and APTIMA COMBO 2 Assay reagents on a TIGRIS DTS platform, for detection of both CT and GC were compared. A total of 1018 first-void urine specimens were tested for the presence of CT and GC DNA using the 2 assays. CT was detected in 143 specimens (14%). Eight specimens exhibited discordant results, and they were divided equally between the 2 assays. Based on the original results, the overall agreement for CT was 99.2%, with 97.1% and 99.5% in agreement with positive and negative specimens, respectively. Cohen's Kappa was 0.967. GC was detected in 27 specimens (2.6%). Two specimens exhibited discordant results, and they were divided equally between the 2 assays. Based on the original results, the overall agreement was 99.8%, with 96.2% and 99.9% in agreement for positive and negative specimens, respectively. Cohen's Kappa was 0.961. There was a high level of agreement between the systems for both CT and GC detection.

  3. Use of APTIMA Combo 2: The Experience of a Child Advocacy Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, M. Ranee; Leber, Amy L.; Marcon, Mario J.; Scribano, Philip V.

    2013-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends nucleic acid amplification testing for chlamydia and gonorrhea in sexually abused girls. No studies describe performance of APTIMA Combo 2 Assay with second target confirmation on the same testing platform. This nucleic acid amplification testing is evaluated within a large child advocacy…

  4. Comparison of the Gen-Probe Aptima HIV-1 and Abbott HIV-1 qualitative assays with the Roche Amplicor HIV-1 DNA assay for early infant diagnosis using dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Julie A E; Hawkins, J Tyler; Schanz, Maria; Mollan, Katie; Miller, Melissa B; Schmitz, John L; Fiscus, Susan A

    2014-08-01

    The current gold standard for infant diagnosis of HIV-1 is the Roche Amplicor Qualitative DNA assay, but it is being phased out. Compare the Abbott qualitative assay and the Gen-Probe Aptima assay to the gold standard Roche DNA assay using dried blood spots (DBS). The Gen-Probe Aptima and Abbott qualitative HIV-1 assays were compared to the Roche DNA assay for early infant diagnosis. Specificity and sensitivity were determined for the three assays using DBS from 50 HIV-exposed uninfected infants and 269 HIV-1 infected adults from North Carolina, respectively. All of the negative and 151 of the positive DBS had valid results on the 3 different assays, and an additional 118 positive DBS had valid results on the Roche DNA and Aptima assays. All three assays were very specific. The Roche DNA assay was the most sensitive (96.7%) over a wide range of HIV PVL, including samples with PVL<400 copies/ml. Restricted to samples with PVL>400 copies/ml, the Gen-Probe Aptima assay had sensitivity (96.5%) comparable to the Roche DNA assay (98.8%). The Abbott Qualitative assay was the least sensitive and only had sensitivity above 95% among samples with PVL over 1000 copies/ml. The Abbott HIV-1 Qualitative assay was not as sensitive as the comparator assays, so it would not be a useful replacement assay, especially for infants taking antiretroviral prophylaxis. The Gen-Probe Aptima assay is an adequate replacement option for infant diagnosis using DBS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States as Determined by the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, K.; Smith, J. S.; Aslanzadeh, J.; Snook, J.; Hill, C. S.; Gaydos, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to determine Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence using the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis assay (ATV; Gen-Probe) and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfections in U.S. women undergoing screening for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae. Discarded urogenital samples from 7,593 women (18 to 89 years old) undergoing C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae screening using the Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe) in various clinical settings were tested with ATV. Overall, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae prevalences were 8.7%, 6.7%, and 1.7%, respectively. T. vaginalis was more prevalent than C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae in all age groups except the 18- to 19-year-old group. The highest T. vaginalis prevalence was in women ≥40 years old (>11%), while the highest C. trachomatis prevalence (9.2%) and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence (2.2%) were in women <30 years old. Coinfection prevalences were 1.3% for C. trachomatis/T. vaginalis, 0.61% for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae and N. gonorrhoeae/T. vaginalis, and 0.24% for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae/T. vaginalis and highest in women <30 years old. T. vaginalis prevalence differed by race/ethnicity, with the highest prevalence in black women (20.2%). T. vaginalis prevalence ranged from 5.4% in family planning clinics to 22.3% in jails. Multivariate analysis determined that ages of ≥40 years, black race, and patient locations were significantly associated with T. vaginalis infection. T. vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in women of >40 years, while C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence is lowest in that age group. Higher T. vaginalis prevalence in women of >40 years is probably attributed to the reason for testing, i.e., symptomatic status versus routine screening in younger women. Coinfections were relatively low. High T. vaginalis prevalence in all age groups suggests that women screened for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae, whether asymptomatic or

  6. COral Mortality and Bleaching Output (COMBO) Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMBO estimates the effects of climate change and ocean acidification on coral reefs at local-to-regional scales. The COMBO model calculates the impacts to coral reefs (change in coral cover) from changes in average SST and CO2 concentrations, and from high temperature mortality ...

  7. Evaluation of a new APTIMA specimen collection and transportation kit for high-risk human papillomavirus E6/E7 messenger RNA in cervical and vaginal samples.

    PubMed

    Chernesky, Max; Jang, Dan; Gilchrist, Jodi; Elit, Laurie; Lytwyn, Alice; Smieja, Marek; Dockter, Janel; Getman, Damon; Reid, Jennifer; Hill, Craig

    2014-06-01

    An APTIMA specimen collection and transportation (SCT) kit was developed by Hologic/Gen-Probe. To compare cervical SCT samples to PreservCyt and SurePath samples and self-collected vaginal samples to physician-collected vaginal and cervical SCT samples. To determine ease and comfort of self-collection with the kit. Each woman (n = 580) self-collected a vaginal SCT, then filled out a questionnaire (n = 563) to determine ease and comfort of self-collection. Colposcopy physicians collected a vaginal SCT and cervical PreservCyt, SCT, and SurePath samples. Samples were tested by APTIMA HPV (AHPV) assay. Agreement between testing of cervical SCT and PreservCyt was 91.1% (κ = 0.82), and that of SurePath samples was 86.7% (κ = 0.72). Agreement of self-collected vaginal SCT to physician-collected SCT was 84.7% (κ = 0.68), and that of self-collected vaginal to cervical SCT was 82.0% (κ = 0.63). For 30 patients with CIN2+, AHPV testing of cervical SCT was 100% sensitive and 59.8% specific compared with PreservCyt (96.6% and 66.2%) and SurePath (93.3% and 70.9%). Vaginal SCT sensitivity was 86.7% for self-collection and 80.0% for physician collection. Most patients found that vaginal self-collection was easy, 5.3% reported some difficulty, and 87.6% expressed no discomfort. Cervical samples collected with the new SCT kit compared well to traditional liquid-based samples tested by AHPV. Although there was good agreement between self-collected and physician-collected samples with the SCT, in a limited number of 30 women, vaginal sampling identified fewer with CIN2+ precancerous cervical lesions than cervical SCT sampling. Comfort, ease of use, and detection of high-risk HPV demonstrated that the kit could be used for cervical and vaginal sampling.

  8. Evaluation of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay Using Plasma and Dried Blood Spots

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Malaya K.; Varghese, Vici; White, Elizabeth; Winslow, Meg; Katzenstein, David A.; Shafer, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 RNA quantitation in plasma, or virus load testing, is the primary method by which the response to antiretroviral therapy is monitored. Here we describe evaluation of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima) performed on the automated Panther system. The clinical performance of Aptima was compared to that of the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test v2.0 (CAP/CTM) using 162 EDTA plasma samples collected from patients undergoing HIV-1 monitoring. Overall agreement was 84.0% (136/162), with a kappa statistic of 0.723 (standard error, 0.047; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.630 to 0.815), indicating substantial agreement. Using the 86 clinical samples quantifiable by both methods, Passing-Bablok regression revealed a regression line of Y = (1.069 × X) − 0.346 (95% CI of the slope [1.003 to 1.139] and intercept [−0.666 to −0.074]), and Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a mean difference (Aptima-CAP/CTM) of −0.075 log10 copies/ml (95% limits of agreement of −0.624 to 0.475), consistent with negative bias. Comparison of Aptima results for paired dried blood spot (DBS) and plasma specimens archived from participants in the Peninsula AIDS Research Cohort Study (PARC) demonstrated an overall agreement of 94.7% (90/95) when 1,000 copies/ml was used as the threshold. In conclusion, the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay provides a suitable alternative for HIV-1 monitoring in plasma and DBS. PMID:27535684

  9. Evaluation of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay Using Plasma and Dried Blood Spots.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Malaya K; Varghese, Vici; White, Elizabeth; Winslow, Meg; Katzenstein, David A; Shafer, Robert W; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-10-01

    HIV-1 RNA quantitation in plasma, or virus load testing, is the primary method by which the response to antiretroviral therapy is monitored. Here we describe evaluation of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima) performed on the automated Panther system. The clinical performance of Aptima was compared to that of the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test v2.0 (CAP/CTM) using 162 EDTA plasma samples collected from patients undergoing HIV-1 monitoring. Overall agreement was 84.0% (136/162), with a kappa statistic of 0.723 (standard error, 0.047; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.630 to 0.815), indicating substantial agreement. Using the 86 clinical samples quantifiable by both methods, Passing-Bablok regression revealed a regression line of Y = (1.069 × X) - 0.346 (95% CI of the slope [1.003 to 1.139] and intercept [-0.666 to -0.074]), and Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a mean difference (Aptima-CAP/CTM) of -0.075 log10 copies/ml (95% limits of agreement of -0.624 to 0.475), consistent with negative bias. Comparison of Aptima results for paired dried blood spot (DBS) and plasma specimens archived from participants in the Peninsula AIDS Research Cohort Study (PARC) demonstrated an overall agreement of 94.7% (90/95) when 1,000 copies/ml was used as the threshold. In conclusion, the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay provides a suitable alternative for HIV-1 monitoring in plasma and DBS. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Hologic Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay on the Panther System on HIV Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Hack, Holly R.; Nair, Sangeetha V.; Worlock, Andrew; Malia, Jennifer A.; Peel, Sheila A.; Jagodzinski, Linda L.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitation of the HIV-1 viral load in plasma is the current standard of care for clinical monitoring of HIV-infected individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Hologic, San Diego, CA) for monitoring viral load by using 277 well-characterized subtype samples, including 171 cultured virus isolates and 106 plasma samples from 35 countries, representing all major HIV subtypes, recombinants, and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) currently in circulation worldwide. Linearity of the Aptima assay was tested on each of 6 major HIV-1 subtypes (A, B, C, D, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG) and demonstrated an R2 value of ≥0.996. The performance of the Aptima assay was also compared to those of the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 v.2 (CAP/CTM) and Abbott m2000 RealTime HIV-1 (RealTime) assays on all subtype samples. The Aptima assay values averaged 0.21 log higher than the CAP/CTM values and 0.30 log higher than the RealTime values, and the values were >0.4 log higher than CAP/CTM values for subtypes F and G and than RealTime values for subtypes C, F, and G and CRF02_AG. Two samples demonstrated results with >1-log differences from RealTime results. When the data were adjusted by the average difference, 94.9% and 87.0% of Aptima results fell within 0.5 log of the CAP/CTM and RealTime results, respectively. The linearity and accuracy of the Aptima assay in correctly quantitating all major HIV-1 subtypes, coupled with the completely automated format and high throughput of the Panther system, make this system well suited for reliable measurement of viral load in the clinical laboratory. PMID:27510829

  11. Evaluation of Hologic Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay on the Panther System on HIV Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Manak, Mark M; Hack, Holly R; Nair, Sangeetha V; Worlock, Andrew; Malia, Jennifer A; Peel, Sheila A; Jagodzinski, Linda L

    2016-10-01

    Quantitation of the HIV-1 viral load in plasma is the current standard of care for clinical monitoring of HIV-infected individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Hologic, San Diego, CA) for monitoring viral load by using 277 well-characterized subtype samples, including 171 cultured virus isolates and 106 plasma samples from 35 countries, representing all major HIV subtypes, recombinants, and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) currently in circulation worldwide. Linearity of the Aptima assay was tested on each of 6 major HIV-1 subtypes (A, B, C, D, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG) and demonstrated an R(2) value of ≥0.996. The performance of the Aptima assay was also compared to those of the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 v.2 (CAP/CTM) and Abbott m2000 RealTime HIV-1 (RealTime) assays on all subtype samples. The Aptima assay values averaged 0.21 log higher than the CAP/CTM values and 0.30 log higher than the RealTime values, and the values were >0.4 log higher than CAP/CTM values for subtypes F and G and than RealTime values for subtypes C, F, and G and CRF02_AG. Two samples demonstrated results with >1-log differences from RealTime results. When the data were adjusted by the average difference, 94.9% and 87.0% of Aptima results fell within 0.5 log of the CAP/CTM and RealTime results, respectively. The linearity and accuracy of the Aptima assay in correctly quantitating all major HIV-1 subtypes, coupled with the completely automated format and high throughput of the Panther system, make this system well suited for reliable measurement of viral load in the clinical laboratory. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Human papillomavirus detection with genotyping by the cobas and Aptima assays: Significant differences in HPV 16 detection?

    PubMed

    Chorny, Joseph A; Frye, Teresa C; Fisher, Beth L; Remmers, Carol L

    2018-03-23

    The primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) assays in the United States are the cobas (Roche) and the Aptima (Hologic). The cobas assay detects hrHPV by DNA analysis while the Aptima detects messenger RNA (mRNA) oncogenic transcripts. As the Aptima assay identifies oncogenic expression, it should have a lower rate of hrHPV and genotype detection. The Kaiser Permanente Regional Reference Laboratory in Denver, Colorado changed its hrHPV assay from the cobas to the Aptima assay. The rates of hrHPV detection and genotyping were compared over successive six-month periods. The overall hrHPV detection rates by the two platforms were similar (9.5% versus 9.1%) and not statistically different. For genotyping, the HPV 16 rate by the cobas was 1.6% and by the Aptima it was 1.1%. These differences were statistically different with the Aptima detecting nearly one-third less HPV 16 infections. With the HPV 18 and HPV 18/45, there was a slightly higher detection rate of HPV 18/45 by the Aptima platform (0.5% versus 0.9%) and this was statistically significant. While HPV 16 represents a low percentage of hrHPV infections, it was detected significantly less by the Aptima assay compared to the cobas assay. This has been previously reported, although not highlighted. Given the test methodologies, one would expect the Aptima to detect less HPV 16. This difference appears to be mainly due to a significantly increased number of non-oncogenic HPV 16 infections detected by the cobas test as there were no differences in HPV 16 detection rates in the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions indicating that the two tests have similar sensitivities for oncogenic HPV 16. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Multiple-Tumor Analysis with MS_Combo Model (Use with BMDS Wizard)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Exercises and procedures on setting up and using the MS_Combo Wizard. The MS_Combo model provides BMD and BMDL estimates for the risk of getting one or more tumors for any combination of tumors observed in a single bioassay.

  14. Note: Radial-thrust combo metal mesh foil bearing for microturbomachinery.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Choi, Sang Kyu; Hong, Doo Euy; Yoon, Tae Gwang; Lee, Sung Hwi

    2013-10-01

    This Note proposes a novel radial-thrust combo metal mesh foil bearing (MMFB). Although MMFBs have advantages such as higher stiffness and damping over conventional air foil bearings, studies related to MMFBs have been limited to radial MMFBs. The novel combo MMFB is composed of a radial top foil, thrust top foils, and a ring-shaped metal mesh damper--fabricated by compressing a copper wire mesh--with metal mesh thrust pads for the thrust bearing at both side faces. In this study, the combo MMFB was fabricated in half-split type to support the rotor for a micro gas turbine generator. The manufacture and assembly process for the half-split-type combo MMFB is presented. In addition, to verify the proposed combo MMFB, motoring test results up to 250,000 rpm and axial displacements as a function of rotational speed are presented.

  15. Note: Radial-thrust combo metal mesh foil bearing for microturbomachinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Choi, Sang Kyu; Hong, Doo Euy; Yoon, Tae Gwang; Lee, Sung Hwi

    2013-10-01

    This Note proposes a novel radial-thrust combo metal mesh foil bearing (MMFB). Although MMFBs have advantages such as higher stiffness and damping over conventional air foil bearings, studies related to MMFBs have been limited to radial MMFBs. The novel combo MMFB is composed of a radial top foil, thrust top foils, and a ring-shaped metal mesh damper—fabricated by compressing a copper wire mesh—with metal mesh thrust pads for the thrust bearing at both side faces. In this study, the combo MMFB was fabricated in half-split type to support the rotor for a micro gas turbine generator. The manufacture and assembly process for the half-split-type combo MMFB is presented. In addition, to verify the proposed combo MMFB, motoring test results up to 250 000 rpm and axial displacements as a function of rotational speed are presented.

  16. False-Positive Gen-Probe Direct Mycobacterium tuberculosis Amplification Test Results for Patients with Pulmonary M. kansasii and M. avium Infections

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, James H.; Salinas, Jesse R.; Paxson, Rosemary; Magnon, Karen; Patterson, Jan E.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    The Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct (MTD) test has been approved for use in the United States for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with acid-fast smear-positive sputum samples since 1996. Four patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and one chronic pulmonary-disease patient seen in our institutions with abnormal chest radiographs and fluorochrome stain-positive sputa were evaluated for tuberculosis, including performance of the MTD test on expectorated sputum samples. Three of these five patients’ sputa were highly smear-positive (i.e., more than 100 bacilli per high-power field), while two patient’s sputa contained 1 to 10 bacilli per field. MTD results on sputum specimens from these patients ranged from 43,498 to 193,858 relative light units (RLU). Gen-Probe has defined values of at least 30,000 RLU as indicative of a positive test, i.e., the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA. Four of the patients’ sputum cultures yielded growth of M. kansasii within 6 to 12 days, and the fifth produced growth of M. avium only. One patient’s culture contained both M. kansasii and M. avium, but none of the initial or follow-up cultures from these five patients revealed M. tuberculosis. However, subsequent cultures from three of the patients again revealed M. kansasii. During the period of this study, in which MTD tests were performed on smear-positive sputum specimens from 82 patients, four of seven patients with culture-proven M. kansasii pulmonary infections yielded one or more false-positive MTD tests. The MTD sensitivity observed in this study was 93.8%, and the specificity was 85.3%. Five cultures of M. kansasii (including three of these patients’ isolates and M. kansasii ATCC 12478), and cultures of several other species were examined at densities of 105 to 107 viable CFU/ml by the MTD test. All five isolates of M. kansasii and three of three isolates of M. simiae yielded false-positive test

  17. Evaluation of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay for HIV-1 RNA Quantitation in Different Biological Specimen Types

    PubMed Central

    Yek, Christina; Massanella, Marta; Peling, Tashi; Lednovich, Kristen; Nair, Sangeetha V.; Worlock, Andrew; Vargas, Milenka; Gianella, Sara; Ellis, Ronald J.; Strain, Matthew C.; Busch, Michael P.; Nugent, C. Thomas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The search for a cure for HIV infection has highlighted the need for increasingly sensitive and precise assays to measure viral burden in various tissues and body fluids. We describe the application of a standardized assay for HIV-1 RNA in multiple specimen types. The fully automated Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima assay) is FDA cleared for blood plasma HIV-1 RNA quantitation. In this study, the Aptima assay was applied for the quantitation of HIV RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs; n = 72), seminal plasma (n = 20), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; n = 36), dried blood spots (DBS; n = 104), and dried plasma spots (DPS; n = 104). The Aptima assay was equivalent to or better than commercial assays or validated in-house assays for the quantitation of HIV RNA in CSF and seminal plasma. For PBMC specimens, the sensitivity of the Aptima assay in the detection of HIV RNA decayed as background uninfected PBMC counts increased; proteinase K treatment demonstrated some benefit in restoring signal at higher levels of background PBMCs. Finally, the Aptima assay yielded 100% detection rates of DBS in participants with plasma HIV RNA levels of ≥35 copies/ml and 100% detection rates of DPS in participants with plasma HIV RNA levels of ≥394 copies/ml. The Aptima assay can be applied to a variety of specimens from HIV-infected subjects to measure HIV RNA for studies of viral persistence and cure strategies. It can also detect HIV in dried blood and plasma specimens, which may be of benefit in resource-limited settings. PMID:28592548

  18. Evaluation of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay for HIV-1 RNA Quantitation in Different Biological Specimen Types.

    PubMed

    Yek, Christina; Massanella, Marta; Peling, Tashi; Lednovich, Kristen; Nair, Sangeetha V; Worlock, Andrew; Vargas, Milenka; Gianella, Sara; Ellis, Ronald J; Strain, Matthew C; Busch, Michael P; Nugent, C Thomas; Richman, Douglas D

    2017-08-01

    The search for a cure for HIV infection has highlighted the need for increasingly sensitive and precise assays to measure viral burden in various tissues and body fluids. We describe the application of a standardized assay for HIV-1 RNA in multiple specimen types. The fully automated Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima assay) is FDA cleared for blood plasma HIV-1 RNA quantitation. In this study, the Aptima assay was applied for the quantitation of HIV RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs; n = 72), seminal plasma ( n = 20), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; n = 36), dried blood spots (DBS; n = 104), and dried plasma spots (DPS; n = 104). The Aptima assay was equivalent to or better than commercial assays or validated in-house assays for the quantitation of HIV RNA in CSF and seminal plasma. For PBMC specimens, the sensitivity of the Aptima assay in the detection of HIV RNA decayed as background uninfected PBMC counts increased; proteinase K treatment demonstrated some benefit in restoring signal at higher levels of background PBMCs. Finally, the Aptima assay yielded 100% detection rates of DBS in participants with plasma HIV RNA levels of ≥35 copies/ml and 100% detection rates of DPS in participants with plasma HIV RNA levels of ≥394 copies/ml. The Aptima assay can be applied to a variety of specimens from HIV-infected subjects to measure HIV RNA for studies of viral persistence and cure strategies. It can also detect HIV in dried blood and plasma specimens, which may be of benefit in resource-limited settings.

  19. Clinical and analytical evaluation of the new Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay, with data on M. genitalium prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016.

    PubMed

    Unemo, M; Salado-Rasmussen, K; Hansen, M; Olsen, A O; Falk, M; Golparian, D; Aasterød, M; Ringlander, J; Nilsson, C Stezckó; Sundqvist, M; Schønning, K; Moi, H; Westh, H; Jensen, J S

    2018-05-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) causes urethritis and cervicitis, potentially causing reproductive complications. Resistance in MG to first-line (azithromycin) and second-line (moxifloxacin) treatment has increased. We examined the clinical and analytical performance of the new Conformité Européene (CE)/in vitro diagnostics (IVD) Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay (CE/IVD AMG; Hologic); the prevalence of MG, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG); and MG resistance to azithromycin and moxifloxacin in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016. From February 2016 to February 2017, urogenital and extragenital (only in Denmark) specimens from consecutive attendees at three sexually transmitted disease clinics were tested with the CE/IVD AMG, the research-use-only MG Alt TMA-1 assay (Hologic), Aptima Combo 2 (CT/NG) assay and a laboratory-developed TaqMan real-time mgpB quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Resistance-associated mutations were determined by sequencing. Strains of MG and other mycoplasma species in different concentrations were also tested. In total 5269 patients were included. The prevalence of MG was 7.2% (382/5269; 4.9-9.8% in the countries). The sensitivity of the CE/IVD AMG, MG Alt TMA-1 and mgpB qPCR ranged 99.13-100%, 99.13-100% and 73.24-81.60%, respectively, in the countries. The specificity ranged 99.57-99.96%, 100% and 99.69-100%, respectively. The prevalence of resistance-associated mutations for azithromycin and moxifloxacin was 41.4% (120/290; 17.7-56.6%) and 6.6% (18/274; 4.1-10.2%), respectively. Multidrug resistance was found in all countries (2.7%; 1.1-4.2%). Both transcription-mediated amplification (TMA)-based MG assays had a highly superior sensitivity compared to the mgpB qPCR. The prevalence of MG and azithromycin resistance was high. Validated and quality-assured molecular tests for MG, routine resistance testing of MG-positive samples and antimicrobial resistance surveillance are crucial. Copyright © 2017 The Author

  20. Current evidence for the safety and efficacy of the bio-engineered dual therapy COMBO stent.

    PubMed

    Kalkman, Deborah N; Chandrasekhar, Jaya; de Winter, Robbert J; Mehran, Roxana

    2018-06-01

    The novel dual-therapy COMBO stent aims to promote vessel healing after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with coronary artery disease. The pro-healing technique consists of an anti-CD34+ antibody layer that attracts circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which bind to the stent surface and allow rapid endothelialization by differentiation of the EPCs into normal endothelial cells. The COMBO stent combines this pro-healing technique with an abluminal drug elution of sirolimus. The promise of this dual-therapy stent is that it may safely allow a shortened duration of dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after stent placement. Moreover, with a mature endothelial layer, lower rates of in-stent restenosis may be expected. Clinical outcomes after COMBO stent implantation have been recently evaluated in both randomized trials and large, prospective, multicenter registries, showing low clinical event rates of in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis. Randomized clinical trials (HARMONEE and RECOVERY) have demonstrated the non-inferiority of COMBO versus "first in class" second generation and newer generation drug-eluting stents. Safety and efficacy of 3 months of DAPT after COMBO stent placement in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome has been evaluated in the large REDUCE randomized controlled trial, showing non-inferiority to standard duration of 12-month DAPT. In this review we provide an overview of the current pre-clinical and clinical evidence for the performance of the COMBO stent.

  1. Validation of Performance of the Gen-Probe Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Load Assay with Genital Swabs and Breast Milk Samples

    PubMed Central

    DeVange Panteleeff, Dana; Emery, Sandra; Richardson, Barbra A.; Rousseau, Christine; Benki, Sarah; Bodrug, Sharon; Kreiss, Joan K.; Overbaugh, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) continues to spread at an alarming rate. The virus may be transmitted through blood, genital secretions, and breast milk, and higher levels of systemic virus in the index case, as measured by plasma RNA viral load, have been shown to correlate with increased risk of transmitting HIV-1 both vertically and sexually. Less is known about the correlation between transmission and HIV-1 levels in breast milk or genital secretions, in part because reliable quantitative assays to detect HIV-1 in these fluids are not available. Here we show that the Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay can be used to accurately quantify viral load in expressed breast milk and in cervical and vaginal samples collected on swabs. Virus could be quantified from breast milk and swab samples spiked with known amounts of virus, including HIV-1 subtypes A, C, and D. As few as 10 copies of HIV-1 RNA could be detected above background threshold levels in ≥77% of assays performed with spiked breast milk supernatants and mock swabs. In genital swab samples from HIV-1-infected women, similar levels of HIV-1 RNA were consistently detected in duplicate swabs taken from the same woman on the same clinic visit, suggesting that the RNA values from a single swab sample can be used to measure genital viral load. PMID:12409354

  2. Nutritional quality and marketing strategies of fast food children's combo meals in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Mazariegos, Sofia; Chacón, Violeta; Cole, Adam; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity prevalence in children is now on the rise in low/middle-income countries, including Guatemala. Fast food consumption is a recognized contributing factor to this rise. Fast food restaurants use health claims, toy giveaways, price incentives and fast service to promote children's combo meals. This study sought to assess the use of toy giveaways, time to delivery and price incentives as marketing strategies in fast food chain restaurants in Guatemala. In addition, we sought to compare nutritional quality of combo meals with and without health claims. We visited one restaurant from each of the 8 major fast food chains in Guatemala and purchased all children's combo meals to assess the prevalence of toy giveaways, health claims, and difference in delivery time and price between the combo meal and each meal item purchased separately. Each item was then classified as "healthy" or "less healthy" using the UK Nutrition Profile Model. Nutrition information was collected on-site, from the restaurant website, or by calling the customer service phone number. We found 114 combo meals, 21 (18.4%) of which were children's combo meals. Five (24%) had nutrition information, all were classified by our analysis as "less healthy", and three had a health claim. On average, combo meals were US$1.93 less expensive than purchasing children's meal items individually ( p  = 0.01). Time to delivery was 1.44 min faster for combo meals compared to purchasing meal items individually ( p  = 0.19). Children's fast food combo meals in Guatemala were promoted using several marketing strategies that encourage consumption, including offering toy giveaways and price incentives. In addition, nutrition information is lacking in fast food chain restaurants. Public health advocates in Guatemala should consider a comprehensive approach to encourage healthier choices within fast food restaurants including policies that require fruit and vegetable options for meal side dishes

  3. Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx--A fully automated assay for both diagnosis and quantification of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sangeetha Vijaysri; Kim, Hee Cheol; Fortunko, Jacqueline; Foote, Tracy; Peling, Tashi; Tran, Cuong; Nugent, Charles Thomas; Joo, Sunghae; Kang, Youna; Wilkins, Bana; Lednovich, Kristen; Worlock, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Separate assays are available for diagnosis and viral load (VL) monitoring of HIV-1. Studies have shown that using a single test for both confirmatory diagnosis and VL increases linkage to care. To validate a single assay for both diagnosis and VL monitoring of HIV-1 on the fully automated Panther platform. Validate the assay by assessing specificity, sensitivity, subtype detection, seroconversion, reproducibility and linearity. Also assess diagnostic agreement with the Procleix(®) Ultrio Elite™ discriminatory assay (Procleix), and agreement of VL results (method comparison) with Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 version 2.0 (CAP/CTM), using clinical samples. The assay was specific (100%) and sensitive with a 95% limit of detection of 12 copies/mL with the 3rd WHO standards. Aptima detected HIV in seroconversion panels 6 and 11 days before p24 antigen and antibody tests, respectively. Diagnostic agreement with Procleix, was 100%. Regression analysis showed good agreement of VL results between Aptima and CAP/CTM with a slope of 1.02, intercept of 0.07, and correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.97. Aptima was more sensitive than CAP/CTM. Equivalent quantification was seen on testing clinical samples and isolates belonging to HIV group M, N, O and P and commercially available subtype panels. Assay results were linear (R(2) 0.9994) with standard deviation of <0.17 log copies across assay range. The good specificity, sensitivity, precision, subtype performance and clinical agreement with other assays demonstrated by Aptima combined with the complete automation provided by the Panther platform makes Aptima a good candidate for both VL monitoring and diagnosis of HIV-1. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance evaluation of the Aptima HSV-1 and 2 assay for the detection of HSV in cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesion specimens.

    PubMed

    Sam, Soya S; Caliendo, Angela M; Ingersoll, Jessica; Abdul-Ali, Deborah; Kraft, Colleen S

    Timely and precise laboratory diagnosis of Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) is required to guide clinical management. The study evaluated limit of detection (LOD) and performance characteristics of the Aptima HSV 1 & 2 assay in comparison to four assays. The multi-center study compared qualitative detection of HSV-1 and 2 by the Aptima HSV-1 and 2 assay (Hologic) to ELVIS culture, Lyra Direct (Quidel), AmpliVue (Quidel) and a laboratory developed test (LDT). LOD was performed using VTM and STM diluted viral concentrations and clinical performance was evaluated using 505 swab specimens. The Aptima LOD studies performed showed a lower detection limit for STM specimens as 1450 copies/mL and 430 copies/mL for HSV1 and HSV-2 respectively; the LOD for VTM specimens was 9370 copies/mL and 8045 copies/mL for HSV-1 and HSV-2 respectively. When the assays were analyzed based on the positive consensus result established the Aptima had 95% of percent positive agreement (PPA) and 100% negative percent agreement (NPA) for the HSV-1. For the HSV-2, the PPA and NPA for Aptima were 96% and 100% respectively. AmpliVue had 1.8% invalid rate, while Lyra had no invalid results but an inhibition rate of 0.8%. Aptima and LDT did not have any invalid or inhibited results. The results indicate that the Aptima HSV-1 & 2 assay is sensitive and the performance characteristics of the Aptima assay is comparable to the assays analyzed for the detection and differentiation of HSV-1 and 2 from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  6. Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay for Detection and Quantitation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Plasma and Cervicovaginal Lavage Samples.

    PubMed

    Sam, Soya S; Kurpewski, Jaclynn R; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Caliendo, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of HIV-1 RNA has become the standard of care in the clinical management of HIV-1-infected individuals. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance characteristics and relative workflow of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay in comparison with the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay using plasma and cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. Assay performance was evaluated by using an AcroMetrix HIV-1 panel, AcroMetrix positive controls, Qnostics and SeraCare HIV-1 evaluation panels, 208 clinical plasma samples, and 205 matched CVL specimens on the Panther and m2000 platforms. The Aptima assay demonstrated good linearity over the quantification range tested (2 to 5 log10copies/ml), and there was strong linear correlation between the assays (R(2)= 0.99), with a comparable coefficient of variance of <5.5%. For the plasma samples, Deming regression analyses and Bland-Altman plots showed excellent agreement between the assays, with an interassay concordance of 91.35% (kappa = 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85), and on average, the viral loads determined by the Aptima assay were 0.21 log10copies/ml higher than those determined by the RealTime assay. The assays differed in their sensitivity for quantifying HIV-1 RNA loads in CVL samples, with the Aptima and RealTime assays detecting 30% and 20%, respectively. Aptima had fewer invalid results, and on average, the viral loads in CVL samples quantified by the Aptima assay were 0.072 log10copies/ml higher than those of the RealTime assay. Our results demonstrate that the Aptima assay is sensitive and accurate in quantifying viral loads in both plasma and CVL specimens and that the fully automated Panther system has all the necessary features suitable for clinical laboratories demanding high-throughput sample processing. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay for Detection and Quantitation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Plasma and Cervicovaginal Lavage Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kurpewski, Jaclynn R.; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Caliendo, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of HIV-1 RNA has become the standard of care in the clinical management of HIV-1-infected individuals. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance characteristics and relative workflow of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay in comparison with the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay using plasma and cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. Assay performance was evaluated by using an AcroMetrix HIV-1 panel, AcroMetrix positive controls, Qnostics and SeraCare HIV-1 evaluation panels, 208 clinical plasma samples, and 205 matched CVL specimens on the Panther and m2000 platforms. The Aptima assay demonstrated good linearity over the quantification range tested (2 to 5 log10 copies/ml), and there was strong linear correlation between the assays (R2 = 0.99), with a comparable coefficient of variance of <5.5%. For the plasma samples, Deming regression analyses and Bland-Altman plots showed excellent agreement between the assays, with an interassay concordance of 91.35% (kappa = 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85), and on average, the viral loads determined by the Aptima assay were 0.21 log10 copies/ml higher than those determined by the RealTime assay. The assays differed in their sensitivity for quantifying HIV-1 RNA loads in CVL samples, with the Aptima and RealTime assays detecting 30% and 20%, respectively. Aptima had fewer invalid results, and on average, the viral loads in CVL samples quantified by the Aptima assay were 0.072 log10 copies/ml higher than those of the RealTime assay. Our results demonstrate that the Aptima assay is sensitive and accurate in quantifying viral loads in both plasma and CVL specimens and that the fully automated Panther system has all the necessary features suitable for clinical laboratories demanding high-throughput sample processing. PMID:26842702

  8. Performance evaluation of the Aptima® HCV Quant Dx assay for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA detection and quantification in comparison to the Abbott RealTime HCV assay.

    PubMed

    Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Bibbò, Angela; Sciamanna, Roberta; Pisciotta, Marina; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2017-07-01

    The Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay (Aptima) is a real-time transcription-mediated amplification assay CE-approved for the diagnosis and monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Aptima's analytical performance was compared to the Abbott RealTime HCV assay (RealTime) in a clinical routine setting. Overall 295 clinical plasma samples (117 prospective/fresh; 178 retrospective/frozen) from HCV-infected patients were tested in Aptima and RealTime to determine concordance on qualitative and quantitative results. Linearity and precision at low viral loads (VLs; 0.8-3.3LogIU/mL) was tested using dilutions of the 5th WHO standard, in 10 and 20 replicates in the two assays, respectively. The ability to measure different HCV genotypes and accuracy were analyzed using the Seracare EQA panel. Inter-assay agreement for qualitative results (prospective samples) was 88% (kappa=0.78). For the 127 samples with quantitative results in both assays, Aptima yielded on average slightly higher values (by 0.24LogIU/mL; Bland-Altman method) than RealTime. Concordance between assay results was excellent (R=0.98). At low VLs (0.8-3.3LogIU/mL), Aptima demonstrated good linearity and precision, similar to RealTime. Aptima detected and accurately quantified all main HCV genotypes. Aptima demonstrated excellent precision, linearity, and accuracy in all genotypes tested. Good concordance was observed between Aptima and RealTime assays in clinical samples. The performance of the Aptima assay, on the fully automated Panther platform, makes it an excellent candidate for the detection and monitoring of HCV RNA in plasma and serum samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analytical and clinical performance of the Hologic Aptima HCV Quant Dx Assay for the quantification of HCV RNA in plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Schønning, Kristian; Pedersen, Martin Schou; Johansen, Kim; Landt, Bodil; Nielsen, Lone Gilmor; Weis, Nina; Westh, Henrik

    2017-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can be effectively treated with directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. Measurement of HCV RNA is used to evaluate patient compliance and virological response during and after treatment. To compare the analytical performance of the Aptima HCV Quant Dx Assay (Aptima) and the COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HCV Test v2.0 (CAPCTMv2) for the quantification of HCV RNA in plasma samples, and compare the clinical utility of the two tests in patients undergoing treatment with DAA therapy. Analytical performance was evaluated on two sets of plasma samples: 125 genotyped samples and 172 samples referred for quantification of HCV RNA. Furthermore, performance was evaluated using dilutions series of four samples containing HCV genotype 1a, 2b, 3a, and 4a, respectively. Clinical utility was evaluated on 118 plasma samples obtained from 13 patients undergoing treatment with DAAs. Deming regression of results from 187 plasma samples with HCV RNA >2 Log IU/mL indicated that the Aptima assay quantified higher than the CAPCTMv2 test for HCV RNA >4.9 Log IU/mL. The linearity of the Aptima assay was excellent across dilution series of four HCV genotypes (slope of the regression line: 1.00-1.02). The Aptima assay detected significantly more replicates below targeted 2 Log IU/mL than the CAPCTMv2 test, and yielded clearly interpretable results when used to analyze samples from patients treated with DAAs. The analytical performance of the Aptima assay makes it well suited for monitoring patients with chronic HCV infection undergoing antiviral treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative performance of the new Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay with three commercial PCR-based HIV-1 RNA quantitation assays.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Mark; Hau, Sarah; Tiernan, Caroline; Papadimitropoulos, Athanasios; Chawla, Anu; Beloukas, Apostolos; Geretti, Anna Maria

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative measurement of HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma ('viral load') plays a central role in clinical management. The choice of assay platform can influence results and treatment decisions. To compare the analytical performance of the new TMA-based Hologic Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay with that of three PCR-based assays: Abbott RealTime HIV-1, Qiagen Artus(®) HI Virus-1 QS-RGQ, and Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 Test v2. Assay performance was evaluated using Acrometrix HIV-1 RNA Standard panels; the 3rd WHO HIV-1 RNA International Standard (12-500 copies/ml; 6 dilutions; 9 replicates); and plasma samples from 191 HIV-positive patients. Aptima showed high (>0.99) precision, accuracy and concordance with the Acrometrix Standards across a wide dynamic range (2.0-6.7 log10copies/ml). Variance caused up to 2.1 (Aptima), 1.7 (RealTime), 7.5 (Artus), and 1.9 (CAP/CTM) fold changes in the International Standard quantifications at 50-500 copies/ml. HIV-1 RNA detection rates in plasma samples were 141/191 (74%), 119/191 (62%), 108/191 (57%), and 145/191 (76%) for Aptima, RealTime, Artus and CAP/CTM, respectively. For categorising samples either side of 50 copies/ml, Aptima had excellent agreement with RealTime (kappa 0.92; 95% CI 0.87-0.98); lowest agreement was with Artus (kappa 0.79; 95%CI 0.70-0.88). Aptima quantifications were mean 0.12 and 0.06 log10copies/ml higher compared with RealTime and CAP/CTM, respectively, and 0.05 log10copies/ml lower compared with Artus. Limits of agreement were narrowest when comparing Aptima to RealTime. The new Aptima HIV assay is sensitive, precise, and accurate. HIV assays exhibit discordance at low HIV-1 RNA copy numbers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-reactivity profiles of hybrid capture II, cobas, and APTIMA human papillomavirus assays: split-sample study.

    PubMed

    Preisler, Sarah; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Bonde, Jesper

    2016-07-20

    High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing is replacing cytology in cervical cancer screening as it is more sensitive for preinvasive cervical lesions. However, the bottleneck of HPV testing is the many false positive test results (positive tests without cervical lesions). Here, we evaluated to what extent these can be explained by cross-reactivity, i.e. positive test results without evidence of high-risk HPV genotypes. The patterns of cross-reactivity have been thoroughly studied for hybrid capture II (HC2) but not yet for newer HPV assays although the manufacturers claimed no or limited frequency of cross-reactivity. In this independent study we evaluated the frequency of cross-reactivity for HC2, cobas, and APTIMA assays. Consecutive routine cervical screening samples from 5022 Danish women, including 2859 from women attending primary screening, were tested with the three evaluated DNA and mRNA HPV assays. Genotyping was undertaken using CLART HPV2 assay, individually detecting 35 genotypes. The presence or absence of cervical lesions was determined with histological examinations; women with abnormal cytology were managed as per routine recommendations; those with normal cytology and positive high-risk HPV test results were invited for repeated testing in 18 months. Cross-reactivity to low-risk genotypes was detected in 109 (2.2 %) out of 5022 samples on HC2, 62 (1.2 %) on cobas, and 35 (0.7 %) on APTIMA with only 10 of the samples cross-reacting on all 3 assays. None of the 35 genotypes was detected in 49 (1.0 %), 162 (3.2 %), and 56 (1.1 %) samples, respectively. In primary screening at age 30 to 65 years (n = 2859), samples of 72 (25 %) out of 289 with high-risk infections on HC2 and < CIN2 histology were due to cross-reactivity. On cobas, this was 106 (26 %) out of 415, and on APTIMA 48 (21 %) out of 224. Despite manufacturer claims, all three assays showed cross-reactivity. In primary cervical screening at age ≥30 years, cross

  12. The New Aptima HBV Quant Real-Time TMA Assay Accurately Quantifies Hepatitis B Virus DNA from Genotypes A to F.

    PubMed

    Chevaliez, Stéphane; Dauvillier, Claude; Dubernet, Fabienne; Poveda, Jean-Dominique; Laperche, Syria; Hézode, Christophe; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-01

    Sensitive and accurate hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA detection and quantification are essential to diagnose HBV infection, establish the prognosis of HBV-related liver disease, and guide the decision to treat and monitor the virological response to antiviral treatment and the emergence of resistance. Currently available HBV DNA platforms and assays are generally designed for batching multiple specimens within an individual run and require at least one full day of work to complete the analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the newly developed, fully automated, one-step Aptima HBV Quant assay to accurately detect and quantify HBV DNA in a large series of patients infected with different HBV genotypes. The limit of detection of the assay was estimated to be 4.5 IU/ml. The specificity of the assay was 100%. Intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.29% to 5.07% and 4.90% to 6.85%, respectively. HBV DNA levels from patients infected with HBV genotypes A to F measured with the Aptima HBV Quant assay strongly correlated with those measured by two commercial real-time PCR comparators (Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HBV test, version 2.0, and Abbott RealTi m e HBV test). In conclusion, the Aptima HBV Quant assay is sensitive, specific, and reproducible and accurately quantifies HBV DNA in plasma samples from patients with chronic HBV infections of all genotypes, including patients on antiviral treatment with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues. The Aptima HBV Quant assay can thus confidently be used to detect and quantify HBV DNA in both clinical trials with new anti-HBV drugs and clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Analytical characteristics and comparative evaluation of Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay with Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test v2.0.

    PubMed

    Hatzakis, Angelos; Papachristou, Helen; Nair, Sangeetha J; Fortunko, Jacqueline; Foote, Tracy; Kim, HeeCheol; Peling, Tashi L; Worlock, Andrew J

    2016-10-21

    Quantitation of HIV-RNA is critically important for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, monitoring and assessment of infectivity in HIV-1 infection. The objective of this study was to assess performance characteristics of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima), a new transcription mediated amplification (TMA), fully integrated and automated assay from Hologic Inc., San Diego, CA, USA. The analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, precision and detection of HIV-1 subtypes were tested based on commercially available international standards or panels. A selected group of 244 anti-HIV-1 (+) plasma samples was used for comparison with Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV- 1 test v2.0 (Roche CAP/CTM), (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA). The 50 and 95 % limit of detection were estimated at 4.9 (95 % CI 3.9-5.7) and 17.6 (15.2-21.2) IU/mL respectively. The specificity was found 99.83 (99.06-99.97) %. The standard deviations and coefficient of variations for panels with 50 and 100 copies/mL (1.7 and 2 log copies/mL) were 0.14 log copies/mL (8.67 %CV) and 0.18 log copies/mL (9.91 %CV) respectively. The detection rate for Aptima and Roche assays was 220/244 (90.2 %) and 217/244 (88.9 %) respectively. The Aptima assay is a sensitive, specific, precise and accurate test for measuring HIV-1 viral loads and for the detection of HIV-1 infections.

  14. The New Aptima HCV Quant Dx Real-time TMA Assay Accurately Quantifies Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1-6 RNA.

    PubMed

    Chevaliez, Stéphane; Dubernet, Fabienne; Dauvillier, Claude; Hézode, Christophe; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-01

    Sensitive and accurate hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA detection and quantification is essential for the management of chronic hepatitis C therapy. Currently available platforms and assays are usually batched and require at least 5hours of work to complete the analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the newly developed Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay that eliminates the need for batch processing and automates all aspects of nucleic acid testing in a single step, to accurately detect and quantify HCV RNA in a large series of patients infected with different HCV genotypes. The limit of detection was estimated to be 2.3 IU/mL. The specificity of the assay was 98.6% (95% confidence interval: 96.1%-99.5%). Intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.09% to 5.61%, and 1.05% to 3.65%, respectively. The study of serum specimens from patients infected with HCV genotypes 1 to 6 showed a satisfactory relationship between HCV RNA levels measured by the Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay, and both real-time PCR comparators (Abbott RealTime HCV and Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV Test, version 2.0, assays). the new Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay is rapid, sensitive, reasonably specific and reproducible and accurately quantifies HCV RNA in serum samples from patients with chronic HCV infection, including patients on antiviral treatment. The Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay can thus be confidently used to detect and quantify HCV RNA in both clinical trials with new anti-HCV drugs and clinical practice in Europe and the US. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The New Aptima HBV Quant Real-Time TMA Assay Accurately Quantifies Hepatitis B Virus DNA from Genotypes A to F

    PubMed Central

    Dauvillier, Claude; Dubernet, Fabienne; Poveda, Jean-Dominique; Laperche, Syria; Hézode, Christophe; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sensitive and accurate hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA detection and quantification are essential to diagnose HBV infection, establish the prognosis of HBV-related liver disease, and guide the decision to treat and monitor the virological response to antiviral treatment and the emergence of resistance. Currently available HBV DNA platforms and assays are generally designed for batching multiple specimens within an individual run and require at least one full day of work to complete the analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the newly developed, fully automated, one-step Aptima HBV Quant assay to accurately detect and quantify HBV DNA in a large series of patients infected with different HBV genotypes. The limit of detection of the assay was estimated to be 4.5 IU/ml. The specificity of the assay was 100%. Intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.29% to 5.07% and 4.90% to 6.85%, respectively. HBV DNA levels from patients infected with HBV genotypes A to F measured with the Aptima HBV Quant assay strongly correlated with those measured by two commercial real-time PCR comparators (Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HBV test, version 2.0, and Abbott RealTime HBV test). In conclusion, the Aptima HBV Quant assay is sensitive, specific, and reproducible and accurately quantifies HBV DNA in plasma samples from patients with chronic HBV infections of all genotypes, including patients on antiviral treatment with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues. The Aptima HBV Quant assay can thus confidently be used to detect and quantify HBV DNA in both clinical trials with new anti-HBV drugs and clinical practice. PMID:28202793

  16. Performance comparison of the 4th generation Bio-Rad Laboratories GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA on the EVOLIS™ automated system versus Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo, Ortho Anti-HIV 1+2 EIA on Vitros ECi and Siemens HIV-1/O/2 enhanced on Advia Centaur.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Elizabeth O; Stewart, Greg; Bajzik, Olivier; Ferret, Mathieu; Bentsen, Christopher; Shriver, M Kathleen

    2013-12-01

    A multisite study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Bio-Rad 4th generation GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA versus Abbott 4th generation ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo. The performance of two 3rd generation EIAs, Ortho Diagnostics Anti-HIV 1+2 EIA and Siemens HIV 1/O/2 was also evaluated. Study objective was comparison of analytical HIV-1 p24 antigen detection, sensitivity in HIV-1 seroconversion panels, specificity in blood donors and two HIV false reactive panels. Analytical sensitivity was evaluated with International HIV-1 p24 antigen standards, the AFFSAPS (pg/mL) and WHO 90/636 (IU/mL) standards; sensitivity in acute infection was compared on 55 seroconversion samples, and specificity was evaluated on 1000 negative blood donors and two false reactive panels. GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab demonstrated better analytical HIV antigen sensitivity compared to ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo: 0.41 IU/mL versus 1.2 IU/mL (WHO) and 12.7 pg/mL versus 20.1 pg/mL (AFSSAPS); GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA also demonstrated slightly better specificity compared to ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo (100% versus 99.7%). The 4th generation HIV Combo tests detected seroconversion 7-11 days earlier than the 3rd generation HIV antibody only EIAs. Both 4th generation immunoassays demonstrated excellent performance in sensitivity, with the reduction of the serological window period (7-11 days earlier detection than the 3rd generation HIV tests). However, GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab demonstrated improved HIV antigen analytical sensitivity and slightly better specificity when compared to ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay, with higher positive predictive values (PPV) for low prevalence populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Promising Combo Gene Delivery System Developed from (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-Modified Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Cationic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zubin; Song, Lina; Dong, Jinlai; Guo, Dawei; Du, Xiaolin; Cao, Biyin; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning; Mao, Xinliang

    2013-05-01

    (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-modified iron oxide nanoparticles (APTES-IONPs) have been evaluated for various biomedical applications, including medical imaging and drug delivery. Cationic polymers (CPs) such as Lipofectamine and TurboFect are widely used for research in gene delivery, but their toxicity and low in vivo efficiency limited their further application. In the present study, we synthesized water-soluble APTES-IONPs and developed a combo gene delivery system based on APTES-IONPs and CPs. This system significantly increased gene-binding capacity, protected genes from degradation, and improved gene transfection efficiency for DNA and siRNA in both adherent and suspension cells. Because of its great biocompatibility, high gene-carrying ability, and very low cytotoxicity, this combo gene delivery system will be expected for a wide application, and it might provide a new method for gene therapy.

  18. Culturing and bioassay testing of Daphnia magna using Elendt M4, Elendt M7, and COMBO media.

    PubMed

    Samel, A; Ziegenfuss, M; Goulden, C E; Banks, S; Baer, K N

    1999-05-01

    A performance-based, tiered approach was used to evaluate survival, growth, and reproduction of Daphnia magna in three selected synthetic media: Elendt M4, Elendt M7, and COMBO. Both Elendt M4 and Elendt M7 are high-hardness media currently recommended for Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) testing. COMBO is a softer medium similar in total hardness to natural water found in the environment. Tier I consistent of an acclimation phase; Tier II involved a 21-day evaluation of survival, growth, and reproduction; and Tier III used each medium in a 21-day chronic study using a reference toxicant, 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). The evaluation of the performance of each medium was based on acceptance criteria similar to those used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the European Commission. Tests were run concurrently at three laboratories to assess interlaboratory variability. Daphnids were acclimated to the media for less than 1 month. Daphnid performance in all media exceeded the European Economic Community (EEC) validity criteria; however, reproductive performance and growth were significantly greater in the Elendt media than in COMBO. 3,4-DCA exerted more toxicity to daphnids in COMBO medium [no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC), <3.1microg/liter] compared with those in the Elendt media (NOEC,

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Alirocumab Versus Ezetimibe Over 2 Years (from ODYSSEY COMBO II).

    PubMed

    El Shahawy, Mahfouz; Cannon, Christopher P; Blom, Dirk J; McKenney, James M; Cariou, Bertrand; Lecorps, Guillaume; Pordy, Robert; Chaudhari, Umesh; Colhoun, Helen M

    2017-09-15

    The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor alirocumab has been shown to substantially reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Demonstrating whether efficacy and safety are maintained over a long duration of exposure is vital for clinical decision-making. The COMBO II trial compared the efficacy and safety of alirocumab versus ezetimibe over 2 years. A prespecified first analysis was reported at 52 weeks. Here we report the final end-of-study data (on-treatment) and evaluate post hoc the safety profile with longer versus shorter duration of alirocumab exposure. Patients (n = 720) on maximally tolerated statin dose were treated with alirocumab (75/150 mg every 2 weeks) or ezetimibe (10 mg/day). Overall mean adherence for both treatment groups during the first and second year was >97%. At 2 years, LDL-C was reduced by 49% (alirocumab) versus 17% (ezetimibe; p <0.0001), and LDL-C <70 mg/dl was achieved by 73% of alirocumab-treated versus 40% of ezetimibe-treated patients. Overall safety was similar in both treatment groups at 2 years and during the first versus the second year. Local injection-site reactions were reported by 2.5% (alirocumab) versus 0.8% (ezetimibe) during the first year, and 0.2% versus 0.5% during the second year, indicating early occurrence during prolonged alirocumab exposure. Two consecutive calculated LDL-C values <25 mg/dl were observed in 28% of alirocumab-treated patients (vs 0.4% with ezetimibe). Persistent anti-drug antibody responses were observed in 1.3% (6 of 454) of alirocumab-treated versus 0.4% (1 of 231) of ezetimibe-treated patients. Neutralizing antibodies (that inhibit binding in vitro) were observed in 1.5% (7 of 454) of alirocumab-treated patients (0 with ezetimibe), mostly at isolated time points. Alirocumab sustained substantial LDL-C reductions and was well tolerated up to 2 years in the COMBO II trial. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the Hologic Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay to the Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test v2.0 for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Schønning, Kristian; Johansen, Kim; Landt, Bodil; Benfield, Thomas; Westh, Henrik

    2017-07-01

    HIV-RNA is the most important parameter for monitoring antiviral treatment in individuals infected with HIV-1. Knowledge of the performance of different tests for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA is therefore important for clinical care. To compare the analytical performance of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay (Aptima) and the COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test v2.0 (CAPCTMv2) for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma samples. The performance of the two tests was compared on 216 clinical plasma samples, on dilutions series in seven replicates of five clinical samples of known subtype and on ten replicates of the Acrometrix High and Low Positive Control. Bland-Altman analysis of 130 samples that quantified in both tests did not show indications of gross mis-quantification of either test. A tendency of the Aptima assay to quantify higher at high viral load compared to the CAPCTMv2 was observed in Bland-Altman analysis, by Deming regression (Slope 1.13) and in dilution series of clinical samples. Precision evaluated using the Acrometrix Positive Controls was similar for the High Control (CV: 1.2% vs. 1.3%; Aptima assay vs. CAPCTMv2 test, respectively), but differed for the Low control (CV: 17.9% vs. 7.1%; Aptima assay vs. CAPCTMv2 test, respectively). However, this did not impact clinical categorization of clinical samples at neither the 50 cp/mL nor 200 cp/mL level. The Aptima assay and the CAPCTMv2 test are highly correlated and are useful for monitoring HIV-infected individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance of the New Aptima HCV Quant Dx Assay in Comparison to the Cobas TaqMan HCV2 Test for Use with the High Pure System in Detection and Quantification of Hepatitis C Virus RNA in Plasma or Serum.

    PubMed

    Schalasta, Gunnar; Speicher, Andrea; Börner, Anna; Enders, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Quantitating the level of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA is the standard of care for monitoring HCV-infected patients during treatment. The performances of commercially available assays differ for precision, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation (LOQ). Here, we compare the performance of the Hologic Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay (Aptima) to that of the Roche Cobas TaqMan HCV test, version 2.0, using the High Pure system (HPS/CTM), considered a reference assay since it has been used in trials defining clinical decision points in patient care. The assays' performance characteristics were assessed using HCV RNA reference panels and plasma/serum from chronically HCV-infected patients. The agreement between the assays for the 3 reference panels was good, with a difference in quantitation values of <0.5 log. High concordance was demonstrated between the assays for 245 clinical samples (kappa = 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.720 to 0.881); however, Aptima detected and/or quantitated 20 samples that HPS/CTM did not detect, while Aptima did not detect 1 sample that was quantitated by HPS/CTM. For the 165 samples quantitated by both assays, the values were highly correlated (R= 0.98;P< 0.0001). The linearity of quantitation from concentrations of 1.4 to 6 log was excellent for both assays for all HCV genotypes (GT) tested (GT 1a, 1b, 2b, and 3a) (R(2)> 0.99). The assays had similar levels of total and intra-assay variability across all genotypes at concentrations from 1,000 to 25 IU/ml. Aptima had a greater analytical sensitivity, quantitating more than 50% of replicates at 25-IU/ml target. Aptima showed performance characteristics comparable to those of HPS/CTM and increased sensitivity, making it suitable for use as a clinical diagnostic tool on the fully automated Panther platform. Copyright © 2016 Schalasta et al.

  2. Photometric calibration of the COMBO-17 survey with the Softassign Procrustes Matching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhbahaee, Z.; Nakajima, R.; Erben, T.; Schneider, P.; Hildebrandt, H.; Becker, A. C.

    2017-11-01

    Accurate photometric calibration of optical data is crucial for photometric redshift estimation. We present the Softassign Procrustes Matching (SPM) method to improve the colour calibration upon the commonly used Stellar Locus Regression (SLR) method for the COMBO-17 survey. Our colour calibration approach can be categorised as a point-set matching method, which is frequently used in medical imaging and pattern recognition. We attain a photometric redshift precision Δz/(1 + zs) of better than 2 per cent. Our method is based on aligning the stellar locus of the uncalibrated stars to that of a spectroscopic sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey standard stars. We achieve our goal by finding a correspondence matrix between the two point-sets and applying the matrix to estimate the appropriate translations in multidimensional colour space. The SPM method is able to find the translation between two point-sets, despite the existence of noise and incompleteness of the common structures in the sets, as long as there is a distinct structure in at least one of the colour-colour pairs. We demonstrate the precision of our colour calibration method with a mock catalogue. The SPM colour calibration code is publicly available at https://neuronphysics@bitbucket.org/neuronphysics/spm.git.

  3. Analytical characteristics and comparative evaluation of Aptima HCV quant Dx assay with the Abbott RealTime HCV assay and Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV quantitative test v2.0.

    PubMed

    Worlock, A; Blair, D; Hunsicker, M; Le-Nguyen, T; Motta, C; Nguyen, C; Papachristou, E; Pham, J; Williams, A; Vi, M; Vinluan, B; Hatzakis, A

    2017-04-04

    The Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay (Aptima assay) is a fully automated quantitative assay on the Panther® system. This assay is intended for confirmation of diagnosis and monitoring of HCV RNA in plasma and serum specimens. The purpose of the testing described in this paper was to evaluate the performance of the Aptima assay. The analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, precision, and linearity of the Aptima assay were assessed. The performance of the Aptima assay was compared to two commercially available HCV assays; the Abbott RealTime HCV assay (Abbott assay, Abbott Labs Illinois, USA) and the Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman HCV Quantitative Test v2.0 (Roche Assay, Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton CA, USA). The 95% Lower Limit of Detection (LoD) of the assay was determined from dilutions of the 2nd HCV WHO International Standard (NIBSC 96/798 genotype 1) and HCV positive clinical specimens in HCV negative human plasma and serum. Probit analysis was performed to generate the 95% predicted detection limits. The Lower Limit of Quantitation (LLoQ) was established for each genotype by diluting clinical specimens and the 2nd HCV WHO International Standard (NIBSC 96/798 genotype 1) in HCV negative human plasma and serum. Specificity was determined using 200 fresh and 536 frozen HCV RNA negative clinical specimens including 370 plasma specimens and 366 serum specimens. Linearity for genotypes 1 to 6 was established by diluting armored RNA or HCV positive clinical specimens in HCV negative serum or plasma from 8.08 log IU/mL to below 1 log IU/mL. Precision was tested using a 10 member panel made by diluting HCV positive clinical specimens or spiking armored RNA into HCV negative plasma and serum. A method comparison was conducted against the Abbott assay using 1058 clinical specimens and against the Roche assay using 608 clinical specimens from HCV infected patients. In addition, agreement between the Roche assay and the Aptima assay using specimens with low

  4. Performance of the fourth-generation Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab enzyme immunoassay for diagnosis of HIV infection in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Fogel, Jessica M.; Richardson, Paul; Wolf, Shauna; Clarke, William; Marzinke, Mark A.; Fiamma, Agnès; Donnell, Deborah; Kulich, Michal; Mbwambo, Jessie K.K.; Richter, Linda; Gray, Glenda; Sweat, Michael; Coates, Thomas J.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Fourth-generation HIV assays detect both antigen and antibody, facilitating detection of acute/early HIV infection. The Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab assay (Bio-Rad Combo) is an enzyme immunoassay that simultaneously detects HIV p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in serum or plasma. Objective To evaluate the performance of the Bio-Rad Combo assay for detection of HIV infection in adults from Southern Africa. Study design Samples were obtained from adults in Soweto and Vulindlela, South Africa and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (300 HIV-positive samples; 300 HIV-negative samples; 12 samples from individuals previously classified as having acute/early HIV infection). The samples were tested with the Bio-Rad Combo assay. Additional testing was performed to characterize the 12 acute/early samples. Results All 300 HIV-positive samples were reactive using the Bio-Rad Combo assay; false positive test results were obtained for 10 (3.3%) of the HIV-negative samples (sensitivity: 100%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 98.8–100%); specificity: 96.7%, 95% CI: 94.0–98.4%). The assay detected 10 of the 12 infections classified as acute/early. The two infections that were not detected had viral loads < 400 copies/mL; one of those samples contained antiretroviral drugs consistent with antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions The Bio-Rad Combo assay correctly classified the majority of study specimens. The specificity reported here may be higher than that seen in other settings, since HIV-negative samples were pre-screened using a different fourth-generation test. The assay also had high sensitivity for detection of acute/early infection. False-negative test results may be obtained in individuals who are virally suppressed. PMID:25542477

  5. Heterophilic interference in specimens yielding false-reactive results on the Abbott 4th generation ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, S; Caswell, D; Gill, M J; Kadkhoda, K; Charlton, C L; Levett, P N; Hatchette, T; Garceau, R; Maregmen, J; Mazzulli, T; Needle, R; Kadivar, K; Kim, J

    2018-07-01

    False-reactivity in HIV-negative specimens has been detected in HIV fourth-generation antigen/antibody or 'combo' assays which are able to detect both anti-HIV-1/HIV-2 antibodies and HIV-1 antigen. We sought to characterize these specimens and determine the effect of heterophilic interference. Specimens previously testing as false-reactive on the Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab combo assay and re-tested on a different (Siemens ADVIA Centaur HIV Ag/Ab) assay. A subset of these specimens were also pre-treated with heterophilic blocking agents and re-tested on the Abbott assay. Here we report that 95% (252/264) of clinical specimens that were repeatedly reactive on the Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab combo assay (S/Co range, 0.94-678) were negative when re-tested on a different fourth generation HIV combo assay (Siemens ADVIA Centaur HIV Ag/Ab). All 264 samples were subsequently confirmed to be HIV negative. On a small subset (57) of specimens with available volume, pre-treatment with two different reagents (HBT; Heterophilic Blocking Tube, NABT; Non-Specific Blocking Tube) designed to block heterophilic antibody interference either eliminated (HBT) or reduced (NABT) the false reactivity when re-tested on the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab combo assay. Our results suggest that the Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab combo assay can be prone to heterophilic antibody interference. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multicenter User Evaluation of ACCU-CHEK® Combo, an Integrated System for Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David; Hoogma, Roel P.L.M; Buhr, Andreas; Petersen, Bettina; Storms, Fred E.M.G

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate a newly developed system for insulin delivery incorporating a multifunctional blood glucose meter and a remotely controlled insulin pump (ACCU-CHEK® Combo system) in established pump users with type 1 diabetes. The technology was assessed both from device performance and subject usability perspectives. Method A multicenter, prospective, single group study was carried out in five centers in the Netherlands and four centers in the United Kingdom for more than 6 months. The study was divided into two phases: Phase 1 (4 weeks) for device validation purposes and phase 2 (22 weeks) to observe the impact of the system on metabolic control, patient satisfaction [using the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ)] and device safety. Results Eighty subjects completed the planned study period. There were no unexpected device errors. Treatment satisfaction was high at baseline and further increased to study end (DTSQ change version: sum score, 10.6 ± 7.2; scale score range, -18 to +18, p < 0.0001). Hemoglobin A1c improved continuously over time, from 7.9% (±0.9%) to 7.7% (±0.8%) at month 3 (p < 0.001) and 7.6% (±0.8%) at month 6 (p < 0.0001). The frequency of severe hypoglycemia was 0.08 per patient years. There was no case of ketoacidosis. Conclusions The new system was evaluated by experienced continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion users as safe in daily practice and associated with favorable treatment satisfaction and a modest improvement in glycemic control. PMID:21129336

  7. Analytical performance of the Hologic Aptima HBV Quant Assay and the COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HBV test v2.0 for the quantification of HBV DNA in plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Schønning, Kristian; Johansen, Kim; Nielsen, Lone Gilmor; Weis, Nina; Westh, Henrik

    2018-07-01

    Quantification of HBV DNA is used for initiating and monitoring antiviral treatment. Analytical test performance consequently impacts treatment decisions. To compare the analytical performance of the Aptima HBV Quant Assay (Aptima) and the COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HBV Test v2.0 (CAPCTMv2) for the quantification of HBV DNA in plasma samples. The performance of the two tests was compared on 129 prospective plasma samples, and on 63 archived plasma samples of which 53 were genotyped. Linearity of the two assays was assessed on dilutions series of three clinical samples (Genotype B, C, and D). Bland-Altman analysis of 120 clinical samples, which quantified in both tests, showed an average quantification bias (Aptima - CAPCTMv2) of -0.19 Log IU/mL (SD: 0.33 Log IU/mL). A single sample quantified more than three standard deviations higher in Aptima than in CAPCTMv2. Only minor differences were observed between genotype A (N = 4; average difference -0.01 Log IU/mL), B (N = 8; -0.13 Log IU/mL), C (N = 8; -0.31 Log IU/mL), D (N = 25; -0.22 Log IU/mL), and E (N = 7; -0.03 Log IU/mL). Deming regression showed that the two tests were excellently correlated (slope of the regression line 1.03; 95% CI: 0.998-1.068). Linearity of the tests was evaluated on dilution series and showed an excellent correlation of the two tests. Both tests were precise with %CV less than 3% for HBV DNA ≥3 Log IU/mL. The Aptima and CAPCTMv2 tests are highly correlated, and both tests are useful for monitoring patients chronically infected with HBV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Microbial and Chemical Combo Additives on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristic of Whole Crop Barley Silage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sardar M.; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Kim, Sam Churl

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of microbial and chemical combo additives on nutritive values, fermentation indices and aerobic stability of whole crop barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at about 30% dry matter (DM) by treatments, chopped to 5 cm length and treated with distilled water only (CON), Lactobacillus plantarum (INO), propionic acid (PRO) or an equal mixture of INO and PRO (MIX). Barley forages were ensiled in 4 replications for 0, 2, 7, and 100 days. On 100 days of ensiling, MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) in vitro DM digestibility than CON silage, but lower (p<0.05) acid detergent fiber concentration. The pH in all treated silages was lower (p<0.05) than CON silage. The MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) lactate concentration and lactate to acetate ratio than in CON, but lower (p<0.05) yeast count. Aerobic stability in CON, PRO, and MIX silages were higher (p<0.05) than in INO silage. It is concluded that microbial and chemical combo additives using L. plantarum and propionic acid could efficiently improve nutritive values of barley silage in terms of increased in vitro DM digestibility compared to other treatments. In addition, all treatments except CON reduced yeast count which is the initiate microorganism of aerobic spoilage. PMID:26323517

  9. Identification of Motile Aeromonas Strains with the MicroScan WalkAway System in Conjunction with the Combo Negative Type 1S Panels

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, J.; Sáa, A. I.; Tinajas, A.; Barbeyto, L.; Rodríguez, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the MicroScan WalkAway automated identification system in conjunction with the new MicroScan Combo Negative type 1S panels with conventional biochemical methods for identifying 85 environmental, clinical, and reference strains of eight Aeromonas species. PMID:10742279

  10. Performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, C A; Cartwright, C P; Colaninno, P; Welsch, J; Holden, J; Ho, S Y; Webb, E M; Anderson, C; Bertuzis, R; Zhang, L; Miller, T; Leckie, G; Abravaya, K; Robinson, J

    2010-09-01

    A multicenter clinical study was conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, a multiplex real-time PCR assay, for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The specimens were collected from a total of 3,832 male and female subjects at 16 geographically diverse sites. Specimens included male and female urine samples, male urethral swabs, female endocervical swabs, and self-collected and clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Specimens were tested with the automated Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe), ProbeTec ET CT/GC assay (Becton Dickinson), and culture for N. gonorrhoeae. The Aptima Combo 2 assay, the ProbeTec assay, and the N. gonorrhoeae culture were used as the reference assays. For each subject, a patient infected status (PIS) was determined based on the combined results from the reference assays. The overall prevalence in female subjects was 8.9% for C. trachomatis and 3.8% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall male prevalence was 18.2% for C. trachomatis and 16.7% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay were 92.4% and 99.2% for C. trachomatis and 96.9% and 99.7% for N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for the Aptima Combo 2 assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for C. trachomatis and 96.1% and 99.5% for N. gonorrhoeae, and those for the ProbeTec ET assay were 90.3% and 99.5% for C. trachomatis and 92.0% and 97.3% for N. gonorrhoeae in this study. The Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay offers C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae dual detection with high sensitivity and specificity. The automated assay provides a useful alternative nucleic acid amplification assay for clinical laboratories and clinicians.

  11. Performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae▿

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, C. A.; Cartwright, C. P.; Colaninno, P.; Welsch, J.; Holden, J.; Ho, S. Y.; Webb, E. M.; Anderson, C.; Bertuzis, R.; Zhang, L.; Miller, T.; Leckie, G.; Abravaya, K.; Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    A multicenter clinical study was conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, a multiplex real-time PCR assay, for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The specimens were collected from a total of 3,832 male and female subjects at 16 geographically diverse sites. Specimens included male and female urine samples, male urethral swabs, female endocervical swabs, and self-collected and clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Specimens were tested with the automated Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe), ProbeTec ET CT/GC assay (Becton Dickinson), and culture for N. gonorrhoeae. The Aptima Combo 2 assay, the ProbeTec assay, and the N. gonorrhoeae culture were used as the reference assays. For each subject, a patient infected status (PIS) was determined based on the combined results from the reference assays. The overall prevalence in female subjects was 8.9% for C. trachomatis and 3.8% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall male prevalence was 18.2% for C. trachomatis and 16.7% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay were 92.4% and 99.2% for C. trachomatis and 96.9% and 99.7% for N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for the Aptima Combo 2 assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for C. trachomatis and 96.1% and 99.5% for N. gonorrhoeae, and those for the ProbeTec ET assay were 90.3% and 99.5% for C. trachomatis and 92.0% and 97.3% for N. gonorrhoeae in this study. The Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay offers C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae dual detection with high sensitivity and specificity. The automated assay provides a useful alternative nucleic acid amplification assay for clinical laboratories and clinicians. PMID:20668135

  12. On Finding and Using Identifiable Parameter Combinations in Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Biology Models and COMBOS: A Novel Web Implementation

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Parameter identifiability problems can plague biomodelers when they reach the quantification stage of development, even for relatively simple models. Structural identifiability (SI) is the primary question, usually understood as knowing which of P unknown biomodel parameters p 1,…, pi,…, pP are-and which are not-quantifiable in principle from particular input-output (I-O) biodata. It is not widely appreciated that the same database also can provide quantitative information about the structurally unidentifiable (not quantifiable) subset, in the form of explicit algebraic relationships among unidentifiable pi. Importantly, this is a first step toward finding what else is needed to quantify particular unidentifiable parameters of interest from new I–O experiments. We further develop, implement and exemplify novel algorithms that address and solve the SI problem for a practical class of ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems biology models, as a user-friendly and universally-accessible web application (app)–COMBOS. Users provide the structural ODE and output measurement models in one of two standard forms to a remote server via their web browser. COMBOS provides a list of uniquely and non-uniquely SI model parameters, and–importantly-the combinations of parameters not individually SI. If non-uniquely SI, it also provides the maximum number of different solutions, with important practical implications. The behind-the-scenes symbolic differential algebra algorithms are based on computing Gröbner bases of model attributes established after some algebraic transformations, using the computer-algebra system Maxima. COMBOS was developed for facile instructional and research use as well as modeling. We use it in the classroom to illustrate SI analysis; and have simplified complex models of tumor suppressor p53 and hormone regulation, based on explicit computation of parameter combinations. It’s illustrated and validated here for models of moderate complexity

  13. Evaluation of the Aptima HBV Quant assay vs. the COBAS TaqMan HBV test using the high pure system for the quantitation of HBV DNA in plasma and serum samples.

    PubMed

    Schalasta, Gunnar; Börner, Anna; Speicher, Andrea; Enders, Martin

    2018-03-28

    Proper management of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection requires monitoring of plasma or serum HBV DNA levels using a highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification test. Because commercially available assays differ in performance, we compared herein the performance of the Hologic Aptima HBV Quant assay (Aptima) to that of the Roche Cobas TaqMan HBV test for use with the high pure system (HPS/CTM). Assay performance was assessed using HBV reference panels as well as plasma and serum samples from chronically HBV-infected patients. Method correlation, analytical sensitivity, precision/reproducibility, linearity, bias and influence of genotype were evaluated. Data analysis was performed using linear regression, Deming correlation analysis and Bland-Altman analysis. Agreement between the assays for the two reference panels was good, with a difference in assay values vs. target <0.5 log. Qualitative assay results for 159 clinical samples showed good concordance (88.1%; κ=0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.651-0.845). For the 106 samples quantitated by both assays, viral load results were highly correlated (R=0.92) and differed on average by 0.09 log, with 95.3% of the samples being within the 95% limit of agreement of the assays. Linearity for viral loads 1-7 log was excellent for both assays (R2>0.98). The two assays had similar bias and precision across the different genotypes tested at low viral loads (25-1000 IU/mL). Aptima has a performance comparable with that of HPS/CTM, making it suitable for use for HBV infection monitoring. Aptima runs on a fully automated platform (the Panther system) and therefore offers a significantly improved workflow compared with HPS/CTM.

  14. Comparative evaluation of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay and COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 v2.0 assay using the Roche High Pure System for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma.

    PubMed

    Schalasta, Gunnar; Börner, Anna; Speicher, Andrea; Enders, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in plasma has become the standard of care in the management of HIV-infected patients. There are several commercially available assays that have been implemented for the detection of HIV-1 RNA in plasma. Here, the new Hologic Aptima® HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima HIV) was compared to the Roche COBAS® TaqMan® HIV-1 Test v2.0 for use with the High Pure System (HPS/CTM). The performance characteristics of the assays were assessed using commercially available HIV reference panels, dilution of the WHO 3rd International HIV-1 RNA International Standard (WHO-IS) and plasma from clinical specimens. Assay performance was determined by linear regression, Deming correlation analysis and Bland-Altman analysis. Testing of HIV-1 reference panels revealed excellent agreement. The 61 clinical specimens quantified in both assays were linearly associated and strongly correlated. The Aptima HIV assay offers performance comparable to that of the HPS/CTM assay and, as it is run on a fully automated platform, a significantly improved workflow.

  15. Performance evaluation of the FDA-approved Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo assay using plasma and whole blood specimens.

    PubMed

    Masciotra, Silvina; Luo, Wei; Westheimer, Emily; Cohen, Stephanie E; Gay, Cynthia L; Hall, Laura; Pan, Yi; Peters, Philip J; Owen, S Michele

    2017-06-01

    The Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo (DC) rapid test can identify HIV-1 infection earlier than rapid antibody-only tests in plasma specimens. We compared the performance of DC with a laboratory-based antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combo assay in plasma and evaluated antigen reactivity in whole blood specimens. We tested by DC 508 plasma specimens collected in a prospective study and 107 sequential plasma and simulated whole blood specimens from 20 seroconversion panels. Previous results using the ARCHITECT (ARC) Ag/Ab combo assay were compared to DC results. In seroconversion panels, the days from the first HIV1 RNA-positive test to first DC-reactive in plasma and whole blood was compared. McNemar's and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used for statistical analysis. Of 415 HIV-positive samples, ARC detected 396 (95.4%) and DC 337 (81.2%) (p<0.0001). DC was reactive in 50.0% of ARC-reactive/MS-negative, 78.6% of ARC-reactive/MS-indeterminate, and 99.6% of ARC-reactive/MS-HIV-1-positive or -undifferentiated specimens. DC antigen reactivity was higher among ARC-reactive/MS-negative than MS-indeterminate samples. In 20 HIV-1 seroconversion panels, there was a significant difference between DC reactivity in plasma (91.1%) and whole blood (56.4%) (p<0.0001). DC with whole blood showed a significant delay in reactivity compared to plasma (p=0.008). In plasma, DC was significantly less sensitive than an instrumented laboratory-based Ag/Ab combo assay. DC in plasma was significantly more sensitive compared to whole blood in early HIV-1 infections. With the U.S. laboratory-based diagnostic algorithm, DC as the first step would likely miss a high proportion of HIV-1 infections in early stages of seroconversion. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Evaluation of the Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay for HIV-1 RNA viral load detection and quantitation in plasma of HIV-1-infected individuals: A comparison with Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Alessandra; Pisciotta, Maria; Aleo, Loredana; Ferraioli, Valeria; Angeletti, Claudio; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-09-01

    The Hologic Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima HIV) is a real-time transcription-mediated amplification method CE-approved for use in diagnosis and monitoring of HIV-1 infection. The analytical performance of this new assay was compared to the FDA-approved Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (RealTime). The evaluation was performed using 220 clinical plasma samples, the WHO 3rd HIV-1 International Standard, and the QCMD HIV-1 RNA EQA. Concordance on qualitative results, correlation between quantitative results, accuracy, and reproducibility of viral load data were analyzed. The ability to measure HIV-1 subtypes was assessed on the second WHO International Reference Preparation Panel for HIV-1 Subtypes. With clinical samples, inter-assay agreement for qualitative results was high (91.8%) with Cohen's kappa statistic equal to 0.836. For samples with quantitative results in both assays (n = 93), Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.980 (P < 0.0001) and mean differences of measurement, conducted according to Bland-Altman method, was low (0.115 log10  copies/ml). The Aptima HIV quantified the WHO 3rd HIV-1 International Standard diluted from 2000 to 31 cp/ml (5,700-88 IU/ml) at expected values with excellent linearity (R(2)  > 0.970) and showed higher sensitivity compared to RealTime being able to detect HIV-1 RNA in 10 out of 10 replicates containing down to 7 cp/ml (20 IU/ml). Reproducibility was very high, even at low HIV-1 RNA values. The Aptima HIV was able to detect and accurately quantify all the main HIV-1 subtypes in both reference panels and clinical samples. Besides excellent performance, Aptima HIV shows full automation, ease of use, and improved workflow compared to RealTime. J. Med. Virol. 88:1535-1544, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Preventive efficacy of Frontline® Combo and Certifect® against Dipylidium caninum infestation of cats and dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Delport, Peet; Luus, Hermann; Crafford, Dione; Fourie, Josephus

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two monthly topical anti-flea products for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum infestations in cats and dogs. A single treatment with Frontline(®) Combo spot-on for cats (fipronil-(S)-methoprene) and two successive monthly treatments of Certifect(®) for dogs (fipronil-amitraz-(S)-methoprene) were assessed for the prevention of D. caninum infestations following weekly challenges of treated cats or dogs with metacestode naturally-infected fleas. The rate of infestations using the model in cats versus dogs explains the choice of a 1-month trial in cats and a 2-month trial in dogs. The experimental flea-infection model resulted in a range of 22-53% of the fleas being infected by Dipylidium cysticercoids. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated cats ranged from 51.2 to 68. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Frontline Combo treated cats differed significantly (p < 0.05) from those of the untreated control cats on all assessment days. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated dogs ranged from 166.6 to 238.6. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Certifect treated dogs differed significantly (p < 0.001) from those of the untreated group on all assessment days. Frontline Combo treatment on cats provided ≥99.8% persistent anti-flea efficacy throughout the 30-day treatment period. In the dog study, the two Certifect treatments provided ≥97% persistent efficacy throughout the 60-day study. Based on the collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by cats, 100% (6/6) of the control cats and 0% (0/6) of Frontline Combo treated cats were infested with D. caninum. Frontline Combo spot-on for cats was therefore 100% effective in preventing infection with D. caninum. In dogs, 7 out of the 8 control group dogs (87.5%) produced proglottids following infestation of infected fleas, whereas 0 out of 8 dogs (0%) in the treated group were infected. The infection

  18. Preventive efficacy of Frontline® Combo and Certifect® against Dipylidium caninum infestation of cats and dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frederic; Delport, Peet; Luus, Hermann; Crafford, Dione; Fourie, Josephus

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two monthly topical anti-flea products for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum infestations in cats and dogs. A single treatment with Frontline® Combo spot-on for cats (fipronil-(S)-methoprene) and two successive monthly treatments of Certifect® for dogs (fipronil-amitraz-(S)-methoprene) were assessed for the prevention of D. caninum infestations following weekly challenges of treated cats or dogs with metacestode naturally-infected fleas. The rate of infestations using the model in cats versus dogs explains the choice of a 1-month trial in cats and a 2-month trial in dogs. The experimental flea-infection model resulted in a range of 22–53% of the fleas being infected by Dipylidium cysticercoids. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated cats ranged from 51.2 to 68. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Frontline Combo treated cats differed significantly (p < 0.05) from those of the untreated control cats on all assessment days. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated dogs ranged from 166.6 to 238.6. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Certifect treated dogs differed significantly (p < 0.001) from those of the untreated group on all assessment days. Frontline Combo treatment on cats provided ≥99.8% persistent anti-flea efficacy throughout the 30-day treatment period. In the dog study, the two Certifect treatments provided ≥97% persistent efficacy throughout the 60-day study. Based on the collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by cats, 100% (6/6) of the control cats and 0% (0/6) of Frontline Combo treated cats were infested with D. caninum. Frontline Combo spot-on for cats was therefore 100% effective in preventing infection with D. caninum. In dogs, 7 out of the 8 control group dogs (87.5%) produced proglottids following infestation of infected fleas, whereas 0 out of 8 dogs (0%) in the treated group were infected. The infection

  19. "Combo" nanomedicine: Co-delivery of multi-modal therapeutics for efficient, targeted, and safe cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Jessica A; Shim, Min Suk; Heo, Chan Yeong; Kwon, Young Jik

    2016-03-01

    The dynamic and versatile nature of diseases such as cancer has been a pivotal challenge for developing efficient and safe therapies. Cancer treatments using a single therapeutic agent often result in limited clinical outcomes due to tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance. Combination therapies using multiple therapeutic modalities can synergistically elevate anti-cancer activity while lowering doses of each agent, hence, reducing side effects. Co-administration of multiple therapeutic agents requires a delivery platform that can normalize pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the agents, prolong circulation, selectively accumulate, specifically bind to the target, and enable controlled release in target site. Nanomaterials, such as polymeric nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles/cages/shells, and carbon nanomaterials, have the desired properties, and they can mediate therapeutic effects different from those generated by small molecule drugs (e.g., gene therapy, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy). This review aims to provide an overview of developing multi-modal therapies using nanomaterials ("combo" nanomedicine) along with the rationale, up-to-date progress, further considerations, and the crucial roles of interdisciplinary approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The analysis of the distribution of unitary stresses for the universal plowshare in tiller seeder combos (UPTSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiorescu, D.; Chiorescu, E.; Dodun, O.; Crăciun, V.

    2016-11-01

    The sustainable development of agriculture is an important component of economic and social progress of the mankind aiming especially at promoting environmentally friendly systems and technologies. Thus, the implementation of sustainable agriculture also requires some high performance farming aggregates such as tiller seeder combos. Their most stressed active working part is the plowshare which has an important part in cutting the soil. For this reason, we consider that theoretical and experimental research is needed for the tear to which this working part is subjected to. This paper analyses the behavior of the universal plowshare, component part of UPTSC, using the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Ansys software program. With the help of FEM, we analyzed the universal plowshare in the material structure during the soil cutting process, highlighting the deformation degree and the stress field in the working part. In the first stage, we identified a representative set of problems concerning the soil cutting process, for which we designed the solutions through numerical simulations. In the processing stage, we designed a 3D model which respects entirely the geometric shape of the active element in Cartesian coordinates. In order to simulate the soil cutting process in accordance with the real conditions, the compilations are done for various refinement degrees of the discretization network in finite elements. In the same stage we introduced the constraints represented by: the fixation of the plowshare support, direction, as well as the action of the cohesion and shear strength. Using the Explicit Dynamics module of the Ansys software, which allows studying the plowshare behavior, we analyzed in real conditions, the normal and the shear stresses as well as the deformation, for various soil types and various soil states. Considering the data on the existent stresses, following the FEM analysis of the working part, we determined the wear and suggested the safety

  1. Accuracy of an Immunochromatographic Diagnostic Test (ICT Malaria Combo Cassette Test) Compared to Microscopy among under Five-Year-Old Children when Diagnosing Malaria in Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Portero, José-Luis; Rubio-Yuste, Maria; Descalzo, Miguel Angel; Raso, Jose; Lwanga, Magdalena; Obono, Jaquelina; Nseng, Gloria; Benito, Agustin; Cano, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Conventional malaria diagnosis based on microscopy raises serious difficulties in weak health systems. Cost-effective and sensitive rapid diagnostic tests have been recently proposed as alternatives to microscopy. In Equatorial Guinea, a study was conducted to assess the reliability of a rapid diagnostic test compared to microscopy. The study was designed in accordance with the directives of the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy Initiative (STARD). Peripheral thick and thin films for the microscopy diagnosis and a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT Malaria Combo Cassette Test) were performed on under five-year-old children with malaria suspicion. The ICT test detected Plasmodium spp. infection with a sensitivity of 81.5% and a specificity of 81.9% while P. falciparum diagnosis occurred with a sensitivity of 69.7% and a specificity of 73.7%. The sensitivity of the ICT test increased with higher parasitemias. The general results showed little concordance between the ICT test and microscopy (kappa = 0.28, se: 0.04). In Equatorial Guinea, the ICT Malaria Combo Cassette Test has proven to be an acceptable test to detect high P. falciparum parasitemias. However, the decrease of sensitivity at medium and low parasitemias hampers that ICT can replace properly performed microscopy at present in the diagnosis of malaria in children. PMID:22332024

  2. A Pluto Color Combo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-06

    This color version of NASA's New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) picture of Pluto taken July 3, 2015, was created by adding color data from the Ralph instrument gathered earlier in the mission. The LORRI image was taken from a range of 7.8 million miles (12.5 million km), with a central longitude of 19°. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19699

  3. 77 FR 15779 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... 26, 2011. iliac balloon- expandable stent system. P100042, FDA-2011-M-0792 Gen-Probe APTIMA HPV assay..., 2011. XIENCE PRIME LL EVEROLIMUS-eluting coronary stent system. P100041, FDA-2011-M-0837 Edwards.... EVEROLIMUS-eluting platinum chromium coronary stent system. P100024, FDA-2011-M-0866 Dako Denmark A/S...

  4. Integration of concentrated solar power (CSP) and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) power plants - final results of the COMBO-CFB project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suojanen, Suvi; Hakkarainen, Elina; Kettunen, Ari; Kapela, Jukka; Paldanius, Juha; Tuononen, Minttu; Selek, Istvan; Kovács, Jenö; Tähtinen, Matti

    2017-06-01

    Hybridization of solar energy together with another energy source is an option to provide heat and power reliably on demand. Hybridization allows decreasing combustion related fuel consumption and emissions, assuring stable grid connection and cutting costs of concentrated solar power technology due to shared power production equipment. The research project "Integration of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) and Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Power Plants" (COMBO-CFB) has been carried out to investigate the technical possibilities and limitations of the concept. The main focus was on the effect of CSP integration on combustion dynamics and on the joint power cycle, and on the interactions of subsystems. The research provides new valuable experimental data and knowhow about dynamic behaviour of CFB combustion under boundary conditions of the hybrid system. Limiting factors for maximum solar share in different hybridization schemes and suggestions for enhancing the performance of the hybrid system are derived.

  5. In situ optical sequencing and structure analysis of a trinucleotide repeat genome region by localization microscopy after specific COMBO-FISH nano-probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuhlmüller, M.; Schwarz-Finsterle, J.; Fey, E.; Lux, J.; Bach, M.; Cremer, C.; Hinderhofer, K.; Hausmann, M.; Hildenbrand, G.

    2015-10-01

    Trinucleotide repeat expansions (like (CGG)n) of chromatin in the genome of cell nuclei can cause neurological disorders such as for example the Fragile-X syndrome. Until now the mechanisms are not clearly understood as to how these expansions develop during cell proliferation. Therefore in situ investigations of chromatin structures on the nanoscale are required to better understand supra-molecular mechanisms on the single cell level. By super-resolution localization microscopy (Spectral Position Determination Microscopy; SPDM) in combination with nano-probing using COMBO-FISH (COMBinatorial Oligonucleotide FISH), novel insights into the nano-architecture of the genome will become possible. The native spatial structure of trinucleotide repeat expansion genome regions was analysed and optical sequencing of repetitive units was performed within 3D-conserved nuclei using SPDM after COMBO-FISH. We analysed a (CGG)n-expansion region inside the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. The number of CGG repeats for a full mutation causing the Fragile-X syndrome was found and also verified by Southern blot. The FMR1 promotor region was similarly condensed like a centromeric region whereas the arrangement of the probes labelling the expansion region seemed to indicate a loop-like nano-structure. These results for the first time demonstrate that in situ chromatin structure measurements on the nanoscale are feasible. Due to further methodological progress it will become possible to estimate the state of trinucleotide repeat mutations in detail and to determine the associated chromatin strand structural changes on the single cell level. In general, the application of the described approach to any genome region will lead to new insights into genome nano-architecture and open new avenues for understanding mechanisms and their relevance in the development of heredity diseases.

  6. Evaluation of dried blood spot protocols with the Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA and Geenius™ HIV 1/2 Supplemental Assay.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Davis, Geoff; Li, LiXia; Shriver, M Kathleen; Mei, Joanne; Styer, Linda M; Parker, Monica M; Smith, Amanda; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Ethridge, Steve; Wesolowski, Laura; Owen, S Michele; Masciotra, Silvina

    2017-06-01

    FDA-approved antigen/antibody combo and HIV-1/2 differentiation supplemental tests do not have claims for dried blood spot (DBS) use. We compared two DBS-modified protocols, the Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab (BRC) EIA and Geenius™ HIV-1/2 (Geenius) Supplemental Assay, to plasma protocols and evaluated them in the CDC/APHL HIV diagnostic algorithm. BRC-DBS p24 analytical sensitivity was calculated from serial dilutions of p24. DBS specimens included 11 HIV-1 seroconverters, 151 HIV-1-positive individuals, including 20 on antiretroviral therapy, 31 HIV-2-positive and one HIV-1/HIV-2-positive individuals. BRC-reactive specimens were tested with Geenius using the same DBS eluate. Matched plasma specimens were tested with BRC, an IgG/IgM immunoassay and Geenius. DBS and plasma results were compared using the McNemar's test. A DBS-algorithm applied to 348 DBS from high-risk individuals who participated in surveillance was compared to HIV status based on local testing algorithms. BRC-DBS detects p24 at a concentration 18 times higher than in plasma. In seroconverters, BRC-DBS detected more infections than the IgG/IgM immunoassay in plasma (p=0.0133), but fewer infections than BRC-plasma (p=0.0133). In addition, the BRC/Geenius-plasma algorithm identified more HIV-1 infections than the BRC/Geenius-DBS algorithm (p=0.0455). The DBS protocols correctly identified HIV status for established HIV-1 infections, including those on therapy, HIV-2 infections, and surveillance specimens. The DBS protocols exhibited promising performance and allowed rapid supplemental testing. Although the DBS algorithm missed some early infections, it showed similar results when applied to specimens from a high-risk population. Implementation of a DBS algorithm would benefit testing programs without capacity for venipuncture. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Identification of early HIV infections using the fourth generation Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CIA) in San Diego County.

    PubMed

    Manlutac, Anna Liza M; Giesick, Jill S; McVay, Patricia A

    2013-12-01

    HIV screening assays have gone through several generations of development in an effort to narrow the "window period" of detection. Utilizing a fourth generation HIV screening assay has the potential to detect earlier HIV infection, thus reducing HIV-1 transmission. To identify acute infections to decrease HIV transmission in San Diego County. Serum specimens were collected from clients seen by multiple submitters in San Diego County. All acceptable specimens were screened using the 4th Gen Combo Assay. Initially reactive specimens were repeated in duplicate and if repeatedly reactive, were confirmed by HIV-1 Immunofluorescent Antibody Assay (IFA). IFA negative/inconclusive specimens were sent for HIV-1 NAT and HIV-2 antibody testing to referral laboratories. BioRad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test was also performed on a subset of specimens. Of 14,559 specimens received in 20 months, 14,517 specimens were tested. Of the 14,517 specimens that were tested, a total of 279 (1.9%) specimens were CIA repeatedly reactive and 240 of the 279 confirmed by HIV-1 IFA. Thirty-nine gave IFA negative/inconclusive result and 30 were further tested for HIV-1 NAT and 36 for HIV-2 antibody. Thirteen specimens were considered false positives by CIA and 17 specimens were classified as acute infections. Eleven of 39 IFA negative/inconclusive specimens were further tested by Multispot. Five of the 11 were positive by Multispot. The fourth generation Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo Assay identified 17 patients who may have been missed by the prior HIV-1 screening assay used at San Diego County Public Health Laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Diagnosis for Nodal Metastasis in Endoscopically Managed Cervical Cancer: The Accuracy of the APTIMA Test to Detect High-risk Human Papillomavirus Messenger RNA in Sentinel Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Christhardt; Le, Xin; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Schneider, Achim; Marnitz, Simone; Bertolini, Julia; Favero, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of a commercially available test to detect E6/E7 mRNA of 14 subtypes of high-risk HPVs (APTIMA; Hologic, Bedford, MA) in the sentinel lymph nodes of CC patients laparoscopically operated. Prospective pilot study. The study was conducted in the Department of Advanced Operative and Oncologic Gynecology, Asklepios Hospital, Hamburg, Germany. 54 women with HPV-positive CC submitted to laparoscopic sentinel node biopsy alone or sentinel node biopsy followed by systematic pelvic and/or para-aortic endoscopic lymphadenectomy. All removed sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) underwent sample collection by cytobrush for the APTIMA assay before frozen section. Results obtained with the HPV mRNA test were compared with the definitive histopathological analysis of the SLNs and additional lymph nodes removed. A total of 125 SLNs (119 pelvic and 6 paraaortic) were excised with a mean number of 2.3 SLNs per patient. Final histopathologic analysis confirmed nodal metastases in 10 SLNs from 10 different patients (18%). All the histologically confirmed metastatic lymph nodes were also HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive, resulting in a sensitivity of 100%. Four histologically free sentinel nodes were positive for HPV E6/E7 mRNA, resulting in a specificity of 96.4%. The HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in the SLNs of patients with CC is feasible and highly accurate. The detection of HPV mRNA in 4 women with negative SLNs might denote a shift from microscopic identification of metastasis to the molecular level. The prognostic value of this findings awaits further verification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Detection by Aptima HPV and cobas HPV Tests in a Population of Women Referred for Colposcopy following Detection of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance by Pap Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Philip E.; Eaton, Barbara; Reid, Jennifer; Dockter, Janel

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the cobas HPV test to the Aptima HPV assay (AHPV) and the Aptima HPV 16 18/45 genotype assay (AHPV GT) for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) detection, clinical performance in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe (CIN2+) diagnoses, and risk stratification by partial HPV genotyping. The cobas HPV test is a DNA test that separately and concurrently detects HPV16, HPV18, and a pool of 12 other hrHPV types. AHPV is an RNA test for a pool of 14 hrHPV genotypes, and AHPV GT is an RNA test run on AHPV-positive results to detect HPV16 separately from HPV18 and HPV45, which are detected together. In a population of patients (n = 988) referred for colposcopy because of a cervical Pap cytology result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), a cervical scrape specimen was taken, placed into a ThinPrep Pap test vial containing PreservCyt liquid cytology medium, and tested in a blinded fashion with cobas and AHPV and with AHPV GT for AHPV-positive results. The final diagnoses were based on a consensus panel review of the biopsy specimen histology. AHPV and cobas were equally sensitive for CIN2+ diagnoses (89.4% each; P = 1.000), and AHPV was more specific than cobas (63.1% versus 59.3%; P ≤ 0.001). The percent total agreement, percent positive agreement, and kappa value were 90.9%, 81.1%, and 0.815, respectively. Risk stratification using partial HPV genotyping was similar for the two assays. AHPV and AHPV GT had similar sensitivity and risk stratification to cobas HPV, but they were more specific than cobas HPV. PMID:25653409

  10. One year clinical outcomes in patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus and non-insulin-treated diabetes mellitus compared to non-diabetics after deployment of the bio-engineered COMBO stent.

    PubMed

    Kalkman, Deborah N; Woudstra, Pier; den Heijer, Peter; Menown, Ian B A; Erglis, Andrejs; Suryapranata, Harry; Arkenbout, Karin E; Iñiguez, Andrés; van 't Hof, Arnoud W J; Muller, Philippe; Tijssen, Jan G; de Winter, Robbert J

    2017-01-01

    The COMBO stent is a novel sirolimus-eluting stent with a luminal anti-CD34+ antibody layer to promote vessel healing. No data is currently available on clinical outcomes after treatment with this novel bio-engineered device in diabetic patients. We evaluate clinical outcomes at twelve months after COMBO stent placement in patients without diabetes mellitus (non-DM), patients with non-insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (nITDM) and patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM). This study is a pre-specified subgroup analysis of the 1000 patient all-comers REMEDEE Registry. The primary endpoint is target lesion failure (TLF), which is a combined endpoint consisting of cardiac death, target vessel-myocardial infarction (tv-MI) and target lesion revascularization (TLR) at twelve months follow-up. Kaplan Meier method is used with log rank to compare outcomes between groups. This subgroup analysis includes 807 non-DM, 117 nITDM and 67 ITDM. Kaplan-Meier estimates for TLF at twelve months are 4.4% in non-DM, 6.8% in nITDM and 20.3% in ITDM, p<0.001 (non-DM vs nITDM p=0.244, non-DM vs ITDM p<0.001). This study gives the first insight into the impact of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus on clinical outcome of patients treated with the novel COMBO stent. At one year after COMBO stent placement significantly higher rates of target lesion failure are seen in patients with ITDM compared to patients with nITDM and patients without DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design and development of novel hyaluronate-modified nanoparticles for combo-delivery of curcumin and alendronate: Fabrication, characterization, and cellular and molecular evidence of enhanced bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinlei; Thu, Hnin Ei; Abourehab, Mohammed A S; Hussain, Zahid

    2018-05-18

    Osteoporosis is a medical condition of fragile bones with an increased susceptibility to bone fracture. Despite having availability of a wide range of pharmacological agents, prevalence of this metabolic disorder is continuously escalating. Owing to excellent biomedical achievements of nanomedicines in the last few decades, we aimed combo delivery of bone anti-resorptive agent, alendronate (ALN), and bone density enhancing drug, curcumin (CUR), in the form of polymeric nanoparticles. To further optimize the therapeutic efficacy, the prepared ALN/CUR nanoparticles were decorated with hyaluronic acid which is a well-documented biomacromolecule having exceptional bone regenerating potential. The optimized nanoformulation was evaluated for bone regeneration efficacy by assessing the time-mannered modulation in the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells, a pre-osteoblast model. Moreover, the time-mannered expressions of various bone-forming protein biomarkers including bone morphogenetic protein, runt related transcription factor 2, and osteocalcin were assessed in the cell lysates. Results revealed that HA-ALN/CUR NPs provoke remarkable increase in proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization in the ECM of MC3T3-E1 cells which ultimately leads to enhanced bone formation. This new strategy employing simultaneous delivery of anti-resorptive and bone forming agents would open new horizons for the scientists as an efficient alternative pharmacotherapy for the management of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. PNA-COMBO-FISH: From combinatorial probe design in silico to vitality compatible, specific labelling of gene targets in cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Müller, Patrick; Rößler, Jens; Schwarz-Finsterle, Jutta; Schmitt, Eberhard; Hausmann, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Recently, advantages concerning targeting specificity of PCR constructed oligonucleotide FISH probes in contrast to established FISH probes, e.g. BAC clones, have been demonstrated. These techniques, however, are still using labelling protocols with DNA denaturing steps applying harsh heat treatment with or without further denaturing chemical agents. COMBO-FISH (COMBinatorial Oligonucleotide FISH) allows the design of specific oligonucleotide probe combinations in silico. Thus, being independent from primer libraries or PCR laboratory conditions, the probe sequences extracted by computer sequence data base search can also be synthesized as single stranded PNA-probes (Peptide Nucleic Acid probes) or TINA-DNA (Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acids). Gene targets can be specifically labelled with at least about 20 probes obtaining visibly background free specimens. By using appropriately designed triplex forming oligonucleotides, the denaturing procedures can completely be omitted. These results reveal a significant step towards oligonucleotide-FISH maintaining the 3d-nanostructure and even the viability of the cell target. The method is demonstrated with the detection of Her2/neu and GRB7 genes, which are indicators in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. PNA-COMBO-FISH: From combinatorial probe design in silico to vitality compatible, specific labelling of gene targets in cell nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, Patrick; Rößler, Jens; Schwarz-Finsterle, Jutta

    Recently, advantages concerning targeting specificity of PCR constructed oligonucleotide FISH probes in contrast to established FISH probes, e.g. BAC clones, have been demonstrated. These techniques, however, are still using labelling protocols with DNA denaturing steps applying harsh heat treatment with or without further denaturing chemical agents. COMBO-FISH (COMBinatorial Oligonucleotide FISH) allows the design of specific oligonucleotide probe combinations in silico. Thus, being independent from primer libraries or PCR laboratory conditions, the probe sequences extracted by computer sequence data base search can also be synthesized as single stranded PNA-probes (Peptide Nucleic Acid probes). Gene targets can be specifically labelled with atmore » least about 20 PNA-probes obtaining visibly background free specimens. By using appropriately designed triplex forming oligonucleotides, the denaturing procedures can completely be omitted. These results reveal a significant step towards oligonucleotide-FISH maintaining the 3D-nanostructure and even the viability of the cell target. The method is demonstrated with the detection of Her2/neu and GRB7 genes, which are indicators in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy. - Highlights: • Denaturation free protocols preserve 3D architecture of chromosomes and nuclei. • Labelling sets are determined in silico for duplex and triplex binding. • Probes are produced chemically with freely chosen backbones and base variants. • Peptide nucleic acid backbones reduce hindering charge interactions. • Intercalating side chains stabilize binding of short oligonucleotides.« less

  14. Multi-centre evaluation of the Determine HIV Combo assay when used for point of care testing in a high risk clinic-based population.

    PubMed

    Conway, Damian P; Holt, Martin; McNulty, Anna; Couldwell, Deborah L; Smith, Don E; Davies, Stephen C; Cunningham, Philip; Keen, Phillip; Guy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Determine HIV Combo (DHC) is the first point of care assay designed to increase sensitivity in early infection by detecting both HIV antibody and antigen. We conducted a large multi-centre evaluation of DHC performance in Sydney sexual health clinics. We compared DHC performance (overall, by test component and in early infection) with conventional laboratory HIV serology (fourth generation screening immunoassay, supplementary HIV antibody, p24 antigen and Western blot tests) when testing gay and bisexual men attending four clinic sites. Early infection was defined as either acute or recent HIV infection acquired within the last six months. Of 3,190 evaluation specimens, 39 were confirmed as HIV-positive (12 with early infection) and 3,133 were HIV-negative by reference testing. DHC sensitivity was 87.2% overall and 94.4% and 0% for the antibody and antigen components, respectively. Sensitivity in early infection was 66.7% (all DHC antibody reactive) and the DHC antigen component detected none of nine HIV p24 antigen positive specimens. Median HIV RNA was higher in false negative than true positive cases (238,025 vs. 37,591 copies/ml; p = 0.022). Specificity overall was 99.4% with the antigen component contributing to 33% of false positives. The DHC antibody component detected two thirds of those with early infection, while the DHC antigen component did not enhance performance during point of care HIV testing in a high risk clinic-based population.

  15. Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test (CareStart Malaria HRP-2/pLDH (Pf/pan) Combo Test) for the diagnosis of malaria in a reference setting.

    PubMed

    Maltha, Jessica; Gillet, Philippe; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Cnops, Lieselotte; van Esbroeck, Marjan; Jacobs, Jan

    2010-06-18

    Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) are widely used for diagnosing malaria. The present retrospective study evaluated the CareStart Malaria HRP-2/pLDH (Pf/pan) Combo Test targeting the Plasmodium falciparum specific antigen histidine-rich protein (HRP-2) and the pan-Plasmodium antigen lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in a reference setting. The CareStart Malaria HRP-2/pLDH (Pf/pan) Combo Test was evaluated on a collection of samples obtained in returned international travellers using microscopy corrected by PCR as the reference method. Included were P. falciparum (n = 320), Plasmodium vivax (n = 76), Plasmodium ovale (n = 76), Plasmodium malariae (n = 23) and Plasmodium negative samples (n = 95). Overall sensitivity for the detection of P. falciparum was 88.8%, increasing to 94.3% and 99.3% at parasite densities above 100 and 1,000/microl respectively. For P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae, overall sensitivities were 77.6%, 18.4% and 30.4% respectively. For P. vivax sensitivity reached 90.2% for parasite densities above 500/microl. Incorrect species identification occurred in 11/495 samples (2.2%), including 8/320 (2.5%) P. falciparum samples which generated only the pan-pLDH line. For P. falciparum samples, 205/284 (72.2%) HRP-2 test lines had strong or medium line intensities, while for all species the pan-pLDH lines were less intense, especially in the case of P. ovale. Agreement between observers was excellent (kappa values > 0.81 for positive and negative readings) and test results were reproducible. The test was easy to perform with good clearing of the background. The CareStart Malaria HRP-2/pLDH (Pf/pan) Combo Test performed well for the detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax, but sensitivities for P. ovale and P. malariae were poor.

  16. Evaluation of the Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo Assay in a low-prevalence setting: The role of samples with a low S/CO ratio.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Roberto; Pérez-García, Felipe; Gijón, Paloma; Collazos, Ana; Bouza, Emilio

    2018-06-01

    The Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo Assay, a fourth-generation ELISA, has proven to be highly reliable for the diagnosis of HIV infection. However, its high sensitivity may lead to false-positive results. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of Architect in a low-prevalence population and to assess the role of the sample-to-cutoff ratio (S/CO) in reducing the frequency of false-positive results. We conducted a retrospective study of samples analyzed by Architect between January 2015 and June 2017. Positive samples were confirmed by immunoblot (RIBA) or nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). Different S/CO thresholds (1, 2.5, 10, 25, and 100) were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values (NPV, PPV). ROC analysis was used to determine the optimal S/CO. A total of 69,471 samples were analyzed. 709 (1.02%) were positive by Architect. Of these, 63 (8.89%) were false-positive results. Most of them (93.65%) were in samples with S/CO < 100. However, most confirmations by NAATs (12 out of 19 cases) were also recorded for these samples. The optimal S/CO was 2.5, which provided the highest area under the ROC curve (0.9998) and no false-negative results. With this S/CO, sensitivity and specificity were 100.0%, and PPV and NPV were 95.8% and 100.0%, respectively. In addition, the frequency of false-positive results decreased significantly to 4.15%. Although Architect generates a relatively high number of false-positive results, raising the S/CO limit too much to increase specificity can lead to false-negative results, especially in newly infected individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance of the Alere Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo Rapid Test with algorithm-defined acute HIV-1 infection specimens.

    PubMed

    Parker, Monica M; Bennett, S Berry; Sullivan, Timothy J; Fordan, Sally; Wesolowski, Laura G; Wroblewski, Kelly; Gaynor, Anne M

    2018-05-14

    The capacity of HIV Antigen/Antibody (Ag/Ab) immunoassays (IA) to detect HIV-1 p24 antigen has resulted in improved detection of HIV-1 infections in comparison to Ab-only screening assays. Since its introduction in the US, studies have shown that the Determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo assay (Determine Ag/Ab) detects HIV infection earlier than laboratory-based IgM/IgG-sensitive IAs, but its sensitivity for HIV-1 p24 Ag detection is reduced compared to laboratory-based Ag/Ab assays. However, further evaluation is needed to assess its capacity to detect acute HIV-1 infection. To assess the performance of Determine Ag/Ab in serum from acute HIV-1 infections. Select serum specimens that screened reactive on a laboratory-based Ag/Ab IA or IgM/IgG Ab-only IA, with a negative or indeterminate supplemental antibody test and detectable HIV-1 RNA were retrospectively tested with Determine Ag/Ab. Results were compared with those of the primary screening immunoassay to evaluate concordance within this set of algorithm-defined acute infections. Of 159 algorithm-defined acute HIV-1 specimens, Determine Ag/Ab was reactive for 105 resulting in 66.0% concordance. Of 125 that were initially detected by a laboratory-based Ag/Ab IA, 81 (64.8%) were reactive by Determine Ag/Ab. A total of 34 acute specimens were initially detected by a laboratory-based IgM/IgG Ab-only IA and 24 (70.6%) of those were reactive by Determine Ag/Ab. Due to their enhanced sensitivity, laboratory-based Ag/Ab IAs continue to be preferred over the Determine Ag/Ab as the screening method used by laboratories conducting HIV diagnostic testing on serum and plasma specimens. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-screening for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in the human immunodeficiency virus clinic--high yields and high acceptability.

    PubMed

    Soni, Suneeta; White, John A

    2011-12-01

    Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), incident human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to rise, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) are well known for their part in HIV transmission. National guidelines recommend routine STI screening in HIV-positive individuals, but despite this, reported uptake remains low. We implemented a nurse-led self-screening program for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) in asymptomatic HIV patients. Self-collected samples were tested for CT and GC using the GenProbe Aptima Combo 2 assay. Clinical records were reviewed for ART history, CD4 T-cell count, and plasma viral load. A screening service evaluation questionnaire was handed out. During an 8-month period, 976 screens were performed. In all, 143 infections were detected which would have been missed without the screening program. Overall prevalence of infection among men who have sex with men was 17.4%: rectal CT and GC, 9.8% (56/571) and 4.2% (24/571), respectively; urethal CT and GC, 2.6% (16/605) and 1.3% (8/605), respectively; and pharyngeal CT and GC, 1.7% (10/589) and 3.9% (23/589), respectively. Among heterosexual men and women, the rates of CT were 2.1% (3/141) and 1.5% (3/201), and there was no GC. Transient viremia was observed at the time of STI diagnosis in 6 patients on ART. All men who have sex with men and most women found self-swabbing acceptable, and most patients indicated that they would like to be offered testing in future. These findings highlight the need for the introduction of similar screening approaches in HIV clinics. Self-collected specimens using sensitive and specific GC and CT nucleic acid amplification tests are a convenient and acceptable way of testing, and it may address some of the barriers to screening in this population.

  19. Evaluation of six nucleic acid amplification tests used for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Russia compared with an international strictly validated real-time porA pseudogene polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Shipitsyna, E; Zolotoverkhaya, E; Hjelmevoll, S O; Maximova, A; Savicheva, A; Sokolovsky, E; Skogen, V; Domeika, M; Unemo, M

    2009-11-01

    In Russia, laboratory diagnosis of gonorrhoea has been mainly based on microscopy only and, in some settings, relatively rare suboptimal culturing. In recent years, Russian developed and manufactured nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have been implemented for routine diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, these NAATs have never been validated to any international well-recognized diagnostic NAAT. This study aims to evaluate the performance characteristics of six Russian NAATs for N. gonorrhoeae diagnostics. In total, 496 symptomatic patients were included. Five polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and one real-time nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) assay, developed by three Russian companies, were evaluated on urogenital samples, i.e. cervical and first voided urine (FVU) samples from females (n = 319), urethral and FVU samples from males (n = 127), and extragenital samples, i.e. rectal and pharyngeal samples, from 50 additional female patients with suspicion of gonorrhoea. As reference method, an international strictly validated real-time porA pseudogene PCR was applied. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae was 2.7% and 16% among the patients providing urogenital and extragenital samples, respectively. The Russian NAATs and the reference method displayed high level of concordance (99.4-100%). The sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values and negative predictive values of the Russian tests in different specimens were 66.7-100%, 100%, 100%, and 99.4-100%, respectively. Russian N. gonorrhoeae diagnostic NAATs comprise relatively good performance characteristics. However, larger studies are crucial and, beneficially, the Russian assays should also be evaluated to other international highly sensitive and specific, and ideally Food and Drug Administration approved, NAATs such as Aptima Combo 2 (Gen-Probe).

  20. Evidence for increased Chlamydia case finding after the introduction of rectal screening among women attending 2 Canadian sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Gratrix, Jennifer; Singh, Ameeta E; Bergman, Joshua; Egan, Caroline; Plitt, Sabrina S; McGinnis, Justin; Bell, Christopher A; Drews, Steven J; Read, Ron

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common notifiable disease in Canada, and extragenital sites are believed to serve as hidden reservoirs for ongoing transmission of infection. There are no specific Canadian screening guidelines for asymptomatic individuals from extragenital sites. We sought to determine the prevalence and factors associated with rectal C. trachomatis among female sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendees in Alberta, Canada. Between 20 July and 31 December 2012, all female attendees at 2 Provincial STI clinics receiving a pelvic examination, regardless of a history of anal intercourse, were screened for rectal C. trachomatis using the Gen-Probe Aptima COMBO 2 Assay. Demographic and behavior variables were compared between rectal-only chlamydia cases and genitourinary cases using χ(2) or Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and logistic regression. A total of 3055 women were screened for rectal chlamydia. The prevalence of rectal chlamydia ranged from 11.7% to 13.5%. There were 133 rectal-only cases, increasing case detection by 44.3% from 300 genitourinary cases to 433 total cases, ranging from 21.7% to 88.2% by clinic. Women who were a contact to an STI were less likely to have rectal-only chlamydia for both clinics (P ≤ .001). Our findings add to the growing body of evidence supporting universal rectal screening in high-risk women such as those undergoing pelvic exams at STI clinics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Evaluation of the RealTime HIV-1, Xpert HIV-1, and Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assays in Comparison to the NucliSens EasyQ HIV-1 v2.0 Assay for Quantification of HIV-1 Viral Load.

    PubMed

    Mor, Orna; Gozlan, Yael; Wax, Marina; Mileguir, Fernando; Rakovsky, Avia; Noy, Bina; Mendelson, Ella; Levy, Itzchak

    2015-11-01

    HIV-1 RNA monitoring, both before and during antiretroviral therapy, is an integral part of HIV management worldwide. Measurements of HIV-1 viral loads are expected to assess the copy numbers of all common HIV-1 subtypes accurately and to be equally sensitive at different viral loads. In this study, we compared for the first time the performance of the NucliSens v2.0, RealTime HIV-1, Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx, and Xpert HIV-1 viral load assays. Plasma samples (n = 404) were selected on the basis of their NucliSens v2.0 viral load results and HIV-1 subtypes. Concordance, linear regression, and Bland-Altman plots were assessed, and mixed-model analysis was utilized to compare the analytical performance of the assays for different HIV-1 subtypes and for low and high HIV-1 copy numbers. Overall, high concordance (>83.89%), high correlation values (Pearson r values of >0.89), and good agreement were observed among all assays, although the Xpert and Aptima assays, which provided the most similar outputs (estimated mean viral loads of 2.67 log copies/ml [95% confidence interval [CI], 2.50 to 2.84 log copies/ml] and 2.68 log copies/ml [95% CI, 2.49 to 2.86 log copies/ml], respectively), correlated best with the RealTime assay (89.8% concordance, with Pearson r values of 0.97 to 0.98). These three assays exhibited greater precision than the NucliSens v2.0 assay. All assays were equally sensitive for subtype B and AG/G samples and for samples with viral loads of 1.60 to 3.00 log copies/ml. The NucliSens v2.0 assay underestimated A1 samples and those with viral loads of >3.00 log copies/ml. The RealTime assay tended to underquantify subtype C (compared to the Xpert and Aptima assays) and subtype A1 samples. The Xpert and Aptima assays were equally efficient for detection of all subtypes and viral loads, which renders these new assays most suitable for clinical HIV laboratories. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Performance comparison of CareStart™ HRP2/pLDH combo rapid malaria test with light microscopy in north-western Tigray, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Feleke, Daniel Getacher; Tarko, Shambel; Hadush, Haftom

    2017-06-06

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are alternative methods for microscopy in the diagnosis of malaria in resource limited settings. Among commercially available RDTs, CareStart™ Malaria test was found to show reliable results. This study evaluated the performance of CareStart™ Malaria Combo test kit in Northwestern Tigray in Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected from 320 malaria-suspected patients at Mayani Hospital in Northwestern Tigray from December 2015 to March 2016. All blood samples were examined using both light microscopy and CareStart™ Malaria HRP2/pLDH Combo Test kit. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 20. The overall parasite positivity using light microscopy and CareStart™ RDT was 41 (12.8%) and 43 (13.4%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of CareStart™ RDT, regardless of species, were found to be 95.4 and 99.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the sensitivity of CareStart™ RDT for Plasmodium falciparum or mixed infection and non-falciparum malaria parasites was 94.4 and 85.0%, respectively while the specificity was found to be 98.9 and 99.7%, respectively. The agreement between the two test methods was "excellent" with a kappa value of 0.92. CareStart™ RDT has very good sensitivity and specificity for malaria diagnosis. The test kit also has an excellent agreement with light microscopy. It is therefore useful in resource-limited areas where microscopy is not available.

  3. Evaluation of CareStart™ malaria Pf/Pv combo test for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria diagnosis in Butajira area, south-central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woyessa, Adugna; Deressa, Wakgari; Ali, Ahmed; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-06-27

    Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax co-exist and malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) is vital in rendering parasite-confirmed treatment especially in areas where microscopy from 2008 to 2010 is not available. CareStartTM Malaria Pf/Pv combo test was evaluated compared to microscopy in Butajira area, south-central Ethiopia. This RDT detects histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2) found in P. falciparum, and Plasmodium enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) for diagnosis of P. vivax. The standard for the reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies was complied. Among 2,394 participants enrolled, 10.9% (n=87) were Plasmodium infected (household survey) and 24.5% (n=392) health facility-based using microscopy. In the household surveys, the highest positivity was caused by P. vivax (83.9%, n=73), P. falciparum (15.0%, n=13), and the rest due to mixed infections of both (1.1%, n=1). In health facility, P. vivax caused 78.6% (n=308), P. falciparum caused 20.4% (n=80), and the rest caused by mixed infections 1.0% (n=4). RDT missed 9.1% (n=8) in household and 4.3% (n=17) in health facility-based surveys among Plasmodium positive confirmed by microscopy while 3.3% (n=24) in household and 17.2% (n=208) in health facility-based surveys were detected false positive. RDT showed agreement with microscopy in detecting 79 positives in household surveys (n=796) and 375 positives in health centre survey (n=1,598).RDT performance varied in both survey settings, lowest PPV (64.3%) for Plasmodium and P. falciparum (77.2%) in health centres; and Plasmodium (76.7%) and P. falciparum (87.5%) in household surveys. NPV was low in P. vivax in health centres (77.2%) and household (87.5%) surveys. Seasonally varying RDT precision of as low as 14.3% PPV (Dec. 2009), and 38.5% NPV (Nov. 2008) in health centre surveys; and 40-63.6% PPV was observed in household surveys. But the influence of age and parasite density on RDT performance was not

  4. Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test (CareStart™ Malaria HRP-2/pLDH (Pf/pan) Combo Test) for the diagnosis of malaria in a reference setting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) are widely used for diagnosing malaria. The present retrospective study evaluated the CareStart™ Malaria HRP-2/pLDH (Pf/pan) Combo Test targeting the Plasmodium falciparum specific antigen histidine-rich protein (HRP-2) and the pan-Plasmodium antigen lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in a reference setting. Methods The CareStart™ Malaria HRP-2/pLDH (Pf/pan) Combo Test was evaluated on a collection of samples obtained in returned international travellers using microscopy corrected by PCR as the reference method. Included were P. falciparum (n = 320), Plasmodium vivax (n = 76), Plasmodium ovale (n = 76), Plasmodium malariae (n = 23) and Plasmodium negative samples (n = 95). Results Overall sensitivity for the detection of P. falciparum was 88.8%, increasing to 94.3% and 99.3% at parasite densities above 100 and 1,000/μl respectively. For P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae, overall sensitivities were 77.6%, 18.4% and 30.4% respectively. For P. vivax sensitivity reached 90.2% for parasite densities above 500/μl. Incorrect species identification occurred in 11/495 samples (2.2%), including 8/320 (2.5%) P. falciparum samples which generated only the pan-pLDH line. For P. falciparum samples, 205/284 (72.2%) HRP-2 test lines had strong or medium line intensities, while for all species the pan-pLDH lines were less intense, especially in the case of P. ovale. Agreement between observers was excellent (kappa values > 0.81 for positive and negative readings) and test results were reproducible. The test was easy to perform with good clearing of the background. Conclusion The CareStart™ Malaria HRP-2/pLDH (Pf/pan) Combo Test performed well for the detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax, but sensitivities for P. ovale and P. malariae were poor. PMID:20565816

  5. Performance evaluation of the Bio-Rad Laboratories GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA, a 4th generation HIV assay for the simultaneous detection of HIV p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1 (groups M and O) and HIV-2 in human serum or plasma.

    PubMed

    Bentsen, Christopher; McLaughlin, Lisa; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Ferrera, Carol; Liska, Sally; Myers, Robert; Peel, Sheila; Swenson, Paul; Gadelle, Stephane; Shriver, M Kathleen

    2011-12-01

    A multi-center study was conducted to evaluate the Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA, a 4th generation HIV-1/HIV-2 assay for the simultaneous detection of HIV p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1 (groups M and O) and HIV-2 in human serum or plasma in adult and pediatric populations. The objectives of the study were to assess assay performance for the detection of acute HIV infections; sensitivity in known HIV positive samples; percent agreement with HIV status; specificity in low and high risk individuals of unknown HIV status; and to compare assay performance to a 3rd generation HIV assay. The evaluation included testing 9150 samples at four U.S. clinical trial sites, using three kit lots. Unlinked samples were from routine testing, repositories or purchased from vendors. GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA detection in samples from individuals in two separate populations with acute HIV infection was 95.2% (20/21) and 86.4% (38/44). Sensitivity was 100% (1603/1603) in known antibody positive [HIV-1 Groups M and O, and HIV-2] samples. HIV p24 antigen detection was 100% (53/53) in HIV-1 culture supernatants. HIV-1 seroconversion panel detection improved by a range of 0-20 days compared to a 3rd generation HIV test. Specificity was 99.9% (5989/5996) in low risk, 99.9% (959/960) in high risk and 100% (100/100) in pediatric populations. The GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA significantly reduced the diagnostic window when compared to the 3rd generation screening assay, enabling earlier diagnosis of HIV infection. The performance parameters of the Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA are well suited for use in HIV diagnostic settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vaccine Adjuvants in Fish Vaccines Make a Difference: Comparing Three Adjuvants (Montanide ISA763A Oil, CpG/Poly I:C Combo and VHSV Glycoprotein) Alone or in Combination Formulated with an Inactivated Whole Salmonid Alphavirus Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Thim, Hanna L.; Villoing, Stéphane; McLoughlin, Marian; Christie, Karen Elina; Grove, Søren; Frost, Petter; Jørgensen, Jorunn B.

    2014-01-01

    Most commercial vaccines offered to the aquaculture industry include inactivated antigens (Ag) formulated in oil adjuvants. Safety concerns are related to the use of oil adjuvants in multivalent vaccines for fish, since adverse side effects (e.g., adhesions) can appear. Therefore, there is a request for vaccine formulations for which protection will be maintained or improved, while the risk of side effects is reduced. Here, by using an inactivated salmonid alphavirus (SAV) as the test Ag, the combined use of two Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand adjuvants, CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) and poly I:C, as well as a genetic adjuvant consisting of a DNA plasmid vector expressing the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) glycoprotein (G) was explored. VHSV-G DNA vaccine was intramuscularly injected in combination with intraperitoneal injection of either SAV Ag alone or combined with the oil adjuvant, Montanide ISA763, or the CpG/polyI:C combo. Adjuvant formulations were evaluated for their ability to boost immune responses and induce protection against SAV in Atlantic salmon, following cohabitation challenge. It was observed that CpG/polyI:C-based formulations generated the highest neutralizing antibody titres (nAbs) before challenge, which endured post challenge. nAb responses for VHSV G-DNA- and oil-adjuvanted formulations were marginal compared to the CpG/poly I:C treatment. Interestingly, heat-inactivated sera showed reduced nAb titres compared to their non-heated counterparts, which suggests a role of complement-mediated neutralization against SAV. Consistently elevated levels of innate antiviral immune genes in the CpG/polyI:C injected groups suggested a role of IFN-mediated responses. Co-delivery of the VHSV-G DNA construct with either CpG/polyI:C or oil-adjuvanted SAV vaccine generated higher CD4 responses in head kidney at 48 h compared to injection of this vector or SAV Ag alone. The results demonstrate that a combination of pattern recognizing receptor (PRR

  7. Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Teens and Steroids: ... as it is surprising. Nov. 4, 2013 Related Consumer Updates Beware of Fraudulent Dietary Supplements More in ...

  8. Clinical Evaluation of the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Kerleguer, A.; Fabre, M.; Bernatas, J. J.; Gerome, P.; Nicand, E.; Herve, V.; Koeck, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated the performance of the Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) for the diagnosis of lymph node tuberculosis in Djibouti, Republic of Djibouti. Of 197 specimens sampled from 153 patients, 123 were from 95 tuberculous patients. The sensitivity and specificity of MTD were 93 and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity of culture was 89%. PMID:15583341

  9. Reflections on Freirean Pedagogy in a Jazz Combo Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shevock, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Paulo Freire was an important figure in adult education whose pedagogy has been used in music education. In this act of praxis (reflection and action upon the world in order to transform it), I share an autoethnography of my teaching of a university-level small ensemble jazz class. The purpose of this autoethnography was to examine my teaching…

  10. Drug Combo Decreases Colorectal Polyps in People with FAP

    Cancer.gov

    In people with familial adenomatous polyposis, or FAP, a combination treatment of erlotinib (Tarceva) and sulindac (Aflodac) decreased the number of precancerous colorectal polyps, according to recently published clinical trial results.

  11. Removing Arsenic with a Softening/RO Combo

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a very short summary of the arsenic demonstration program and the limited test results from the point-of-use (POU), reverse osmosis (RO) project in Homedale, ID. Preformance data is presented on the effectiveness of the POU treatment system to remove arseni...

  12. The performance and clinical utility of cervical microscopy for the diagnosis of gonorrhoea in women in the era of the NAAT.

    PubMed

    Thorley, Nicola; Radcliffe, Keith

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the performance and clinical utility of cervical microscopy for diagnosing genital gonorrhoea (GC) in women, using the APTIMA Combo 2 dual GC/Chlamydia trachomatis assay as the gold standard. Test performance was assessed overall and for patient subgroups (symptomatic, GC contacts, pelvic inflammatory disease [PID] diagnosis). It was found that 93 women had positive GC genital NAAT results; 15 had positive cervical microscopy (8 were GC contacts). In all subgroups except GC contacts, the PPV of cervical microscopy was below the nationally accepted target of 90%. Compared to APTIMA Combo 2, cervical microscopy has poor sensitivity for diagnosing GC in women (16.1% overall, 17.3% symptomatic, 25% GC contacts, 10.5% PID). GC contacts accounted for over 50% of the positive microscopy results and would have received epidemiological treatment for GC, regardless of the microscopy result. Discontinuing the routine use of cervical microscopy would improve patient flow through the sexual health clinic and resources could be utilised more effectively. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Evaluation of the new AmpliSens multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Rumyantseva, Tatiana; Golparian, Daniel; Nilsson, Christian S; Johansson, Emma; Falk, My; Fredlund, Hans; Van Dam, Alje; Guschin, Alexander; Unemo, Magnus

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we performed an evaluation of the new CE-marked multiplex real-time AmpliSens N.gonorrhoeae/C.trachomatis/M.genitalium/T.vaginalis-MULTIPRIME-FRT PCR assay compared to APTIMA tests, i.e., APTIMA COMBO 2 assay, APTIMA Trichomonas vaginalis assay (FDA-approved), and two different APTIMA Mycoplasma genitalium assays (research use only; one of them only used for discrepancy analysis). Vaginal swabs (n = 209) and first-void urine (FVU) specimens from females (n = 498) and males (n = 554), consecutive attendees (n = 1261) at a dermatovenerological clinic in Sweden, were examined. The sensitivity of the AmpliSens PCR assay for detection of C. trachomatis (6.3% prevalence), M. genitalium (5.7% prevalence), N. gonorrhoeae (0.3% prevalence), and T. vaginalis (0.08% prevalence) was 97.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 91.2-99.6%), 81.9% (95% CI: 70.7-89.7%), 100% (95% CI: 40.2-100%) and 100% (95% CI: 16.5-100%), respectively. The specificity of the AmpliSens PCR assay was 100% (95% CI: 99.6-100%) for all agents. The analytical sensitivity and specificity for N. gonorrhoeae detection was excellent, i.e., 55 international gonococcal strains detected and 135 isolates of 13 non-gonococcal Neisseria species were negative. In conclusion, the multiplex real-time AmpliSens N.gonorrhoeae/C.trachomatis/M.genitalium/T.vaginalis-MULTIPRIME-FRT PCR assay demonstrated high sensitivity and excellent specificity for the detection of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis, and excellent specificity but suboptimal sensitivity for M. genitalium detection. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Aging and anti-aging: a Combo-Endocrinology overview.

    PubMed

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Dattilo, Maurizio; Macut, Djuro; Duntas, Leonidas; Gonos, Efstathios S; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Gantenbein, Christina Kanaka; Kapetanou, Marianna; Koukkou, Eftychia; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Michalaki, Marina; Eftekhari-Nader, Shahla; Pasquali, Renato; Peppa, Melpomeni; Tzanela, Marinella; Vassilatou, Evangeline; Vryonidou, Andromachi

    2017-06-01

    Aging and its underlying pathophysiological background has always attracted the attention of the scientific society. Defined as the gradual, time-dependent, heterogeneous decline of physiological functions, aging is orchestrated by a plethora of molecular mechanisms, which vividly interact to alter body homeostasis. The ability of an organism to adjust to these alterations, in conjunction with the dynamic effect of various environmental stimuli across lifespan, promotes longevity, frailty or disease. Endocrine function undergoes major changes during aging, as well. Specifically, alterations in hormonal networks and concomitant hormonal deficits/excess, augmented by poor sensitivity of tissues to their action, take place. As hypothalamic-pituitary unit is the central regulator of crucial body functions, these alterations can be translated in significant clinical sequelae that can impair the quality of life and promote frailty and disease. Delineating the hormonal signaling alterations that occur across lifespan and exploring possible remedial interventions could possibly help us improve the quality of life of the elderly and promote longevity. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. X-ray ptychography, fluorescence microscopy combo sheds new light on trace

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  16. Cocrystal Solubility Product Prediction Using an in combo Model and Simulations to Improve Design of Experiments.

    PubMed

    Avdeef, Alex

    2018-02-02

    To predict the aqueous solubility product (K sp ) and the solubility enhancement of cocrystals (CCs), using an approach based on measured drug and coformer intrinsic solubility (S 0 API , S 0 cof ), combined with in silico H-bond descriptors. A regression model was constructed, assuming that the concentration of the uncharged drug (API) can be nearly equated to drug intrinsic solubility (S 0 API ) and that the concentration of the uncharged coformer can be estimated from a linear combination of the log of the coformer intrinsic solubility, S 0 cof , plus in silico H-bond descriptors (Abraham acidities, α, and basicities, β). The optimal model found for n:1 CCs (-log 10 form) is pK sp  = 1.12 n pS 0 API  + 1.07 pS 0 cof  + 1.01 + 0.74 α API ·β cof  - 0.61 β API ; r 2  = 0.95, SD = 0.62, N = 38. In illustrative CC systems with unknown K sp , predicted K sp was used in simulation of speciation-pH profiles. The extent and pH dependence of solubility enhancement due to CC formation were examined. Suggestions to improve assay design were made. The predicted CC K sp can be used to simulate pH-dependent solution characteristics of saturated systems containing CCs, with the aim of ranking the selection of coformers, and of optimizing the design of experiments.

  17. Assessment of self taken swabs versus clinician taken swab cultures for diagnosing gonorrhoea in women: single centre, diagnostic accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Catherine M W; Schoeman, Sarah A; Booth, Russell A; Smith, Susan D; Wilcox, Mark H; Wilson, Janet D

    2012-12-12

    To compare gonorrhoea detection by self taken vulvovaginal swabs (tested with nucleic acid amplification tests) with the culture of urethral and endocervical samples taken by clinicians. Prospective study of diagnostic accuracy. 1 sexual health clinic in an urban setting (Leeds Centre for Sexual Health, United Kingdom), between March 2009 and January 2010. Women aged 16 years or older, attending the clinic for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and consenting to perform a vulvovaginal swab themselves before routine examination. During examination, clinicians took urethral and endocervical samples for culture and an endocervical swab for nucleic acid amplification testing. Urethra and endocervix samples were analysed by gonococcal culture. Vulvovaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were analysed by the Aptima Combo 2 (AC2) assay; positive results from this assay were confirmed with a second nucleic acid amplification test. Positive confirmation of gonorrhoea. Of 3859 women with complete data and test results, 96 (2.5%) were infected with gonorrhoea (overall test sensitivities: culture 81%, endocervical swabs with AC2 96%, vulvovaginal swabs with AC2 99%). The AC2 assays were more sensitive than culture (P<0.001), but the endocervical and vulvovaginal assays did not differ significantly (P=0.375). Specificity of all Aptima Combo 2 tests was 100%. Of 1625 women who had symptoms suggestive of a bacterial STI, 56 (3.4%) had gonorrhoea (culture 84%, endocervical AC2 100%, vulvovaginal AC2 100%). The AC2 assays were more sensitive than culture (P=0.004), and the endocervical and vulvovaginal assays were equivalent to each other. Of 2234 women who did not have symptoms suggesting a bacterial STI, 40 (1.8%) had gonorrhoea (culture 78%, endocervical AC2 90%, vulvovaginal AC2 98%). The vulvovaginal swab was more sensitive than culture (P=0.008), but there was no difference between the endocervical and vulvovaginal AC2 assays (P=0.375) or between the endocervical AC2

  18. High prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in anal and pharyngeal sites among a community-based sample of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Segundo R; Segura, Eddy R; Konda, Kelika A; Flores, Juan A; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Galea, Jerome T; Coates, Thomas J; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Caceres, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise the epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru. Setting Cross-sectional study in Lima, Peru. Participants We recruited a group of 510 MSM and 208 TW for a subsequent community-based randomised controlled trial. The presence of CT and NG were evaluated using Aptima Combo2 in pharyngeal and anal swabs. We also explored correlates of these infections. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Study end points included overall prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in anal and pharyngeal sites. Results Overall prevalence of CT was 19% (95% CI 16.1% to 22.1%) and 4.8% (95% CI 3.3% to 6.6%) in anal and pharyngeal sites, respectively, while prevalence of NG was 9.6% (95% CI 7.5% to 12.0%) and 6.5% (95% CI 4.8% to 8.5%) in anal and pharyngeal sites, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of each infection declined significantly among participants older than 34 years (p<0.05). Efforts towards prevention and treatment of extraurogenital chlamydial and gonococcal infections in high-risk populations like MSM and TW in Lima, Peru, are warranted. Trial registration number NCT00670163; Results. PMID:26739719

  19. A Macaque Model for Rectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum and Non-Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis: Impact on Rectal Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, Sundaram Ajay; Aubert, Rachael D; Morris, Monica R; Zhao, Chunxia; Philips, Christi; Khalil, George M; Deyounks, Frank; Kelley, Kristen; Ritter, Jana M; Chen, C Y; Kersh, Ellen N; McNicholl, Janet M

    2017-09-01

    Sustained genital tract inflammation caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is known to increase risk of vaginal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections but, to our knowledge, there are no nonhuman primate studies that have evaluated its link to rectal HIV acquisition. Rhesus macaques inoculated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (serovars LGV-L2 and CT-E; n = 7) or saline (n = 7) received up to 20 rectal challenges twice a week of simian/HIV immunodeficiency virus (SHIVSF162p3). SHIV viremia was determined by real-time PCR and Chlamydia infection by APTIMA Combo 2 testing. The rectal cytokine-chemokine levels were evaluated by multiplex bead assays. Rectal Chlamydia infection was maintained throughout the study. We did not observe significant differences (P = 1.0) in frequency of SHIV acquisition between the STI and control arms. It took fewer SHIV challenges to infect the STI animals although the difference was not significant (P = 0.59). There were no significant differences in peak plasma viremia between STI and control arms (P = 0.63). The association of plasma viremia with rectal shedding was significantly different by arm (P = 0.038). In the first such study in a macaque model, we did not observe an increased risk of SHIV acquisition due to rectal Chlamydia coinfection. This macaque model can be further developed and expanded to better investigate the impact of different rectal STIs on HIV acquisition.

  20. Auditing the use and assessing the clinical utility of microscopy as a point-of-care test for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a Sexual Health clinic.

    PubMed

    Mensforth, Sarah; Thorley, Nicola; Radcliffe, Keith

    2018-02-01

    We assessed whether urethral microscopy was performed as per clinic protocol for male clinic attendees reporting contact with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC), urethral symptoms or given a diagnosis of epididymo-orchitis (EO) over a 12-month period (9732 patients). Prevalence of gonorrhoea in the contacts, urethral symptoms and EO groups was 50, 12.7 and 1.6%, respectively. Microscopy was performed reliably for contacts (96%), those with discharge/dysuria with evidence of urethritis on examination (98%), but not those with EO (43%). We explored the clinical utility of microscopy as a point-of-care test for identifying urethral GC in each subgroup, using the APTIMA Combo 2 CT/GC nucleic acid amplification test as the comparator (1710 patients). Sensitivity of microscopy for each subgroup was good; there was no statistical difference between subgroup sensitivity using Fisher's exact test. Microscopy is valuable to ensure prompt diagnosis and contact tracing. All GC contacts were treated 'epidemiologically'; however, half of GC contacts did not have GC. Microscopy identified the majority of GC cases, including amongst contacts (71% of heterosexual contacts, 66% of contacts reporting sex with men). We propose that epidemiological treatment for GC contacts should be reconsidered on the grounds of antibiotic stewardship, favouring use of microscopy to guide treatment decisions.

  1. High prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in anal and pharyngeal sites among a community-based sample of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Leon, Segundo R; Segura, Eddy R; Konda, Kelika A; Flores, Juan A; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Galea, Jerome T; Coates, Thomas J; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Caceres, Carlos F

    2016-01-06

    This study aimed to characterise the epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru. Cross-sectional study in Lima, Peru. We recruited a group of 510 MSM and 208 TW for a subsequent community-based randomised controlled trial. The presence of CT and NG were evaluated using Aptima Combo2 in pharyngeal and anal swabs. We also explored correlates of these infections. Study end points included overall prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in anal and pharyngeal sites. Overall prevalence of CT was 19% (95% CI 16.1% to 22.1%) and 4.8% (95% CI 3.3% to 6.6%) in anal and pharyngeal sites, respectively, while prevalence of NG was 9.6% (95% CI 7.5% to 12.0%) and 6.5% (95% CI 4.8% to 8.5%) in anal and pharyngeal sites, respectively. The prevalence of each infection declined significantly among participants older than 34 years (p<0.05). Efforts towards prevention and treatment of extraurogenital chlamydial and gonococcal infections in high-risk populations like MSM and TW in Lima, Peru, are warranted. NCT00670163; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Discovery, synthesis and in combo studies of a tetrazole analogue of clofibric acid as a potent hypoglycemic agent.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Vázquez, Gabriel; Alaniz-Palacios, Alfredo; Hidalgo-Figueroa, Sergio; González-Acevedo, Cristina; Ávila-Villarreal, Gabriela; Estrada-Soto, Samuel; Webster, Scott P; Medina-Franco, José L; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Guerrero-Álvarez, Jorge; Tlahuext, Hugo

    2013-06-01

    A tetrazole isosteric analogue of clofibric acid (1) was prepared using a short synthetic route and was characterized by elemental analysis, NMR ((1)H, (13)C) spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The in vitro inhibitory activity of 1 against 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) was evaluated, showing a moderate inhibitory enzyme activity (51.17% of inhibition at 10 μM), being more active than clofibrate and clofibric acid. The antidiabetic activity of compound 1 was determined at 50 mg/Kg single dose using a non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus rat model. The results indicated a significant decrease of plasma glucose levels, during the 7h post-administration. Additionally, we performed a molecular docking of 1 into the ligand binding pocket of one subunit of human 11β-HSD1. In this model, compound 1 binds into the catalytic site of 11β-HSD1 in two different orientations. Both of them, show important short contacts with the catalytic residues Ser 170, Tyr 183, Asp 259 and also with the nicotinamide ring of NADP(+). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does the Sex Risk Quiz Predict Mycoplasma genitalium Infection in Urban Adolescents and Young Adult Women?

    PubMed

    Ronda, Jocelyn; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Perin, Jamie; Tabacco, Lisa; Coleman, Jenell; Trent, Maria

    2018-06-04

    Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) but there are limited strategies to identify individuals at risk of MG. Previously a sex risk quiz was used to predict STIs including Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC), and/or Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). The original quiz categorized individuals ≤25 years old as at risk of STIs, but the Centers for Disease Control identifies females <25 years old as at risk of STIs. In this study, the quiz was changed to categorize females <25 years old as high risk. The objective was to determine if the age-modified risk quiz predicted MG infection. A cross-sectional analysis of a prospective longitudinal study was performed including female adolescents and young adults (AYA) evaluated in multiple outpatient clinics. Participants completed an age-modified risk quiz about sexual practices. Scores ranged from 0 to 10 and were categorized as low-risk (0-3), medium-risk (4-7), and high-risk (8-10) based upon the STI prevalence for each score. Vaginal and/or endocervical specimens were tested for MG, TV, CT, and GC using the Aptima Gen-Probe nucleic amplification test. There were 693 participants. Most participants reported having 0-1 sexual partners in the last 90 days (91%) and inconsistent condom use (84%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis controlling for race, education, and symptom status demonstrated that a medium-risk score predicted MG infection among AYA <25 years old (adjusted OR 2.56 [95% CI 1.06-6.18]). A risk quiz may be useful during clinical encounters to identify AYA at risk of MG.

  4. Assessment of best single sample for finding chlamydia in women with and without symptoms: a diagnostic test study.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, Sarah A; Stewart, Catherine M W; Booth, Russell A; Smith, Susan D; Wilcox, Mark H; Wilson, Janet D

    2012-12-12

    To compare vulvovaginal swabs with endocervical swabs as optimal diagnostic sample for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. A diagnostic test study. An urban sexual health centre. 3973 women aged ≥ 16 years requesting testing for sexually transmitted infections. Participants took a vulvovaginal swab before routine examination, and clinicians took an endocervical swab during examination. Diagnosis of chlamydia infection with samples analysed using the Aptima Combo-2 assay; positive results confirmed with the Aptima CT assay. Of the 3973 participants, 410 (10.3%) were infected with C trachomatis. Infected women were significantly younger (22 v 25 years, P<0.0001) and more likely to have symptoms suggestive of a bacterial sexually transmitted infection (53% v 41%, odds ratio 1.63 (95% CI 1.30 to 2.04)), be a contact of someone with a sexually transmitted infection (25% v 5%, odds ratio 6.18 (4.61 to 8.30)), clinically diagnosed with cervicitis (17% v 4%, odds ratio 4.92 (3.50 to 6.91)), and have pelvic inflammatory disease (9% v 3%, odds ratio 2.85 (1.87 to 4.33)). When women co-infected with gonorrhoea were included in the analysis, there was an association with mixed ethnicity (10% v 7%, odds ratio 1.53 (1.07 to 2.17)); but when those with gonorrhoea were removed, women of white ethnicity were significantly more likely to have chlamydia (85% v 80%, odds ratio 1.40 (1.03 to 1.91)). On analysis of complete paired results, vulvovaginal swabs were significantly more sensitive than endocervical swabs (97% (95% CI 95% to 98%) v 88% (85% to 91%), P<0.00001); corresponding specificities were 99.9% and 100%. In women with symptoms suggestive of a bacterial sexually transmitted infection, vulvovaginal swabs were significantly more sensitive than endocervical swabs (97% (93% to 98%) v 88% (83% to 92%), P=0.0008), as they were in women without symptoms (97% (94% to 99%) v 89% (84% to 93%), P=0.002). Vulvovaginal swabs are significantly better than endocervical swabs

  5. Trachoma Rapid Assessments in Unity and Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal States, Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Emily; Kur, Lucia W.; Ndyaba, Aggrey; Lado, Mounir; Shafi, Juma; Kabare, Emmanuel; McClelland, R. Scott; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Trachoma is thought to be endemic over large parts of Southern Sudan, but empirical evidence is limited. While some areas east of the Nile have been identified as highly endemic, few trachoma surveys have been conducted in the remainder of the country. This study aimed to determine whether trachoma constitutes a problem to public health in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and Unity State, both located west of the Nile. Methods and Principal Findings Trachoma rapid assessments (TRA) were conducted between July and September 2009. Seven villages in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State and 13 villages in Unity State were surveyed; an average of 50 children (age 1–9 years) and 44 women (age 15 years and above) were examined per village. Samples for analysis using the APTIMA Combo-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were collected from participants with active trachoma in eight villages in Unity State. In Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, only three children with active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) and/or trachomatous inflammation intense (TI)) and two women with trichiasis (TT) were found, in two of the seven villages surveyed. In Unity State, trachoma was endemic in all thirteen villages surveyed; the proportion of children with active trachoma ranged from 33% to 75% between villages, while TF in children ranged from 16% to 44%. Between 4% to 51% of examined women showed signs of TT. Samples from active trachoma cases tested using the NAAT were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection for 46.6% of children and 19.0% of women. Conclusions Trachoma presents a major problem to public health Unity State, while the disease is of low priority in Northern-Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Implementation of a population-based prevalence survey is now required in Unity State to generate baseline prevalence data so that trachoma interventions can be initiated and monitored over time. PMID:20957205

  6. Persistence after treatment of pharyngeal gonococcal infections in patients of the STI clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2012–2015: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    De Vries, Henry John Christiaan; van Dam, Alje P; van Rooijen, Martijn Sebastiaan; Soebono, Hardyanto; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx (pharyngeal Ng) is associated with gonococcal transmission and development of antimicrobial resistance. We assessed proportion of and determinants for persistence after treatment of pharyngeal Ng. Methods At the STI clinic of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, females-at-risk and men who have sex with men are routinely screened for pharyngeal Ng using an RNA-based nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT; Aptima Combo 2). Patients with pharyngeal Ng were invited for a test-of-cure (TOC) 7 days after treatment with a 500 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly. We retrospectively examined medical records of patients with pharyngeal Ng (January 2012–August 2015) who returned for a TOC 7–28 days after treatment. Persistence was defined as a positive NAAT at TOC. Results Out of 2204 pharyngeal Ng cases recorded in the study period, 781 cases (median time between first treatment and TOC of 8 (IQR 7–12) days) were included in the analysis. Persistence after treatment was found in 36 (4.6%) and was less likely among patients who received ceftriaxone in combination with other antibiotics (vs monotherapy) (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.36, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.04) and with longer time from treatment to TOC (aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.90, per extra day). In those with a TOC 15–28 days after treatment, Ng persisted in only 1.0% (1/105 cases). Conclusion A small proportion of pharyngeal Ng persists despite appropriate treatment. Combining ceftriaxone with other antibiotics appears to lead to faster clearance. A TOC for pharyngeal Ng 7 days after treatment may be too soon. PMID:28822976

  7. Asymptomatic and symptomatic urethral gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men attending a sexual health service.

    PubMed

    Ong, J J; Fethers, K; Howden, B P; Fairley, C K; Chow, E P F; Williamson, D A; Petalotis, I; Aung, E; Kanhutu, K; De Petra, V; Chen, M Y

    2017-08-01

    Guidelines regarding whether men who have sex with men (MSM) without symptoms of urethritis should be screened for urethral gonorrhoea differ between countries. We examined the rate of asymptomatic urethral gonorrhoea in MSM using sensitive nucleic acid amplification testing. This study was conducted on consecutive MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between July 2015 and May 2016 for sexually transmitted infections screening. Gonorrhoea testing with the Aptima Combo 2 (AC2) assay was performed on all urine specimens obtained from MSM, whether symptoms of urethritis were present or not. Men were classified as having: typical discharge if they reported symptoms suggesting purulent discharge; other symptoms if they reported other symptoms of urethritis; and no symptoms if they reported no urethral symptoms. During the study period, there were 7941 clinic visits by 5947 individual MSM with 7090 urine specimens obtained from 5497 individual MSM tested with the AC2 assay. Urethral gonorrhoea was detected in 242 urine specimens from 228 individual MSM. The majority (189/242, 78%, 95% CI 73-83) reported typical discharge, 27/242 (11%, 95% CI 8-16) reported other urethral symptoms, and 26/242 (11%, 95% CI 7-15) reported no symptoms on the day of presentation and testing. Among men with urethral gonorrhoea, the proportions with concurrent pharyngeal or rectal gonorrhoea were 32% (134/210) and 64% (74/235), respectively. The mean interval between last reported sexual contact and onset of typical urethral discharge, where present, was 3.9 days. The findings from our study lend support to guidelines that recommend screening asymptomatic MSM for urethral gonorrhoea. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Test of Cure for Anogenital Gonorrhoea Using Modern RNA-Based and DNA-Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wind, Carolien M; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Unemo, Magnus; Schuurman, Rob; van Dam, Alje P; de Vries, Henry J C

    2016-06-01

    The use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) to diagnose Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections complicates the performance of a test of cure (TOC) to monitor treatment failure, if this is indicated. As evidence for the timing of TOC using modern NAATs is limited, we performed a prospective cohort study to assess time to clearance when using modern RNA- and DNA-based NAATs. We included patients with anogenital gonorrhoea visiting the Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Amsterdam from March through October 2014. After treatment with ceftriaxone mono- or dual therapy (with azithromycin or doxycycline), anal, vaginal, or urine samples were self-collected during 28 consecutive days, and analyzed using an RNA-based NAAT (Aptima Combo 2) and a DNA-based NAAT (Cobas 4800). Clearance was defined as 3 consecutive negative results, and blips as isolated positive results following clearance. We included 77 patients; 5 self-cleared gonorrhoea before treatment and 10 were lost to follow-up. Clearance rate of the remaining 62 patients was 100%. Median time to clearance was 2 days, with a range of 1-7 days for RNA-based NAAT and 1-15 days for DNA-based NAAT. The risk of finding a blip after clearance was 0.8% and 1.5%, respectively. One patient had a reinfection. If indicated, we recommend that TOC be performed for anogenital gonorrhoea at least 7 or 14 days after administering therapy, when using modern RNA- or DNA-based NAATs, respectively. When interpreting TOC results for possible treatment failure, both the occurrence of blips and a possible reinfection need to be taken into account. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Successful Combination of Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Diagnostics and Targeted Deferred Neisseria gonorrhoeae Culture

    PubMed Central

    Wind, Carolien M.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Unemo, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are recommended for the diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infections because of their superior sensitivity. Increasing NAAT use causes a decline in crucial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance data, which rely on culture. We analyzed the suitability of the ESwab system for NAAT diagnostics and deferred targeted N. gonorrhoeae culture to allow selective and efficient culture based on NAAT results. We included patients visiting the STI Clinic Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in 2013. Patient characteristics and urogenital and rectal samples for direct N. gonorrhoeae culture, standard NAAT, and ESwab were collected. Standard NAAT and NAAT on ESwab samples were performed using the Aptima Combo 2 assay for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis. Two deferred N. gonorrhoeae cultures were performed on NAAT-positive ESwab samples after storage at 4°C for 1 to 3 days. We included 2,452 samples from 1,893 patients. In the standard NAAT, 107 samples were N. gonorrhoeae positive and 284 were C. trachomatis positive. The sensitivities of NAAT on ESwab samples were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75 to 90%) and 87% (95% CI, 82 to 90%), respectively. ESwab samples were available for 98 of the gonorrhea-positive samples. Of these, 82% were positive in direct culture and 69% and 56% were positive in the 1st and 2nd deferred cultures, respectively (median storage times, 27 and 48 h, respectively). Deferred culture was more often successful in urogenital samples or when the patient had symptoms at the sampling site. Deferred N. gonorrhoeae culture of stored ESwab samples is feasible and enables AMR surveillance. To limit the loss in NAAT sensitivity, we recommend obtaining separate samples for NAAT and deferred culture. PMID:25832300

  10. Trachoma rapid assessments in Unity and Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal States, Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Emily; Kur, Lucia W; Ndyaba, Aggrey; Lado, Mounir; Shafi, Juma; Kabare, Emmanuel; McClelland, R Scott; Kolaczinski, Jan H

    2010-10-01

    Trachoma is thought to be endemic over large parts of Southern Sudan, but empirical evidence is limited. While some areas east of the Nile have been identified as highly endemic, few trachoma surveys have been conducted in the remainder of the country. This study aimed to determine whether trachoma constitutes a problem to public health in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and Unity State, both located west of the Nile. Trachoma rapid assessments (TRA) were conducted between July and September 2009. Seven villages in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State and 13 villages in Unity State were surveyed; an average of 50 children (age 1-9 years) and 44 women (age 15 years and above) were examined per village. Samples for analysis using the APTIMA Combo-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were collected from participants with active trachoma in eight villages in Unity State. In Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, only three children with active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) and/or trachomatous inflammation intense (TI)) and two women with trichiasis (TT) were found, in two of the seven villages surveyed. In Unity State, trachoma was endemic in all thirteen villages surveyed; the proportion of children with active trachoma ranged from 33% to 75% between villages, while TF in children ranged from 16% to 44%. Between 4% to 51% of examined women showed signs of TT. Samples from active trachoma cases tested using the NAAT were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection for 46.6% of children and 19.0% of women. Trachoma presents a major problem to public health Unity State, while the disease is of low priority in Northern-Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Implementation of a population-based prevalence survey is now required in Unity State to generate baseline prevalence data so that trachoma interventions can be initiated and monitored over time.

  11. Persistence after treatment of pharyngeal gonococcal infections in patients of the STI clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2012-2015: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hananta, I Putu Yuda; De Vries, Henry John Christiaan; van Dam, Alje P; van Rooijen, Martijn Sebastiaan; Soebono, Hardyanto; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus

    2017-11-01

    Infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx (pharyngeal Ng) is associated with gonococcal transmission and development of antimicrobial resistance. We assessed proportion of and determinants for persistence after treatment of pharyngeal Ng. At the STI clinic of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, females-at-risk and men who have sex with men are routinely screened for pharyngeal Ng using an RNA-based nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT; Aptima Combo 2). Patients with pharyngeal Ng were invited for a test-of-cure (TOC) 7 days after treatment with a 500 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly. We retrospectively examined medical records of patients with pharyngeal Ng (January 2012-August 2015) who returned for a TOC 7-28 days after treatment. Persistence was defined as a positive NAAT at TOC. Out of 2204 pharyngeal Ng cases recorded in the study period, 781 cases (median time between first treatment and TOC of 8 (IQR 7-12) days) were included in the analysis. Persistence after treatment was found in 36 (4.6%) and was less likely among patients who received ceftriaxone in combination with other antibiotics (vs monotherapy) (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.36, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.04) and with longer time from treatment to TOC (aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.90, per extra day). In those with a TOC 15-28 days after treatment, Ng persisted in only 1.0% (1/105 cases). A small proportion of pharyngeal Ng persists despite appropriate treatment. Combining ceftriaxone with other antibiotics appears to lead to faster clearance. A TOC for pharyngeal Ng 7 days after treatment may be too soon. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Patterns of Extragenital Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in Women and Men Who Have Sex With Men Reporting a History of Receptive Anal Intercourse.

    PubMed

    Danby, Claire S; Cosentino, Lisa A; Rabe, Lorna K; Priest, Carol L; Damare, Khrystine C; Macio, Ingrid S; Meyn, Leslie A; Wiesenfeld, Harold C; Hillier, Sharon L

    2016-02-01

    Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) in men who have sex with men is risk based. Despite high frequencies of oral and receptive anal intercourse (RAI) among women, extragenital screening is not recommended. Women (n = 175) and men who have sex with men (n = 224) primarily recruited from a sexually transmitted infection clinic reporting a lifetime history of RAI completed a structured questionnaire and clinician-collected swab samples from the rectum, pharynx, vagina (women), and urine (men). CT and GC were detected using 2 commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (Aptima Combo 2; Hologic, Inc, Bedford, MA; Xpert CT/NG, Cepheid Innovation, Sunnyvale, CA). The median age of the population was 26 years, 62% were white, and 88% were enrolled from a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Men were more likely than women to have GC (22.8% vs. 3.4%) and CT (21.9% vs. 12.6%). In men versus women, GC was detected in 16.5% versus 2.3% of pharyngeal swabs, 11.6% versus 2.3% of rectal swabs, and 5.4% versus 2.9% of urine samples or vaginal swabs. C. trachomatis was detected in 2.2% versus 1.7% of pharyngeal swabs, 17.4% versus 11.4% of rectal swabs, and 4.5% versus 10.3% for urogenital sites in men versus women. Overall 79.6% of CT and 76.5% of GC in men and 18.2% of CT and 16.7% of GC in women were detected only in the pharynx or rectum. Reliance on urogenital screening alone misses most of GC and CT in men and more than 15% of infections in women reporting RAI.

  13. A critical analysis of the cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy combo in the clinical management of advanced gastric cancer: an effective multimodality approach with scope for improvement.

    PubMed

    Beeharry, Maneesh K; Liu, Wen-Tao; Yao, Xue-Xin; Yan, Min; Zhu, Zheng-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is manifested in up to 40% of gastric cancer (GC) patients, after which their 5-year survival drops to less than 5%. The currently most acceptable treatment option for advanced GC (AGC) is systemic chemo and radio therapies with however generally very unsatisfying results and this led to a resurgence of interest in regional therapies like cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Small trials have indicated an association with prolonged survival when applying this technique to AGC manifesting with PC. High procedure-related morbidity and mortality associated with the CRS-HIPEC approach have however brought by a polemic on the merits of the latter: with the advent of regulatory approval of more effective as well as novel, more personalized treatment options in AGC, along with advances in tailoring investigational agents specifically for peritoneal delivery, there clearly is a need to outline the appropriate role of CRS-HIPEC in this disease. In a clear objective to improve the therapeutic efficiency of HIPEC, there have been immense developments in the technical aspects of this technology including the use of nanotechnology in more precise drug delivery systems (DDS) or choice of more efficient drugs such as gene-target technology, laparoscopy and so on. Henceforth, in this review, we will be highlighting the past and current status of the CRS + HIPEC procedure, shedding light on the pros and cons in order to boost up the efficiency of this multimodality approach.

  14. Efficacy of combined conservative therapies on clinical outcomes in patients with thumb base osteoarthritis: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial (COMBO).

    PubMed

    Deveza, Leticia A; Hunter, David J; Wajon, Anne; Bennell, Kim L; Vicenzino, Bill; Hodges, Paul; Eyles, Jillian P; Jongs, Ray; Riordan, Edward A; Duong, Vicky; Min Oo, Win; O'Connell, Rachel; Meneses, Sarah R F

    2017-01-12

    Management of thumb base osteoarthritis (OA) using a combination of therapies is common in clinical practice; however, evidence for the efficacy of this approach is lacking. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of a combination of conservative therapies for the treatment of thumb base OA compared with an education control group. This is a randomised, controlled, single-centre, two-arm superiority trial with 1:1 allocation ratio; with assessor and statistician blinded. Participants are blinded to the trial's hypothesis and to the interventions received by the opposite group. A total of 204 participants will be recruited from the community and randomised using a computer-generated schedule. The intervention group will receive education for joint protection and OA, a splint for the base of the thumb, hand exercises and topical diclofenac sodium 1% gel over 6 weeks. The control group will receive education for joint protection and OA alone. Main inclusion criteria are pain ≥40 mm (Visual Analogue Scale, 0-100) at the base of the thumb, impairment in hand function ≥6 (Functional Index for Hand Osteoarthritis, 0-30) and radiographic thumb base OA (Kellgren Lawrence grade ≥2). Participants currently receiving any of the intervention components will be excluded. Outcomes will be measured at 2, 6 and 12 weeks. The primary outcome is change in pain and hand function from baseline to 6 weeks. Other outcomes include changes in grip and pinch strength, quality of life, presence of joint swelling and tenderness, duration of joint stiffness, patient's global assessment and use of rescue medication. Analysis will be performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Adverse events will be monitored throughout the study. This protocol is approved by the local ethics committee (HREC/15/HAWKE/479). Dissemination will occur through presentations at international conferences and publication in peer-reviewed journals. ACTRN12616000353493; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. A critical analysis of the cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy combo in the clinical management of advanced gastric cancer: an effective multimodality approach with scope for improvement

    PubMed Central

    Beeharry, Maneesh K.; Liu, Wen-Tao; Yao, Xue-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is manifested in up to 40% of gastric cancer (GC) patients, after which their 5-year survival drops to less than 5%. The currently most acceptable treatment option for advanced GC (AGC) is systemic chemo and radio therapies with however generally very unsatisfying results and this led to a resurgence of interest in regional therapies like cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Small trials have indicated an association with prolonged survival when applying this technique to AGC manifesting with PC. High procedure-related morbidity and mortality associated with the CRS-HIPEC approach have however brought by a polemic on the merits of the latter: with the advent of regulatory approval of more effective as well as novel, more personalized treatment options in AGC, along with advances in tailoring investigational agents specifically for peritoneal delivery, there clearly is a need to outline the appropriate role of CRS-HIPEC in this disease. In a clear objective to improve the therapeutic efficiency of HIPEC, there have been immense developments in the technical aspects of this technology including the use of nanotechnology in more precise drug delivery systems (DDS) or choice of more efficient drugs such as gene-target technology, laparoscopy and so on. Henceforth, in this review, we will be highlighting the past and current status of the CRS + HIPEC procedure, shedding light on the pros and cons in order to boost up the efficiency of this multimodality approach. PMID:28138643

  16. Screening of pharmacokinetic properties of fifty dihydropyrimidin(thi)one derivatives using a combo of in vitro and in silico assays.

    PubMed

    Matias, Mariana; Fortuna, Ana; Bicker, Joana; Silvestre, Samuel; Falcão, Amílcar; Alves, Gilberto

    2017-11-15

    The heterocycles dihydropyrimidin(thi)ones have been under intensive pharmacological research, but their pharmacokinetic properties remain almost unknown. Herein, fifty dihydropyrimidin(thi)ones were submitted to in vitro screening tests using parallel artificial membrane permeability assays (PAMPA) to evaluate their apparent permeability (Papp) through intestinal membrane and blood-brain barrier models, and cell-based assays to assess their interference on the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Moreover, a set of kinetic and toxicological parameters was also estimated employing a new computational tool, the pkCSM. The in vitro results suggested that 82% of the test compounds have good intestinal permeability (Papp>1.1×10 -6 cm/s), and 66% of these are also expected to exhibit good permeability through blood-brain barrier (Papp>2.0×10 -6 cm/s); these findings are consistent with a high transport rate by passive transcellular pathway. In both PAMPA models, thiourea derivatives presented higher Papp values than the respective urea analogues, which were further corroborated by in silico predictions. The in vitro results also suggested a low extent of plasma protein binding for all compounds (Papp<1.0×10 -5 cm/s), and these findings were also supported by in silico data (unbound fraction ranging from 0.13 to 0.59). In addition, although approximately half of the compounds did not modulate P-gp at the tested concentrations (10 and 50μM), nine of them presented a trend to induce P-gp and particularly the chlorinated compounds exhibited a marked P-gp inhibition at 50μM. Furthermore, the in silico predictions suggested that half of the compounds have hepatotoxic potential. Overall, within this group of compounds, the thiourea derivatives containing an unsubstituted or a monosubstituted (NO 2 , CH 3 , OCH 3 ) phenyl ring attached to the position 4 of the dihydropyrimidine ring represented the most promising structures and should be considered in the subsequent studies of the development of new structurally related drug candidates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of patients diagnosed with gonorrhoea through community screening with those self-presenting to the genitourinary medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Cook, Penny A; Evans-Jones, John; Mallinson, Harry; Wood, Martyn; Alloba, Fath; Jones, Kathy; Strodtbeck, Sara; Hanna-Bashara, Layla

    2014-03-14

    To compare the clinical, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of individuals diagnosed with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in the community using a concomitant nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT, AptimaCombo2) as part of the (community-based) UK Chlamydia Screening Programme (CSP), with those diagnosed in hospital-based genitourinary medicine (GUM) services. A retrospective case note review of all 643 patients treated for NG at a GUM in north west England (January 2007-April 2009). All 643 treated for NG (including CSP cases, since all cases were referred to GUM for treatment). Limited data were available for 13 CSP cases who failed to attend GUM. Whether the case was detected in the community or GUM services. Predictors were demographics (age, gender, postcode for deprivation analysis), sexual history (eg, number of partners) and clinical factors (eg, culture positivity). 131 cases were diagnosed by CSP (13 of whom did not attend GUM). A further four cases were contacts of these. The GUM caseload was thus inflated by 23% (from 521 to 643). Community cases were overwhelmingly female (85% vs 27% in GUM, p<0.001) and younger (87% females were <25 years vs 70% GUM females, p=0.001). Logistic regression analysis restricted to the target age of the CSP (<25 years) revealed that CSP cases, compared with GUM cases, were more likely to reside in deprived areas (adjusted OR=5.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 21.8 and 5.3, CI 1.7 to 16.6 for the most and second most deprived group respectively, compared with the averagely deprived group, p=0.037) and be asymptomatic (adjusted OR=1.9, CI 1.1 to 3.4, p=0.02). Community screening for NG led to a 79% increase in the number of infections detected in women aged <25 years. Screening is targeted at young people, and tends to disproportionately attract young women, a group under-represented at GUM. Screening also contributed further to case detection in deprived areas.

  18. Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT) increases the frequency of partner notification among MSM in Lima, Peru: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jesse L; Segura, Eddy R; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Rios, Jessica; Montano, Silvia M; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Villaran, Manuel; Sanchez, Jorge; Coates, Thomas J; Lama, Javier R

    2017-05-04

    Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT) has been shown to improve treatment outcomes among heterosexual partners of individuals with curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Although the use of EPT with men who have sex with men (MSM) has been debated, due to the potential for missed opportunities to diagnose unidentified cases of HIV and syphilis infection in symptomatic partners, increases in partner notification (PN) resulting from use of EPT may promote testing and treatment of otherwise unidentified partners. We assessed the impact of EPT on self-reported PN among MSM in Peru with gonorrheal (GC) and/or chlamydial (CT) infection. We enrolled 173 MSM in Lima, Peru with symptomatic or asymptomatic GC and/or CT infection between 2012 and 2014. We enrolled 44 MSM with symptomatic urethritis/proctitis and 129 MSM with asymptomatic GC/CT infection, diagnosed based on nucleic acid testing (Aptima Combo 2 Transcription-Mediated Amplification [TMA]) from urethral, pharyngeal, and rectal sites. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to receive either standard PN counseling (n = 84) or counseling plus EPT (cefixime 400 mg/azithromycin 1 g) for up to five recent partners (n = 89). Self-reported notification was assessed by computer-assisted self-administered survey among 155 participants who returned for 14-day follow-up. The median age of participants was 26 (interquartile range [IQR]: 23-31) with a median of 3 sexual partners (IQR: 2-4) in the previous 30-day period. Among all participants, 111/155 (71.6%) notified at least one partner at 14-day follow-up with a median of 1 partner notified per participant (IQR: 0-2). For participants randomized to receive EPT, 69/83 (83.1%) reported notifying at least one partner, compared with 42/72 (58.3%) of participants in the control arm (odds ratio = 3.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68-7.39). The proportion of all recent partners notified was significantly greater in the EPT than in the control arm (53

  19. Comparison of Gram stain with DNA probe for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urethras of symptomatic males.

    PubMed Central

    Juchau, S V; Nackman, R; Ruppart, D

    1995-01-01

    The comparison of Gram-stained urethral smears with Gen-Probe for the detection of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae in the urethras of males with symptomatic urethritis revealed a 99.6% correlation between the two methods. A simple Gram stain would appear to be the method of choice for the detection of gonorrhea in symptomatic males, because it is much less expensive and much more rapid than the Gen-Probe method. PMID:8576380

  20. Diagnostic performance of CareStart™ malaria HRP2/pLDH (Pf/pan) combo test versus standard microscopy on falciparum and vivax malaria between China-Myanmar endemic borders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) is becoming an alternative way of establishing quickly the diagnosis of malaria infections, by detecting specific malaria antigens in suspected patients’ blood between the China-Myanmar endemic borders areas, towards achieving the National Malaria Elimination programme by 2020. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pan RDT kit for the diagnosis of malaria infections in suspected patients. Blood examination by microscopy was taken as gold standard to evaluate CareStart™ kit’s sensitivity, specificity and predictive value and corrected with PCR assay. Results Overall 126 of 241 (52.28%) malaria cases were detected by microscopy compared to 115 of 241(47.72%) CareStart™ kit and 128 of 241 (53.11%) PCR corrected assay. CareStart™ kit’s sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of malaria were 89.68% and 98.26% respectively, compared to standard microscopy, whereas the sensitivity and specificity for falciparum malaria were 88.52% and 98.26%, and for vivax malaria: 90.77% and 100%. The CareStart™ positive predictive values were 98.26% (93.88-99.52%, 95% CI) compared to 100% (96.77-100%, 95% CI) for PCR-corrected, and the negative predictive values of 89.68% (83.15-93.87%, 95% CI) were the same in microscopy as PCR-corrected. The diagnostic accuracy of CareStart™ kit versus microscopy and PCR were 93.78% (89.99-96.19%, 95% CI) and 94.61% (90.99-96.82%, 95% CI) respectively. The likelihood of diagnostic of malaria positive was almost similar between microscopy and CareStart™ kit, with an entropy reduction of 60.0% compared to a weak likelihood of misdiagnosis of 0.10 (0.09-0.12, 95% CI), with an entropy reduction of 36.01%. Conclusion The accuracy of CareStart™ kit is comparable to gold standard microscopy in these areas, it is easy to perform and suitable for cross-border diagnosis and monitoring of local or imported malaria patterns by any local health staff in endemic remotes. PMID:23294729

  1. Diagnostic performance of CareStart™ malaria HRP2/pLDH (Pf/pan) combo test versus standard microscopy on falciparum and vivax malaria between China-Myanmar endemic borders.

    PubMed

    Xiaodong, Sun; Tambo, Ernest; Chun, Wei; Zhibin, Cheng; Yan, Deng; Jian, Wang; Jiazhi, Wang; Xiaonong, Zhou

    2013-01-07

    Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) is becoming an alternative way of establishing quickly the diagnosis of malaria infections, by detecting specific malaria antigens in suspected patients' blood between the China-Myanmar endemic borders areas, towards achieving the National Malaria Elimination programme by 2020. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pan RDT kit for the diagnosis of malaria infections in suspected patients. Blood examination by microscopy was taken as gold standard to evaluate CareStart™ kit's sensitivity, specificity and predictive value and corrected with PCR assay. Overall 126 of 241 (52.28%) malaria cases were detected by microscopy compared to 115 of 241(47.72%) CareStart™ kit and 128 of 241 (53.11%) PCR corrected assay. CareStart™ kit's sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of malaria were 89.68% and 98.26% respectively, compared to standard microscopy, whereas the sensitivity and specificity for falciparum malaria were 88.52% and 98.26%, and for vivax malaria: 90.77% and 100%. The CareStart™ positive predictive values were 98.26% (93.88-99.52%, 95% CI) compared to 100% (96.77-100%, 95% CI) for PCR-corrected, and the negative predictive values of 89.68% (83.15-93.87%, 95% CI) were the same in microscopy as PCR-corrected. The diagnostic accuracy of CareStart™ kit versus microscopy and PCR were 93.78% (89.99-96.19%, 95% CI) and 94.61% (90.99-96.82%, 95% CI) respectively. The likelihood of diagnostic of malaria positive was almost similar between microscopy and CareStart™ kit, with an entropy reduction of 60.0% compared to a weak likelihood of misdiagnosis of 0.10 (0.09-0.12, 95% CI), with an entropy reduction of 36.01%. The accuracy of CareStart™ kit is comparable to gold standard microscopy in these areas, it is easy to perform and suitable for cross-border diagnosis and monitoring of local or imported malaria patterns by any local health staff in endemic remotes.

  2. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines PREVenar13 and SynflorIX in sequence or alone in high-risk Indigenous infants (PREV-IX_COMBO): protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Amanda Jane; Mulholland, Edward Kim; Santosham, Mathu; Torzillo, Paul John; Brown, Ngiare Joy; McIntyre, Peter; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi; Skull, Sue; Balloch, Anne; Andrews, Ross; Carapetis, Jonathan; McDonnell, Joseph; Krause, Vicki; Morris, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Otitis media (OM) starts within weeks of birth in almost all Indigenous infants living in remote areas of the Northern Territory (NT). OM and associated hearing loss persist from infancy throughout childhood and often into adulthood. Educational and social opportunities are greatly compromised. Pneumococcus and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are major OM pathogens that densely colonise the nasopharynx and infect the middle ear from very early in life. Our hypothesis is that compared to current single vaccine schedules, a combination of vaccines starting at 1 month of age, may provide earlier, broadened protection. Methods and analyses This randomised outcome assessor, blinded controlled trial will recruit 425 infants between 28 and 38 days of age and randomly allocate them (1:1:1) to one of three pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) schedules: Synflorix at 2, 4, 6 months of age, Prevenar13 at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, or an investigational schedule of Synflorix at 1, 2 and 4 months plus Prevenar13 at 6 months of age. The blinded primary outcomes at 7 months of age are immunogenicity of specific vaccine antigens (geometric mean concentration (GMC) and proportion of participants with above threshold GMC of 0.35 µg/L). Secondary outcomes at all timepoints are additional immunogenicity measures and proportion of participants with nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci and NTHi, and any OM, including any tympanic membrane perforation. Parental interviews will provide data on common risk factors for OM. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from NT Department of Health and Menzies HREC (EC00153), Central Australian HREC (EC00155) and West Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee (WAAHEC- 377-12/2011). Final trial results, data analyses, interpretation and conclusions will be presented in appropriate written and oral formats to parents and guardians, participating communities, local, national and international conferences, and published in peer-reviewed open access journals. Trial registration numbers ACTRN12610000544077 and NCT01174849. PMID:25596202

  3. Pharmacodynamic effects of a new fixed-dose clopidogrel-aspirin combination compared with separate administration of clopidogrel and aspirin in patients treated with coronary stents: The ACCEL-COMBO trial.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jin-Sin; Park, Yongwhi; Tantry, Udaya S; Ahn, Jong-Hwa; Kang, Min Gyu; Kim, Kyehwan; Jang, Jeong Yoon; Park, Hyun Woong; Park, Jeong Rang; Hwang, Seok-Jae; Kwak, Choong Hwan; Hwang, Jin-Yong; Gurbel, Paul A; Jeong, Young-Hoon

    2017-03-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with clopidogrel and aspirin is a widely prescribed regimen to prevent ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A fixed-dose combination (FDC) capsule (HCP0911) has been developed to provide dosing convenience and improve adherence. We compared the antiplatelet effects of single daily dose HCP0911 with separate treatment with daily 75 mg clopidogrel plus 100 mg aspirin. This was a randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover, non-inferiority study conducted in stented patients who had been treated for at least 6 months with clopidogrel and aspirin. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to receive either daily 75 mg clopidogrel plus 100 mg aspirin treatment or HCP0911 for 2 weeks and then were crossed over to the other treatment for 2 weeks. Pharmacodynamic effects were measured with VerifyNow, light transmittance aggregometry (LTA), and thromboelastography (TEG ® ). The primary endpoint was P2Y12 Reaction Units (PRU) measured by VerifyNow. PRUs during treatment with HCP0911 were not inferior to those during separate treatment (202 ± 52 vs. 207 ± 60 PRU; mean difference, -5 PRU; 90% confidence interval of difference, -23 to 13 PRU; P for non-inferiority = 0.015 for predetermined limit). "BASE" and Aspirin Reaction Units by VerifyNow did not differ between the two treatments. During each treatment, there were no differences in maximal and final platelet aggregations by LTA (all P values ≥0.822) and TEG ® measurements. In conclusion, in stented patients, the antiplatelet effect of a fixed-dose clopidogrel-aspirin combination, HCP0911, was not inferior to separate administration of clopidogrel and aspirin.

  4. Measuring Leader Attributes in the Army Reconnaissance Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Courtney Ryan Dean Camilla Knott Frederick Diedrich Aptima, Inc. Scott Flanagan Kevin Walker Sophia Speira Jennifer S. Tucker U.S. Army...Courtney Ryan Dean, Camilla Knott , Frederick Diedrich; Scott Flanagan, Kevin Walker; Jennifer S. Tucker 5c. PROJECT NUMBER A792 5d. TASK...Course Krista Langkamer Ratwani Courtney Ryan Dean Camilla Knott Frederick Diedrich Aptima, Inc. Scott Flanagan Kevin Walker Sophia

  5. Coral Mortality and Bleaching Output

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMBO is a spreadsheet-based model for the use of managers, conservationists, and biologists for projecting the effects of climate change on coral reefs at local-to-regional scales. The COMBO (Coral Mortality and Bleaching Output) model calculates the impacts to coral reefs from...

  6. Triage of HR-HPV positive women with minor cytological abnormalities: a comparison of mRNA testing, HPV DNA testing, and repeat cytology using a 4-year follow-up of a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (<50%). HPV16 DNA testing and repeat cytology were more specific than APTIMA. The results of this population-based study with comprehensive follow-up support the use of APTIMA as a triage test for women with ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL.

  7. Triage of HR-HPV Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities: A Comparison of mRNA Testing, HPV DNA Testing, and Repeat Cytology Using a 4-Year Follow-Up of a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K. Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Methods Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Results Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (<50%). HPV16 DNA testing and repeat cytology were more specific than APTIMA. Conclusion The results of this population-based study with comprehensive follow-up support the use of APTIMA as a triage test for women with ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL. PMID:24587193

  8. Use of nonpathogenic, green fluorescent protein-marked Escherichia coli Biotype I cultures to evaluate the self-cleansing capabilities of a commercial beef grinding system after a contamination event.

    PubMed

    Wages, Jennifer A; Williams, Jennifer; Adams, Jacquelyn; George, Bruce; Oxford, Eric; Zelenka, Dan

    2014-11-01

    Inoculated beef trim containing a cocktail of green fluorescent protein-marked Escherichia coli biotype I cultures as surrogates for E. coli O157:H7 was introduced into two large, commercial grinding facilities capable of producing 180,000 kg of ground product in 1 day. Three repetitions were performed over 3 days. Sampling occurred at three different points within the process: postprimary grind, postsecondary grind-blender, and postpackaging. Resulting data show that, as the inoculated meat passes through the system, the presence of the marked surrogate quickly diminishes. The depletion rates are directly related to the amount of product in kilograms (represented by time) that has passed through the system, but these rates vary with each step of the process. The primary grinder appears to rid itself of the contaminant the most quickly; in all repetitions, the contaminant was not detected within 5 min of introduction of the contaminated combo bin into the system, which in all cases, was prior to the introduction of a second combo bin and within 1,800 kg of product. After the blending step and subsequent secondary grinding, the contaminant was detected in product produced from both the parent combo and the combo bin added directly after the parent combo bin; however, for those days on which three combo bins (approximately 2,700 kg) were available for sampling, the contaminant was not detected from product representing the third combo bin. Similarly, at the packaging step, the contaminant was detected in the product produced by both the parent and second combo bins; however, on those days when a third combo bin was available for sampling (repetitions 2 and 3), the contaminant was not detected from product produced from the third combo bin.

  9. Automated processing, extraction and detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2: A comparative evaluation of three commercial platforms using clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Binnicker, Matthew J; Espy, Mark J; Duresko, Brian; Irish, Cole; Mandrekar, Jay

    2017-04-01

    Recently, automated platforms have been developed that can perform processing, extraction and testing for herpes simplex virus (HSV) nucleic acid on a single instrument. In this study, we compared three commercially-available systems; Aptima ® /Panther (Hologic, San Diego, CA), ARIES ® (Luminex Corporation, Austin, TX), and cobas ® 4800 (Roche Molecular Systems Inc, Pleasanton, CA) for the qualitative detection of HSV-1/2 in clinical samples. Two-hundred seventy-seven specimens (genital [n=193], dermal [n=84]) were submitted for routine HSV-1/2 real-time PCR by a laboratory developed test. Following routine testing, samples were also tested by the Aptima, ARIES, and cobas HSV-1/2 assays per the manufacturer's recommendations. Results were compared to a "consensus standard" defined as the result obtained from ≥3 of the 4 assays. Following testing of 277 specimens, the cobas and ARIES assays demonstrated a sensitivity of 100% for HSV-1 (61/61) and HSV-2 (55/55). The Aptima assays showed a sensitivity of 91.8% (56/61) for HSV-1 and 90.9% (50/55) for HSV-2. Percent specificities for HSV-1 were 96.2% (202/210) by cobas, 99.5% (209/210) by ARIES and 100% (236/236) by Aptima. For HSV-2, the specificities were 98.1% (211/215) by cobas, 99.5% (215/216) by ARIES and 100% (216/216) by Aptima. The turnaround time for testing 24 samples was 2.5h by the cobas 4800, 3.1h by Aptima/Panther, and 3.9h by ARIES. The three commercial systems can perform all current functions on a single platform, thereby improving workflow and potentially reducing errors associated with manual processing of samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 17415 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ..., FDA-2012-M-1012 Bolton Medical Inc... Relay[supreg] September 21, 2012. Thoracic Stent-Graft with Plus........ Ovation Abdominal October 5, 2012. Stent Graft System. P120007, FDA-2012-M-1066 Gen-Probe, Inc........ Medtronic Vascular... Valiant[supreg] October 26, 2012. Thoracic Stent Graft with the Captivia Delivery...

  11. Evaluation of the results of Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test (MTD) and Mycobacterial culture in urine samples

    PubMed Central

    Sener, Asli Gamze; Kurultay, Nukhet; Afsar, Ilhan

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a public health problem in Turkey. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis plays a key role in control of infection. In this article, the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) was evaluated for detection of M. tuberculosis in urine samples. The performance of the MTD was very good and appropriate for routine laboratory diagnosis. PMID:24031287

  12. Mastcam Stereo Analysis and Mosaics (MSAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deen, R. G.; Maki, J. N.; Algermissen, S. S.; Abarca, H. E.; Ruoff, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Describes a new PDART task that will generate stereo analysis products (XYZ, slope, etc.), terrain meshes, and mosaics (stereo, ortho, and Mast/Nav combos) for all MSL Mastcam images and deliver the results to PDS.

  13. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence

    MedlinePlus

    ... to achieve h… Millions of Dollars Needed for Trump’s A… 15 November, 2017 The anti-drug ad campaign advocated by President Trump’s opioid commis… Combo of Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen as … ...

  14. 76 FR 7874 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    .../CATV combo communication wall plates, three-way switches, single pole switches, dryer outlets, door... switches, single pole switches, dryer outlets, door chimes and door viewers) are not produced in the U.S...

  15. Evaluation of Food-Based Attractants for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Gut, Larry; Grieshop, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    The Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a highly invasive species attacking a wide range of ripening soft-skinned fruits. A series of laboratory choice tests were conducted to determine whether different levels of rice vinegar affected attraction of Merlot wine to D. suzukii, as well as to compare attractiveness of two common fermentation food baits: wine-vinegar and yeast-sugar water mixtures. The relative attraction of various combinations was used to develop a bait whose effectiveness was tested in the field. In laboratory choice experiments, wine-vinegar (80:20, v:v, hereafter referred to as wine) was more preferred over a yeast-sugar water mixture (hereafter referred to as yeast) by D. suzukii. Combination baits, either a mixture of wine and yeast or a mixture of wine and a supernatant from the yeast (comboS), were significantly more attractive than each product alone. The two combination baits were equally attractive to D. suzukii, so were the yeast and its supernatant, suggesting that yeast supernatant could be used as a replacement for the yeast-sugar mixture currently used for trapping D. suzukii. The additive effect between wine and yeast supernatant in the field was not as profound as observed in the laboratory. In the field trial, numerically more male and female D. suzukii were captured in traps baited with comboS than those baited with the wine or yeast alone; however, significant differences were only found between the comboS and wine or between the comboS and yeast in some weeks over the period of the experiment. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Precooling and Warm-Up Effects on Time Trial Cycling During Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Al-Horani, Ramzi A; Wingo, Jonathan E; Ng, Jason; Bishop, Phillip; Richardson, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Heat stress limits endurance exercise performance. Combining precooling and warm-up prior to endurance exercise in the heat may exploit the benefits of both strategies while avoiding the potential negative consequences of each. This study tested the hypothesis that precooling combined with warm-up improves time trial cycling performance in the heat relative to either treatment alone. Nine healthy men completed three 16.1-km time trials in 33°C after: 1) precooling (ice slurry and ice vest) alone (PREC); 2) warm-up alone (WU); or 3) PREC plus WU (COMBO). Tre was lower after PREC compared to WU throughout exercise and lower than COMBO for the first 12 km; COMBO was lower than WU for the first 4 km. Tsk during PREC was lower than COMBO and WU for the first 8 km, and lower in COMBO than WU for the first 4 km. PREC lowered pre-exercise heart rate relative to COMBO and WU (68 ± 10, 106 ± 12, 101 ± 13 bpm, respectively), but it increased similarly during exercise. Local sweat rate (SR) was lower in PREC (0.1 ± 0.1 mg · cm-2 · min-1) than COMBO (0.5 ± 0.2 mg · cm-2 · min-1) and WU (0.6 ± 0.2 mg · cm-2 · min-1) for the first 4 km. Treatments did not differentially affect performance (PREC = 31.9 ± 1.9 min, COMBO = 32.6 ± 2.7 min, WU = 33.1 ± 2.9 min). We conclude precooling alone or with warm-up mitigated thermal strain during exercise, but did not significantly improve 16.1-km cycling time trial performance.Al-horani RA, Wingo JE, Ng J, Bishop P, Richardson M. Precooling and warm-up effects on time trial cycling during heat stress. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(2):87-93.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis among incarcerated persons assessed using a highly sensitive molecular assay.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Alexandra H; Katz, Kenneth A; Pandori, Mark W; Rauch, Leah M; Kohn, Robert P; Liska, Sally; Bernstein, Kyle T; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2010-03-01

    We describe the epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among San Francisco County Jail inmates using APTIMA TV analyte-specific reagents on remnant urine. We detected TV in 15/713 (2.1%) men and 95/297 (32.0%) women. Among women, increased age was significantly associated with TV. The benefits of TV screening should be determined.

  18. Trichomonas vaginalis is very rare among women with vaginal discharge in Podlaskie province, Poland.

    PubMed

    Serwin, Agnieszka Beata; Bulhak-Koziol, Violetta; Sokolowska, Marianna; Golparian, Daniel; Unemo, Magnus

    2017-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common curable sexually transmitted pathogen globally. However, in the European Union (EU), trichomoniasis appears to be a rare condition. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of T. vaginalis among females attending an STI centre in Bialystok, Poland, using the highly sensitive and specific APTIMA T. vaginalis assay. Consecutive females, referred by gynaecologists mainly because of abnormal vaginal discharge, were diagnosed using wet mount microscopy, culture and APTIMA T. vaginalis assay. Among 272 women studied, 82% were pre- and 18% postmenopausal. The average age was 36.0 ± 13.9 (range: 18-86) years. Abnormal discharge (alone or accompanied by itch or vulvovaginal burning) was the most frequent complain in both groups (66.2% and 48.0%). Erythema and discharge were the most frequent abnormal signs (58.6% and 56.0%). Not a single T. vaginalis-positive sample was detected using wet mount microscopy, culture or APTIMA T. vaginalis assay. Despite using the highly sensitive APTIMA T. vaginalis assay for detection, the pathogen could not be identified in females in the studied setting, similar to results from other EU settings. The need for general screening using NAAT for this pathogen while diagnosing vulvovaginal symptoms in females in Poland appears to be low. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Significance and Application of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis for the BI-RADS Classification of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cai, Si-Qing; Yan, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Qing-Shi; Huang, Mei-Ling; Cai, Dong-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with dense breasts has a high rate of missed diagnosis, and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) could reduce organization overlapping and provide more reliable images for BI-RADS classification. This study aims to explore application of COMBO (FFDM+DBT) for effect and significance of BI-RADS classification of breast cancer. In this study, we selected 832 patients who had been treated from May 2013 to November 2013. Classify FFDM and COMBO examination according to BI-RADS separately and compare the differences for glands in the image of the same patient in judgment, mass characteristics display and indirect signs. Employ Paired Wilcoxon rank sum test was used in 79 breast cancer patients to find differences between two examine methods. The results indicated that COMBO pattern is able to observe more details in distribution of glands when estimating content. Paired Wilcoxon rank sum test showed that overall classification level of COMBO is higher significantly compared to FFDM to BI-RADS diagnosis and classification of breast (P<0.05). The area under FFDM ROC curve is 0.805, while that is 0.941 in COMBO pattern. COMBO shows relation of mass with the surrounding tissues, the calcification in the mass, and multiple foci clearly in breast cancer tissues. The optimal sensitivity of cut-off value in COMBO pattern is 82.9%, which is higher than that in FFDM (60%). They share the same specificity which is both 93.2%. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) could be used for the BI-RADS classification in breast cancer in clinical.

  20. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic women in Hungary. An epidemiological and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Nyári, T; Nyári, C; Woodward, M; Mészáros, G; Deák, J; Nagy, E; Kovács, L

    2001-04-01

    A multicenter survey was carried out in order to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the population of asymptomatic women in Hungary. Results were used to carry out a cost-effectiveness analysis of screening for chlamydial infection in women with asymptomatic genital infections. The non-amplified nucleic acid hybridization method (PACE 2 Gen-Probe) was used to diagnose C. trachomatis and Bayes' theorem was applied to assess the prevalence of the infection. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to differentiate the risk factors for chlamydial infections. According to the test, the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among 1300 pregnant women was 4.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of the test are estimated to be 70% and 99%, respectively. After Bayes' correction, the overall estimated prevalence of chlamydial infection was 5.1%. There were significant differences in proportions of chlamydial infection in different regions, and also in different age groups and different family status groups. The highest rate was for women aged below 20 years: 16.9%. Cost-effectiveness analysis, with associated sensitivity analysis was carried out for women aged below 20 years. Three screening strategies were compared: using the ELISA method, using amplified Gen-Probe method and no screening. The amplified Gen-Probe method was best provided, the infection prevalence exceeded 16.7%, the PID rate exceeded 24% and the probability of tubal infertility in untreated women exceeded 25%. We conclude that screening with amplified Gen-Probe assays (followed by treatment of positive patients) is the preferred screening strategy for young women in Hungary.

  1. [Glycemic control through physical exercise in type 2 diabetes systematic review].

    PubMed

    Quílez Llopiz, Pablo; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    In Spain, nearly 14% of the population is diabetic, 95% corresponds to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients. Poor glycemic control increases morbidity and mortality. There are three pillars in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: diet, medication and exercise. However, the potential for prescribing exercise training has not been fully exploited. To analyze the effect of different exercise modalities (AE, RT, Combo, HIIT) on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The reserch was performed in 3 electronic databases (Pubmed, Scopus and Proquest), including publications from 2011 to the present, publications undertaking interventions with AE, RT, Combo or HIIT, and those that measured capillary glucose, CGMS or HbA1c. Of the 386 articles found, 14 met the inclusion criteria. These items were classified according to exercise intervention modality (AE, RT, Combo, HIIT) and whether glycemic control was measured as a result of continued training or 24-48h post-workout. EA, RT, Combo and HIIT show efficacy in glycemic control in both the continuous training and 24-48h post-training. To achieve certain benefits in glycemic control, prescribing a structured frequency, volume and intensity training is required. Combo is the modality that gets better results through continued training. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Intuitive Space Weather Displays to Improve Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    parsimonious offering. After engaging several mathematicians and space physicists to devise valid computational formulas for aggregating the four hazard... PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Aptima, Inc.,12 Gill Street Ste 200,Woburn,MA... physicists , the operational users find little use in receiving particle fluxes or magnetometer readings collected by the scientific community. Fortunately

  3. Analysis of System Training Impact for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs): Training Systems Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Background The Patriot system began because of the need to replace an aging and limited air defense system in the 1970s, the Nike -Hercules, and...1980s by Bolt, Beranek & Newman Inc . that overlaid student performance and expert solutions in a real-time simulation, with feedback from an...Interaction and Interface Design Team at Aptima, Inc . In this role she managed and led the work-centered development of a variety of military and

  4. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    PubMed Central

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30–65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30–65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  5. Document Management: It Prints! It Faxes! It Scans!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Linda L.

    2006-01-01

    In printing, scanning, copying, and publishing, the new buzzword is combo: combination systems that take the strengths of several pieces of hardware--and sometimes software--and combine them into one. Advances in these technologies can save districts money by cutting the use of staff time, paper, and accessories such as print cartridges. Also,…

  6. Comparing mating disruption of codling moth with standard and meso dispensers loaded with pear ester and codlemone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted with hand-applied combo dispensers loaded with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), and the pear volatile, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in apple, Malus domestica Bordkhausen during 2012. Two types of...

  7. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Our group is interested in developing novel epigenetic therapeutics for thoracic malignancies, especially small cell lung cancer. The successful candidate will perform studies to develop an effective drug combo from bench to bedside.  The candidate should have a PhD in Molecular Biology, Biochemistry or related disciplines.  The candidate will work with both cell models and

  8. On Being and Becoming a Jazz Musician: Perceptions of Young Scottish Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines what goes on in an improvising jazz combo in a secondary school in Scotland, where teaching follows Rogoff's three-stage sociocultural process, moving from an initial apprenticeship model through one of guided participation to one of participatory appropriation. Using a case study research design and interpretative…

  9. Creating a Smart Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domermuth, David

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a description of an affordable, smart classroom built for the Technology Department at Appalachian State university. The system consists of three basic components: a home theater combo, a tablet PC, and a digital projector, costing a total of $7,300, or $8,800 if a podium, screen, and projector mount are purchased. The…

  10. A survey of stakeholder perspectives on a proposed combined exoskeleton-wheelchair technology.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Tim; Ben Mortensen, W; Mattie, Johanne; Wolff, Jamie; Parker, Claire; Borisoff, Jaimie

    2017-07-01

    Exoskeleton technology has potential benefits for wheelchair users' health and mobility. However, there are practical barriers to their everyday use as a mobility device. In particular, challenges related to travelling longer distances and transitioning between using a wheelchair and exoskeleton walking may present significant deterrents to regular exoskeleton use. In an effort to remove these barriers, a combined exoskeleton-wheelchair concept ('COMBO') has been proposed, which aims to achieve the benefits of both these mobility technologies. Given the inherent importance of including user-stakeholder opinions when designing an assistive technology solution, a study was undertaken to explore the perspectives of wheelchair users and healthcare professionals on the proposed conceptual design of the COMBO. An online survey with quantitative and qualitative components was conducted with wheelchair users and healthcare professionals working directly with individuals with mobility impairments. Respondents rated whether they would use or recommend a COMBO for four potential reasons. Nine design features were rated and compared in terms of their importance. Content analysis was used to analyze data from an open-ended question regarding additional perceptions about using or recommending a COMBO. A total of 481 survey responses were analyzed, 354 from wheelchair users and 127 from healthcare professionals. Potential health benefits was the most highly rated reason for potential use or recommendation of a COMBO. Of the 9 design features, 2 had a median rating of very important: inclusion of a fall-protection mechanism, and the ability for the operator to use their hands while standing. Qualitative findings indicated that health and physical benefits, use for daily life activities, and psychosocial benefits were important considerations in whether to use or recommend the COMBO. This study captures the opinions and perspectives of two stakeholder groups for an exoskeleton

  11. Short-term effectiveness of low dose liraglutide in combination with metformin versus high dose liraglutide alone in treatment of obese PCOS: randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Jensterle, Mojca; Kravos, Nika Aleksandra; Goričar, Katja; Janez, Andrej

    2017-01-31

    Liraglutide 3 mg was recently approved as an anti-obesity drug. Metformin is weight neutral, yet it could enhance the therapeutic index of GLP-1 agonist. We compared weight-lowering potential of liraglutide 1.2 mg in combination with metformin to liraglutide 3 mg monotherapy in obese PCOS. Thirty obese women with PCOS (aged 33.1 ± 6.1 years, BMI 38.3 ± 5.4 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to combination (COMBO) of metformin (MET) 1000 mg BID and liraglutide 1.2 mg QD (N = 15) or liraglutide 3 mg (LIRA3) QD alone (N = 15) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was change in anthropometric measures of obesity. Both treatments led to significant weight loss (-3.6 ± 2.5 kg, p = 0.002 in COMBO vs -6.3 ± 3.7 kg, p = 0.001 in LIRA3). BMI and waist circumference reduction in LIRA3 was greater than in COMBO (-2.2 ± 1.3 vs -1.3 ± 0.9 kg/m 2 , p = 0.05 and -4.2 ± 3.4 vs -2.2 ± 6.2 cm, p = 0.014, respectively). Both interventions resulted in a significant decrease of post-OGTT glucose levels. COMBO significantly reduced total testosterone and was associated with less nausea. Short-term interventions with COMBO and LIRA3 both led to significant improvement of measures of obesity in obese PCOS, LIRA3 being superior to COMBO. However, COMBO further improved androgen profile beyond weight reduction and was associated with better tolerability. The study was retrospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02909933 ) on 16 th of September 2016.

  12. Effects of anabolic implants and ractopamine-HCl on muscle fiber morphometrics, collagen solubility, and tenderness of beef longissimus lumborum steaks.

    PubMed

    Ebarb, S M; Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Vaughn, M A; Burnett, D D; Noel, J A; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Paulk, C B; Grieger, D M; Gonzalez, J M

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of growth-promoting technologies (GP) and postmortem aging on longissimus lumborum muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), collagen solubility, and their relationship to meat tenderness. Two groups of black-hided crossbred feedlot heifers (group 1: = 33, initial BW 430 ± 7 kg; group 2: = 32, initial BW 466 ± 7 kg) were blocked by BW and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments consisting of: no implant and no ractopamine hydrochloride (CON; = 21); implant, no ractopamine hydrochloride (IMP; = 22); implant and ractopamine hydrochloride (COMBO; = 22). Heifers that received an implant were administered an implant containing 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 20 mg estradiol on d 0 of the study, and heifers in the COMBO group received 400 mg∙head∙d of ractopamine hydrochloride for 28 (Group 1) or 29 d (Group 2) at the end of 90- (Group 1) or 106-d (Group 2) feeding period. Following harvest, strip loins were collected and further fabricated into 5 roasts for postmortem aging (DOA) periods of 2, 7, 14, 21, or 35 d. After aging, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), muscle fiber CSA, and collagen solubility were measured. There was no treatment × DOA interaction for WBSF ( = 0.86), but treatment and DOA impacted WBSF ( < 0.01). Over the entire aging study, COMBO steaks had greater ( < 0.01) shear force values when compared to CON steaks. The IMP steaks tended to have decreased ( = 0.07) shear force when compared to the COMBO steaks, but did not differ ( = 0.11) from CON steaks. The IMP and COMBO treatments had increased type IIA fiber CSA when compared to CON ( < 0.01). When compared to each other, the IMP and COMBO type IIA fiber CSA did not differ ( = 0.76). Type I and IIX fiber CSA tended to be greater than CON for IMP and COMBO treatments ( < 0.10). There was no treatment × DOA interaction for all collagen measures ( > 0.33). Collagen amounts were not impacted by GP treatment ( > 0.72), but DOA increased the concentration

  13. Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis by culture: safety considerations, traditional methods, and susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Deanna A

    2007-09-01

    The recovery of Coccidioides spp. by culture and confirmation utilizing the AccuProbe nucleic acid hybridization method by GenProbe remain the definitive diagnostic method. Biosafety considerations from specimen collection through culture confirmation in the mycology laboratory are critical, as acquisition of coccidioidomycosis by laboratory workers is well documented. The designation of Coccidioides spp. as select agents of potential bioterrorism has mandated strict regulation of their transport and inventory. The genus appears generally susceptible, in vitro, although no defined breakpoints exist. Susceptibility testing may assist in documenting treatment failures.

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Modified Fourth-Generation Human Immunodeficiency Virus Enzyme Immunoassay for Cross-Sectional Incidence Estimation in Clade B Populations.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Patel, Eshan U; Celum, Connie L; Moore, Richard D; Blankson, Joel N; Mehta, Shruti H; Kirk, Gregory D; Margolick, Joseph B; Quinn, Thomas C; Eshleman, Susan H; Laeyendecker, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Accurate methods for cross-sectional incidence estimation are needed for HIV surveillance and prevention research. We developed an avidity assay based on the fourth-generation Genetic Systems HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA (Bio-Rad Combo assay) and evaluated its performance. The Bio-Rad Combo assay was modified incubating samples with and without 0.025 M diethylamine (DEA). The avidity index (AI) was calculated as the ratio of the DEA-treated to untreated result for a specific sample. We analyzed 2,140 samples from 808 individuals from the United States with known duration of HIV infection. The mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) and the false-recent rate (FRR, fraction of samples from individuals known to be infected >2 years misclassified as recent) were calculated for AI cutoffs of 20%-90% for the avidity assay alone and in combination with a viral load assay (VL, limit of detection 400 copies/ml). Factors associated with misclassification of samples collected ≥2 years after infections were also evaluated. The MDRI for the Bio-Rad Combo Avidity assay ranged from 50 days using an AI cutoff of 20% to 276 days using an AI cutoff of 90%; the FRR ranged from 0% to 9%. When samples with a VL <400 copies/ml were classified as nonrecent, the FRRs were reduced approximately twofold and the MDRI estimates were reduced by ∼20%. An AI cutoff of 50% provided an MDRI of 135 days with an FRR of 2.1%. All samples from elite suppressors had an AI >80%. In adjusted analysis, viral suppression and low CD4 cell count were significantly associated with misclassification among individuals infected >2 years. This modified Bio-Rad Combo Avidity assay may be a useful tool for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation. Further research is needed to evaluate use of this assay in combination with other assays to accurately estimate population-level HIV incidence.

  15. Combination Phenyl Propionate/Pheromone Traps for Monitoring Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Almonds in the Vicinity of Mating Disruption.

    PubMed

    Burks, Charles S

    2017-04-01

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating monitoring and management of this key pest. Phenyl propionate is an attractant used to capture adults in the presence of mating disruption, completely suppressing pheromone traps, and lures combining phenyl propionate with a pheromone lure (PPO-combo lure) synergize trap capture in the presence of mating disruption. In this study, laboratory and field trials of different phenyl propionate dispensers indicate a useful life of six weeks. Controlled experiments found similar numbers of adults captured in phenyl propionate and PPO-combo lures in the presence of varying levels of mating disruption intensity. A subsequent trial compared monitoring of field plots at various distances from fields under commercial mating disruption for much of the growing season with pheromone and PPO-combo lures. Although there was some evidence of partial suppression of capture in PPO-combo traps closer to mating disruption compared with lures farther away, there was no failure of detection as occurred with pheromone lures. The ratio of adults in pheromone and PPO-combo traps varied with proximity from treated fields. These results indicate that, in addition to monitoring in mating disruption plots, phenyl propionate lures can be useful for insuring against failure of detection of navel orangeworm pressure in areas where mating disruption is widely used. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Acute Effect of Foam Rolling and Dynamic Stretching on Flexibility and Jump Height.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jason C; Pridgeon, Brooke; Hall, MacGregor C

    2018-04-04

    Smith, JC, Pridgeon, B, and Hall, MC. Acute effect of foam rolling and dynamic stretching on flexibility and jump height. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Dynamic stretching (DS) can acutely improve vertical jump (VJ) performance but its effect lasts no more than 5 minutes. Foam rolling (FR), a form of self-myofascial release, can acutely increase range of motion (ROM) with this effect lasting less than 10 minutes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of these effects, separately and combined, on VJ height and ROM. Twenty-nine university students completed 4 different sessions (control, FR, DS, and combo) in a randomized order. After a warm-up and baseline assessments of VJ height and sit-and-reach, participants rested (control) and performed FR, DS, and the combination of FR and DS (combo). Vertical jump height and ROM were assessed every 5 minutes for 20 minutes after treatment. Mean scores at each time point were expressed as a percent change from baseline scores. Immediately after FR, sit-and-reach was significantly greater than control (p = 0.003). Vertical jump height immediately after treatment for DS and combo was significantly greater than the control and FR counterparts (p ≤ 0.002). Vertical jump height for DS and combo was also significantly greater than the control counterpart at 5 minutes after treatment (p < 0.001). At 15 minutes after treatment, the percent change in VJ height for the combo was significantly greater than the control counterpart (p = 0.002). Although FR has no effect on VJ performance, it can acutely increase ROM, but its effect was quickly dissipated. Foam rolling does not seem to enhance VJ height either alone or in combination with DS.

  17. Comparison of Lures Loaded with Codlemone and Pear Ester for Capturing Codling Moths, Cydia pomonella, in Apple and Pear Orchards using Mating Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, D.E.; Cichón, L.; Garrido, S.; Ribes-Dasi, M.; Avilla, J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies were conducted in apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen and pear, Pyrus communis L. (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards to evaluate the attractiveness of grey halobutyl septa loaded with 1 (L2) and 10 (Mega) mg of codlemone, 8E, 10E-dodecadien-1-ol, 3 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (DA2313), and 3 mg of pear ester plus 3 mg of codlemone (Combo) to adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). All studies were conducted in orchards treated with pheromone mating disruption. All four lures were tested on diamond-shaped sticky traps placed in 60 plots of apple and 40 plots of pears in 2003/04, and in 62 plots of apples and 30 of pears in 2004–05. Combo lures attracted significantly more moths (males + females) than all the others in both years. Comparisons among flights showed significant differences mainly for flight 1 and 2, but not always for flight 3. Mega lures provided no significant improvement compared with L2 lures during both seasons regarding the total number of moths. Combo and DA2313 lures attracted fewer females than males during the whole season. For most sample dates, more virgin than mated females were attracted to Combo lures, except during the third flight, and the overall ratio was 60:40, although the difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that the Combo lures are better indicators of codling moth activity in pheromone treated orchards, regardless of pest population level, when compared with similar lures containing codlemone or pear ester alone. PMID:20883133

  18. Self-sampling with HPV mRNA analyses from vagina and urine compared with cervical samples.

    PubMed

    Asciutto, Katrin Christine; Ernstson, Avalon; Forslund, Ola; Borgfeldt, Christer

    2018-04-01

    In order to increase coverage in the organized cervical screening program, self-sampling with HPV analyses has been suggested. The aim was to compare human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA detection in vaginal and urine self-collected samples with clinician-taken cervical samples and the corresponding clinician-taken histological specimens. Self-collected vaginal, urine and clinician-taken cervical samples were analyzed from 209 women with the Aptima mRNA assay (Hologic Inc, MA, USA). Cervical cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and/or the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) were performed in every examination. The sensitivity of the HPV mRNA test in detecting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)/adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)/cancer cases was as follows: for the vaginal self-samples 85.5% (95% CI; 75.0-92.8), the urinary samples 44.8% (95% CI; 32.6-57.4), and for routine cytology 81.7% (95% CI; 70.7-89.9). For the clinician-taken cervical HPV samples the sensitivity of the HPV mRNA test in detecting HSIL/AIS/cancer was 100.0% (95% CI; 94.9-100.0). The specificity of the HPV mRNA was similar for the clinician-taken cervical HPV samples and the self-samples: 49.0% vs. 48.1%. The urinary HPV samples had a specificity of 61.9% and cytology had a specificity of 93.3%. The sensitivity of the Aptima HPV mRNA test in detecting HSIL/AIS/cancer from vaginal self-samples was similar to that of routine cytology. The Aptima HPV mRNA vaginal self-sampling analysis may serve as a complement in screening programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of human papillomavirus 16, 18, and 45 in women with ASC-US cytology and the risk of cervical precancer: results from the CLEAR HPV study.

    PubMed

    Castle, Phillip E; Cuzick, Jack; Stoler, Mark H; Wright, Thomas C; Reid, Jennifer L; Dockter, Janel; Giachetti, Cristina; Getman, Damon

    2015-02-01

    The Aptima human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 18/45 Genotype (GT) assay (AHPV-GT) is a qualitative E6/ E7 oncogene messenger RNA test that detects HPV 16 and a pool of HPV 18 and 45. The CLEAR (Clinical Evaluation of APTIMA mRNA) study was the pivotal, prospective, multicenter US clinical study to validate the Aptima HPV (AHPV) assays. In this analysis, we evaluated the clinical performance of AHPV and AHPV-GT assays for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe (CIN2 +) and grade 3 (CIN3) or adenocarcinoma in situ in 912 women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) Papanicolaou result. The AHPV-GT assay was performed on high-risk HPV (hrHPV) positives as determined by the AHPV assay. Overall, the percent positive for hrHPV was 38.8% (354/912), of which 34.2% (121/354) were GT positive. Among hrHPV-positive women, the risks of CIN2 + were 37.0% for HPV 16 positives, 15.9% for HPV 18/45 positives, 14.3% for other hrHPV positives, and 2.2% for AHPV negatives. The risks of CIN3 + were 20.5% for HPV 16 positives, 9.1% for HPV 18/45 positives, 4.3% for other hrHPV positives, and 0.7% for HPV negatives. We demonstrated that AHPV-GT is a reliable and effective test for cervical cancer risk stratification in women with an ASC-US cytology diagnosis. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  20. PubChem3D: conformer ensemble accuracy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background PubChem is a free and publicly available resource containing substance descriptions and their associated biological activity information. PubChem3D is an extension to PubChem containing computationally-derived three-dimensional (3-D) structures of small molecules. All the tools and services that are a part of PubChem3D rely upon the quality of the 3-D conformer models. Construction of the conformer models currently available in PubChem3D involves a clustering stage to sample the conformational space spanned by the molecule. While this stage allows one to downsize the conformer models to more manageable size, it may result in a loss of the ability to reproduce experimentally determined “bioactive” conformations, for example, found for PDB ligands. This study examines the extent of this accuracy loss and considers its effect on the 3-D similarity analysis of molecules. Results The conformer models consisting of up to 100,000 conformers per compound were generated for 47,123 small molecules whose structures were experimentally determined, and the conformers in each conformer model were clustered to reduce the size of the conformer model to a maximum of 500 conformers per molecule. The accuracy of the conformer models before and after clustering was evaluated using five different measures: root-mean-square distance (RMSD), shape-optimized shape-Tanimoto (STST-opt) and combo-Tanimoto (ComboTST-opt), and color-optimized color-Tanimoto (CTCT-opt) and combo-Tanimoto (ComboTCT-opt). On average, the effect of clustering decreased the conformer model accuracy, increasing the conformer ensemble’s RMSD to the bioactive conformer (by 0.18 ± 0.12 Å), and decreasing the STST-opt, ComboTST-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt scores (by 0.04 ± 0.03, 0.16 ± 0.09, 0.09 ± 0.05, and 0.15 ± 0.09, respectively). Conclusion This study shows the RMSD accuracy performance of the PubChem3D conformer models is operating as designed. In addition, the effect of PubChem3D

  1. Fallon, Nevada FORGE Well 21-31 Wireline Logs

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, Doug

    Included are the following wireline logs from the Fallon FORGE Well 21-31. Ormat_Forge 21-31_8.5 inch section: FMI data in PDF and DLIS formats; MSCT data in PDF format; Pressure and Temperature data in PDF, LAS, and DLIS formats; Sonic Scanner data in PDF, DLIS, and LAS formats (LAS format contains Stoneley Slowness, Shear Slowness, and Compressional Slowness logs); Triple Combo in PDF, DLIS, and LAS formats; and USIT data in DLIS and PDF formats. Ormat_Forge_21-31_12.25 inch section: Resistivity data in PDF and LAS formats; Sonic Scanner data in PDF, DLIS, and LAS formats (LAS format contains Stoneley Slowness, Shear Slowness,more » and Compressional Slowness logs); Triple Combo in PDF and LAS formats; and Caliper data in PDF format (DLIS format for caliper data is included in the Sonic Scanner DLIS).« less

  2. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Our group is interested in developing novel epigenetic therapeutics for thoracic malignancies, especially small cell lung cancer. The successful candidate will perform studies to develop an effective drug combo from bench to bedside.  The candidate should have a PhD in Molecular Biology, Biochemistry or related disciplines.  The candidate will work with both cell models and animal models. 

  3. A randomized comparison of patients' understanding of number needed to treat and other common risk reduction formats.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Stacey L; Pignone, Michael P; Lewis, Carmen L

    2003-11-01

    Commentators have suggested that patients may understand quantitative information about treatment benefits better when they are presented as numbers needed to treat (NNT) rather than as absolute or relative risk reductions. To determine whether NNT helps patients interpret treatment benefits better than absolute risk reduction (ARR), relative risk reduction (RRR), or a combination of all three of these risk reduction presentations (COMBO). Randomized cross-sectional survey. University internal medicine clinic. Three hundred fifty-seven men and women, ages 50 to 80, who presented for health care. Subjects were given written information about the baseline risk of a hypothetical "disease Y" and were asked (1) to compare the benefits of two drug treatments for disease Y, stating which provided more benefit; and (2) to calculate the effect of one of those drug treatments on a given baseline risk of disease. Risk information was presented to each subject in one of four randomly allocated risk formats: NNT, ARR, RRR, or COMBO. When asked to state which of two treatments provided more benefit, subjects who received the RRR format responded correctly most often (60% correct vs 43% for COMBO, 42% for ARR, and 30% for NNT, P =.001). Most subjects were unable to calculate the effect of drug treatment on the given baseline risk of disease, although subjects receiving the RRR and ARR formats responded correctly more often (21% and 17% compared to 7% for COMBO and 6% for NNT, P =.004). Patients are best able to interpret the benefits of treatment when they are presented in an RRR format with a given baseline risk of disease. ARR also is easily interpreted. NNT is often misinterpreted by patients and should not be used alone to communicate risk to patients.

  4. Electrostatically Actuated Resonant Microcantilever Beam in CMOS Technology for the Detection of Chemical Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    sorption . In this regard, the length ( ) and 1530-437X/$20.00 © 2005 IEEE Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...temperature. The beam’s resonant frequency shift re- sponse resulting from analyte sorption increases with increasing thickness of the polymer layer. At...pneumatic tubing used for all gas wetted parts was PFA . The chip mounted in the Kyocera package was sealed by positioning a Combo Lid (Chelsea Technology

  5. Moisture Content of Commercial Items Used in the MRE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    5.4.1.2 Shortbread Cookies The Shortbread Cookies are packaged 6 each in a metallized, co- extruded , oriented-polypropylene package (vending machine...specific condition. The products consisted of a vegetable cracker, an oatmeal cookie, a shortbread cookie and a cheese filled pretzel snack . Each sample...shortbread cookie 4. Cheese Combos pretzel snack Five Sessions (testing occurred during the period of March-September 2003): Control vs. storage

  6. Dose-dependent folic acid and memantine treatments promote synergistic or additive protection against Aβ(25-35) peptide-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells mediated by mitochondria stress-associated death signals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ta-Fu; Tang, Ming-Chi; Chou, Chia-Hui; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Huang, R-F S

    2013-12-01

    Increased dietary folic acid (FA) is associated with reduced risks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The AD drug memantine (Mn) has had limited therapeutic effects for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe AD. This study investigated whether and the underlying mechanisms by which the combination of Mn and FA may have synergistic or additive effects in protecting against amyloid-β(25-35) peptide (Aβ)-induced neurocytotoxicity. Aβ treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells significantly induced a 6-fold increase of apoptotic cells compared with the Aβ-untreated group. Preincubation of Aβ-exposed cells with FA (500 μM) or Mn (20 μM) caused a 22% and 10% reduction of apoptotic cells, respectively, whereas the combo-treatments at such doses synergistically alleviated Aβ-induced apoptosis by 60% (P<0.05). The apoptotic protection by the combo-treatments coincided with attenuating Aβ-elicited mitochondrial (mt) membrane depolarization and abolishing Aβ-induced mt cytochrome c release to the cytosol. Increased levels of FA at 1000 μM in combination with 20 μM Mn exerted an additive protection against Aβ(25-35)-induced-apoptosis as compared to the isolate Mn group (P<0.05). The combo-treatments reversed Aβ-elicited mt membrane depolarization, attenuated Aβ-elicited mt cytochrome c release to the cytosol, and diminished Aβ-promoted superoxide generation. The apoptotic-protection by such combo-treatments was partially abolished by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (mt membrane potential uncoupler) and sodium azide (mt cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor). Taken together, the data demonstrated that dose-dependent FA and Mn synergistically or additively protected SH-SY5Y cells against Aβ-induced apoptosis, which was partially, if not completely, mediated by mt stress-associated death signals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Detection Limits of 4th Generation Combination HIV Antigen/Antibody, p24 Antigen and Viral Load Assays on Diverse HIV Isolates.

    PubMed

    Stone, Mars; Bainbridge, John; Sanchez, Ana M; Keating, Sheila M; Pappas, Andrea; Rountree, Wes; Todd, Chris; Bakkour, Sonia; Manak, Mark; Peel, Sheila A; Coombs, Robert W; Ramos, Eric M; Shriver, M Kathleen; Contestable, Paul; Nair, Sangeetha Vijaysri; Wilson, David H; Stengelin, Martin; Murphy, Gary; Hewlett, Indira; Denny, Thomas N; Busch, Michael P

    2018-05-23

    Detection of acute HIV infection is critical for HIV public health and diagnostics. Clinical 4 th generation antigen-antibody (Ag/Ab) combination (combo) and p24 Ag immunoassays have enhanced detection of acute infection compared to Ab alone assays, but require ongoing evaluation with currently circulating diverse subtypes. Genetically and geographically diverse HIV clinical isolates were used to assess clinical HIV diagnostic, blood screening and next generation assays. Blinded 300 member panels of 20 serially diluted well-characterized antibody negative HIV isolates were distributed to manufacturers and end-user labs to assess relative analytic sensitivity of currently approved and pre-approved clinical HIV 4 th generation Ag/Ab combo or p24 Ag alone immunoassays across diverse subtypes. The limits of virus detection (LODs) were estimated for different subtypes relative to confirmed viral loads. Analysis of immunoassay sensitivity was benchmarked against confirmed viral load measurements on the blinded panel. Based on the proportion of positive results on 300 observations all Ag/Ab combo and standard sensitivity p24 Ag assays performed similarly and within half log LODs, illustrating similar breadth of reactivity and diagnostic utility. Ultrasensitive p24 Ag assays achieved dramatically increased sensitivities, while the rapid combo-assays performed poorly. Similar performance of the different commercially available 4 th gen assays on diverse subtypes supports their use in broad geographic settings with locally circulating HIV clades and recombinant strains. Next generation pre-clinical ultrasensitive p24 Ag assays achieved dramatically improved sensitivity, while p24 Ag detection by rapid 4 th gen assays performed poorly. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Evaluation of two 4th generation point-of-care assays for the detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection.

    PubMed

    Stafylis, Chrysovalantis; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-01-01

    Fourth generation assays detect simultaneously antibodies for HIV and the p24 antigen, identifying HIV infection earlier than previous generation tests. Previous studies have shown that the Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Combo has lower than anticipated performance in detecting antibodies for HIV and the p24 antigen. Furthermore, there are currently very few studies evaluating the performance of Standard Diagnostics BIOLINE HIV Ag/Ab Combo. To evaluate the performance of the Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Combo and the Standard Diagnostics BIOLINE HIV Ag/Ab Combo in a panel of frozen serum samples. The testing panel included 133 previously frozen serum specimens from the UCLA Clinical Microbiology & Immunoserology laboratory. Reference testing included testing for HIV antibodies by a 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay followed by HIV RNA detection. Antibody negative and RNA positive sera were also tested by a laboratory 4th generation HIV Ab/Ag enzyme immunoassay. Reference testing yielded 97 positives for HIV infection and 36 negative samples. Sensitivity of the Alere test was 95% (88-98%), while the SD Bioline sensitivity was 91% (83-96%). Both assays showed 100% (90-100%) specificity. No indeterminate or invalid results were recorded. Among 13 samples with acute infection (HIV RNA positive, HIV antibody negative), 12 were found positive by the first assay and 8 by the second. The antigen component of the Alere assay detected 10 acute samples, while the SD Bioline assay detected only one. Both rapid assays showed very good overall performance in detecting HIV infection in frozen serum samples, but further improvements are required to improve the performance in acute infection.

  9. Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticle Gel on Bacterial Hand Flora: A RCT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-20

    Silver Combo Figure 2: Mean rating per survey question by group. Table 4: AN OVA results for acceptability of test gels per survey question...efficacy study. The survey used in this study also warrants discussion as a limitation. As with any survey , there is a possibility of selection bias...that might have impacted survey results either by under or over representing the population. For example, in this study subjects were selected from

  10. Learning from YouTube [Video Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    YouTube is a mess. YouTube is for amateurs. YouTube dissolves the real. YouTube is host to inconceivable combos. YouTube is best for corporate-made community. YouTube is badly baked. These are a few of the things Media Studies professor Alexandra Juhasz (and her class) learned about YouTube when she set out to investigate what actually happens…

  11. Design of retinal-projection-based near-eye display with contact lens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuhang; Chen, Chao Ping; Mi, Lantian; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhao, Jingxin; Lu, Yifan; Guo, Weiqian; Yu, Bing; Li, Yang; Maitlo, Nizamuddin

    2018-04-30

    We propose a design of a retinal-projection-based near-eye display for achieving ultra-large field of view, vision correction, and occlusion. Our solution is highlighted by a contact lens combo, a transparent organic light-emitting diode panel, and a twisted nematic liquid crystal panel. Its design rules are set forth in detail, followed by the results and discussion regarding the field of view, angular resolution, modulation transfer function, contrast ratio, distortion, and simulated imaging.

  12. Preventing the Consequences of Alcohol Abuse: Identification of Soldiers at High Risk for Fatal and Serious Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Drug/Alcohol Combo: 1980-1985 1986-1988 303.1 - Alcohol dependence with drug abuse 303.07 - Alcohol dependence syndrome - acute alcohol intoxication...with single drug use 303.10 - Alcohol dependence with drug abuse, unspecified 303.08 - Alcohol dependence syndrome - acute alcohol intoxication, with...multiple drug use 303.11 - Alcohol dependence with drug abuse, 303.97 - Alcohol dependence syndrome - other and continuous/habitual unspecified alcohol

  13. Different Modes of Feedback and Peak Vertical Ground Reaction Force During Jump Landing: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ericksen, Hayley M.; Gribble, Phillip A.; Pfile, Kate R.; Pietrosimone, Brian G.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Excessive ground reaction force when landing from a jump may result in lower extremity injuries. It is important to better understand how feedback can influence ground reaction force (GRF) and potentially reduce injury risk. Objective: To determine the effect of expert-provided (EP), self-analysis (SA), and combination EP and SA (combo) feedback on reducing peak vertical GRF during a jump-landing task. Data Sources: We searched the Web of Science database on July 1, 2011; using the search terms ground reaction force, landing biomechanics, and feedback elicited 731 initial hits. Study Selection: Of the 731 initial hits, our final analysis included 7 studies that incorporated 32 separate data comparisons. Data Extraction: Standardized effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between pretest and posttest scores for each feedback condition. Data Synthesis: We found a homogeneous beneficial effect for combo feedback, indicating a reduction in GRF with no CIs crossing zero. We also found a homogeneous beneficial effect for EP feedback, but the CIs from 4 of the 10 data comparisons crossed zero. The SA feedback showed strong, definitive effects when the intervention included a videotape SA, with no CIs crossing zero. Conclusions: Of the 7 studies reviewed, combo feedback seemed to produce the greatest decrease in peak vertical GRF during a jump-landing task. PMID:24067153

  14. Arsenite-loaded nanoparticles inhibit PARP-1 to overcome multidrug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanyu; Zhang, Zongjun; Chi, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Zhenghuan; Huang, Dengtong; Jin, Jianbin; Gao, Jinhao

    2016-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the highest incidences in cancers; however, traditional chemotherapy often suffers from low efficiency caused by drug resistance. Herein, we report an arsenite-loaded dual-drug (doxorubicin and arsenic trioxide, i.e., DOX and ATO) nanomedicine system (FeAsOx@SiO2-DOX, Combo NP) with significant drug synergy and pH-triggered drug release for effective treatment of DOX resistant HCC cells (HuH-7/ADM). This nano-formulation Combo NP exhibits the synergistic effect of DNA damage by DOX along with DNA repair interference by ATO, which results in unprecedented killing efficiency on DOX resistant cancer cells. More importantly, we explored the possible mechanism is that the activity of PARP-1 is inhibited by ATO during the treatment of Combo NP, which finally induces apoptosis of HuH-7/ADM cells by poly (ADP-ribosyl) ation suppression and DNA lesions accumulation. This study provides a smart drug delivery strategy to develop a novel synergistic combination therapy for effectively overcome drug- resistant cancer cells.

  15. Audit of Trichomonas vaginalis test requesting by community referrers after a change from culture to molecular testing, including a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Bissessor, Liselle; Wilson, Janet; McAuliffe, Gary; Upton, Arlo

    2017-06-16

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) prevalence varies among different communities and peoples. The availability of robust molecular platforms for the detection of TV has advanced diagnosis; however, molecular tests are more costly than phenotypic methodologies, and testing all urogenital samples is costly. We recently replaced culture methods with the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid amplification test on specific request and as reflex testing by the laboratory, and have audited this change. Data were collected from August 2015 (microbroth culture and microscopy) and August 2016 (Aptima TV assay) including referrer, testing volumes, results and test cost estimates. In August 2015, 10,299 vaginal swabs, and in August 2016, 2,189 specimens (urogenital swabs and urines), were tested. The positivity rate went from 0.9% to 5.3%, and overall more TV infections were detected in 2016. The number needed to test and cost for one positive TV result respectively was 111 and $902.55 in 2015, and 19 and $368.92 in 2016. Request volumes and positivity rates differed among referrers. The methodology change was associated with higher overall detection of TV, and reductions in the numbers needed to test/cost for one TV diagnosis. Our audit suggests that there is room for improvement with TV test requesting in our community.

  16. Microscopy outperformed in a comparison of five methods for detecting Trichomonas vaginalis in symptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Nathan, B; Appiah, J; Saunders, P; Heron, D; Nichols, T; Brum, R; Alexander, S; Baraitser, P; Ison, C

    2015-03-01

    In the UK, despite its low sensitivity, wet mount microscopy is often the only method of detecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection. A study was conducted in symptomatic women to compare the performance of five methods for detecting T. vaginalis: an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Aptima T. vaginalis kit; OSOM ®Trichomonas Rapid Test; culture and microscopy. Symptomatic women underwent routine testing; microscopy and further swabs were taken for molecular testing, OSOM and culture. A true positive was defined as a sample that was positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Two hundred and forty-six women were recruited: 24 patients were positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Of these 24 patients, 21 patients were detected by real-time PCR (sensitivity 88%); 22 patients were detected by the Aptima T. vaginalis kit (sensitivity 92%); 22 patients were detected by OSOM (sensitivity 92%); nine were detected by wet mount microscopy (sensitivity 38%); and 21 were detected by culture (sensitivity 88%). Two patients were positive by just one method and were not considered true positives. All the other detection methods had a sensitivity to detect T. vaginalis that was significantly greater than wet mount microscopy, highlighting the number of cases that are routinely missed even in symptomatic women if microscopy is the only diagnostic method available. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Metformin as an initial adjunct to low-dose liraglutide enhances the weight-decreasing potential of liraglutide in obese polycystic ovary syndrome: Randomized control study.

    PubMed

    Jensterle, Mojca; Goricar, Katja; Janez, Andrej

    2016-04-01

    Liraglutide (LIRA) treatment is associated with the dose-dependent reduction of weight. Higher doses are more effective than lower doses, although higher doses are also more poorly tolerated. Metformin may enhance the weight-lowering potential of LIRA via the stimulatory modulation of incretin in addition to its direct beneficial effects in PCOS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether metformin as an adjunct to low-dose LIRA affects body weight with increased efficacy compared with low-dose LIRA alone in obese patients with PCOS. In a 12-week study, 44 obese women with PCOS were randomly offered either combined treatment (COMBO) with 1,000 mg metformin twice a day and 1.2 mg LIRA once a day, or treatment with 1.2 mg LIRA alone. The primary outcome of treatment was an alteration in the levels of obesity. A total of 43 patients [aged 30.3±4.4 years; body mass index (BMI) 37.2±4.5 kg/m 2 ; mean ± standard deviation] completed the study. The subjects treated with COMBO lost on average 6.2±2.4 kg compared with a 3.8±3.5 kg weight loss in the patients treated with LIRA alone (P=0.024). The BMI decreased by 2.2±0.8 kg/m 2 in patients treated with COMBO and by 1.4±1.2 kg/m 2 in patients treated with LIRA alone (P=0.024). A clinically significant ≥5% weight reduction was achieved in 59.1% of patients treated with COMBO and 42.9% of patients treated with LIRA alone. Reductions in glucose levels following oral glucose tolerance testing, as well as in androstenedione levels in the COMBO group were significantly greater compared with those in the LIRA group. The side effects were mild and transient in the two treatment groups. A combination of metformin and low-dose LIRA was more effective than low-dose LIRA alone in reducing body weight in obese patients with PCOS.

  18. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin Prevented Weight Regain in Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Previously Treated with Liraglutide: A Pilot Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Ferjan, Simona; Janez, Andrej; Jensterle, Mojca

    2017-12-01

    Weight loss is often nonsustainable after liraglutide cessation. The present study is the first insight into the potential prevention of weight regain in obese subjects who have been withdrawn from liraglutide. We evaluated whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin in adjunct to metformin prevents body weight regain more effectively than metformin alone in obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) previously treated with liraglutide. A 12-week prospective randomized open-label study was conducted with 24 obese women with PCOS who had been pretreated with liraglutide 3.0 mg due to antiobesity management (aged 34.3 ± 6.8 years, body mass index [BMI] 36.3 ± 5.2 kg/m 2 , mean ± standard deviation). They were randomized to combined treatment (COMBO) with sitagliptin 100 mg per day (QD) and metformin (MET) 1000 mg twice daily (BID) (n = 12) or MET 1000 mg BID (n = 12). Lifestyle intervention was promoted in both groups. The primary outcome was change in anthropometric measures of obesity. Women treated with MET regain 4.7 ± 2.7 kg (P = 0.002) compared with a 0.9 ± 2.5 kg in COMBO (P = 0.147). BMI increased for 1.7 ± 0.9 kg/m 2 in MET (P = 0.002) compared with 0.3 ± 0.8 kg/m 2 increase in COMBO (P = 0.136). MET group regain 4.5% ± 2.5% of body weight as opposed to 0.8% ± 2.6% in COMBO. The between-treatment differences were significant for weight change (P < 0.001), percentage of weight change (P < 0.001), and BMI change (P < 0.001). Greater ability to resist emotional eating was demonstrated in COMBO. Sitagliptin in adjunct to metformin prevented weight regain in obese women with PCOS previously treated with liraglutide.

  19. [Costs and adherence to antiretroviral treatment].

    PubMed

    Ventura-Cerdá, J M; Ayago-Flores, D; Vicente-Escrig, E; Mollá-Cantavella, S; Alós-Almiñana, M

    2010-01-01

    To develop a system of data management that allows us to estimate the comparative effectiveness of the various antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens. Retrospective observational study in patients infected with HIV with stable ART. Adherence to treatment and unit cost for each patient's treatment was determined. The cost/patient/day was calculated and, multiplying by an adherence factor (fADH), the (cost/patient/day)(ADH). The comparison of both allowed us to obtain the Δcost/patient, which estimates the additional costs caused by lack of adherence. The incremental cost-effectiveness (iCER), grouping the results by the various coformulated drugs ("combos"). A study of the budgetary impact of these combos was carried out. 468 patients were evaluated (62% adherent). Average adherence was 88±18%. The average value of (cost/patient/day) (ADH) was significantly higher than the cost/patient/day (27.3±9.8€ compared to 24.3±7.6€. p<0.001). Just as with the f(ADH), no differences were found in the Δcost/patient between the different ART combinations. The combo with the least deviation from the cost/patient/day due to lack of adherence was that composed of abacavir/zedovudine/lamivudine (ABC/AZT/3TC,Δcost/patient=8.72±14.18%), and that with the greatest deviation AZT/3TC (Δcost/patient=13.52±17.68%). No significant differences were found in the iCER calculated for any combo. The ART that included abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) obtained the least budgetary impact. The greatest cost and percentage of adherent patients associated with the combos composed of Tenovovir/Emtricitabine(TDF/FTC) and ABC/3TC, and the least cost and effectiveness of those composed of AZT/#TC and ABC/AZT/3TC, does not allow us to identify any option as significantly dominant. The regimens with ABC/3TC were shown to be the most favourable from the combined point of view of cost and adherence. Copyright © 2009 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. EDRN Pre-Validation of Multiplex Biomarker in Urine — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The goal of this proposal is to begin to establish an EDRN “pre-validation” trial of a multiplex set of transcripts, including the ETS gene fusions, in post-DRE urine sediments. As can be evidenced by our preliminary data, we have established the utility of this multiplex urine test (which includes TMPRSS-ERG, SPINK1, PCA3 and GOLPH2) in a cohort of prospectively collected urine sediments from the University of Michigan EDRN CEVC site (collected by co-I, Dr. John Wei). In this proposal, we will run this multiplex assay on prospectively collected post-DRE urines collected from other EDRN sites. The idea is to couple this “pre-validation” study with an EDRN validation trial under consideration for the Gen-Probe PCA3 urine test (directed by Drs. John Wei and Harry Rittenhouse).

  1. Workflow and maintenance characteristics of five automated laboratory instruments for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, Sam; Jang, Dan; Gilchrist, Jodi; Smieja, Marek; Poirier, Andre; Hatchette, Todd; Flandin, Jean-Frederic; Chernesky, Max

    2014-07-01

    The choice of a suitable automated system for a diagnostic laboratory depends on various factors. Comparative workflow studies provide quantifiable and objective metrics to determine hands-on time during specimen handling and processing, reagent preparation, return visits and maintenance, and test turnaround time and throughput. Using objective time study techniques, workflow characteristics for processing 96 and 192 tests were determined on m2000 RealTime (Abbott Molecular), Viper XTR (Becton Dickinson), cobas 4800 (Roche Molecular Diagnostics), Tigris (Hologic Gen-Probe), and Panther (Hologic Gen-Probe) platforms using second-generation assays for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A combination of operational and maintenance steps requiring manual labor showed that Panther had the shortest overall hands-on times and Viper XTR the longest. Both Panther and Tigris showed greater efficiency whether 96 or 192 tests were processed. Viper XTR and Panther had the shortest times to results and m2000 RealTime the longest. Sample preparation and loading time was the shortest for Panther and longest for cobas 4800. Mandatory return visits were required only for m2000 RealTime and cobas 4800 when 96 tests were processed, and both required substantially more hands-on time than the other systems due to increased numbers of return visits when 192 tests were processed. These results show that there are substantial differences in the amount of labor required to operate each system. Assay performance, instrumentation, testing capacity, workflow, maintenance, and reagent costs should be considered in choosing a system. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Presence of High-Risk HPV mRNA in Relation to Future High-Grade Lesions among High-Risk HPV DNA Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Hanna; Bjelkenkrantz, Kaj; Darlin, Lotten; Dilllner, Joakim; Forslund, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Objective Continuous expression of E6- and E7-oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary for the development and maintenance of the dysplastic phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the APTIMA HPV mRNA assay (Hologic) in predicting future development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among high-risk HPV-DNA-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology. Methods Archived SurePath cervical samples of women ≥ 35 years of age with high-risk HPV DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 211) or LSIL, (n = 131) were tested for the presence of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA using the APTIMA HPV assay, and the women were monitored for development of histopathologically verified CIN2+. Results Twenty-nine percent (61/211) of the women in the ASCUS group, and 34.3% (45/131) in the LSIL group developed CIN2+ within 4.5 years of follow-up. The prevalence of HPV mRNA was 90.0% (95% CI 85.9-94.0) among women with ASCUS and 95.4% (95% CI 91.8-99.0) among women with LSIL. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with future development of CIN2+ among women with ASCUS and LSIL (p=0.02). The mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity in predicting future CIN2+ and CIN3 for index ASCUS (96.7%; 95% CI 87.6-99.4 and 100%; 95% CI 82.2-100, respectively) and LSIL (97.8%, 95% CI 86.8-99.9 and 100%, 95% CI 79.9-100, respectively). The corresponding specificity was low, 12.7% (95% CI 7.9-19.3) and 5.8% (95% CI 2.2-13.6), for future CIN2+, respectively. The negative predictive value of the HPV mRNA assay for detecting future CIN3 was 100%, since no mRNA-negative woman developed CIN3 (0/27) as compared to 13.6% (43/315) of the mRNA-positive women (p = 0.03). Conclusion The APTIMA mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting future CIN2+ among women with minor cytological abnormalities. The assay had

  3. Epsilon-Q: An Automated Analyzer Interface for Mass Spectral Library Search and Label-Free Protein Quantification.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin-Young; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Paik, Young-Ki

    2017-12-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a widely used proteome analysis tool for biomedical science. In an MS-based bottom-up proteomic approach to protein identification, sequence database (DB) searching has been routinely used because of its simplicity and convenience. However, searching a sequence DB with multiple variable modification options can increase processing time, false-positive errors in large and complicated MS data sets. Spectral library searching is an alternative solution, avoiding the limitations of sequence DB searching and allowing the detection of more peptides with high sensitivity. Unfortunately, this technique has less proteome coverage, resulting in limitations in the detection of novel and whole peptide sequences in biological samples. To solve these problems, we previously developed the "Combo-Spec Search" method, which uses manually multiple references and simulated spectral library searching to analyze whole proteomes in a biological sample. In this study, we have developed a new analytical interface tool called "Epsilon-Q" to enhance the functions of both the Combo-Spec Search method and label-free protein quantification. Epsilon-Q performs automatically multiple spectral library searching, class-specific false-discovery rate control, and result integration. It has a user-friendly graphical interface and demonstrates good performance in identifying and quantifying proteins by supporting standard MS data formats and spectrum-to-spectrum matching powered by SpectraST. Furthermore, when the Epsilon-Q interface is combined with the Combo-Spec search method, called the Epsilon-Q system, it shows a synergistic function by outperforming other sequence DB search engines for identifying and quantifying low-abundance proteins in biological samples. The Epsilon-Q system can be a versatile tool for comparative proteome analysis based on multiple spectral libraries and label-free quantification.

  4. Technological Advancement in Tower-Based Canopy Reflectance Monitoring: The AMSPEC-III System

    PubMed Central

    Tortini, Riccardo; Hilker, Thomas; Coops, Nicholas C.; Nesic, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Understanding plant photosynthesis, or Gross Primary Production (GPP), is a crucial aspect of quantifying the terrestrial carbon cycle. Remote sensing approaches, in particular multi-angular spectroscopy, have proven successful for studying relationships between canopy-reflectance and plant-physiology processes, thus providing a mechanism to scale up. However, many different instrumentation designs exist and few cross-comparisons have been undertaken. This paper discusses the design evolution of the Automated Multiangular SPectro-radiometer for Estimation of Canopy reflectance (AMSPEC) series of instruments. Specifically, we assess the performance of the PP-Systems Unispec-DC and Ocean Optics JAZ-COMBO spectro-radiometers installed on an updated, tower-based AMSPEC-III system. We demonstrate the interoperability of these spectro-radiometers, and the results obtained suggest that JAZ-COMBO can successfully be used to substitute more expensive measurement units for detecting and investigating photosynthesis and canopy spectra. We demonstrate close correlations between JAZ-COMBO and Unispec-DC measured canopy radiance (0.75 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.85) and solar irradiance (0.95 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.96) over a three month time span. We also demonstrate close agreement between the bi-directional distribution functions obtained from each instrument. We conclude that cost effective alternatives may allow a network of AMSPEC-III systems to simultaneously monitor various vegetation types in different ecosystems. This will allow to scale and improve our understanding of the interactions between vegetation physiology and spectral characteristics, calibrate broad-scale observations to stand-level measurements, and ultimately lead to improved understanding of changing vegetation spectral features from satellite. PMID:26703602

  5. Modeling regional coral reef responses to global warming and changes in ocean chemistry: Caribbean case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buddemeier, R.W.; Lane, D.R.; Martinich, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Climatic change threatens the future of coral reefs in the Caribbean and the important ecosystem services they provide. We used a simulation model [Combo ("COral Mortality and Bleaching Output")] to estimate future coral cover in the part of the eastern Caribbean impacted by a massive coral bleaching event in 2005. Combo calculates impacts of future climate change on coral reefs by combining impacts from long-term changes in average sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean acidification with impacts from episodic high temperature mortality (bleaching) events. We used mortality and heat dose data from the 2005 bleaching event to select historic temperature datasets, to use as a baseline for running Combo under different future climate scenarios and sets of assumptions. Results suggest a bleak future for coral reefs in the eastern Caribbean. For three different emissions scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; B1, A1B, and A1FI), coral cover on most Caribbean reefs is projected to drop below 5% by the year 2035, if future mortality rates are equivalent to some of those observed in the 2005 event (50%). For a scenario where corals gain an additional 1-1. 5??C of heat tolerance through a shift in the algae that live in the coral tissue, coral cover above 5% is prolonged until 2065. Additional impacts such as storms or anthropogenic damage could result in declines in coral cover even faster than those projected here. These results suggest the need to identify and preserve the locations that are likely to have a higher resiliency to bleaching to save as many remnant populations of corals as possible in the face of projected wide-spread coral loss. ?? 2011 The Author(s).

  6. Evaluation of extended-life pheromone formulations used with and without dichlorvos for boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) trapping.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Greenberg, Shoil M

    2008-04-01

    Boll weevil traps baited with a ComboLure (25 of mg grandlure + 30 mg of eugenol + 90 of mg dichlorvos [DDVP]), an extended-release lure (25 mg of grandlure + 30 mg of eugenol + 60 of mg DDVP kill-strip), and extended-release lure with no DDVP were evaluated for boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), captures in South Texas cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fields during February-March 2005 and March-April 2006. The traps were serviced once a week for five consecutive weeks by using the same methodology as active boll weevil eradication programs. Mean captured boll weevils from extended-release lures with no DDVP were significantly higher in five of 10 trapping weeks compared with captures of the ComboLure and extended lure. Weekly mortality of boll weevils captured was similar for the ComboLure (72.6 +/- 4.7%) and extended lure + DDVP (73.5 +/- 4.0%), and both were significantly higher than the extended lure (32.8 +/- 5.0%) with no DDVP. The presence or absence of DDVP did not significantly affect the sex ratio of field-captured boll weevils. We found no functional reasoning for using DDVP in large scale trapping of boll weevils regardless of the formulation or presentation in the trap. We conducted two additional trapping evaluations after the 2005 and 2006 studies, but the numbers of boll weevils captured were too low for statistical comparisons, indicating that boll weevil eradication is reducing populations in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

  7. Technological Advancement in Tower-Based Canopy Reflectance Monitoring: The AMSPEC-III System.

    PubMed

    Tortini, Riccardo; Hilker, Thomas; Coops, Nicholas C; Nesic, Zoran

    2015-12-19

    Understanding plant photosynthesis, or Gross Primary Production (GPP), is a crucial aspect of quantifying the terrestrial carbon cycle. Remote sensing approaches, in particular multi-angular spectroscopy, have proven successful for studying relationships between canopy-reflectance and plant-physiology processes, thus providing a mechanism to scale up. However, many different instrumentation designs exist and few cross-comparisons have been undertaken. This paper discusses the design evolution of the Automated Multiangular SPectro-radiometer for Estimation of Canopy reflectance (AMSPEC) series of instruments. Specifically, we assess the performance of the PP-Systems Unispec-DC and Ocean Optics JAZ-COMBO spectro-radiometers installed on an updated, tower-based AMSPEC-III system. We demonstrate the interoperability of these spectro-radiometers, and the results obtained suggest that JAZ-COMBO can successfully be used to substitute more expensive measurement units for detecting and investigating photosynthesis and canopy spectra. We demonstrate close correlations between JAZ-COMBO and Unispec-DC measured canopy radiance (0.75 ≤ R² ≤ 0.85) and solar irradiance (0.95 ≤ R² ≤ 0.96) over a three month time span. We also demonstrate close agreement between the bi-directional distribution functions obtained from each instrument. We conclude that cost effective alternatives may allow a network of AMSPEC-III systems to simultaneously monitor various vegetation types in different ecosystems. This will allow to scale and improve our understanding of the interactions between vegetation physiology and spectral characteristics, calibrate broad-scale observations to stand-level measurements, and ultimately lead to improved understanding of changing vegetation spectral features from satellite.

  8. Determinants of Viral Oncogene E6-E7 mRNA Overexpression in a Population-Based Large Sample of Women Infected by High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Types

    PubMed Central

    Bisanzi, Simonetta; Allia, Elena; Mongia, Alessandra; Carozzi, Francesca; Gillio-Tos, Anna; De Marco, Laura; Ronco, Guglielmo; Gustinucci, Daniela; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Frayle, Helena; Iossa, Anna; Fantacci, Giulia; Pompeo, Giampaolo; Cesarini, Elena; Bulletti, Simonetta; Passamonti, Basilio; Rizzi, Martina; Penon, Maria Gabriella; Barca, Alessandra; Benevolo, Maria

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cervical cancer screening by human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing with cytology triage is more effective than cytology testing. Compared to cytology, the HPV DNA test's higher sensitivity, which allows better protection with longer intervals, makes it necessary to triage the women with a positive result to compensate its lower specificity. We are conducting a large randomized clinical trial (New Technologies for Cervical Cancer 2 [NTCC2]) within organized population-based screening programs in Italy using HPV DNA as the primary screening test to evaluate, by the Aptima HPV assay (Hologic), the use of HPV E6-E7 mRNA in a triage test in comparison to cytology. By the end of June 2016, data were available for 35,877 of 38,535 enrolled women, 2,651 (7.4%) of whom were HPV DNA positive. Among the samples obtained, 2,453 samples were tested also by Aptima, and 1,649 (67.2%) gave a positive result. The proportion of mRNA positivity was slightly higher among samples tested for HPV DNA by the Cobas 4800 HPV assay (Roche) than by the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay (Qiagen). In our setting, the observed E6-E7 mRNA positivity rate, if used as a triage test, would bring a rate of immediate referral to colposcopy of about 4 to 5%. This value is higher than that observed with cytology triage for both immediate and delayed referrals to colposcopy. By showing only a very high sensitivity and thus allowing a longer interval for HPV DNA-positive/HPV mRNA-negative women, a triage by this test might be more efficient than by cytology. PMID:28100595

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Testing With Messenger RNA Versus DNA Under United States Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Ting, Jie; Smith, Jennifer S; Myers, Evan R

    2015-10-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing using a hrHPV DNA and a hrHPV messenger RNA (mRNA) assay under current US cervical cancer screening guidelines. We constructed a Markov model for stochastic cost-effectiveness analysis using published data. We compared screening efficiency using DNA and mRNA testing for the following: (1) cotesting with cytology in women 30 to 65 years, and (2) triage of women with mild cervical cytological abnormalities (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US]) in the United States. Screening end point is histologically confirmed high-grade lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, 3, or invasive cancer). Sensitivity and specificity estimates of DNA and mRNA testing to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, 3, or invasive cancer were obtained from 2 published trials: the US Clinical Evaluation of APTIMA mRNA (CLEAR) study for ASC-US triage and the French APTIMA Screening Evaluation (FASE) study for cotesting. Costs of DNA and mRNA testing were assumed identical. Costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment of cervical neoplasia and cancer were from previously published estimates, adjusted to 2012 US dollars. Inputs were modeled as distributions for Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Model outcomes were costs per life-year saved for each strategy, discounted at 3% annually. For both cotesting and ASC-US triage, mRNA testing cost less than DNA testing, whereas life expectancies were widely overlapping. There was a 100% probability that DNA testing was not cost-effective at $100,000/life-year saved threshold for ASC-US triage and a 55% probability that DNA testing was not cost-effective at the same threshold for cotesting. Based on the available evidence, mRNA testing for cotesting or ASC-US triage is likely to be more efficient than DNA testing under current US cervical cancer screening guidelines.

  10. Diagnosing feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in FIV-vaccinated and FIV-unvaccinated cats using saliva.

    PubMed

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2016-06-01

    We recently showed that two immunochromatography point-of-care FIV antibody test kits (Witness FeLV/FIV and Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV) were able to correctly assign FIV infection status, irrespective of FIV vaccination history, using whole blood as the diagnostic specimen. A third FIV antibody test kit, SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo (an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]), was unable to differentiate antibodies produced in response to FIV vaccination from those incited by FIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine if saliva is a suitable diagnostic specimen using the same well characterized feline cohort. FIV infection status of these cats had been determined previously using a combination of serology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and virus isolation. This final assignment was then compared to results obtained using saliva as the diagnostic specimen utilizing the same three point-of-care FIV antibody test kits and commercially available PCR assay (FIV RealPCR). In a population of cats where one third (117/356; 33%) were FIV-vaccinated, both immunochromatography test kits accurately diagnosed FIV infection using saliva via a centrifugation method, irrespective of FIV vaccination history. For FIV diagnosis using saliva, the specificity of Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV and Witness FeLV/FIV was 100%, while the sensitivity of these kits was 96% and 92% respectively. SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo respectively. SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo had a specificity of 98% and sensitivity of 44%, while FIV RealPCR testing had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 72% using saliva. A revised direct method of saliva testing was trialed on a subset of FIV-infected cats (n=14), resulting in 14, 7 and 0 FIV positive results using Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV, Witness FeLV/FIV and SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo, respectively. These results demonstrate that saliva can be used to diagnose FIV infection, irrespective of FIV vaccination history, using either a centrifugation method (Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV and Witness

  11. An Integrated Approach to Universal Prevention: Independent and Combined Effects of PBIS and SEL on Youths’ Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Clayton R.; Frye, Megan; Slemrod, Tal; Lyon, Aaron R.; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Zhang, Yanchen

    2015-01-01

    Mental health among children and adolescents is a growing national concern and schools have taken center stage in efforts to prevent problems and promote wellness. Although research and policymakers support the integration of mental health services into the schools, there is limited agreement on the ways to package or combine existing supports to achieve prevention-oriented goals. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Social Emotional Learning (SEL) are two of the most widely-adopted, evidence-based approaches that have been advocated to address student mental health. These universal prevention approaches, however, stem from different theoretical camps and are often advocated and implemented apart from one another. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on student mental health outcomes. A quasi-randomized control design at the classroom-level was used to make comparisons across four conditions: business-as-usual (BAU), PBIS alone, SEL alone, and COMBO condition with regard to their acceptability to teachers, integrity of program delivery, and student outcomes. As predicted, the COMBO condition produced significantly greater improvements in overall mental health and reductions in externalizing behaviors when compared to all other conditions. The results also indicated that the PBIS and SEL only conditions were both able to produce significant improvements in overall mental health functioning as compared to the BAU control. The implications of an integrated approach for school-based universal prevention and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25602629

  12. Combination Treatment of Citral Potentiates the Efficacy of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemoperfusion with Pirarubicin for Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yu; Li, Hao; Yu, Shuaishuai; Liu, Ziying; Fan, Zhichao; Chen, Xiaomin; Wu, Yuying; Pan, Xuebo; Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Cong

    2017-10-02

    Citral is a widely used penetration enhancer that has been used to assist the delivery of drugs through the skin. In this study we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of combination treatments of citral with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for colorectal cancer and to unravel the underlying mechanism by which citral increased the efficacy of HIPEC. In vitro experiments indicated that citral increased cytoplasmic absorption of pirarubicin and potentiated the effects of pirarubicin on colorectal cancer cells to induce apoptosis. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity was elevated after single or combo treatments with pirarubicin, leading to compromised NF-κB signaling. Therefore, the results suggested that the effects of citral were mediated by increasing cell permeability and ROS productions. Furthermore, the colorectal xenograft model was used to evaluate the efficacy of the combo treatment at the histological and molecular levels, which showed that the cotreatment with citral for colorectal cancer increased the efficacy of HIPEC with pirarubicin with respect to both ascite control and tumor load. The results indicated that citral was an effective additive for HIPEC with pirarubicin for colorectal cancer, which warrant further effort to explore the translational application of this new treatment regimen.

  13. An All-Silk-Derived Dual-Mode E-skin for Simultaneous Temperature-Pressure Detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunya; Xia, Kailun; Zhang, Mingchao; Jian, Muqiang; Zhang, Yingying

    2017-11-15

    Flexible skin-mimicking electronics are highly desired for development of smart human-machine interfaces and wearable human-health monitors. Human skins are able to simultaneously detect different information, such as touch, friction, temperature, and humidity. However, due to the mutual interferences of sensors with different functions, it is still a big challenge to fabricate multifunctional electronic skins (E-skins). Herein, a combo temperature-pressure E-skin is reported through assembling a temperature sensor and a strain sensor in both of which flexible and transparent silk-nanofiber-derived carbon fiber membranes (SilkCFM) are used as the active material. The temperature sensor presents high temperature sensitivity of 0.81% per centigrade. The strain sensor shows an extremely high sensitivity with a gauge factor of ∼8350 at 50% strain, enabling the detection of subtle pressure stimuli that induce local strain. Importantly, the structure of the SilkCFM in each sensor is designed to be passive to other stimuli, enabling the integrated E-skin to precisely detect temperature and pressure at the same time. It is demonstrated that the E-skin can detect and distinguish exhaling, finger pressing, and spatial distribution of temperature and pressure, which cannot be realized using single mode sensors. The remarkable performance of the silk-based combo temperature-pressure sensor, together with its green and large-scalable fabrication process, promising its applications in human-machine interfaces and soft electronics.

  14. A modeling tool to evaluate regional coral reef responses to changes in climate and ocean chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buddemeier, R.W.; Jokiel, P.L.; Zimmerman, K.M.; Lane, D.R.; Carey, J.M.; Bohling, Geoffrey C.; Martinich, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a spreadsheet-based model for the use of managers, conservationists, and biologists for projecting the effects of climate change on coral reefs at local-to-regional scales. The COMBO (Coral Mortality and Bleaching Output) model calculates the impacts to coral reefs from changes in average SST and CO2 concentrations, and from high temperature mortality (bleaching) events. The model uses a probabilistic assessment of the frequency of high temperature events under a future climate to address scientific uncertainties about potential adverse effects. COMBO offers data libraries and default factors for three selected regions (Hawai'i, Great Barrier Reef, and Caribbean), but it is structured with user-selectable parameter values and data input options, making possible modifications to reflect local conditions or to incorporate local expertise. Preliminary results from sensitivity analyses and simulation examples for Hawai'i demonstrate the relative importance of high temperature events, increased average temperature, and increased CO2 concentration on the future status of coral reefs; Illustrate significant interactions among variables; and allow comparisons of past environmental history with future predictions. ?? 2008, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanugraphy, Inc.

  15. Stratified Turbulence Measurements in Complex Terrain Using Hot-film Probes and a Collocated Sonic Anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocut, C.; Kit, E.; Liberzon, D.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Materhorn Team

    2014-11-01

    In the fall of 2012 and spring 2013, the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations Program (MATERHORN) conducted extensive field experiments at the Granite Mountain Atmospheric Science Testbed (GMAST), US Army Dugway Proving Grounds (DPG), Utah. This provided a unique opportunity to deploy tower mounted three-dimensional hot-film combo probes, consisting of sonic anemometers collocated with hot-film anemometers able to respond to the wind direction. The combo probes follow mean winds using a feedback control loop and use a Neural Network to calibrate the hot-films in-situ. Once calibrated, these probes can handle a vast range of background flow conditions and scales from mesoscale flow down to the Kolmogorov scale. Of particular interest are the observed variation in velocity spectra during the evenings. Sometimes the velocity spectra shows the turbulence is Kolmogorov and is isotropic at small scales while in other spectra there is evidence of turbulence production at finer scales. An explanation on different spectral shapes will be presented as well as the relevant length/time scales of the production events. Funded by ONR Grant N00014-11-1-0709.

  16. Combination of structured illumination and single molecule localization microscopy in one setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossberger, Sabrina; Best, Gerrit; Baddeley, David; Heintzmann, Rainer; Birk, Udo; Dithmar, Stefan; Cremer, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the positional and structural aspects of biological nanostructures simultaneously is as much a challenge as a desideratum. In recent years, highly accurate (20 nm) positional information of optically isolated targets down to the nanometer range has been obtained using single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM), while highly resolved (100 nm) spatial information has been achieved using structured illumination microscopy (SIM). In this paper, we present a high-resolution fluorescence microscope setup which combines the advantages of SMLM with SIM in order to provide high-precision localization and structural information in a single setup. Furthermore, the combination of the wide-field SIM image with the SMLM data allows us to identify artifacts produced during the visualization process of SMLM data, and potentially also during the reconstruction process of SIM images. We describe the SMLM-SIM combo and software, and apply the instrument in a first proof-of-principle to the same region of H3K293 cells to achieve SIM images with high structural resolution (in the 100 nm range) in overlay with the highly accurate position information of localized single fluorophores. Thus, with its robust control software, efficient switching between the SMLM and SIM mode, fully automated and user-friendly acquisition and evaluation software, the SMLM-SIM combo is superior over existing solutions.

  17. An integrated approach to universal prevention: Independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on youths' mental health.

    PubMed

    Cook, Clayton R; Frye, Megan; Slemrod, Tal; Lyon, Aaron R; Renshaw, Tyler L; Zhang, Yanchen

    2015-06-01

    Mental health among children and adolescents is a growing national concern and schools have taken center stage in efforts to prevent problems and promote wellness. Although research and policymakers support the integration of mental health services into the schools, there is limited agreement on the ways to package or combine existing supports to achieve prevention-oriented goals. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Social Emotional Learning (SEL) are 2 of the most widely adopted, evidence-based approaches that have been advocated to address student mental health. These universal prevention approaches, however, stem from different theoretical camps and are often advocated and implemented apart from one another. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on student mental health outcomes. A quasi-randomized control design at the classroom level was used to make comparisons across 4 conditions: business-as-usual (BAU), PBIS alone, SEL alone, and COMBO condition with regard to their acceptability to teachers, integrity of program delivery, and student outcomes. As predicted, the COMBO condition produced significantly greater improvements in overall mental health and reductions in externalizing behaviors when compared to all other conditions. The results also indicated that the PBIS- and SEL-only conditions were both able to produce significant improvements in overall mental health functioning as compared with the BAU control. The implications of an integrated approach for school-based universal prevention and directions for future research are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in household and feral cats in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eon; Choi, Ran; Kang, Seung-Won; Hyun, Changbaig

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence rate of Toxoplasma gondii ( T. gondii ) infection in household cats in Korea. One hundred household cats and 50 feral cats from nine of the largest cities in Korea were enrolled in this study. The tests performed in this survey was an in-house rapid screen IgG and IgM combo test, faecal PCR test for T. gondii oocysts, and an ELISA immunoassay for IgG antibodies. There were no household cats positive for T. gondii infection detected using the in-house IgG and IgM rapid screen combo test, although 6/50 and 0/50 feral cats were positive in IgG and IgM tests, respectively. This initial finding was confirmed by subsequent ELISA test for IgG antibody and PCR for T. gondii in faeces. Despite the higher prevalence rate of the disease in feral cats in Korea, we did not find any household cats that were either infected or exposed previously to T. gondii in our study population. Our study indicates that there is minimal risk of T. gondii transmission from household cats to human in Korea.

  19. Can lipid nanoparticles improve intestinal absorption?

    PubMed

    Mendes, M; Soares, H T; Arnaut, L G; Sousa, J J; Pais, A A C C; Vitorino, C

    2016-12-30

    Lipid nanoparticles and their multiple designs have been considered appealing nanocarrier systems. Bringing the benefits of these nanosystems together with conventional coating technology clearly results in product differentiation. This work aimed at developing an innovative solid dosage form for oral administration based on tableting nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), coated with conventional polymer agents. NLC dispersions co-encapsulating olanzapine and simvastatin (Combo-NLC) were produced by high pressure homogenization, and evaluated in terms of scalability, drying procedure, tableting and performance from in vitro release, cytotoxicity and intestinal permeability stand points. Factorial design indicated that the scaling-up of the NLC production is clearly feasible. Spray-drying was the method selected to obtain dry particles, not only because it consists of a single step procedure, but also because it facilitates the coating process of NLC with different polymers. Modified NLC formulations with the polymers allowed obtaining distinct release mechanisms, comprising immediate, delayed and prolonged release. Sureteric:Combo-NLC provided a low cytotoxicity profile, along with a ca. 12-fold OL/3-fold SV higher intestinal permeability, compared to those obtained with commercial tablets. Such findings can be ascribed to drug protection and control over release promoted by NLC, supporting them as a versatile platform able to be modified according to the intended needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An Advanced Bio-Inspired PhotoPlethysmoGraphy (PPG) and ECG Pattern Recognition System for Medical Assessment.

    PubMed

    Rundo, Francesco; Conoci, Sabrina; Ortis, Alessandro; Battiato, Sebastiano

    2018-01-30

    Physiological signals are widely used to perform medical assessment for monitoring an extensive range of pathologies, usually related to cardio-vascular diseases. Among these, both PhotoPlethysmoGraphy (PPG) and Electrocardiography (ECG) signals are those more employed. PPG signals are an emerging non-invasive measurement technique used to study blood volume pulsations through the detection and analysis of the back-scattered optical radiation coming from the skin. ECG is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. In the present paper we propose a physiological ECG/PPG "combo" pipeline using an innovative bio-inspired nonlinear system based on a reaction-diffusion mathematical model, implemented by means of the Cellular Neural Network (CNN) methodology, to filter PPG signal by assigning a recognition score to the waveforms in the time series. The resulting "clean" PPG signal exempts from distortion and artifacts is used to validate for diagnostic purpose an EGC signal simultaneously detected for a same patient. The multisite combo PPG-ECG system proposed in this work overpasses the limitations of the state of the art in this field providing a reliable system for assessing the above-mentioned physiological parameters and their monitoring over time for robust medical assessment. The proposed system has been validated and the results confirmed the robustness of the proposed approach.

  1. Biomarkers in prostate cancer: what’s new?

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, David A.; Chan, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review is intended to provide an overview of the current state of biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa), with a focus on biomarkers approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as well as biomarkers available from Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA)-certified clinical laboratories within the last 1–2 years. Recent findings During the past 2 years, two biomarkers have been approved by the US FDA. These include proPSA as part of the Prostate Health Index (phi) by Beckman Coulter, Inc and PCA3 as Progensa by Gen Probe, Inc. With the advances in genomic and proteomic technologies, several new CLIA-based laboratory-developed tests have become available. Examples are Oncotype DX from Genomics Health, Inc, and Prolaris from Myriad Genetics, Inc. In most cases, these new tests are based on a combination of multiple genomic or proteomic biomarkers. Summary Several new tests, as discussed in this review, have become available during the last 2 years. Although the intended use of most of these tests is to distinguish PCa from benign prostatic conditions with better sensitivity and specificity than prostate-specific antigen, studies have shown that some of them may also be useful in the differentiation of aggressive from nonaggressive forms of PCa. PMID:24626128

  2. Time-Motion Analysis of Four Automated Systems for the Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing.

    PubMed

    Williams, James A; Eddleman, Laura; Pantone, Amy; Martinez, Regina; Young, Stephen; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Next-generation diagnostics for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are available on semi- or fully-automated platforms. These systems require less hands-on time than older platforms and are user friendly. Four automated systems, the ABBOTT m2000 system, Becton Dickinson Viper System with XTR Technology, Gen-Probe Tigris DTS system, and Roche cobas 4800 system, were evaluated for total run time, hands-on time, and walk-away time. All of the systems evaluated in this time-motion study were able to complete a diagnostic test run within an 8-h work shift, instrument setup and operation were straightforward and uncomplicated, and walk-away time ranged from approximately 90 to 270 min in a head-to-head comparison of each system. All of the automated systems provide technical staff with increased time to perform other tasks during the run, offer easy expansion of the diagnostic test menu, and have the ability to increase specimen throughput. © 2013 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  3. Randomized Clinical Trial of Azithromycin vs. Erythromycin for the Treatment of Chlamydia Cervicitis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, M. S.; Carter, S. G.; LeBoeuf, F. W.; Menard, M. K.; Rainwater, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to prospectively test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the clinical effectiveness of azithromycin and erythromycin for the treatment of chlamydia cervicitis in pregnancy. Methods: All antepartum obstetrical patients underwent routine screening for chlamydia cervicitis using a DNA probe assay (Gen-Probe Pace, San Diego, CA). Women who tested positive for chlamydia cervicitis were prospectively randomized to receive either azithromycin 1 g orally at enrollment, or erythromycin 500 mg orally 4 times a day for 7 days. Sexual partners were referred to the county health department for evaluation and treatment. A test of cure was repeated in 2 weeks. Results were analyzed by chi-square analysis and Fisher's exact test when indicated. Results: One hundred forty women tested positive for chlamydia cervicitis and agreed to randomization. There were 4 (6.2%) treatment failures in the azithromycin group and 18 (27.7%) in the erythromycin group (P = 0.005). Gastrointestinal side effects were reported by 42 (65.5%) of the women taking erythromycin, but only 12 (19.4%) of those taking azithromycin (P < 0.002). Gastrointestinal side effects and resultant noncompliance were significantly related to treatment failure with erythromycin. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the conclusion that a single dose of azithromycin is a significantly more effective and better tolerated treatment regimen for chlamydia cervicitis in pregnancy than erythromycin which is currently recommended. PMID:18476121

  4. Comparison of three feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) point-of-care antigen test kits using blood and saliva.

    PubMed

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2017-02-01

    Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) can be a challenging infection to diagnose due to a complex feline host-pathogen relationship and occasionally unreliable test results. This study compared the accuracy of three point-of-care (PoC) FeLV p27 antigen test kits commonly used in Australia and available commercially worldwide (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo, Witness FeLV/FIV and Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV), using detection of FeLV provirus by an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay as the diagnostic gold standard. Blood (n=563) and saliva (n=419) specimens were collected from a population of cats determined to include 491 FeLV-uninfected and 72 FeLV-infected individuals (45 progressive infections [p27 and qPCR positive], 27 regressive infections [p27 negative, qPCR positive]). Sensitivity and specificity using whole blood was 63% and 94% for SNAP Combo, 57% and 98% for Witness, and 57% and 98% for Anigen Rapid, respectively. SNAP Combo had a significantly lower specificity using blood compared to the other two kits (P=0.004 compared to Witness, P=0.007 compared to Anigen Rapid). False-positive test results occurred with all three kits using blood, and although using any two kits in parallel increased specificity, no combination of kits completely eliminated the occurrence of false-positive results. We therefore recommend FeLV proviral PCR testing for any cat that tests positive with a PoC FeLV antigen kit, as well as for any cat that has been potentially exposed to FeLV but tests negative with a FeLV antigen kit, before final assignment of FeLV status can be made with confidence. For saliva testing, sensitivity and specificity was 54% and 100%, respectively, for all three test kits. The reduced sensitivity of saliva testing compared to blood testing, although not statistically significant, suggests saliva testing with the current generation of PoC FeLV antigen kits is unsuitable for screening large populations of cats, such as in shelters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  5. The effect of core training on distal limb performance during ballistic strike manoeuvres.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin; McGill, Stuart

    2017-09-01

    Ballistic limb motion is enabled by proximal "core" stiffness. However, controversy exists regarding the best method of training this characteristic. This study sought to determine the most effective core training method to enhance distal limb athleticism. A total of 12 participants (24 ± 3 years, 1.8 ± 0.05 m, 76.8 ± 9.7 kg) consisting of Muay Thai athletes performed a core training protocol (Isometric vs. Dynamic, with Control) for 6 weeks, using a repeated measures design to assess performance (peak strike velocity, peak impact force, muscular activation) in various strikes. Isometric training increased impact force in Jab (554.4 ± 70.1 N), Cross (1895.2 ± 203.1 N), Combo (616.8 ± 54.9 N), and Knee (1240.0 ± 89.1 N) trials (P < 0.05). Dynamic training increased strike velocity in Jab (1.3 ± 0.2 m · s -1 ), Cross (5.5 ± 0.9 m · s -1 ), Combo (0.7 ± 0.1, 2.8 ± 0.3 m · s -1 ), and Knee (3.2 ± 0.3 m · s -1 ) trials (P < 0.05). Isometric training increased Combo impact force 935.1 ± 100.3 N greater than Dynamic and 931.6 ± 108.5 N more than Control (P < 0.05). Dynamic training increased Jab strike velocity 1.3 ± 0.1 m · s -1 greater than Isometric and 0.8 ± 0.1 m · s -1 more than Control (P < 0.05). It appears that both static and dynamic approaches to core training are needed to enhance both velocity and force in distal limbs.

  6. Safety and maintenance of response for tofacitinib monotherapy and combination therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: an analysis of pooled data from open-label long-term extension studies

    PubMed Central

    Fleischmann, Roy; Wollenhaupt, Jürgen; Takiya, Liza; Maniccia, Anna; Kwok, Kenneth; Wang, Lisy; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F

    2017-01-01

    Objective Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This post hoc analysis evaluated patients receiving tofacitinib monotherapy or combination therapy, as well as those who switched from monotherapy to combination therapy (mono→combo) or vice versa (combo→mono) in long-term extension (LTE) studies. Methods Data were pooled from open-label LTE studies (ORAL Sequel (NCT00413699; ongoing; data collected 14 January 2016) and NCT00661661) involving patients who participated in qualifying index studies. Efficacy outcomes included American College of Rheumatology 20/50/70 rates, change from baseline in Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-4(ESR)), Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index and DAS28-4(ESR) and CDAI low disease activity and remission. Safety was evaluated over 96 months. Results Of the 4967 patients treated, 35.4% initiated tofacitinib monotherapy, 64.6% initiated combination therapy, 2.6% were mono→combo switchers and 7.1% were combo→mono switchers. Patients who switched multiple times were excluded. Of those who initiated monotherapy and combination therapy, 87.8% (1543/1757) and 82.0% (2631/3210), respectively, remained on the same regimen throughout the study; efficacy was maintained. Incidence rates (IRs) for serious adverse events with tofacitinib 5 mg and 10 mg twice daily, respectively, were 9.42 and 8.41 with monotherapy and 8.36 and 10.75 with combination therapy; IRs for discontinuations due to AEs were 7.13 and 6.06 with monotherapy and 7.82 and 8.06 with combination therapy (overlapping CIs). For mono→combo and combo→mono switchers, discontinuations due to AEs were experienced by 0.8% and 0.9%, respectively, within 30 days of switching. Conclusion Tofacitinib efficacy as monotherapy or combination therapy was maintained through month 48 and sustained to month 72, with minimal switching of treatment

  7. Multispectral determination of soil moisture-2. [Guymon, Oklahoma and Dalhart, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S. (Principal Investigator); Hajic, E. J.; Hilton, B. M.; Lees, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Soil moisture data obtained using scatterometers, modular multispectral scanners and passive microwave radiometers were revised and grouped into four field cover types for statistical anaysis. Guymon data are grouped as alfalfa, bare, milo with rows perpendicular to the field view, and milo viewed parallel to the field of view. Dalhart data are grouped as bare combo, stubble, disked stubble, and corn field. Summary graphs combine selected analyses to compare the effects of field cover. The analysis for each of the cover types is presented in tables and graphs. Other tables show elementary statistics, correlation matrices, and single variable regressions. Selected eigenvectors and factor analyses are included and the highest correlating sensor typs for each location are summarized.

  8. Endovascular blood flow measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  9. Bezlotoxumab.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2017-03-01

    Each month, subscribers to The Formulary Monograph Service receive 5 to 6 well-documented monographs on drugs that are newly released or are in late phase 3 trials. The monographs are targeted to Pharmacy & Therapeutics Committees. Subscribers also receive monthly 1-page summary monographs on agents that are useful for agendas and pharmacy/nursing in-services. A comprehensive target drug utilization evaluation/medication use evaluation (DUE/MUE) is also provided each month. With a subscription, the monographs are available online to subscribers. Monographs can be customized to meet the needs of a facility. Through the cooperation of The Formulary, Hospital Pharmacy publishes selected reviews in this column. For more information about The Formulary Monograph Service, contact Wolters Kluwer customer service at 866-397-3433. The March 2017 monograph topics are crisaborole, insulin degludec/liraglutide, inclusion glargine/lixisenatide, nusimersen, and rucaparib. The MUE is on insulin GLP-1 combo.

  10. What's new in well logging and formation evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prensky, S.

    2011-01-01

    A number of significant new developments is emerging in well logging and formation evaluation. Some of the new developments include an ultrasonic wireline imager, an electromagnetic free-point indicator, wired and fiber-optic coiled tubing systems, and extreme-temperature logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools. The continued consolidation of logging and petrophysical service providers in 2010 means that these innovations are increasingly being provided by a few large companies. Weatherford International has launched a slimhole cross-dipole tool as part of the company's line of compact logging tools. The 26-ft-long Compact Cross-Dipole Sonic (CXD) tool can be run as part of a quad-combo compact logging string. Halliburton has introduced a version of its circumferential acoustic scanning tool (CAST) that runs on monoconductor cable (CAST-M) to provide high-resolution images in open hole and in cased hole for casing and cement evaluation.

  11. Statistical parameters of thermally driven turbulent anabatic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilel, Roni; Liberzon, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Field measurements of thermally driven turbulent anabatic flow over a moderate slope are reported. A collocated hot-films-sonic anemometer (Combo) obtained the finer scales of the flow by implementing a Neural Networks based in-situ calibration technique. Eight days of continuous measurements of the wind and temperature fluctuations reviled a diurnal pattern of unstable stratification that forced development of highly turbulent unidirectional up slope flow. Empirical fits of important turbulence statistics were obtained from velocity fluctuations' time series alongside fully resolved spectra of velocity field components and characteristic length scales. TKE and TI showed linear dependence on Re, while velocity derivative skewness and dissipation rates indicated the anisotropic nature of the flow. Empirical fits of normalized velocity fluctuations power density spectra were derived as spectral shapes exhibited high level of similarity. Bursting phenomenon was detected at 15% of the total time. Frequency of occurrence, spectral characteristics and possible generation mechanism are discussed. BSF Grant #2014075.

  12. Performance of the BioPlex 2200 HIV Ag-Ab assay for identifying acute HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, Susan H; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Sivay, Mariya V; Debevec, Barbara; Veater, Stephanie; McKinstry, Laura; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mannheimer, Sharon; Grant, Robert M; Chesney, Margaret A; Coates, Thomas J; Koblin, Beryl A; Fogel, Jessica M

    Assays that detect HIV antigen (Ag) and antibody (Ab) can be used to screen for HIV infection. To compare the performance of the BioPlex 2200 HIV Ag-Ab assay and two other Ag/Ab combination assays for detection of acute HIV infection. Samples were obtained from 24 individuals (18 from the US, 6 from South Africa); these individuals were classified as having acute infection based on the following criteria: positive qualitative RNA assay; two negative rapid tests; negative discriminatory test. The samples were tested with the BioPlex assay, the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo test, the Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag-Ab EIA test, and a viral load assay. Twelve (50.0%) of 24 samples had RNA detected only ( > 40 to 13,476 copies/mL). Ten (43.5%) samples had reactive results with all three Ag/Ab assays, one sample was reactive with the ARCHITECT and Bio-Rad assays, and one sample was reactive with the Bio-Rad and BioPlex assays. The 11 samples that were reactive with the BioPlex assay had viral loads from 83,010 to >750,000 copies/mL; 9/11 samples were classified as Ag positive/Ab negative by the BioPlex assay. Detection of acute HIV infection was similar for the BioPlex assay and two other Ag/Ab assays. All three tests were less sensitive than a qualitative RNA assay and only detected HIV Ag when the viral load was high. The BioPlex assay detected acute infection in about half of the cases, and identified most of those infections as Ag positive/Ab negative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequencing bilateral and unilateral task-oriented training versus task oriented training alone to improve arm function in individuals with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    McCombe Waller, Sandy; Whitall, Jill; Jenkins, Toye; Magder, Laurence S; Hanley, Daniel F; Goldberg, Andrew; Luft, Andreas R

    2014-12-14

    Recovering useful hand function after stroke is a major scientific challenge for patients with limited motor recovery. We hypothesized that sequential training beginning with proximal bilateral followed by unilateral task oriented training is superior to time-matched unilateral training alone. Proximal bilateral training could optimally prepare the motor system to respond to the more challenging task-oriented training. Twenty-six participants with moderate severity hemiparesis Intervention: PARTICIPANTS received either 6-weeks of bilateral proximal training followed sequentially by 6-weeks unilateral task-oriented training (COMBO) or 12-weeks of unilateral task-oriented training alone (SAEBO). A subset of 8 COMB0 and 9 SAEBO participants underwent three functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of hand and elbow movement every 6 weeks. Fugl-Meyer Upper extremity scale, Modified Wolf Motor Function Test, University of Maryland Arm Questionnaire for Stroke, Motor cortex activation (fMRI). The COMBO group demonstrated significantly greater gains between baseline and 12-weeks over all outcome measures (p = .018 based on a MANOVA test) and specifically in the Modified Wolf Motor Function test (time). Both groups demonstrated within-group gains on the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity test (impairment) and University of Maryland Arm Questionnaire for Stroke (functional use). fMRI subset analyses showed motor cortex (primary and premotor) activation during hand movement was significantly increased by sequential combination training but not by task-oriented training alone. Sequentially combining a proximal bilateral before a unilateral task-oriented training may be an effective way to facilitate gains in arm and hand function in those with moderate to severe paresis post-stroke compared to unilateral task oriented training alone.

  14. Quantifying stair gait stability in young and older adults, with modifications to insole hardness.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Patrick J; Perry, Stephen D

    2014-07-01

    Stair gait falls are prevalent in older adults aged 65 years and older. Extrinsic variables such as changes to insole hardness are important factors that can compromise the balance control system and increase the incidence of falls, especially since age-related decline in the cutaneous sensation is common. Balance measurements such as the minimum center of mass/base of support (COM-BOS, termed 'stability margin') and COM-BOS medial/lateral range provide information about stability during stair gait. This study was conducted to investigate stair gait stability of young and older adults, with modifications to insole hardness. Twenty healthy adults (10 young adults, 10 older adults) were recruited (mean age = 23.1, SD 2.1; mean age = 73.2, SD 5.5) and instructed to descend a 4 step staircase, for a total of 40 trials. All participants wore similar canvas shoes of varying sizes, and corresponding insole hardnesses (barefoot, soft, medium, hard). Kinematic equipment utilized 12 infrared markers anteriorly placed on the individual to record COM motion and BOS location. The findings from the study demonstrated that older adults were less stable during stair descent. Consequently, insole conditions revealed that the barefoot condition may increase the likelihood of falls, as opposed to the other insole hardnesses (soft, medium and hard). These results suggest that older adults while barefoot are putting themselves at a great risk of falling during stair descent. Since age-related changes are inevitable and the preferred footwear of choice inside the home is bare feet, this is a crucial issue that should be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Distance correlation methods for discovering associations in large astrophysical databases

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Gómez, Elizabeth; Richards, Mercedes T.; Richards, Donald St. P., E-mail: elizabeth.martinez@itam.mx, E-mail: mrichards@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: richards@stat.psu.edu

    2014-01-20

    High-dimensional, large-sample astrophysical databases of galaxy clusters, such as the Chandra Deep Field South COMBO-17 database, provide measurements on many variables for thousands of galaxies and a range of redshifts. Current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution rests sensitively on relationships between different astrophysical variables; hence an ability to detect and verify associations or correlations between variables is important in astrophysical research. In this paper, we apply a recently defined statistical measure called the distance correlation coefficient, which can be used to identify new associations and correlations between astrophysical variables. The distance correlation coefficient applies to variables of any dimension,more » can be used to determine smaller sets of variables that provide equivalent astrophysical information, is zero only when variables are independent, and is capable of detecting nonlinear associations that are undetectable by the classical Pearson correlation coefficient. Hence, the distance correlation coefficient provides more information than the Pearson coefficient. We analyze numerous pairs of variables in the COMBO-17 database with the distance correlation method and with the maximal information coefficient. We show that the Pearson coefficient can be estimated with higher accuracy from the corresponding distance correlation coefficient than from the maximal information coefficient. For given values of the Pearson coefficient, the distance correlation method has a greater ability than the maximal information coefficient to resolve astrophysical data into highly concentrated horseshoe- or V-shapes, which enhances classification and pattern identification. These results are observed over a range of redshifts beyond the local universe and for galaxies from elliptical to spiral.« less

  16. Analytical sensitivity of four commonly used hCG point of care devices.

    PubMed

    Kamer, Sandy M; Foley, Kevin F; Schmidt, Robert L; Greene, Dina N

    2015-04-01

    Point of care (POC) hCG assays are often used to rule-out pregnancy and therefore diagnostic sensitivity, especially at low concentrations of hCG, is important. There are very few studies in the literature that seek to verify the claimed analytical sensitivity of hCG POC devices. The analytical sensitivity of four commonly used hCG POC devices (Alere hCG Combo Cassette, ICON 20 hCG, OSOM hCG Combo Test, and Sure-Vue Serum/Urine hCG-STAT) was challenged using urine samples (n=50) selected based on quantitative hCG concentrations. The majority of these specimens (n=40) had an hCG concentration between 20 and 200 U/L. Each specimen/device combination was reviewed by three individuals. Statistical calculations were performed using Stata 12. The analytical sensitivity of the OSOM was significantly lower inferior than that of the other POC devices. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity of the Alere, ICON 20 and Sure-Vue devices. There was no significant difference in the individual interpretation of the hCG POC results. All hCG POC devices evaluated in this study were susceptible to false negative results at low concentrations of urine hCG. Laboratorians and clinicians should be aware that there are limitations when using urine hCG POC devices to rule out early pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Formulation Variables on the Particle Size and Drug Encapsulation of Imatinib-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Biki; Poudel, Bijay Kumar; Pathak, Shiva; Tak, Jin Wook; Lee, Hee Hyun; Jeong, Jee-Heon; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2016-06-01

    Imatinib (IMT), an anticancer agent, inhibits receptor tyrosine kinases and is characterized by poor aqueous solubility, extensive first-pass metabolism, and rapid clearance. The aims of the current study are to prepare imatinib-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (IMT-SLN) and study the effects of associated formulation variables on particle size and drug encapsulation on IMT-SLN using an experimental design. IMT-SLN was optimized by use of a "combo" approach involving Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and Box-Behnken design (BBD). PBD screening resulted in the determination of organic-to-aqueous phase ratio (O/A), drug-to-lipid ratio (D/L), and amount of Tween® 20 (Tw20) as three significant variables for particle size (S z), drug loading (DL), and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of IMT-SLN, which were used for optimization by BBD, yielding an optimized criteria of O/A = 0.04, D/L = 0.03, and Tw20 = 2.50% w/v. The optimized IMT-SLN exhibited monodispersed particles with a size range of 69.0 ± 0.9 nm, ζ-potential of -24.2 ± 1.2 mV, and DL and EE of 2.9 ± 0.1 and 97.6 ± 0.1% w/w, respectively. Results of in vitro release study showed a sustained release pattern, presumably by diffusion and erosion, with a higher release rate at pH 5.0, compared to pH 7.4. In conclusion, use of the combo experimental design approach enabled clear understanding of the effects of various formulation variables on IMT-SLN and aided in the preparation of a system which exhibited desirable physicochemical and release characteristics.

  18. Use of the Abbott Architect HIV antigen/antibody assay in a low incidence population.

    PubMed

    Dubravac, Terry; Gahan, Thomas F; Pentella, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    With the availability of 4th generation HIV diagnostic tests which are capable of detecting acute infection, Iowa evaluated the 3rd and 4th generation HIV test and compared the performance of these products in a low incidence population. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of an HIV antigen/antibody combination (4th generation) assay compared to an EIA 3rd generation assay. Over a 4 month period, 2037 specimens submitted for HIV screening were tested by Bio-Rad GS HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA and the Abbott Architect i1000SR HIV Ag/Ab Combo. The performance characteristics of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were determined. Of the 2037 specimens tested, there were 13 (0.64%) true positives detected. None of the positive specimens were from patients in the acute phase of infection. The Abbott antigen/antibody combo assay had a sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative predictive value of 100%, 99.85%, 81.25%, and 100% respectively. The Bio-Rad EIA assay had a sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative predictive value of 100%, 99.80%, 76.47% and 100%, respectively. The EIA had four false positive results which tested negative by the antigen/antibody assay and western blot. In a low-incidence state where early infections are less commonly encountered, the EIA assay and the antigen/antibody assay performed with near equivalency. The antigen/antibody assay had one less false positive result. While no patients were detected in the acute stage of infection, the use of the antigen/antibody assay presents the opportunity to detect an infected patient sooner and prevent transmission to others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A retrospective study on the management of patients with rituximab refractory follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Solal-Céligny, Philippe; Leconte, Pierre; Bardet, Aurélie; Hernandez, Juana; Troussard, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Given that there are currently no clear recommendations regarding therapeutic options for rituximab refractory/relapsed follicular lymphoma patients, this study aimed to describe the real-life management of patients with refractory follicular lymphoma after systemic rituximab-containing regimens (rFL), and rFL patient characteristics. In this retrospective, national, multicentre study, descriptive analyses were mainly performed according to rituximab-containing regimen at rFL diagnosis [rituximab monotherapy (R-MONO), rituximab + chemotherapy (R-COMBO), and ongoing rituximab maintenance (R-MAINTAIN)]. The 459 analysed patients experienced rituximab-refractoriness between October 2013 and September 2015: R-MONO: 58 (13%), R-COMBO: 197 (43%), R-MAINTAIN: 204 (44%). Post-refractoriness strategies were heterogeneous: idelalisib ± rituximab (22%), without anti-lymphoma treatment (21%), rituximab-chemotherapy (21%) and stem cell transplantation (18%). Rituximab was continued in combination in 41% of cases. Chosen strategies varied according to patient age (without anti-lymphoma treatment: 28% of patients if ≥65 years vs. 12% if <65 years old; stem-cell transplantation: 4% vs. 38%), treatment line at rFL, FL International Prognostic Index score and prior treatment. This French retrospective study, the first one conducted in a large cohort of rFL patients, showed that further strategies were highly heterogeneous, depending notably on patient characteristics and previous treatment. These data are the basis for a better understanding of rFL management and for the design of clinical trials in these patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Pooled nucleic acid testing increases the diagnostic yield of acute HIV infections in a high-risk population compared to 3rd and 4th generation HIV enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Krajden, Mel; Cook, Darrel; Mak, Annie; Chu, Ken; Chahil, Navdeep; Steinberg, Malcolm; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark

    2014-09-01

    We compared a 3rd generation (gen) and two 4th gen HIV enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to pooled nucleic acid testing (PNAT) for the identification of pre- and early seroconversion acute HIV infection (AHI). 9550 specimens from males >18 year from clinics attended by men who have sex with men were tested by Siemens ADVIA Centaur(®) HIV 1/O/2 (3rd gen) and HIV Combo (4th gen), as well as by Abbott ARCHITECT(®) HIV Ag/Ab Combo (4th gen). Third gen non-reactive specimens were also tested by Roche COBAS(®) Ampliprep/COBAS® TaqMan HIV-1 Test v.2 in pools of 24 samples. Sensitivity and specificity of the three EIAs for AHI detection were compared. 7348 persons contributed 9435 specimens and had no evidence of HIV infection, 79 (94 specimens) had established HIV infection, 6 (9 specimens) had pre-seroconversion AHI and 9 (12 specimens) had early seroconversion AHI. Pre-seroconversion AHI cases were not detected by 3rd gen EIA, whereas 2/6 (33.3%) were detected by Siemens 4th gen, 4/6 (66.7%) by Abbott 4th gen and 6/6 (100%) by PNAT. All three EIAs and PNAT detected all individuals with early seroconversion AHI. Overall sensitivity/specificity for the EIAs relative to WB or NAT resolved infection status was 93.6%/99.9% for Siemens 3rd gen, 95.7%/99.7% for Siemens 4th gen and 97.9%/99.2% for Abbott 4th gen. While both 4th gen EIAs demonstrated improved sensitivity for AHI compared to 3rd gen EIA, PNAT identified more AHI cases than either 4th gen assay. PNAT is likely to remain a useful strategy to identify AHI in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ease, Comfort, and Performance of the HerSwab Vaginal Self-Sampling Device for the Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Arias, Manuel; Jang, Dan; Gilchrist, Jodi; Luinstra, Kathy; Li, Jenny; Smieja, Marek; Chernesky, Max A

    2016-02-01

    Many sexually transmitted diseases are asymptomatic in the lower genital tract and can cause upper tract complications if left untreated. Self-collected vaginal (SCV) swabs enable the accurate detection of many sexually transmitted infections and give women the option of collecting their own samples while providing them with privacy and convenience. We compared SCV samples collected and transported dry using the HerSwab device to physician-collected vaginal (PCV) Aptima swabs for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and measured patients' ease and comfort with self-collection. A total of 189 women aged 16 to 41 years were consented into the study and answered a standardized anonymized questionnaire regarding self-collection with the HerSwab device. Women reported self-collection with HerSwab to be easy (97.1%) and comfortable (88.3%). They preferred self-collection over physician collection (80.9%) and would consider using HerSwab for self-collection at home (79.7%). Samples of SCV and PCV showed an overall agreement of 94.7% (κ = 0.64) for CT and of 98.4% (κ = 0.56) for NG, and HerSwab collection detected 7 more positive patients than PCV collection. The overall prevalence of infection was 10.6% for CT and 2.6% for NG. HerSwab SCV samples are suitable for the diagnosis of CT and NG.

  2. Presence of human papillomavirus in semen in relation to semen quality.

    PubMed

    Luttmer, Roosmarijn; Dijkstra, Maaike G; Snijders, Peter J F; Hompes, Peter G A; Pronk, Divera T M; Hubeek, Isabelle; Berkhof, Johannes; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2016-02-01

    Is the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in semen associated with impairment of semen quality? In a large cohort of males seeking fertility evaluation, no associations were observed between seminal HPV presence and semen parameters. HPV is commonly detected in semen samples. Whether the presence of HPV is related to impairment of semen quality, remains unclear. This cross-sectional study included a cohort of 430 males. Male partners in couples seeking fertility evaluation provided one semen sample per person. Semen samples were tested for HPV-DNA using GP5+/6+-PCR. Sperm concentration was counted and motility was assessed in a Makler counting chamber at a magnification of ×200. The presence of antisperm antibodies was assessed by a mixed agglutination reaction (MAR)-test. Overall HPV was detected in 14.9% (64/430) of semen samples, including 2.1% (9/430) that contained both high-risk (hr) HPV and low-risk (lr) HPV types, 8.8% (38/430) with exclusively hrHPV types and 4.0% (17/430) with exclusively lrHPV types. The presence of HPV in semen was not associated with the age of the participants, seminal pH, semen volume, total sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility or the presence of antisperm antibodies. This study did not observe an association between HPV presence in semen and impairment of semen quality. However, we cannot exclude an effect of seminal HPV on early embryo development and clinical reproductive outcomes. As HPV is frequently present in semen, screening of donor semen for HPV should be considered to prevent iatrogenic cervical HPV infections in the recipient. However our findings do not support standardized HPV testing of semen in the diagnostic work-up of subfertile couples. This study was sponsored by an unrestricted grant of Stichting Researchfonds Pathology Amsterdam, the Netherlands. P.J.F.S. has been on the speakers bureau of Roche, Gen-Probe, Abbott, Qiagen and Seegene and has been a consultant for Crucell B.V. J.B. has been

  3. [Investigation of mechanisms of action of growth factors of autologous platelet-rich plasma used to treat erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Epifanova, M V; Chalyi, M E; Krasnov, A O

    2017-09-01

    To determine the quantitative and qualitative composition of growth factors (PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, VEGF, VEGF-D, FGF-acid, FGF-basic) and platelets in various modifications of APRP. Blood of 12 male volunteers (control group) and 12 patients with ED was used to prepare APRP and the subsequently determine the concentration of growth factors. The growth factor concentrations (FGF acid, FGF basic, PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, VEGF, VEGF-D) was determined using a flow cytometry-based xMAP Luminex (Gen-Probe) system. Concentration of platelets in APRP obtained by two stage centrifugation, reached 1480 (1120-1644) in the control group and 1232 (956-1502) in patients with ED. The concentration of growth factors in the samples prepared without preliminary freezing was: PDGF-AA 842 (22-3700), PDGF-BB 2837 (1460-4100), FGF-basic 7.9 (0.28-127), FGF-acid 3, 4 (0.14-11), VEGF 19 (4.6-46), VEGF-D 21 (14-38). After thawing, the concentration of all growth factors in the samples increased. The study findings suggest that the mechanism of erectile function recovery following the use of APRP is through the active substances detected in APRP, i.e. FGF-basic, PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, VEGF, VEGF-D and FGF-acid. Also, the study showed that the content of growth factors in APRP after of freezing/thawing is higher than in APRP that has not been frozen. This is due to the cell membrane destruction at extremely low temperatures during freezing.

  4. Detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in paraffin-embedded pleural biopsy specimens by commercial ribosomal RNA and DNA amplification kits.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Manzano, J; Manterola, J M; Gamboa, F; Calatrava, A; Monsó, E; Martínez, C; Ausina, V

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the utility of two gene amplification systems in historical paraffin-embedded pleural biopsy (PEB) tissues from patients with pleural tuberculosis, and to compare the results to those obtained with conventional histologic and microbiological methods. A retrospective study. Seventy-four formalin-fixed PEB tissues collected and stored over 12 years (1984 through 1995) were retrieved. Gene amplifications were performed in 57 tissues from patients with diagnoses of pleural tuberculosis and in 17 from patients with carcinoma as controls, using the first version of the Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test (AMTDT; Gen-Probe; San Diego, CA) and the LCx Mycobacterium tuberculosis Assay (LCxMTB; Abbott Laboratories; Abbott Park, IL). The sensitivities of the AMTDT and LCxMTB were 52.6% and 63.2%, respectively (p = not statistically significant). The specificity of both tests was 100%. Twenty tissue samples (35.1%) were positive by both systems, and 10 tissues (17.5%) were positive only by the AMTDT, while 16 tissues (28.1%) were positive only by the LCxMTB. Both tests gave negative results for 11 specimens (19.3%). When both tests were used, a positive diagnosis was achieved in 80.7% of the samples. Diagnosis of 73.7% of patient conditions had previously been made by smear examination of pleural biopsy and sputum, pleural liquid, or biopsy culture. The overall diagnostic yield with both culture and amplification techniques was 96.5% (55 of 57 patients) for pleural tuberculosis, with amplification techniques adding 22.8% of the diagnoses. Amplification techniques are useful in archival PEB tissues, providing additional diagnoses beyond culturing, although the sensitivity should be improved, possibly by standardizing protocols.

  5. Management of adults with acute streptococcal pharyngitis: minimal value for backup strep testing and overuse of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Nakhoul, Georges N; Hickner, John

    2013-06-01

    Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are commonly used to guide appropriate antibiotic treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) pharyngitis. In adults, there is controversy about the need for routine backup testing of negative RADT. Estimate the costs and benefits in adults of routine backup testing by DNA Gen-probe of negative RADT (Acceava). Observational follow-up study. All patients aged 18 years and older visiting a Cleveland Clinic generalist physician in 2009 and 2010 with a visit diagnosis of acute pharyngitis (ICD codes 462, 034.0). The patients were identified using the Cleveland Clinic Epic Clarity database. We determined the proportion of false negative RADT, antibiotic prescription patterns and rate of serious suppurative complications within 30 days of the office visit. Of 25,130 patients with acute pharyngitis, 19% had no testing and 81% were tested. Of the 15,555 patients that had a negative RADT and follow-up DNA probe, 6% had a positive DNA probe. Of the 953 patients who had a negative RADT and a positive DNA strep probe, 48% received an antibiotic prescription at the time of the visit and 51% received an antibiotic prescription after an average of 2.3 days. Only one patient with a negative RADT and no follow-up DNA probe developed a peritonsillar abscess. Overall, of the 15,555 DNA probes performed, management was altered in only 3% of the patients at a total cost of $1,757,715. Fifty-six percent received an antibiotic while only 19.5% had a confirmed strep throat diagnosis. The false negative rate of Acceava RADT for the diagnosis of GABHS pharyngitis was 6%. We question the benefit of routine DNA probe backup testing in adults because of its substantial cost, an average delay in antibiotic prescribing of over 2 days, and because suppurative complications are very uncommon. We found a high rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing.

  6. Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay for rapid identification and differentiation of influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses.

    PubMed

    Novak-Weekley, S M; Marlowe, E M; Poulter, M; Dwyer, D; Speers, D; Rawlinson, W; Baleriola, C; Robinson, C C

    2012-05-01

    The Xpert Flu Assay cartridge is a next-generation nucleic acid amplification system that provides multiplexed PCR detection of the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses in approximately 70 min with minimal hands-on time. Six laboratories participated in a clinical trial comparing the results of the new Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay to those of culture or real-time PCR with archived and prospectively collected nasal aspirate-wash (NA-W) specimens and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from children and adults. Discrepant results were resolved by DNA sequence analysis. After discrepant-result analysis, the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for prospective NA-W specimens containing the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses compared to those of culture were 90.0%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the assay for prospective NP swabs compared to those of culture were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NA-W specimens compared to those of Gen-Probe ProFlu+ PCR for the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses were 99.4%, 98.4%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NP swabs compared to those of ProFlu+ were 98.1%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay with archived NP specimens compared to those of culture for the three targets were 97.5%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. We conclude that the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay is an accurate and rapid method that is suitable for on-demand testing for influenza viral infection.

  7. Evaluation of the VIDAS Anti-HCV Assay for Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Jungwon; Ko, Dae Hyun; Kang, Hee Jung; Whang, Dong Hee; Cha, Young Joo; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2016-11-01

    Anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) assays are recommended for screening HCV-infected persons. The VIDAS Anti-HCV Assay (bioMérieux, France), based on the enzyme-linked fluorescence test principle, was recently introduced in Korea. We evaluated the clinical performance of the VIDAS assay. One hundred HCV-positive and 1,002 HCV-negative blood samples confirmed by Architect anti-HCV (Abbott Laboratories, USA) and COBAS TaqMan HCV real-time PCR (Roche Diagnostics, USA) or the Procleix Ultrio Plus Assay (Gen-Probe Incorporated, USA) were obtained from the Human Serum Bank (HSB) and tested by VIDAS. In case of discrepant results, we conducted a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). The agreement rates for known HCV-positive and HCV-negative samples between the VIDAS assay and the HSB testing were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 96.4-100%) and 99.5% (95% CI: 98.8-99.8%), respectively. One of the five discrepant samples was positive for Core 2+ and NS3-2 2+ reactivity, two samples were negative, and the other two were indeterminate regarding NS4 2+ reactivity in RIBA. We observed a significant but weak positive correlation between the titers of VIDAS and Architect assays (r=0.315, P<0.001). The VIDAS anti-HCV assay, developed on the VIDAS automated immunoassay platform based on the ready-to-use, single-sample test concept may be useful in small-to-medium-sized laboratories. It showed good agreement with Architect anti-HCV and COBAS PCR assays and is therefore useful for detection of HCV infection. Weakly test-positive (ambiguous) samples require additional testing by another anti-HCV, RIBA, or HCV RNA assay.

  8. Evaluation of the VIDAS Anti-HCV Assay for Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Jungwon; Ko, Dae-Hyun; Kang, Hee Jung; Whang, Dong Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) assays are recommended for screening HCV-infected persons. The VIDAS Anti-HCV Assay (bioMérieux, France), based on the enzyme-linked fluorescence test principle, was recently introduced in Korea. We evaluated the clinical performance of the VIDAS assay. Methods One hundred HCV-positive and 1,002 HCV-negative blood samples confirmed by Architect anti-HCV (Abbott Laboratories, USA) and COBAS TaqMan HCV real-time PCR (Roche Diagnostics, USA) or the Procleix Ultrio Plus Assay (Gen-Probe Incorporated, USA) were obtained from the Human Serum Bank (HSB) and tested by VIDAS. In case of discrepant results, we conducted a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Results The agreement rates for known HCV-positive and HCV-negative samples between the VIDAS assay and the HSB testing were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 96.4-100%) and 99.5% (95% CI: 98.8-99.8%), respectively. One of the five discrepant samples was positive for Core 2+ and NS3-2 2+ reactivity, two samples were negative, and the other two were indeterminate regarding NS4 2+ reactivity in RIBA. We observed a significant but weak positive correlation between the titers of VIDAS and Architect assays (r=0.315, P<0.001). Conclusions The VIDAS anti-HCV assay, developed on the VIDAS automated immunoassay platform based on the ready-to-use, single-sample test concept may be useful in small-to-medium-sized laboratories. It showed good agreement with Architect anti-HCV and COBAS PCR assays and is therefore useful for detection of HCV infection. Weakly test-positive (ambiguous) samples require additional testing by another anti-HCV, RIBA, or HCV RNA assay. PMID:27578508

  9. [The role of a single PCA3 test before a first negative prostate biopsy: 5-year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Bernardeau, S; Charles, T; Fromont-Hankard, G; Irani, J

    2017-04-01

    We report a 5-year follow-up of a cohort of patients who underwent a first prostate biopsy following a prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) test. We reviewed consecutive patients who had in 2008 a single urinary PCA3 test using the Gen-Probe ® assay before a first prostate biopsy for a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) between 3 and 20ng/mL and/or a suspicious digital rectal examination. PCA3 performances were analyzed in 2008 and then in 2013 after taking into account the results of repeat biopsies. At initial biopsy in 2008, among the 125 patients study cohort, prostate cancer was diagnosed in 47 patients (37.6%). Abnormal digital rectal exam, PSA density, prostate volume and PCA3 score were significantly associated with prostate cancer diagnosis. PCA3 area under the curve of the receiver operating curve was 0.67 [95%CI: 0.57-0.76] with an optimal threshold of PCA3 in this sample of 24 units. During the 5-year follow-up, among the 78 patients with a negative prostate biopsy in 2008, 23 (29.5%) had a repeat prostate biopsy of whom 14 were diagnosed with prostate cancer. PCA3 score measured in 2008 was associated with prostate cancer diagnosis (P=0.002). All 9 patients with a negative repeat prostate biopsy had a PCA3 score below the cut-off while this was the case in only 2 patients among the 14 with a positive repeat prostate biopsy. The results of a single PCA3 test before a first prostate biopsy seems to be a useful aid in deciding whether to perform a repeat biopsy. 4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. An Interactive Computer Session to Initiate Physical Activity in Sedentary Cardiac Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabio A; Smith-Ray, Renae L; Dzewaltowski, David A; Glasgow, Russell E; Lee, Rebecca E; Thomas, Deborah S K; Xu, Stanley; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-08-24

    Physical activity (PA) improves many facets of health. Despite this, the majority of American adults are insufficiently active. Adults who visit a physician complaining of chest pain and related cardiovascular symptoms are often referred for further testing. However, when this testing does not reveal an underlying disease or pathology, patients typically receive no additional standard care services. A PA intervention delivered within the clinic setting may be an effective strategy for improving the health of this population at a time when they may be motivated to take preventive action. Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of a tailored, computer-based, interactive personal action planning session to initiate PA among a group of sedentary cardiac patients following exercise treadmill testing (ETT). This study was part of a larger 2x2 randomized controlled trial to determine the impact of environmental and social-cognitive intervention approaches on the initiation and maintenance of weekly PA for patients post ETT. Participants who were referred to an ETT center but had a negative-test (ie, stress tests results indicated no apparent cardiac issues) were randomized to one of four treatment arms: (1) increased environmental accessibility to PA resources via the provision of a free voucher to a fitness facility in close proximity to their home or workplace (ENV), (2) a tailored social cognitive intervention (SC) using a "5 As"-based (ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange) personal action planning tool, (3) combined intervention of both ENV and SC approaches (COMBO), or (4) a matched contact nutrition control (CON). Each intervention was delivered using a computer-based interactive session. A general linear model for repeated measures was conducted with change in PA behavior from baseline to 1-month post interactive computer session as the primary outcome. Sedentary participants (n=452; 34.7% participation rate) without a gym membership (mean age 58.57 years

  11. 163 years of refinement: the British Geological Survey sample registration scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    Saurus (fossils), Britrocks (mineralogy and petrology) and ComBo (combined onshore and offshore boreholes). ComBo links to core images, when available. Similar links are under development for Britrocks and PalaeoSaurus, with the latter also to include HR laser scanned digital models. These databases also link to internal and public GIS systems and to the BGS digital field data capture system. PalaeoSaurus holds an identification/authority/date history for each specimen, as well as recording type status, and figure and citation details. Similar comments can be added to Britrocks and ComBo. For several years, the BGS has provided online web access to the databases, for the discovery of physical samples , including parent-child links and citation information. Regretfully, authors frequently fail to cite sample registration numbers (nineteenth century geologists were sometimes better than their twenty-first century counterparts), or to supply copies of, or links to, the data generated, despite it being a condition of sample access. The need for editors and referees to enforce the inclusion of sample registration numbers, and for authors to lodge copies of papers, reports and data with the sample providers, is more important than yet another new database.

  12. Clinical performance of RNA and DNA based HPV testing in a colposcopy setting: Influence of assay target, cut off and age.

    PubMed

    Cuschieri, Kate; Cubie, Heather; Graham, Catriona; Rowan, Jennifer; Hardie, Alison; Horne, Andrew; Earle, Camille Busby; Bailey, Andrew; Crosbie, Emma J; Kitchener, Henry

    2014-02-01

    As HPV testing is used increasingly for cervical disease management, there is a demand to optimise the performance of HPV tests, particularly with respect to specificity. To compare the clinical performance of an HPV DNA and a RNA based test in women with cytological abnormalities. The influence of age and assay cut off on test performance was also assessed. A prospective comparison of the Hybrid Capture 2 test (HC2) and the Aptima HPV assay (AHPV) was performed within a colposcopy setting. Clinical sensitivity and specificity were determined for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse. Both assays were >90% sensitive for the detection of CIN2+. AHPV was slightly more specific than HC2 [49.9% (46.8-53.1) vs 45.9% (42.8, 49.1), p<0.0001]. Raising HC2 cut off to 2 RLU did not improve specificity. A cut-off of 10 RLU increased specificity by approximately 10% - although this led to a reduction in sensitivity of 6.3% which equated to 24 missed cases of CIN2+. Both assays were more specific in women over 30 years of age, compared to women under 30 (p<0.001). Although AHPV was more specific than HC2 in the total cohort (p<0.001), we found this difference to be smaller than other studies. This could be attributed to different indications for colposcopic referral across different settings. This study also confirms the relatively poor specificity of commercial HPV assays in women under 30. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of urine specimen collection times and testing fractions for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus and high-grade cervical precancer.

    PubMed

    Senkomago, V; Des Marais, A C; Rahangdale, L; Vibat, C R T; Erlander, M G; Smith, J S

    2016-01-01

    Urine testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) detection could provide a non-invasive, simple method for cervical cancer screening. We examined whether HR-HPV detection is affected by urine collection time, portion of urine stream, or urine fraction tested, and assessed the performance of HR-HPV testing in urine for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II or worse (CIN2+). A total of 37 female colposcopy clinic attendees, ≥ 30 years, provided three urine samples: "first void" urine collected at home, and "initial stream" and "mid-stream" urine samples collected at the clinic later in the day. Self- and physician-collected brush specimens were obtained at the same clinic visit. Colposcopy was performed and directed biopsies obtained if clinically indicated. For each urine sample, HR-HPV DNA testing was conducted for unfractionated, pellet, and supernatant fractions using the Trovagene test. HR-HPV mRNA testing was performed on brush specimens using the Aptima HPV assay. HR-HPV prevalence was similar in unfractionated and pellet fractions of all urine samples. For supernatant urine fractions, HR-HPV prevalence appeared lower in mid-stream urine (56.8%[40.8-72.7%]) than in initial stream urine (75.7%[61.9-89.5%]). Sensitivity of CIN2+ detection was identical for initial stream urine and physician-collected cervical specimen (89.9%[95%CI=62.7-99.6%]), and similar to self-collected vaginal specimen (79.1%[48.1-96.6%]). This is among the first studies to compare methodologies for collection and processing of urine for HR-HPV detection. HR-HPV prevalence was similar in first void and initial stream urine, and was highly sensitive for CIN2+ detection. Additional research in a larger and general screening population is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert TV Assay for Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis with Prospectively Collected Specimens from Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, C. A.; Davis, T.; Marrazzo, J.; Furgerson, D.; Taylor, S. N.; Smith, B.; Bachmann, L. H.; Ackerman, R.; Spurrell, T.; Ferris, D.; Burnham, C.-A. D.; Reno, H.; Lebed, J.; Eisenberg, D.; Kerndt, P.; Philip, S.; Jordan, J.; Quigley, N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted disease (STD). It has been associated with preterm birth and the acquisition and transmission of HIV. Recently, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have been FDA cleared in the United States for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in specimens from both women and men. This study reports the results of a multicenter study recently conducted using the Xpert TV (T. vaginalis) assay to test specimens from both men and women. On-demand results were available in as little as 40 min for positive specimens. A total of 1,867 women and 4,791 men were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. In women, the performance of the Xpert TV assay was compared to the patient infected status (PIS) derived from the results of InPouch TV broth culture and Aptima NAAT for T. vaginalis. The diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of the Xpert TV assay for the combined female specimens (urine samples, self-collected vaginal swabs, and endocervical swabs) ranged from 99.5 to 100% and 99.4 to 99.9%, respectively. For male urine samples, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 97.2% and 99.9%, respectively, compared to PIS results derived from the results of broth culture for T. vaginalis and bidirectional gene sequencing of amplicons. Excellent performance characteristics were seen using both female and male specimens. The ease of using the Xpert TV assay should result in opportunities for enhanced screening for T. vaginalis in both men and women and, hopefully, improved control of this infection. PMID:29167292

  15. Clinical Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert TV Assay for Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis with Prospectively Collected Specimens from Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Schwebke, Jane R; Gaydos, C A; Davis, T; Marrazzo, J; Furgerson, D; Taylor, S N; Smith, B; Bachmann, L H; Ackerman, R; Spurrell, T; Ferris, D; Burnham, C A; Reno, H; Lebed, J; Eisenberg, D; Kerndt, P; Philip, S; Jordan, J; Quigley, N

    2018-02-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted disease (STD). It has been associated with preterm birth and the acquisition and transmission of HIV. Recently, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have been FDA cleared in the United States for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in specimens from both women and men. This study reports the results of a multicenter study recently conducted using the Xpert TV ( T. vaginalis ) assay to test specimens from both men and women. On-demand results were available in as little as 40 min for positive specimens. A total of 1,867 women and 4,791 men were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. In women, the performance of the Xpert TV assay was compared to the patient infected status (PIS) derived from the results of InPouch TV broth culture and Aptima NAAT for T. vaginalis The diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of the Xpert TV assay for the combined female specimens (urine samples, self-collected vaginal swabs, and endocervical swabs) ranged from 99.5 to 100% and 99.4 to 99.9%, respectively. For male urine samples, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 97.2% and 99.9%, respectively, compared to PIS results derived from the results of broth culture for T. vaginalis and bidirectional gene sequencing of amplicons. Excellent performance characteristics were seen using both female and male specimens. The ease of using the Xpert TV assay should result in opportunities for enhanced screening for T. vaginalis in both men and women and, hopefully, improved control of this infection. Copyright © 2018 Schwebke et al.

  16. Update on the College of American Pathologists Experience With High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Proficiency Testing for Cytology.

    PubMed

    Ghofrani, Mohiedean; Zhao, Chengquan; Davey, Diane D; Fan, Fang; Husain, Mujtaba; Laser, Alice; Ocal, Idris T; Shen, Rulong Z; Goodrich, Kelly; Souers, Rhona J; Crothers, Barbara A

    2016-12-01

    - Since 2008, the College of American Pathologists has provided the human papillomavirus for cytology laboratories (CHPV) proficiency testing program to help laboratories meet the requirements of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988. - To provide an update on trends in proficiency testing performance in the College of American Pathologists CHPV program during the 4-year period from 2011 through 2014 and to compare those trends with the preceding first 3 years of the program. - Responses of laboratories participating in the CHPV program from 2011 through 2014 were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed model to compare different combinations of testing medium and platform. - In total, 818 laboratories participated in the CHPV program at least once during the 4 years, with participation increasing during the study period. Concordance of participant responses with the target result was more than 98% (38 280 of 38 892). Overall performance with all 3 testing media-ThinPrep (Hologic, Bedford, Massachusetts), SurePath (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey), or Digene (Qiagen, Valencia, California)-was equivalent (P = .51), and all 4 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved platforms-Hybrid Capture 2 (Qiagen), Cervista (Hologic), Aptima (Hologic), and cobas (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, California)-outperformed laboratory-developed tests, unspecified commercial kits, and other (noncommercial) methods in ThinPrep medium (P < .001). However, certain off-label combinations of platform and medium, most notably Cervista with SurePath, demonstrated suboptimal performance (P < .001). - Laboratories demonstrated proficiency in using various combinations of testing media and platforms offered in the CHPV program, with statistically significant performance differences in certain combinations. These observations may be relevant in the current discussions about FDA oversight of laboratory-developed tests.

  17. Prospective Evaluation Of Cervico-Vaginal Self And Cervical Physician-Collection For The Detection Of Chlamydia Trachomatis, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas Vaginalis, And Mycoplasma Genitalium Infections.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Alexandre; Psioda, Matt; Ting, Jie; Campbell, Sara; Mugo, Nelly; Kwatampora, Jessie; Chitwa, Michael; Kimani, Joshua; Gakure, Anne; Smith, Jennifer S

    2018-01-02

    To examine the agreement between sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening using self-collected specimens and physician-collected specimens, and to investigate the acceptability of self-collection for screening in an 18-month study of female sex-workers (FSW) in a high-risk, low-resource setting. A total of 350 FSW in Nairobi, Kenya participated in a prospective study from 2009-2011. Women self-collected a cervico-vaginal specimen. Next, a physician conducted a pelvic examination to obtain a cervical specimen. Physician- and self-collected specimens were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) using Aptima nucleic acid amplification assays (Hologic). Specimens were collected at three-month intervals over 18-months follow-up. Kappa statistics measured agreement of positivity between self- and physician-collection. Baseline STI prevalence was 2.9% for GC, 5.2% for CT, 9.2% for TV, and 20.1% for MG in self-collected samples, and 2.3%, 3.7%, 7.2%, and 12.9% respectively in physician-collected samples. Kappa agreement was consistently strong (range 0.66-1.00) for all STIs over the 18-month study period, except MG which had moderate agreement (range: 0.50-0.75). Most participants found self-collection easy (94%) and comfortable (89%) at baseline, with responses becoming modestly more favorable over time. Self-collected specimens screening results showed strong agreement to clinical-collected specimens, except MG which was consistently detected more commonly in self- than physician-collected specimens. Acceptability of the self-collection procedure was high at baseline and increased modestly over time. In high-risk, low-resource settings, STI screening with self-collected specimens provides a reliable and acceptable alternative to screening with physician-collected specimens.

  18. A comparison of two types of running wheel in terms of mouse preference, health, and welfare.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael; Mason, Georgia

    2018-07-01

    Voluntary wheel running occurs in mice of all strains, sexes, and ages. Mice find voluntary wheel running rewarding, and it leads to numerous health benefits. For this reason wheels are used both to enhance welfare and to create models of exercise. However, many designs of running wheel are used. This makes between-study comparisons difficult, as this variability could potentially affect the amount, pattern, and/or intensity of running behaviour, and thence the wheels' effects on welfare and exercise-related changes in anatomy and physiology. This study therefore evaluated two commercially available models, chosen because safe for group-housed mice: Bio Serv®'s "fast-trac" wheel combo and Ware Manufacturing Inc.'s stainless steel mesh 5″ upright wheel. Working with a total of three hundred and fifty one female C57BL/6, DBA/2 and BALB/c mice, we assessed these wheels' relative utilization by mice when access was free; the strength of motivation for each wheel-type when access required crossing an electrified grid; and the impact each wheel had on mouse well-being (inferred from acoustic startle responses and neophobia) and exercise-related anatomical changes (BMI; heart and hind limb masses). Mice ran more on the "fast-trac" wheel regardless of whether both wheel-types were available at once, or only if one was present. In terms of motivation, subjects required to work to access a single wheel worked equally hard for both wheel-types (even if locked and thus not useable for running), but if provided with one working wheel for free and the other type of wheel (again unlocked) accessible via crossing the electrified grid, the "fast-trac" wheel emerged as more motivating, as the Maximum Price Paid for the Ware metal wheel was lower than that paid for the "fast-trac" plastic wheel, at least for C57BL/6s and DBA/2s. No deleterious consequences were noted with either wheel in terms of health and welfare, but only mice with plastic wheels developed significantly larger

  19. Obesity prevention at the point of purchase.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D A; Lesser, L I

    2016-05-01

    The point of purchase is when people may make poor and impulsive decisions about what and how much to buy and consume. Because point of purchase strategies frequently work through non-cognitive processes, people are often unable to recognize and resist them. Because people lack insight into how marketing practices interfere with their ability to routinely eat healthy, balanced diets, public health entities should protect consumers from potentially harmful point of purchase strategies. We describe four point of purchase policy options including standardized portion sizes; standards for meals that are sold as a bundle, e.g. 'combo meals'; placement and marketing restrictions on highly processed low-nutrient foods; and explicit warning labels. Adoption of such policies could contribute significantly to the prevention of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We also discuss how the policies could be implemented, along with who might favour or oppose them. Many of the policies can be implemented locally, while preserving consumer choice. © 2016 World Obesity.

  20. Accuracy of Cochlear Implant Recipients on Speech Reception in Background Music

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Kate; Turner, Christopher; Oleson, Jacob; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Driscoll, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study (a) examined speech recognition abilities of cochlear implant (CI) recipients in the spectrally complex listening condition of three contrasting types of background music, and (b) compared performance based upon listener groups: CI recipients using conventional long-electrode (LE) devices, Hybrid CI recipients (acoustic plus electric stimulation), and normal-hearing (NH) adults. Methods We tested 154 LE CI recipients using varied devices and strategies, 21 Hybrid CI recipients, and 49 NH adults on closed-set recognition of spondees presented in three contrasting forms of background music (piano solo, large symphony orchestra, vocal solo with small combo accompaniment) in an adaptive test. Outcomes Signal-to-noise thresholds for speech in music (SRTM) were examined in relation to measures of speech recognition in background noise and multi-talker babble, pitch perception, and music experience. Results SRTM thresholds varied as a function of category of background music, group membership (LE, Hybrid, NH), and age. Thresholds for speech in background music were significantly correlated with measures of pitch perception and speech in background noise thresholds; auditory status was an important predictor. Conclusions Evidence suggests that speech reception thresholds in background music change as a function of listener age (with more advanced age being detrimental), structural characteristics of different types of music, and hearing status (residual hearing). These findings have implications for everyday listening conditions such as communicating in social or commercial situations in which there is background music. PMID:23342550

  1. The effect of visualizing the flow of multimedia content among and inside devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Seok

    2009-05-01

    This study introduces a user interface, referred to as the flow interface, which provides a graphical representation of the movement of content among and inside audio/video devices. The proposed interface provides a different frame of reference with content-oriented visualization of the generation, manipulation, storage, and display of content as well as input and output. The flow interface was applied to a VCR/DVD recorder combo, one of the most complicated consumer products. A between-group experiment was performed to determine whether the flow interface helps users to perform various tasks and to examine the learning effect of the flow interface, particularly in regard to hooking up and recording tasks. The results showed that participants with access to the flow interface performed better in terms of success rate and elapsed time. In addition, the participants indicated that they could easily understand the flow interface. The potential of the flow interface for application to other audio video devices, and design issues requiring further consideration, are discussed.

  2. Physics Proofs of Four Millennium-Problems(MP) via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, London; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Siegel-Baez Cognitive-Category-Semantics"(C-C-S) tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics SoO jargonial-obfuscation elimination query WHAT? yields four "pure"-maths MP "Feet of Clay!!!" proofs: (1) Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-03-126: (CCNY;64)(94;Wiles)] Fermat's: Last-Thm. = Least-Action Ppl.; (2) P=/=NP TRIVIAL simple Euclid geometry/dimensions: NO computer anything"Feet of Clay!!!"; (3) Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture; (4) Riemann-hypotheses via COMBO.: Siegel[AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-60-124] digits log-law inversion to ONLY BEQS with ONLY zero-digit BEC, AND Rayleigh[1870;graph-thy."short-CUT method"[Doyle-Snell, Random-Walks & Electric-Nets,MAA(81)]-"Anderson"[(58)] critical-strip C-localization!!! SoO DichotomY ("V") IdentitY: #s:(Euler v Bernoulli) = (Sets v Multisets) = Quantum-Statistics(FD v BE) = Power-Spectra(1/f(0) v 1/f(1)) = Conic-Sections(Ellipse v Hyperbola) = Extent(Locality v Globality);Siegel[(89)] (so MIScalled) "complexity" as UTTER-SIMPLICITY(!!!) v COMPLICATEDNESS MEASURE(S) definition.

  3. Measure Guideline: Combined Space and Water Heating Installation and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.

    Combined space and water heater (combi or combo) systems are defined by their dual functionality. Combi systems provide both space heating and water heating capabilities with a single heat source. This guideline will focus on the installation and operation of residential systems with forced air heating and domestic hot water (DHW) functionality. Past NorthernSTAR research has used a combi system to replace a natural gas forced air distribution system furnace and tank type water heater (Schoenbauer et al. 2012; Schoenbauer, Bohac, and McAlpine 2014). The combi systems consisted of a water heater or boiler heating plant teamed with a hydronicmore » air handler that included an air handler, water coil, and water pump to circulate water between the heating plant and coil. The combi water heater or boiler had a separate circuit for DHW. Past projects focused on laboratory testing, field characterization, and control optimization of combi systems. Laboratory testing was done to fully characterize and test combi system components; field testing was completed to characterize the installed performance of combi systems; and control methodologies were analyzed to understand the potential of controls to simplify installation and design and to improve system efficiency and occupant comfort. This past work was relied upon on to create this measure guideline.« less

  4. MAHA: A comprehensive system for the storage and visualization of subsoil data for seismic microzonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Felice, P.; Spadoni, M.

    2013-04-01

    MAHA is a database-centred software system for the storage and visualization of subsoil data used for the production of seismic microzonation maps in Italy. The application was implemented using open source software in order to grant its maximum diffusion and customization. A conceptual model of the subsoil, jointly developed by the Italian National Research Council and the National Department of Civil Protection, inspired the structure of the underlying database, consisting of 15 tables, 3 of which of spatial nature to accommodate geo-referenced data associated to points, lines and polygons. A web-GIS interface acts as a bridge between the user and the database, drives the input of geo-referenced data and enables the users to formulate different types of spatial queries. A series of forms designed "ad hoc" and enriched with combo boxes provide guided procedures to maximize the fluency of data entry and to reduce the possibility of erroneous typing. One of these procedures helps to transform the descriptions of the geological units (granular materials), given in technical paper documents by using a conversational style, into standardized numeric codes. Summary reports, produced in the pdf format, can be generated through decoding and graphic display of the parameters previously entered in the database. MAHA was approved by the national commission for seismic microzonation established by the Italian Prime Minister and, in the next years, it is expected to significantly support the entire process of map production in the urban areas more exposed to seismic hazard.

  5. Feline immudeficiency virus subtypes B and A in cats from São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Nathálya Dos S; Rodrigues, Ana Paula de S; da Luz, Luciana A; Dos Reis, Luana da L; de Oliveira, Renata M; de Oliveira, Rudson A; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lucia; Dos Reis, Jenner Karlisson P; Melo, Ferdinan A

    2018-02-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the genus Lentivirus that is distributed worldwide, with prevalence rates varying between 2.5% and 44%. FIV causes immunosuppression, with depletion of TCD4 + lymphocytes, with the majority of clinical signs caused by secondary and opportunistic infections. Blood samples were collected from nine domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) from the city of São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil. All samples were positive in a rapid immunochromatographic test (SNAP® Combo FeLV Ag/FIV Antibody Test) and in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Phylogenetic analysis showed that six samples clustered within subtype B, one within subtype A, and two did not cluster with any known subtype. Five unique haplotypes (Hap-1, Hap-2, Hap-3, Hap-5 and Hap-6) and a shared haplotype (Hap-4) were found, this last one being the most frequent. This is the first report on the genetic diversity of FIV in the city of São Luís and the first report of subtype A in Brazil. New variations of the virus are also reported.

  6. Determining the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) status of FIV-vaccinated cats using point-of-care antibody kits.

    PubMed

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2015-10-01

    This study challenges the commonly held view that the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection status of FIV-vaccinated cats cannot be determined using point-of-care antibody test kits due to indistinguishable antibody production in FIV-vaccinated and naturally FIV-infected cats. The performance of three commercially available point-of-care antibody test kits was compared in a mixed population of FIV-vaccinated (n=119) and FIV-unvaccinated (n=239) cats in Australia. FIV infection status was assigned by considering the results of all antibody kits in concert with results from a commercially available PCR assay (FIV RealPCR™). Two lateral flow immunochromatography test kits (Witness FeLV/FIV; Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV) had excellent overall sensitivity (100%; 100%) and specificity (98%; 100%) and could discern the true FIV infection status of cats, irrespective of FIV vaccination history. The lateral flow ELISA test kit (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo) could not determine if antibodies detected were due to previous FIV vaccination, natural FIV infection, or both. The sensitivity and specificity of FIV RealPCR™ for detection of viral and proviral nucleic acid was 92% and 99%, respectively. These results will potentially change the way veterinary practitioners screen for FIV in jurisdictions where FIV vaccination is practiced, especially in shelter scenarios where the feasibility of mass screening is impacted by the cost of testing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Fallon, Nevada FORGE Lithology Logs and Well 21-31 Drilling Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blankenship, Doug; Hinz, Nicholas; Faulds, James

    2018-03-11

    This submission includes lithology logs for all Fallon FORGE area wells; determined from core, cuttings, and thin section. Wells included are 84-31, 21-31, 82-36, FOH-3D, 62-36, 18-5, 88-24, 86-25, FOH-2, 14-36, 17-16, 34-33, 35A-11, 51A-20, 62-15, 72-7, 86-15, Carson_Strat_1_36-32, and several others. Lithology logs last updated 3/13/2018 with confirmation well 21-31 data, and revisited existing wells. Also included is well logging data for Fallon FORGE 21-31. Well logging data includes daily reports, well logs (drill rate, lithology, fractures, mud losses, minerals, temperature, gases, and descriptions), mud reports, drilling parameter plots, daily mud loss summaries, survey reports, progress reports, plan view maps (easting, northing), and wireline logs (caliper [with GR], triple combo [GR, caliper, SP, resistivity, array induction, density, photoelectric factor, and neutron porosity], array induction with linear correlation [GR, SP, Array Induction, caliper, conductivity], and monopole compression dipole shear [GR, SP, Caliper, sonic porosity, delta-T compressional, and delta-T shear])

  8. Performance of Versions 1,2 and 3 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawson, Steven; Stolarski, Richard S.; Nielsen, J. Eric; Duncan, Bryan N.

    2008-01-01

    Version 1 of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOS CCM) was used in the first CCMVa1 model evaluation and forms the basis for several studies of links between ozone and the circulation. That version of the CCM was based on the GEOS-4 GCM. Versions 2 and 3 of the GEOS CCM are based on the GEOS-5 GCM, which retains the "Lin-Rood" dynamical core but has a totally different set of physical parameterizatiOns to GEOS-4. In Version 2 of the GEOS CCM the Goddard stratospheric chemistry module is retained. Difference between Versions 1 and 2 thus reflect the physics changes of the underlying GCMs. Several comparisons between these two models are made, several of which reveal improvements in Version 2 (including a more realistic representation of the interannual variability of the Antarctic vortex). In Version 3 of the GEOS CCM, the stratospheric chemistry mechanism is replaced by the "GMI COMBO" code that includes tropospheric chemistry and different computational approaches. An advantage of this model version. is the reduction of high ozone biases that prevail at low chlorine loadings in Versions 1 and 2. This poster will compare and contrast various aspects of the three model versions that are relevant for understanding interactions between ozone and climate.

  9. Accuracy of cochlear implant recipients in speech reception in the presence of background music.

    PubMed

    Gfeller, Kate; Turner, Christopher; Oleson, Jacob; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Driscoll, Virginia

    2012-12-01

    This study examined speech recognition abilities of cochlear implant (CI) recipients in the spectrally complex listening condition of 3 contrasting types of background music, and compared performance based upon listener groups: CI recipients using conventional long-electrode devices, Hybrid CI recipients (acoustic plus electric stimulation), and normal-hearing adults. We tested 154 long-electrode CI recipients using varied devices and strategies, 21 Hybrid CI recipients, and 49 normal-hearing adults on closed-set recognition of spondees presented in 3 contrasting forms of background music (piano solo, large symphony orchestra, vocal solo with small combo accompaniment) in an adaptive test. Signal-to-noise ratio thresholds for speech in music were examined in relation to measures of speech recognition in background noise and multitalker babble, pitch perception, and music experience. The signal-to-noise ratio thresholds for speech in music varied as a function of category of background music, group membership (long-electrode, Hybrid, normal-hearing), and age. The thresholds for speech in background music were significantly correlated with measures of pitch perception and thresholds for speech in background noise; auditory status was an important predictor. Evidence suggests that speech reception thresholds in background music change as a function of listener age (with more advanced age being detrimental), structural characteristics of different types of music, and hearing status (residual hearing). These findings have implications for everyday listening conditions such as communicating in social or commercial situations in which there is background music.

  10. Contingent choice. Exploring the relationship between sweetened beverages and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, T Bettina; McAlister, Anna R

    2013-03-01

    Adults and children are repeatedly exposed to the pairing of food and drink as found in meal deals and "combos". There may arise from this indoctrination, a contingent relationship between drink context and food preference. Our multi-method research examines food and drink combining. A survey-based study examines the food and drink pairing preferences of adults (N=60), while a laboratory study with young children (N=75, aged three to five) examines the role of drink context on vegetable consumption. The adult survey finds strong food and drink combining preferences. The pairing of soft drinks with calorie dense foods is regarded favorably, while the pairing of soft drinks with vegetables is not. In child food trials, vegetable consumption is not influenced by the child's fussiness but is influenced by the drink accompaniment. In limited contexts, these findings demonstrate the contingent relationship between drink context and food consumption. Both palate preference and associative learning may be mechanisms driving the effects of drink context on food consumption. The findings suggest simple consumer strategies that might be employed to change dietary patterns (e.g., drink water with meals), and hold straightforward policy implications (e.g., increase water as the default option in meal deals). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Imported dengue from 2013 Angola outbreak: Not just serotype 1 was detected.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cândida; Silva-Pinto, André; Lazzara, Daniela; Sobrinho-Simões, Joana; Guimarães, João Tiago; Sarmento, António

    2016-06-01

    All the reports from Angola's 2013 dengue outbreak revealed serotype 1. However, previously dengue serotypes 1-4 have been reported in Africa and in 2014 serotype 4 was reported in Angola. To report dengue serotypes in patients returning from Angola during 2013 outbreak. Retrospective, cross-sectional study. We serotyped the dengue by an in house Polymerase Chain Reaction technique in randomly selected cases. From the 2013 Angola's dengue outbreak we treated 47 adult patients. None had history of past dengue. A combo kit test for dengue revealed positive NS1 antigen in 39 and IgM antibodies in 8. From 17 randomly patients tested by RNA Real Time-PCR, 11 were positive: 7 for DENV-1, 2 for DENV-2, 1 for DENV-3 (co-infected with DENV-1) and 1 for DENV-4. None had a complicated or fatal evolution. Unlike previous reports the 4 serotypes were detected, and this resulted in a different epidemiological situation, raising the risk of future outbreaks of severe dengue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Agar Dilution, Disk Diffusion, MicroScan, and Vitek Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Methods to Broth Microdilution for Detection of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Isolates of the Family Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Steward, Christine D.; Stocker, Sheila A.; Swenson, Jana M.; O’Hara, Caroline M.; Edwards, Jonathan R.; Gaynes, Robert P.; McGowan, John E.; Tenover, Fred C.

    1999-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance appears to be increasing in many species of bacteria, particularly in those causing nosocomial infections. However, the accuracy of some antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for detecting fluoroquinolone resistance remains uncertain. Therefore, we compared the accuracy of the results of agar dilution, disk diffusion, MicroScan Walk Away Neg Combo 15 conventional panels, and Vitek GNS-F7 cards to the accuracy of the results of the broth microdilution reference method for detection of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin resistance in 195 clinical isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae collected from six U.S. hospitals for a national surveillance project (Project ICARE [Intensive Care Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology]). For ciprofloxacin, very major error rates were 0% (disk diffusion and MicroScan), 0.9% (agar dilution), and 2.7% (Vitek), while major error rates ranged from 0% (agar dilution) to 3.7% (MicroScan and Vitek). Minor error rates ranged from 12.3% (agar dilution) to 20.5% (MicroScan). For ofloxacin, no very major errors were observed, and major errors were noted only with MicroScan (3.7% major error rate). Minor error rates ranged from 8.2% (agar dilution) to 18.5% (Vitek). Minor errors for all methods were substantially reduced when results with MICs within ±1 dilution of the broth microdilution reference MIC were excluded from analysis. However, the high number of minor errors by all test systems remains a concern. PMID:9986809

  13. A Subjective Assessment of Alternative Mission Architecture Operations Concepts for the Human Exploration of Mars at NASA Using a Three-Dimensional Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavana, Madjid

    2003-01-01

    The primary driver for developing missions to send humans to other planets is to generate significant scientific return. NASA plans human planetary explorations with an acceptable level of risk consistent with other manned operations. Space exploration risks can not be completely eliminated. Therefore, an acceptable level of cost, technical, safety, schedule, and political risks and benefits must be established for exploratory missions. This study uses a three-dimensional multi-criteria decision making model to identify the risks and benefits associated with three alternative mission architecture operations concepts for the human exploration of Mars identified by the Mission Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center. The three alternatives considered in this study include split, combo lander, and dual scenarios. The model considers the seven phases of the mission including: 1) Earth Vicinity/Departure; 2) Mars Transfer; 3) Mars Arrival; 4) Planetary Surface; 5) Mars Vicinity/Departure; 6) Earth Transfer; and 7) Earth Arrival. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and subjective probability estimation are used to captures the experts belief concerning the risks and benefits of the three alternative scenarios through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes.

  14. Detection of serum antibodies against Bartonella species in cats with sporotrichosis from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Amanda A B; Favacho, Alexsandra R M; Oliveira, Raquel V C; Pessoa, Adonai A; Gomes, Raphael; Honse, Carla O; Gremião, Isabella D F; Lemos, Elba R S; Pereira, Sandro A

    2014-04-01

    Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella species, transmitted to humans through scratches or bites from infected cats and via direct contact with infected feces. Sporotrichosis, caused by the fungal complex Sporothrix, is transmitted by traumatic inoculation of the fungus. Cats are important in zoonotic transmission. Serum samples from 112 domestic cats with sporotrichosis and 77 samples from healthy cats were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), using the commercial kit Bartonella henselae IFA IgG (Bion). The presence of antibodies against feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) core antigens was detected using the commercial kit Snap Combo FIV-FeLV (Idexx). The group of animals with sporotrichosis contained 93 males with a median age of 22 months, eight (7.1%) of which were positive for FIV and 15 (13.4%) for FeLV. The group of animals without sporotrichosis contained 36 males with a median age 48 months, 10 (13.0%) of which were positive for FIV and eight (10.4%) for FeLV. Of the 112 cats with sporotrichosis and 77 cats without mycosis, 72 (64.3%) and 35 (45.5%), respectively, were IFA reactive. No association was found between age, sex, FIV/FeLV and the presence of antibodies to Bartonella species. The results suggest that the study population can be considered a potential source of zoonotic infection for both diseases.

  15. Enrichment assessment of multiple virtual screening strategies for Toll-like receptor 8 agonists based on a maximal unbiased benchmarking data set.

    PubMed

    Pei, Fen; Jin, Hongwei; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Jie; Sun, Lidan; Liu, Zhenming; Zhang, Liangren

    2015-11-01

    Toll-like receptor 8 agonists, which activate adaptive immune responses by inducing robust production of T-helper 1-polarizing cytokines, are promising candidates for vaccine adjuvants. As the binding site of toll-like receptor 8 is large and highly flexible, virtual screening by individual method has inevitable limitations; thus, a comprehensive comparison of different methods may provide insights into seeking effective strategy for the discovery of novel toll-like receptor 8 agonists. In this study, the performance of knowledge-based pharmacophore, shape-based 3D screening, and combined strategies was assessed against a maximum unbiased benchmarking data set containing 13 actives and 1302 decoys specialized for toll-like receptor 8 agonists. Prior structure-activity relationship knowledge was involved in knowledge-based pharmacophore generation, and a set of antagonists was innovatively used to verify the selectivity of the selected knowledge-based pharmacophore. The benchmarking data set was generated from our recently developed 'mubd-decoymaker' protocol. The enrichment assessment demonstrated a considerable performance through our selected three-layer virtual screening strategy: knowledge-based pharmacophore (Phar1) screening, shape-based 3D similarity search (Q4_combo), and then a Gold docking screening. This virtual screening strategy could be further employed to perform large-scale database screening and to discover novel toll-like receptor 8 agonists. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Quantifying and valuing potential climate change impacts on coral reefs in the United States: comparison of two scenarios.

    PubMed

    Lane, Diana R; Ready, Richard C; Buddemeier, Robert W; Martinich, Jeremy A; Shouse, Kate Cardamone; Wobus, Cameron W

    2013-01-01

    The biological and economic values of coral reefs are highly vulnerable to increasing atmospheric and ocean carbon dioxide concentrations. We applied the COMBO simulation model (COral Mortality and Bleaching Output) to three major U.S. locations for shallow water reefs: South Florida, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii. We compared estimates of future coral cover from 2000 to 2100 for a "business as usual" (BAU) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario with a GHG mitigation policy scenario involving full international participation in reducing GHG emissions. We also calculated the economic value of changes in coral cover using a benefit transfer approach based on published studies of consumers' recreational values for snorkeling and diving on coral reefs as well as existence values for coral reefs. Our results suggest that a reduced emissions scenario would provide a large benefit to shallow water reefs in Hawaii by delaying or avoiding potential future bleaching events. For Hawaii, reducing emissions is projected to result in an estimated "avoided loss" from 2000 to 2100 of approximately $10.6 billion in recreational use values compared to a BAU scenario. However, reducing emissions is projected to provide only a minor economic benefit in Puerto Rico and South Florida, where sea-surface temperatures are already close to bleaching thresholds and coral cover is projected to drop well below 5% cover under both scenarios by 2050, and below 1% cover under both scenarios by 2100.

  17. SciTech Connect

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.

    Combined space and water heater (combi or combo) systems are defined by their dual functionality. Combi systems provide both space heating and water heating capabilities with a single heat source. This guideline will focus on the installation and operation of residential systems with forced air heating and domestic hot water (DHW) functionality. Past NorthernSTAR research has used a combi system to replace a natural gas forced air distribution system furnace and tank type water heater (Schoenbauer et al. 2012; Schoenbauer, Bohac, and McAlpine 2014). The combi systems consisted of a water heater or boiler heating plant teamed with a hydronicmore » air handler that included an air handler, water coil, and water pump to circulate water between the heating plant and coil. The combi water heater or boiler had a separate circuit for DHW. Past projects focused on laboratory testing, field characterization, and control optimization of combi systems. Laboratory testing was done to fully characterize and test combi system components; field testing was completed to characterize the installed performance of combi systems; and control methodologies were analyzed to understand the potential of controls to simplify installation and design and to improve system efficiency and occupant comfort. This past work was relied upon on to create this measure guideline.« less

  18. Comparative evaluation of Plateletworks, Multiplate analyzer and Platelet function analyzer-200 in cardiology patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeeyong; Cho, Chi Hyun; Jung, Bo Kyeung; Nam, Jeonghun; Seo, Hong Seog; Shin, Sehyun; Lim, Chae Seung

    2018-04-14

    The objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate three commercial whole-blood platelet function analyzer systems: Platelet Function Analyzer-200 (PFA; Siemens Canada, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada), Multiplate analyzer (MP; Roche Diagnostics International Ltd., Rotkreuz, Switzerland), and Plateletworks Combo-25 kit (PLW; Helena Laboratories, Beaumont, TX, USA). Venipuncture was performed on 160 patients who visited a department of cardiology. Pairwise agreement among the three platelet function assays was assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient and percent agreement within the reference limit. Kappa values with the same agonists were poor between PFA-collagen (COL; agonist)/adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and MP-ADP (-0.147), PFA-COL/ADP and PLW-ADP (0.089), MP-ADP and PLW-ADP (0.039), PFA-COL/ADP and MP-COL (-0.039), and between PFA-COL/ADP and PLW-COL (-0.067). Nonetheless, kappa values for the same assay principle with a different agonist were slightly higher between PFA-COL/ADP and PFA-COL/EPI (0.352), MP-ADP and MP-COL (0.235), and between PLW-ADP and PLW-COL (0.247). The range of percent agreement values was 38.7% to 73.8%. Therefore, various measurements of platelet function by more than one method were needed to obtain a reliable interpretation of platelet function considering low kappa coefficient and modest percent agreement rates among 3 different platelet function tests.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Variability-selected AGN in Chandra DFS (Trevese+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevese, D.; Boutsia, K.; Vagnetti, F.; Cappellaro, E.; Puccetti, S.

    2008-11-01

    Variability is a property shared by virtually all active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and was adopted as a criterion for their selection using data from multi epoch surveys. Low Luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs) are contaminated by the light of their host galaxies, and cannot therefore be detected by the usual colour techniques. For this reason, their evolution in cosmic time is poorly known. Consistency with the evolution derived from X-ray detected samples has not been clearly established so far, also because the low luminosity population consists of a mixture of different object types. LLAGNs can be detected by the nuclear optical variability of extended objects. Several variability surveys have been, or are being, conducted for the detection of supernovae (SNe). We propose to re-analyse these SNe data using a variability criterion optimised for AGN detection, to select a new AGN sample and study its properties. We analysed images acquired with the wide field imager at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope, in the framework of the STRESS supernova survey. We selected the AXAF field centred on the Chandra Deep Field South where, besides the deep X-ray survey, various optical data exist, originating in the EIS and COMBO-17 photometric surveys and the spectroscopic database of GOODS. (1 data file).

  20. The PyCASSO database: spatially resolved stellar population properties for CALIFA galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Amorim, A. L.; García-Benito, R.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López Fernández, R.; Pérez, E.; Vale Asari, N.

    2017-11-01

    The Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey, a pioneer in integral field spectroscopy legacy projects, has fostered many studies exploring the information encoded on the spatially resolved data on gaseous and stellar features in the optical range of galaxies. We describe a value-added catalogue of stellar population properties for CALIFA galaxies analysed with the spectral synthesis code starlight and processed with the pycasso platform. Our public database (http://pycasso.ufsc.br/, mirror at http://pycasso.iaa.es/) comprises 445 galaxies from the CALIFA Data Release 3 with COMBO data. The catalogue provides maps for the stellar mass surface density, mean stellar ages and metallicities, stellar dust attenuation, star formation rates, and kinematics. Example applications both for individual galaxies and for statistical studies are presented to illustrate the power of this data set. We revisit and update a few of our own results on mass density radial profiles and on the local mass-metallicity relation. We also show how to employ the catalogue for new investigations, and show a pseudo Schmidt-Kennicutt relation entirely made with information extracted from the stellar continuum. Combinations to other databases are also illustrated. Among other results, we find a very good agreement between star formation rate surface densities derived from the stellar continuum and the H α emission. This public catalogue joins the scientific community's effort towards transparency and reproducibility, and will be useful for researchers focusing on (or complementing their studies with) stellar properties of CALIFA galaxies.

  1. Miniaturization of a Combination Langmuir/Mach Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, P. A.; Dehart, T.; Lotz, D.

    2009-11-01

    A combination Langmuir/Mach probe has been developed to measure electron temperature and density as well as ion flow speed in TCSU. The probe is fully translatable allowing it to diagnose all radial locations of the FRC at either the mid-plane, end section, or in the exhaust jets. The 1/4'' probe stalk consists of interlocking boron nitride cylinders which encompass a 1/8'' diameter stainless steel tube that houses the probe wires. In addition to the stainless steel jacket the probe wires are twisted to minimize electromagnetic noise pickup. The tip of this combo probe is composed of a boron nitride housing and eight .020'' diameter tungsten collection leads. In TCSU, the RMF used to form and sustain the FRC makes Langmuir probe measurements difficult. To this end we have developed a drive circuit that will generate the bias voltages necessary for Langmuir probe operation. This bipolar power supply can produce steady voltages up to 200 volts at loads over 1 amp and can be swept at any frequency up to 1.5 MHz. The probe current and bias voltage will be recorded with an amplifier and transmitted via fiber optic to a receiver allowing the signals to be digitized.

  2. An Advanced Bio-Inspired PhotoPlethysmoGraphy (PPG) and ECG Pattern Recognition System for Medical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Rundo, Francesco; Ortis, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Physiological signals are widely used to perform medical assessment for monitoring an extensive range of pathologies, usually related to cardio-vascular diseases. Among these, both PhotoPlethysmoGraphy (PPG) and Electrocardiography (ECG) signals are those more employed. PPG signals are an emerging non-invasive measurement technique used to study blood volume pulsations through the detection and analysis of the back-scattered optical radiation coming from the skin. ECG is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. In the present paper we propose a physiological ECG/PPG “combo” pipeline using an innovative bio-inspired nonlinear system based on a reaction-diffusion mathematical model, implemented by means of the Cellular Neural Network (CNN) methodology, to filter PPG signal by assigning a recognition score to the waveforms in the time series. The resulting “clean” PPG signal exempts from distortion and artifacts is used to validate for diagnostic purpose an EGC signal simultaneously detected for a same patient. The multisite combo PPG-ECG system proposed in this work overpasses the limitations of the state of the art in this field providing a reliable system for assessing the above-mentioned physiological parameters and their monitoring over time for robust medical assessment. The proposed system has been validated and the results confirmed the robustness of the proposed approach. PMID:29385774

  3. Atmospheric In-Situ Resource Utilization For Mars Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, Macy; Muscatello, Anthony; Hintze, Paul; Meier, Anne; Bayliss, Jon; Petersen, Elspeth

    2016-01-01

    NASA now looks to Mars as the next step in human space exploration. A couple of challenges of such a destination include affordability and weight/volume limitations. As a way to solve these issues NASA is looking into the practice of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Instead of manufacturing and bringing all the supplies necessary for a Mars mission and return trip, the goal is to send a preliminary mission to produce reserves of propellant, water, and oxygen on site. Part of this effort includes the Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The APM is part of a lander that is composed of multiple compartments, each having a unique function; regolith collection/processing, water processing, atmospheric processing, and product storage. The overall goal is to develop the capability to produce methane (CH4) and oxygen as a fuel/oxidizer combo via a Sabatier reaction using resources from the Martian environment. The APM still must undergo modifications in design, and perhaps method, to become flight-ready to produce methane at the level of purity and quantity needed for a vehicle.

  4. Obesity Prevention at the Point of Purchase

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Lesser, Lenard I.

    2017-01-01

    The point of purchase is when people may make poor and impulsive decisions about what and how much to buy and consume. Since point of purchase strategies frequently work through non-cognitive processes, people are often unable to recognize and resist them. Because people lack insight into how marketing practices interfere with their ability to routinely eat healthy, balanced diets, public health entities should protect consumers from point of purchase strategies. We describe four point of purchase policy options including standardized portion sizes; standards for meals that are sold as a bundle, e.g. “combo meals”; placement and marketing restrictions on highly processed low-nutrient foods; and explicit warning labels. Adoption of such policies could contribute significantly to the prevention of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We also discuss how the policies could be implemented, along with who might favor or oppose them. Many of the policies can be implemented locally, while preserving consumer choice. PMID:26910361

  5. Quantifying and Valuing Potential Climate Change Impacts on Coral Reefs in the United States: Comparison of Two Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Diana R.; Ready, Richard C.; Buddemeier, Robert W.; Martinich, Jeremy A.; Shouse, Kate Cardamone; Wobus, Cameron W.

    2013-01-01

    The biological and economic values of coral reefs are highly vulnerable to increasing atmospheric and ocean carbon dioxide concentrations. We applied the COMBO simulation model (COral Mortality and Bleaching Output) to three major U.S. locations for shallow water reefs: South Florida, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii. We compared estimates of future coral cover from 2000 to 2100 for a “business as usual” (BAU) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario with a GHG mitigation policy scenario involving full international participation in reducing GHG emissions. We also calculated the economic value of changes in coral cover using a benefit transfer approach based on published studies of consumers' recreational values for snorkeling and diving on coral reefs as well as existence values for coral reefs. Our results suggest that a reduced emissions scenario would provide a large benefit to shallow water reefs in Hawaii by delaying or avoiding potential future bleaching events. For Hawaii, reducing emissions is projected to result in an estimated “avoided loss” from 2000 to 2100 of approximately $10.6 billion in recreational use values compared to a BAU scenario. However, reducing emissions is projected to provide only a minor economic benefit in Puerto Rico and South Florida, where sea-surface temperatures are already close to bleaching thresholds and coral cover is projected to drop well below 5% cover under both scenarios by 2050, and below 1% cover under both scenarios by 2100. PMID:24391717

  6. Cost Analysis of a Nucleic Acid Amplification Test in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis at an Urban Hospital with a High Prevalence of TB/HIV

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun F.; Leonard, Michael K.; White, Nancy; McFarland, Deborah A.; Blumberg, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) but there is a lack of data on NAAT cost-effectiveness. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study that included all patients with an AFB smear-positive respiratory specimen at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, GA, USA between January 2002 and June 2008. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of a commercially available and FDA-approved NAAT (amplified MTD, Gen-Probe) compared to the gold standard of culture. A cost analysis was performed and included costs related to laboratory tests, hospital charges, anti-TB medications, and contact investigations. Average cost per patient was calculated under two conditions: (1) using a NAAT on all AFB smear-postive respiratory specimens and (2) not using a NAAT. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine sensitivity of cost difference to reasonable ranges of model inputs. Results During a 6 1/2 year study period, there were 1,009 patients with an AFB smear-positive respiratory specimen at our public urban hospital. We found the NAAT to be highly sensitive (99.6%) and specific (99.1%) on AFB smear-positive specimens compared to culture. Overall, the positive predictive value (PPV) of an AFB smear-positive respiratory specimen for culture-confirmed TB was 27%. The PPV of an AFB smear-positive respiratory specimen for culture-confirmed TB was significantly higher for HIV-uninfected persons compared to those who were HIV-seropositive (152/271 [56%] vs. 85/445 [19%]; RR = 2.94, 95% CI 2.36–3.65, p<0.001). The cost savings of using the NAAT was $2,003 per AFB smear-positive case. Conclusions Routine use of the NAAT on AFB smear-positive respiratory specimens was highly cost-saving in our setting at a U.S. urban public hospital with a high prevalence of TB and HIV because of the low PPV of an AFB

  7. External validation of urinary PCA3-based nomograms to individually predict prostate biopsy outcome.

    PubMed

    Auprich, Marco; Haese, Alexander; Walz, Jochen; Pummer, Karl; de la Taille, Alexandre; Graefen, Markus; de Reijke, Theo; Fisch, Margit; Kil, Paul; Gontero, Paolo; Irani, Jacques; Chun, Felix K-H

    2010-11-01

    Prior to safely adopting risk stratification tools, their performance must be tested in an external patient cohort. To assess accuracy and generalizability of previously reported, internally validated, prebiopsy prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) gene-based nomograms when applied to a large, external, European cohort of men at risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Biopsy data, including urinary PCA3 score, were available for 621 men at risk of PCa who were participating in a European multi-institutional study. All patients underwent a ≥10-core prostate biopsy. Biopsy indication was based on suspicious digital rectal examination, persistently elevated prostate-specific antigen level (2.5-10 ng/ml) and/or suspicious histology (atypical small acinar proliferation of the prostate, >/= two cores affected by high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in first set of biopsies). PCA3 scores were assessed using the Progensa assay (Gen-Probe Inc, San Diego, CA, USA). According to the previously reported nomograms, different PCA3 score codings were used. The probability of a positive biopsy was calculated using previously published logistic regression coefficients. Predicted outcomes were compared to the actual biopsy results. Accuracy was calculated using the area under the curve as a measure of discrimination; calibration was explored graphically. Biopsy-confirmed PCa was detected in 255 (41.1%) men. Median PCA3 score of biopsy-negative versus biopsy-positive men was 20 versus 48 in the total cohort, 17 versus 47 at initial biopsy, and 37 versus 53 at repeat biopsy (all p≤0.002). External validation of all four previously reported PCA3-based nomograms demonstrated equally high accuracy (0.73-0.75) and excellent calibration. The main limitations of the study reside in its early detection setting, referral scenario, and participation of only tertiary-care centers. In accordance with the original publication, previously developed PCA3-based nomograms achieved high accuracy and

  8. Comparison of the FilmArray Respiratory Panel and Prodesse Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection of Respiratory Pathogens ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Loeffelholz, M. J.; Pong, D. L.; Pyles, R. B.; Xiong, Y.; Miller, A. L.; Bufton, K. K.; Chonmaitree, T.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the diagnostic performance and overall respiratory pathogen detection rate of the premarket version of the FilmArray Respiratory Panel (RP) multiplex PCR assay (Idaho Technology, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT) with those of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared Prodesse ProFlu+, ProFAST+, ProParaflu+, Pro hMPV+, and ProAdeno+ real-time PCR assays (Gen-Probe, San Diego, CA). The assays were performed on a panel of 192 nasopharyngeal-secretion specimens collected from 81 children under 1 year of age with upper respiratory tract symptoms. To resolve discordant results and confirm pathogens detected only by the larger FilmArray panel, we performed laboratory-developed real-time PCR assays. Among viruses detectable by both commercial assays (adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 3, and respiratory syncytial virus), the FilmArray and Prodesse assays showed good overall agreement (181/192 [94.3%]; kappa = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.94). FilmArray RP detected more parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3 than ProParaflu+ (18 versus 13) while ProAdeno+ detected more adenoviruses (11 versus 6), but these differences were not statistically significant. Additionally, FilmArray RP detected 138 pathogens (confirmed as true positives) not included in the Prodesse assays (rhinovirus [RV]/enterovirus [EV], 118; bocavirus, 8; coronavirus, 7; parainfluenza virus 4, 4; Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 1). FilmArray RP was cleared by the FDA following the completion of this study. The FDA-cleared version includes the following targets: adenovirus, coronaviruses HKU1 and NL63, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), influenza A virus (to type level only), influenza A H1 seasonal virus, influenza A H3 seasonal virus, influenza A virus H1-2009, influenza B virus, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 4, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and RV/EV (no differentiation). The larger panel in the FilmArray RP assay allowed the detection of additional

  9. Performance Characteristics and Utilization of Rapid Antigen Test, DNA Probe, and Culture for Detection of Group A Streptococci in an Acute Care Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, Kimberle C.; Blake, Patricia; Wilson, Claire D.

    2002-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) antigen testing has become a routine point-of-care (POC) test in acute care settings. Concern about performance parameters (PP) of these tests as well as inappropriate antibiotic use has resulted in various recommendations regarding diagnosis of GAS. There were two objectives in this study. The first was to evaluate the rapid GAS antigen test presently in use (Thermo BioStar, Boulder, Colo.) and the GAS Direct probe test (Gen-Probe, San Diego, Calif.) compared to culture. The second was to define the optimal use of these technologies in a large acute care pediatric clinic. A total of 520 consecutive pediatric patients presenting with symptoms of pharyngitis at any of three Lahey Clinic acute care facilities were evaluated. Pharyngeal specimens were collected using a double-swab collection device (Copan, Corona, Calif.). One swab was used for the antigen test, the second was used for the probe test, and the pledget was placed in the collection device for culture on 5% sheep blood agar, incubated for 48 h anaerobically, and subsequently placed in Todd-Hewitt broth. After discrepant analysis, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were as follows: 94.8, 100, 100, and 96.9% for the probe test and 86.1, 97.1, 93.7, and 93.4% for the antigen test, respectively. Sensitivity using an enhanced culture technique was 99.4% (163 of 164). False-positive (FP) antigen results were often seen from patients previously diagnosed and/or treated for GAS. No FP results were seen with the probe test. Colony counts for the false-negative (FN) antigen tests were higher than those for the FN probe tests. Compared to culture and DNA probe, the rapid antigen test (RAT) offered a result at the time of the patient's visit, with acceptable PP when prevalence of disease is high. Follow-up testing with the RAT of GAS patients who previously tested as positive should be avoided due to increased FP results. The probe test was comparable to

  10. Screening women for cervical cancer carcinoma with a HPV mRNA test: first results from the Venice pilot program.

    PubMed

    Maggino, Tiziano; Sciarrone, Rocco; Murer, Bruno; Dei Rossi, Maria Rosa; Fedato, Chiara; Maran, Michela; Lorio, Melania; Soldà, Marika; Zago, Fiorella; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Zorzi, Manuel

    2016-08-23

    HPV DNA-based screening is more effective than a Pap test in preventing cervical cancer, but the test is less specific. New HPV tests have been proposed for primary screening. The HPV mRNA test showed a similar or slightly lower sensitivity than the HPV DNA tests but with a higher specificity. We report the results of an organised HPV mRNA-based screening pilot program in Venice, Italy. From October 2011 to May 2014, women aged 25-64 years were invited to undergo a HPV mRNA test (Aptima). Those testing positive underwent cytological triage. Women with positive cytology were referred to colposcopy, whereas those with negative cytology were referred to repeat the HPV mRNA test 1 year later. The results of the HPV mRNA test program were compared with both the local historical cytology-based program and with four neighbouring DNA HPV-based pilot projects. Overall, 23 211 women underwent a HPV mRNA test. The age-standardised positivity rate was 7.0%, higher than in HPV DNA programs (6.8%; relative rate (RR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.17). The total colposcopy referral was 5.1%, double than with cytology (2.6%; RR 2.02, 95% CI 1.82-2.25) but similar to the HPV DNA programs (4.8%; RR 1.02; 95% CI 0.96-1.08). The cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ detection rate with HPV mRNA was greater than in the HPV DNA programs at baseline (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.19-1.88) and not significantly lower at the 1-year repeat (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.40-1.16). The overall RR was 1.29 (95% CI 1.05-1.59), which was much higher than with cytology (detection rate 5.5‰ vs 2.1‰; RR 2.50, 95% CI 1.76-3.62). A screening programme based on the HPV mRNA obtained results similar to those observed with the HPV DNA test. In routine screening programmes, even a limited increase in HPV prevalence may conceal the advantage represented by the higher specificity of HPV mRNA.

  11. Duration of antibody response following vaccination against feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Harris, Matthew; Hosie, Margaret J; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Recently, two point-of-care (PoC) feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody test kits (Witness and Anigen Rapid) were reported as being able to differentiate FIV-vaccinated from FIV-infected cats at a single time point, irrespective of the gap between testing and last vaccination (0-7 years). The aim of the current study was to investigate systematically anti-FIV antibody production over time in response to the recommended primary FIV vaccination series. Methods First, residual plasma from the original study was tested using a laboratory-based ELISA to determine whether negative results with PoC testing were due to reduced as opposed to absent antibodies to gp40. Second, a prospective study was performed using immunologically naive client-owned kittens and cats given a primary FIV vaccination series using a commercially available inactivated whole cell/inactivated whole virus vaccine (Fel-O-Vax FIV, three subcutaneous injections at 4 week intervals) and tested systematically (up to 11 times) over 6 months, using four commercially available PoC FIV antibody kits (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo [detects antibodies to p15/p24], Witness FeLV/FIV [gp40], Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV [p24/gp40] and VetScan FeLV/FIV Rapid [p24]). Results The laboratory-based ELISA showed cats from the original study vaccinated within the previous 0-15 months had detectable levels of antibodies to gp40, despite testing negative with two kits that use gp40 as a capture antigen (Witness and Anigen Rapid kits). The prospective study showed that antibody testing with SNAP Combo and VetScan Rapid was positive in all cats 2 weeks after the second primary FIV vaccination, and remained positive for the duration of the study (12/12 and 10/12 cats positive, respectively). Antibody testing with Witness and Anigen Rapid was also positive in a high proportion of cats 2 weeks after the second primary FIV vaccination (8/12 and 7/12, respectively), but antibody levels declined below the level of detection in

  12. Role of HSAB concept in understanding biosorptive behaviour of various metal ions employing green biosorbent - Dry Cow Dung Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2016-04-01

    Hard & Soft Acid Base concept, HSAB theory given by Pearson, elucidates the crucial role of HSAB characteristics of both pollutants as well as the aqueous milieu. This theory can also explain the biosorptive behaviour of Dry Cow dung Powder, which helps in governing the success of process. The various metal ionic species exhibit a preference for the ligand binding on the biomass based on its chemical coordination characteristics. A comparative batch equilibration biosorptive assay has been carried out employing radiotracer technique for uptake of Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cd(II), Hg(II), Sr(II), Cs(I) and Co(II) at optimum biosorption parameters. To study the effect of interference of different salts on the percentage biosorption of metal ions on DCP, different organic as well as inorganic salts with varying proportion of 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg have been studied. The dynamics of the biosorption in terms of the order of the rate constant was studied applying different kinetic models. The best fitting model was Lagergren pseudo second order model. DCP, an eco-friendly humiresin, enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as 'Humic acid', Fulvic acid and many naturally present functional group such as carboxyl, phenols, quinols, amide etc. of both hard and soft nature, making it 'combo' in nature sorbs both concerned metal ions as well as ligands present in the system. Thus the ligands which were masking the biosorption process of heavy metal ions in this study were treated by mere increase in the dose of DCP, which successfully solves the problem without affecting efficiency of the process. This is exemplified by three very basic interactions happening in multicomponent system i.e. Synergism: Mutual enhancement; Antagonism: Mutual decrement; Non-interaction: Neutral effect. Thus DCP has a great potential in the field of water decontamination, industrial water treatment and in abatement of water pollution. So

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SSP in NIR. II. Synthesis models (Meneses-Goytia+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneses-Goytia, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Trager, S. C.; Vazdekis, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present Single Stellar Populations (SSP) models are derived from my Ph.D.'s thesis and this paper. The following nomenclature is used throughout the paper and the website (http://smg.astro-research.net/ssp-models/the-models/) to describe the models, e.g. MarS models use the M08 isochrones (Mar) and the Salpeter (S) IMF. General information about the models is given in table1. For further information, please refer to the paper. Each set of models and their corresponding predictions are available in the website and VIZIER. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) can be downloaded in a zip-file from those pages in ascii format . The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) can be downloaded in a zip-file from t hose pages in ascii format . The nomenclature of each SED is as follows: isochroneIMFsedXXXXHZX.XXXXXXXXXTgXX.XXXXXXXe+XX - where XXXX tells whether those models contain C-stars or no (COMBO or NOCS respectively) H is the spectral band in which normalization occurred Z_X.XXXXXXXXX is the metallicity in terms of Z Tg_XX.XXXXXXXe+XX is the age in years. Each set of models contains MarS - 96 SEDs GirS - 96 SEDs BaSS - 116 SEDs We have also included in the websites the Integrated colours and line-strength indices from all our models (MarS, GirS and BaSS). The SEDs were convolved to a velocity dispersion of 350km/s before calculating indices. (5 data files).

  14. The SDSS u-band Galaxy Survey: Luminosity functions and evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Baldry, Ivan K.; Glazebrook, K.; Budavari, T.

    2005-01-01

    We construct and analyze a u-band selected galaxy sample from the SDSS Southern Survey, which covers 275 deg{sup 2}. The sample includes 43223 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.005 < z < 0.3 and with 14.5 < u < 20.5. The S/N in the u-band Petrosian aperture is improved by coadding multiple epochs of imaging data and by including sky-subtraction corrections. Luminosity functions for the near-UV {sup 0.1}u band ({lambda} {approx} 322 {+-} 26 nm) are determined in redshift slices of width 0.02, which show a highly significant evolution in M* of -0.8 {+-} 0.1 mag between zmore » = 0 and 0.3; with M* - 5 log h{sub 70} = -18.84 {+-} 0.05 (AB mag), log {phi}* = -2.06 {+-} 0.03 (h{sub 70}{sup 3} Mpc{sup -3}) and log {rho}{sub L} = 19.11 {+-} 0.02 (h{sub 70} W Hz{sup -1}Mpc{sup -3}) at z = 0.1. The faint-end slope determined for z < 0.06 is given by {alpha} = -1.05 {+-} 0.08. This is in agreement with recent determinations from GALEX at shorter wavelengths. Comparing our z < 0.3 luminosity density measurements with 0.2 < z < 1.2 from COMBO-17, we find that the 280-nm density evolves as {rho}{sub L} {proportional_to} (1+z){sup {beta}} with {beta} = 2.1 {+-} 0.2; and find no evidence for any change in slope over this redshift range. By comparing with other measurements of cosmic star formation history, we estimate that the effective dust attenuation at 280 nm has increased by 0.8 {+-} 0.3 mag between z = 0 and 1.« less

  15. Development of a web-based application and multicountry analysis framework for assessing interdicted infections and cost-utility of screening donated blood for HIV, HCV and HBV.

    PubMed

    Custer, B; Janssen, M P; Hubben, G; Vermeulen, M; van Hulst, M

    2017-08-01

    Most countries test donations for HIV, HCV and HBV using serology with or without nucleic acid testing (NAT). Cost-utility analyses provide information on the relative value of different screening options. The aim of this project was to develop an open access risk assessment and cost-utility analysis web-tool for assessing HIV, HCV and HBV screening options (http://www.isbtweb.org/working-parties/transfusion-transmitted-infectious-diseases/). An analysis for six countries (Brazil, Ghana, the Netherlands, South Africa, Thailand and USA) was conducted. Four strategies; (1) antibody assays (Abs) for HIV and HCV + HBsAg, (2) antibody assays that include antigens for HIV and HCV (Combo) + HBsAg, (3) NAT in minipools of variable size (MP NAT) and (4) individual donation (ID) NAT can be evaluated using the tool. Country-specific data on donors, donation testing results, recipient outcomes and costs are entered using the online interface. Results obtained include the number infections interdicted using each screening options, and the (incremental and average) cost-utility of the options. In each of the six countries evaluated, the use of antibody assays is cost effective or even cost saving. NAT has varying cost-utility depending on the setting, and where adopted, the incremental cost-utility exceeds any previously defined or proposed threshold in each country. The web-tool allows an assessment of infectious units interdicted and value for money of different testing strategies. Regardless of gross national income (GNI) per capita, countries appear willing to dedicate healthcare resources to blood supply safety in excess of that for other sectors of health care. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  16. Patient-derived solitary fibrous tumour xenografts predict high sensitivity to doxorubicin/dacarbazine combination confirmed in the clinic and highlight the potential effectiveness of trabectedin or eribulin against this tumour.

    PubMed

    Stacchiotti, S; Saponara, M; Frapolli, R; Tortoreto, M; Cominetti, D; Provenzano, S; Negri, T; Dagrada, G P; Gronchi, A; Colombo, C; Vincenzi, B; Badalamenti, G; Zuco, V; Renne, S L; Collini, P; Morosi, C; Dei Tos, A P; Bello, E; Pilotti, S; Casali, P G; D'Incalci, M; Zaffaroni, N

    2017-05-01

    Preclinical models that mimic pathological and molecular features of solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) represent an important tool to select effective regimes and novel compounds to be tested in the clinic. This study was aimed at developing two preclinical models of SFT, assessing their predictive value in the clinic and selecting potential novel effective treatments. Two dedifferentiated-SFT (D-SFT) models obtained from patients' biopsies were grown in immunodeficient mice. The antitumour activity on these models of doxorubicin, dacarbazine (DTIC), ifosfamide (monotherapy or combination), trabectedin and eribulin was tested. Twelve SFT patients were treated with doxorubicin and DTIC. Response by RECIST, progression-free survival and overall survival were retrospectively evaluated, distinguishing malignant-SFT (M-SFT) and D-SFT. Two D-SFT patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) that represent the first available preclinical in vivo models of SFT were developed and characterised. Doxorubicin/DTIC, DTIC/ifosfamide, doxorubicin/ifosfamide combinations consistently induced better antitumour activity than the single-agents. Particularly, doxorubicin/DTIC combination caused a max tumour volume inhibition >80% in both models. Doxorubicin/DTIC combo showed activity also in the case-series. Best RECIST responses were: 6 responses (M-SFT = 2 of 7, D-SFT = 4 of 5), 1 stable disease, 5 progressions, with a 6-month median progression-free survival (M-SFT = 6, D-SFT = 10 months). The PDXs were very sensitive to trabectedin and eribulin. Doxorubicin plus DTIC combination was effective in our two D-SFT mice models and appeared to be active also in the clinic, especially in high-grade D-SFT patients. Among additional drugs tested in the PDXs, trabectedin and eribulin were highly effective, providing a rational to test these drugs in D-SFT patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [A real-world study focused on the effectiveness and safety of adalimumab as first-line anti-TNF treatment for pediatric Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Navas-López, Víctor Manuel; Pujol Muncunill, Gemma; Llerena, Enrique; Navalón Rubio, María; Gil-Ortega, David; Varea-Calderón, Vicente; Sierra Salinas, Carlos; Martin-de-Carpi, Javier

    2018-02-01

    Adalimumab (ADA), a monoclonal humanised anti-TNF antibody, is usually prescribed as a second-line treatment in paediatric Crohn's disease (CD) patients who have become unresponsive or developed intolerance to infliximab (IFX). In the case series reported, more than 70% of patients had initially been treated with IFX. Data on short- and long-term effectiveness of ADA in anti-TNF naïve patients is limited. The aim of this study is to describe our experience with ADA as a first-line anti-TNF in paediatric CD patients. This is a multicentre retrospective study including anti-TNF naïve paediatric CD patients treated with ADA as first-line anti-TNF. Sixty-two patients (34males), with a mean age of 13.0±2.4years and a disease duration of 7.3 (IQR 2.7-21) months were included. Median wPCDAI was 35 (IQR 24.3-47.5). Fifty-eight out of 62 (93.5%) were on combo therapy at baseline. Clinical remission at week12 was achieved in 50 out of 62 (80.6%) and in 57 out of 60 (95.0%) at week52. Eight patients (13%) reported adverse events. Mean height, growth rate and BMI z-scores improved significantly between baseline and week 52, especially in patients with growth failure. ADA treatment leads to lasting clinical remission in anti-TNF naïve paediatric patients with CD. ADA significantly improved growth rate in children with CD who had growth delay at baseline. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulations of Tropospheric NO2 by the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) Model Utilizing Assimilated and Forecast Meteorological Fields: Comparison to Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, J. M.; Yoshida, Y.; Duncan, B. N.; Bucsela, E. J.; Gleason, J. F.; Allen, D.; Pickering, K. E.

    2007-01-01

    We present simulations of the tropospheric composition for the years 2004 and 2005, carried out by the GMI Combined Stratosphere-Troposphere (Combo) model, at a resolution of 2degx2.5deg. The model includes a new parameterization of lightning sources of NO(x) which is coupled to the cloud mass fluxes in the adopted meteorological fields. These simulations use two different sets of input meteorological fields: a)late-look assimilated fields from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), GEOS-4 system and b) 12-hour forecast fields initialized with the assimilated data. Comparison of the forecast to the assimilated fields indicates that the forecast fields exhibit less vigorous convection, and yield tropical precipitation fields in better agreement with observations. Since these simulations include a complete representation of the stratosphere, they provide realistic stratosphere-tropospheric fluxes of O3 and NO(y). Furthermore, the stratospheric contribution to total columns of different troposheric species can be subtracted in a consistent fashion, and the lightning production of NO(y) will depend on the adopted meteorological field. We concentrate here on the simulated tropospheric columns of NO2, and compare them to observations by the OM1 instrument for the years 2004 and 2005. The comparison is used to address these questions: a) is there a significant difference in the agreement/disagreement between simulations for these two different meteorological fields, and if so, what causes these differences?; b) how do the simulations compare to OMI observations, and does this comparison indicate an improvement in simulations with the forecast fields? c) what are the implications of these simulations for our understanding of the NO2 emissions over continental polluted regions?

  19. Are there different predictors of analgesic response between antidepressants and anticonvulsants in painful diabetic neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Marchettini, P; Wilhelm, S; Petto, H; Tesfaye, S; Tölle, T; Bouhassira, D; Freynhagen, R; Cruccu, G; Lledó, A; Choy, E; Kosek, E; Micó, J A; Späth, M; Skljarevski, V; Lenox-Smith, A; Perrot, S

    2016-03-01

    To investigate baseline demographics and disease characteristics as predictors of the analgesic effect of duloxetine and pregabalin on diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP). Based on data from the COMBO-DN study, a multinational clinical trial in DPNP, the potential impact of baseline characteristics on pain relief after 8-week monotherapy with 60 mg/day duloxetine or 300 mg/day pregabalin was assessed using analyses of covariance. Subgroups of interest were characterized regarding their baseline characteristics and efficacy outcomes. A total of 804 patients were evaluated at baseline. A significant interaction with treatment was observed in the mood symptom subgroups with a larger pain reduction in duloxetine-treated patients having no mood symptoms [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) depression or anxiety subscale score <11; -2.33 (duloxetine); -1.52 (pregabalin); p = 0.024]. There were no significant interactions between treatment for subgroups by age (<65 or ≥65 years), gender, baseline pain severity [Brief Pain Inventory Modified Short Form (BPI-MSF) average pain <6 or ≥6], diabetic neuropathy duration (≤2 or >2 years), baseline haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (<8% or ≥8%), presence of comorbidities and concomitant medication use. Our analyses suggest that the efficacy of duloxetine and pregabalin for initial 8-week treatment in DPNP was consistent across examined subgroups based on demographics and disease characteristics at baseline except for the presence of mood symptoms. Duloxetine treatment appeared to be particularly beneficial in DPNP patients having no mood symptoms. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  20. Dual Combined Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Diagnosis of Lyssavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Faouzi, Abdellah; Troupin, Cécile; Nourlil, Jalal; Buchy, Philippe; Bourhy, Herve

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies) in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection. We developed a dual combined real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (combo RT-qPCR) method for pan-lyssavirus detection. This method is based on two complementary technologies: a probe-based (TaqMan) RT-qPCR for detecting the RABV species (pan-RABV RT-qPCR) and a second reaction using an intercalating dye (SYBR Green) to detect other lyssavirus species (pan-lyssa RT-qPCR). The performance parameters of this combined assay were evaluated with a large panel of primary animal samples covering almost all the genetic variability encountered at the viral species level, and they extended to almost all lyssavirus species characterized to date. This method was also evaluated for the diagnosis of human rabies on 211 biological samples (positive n = 76 and negative n = 135) including saliva, skin and brain biopsies. It detected all 41 human cases of rabies tested and confirmed the sensitivity and the interest of skin biopsy (91.5%) and saliva (54%) samples for intra-vitam diagnosis of human rabies. Finally, this method was successfully implemented in two rabies reference laboratories in enzootic countries (Cambodia and Morocco). This combined RT-qPCR method constitutes a relevant, useful, validated tool for the diagnosis of rabies in both humans and animals, and represents a promising tool for lyssavirus

  1. Dual Combined Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Diagnosis of Lyssavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Faouzi, Abdellah; Troupin, Cécile; Nourlil, Jalal; Buchy, Philippe; Bourhy, Herve

    2016-01-01

    The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies) in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection. We developed a dual combined real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (combo RT-qPCR) method for pan-lyssavirus detection. This method is based on two complementary technologies: a probe-based (TaqMan) RT-qPCR for detecting the RABV species (pan-RABV RT-qPCR) and a second reaction using an intercalating dye (SYBR Green) to detect other lyssavirus species (pan-lyssa RT-qPCR). The performance parameters of this combined assay were evaluated with a large panel of primary animal samples covering almost all the genetic variability encountered at the viral species level, and they extended to almost all lyssavirus species characterized to date. This method was also evaluated for the diagnosis of human rabies on 211 biological samples (positive n = 76 and negative n = 135) including saliva, skin and brain biopsies. It detected all 41 human cases of rabies tested and confirmed the sensitivity and the interest of skin biopsy (91.5%) and saliva (54%) samples for intra-vitam diagnosis of human rabies. Finally, this method was successfully implemented in two rabies reference laboratories in enzootic countries (Cambodia and Morocco). This combined RT-qPCR method constitutes a relevant, useful, validated tool for the diagnosis of rabies in both humans and animals, and represents a promising tool for lyssavirus

  2. Evaluation of the CDC proposed laboratory HIV testing algorithm among men who have sex with men (MSM) from five US metropolitan statistical areas using specimens collected in 2011.

    PubMed

    Masciotra, Silvina; Smith, Amanda J; Youngpairoj, Ae S; Sprinkle, Patrick; Miles, Isa; Sionean, Catlainn; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Owen, S Michele

    2013-12-01

    Until recently most testing algorithms in the United States (US) utilized Western blot (WB) as the supplemental test. CDC has proposed an algorithm for HIV diagnosis which includes an initial screen with a Combo Antigen/Antibody 4th generation-immunoassay (IA), followed by an HIV-1/2 discriminatory IA of initially reactive-IA specimens. Discordant results in the proposed algorithm are resolved by nucleic acid-amplification testing (NAAT). Evaluate the results obtained with the CDC proposed laboratory-based algorithm using specimens from men who have sex with men (MSM) obtained in five metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Specimens from 992 MSM from five MSAs participating in the CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in 2011 were tested at local facilities and CDC. The five MSAs utilized algorithms of various screening assays and specimen types, and WB as the supplemental test. At the CDC, serum/plasma specimens were screened with 4th generation-IA and the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 discriminatory assay was used as the supplemental test. NAAT was used to resolve discordant results and to further identify acute HIV infections from all screened-non-reactive missed by the proposed algorithm. Performance of the proposed algorithm was compared to site-specific WB-based algorithms. The proposed algorithm detected 254 infections. The WB-based algorithms detected 19 fewer infections; 4 by oral fluid (OF) rapid testing and 15 by WB supplemental testing (12 OF and 3 blood). One acute infection was identified by NAAT from all screened-non-reactive specimens. The proposed algorithm identified more infections than the WB-based algorithms in a high-risk MSM population. OF testing was associated with most of the discordant results between algorithms. HIV testing with the proposed algorithm can increase diagnosis of infected individuals, including early infections. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The diagnostic accuracy of three rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid fever at Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Maude, Rapeephan R; de Jong, Hanna K; Wijedoru, Lalith; Fukushima, Masako; Ghose, Aniruddha; Samad, Rasheda; Hossain, Mohammed Amir; Karim, Mohammed Rezaul; Faiz, Mohammed Abul; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of three rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for typhoid fever in febrile hospitalised patients in Bangladesh. Febrile adults and children admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh, were investigated with Bact/Alert(®) blood cultures and real-time PCR to detect Salmonella enterica Typhi and Paratyphi A and assays for Rickettsia, leptospirosis and dengue fever. Acute serum samples were examined with the LifeAssay (LA) Test-it™ Typhoid IgM lateral flow assay detecting IgM antibodies against S. Typhi O antigen, CTKBiotech Onsite Typhoid IgG/IgM Combo Rapid-test cassette lateral flow assay detecting IgG and IgM antibodies against S. Typhi O and H antigens and SD Bioline line assay for IgG and IgM antibodies against S. Typhi proteins. In 300 malaria smear-negative febrile patients [median (IQR) age of 13.5 (5-31) years], 34 (11.3%) had confirmed typhoid fever: 19 positive by blood culture for S. Typhi (three blood PCR positive) and 15 blood culture negative but PCR positive for S. Typhi in blood. The respective sensitivity and specificity of the three RDTs in patients using a composite reference standard of blood culture and/or PCR-confirmed typhoid fever were 59% and 61% for LifeAssay, 59% and 74% for the CTK IgM and/or IgG, and 24% and 96% for the SD Bioline RDT IgM and/or IgG. The LifeAssay RDT had a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 91% when modified with a positive cut-off of ≥2+ and analysed using a Bayesian latent class model. These typhoid RDTs demonstrated moderate diagnostic accuracies, and better tests are needed. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT anti-HCV assay.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Gesa; Pelzer, Claudia; Beckert, Christian; Hausmann, Michael; Kapprell, Hans-Peter

    2005-10-01

    The ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay is a fully automated high throughput chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) for the detection of antibodies to structural and nonstructural proteins of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). To further enhance the performance of this test, the assay was modified to improve the specificity for blood donor specimens. The specificity of the enhanced ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay was evaluated by screening blood donor samples randomly collected from various German blood banks, as well as hospitalized patient samples derived from Germany and the US. Additionally, antibody sensitivity was determined on commercially available anti-HCV seroconversion panels and on a commercially available worldwide anti-HCV genotype performance panel. Apparent specificity of the modified ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay in a blood donor population consisting of 3811 specimens was 99.92%, compared to 99.76% for the current on-market assay. Additionally, antibody sensitivity was determined on commercially available anti-HCV seroconversion panels. Seroconversion sensitivity equivalent to or better than the current on-market product was observed by testing 33 seroconversion panels. This study demonstrates that the modified version of the ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay shows improved specificity for blood donor specimens compared to the current assay on market without compromising sensitivity. With the availability of the improved ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay and the recent launch of the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay, the ARCHITECT system now offers a full hepatitis/retrovirus menu with excellent performance on a high throughput, random access, automated analyzer, ideally suited for blood screening and diagnostic applications.

  5. Development and implementation of the Baltimore healthy carry-outs feasibility trial: process evaluation results.

    PubMed

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Goedkoop, Sonja; Yong, Rachel; Batorsky, Benjamin; Hoffman, Vanessa; Jeffries, Jayne; Hamouda, Mohamed; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-07-09

    Prepared food sources, including fast food restaurants and carry-outs, are common in low-income urban areas. These establishments provide foods high in calories, sugar, fat, and sodium. The aims of the study were to (1) describe the development and implementation of a carry-out intervention to provide and promote healthy food choices in prepared food sources, and (2) to assess its feasibility through a process evaluation. To promote healthy eating in this setting, a culturally appropriate intervention was developed based on formative research from direct observation, interviews and focus groups. We implemented a 7-month feasibility trial in 8 carry-outs (4 intervention and 4 comparison) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore, MD. The trial included three phases: 1) Improving menu boards and labeling to promote healthier items; 2) Promoting healthy sides and beverages and introducing new items; and 3) Introducing affordable healthier combo meals and improving food preparation methods. A process evaluation was conducted to assess intervention reach, dose received, and fidelity using sales receipts, carry-out visit observations, and an intervention exposure assessment. On average, Baltimore Healthy Carry-outs (BHC) increased customer reach at intervention carry-outs; purchases increased by 36.8% at the end of the study compared to baseline. Additionally, menu boards and labels were seen by 100.0% and 84.2% of individuals (n = 101), respectively, at study completion compared to baseline. Customers reported purchasing specific foods due to the presence of a photo on the menu board (65.3%) or menu labeling (42.6%), suggesting moderate to high dose received. Promoted entrée availability and revised menu and poster presence all demonstrated high fidelity and feasibility. The results suggest that BHC is a culturally acceptable intervention. The program was also immediately adopted by the Baltimore City Food Policy Initiative as a city-wide intervention in its public

  6. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, hazard indicators and vulnerability factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauhut, V.; Stahl, K.; Stagge, J. H.; Tallaksen, L. M.; De Stefano, L.; Vogt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work (1) tests the capability of commonly applied hazard indicators and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and (2) combines information on past drought impacts, drought hazard indicators, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This "hybrid approach" bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact forecast in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro region specific sensitivities of hazard indicators, with the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for a twelve month aggregation period (SPEI-12) as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictor, with information about landuse and water resources as best vulnerability-based predictors. (3) The application of the "hybrid approach" revealed strong regional (NUTS combo level) and sector specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer aggregation periods, and a combination of information on landuse and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information

  7. Accuracy of a New Patch Pump Based on a Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Compared to Other Commercially Available Insulin Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Borot, Sophie; Franc, Sylvia; Cristante, Justine; Penfornis, Alfred; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Guerci, Bruno; Hanaire, Hélène; Renard, Eric; Reznik, Yves; Simon, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The JewelPUMP™ (JP) is a new patch pump based on a microelectromechanical system that operates without any plunger. The study aimed to evaluate the infusion accuracy of the JP in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro studies, commercially available pumps meeting the ISO standard were compared to the JP: the MiniMed® Paradigm® 712 (MP), Accu-Chek® Combo (AC), OmniPod® (OP), Animas® Vibe™ (AN). Pump accuracy was measured over 24 hours using a continuous microweighing method, at 0.1 and 1 IU/h basal rates. The occlusion alarm threshold was measured after a catheter occlusion. The JP, filled with physiological serum, was then tested in 13 patients with type 1 diabetes simultaneously with their own pump for 2 days. The weight difference was used to calculate the infused insulin volume. The JP showed reduced absolute median error rate in vitro over a 15-minute observation window compared to other pumps (1 IU/h): ±1.02% (JP) vs ±1.60% (AN), ±1.66% (AC), ±2.22% (MP), and ±4.63% (OP), P < .0001. But there was no difference over 24 hours. At 0.5 IU/h, the JP was able to detect an occlusion earlier than other pumps: 21 (19; 25) minutes vs 90 (85; 95), 58 (42; 74), and 143 (132; 218) minutes (AN, AC, MP), P < .05 vs AN and MP. In patients, the 24-hour flow error was not significantly different between the JP and usual pumps (–2.2 ± 5.6% vs –0.37 ± 4.0%, P = .25). The JP was found to be easier to wear than conventional pumps. The JP is more precise over a short time period, more sensitive to catheter occlusion, well accepted by patients, and consequently, of potential interest for a closed-loop insulin delivery system. PMID:25079676

  8. Development and implementation of the Baltimore healthy carry-outs feasibility trial: process evaluation results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prepared food sources, including fast food restaurants and carry-outs, are common in low-income urban areas. These establishments provide foods high in calories, sugar, fat, and sodium. The aims of the study were to (1) describe the development and implementation of a carry-out intervention to provide and promote healthy food choices in prepared food sources, and (2) to assess its feasibility through a process evaluation. Methods To promote healthy eating in this setting, a culturally appropriate intervention was developed based on formative research from direct observation, interviews and focus groups. We implemented a 7-month feasibility trial in 8 carry-outs (4 intervention and 4 comparison) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore, MD. The trial included three phases: 1) Improving menu boards and labeling to promote healthier items; 2) Promoting healthy sides and beverages and introducing new items; and 3) Introducing affordable healthier combo meals and improving food preparation methods. A process evaluation was conducted to assess intervention reach, dose received, and fidelity using sales receipts, carry-out visit observations, and an intervention exposure assessment. Results On average, Baltimore Healthy Carry-outs (BHC) increased customer reach at intervention carry-outs; purchases increased by 36.8% at the end of the study compared to baseline. Additionally, menu boards and labels were seen by 100.0% and 84.2% of individuals (n = 101), respectively, at study completion compared to baseline. Customers reported purchasing specific foods due to the presence of a photo on the menu board (65.3%) or menu labeling (42.6%), suggesting moderate to high dose received. Promoted entrée availability and revised menu and poster presence all demonstrated high fidelity and feasibility. Conclusions The results suggest that BHC is a culturally acceptable intervention. The program was also immediately adopted by the Baltimore City Food Policy Initiative as

  9. Development of user interface and of the data base "Earth, Moon and Planets" in the VBA environment for teaching students in the Kazan state universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, N.; Tatarinov, P.; Akutina, M.

    2009-04-01

    In the frame of bachelor and master's degree diploma work the students accumulate and do structure distribution of necessary information about the spin-orbital, dynamical and geophysical characteristics of a planet. The information about the every planet is written into Excel WorkBook, the spreadsheets of which are the data base. The names of sheets reflect their content: "General Data", "Dynamics", "Geophysics", "Engineering", "References", Slides" etc. These data are taken from the last scientific articles dedicated to the modern problems of the planetary investigations. Especial interest is connected to the Lunar sciences - last data about surface mineral distribution, crust thickness and gravity field, slides with photographies received by Video Camera and various instruments situated on the board of Lunar SELENE mission (Japan, 2007-2009 yrs). The work with the data base is executed, using elements of the object-oriented programming. The students study to include into the UserForms standard means of Windows - Dialog Windows, TextBox, CommandButton, ComboBox, ScrollBar etc., and to support these elements by the macros written in programming language VBA. The main attention in the software support of the data base is done onto opportunity to investigate the two-three layer structure of a planet via modeling of its free nutation periods - Chandler-like Wobbles, Free Core Nutation, Inner Core Wobbles and Free Inner Core Nitation and their engineering estimation for space mission observations. The results are presented in the form of tables in Sheets and of diagrams constructed by special buttons of the UserForms on the basis of the calculated tables. The research was supported by the Russian-Japanese grant RFFI-JSPS N 07-02-91212, (2007 - 2009).

  10. RF cavity design and qualification for proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, Vikas; Malhotra, Sanjay; Ukarde, Priti

    Alvarez type Drift Tube Linac (DTL) is used for acceleration of proton beam in low energy section of beta ranging from 0.04 to 0.40. DTL is cylindrical RF cavity resonating in TM010 mode at 352.21 MHz frequency. It consists of array of drift tubes arranged ensuring that DTL centre and Drift Tube centre are concentric. The Drift Tubes also houses Permanent Magnet Quadrupole for transverse focusing of proton beam. A twelve cell prototype of DTL section is designed, developed and fabricated at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay. Complete DTL accelerator consists of eight such DTL sections. High frequency microwave simulationsmore » are carried out in SOPRANO, vector fields and COMSOL simulation software. This prototype DTL is 1640.56 mm long cavity with 520 mm ID, 600 mm OD and consists of eleven Drift Tubes, two RF end flanges, three slug tuners, six post couplers, three RF field monitors, one RF waveguide coupler, two DN100 vacuum flanges and DTL tank platform with alignment features. Girder based Drift tube mounting arrangement utilizing uncompressing energy of disc springs for optimum combo RF-vacuum seal compression is worked out and implemented. This paper discusses design of this RF vacuum cavity operating at high accelerating field gradient in ultra-high vacuum. Detailed vacuum design and results of RF and vacuum qualifications are discussed. Results on mechanical accuracy achieved on scaled pre-prototype are also presented. Paper summarizes the engineering developments carried out for this RF cavity and brings out the future activities proposed in indigenous development of high gradient RF cavities for ion accelerators. (author)« less

  11. Interpretation bias modification for youth and their parents: a novel treatment for early adolescent social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Reuland, Meg M; Teachman, Bethany A

    2014-12-01

    Social anxiety is the most prevalent anxiety disorder of late adolescence, yet current treatments reach only a minority of youth with the disorder. Effective and easy-to-disseminate treatments are needed. This study pilot tested the efficacy of a novel, online cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) intervention for socially anxious youth and their parents. The CBM-I intervention targeted cognitive biases associated with early adolescents' maladaptive beliefs regarding social situations, and with parents' intrusive behavior, both of which have been theoretically linked with the maintenance of social anxiety in youth. To investigate the efficacy of intervening with parents and/or children, clinically diagnosed early adolescents (ages 10-15; N=18) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the first targeted early adolescents' cognitive biases related to social anxiety (Child-only condition); the second targeted parents' biases associated with intrusive behavior (Parent-only condition); and the third targeted both youth and parents' biases in tandem (Combo condition). The use of a multiple baseline design allowed for the efficient assessment of causal links between the intervention and reduction in social anxiety symptoms in youth. Results provided converging evidence indicating modest support for the efficacy of CBM-I, with no reliable differences across conditions. Taken together, results suggest that online CBM-I with anxious youth and/or their parents holds promise as an effective and easily administered component of treatment for child social anxiety that deserves further evaluation in a larger trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks and Children's Attention: Cognitive Engagement Works!

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Mirko; Benzing, Valentin; Kamer, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Classroom-based physical activity breaks are postulated to positively impact children's attention during their school day. However, empirical evidence for this claim is scarce and the role of cognitive engagement in enhancing children's attentional performance is unexplored in studies on physical activity breaks. The aim of the present study was therefore to disentangle the separate and/or combined effects of physical exertion and cognitive engagement induced by physical activity breaks on primary school children's attention. In addition, the role of children's affective reactions to acute interventions at school was investigated. Using a 2 × 2 between-subjects experimental design, 92 children between the ages of 11 and 12 years (M = 11.77, SD = 0.41) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: (1) combo group (physical activity with high cognitive demands), (2) cognition group (sedentary with high cognitive demands), (3) physical group (physical activity with low cognitive demands), and (4) control group (sedentary with low cognitive demands). Attention and affect were measured before and immediately after a 10-min intervention. ANCOVAs revealed that whereas physical exertion had no effect on any measure of children's attentional performance, cognitive engagement was the crucial factor leading to increased focused attention and enhanced processing speed. Mediational analyses showed that changes in positive affect during the interventions mediated the effect between cognitive engagement and focused attention as well as between cognitive engagement and processing speed. These surprising results are discussed in the light of theories predicting both facilitating and deteriorative effects of positive affect on attention. PMID:27757088

  13. Interpretation Bias Modification for Youth and their Parents: A Novel Treatment for Early Adolescent Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Reuland, Meg M.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety is the most prevalent anxiety disorder of late adolescence, yet current treatments reach only a minority of youth with the disorder. Effective and easy-to-disseminate treatments are needed. This study pilot tested the efficacy of a novel, online cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) intervention for socially anxious youth and their parents. The CBM-I intervention targeted cognitive biases associated with early adolescents’ maladaptive beliefs regarding social situations, and with parents’ intrusive behavior, both of which have been theoretically linked with the maintenance of social anxiety in youth. To investigate the efficacy of intervening with parents and/or children, clinically diagnosed early adolescents (ages 10–15; N = 18) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the first targeted early adolescents’ cognitive biases related to social anxiety (Child-only condition); the second targeted parents’ biases associated with intrusive behavior (Parent-only condition); and the third targeted both youth and parents’ biases in tandem (Combo condition). The use of a multiple baseline design allowed for the efficient assessment of causal links between the intervention and reduction in social anxiety symptoms in youth. Results provided converging evidence indicating modest support for the efficacy of CBM-I, with no reliable differences across conditions. Taken together, results suggest that online CBM-I with anxious youth and/or their parents holds promise as an effective and easily administered component of treatment for child social anxiety that deserves further evaluation in a larger trial. PMID:25445075

  14. Variability-selected active galactic nuclei from supernova search in the Chandra deep field south

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevese, D.; Boutsia, K.; Vagnetti, F.; Cappellaro, E.; Puccetti, S.

    2008-09-01

    Context: Variability is a property shared by virtually all active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and was adopted as a criterion for their selection using data from multi epoch surveys. Low Luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs) are contaminated by the light of their host galaxies, and cannot therefore be detected by the usual colour techniques. For this reason, their evolution in cosmic time is poorly known. Consistency with the evolution derived from X-ray detected samples has not been clearly established so far, also because the low luminosity population consists of a mixture of different object types. LLAGNs can be detected by the nuclear optical variability of extended objects. Aims: Several variability surveys have been, or are being, conducted for the detection of supernovae (SNe). We propose to re-analyse these SNe data using a variability criterion optimised for AGN detection, to select a new AGN sample and study its properties. Methods: We analysed images acquired with the wide field imager at the 2.2 m ESO/MPI telescope, in the framework of the STRESS supernova survey. We selected the AXAF field centred on the Chandra Deep Field South where, besides the deep X-ray survey, various optical data exist, originating in the EIS and COMBO-17 photometric surveys and the spectroscopic database of GOODS. Results: We obtained a catalogue of 132 variable AGN candidates. Several of the candidates are X-ray sources. We compare our results with an HST variability study of X-ray and IR detected AGNs, finding consistent results. The relatively high fraction of confirmed AGNs in our sample (60%) allowed us to extract a list of reliable AGN candidates for spectroscopic follow-up observations. Table [see full text] is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Assessment of platelet function in healthy sedated cats using three whole blood platelet function tests.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kimberly K; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Wood, R Darren; O'Sullivan, M Lynne; Kirby, Gordon M; Blois, Shauna L

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish feline references intervals for 3 commercial whole blood platelet function test analyzer systems: Multiplate analyzer (MP; Roche Diagnostics International Ltd., Rotkreuz, Switzerland), Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PF: Siemens Canada, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada), and Plateletworks Combo-25 kit (PW; Helena Laboratories, Beaumont, TX). Venipuncture was performed on 55 healthy sedated cats, and platelet aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen (COL), and arachidonic acid (AA; MP only) was assessed using citrated blood. For the MP analyzer, median (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) area under curve (Units) for ADP, COL, and AA agonists were 87 (11-176), 81 (32-129), and 91 (59-129), respectively. For the PF analyzer, median (95% CIs) closure time, using COL-ADP cartridges, was 69 (46-89) sec. For the PW assay, median (95% CIs) percent aggregations for ADP and COL agonists were 71 (18-92) and 49 (9-96), respectively, using impedance hematology analyzer platelet counts, and 94 (25-98) and 68 (14-119), respectively, using flow cytometry hematology analyzer platelet counts. There were low correlations between the PF analyzer (COL-ADP cartridge) and MP analyzer (COL agonist; ρ = 0.11), and between the PF analyzer (COL-ADP cartridge) and PW assay (COL agonist using impedance platelet counts; ρ = 0.14). The PW assay percent aggregations using impedance and flow cytometric platelet counts were correlated for both ADP (ρ = 0.64) and COL (ρ = 0.64) agonists. Platelet function testing using these tests are feasible in cats, but 95% CIs are wide, so single results may be difficult to interpret. Platelet counting by impedance or flow cytometry may be used for the PW assay but are not interchangeable. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Seroprevalence and determinants of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the university teaching hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Frimpong, Christiana; Makasa, Mpundu; Sitali, Lungowe; Michelo, Charles

    2017-01-05

    Toxoplasmosis is a neglected zoonotic disease which is prevalent among pregnant women especially in Africa. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and determinants of the disease among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH). A cross-sectional study was employed where 411 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at UTH were interviewed using closed ended questionnaires. Their blood was also tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using the OnSite Toxo IgG/IgM Combo Rapid test cassettes by CTK Biotech, Inc, USA. The overall seroprevalence of the infection (IgG) was 5.87%. There was no seropositive IgM result. Contact with cats showed 7.81 times the risk of contracting the infection in the pregnant women and being a farmer/being involved in construction work showed 15.5 times likelihood of contracting the infection. Socio-economic status of the pregnant women also presented an inverse relationship (showed association) with the infection graphically. However, though there were indications of association between contact with cats, employment type as well as socioeconomic status of the pregnant women with the infection, there was not enough evidence to suggest these factors as significant determining factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in our study population. There is a low prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia. Screening for the infection among pregnant women can be done once or twice during pregnancy to help protect both mother and child from the disease. Health promotion among women of child bearing age on the subject is of immense importance in order to help curb the situation. Further studies especially that of case-control and cohort studies should be carried out in the country in order to better ascertain the extent of the condition nationwide.

  17. Relevance of cutoff on a 4th generation ELISA performance in the false positive rate during HIV diagnostic in a low HIV prevalence setting.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Lucía; Mateos, María Luisa; Holguín, África

    2017-07-01

    Despite the high specificity of fourth-generation enzyme immunoassays (4th-gen-EIA) for screening during HIV diagnosis, their positive predictive value is low in populations with low HIV prevalence. Thus, screening should be optimized to reduce false positive results. The influence of sample cutoff (S/CO) values by a 4th-gen-EIA with the false positive rate during the routine HIV diagnosis in a low HIV prevalence population was evaluated. A total of 30,201 sera were tested for HIV diagnosis using Abbott Architect ® HIV-Ag/Ab-Combo 4th-gen-EIA at a hospital in Spain during 17 months. Architect S/CO values were recorded, comparing the HIV-1 positive results following Architect interpretation (S/CO≥1) with the final HIV-1 diagnosis by confirmatory tests (line immunoassay, LIA and/or nucleic acid test, NAT). ROC curve was also performed. Among the 30,201 HIV performed tests, 256 (0.85%) were positive according to Architect interpretation (S/CO≥1) but only 229 (0.76%) were definitively HIV-1 positive after LIA and/or NAT. Thus, 27 (10.5%) of 256 samples with S/CO≥1 by Architect were false positive diagnose. The false positive rate decreased when the S/CO ratio increased. All 19 samples with S/CO ≤10 were false positives and all 220 with S/CO>50 true HIV-positives. The optimal S/CO cutoff value provided by ROC curves was 32.7. No false negative results were found. We show that very low S/CO values during HIV-1 screening using Architect can result HIV negative after confirmation by LIA and NAT. The false positive rate is reduced when S/CO increases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Contamination with HIV antibody may be responsible for false positive results in specimens tested on automated platforms running HIV 4th generation assays in a region of high HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Diana Ruth; Korsman, Stephen N; Hsiao, Nei-Yuan; Morobadi, Molefi Daniel; Vawda, Sabeehah; Goedhals, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    In South Africa where the prevalence of HIV infection is very high, 4th generation HIV antibody/p24 antigen combo immunoassays are the tests of choice for laboratory based screening. Testing is usually performed in clinical pathology laboratories on automated analysers. To investigate the cause of false positive results on 4th generation HIV testing platforms in public sector laboratories, the performance of two automated platforms was compared in a clinical pathology setting, firstly on routine diagnostic specimens and secondly on known sero-negative samples. Firstly, 1181 routine diagnostic specimens were sequentially tested on Siemens and Roche automated 4th generation platforms. HIV viral load, western blot and follow up testing were used to determine the true status of inconclusive specimens. Subsequently, known HIV seronegative samples from a single donor were repeatedly tested on both platforms and an analyser was tested for surface contamination with HIV positive serum to identify how suspected specimen contamination could be occurring. Serial testing of diagnostic specimens yielded 163 weakly positive or discordant results. Only 3 of 163 were conclusively shown to indicate true HIV infection. Specimen contamination with HIV antibody was suspected, based on the following evidence: the proportion of positive specimens increased on repeated passage through the analysers; viral loads were low or undetectable and western blots negative or indeterminate on problem specimens; screen negative, 2nd test positive specimens tested positive when reanalysed on the screening assay; follow up specimens (where available) were negative. Similarly, an increasing number of known negative specimens became (repeatedly) sero-positive on serial passage through one of the analysers. Internal and external analyser surfaces were contaminated with HIV serum, evidence that sample splashes occur during testing. Due to the extreme sensitivity of these assays, contamination with minute

  19. HIV avidity index performance using a modified fourth-generation immunoassay to detect recent HIV infections.

    PubMed

    Suligoi, Barbara; Regine, Vincenza; Raimondo, Mariangela; Rodella, Anna; Terlenghi, Luigina; Caruso, Arnaldo; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Zanchetta, Nadia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Galli, Claudio

    2017-10-26

    Detecting recent HIV infections is important to evaluate incidence and monitor epidemic trends. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance and accuracy of the avidity index (AI) for discriminating for recent HIV infections. We collected serum samples from HIV-1 positive individuals: A) with known date of infection (midpoint in time between last HIV-negative and first HIV-positive test); B) infected for >1 year. Samples were divided into two aliquots: one diluted with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and the other with 1 M guanidine. Both aliquots were assayed by the Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo 4th generation assay (Abbott). We compared AI found in recent (RI=<6 months from seroconversion) and established (EI) infections. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The proportion of samples misclassified as recent (FRR) was calculated. In total, 647 samples were collected: 455 in group A (51.6% RI and 48.4% EI) and 192 in group B. Among these, sixteen samples were from elite controllers, 294 from treated patients, 328 from patients infected with non-B subtypes. Samples before antiretroviral initiation showed a mean AI significantly lower among RI compared to EI (0.66+0.28 vs. 1.00±0.12; p<0.000). The FRR was 0% using a cut-off of ≤0.70. An extremely low FRR was observed among elite controllers, samples with low VL or CD4. HIV subtype had no impact on AI misclassifications. All individuals in group A reached the AI threshold of 0.80 within 24 months after seroconversion. The AI is an accurate serological marker for discriminating recent from established HIV infections and meets WHO requirements for HIV incidence assays.

  20. Clinical Evaluation of the Use of a Multifunctional Remotely Controlled Insulin Pump

    PubMed Central

    Pinget, Michel; Lachgar, Karim; Parkin, Christopher G.; Grulet, Hervé; Guillon-Metz, Françoise; Weissmann, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Current insulin pumps now feature advanced functions for calculating insulin dosages, delivering insulin and analyzing data, however, the perceived usefulness of these functions in clinical settings has not been well studied. We assessed the use and patient perceptions of an insulin delivery system (Accu-Chek® Combo, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) that combines an insulin pump and a handheld multifunctional blood glucose meter with integrated remote control functions. This prospective, observational, multicenter study enrolled 74 type 1 diabetes patients within 13 weeks after starting use of the pump system. At 4 to 24 weeks, investigators collected usage data from the latest 14-day period. Seventy-two patients completed the evaluation, aged 39 ± 15 years, diabetes duration 16 ± 13 years, HbA1c 8.3 ± 1.6%. At follow-up, 62 (86.1%) patients used the remote control for ≥50% of all boluses, 20 (27.8%) used the bolus advisor for ≥50% of all boluses, and 42 (58.3%) viewed at least 1 of the e-logbook reports. More than 95% of users appraised the functions as easy-to-use and useful; median scores from VAS (0 = useless to 100 = indispensable) ranged from 72 to 85. A high percentage of study patients used the system’s advanced features, especially the remote control feature for bolusing. Overall, patients assessed the functions as useful and easy to use. Results support the implementation of these smart capabilities in further insulin pump developments. PMID:25107708

  1. Clinical accuracy of a PLEX-ID flu device for simultaneous detection and identification of influenza viruses A and B.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Lowery, Kristin S; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Schaefer, Virginia C; Chappell, James D; White-Abell, Jill; Quinn, Criziel D; Li, Haijing; Washington, Cicely A; Cromwell, Jenna; Giamanco, Chantel M; Forman, Michael; Holden, Jeffery; Rothman, Richard E; Parker, Michelle L; Ortenberg, Elaine V; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Yea-Lin; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections caused by influenza A and B viruses often present nonspecifically, and a rapid, high-throughput laboratory technique that can identify influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. The PLEX-ID Flu assay (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL) incorporates multilocus PCR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to detect and differentiate influenza A 2009 H1N1 (H1N1-p), seasonal H1N1 (H1N1-s), influenza A H3N2, and influenza B viruses in nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens. The clinical performance characteristics of the PLEX-ID Flu assay in symptomatic patients were determined in this multicenter trial. A total of 2,617 prospectively and retrospectively collected NPS specimens from patients with influenza-like illness between February 2008 and 28 May 2010 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Each specimen was tested in parallel by the PLEX-ID Flu assay and by the Prodesse ProFLU+ assay (Prodesse Inc., Madison, WI), to detect influenza A and B viruses. Specimens testing positive for influenza A virus by ProFLU+ were subtyped as H1N1-p, H1N1-s, or H3N2 by using the ProFAST+ assay (Gen-Probe Prodesse Inc.). The reproducibility of the PLEX-ID Flu assay ranged from 98.3 to 100.0%, as determined by testing a nine-specimen panel at three clinical sites on each of 5 days. Positive percent agreements (PPAs) and negative percent agreements (NPAs) of the PLEX-ID Flu assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for influenza A virus and 96.0% and 99.9% for influenza B virus, respectively. For the influenza A virus subtyping characterization, the PLEX-ID Flu assay had PPAs and NPAs of 98.3% and 97.5% for H1N1-p, 88.6% and 100.0% for H1N1-s, and 98.0% and 99.9% for H3N2, respectively. The overall agreements between the PLEX-ID and Prodesse ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were 97.1 to 100.0%. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing analysis revealed that 87.5% of 96 discrepant results between the PLEX-ID Flu and ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were found upon

  2. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the PROGENSA® prostate cancer antigen 3 assay and the Prostate Health Index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Amanda; Mahon, James; Boland, Angela; Beale, Sophie; Dwan, Kerry; Fleeman, Nigel; Hockenhull, Juliet; Dundar, Yenal

    2015-10-01

    There is no single definitive test to identify prostate cancer in men. Biopsies are commonly used to obtain samples of prostate tissue for histopathological examination. However, this approach frequently misses cases of cancer, meaning that repeat biopsies may be necessary to obtain a diagnosis. The PROGENSA(®) prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) assay (Hologic Gen-Probe, Marlborough, MA, USA) and the Prostate Health Index (phi; Beckman Coulter Inc., Brea, CA, USA) are two new tests (a urine test and a blood test, respectively) that are designed to be used to help clinicians decide whether or not to recommend a repeat biopsy. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the PCA3 assay and the phi in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Multiple publication databases and trial registers were searched in May 2014 (from 2000 to May 2014), including MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, Medion, Aggressive Research Intelligence Facility database, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. The assessment of clinical effectiveness involved three separate systematic reviews, namely reviews of the analytical validity, the clinical validity of these tests and the clinical utility of these tests. The assessment of cost-effectiveness comprised a systematic review of full economic evaluations and the development of a de novo economic model. The perspective of the evaluation was the NHS in England and Wales. Men suspected of having prostate cancer for whom the results of an initial prostate biopsy were negative or equivocal. The use of the PCA3 score or phi in combination with existing tests (including histopathology results, prostate-specific antigen level and digital rectal examination), multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and clinical judgement. In addition to documents published by the manufacturers, six studies

  3. Oral atorvastatin therapy increases nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in humans by decreasing ascorbate-sensitive oxidants.

    PubMed

    Holowatz, Lacy A; Kenney, W Larry

    2011-09-01

    Elevated low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are associated with cutaneous microvascular dysfunction partially mediated by increased arginase activity, which is decreased following a systemic atorvastatin therapy. We hypothesized that increased ascorbate-sensitive oxidant stress, partially mediated through uncoupled nitric oxide synthase (NOS) induced by upregulated arginase, contributes to cutaneous microvascular dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic (HC) humans. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of nine HC (LDL = 177 ± 6 mg/dl) men and women before and after 3 mo of a systemic atorvastatin intervention and at baseline in nine normocholesterolemic (NC) (LDL = 95 ± 4 mg/dl) subjects. Sites served as control, NOS inhibited, L-ascorbate, and arginase-inhibited+L-ascorbate. Skin blood flow was measured while local skin heating (42°C) induced NO-dependent vasodilation. After the established plateau in all sites, 20 mM ≪ngname≫ was infused to quantify NO-dependent vasodilation. Data were normalized to maximum cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) (sodium nitroprusside + 43°C). The plateau in vasodilation during local heating (HC: 78 ± 4 vs. NC: 96 ± 2% CVC(max), P < 0.01) and NO-dependent vasodilation (HC: 40 ± 4 vs. NC: 54 ± 4% CVC(max), P < 0.01) was reduced in the HC group. Acute L-ascorbate alone (91 ± 5% CVC(max), P < 0.001) or combined with arginase inhibition (96 ± 3% CVC(max), P < 0.001) augmented the plateau in vasodilation in the HC group but not the NC group (ascorbate: 96 ± 2; combo: 93 ± 4% CVC(max), both P > 0.05). After the atorvastatin intervention NO-dependent vasodilation was augmented in the HC group (HC postatorvastatin: 64 ± 4% CVC(max), P < 0.01), and there was no further effect of ascorbate alone (58 ± 4% CVC(max,) P > 0.05) or combined with arginase inhibition (67 ± 4% CVC(max,) P > 0.05). Increased ascorbate-sensitive oxidants contribute to hypercholesteromic associated cutaneous microvascular dysfunction which is

  4. Multicenter outpatient dinner/overnight reduction of hypoglycemia and increased time of glucose in target with a wearable artificial pancreas using modular model predictive control in adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Del Favero, S; Place, J; Kropff, J; Messori, M; Keith-Hynes, P; Visentin, R; Monaro, M; Galasso, S; Boscari, F; Toffanin, C; Di Palma, F; Lanzola, G; Scarpellini, S; Farret, A; Kovatchev, B; Avogaro, A; Bruttomesso, D; Magni, L; DeVries, J H; Cobelli, C; Renard, E

    2015-05-01

    To test in an outpatient setting the safety and efficacy of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) driven by a modular model predictive control (MMPC) algorithm informed by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measurement. 13 patients affected by type 1 diabetes participated to a non-randomized outpatient 42-h experiment that included two evening meals and overnight periods (in short, dinner & night periods). CSII was patient-driven during dinner & night period 1 and MMPC-driven during dinner&night period 2. The study was conducted in hotels, where patients could move around freely. A CGM system (G4 Platinum; Dexcom Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) and insulin pump (AccuChek Combo; Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) were connected wirelessly to a smartphone-based platform (DiAs, Diabetes Assistant; University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA) during both periods. A significantly lower percentage of time spent with glucose levels <3.9 mmol/l was achieved in period 2 compared with period 1: 1.96 ± 4.56% vs 12.76 ± 15.84% (mean ± standard deviation, p < 0.01), together with a greater percentage of time spent in the 3.9-10 mmol/l target range: 83.56 ± 14.02% vs 62.43 ± 29.03% (p = 0.04). In addition, restricting the analysis to the overnight phases, a lower percentage of time spent with glucose levels <3.9 mmol/l (1.92 ± 4.89% vs 12.7 ± 19.75%; p = 0.03) was combined with a greater percentage of time spent in 3.9-10 mmol/l target range in period 2 compared with period 1 (92.16 ± 8.03% vs 63.97 ± 2.73%; p = 0.01). Average glucose levels were similar during both periods. The results suggest that MMPC managed by a wearable system is safe and effective during evening meal and overnight. Its sustained use during this period is currently being tested in an ongoing randomized 2-month study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. IL-3R-alpha blockade inhibits tumor endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated vessel formation by targeting the β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Giusy; Gili, Maddalena; Grange, Cristina; Cavallari, Claudia; Dentelli, Patrizia; Togliatto, Gabriele; Taverna, Daniela; Camussi, Giovanni; Brizzi, Maria Felice

    2018-03-01

    The proangiogenic cytokine Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is released by inflammatory cells in breast and ovarian cancer tissue microenvironments and also acts as an autocrine factor for human breast and kidney tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs). We have previously shown that IL-3-treated endothelial cells (ECs) release extracellular vesicles (EVs), which serve as a paracrine mechanism for neighboring ECs, by transferring active molecules. The impact of an anti-IL-3R-alpha blocking antibody on the proangiogenic effect of EVs released from TECs (anti-IL-3R-EVs) has therefore been investigated in this study. We have found that anti-IL-3R-EV treatment prevented neovessel formation and, more importantly, also induced the regression of in vivo TEC-derived neovessels. Two miRs that target the canonical wingless (Wnt)/β-catenin pathway, at different levels, were found to be differentially regulated when comparing the miR-cargo of naive TEC-derived EVs (EVs) and anti-IL-3R-EVs. miR-214-3p, which directly targets β-catenin, was found to be upregulated, whereas miR-24-3p, which targets adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), was found to be downregulated. In fact, upon their transfer into the cell, low β-catenin content and high levels of the two members of the "β-catenin destruction complex" were detected. Moreover, c-myc downregulation was found in TECs treated with anti-IL-3R-EVs, pre-miR-214-3p-EVs and antago-miR-24-3p-EVs, which is consistent with network analyses of miR-214-3p and miR-24-3p gene targeting. Finally, in vivo studies have demonstrated the impaired growth of vessels in pre-miR-214-3p-EV- and antago-miR-24-3p-EV-treated animals. These effects became much more evident when combo treatment was applied. The results of the present study identify the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a relevant mechanism of TEC-derived EV proangiogenic action. Furthermore, we herein provide evidence that IL-3R blockade may yield some

  6. Are Participants in a Street-Based HIV Testing Program Able to Perform Their Own Rapid Test and Interpret the Results?

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Luis; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Hoyos, Juan; Pulido, José; Santos, Sara; Bravo, María José; Barrio, Gregorio; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Belza, María José

    2012-01-01

    Objective Availability of over-the-counter rapid HIV tests could improve access to testing those reluctant or unable to use current services. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of HIV self-testing using a finger-stick whole-blood rapid test (Determine™ HIV Combo) to detect both antigen and antibody. Methods Before being tested, 313 participants in a street-based testing program were given adapted instructions and a test kit, and performed the self-test without supervision. These participants, together with another 207 who performed supervised self-testing, received additional instructions on how to interpret the test results shown in six colour photos and filled out a questionnaire. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used in the statistical analysis. Results About 8.0% (95%CI:4.8%–11.2%) obtained an invalid self-test. An invalid result was inversely associated with male participants who had sex with men (OR = 0.3;95%CI:0.1–1.0). Of the 3111 photos interpreted,4.9% (95%CI:4.1–5.7) were incorrect. Only 1.1% (95%CI:0.3–1.8) of the positive results were interpreted as negative. Age 30 or older (OR = 2.1; 95%CI:1.2–3.7), having been born in Latin America (OR = 1.6; 95%CI:1.1–2.2),and not having university education (OR = 2.1;95%CI:1.2–3.7) were associated with misinterpreting test results in the GEE. Participant's perceptions of both their proficiency when conducting the test and interpretation were related with actual outcomes. Most participants (83.9%) were more motivated than before to use the self-test in the future, and 51.7% would pay >10 Euros for the test if it was sold in pharmacies. Conclusions This is the first study showing that blood-based self-testing with current technology is feasible in HIV-negative participants demanding the test and without prior training or supervision. Bearing in mind that it was conducted under difficult weather conditions and using a complex kit, over

  7. Prevalence and Level of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Culled Dairy Cows at Harvest.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, Zachary R; Lewis, Gentry L; Aly, Sharif S; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Moxley, Rodney A

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and level of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 (collectively EHEC-6) plus EHEC O157 in fecal, hide, and preintervention carcass surface samples from culled dairy cows. Matched samples (n = 300) were collected from 100 cows at harvest and tested by a culture-based method and two molecular methods: NeoSEEK STEC (NS) and Atlas STEC EG2 Combo. Both the culture and NS methods can be used to discriminate among the seven EHEC types (EHEC-7), from which the cumulative prevalence was inferred, whereas the Atlas method can discriminate only between EHEC O157 and non-O157 EHEC, without discrimination of the serogroup. The EHEC-7 prevalence in feces, hides, and carcass surfaces was 6.5, 15.6, and 1.0%, respectively, with the culture method and 25.9, 64.9, and 7.0%, respectively, with the NS method. With the Atlas method, the prevalence of non-O157 EHEC was 29.1, 38.3, and 28.0% and that of EHEC O157 was 29.1, 57.0, and 3.0% for feces, hides, and carcasses, respectively. Only two samples (a hide sample and a fecal sample) originating from different cows contained quantifiable EHEC. In both samples, the isolates were identified as EHEC O157, with 4.7 CFU/1,000 cm(2) in the hide sample and 3.9 log CFU/g in the fecal sample. Moderate agreement was found between culture and NS results for detection of EHEC O26 (κ = 0.58, P < 0.001), EHEC O121 (κ = 0.50, P < 0.001), and EHEC O157 (κ = 0.40, P < 0.001). No significant agreement was observed between NS and Atlas results or between culture and Atlas results. Detection of an EHEC serogroup in fecal samples was significantly associated with detection of the same EHEC serogroup in hide samples for EHEC O26 (P = 0.001), EHEC O111 (P = 0.002), EHEC O121 (P < 0.001), and EHEC-6 (P = 0.029) based on NS detection and for EHEC O121 (P < 0.001) based on detection by culture. This study provides evidence that non-O157 EHEC are

  8. Cost-effectiveness of alternative smoking cessation scenarios in Spain: results from the EQUIPTMOD.

    PubMed

    Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Muñoz, Celia; Coyle, Kathryn; Coyle, Doug; Lester-George, Adam; Leidl, Reiner; Németh, Bertalan; Cheung, Kei-Long; Pokhrel, Subhash; Lopez-Nicolás, Ángel

    2018-03-13

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative smoking cessation scenarios from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS). We used the European study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection from Tobacco model (EQUIPTMOD), a Markov-based state transition economic model, to estimate the return on investment (ROI) of: (a) the current provision of smoking cessation services (brief physician advice and printed self-helped material + smoking ban and tobacco duty at current levels); and (b) four alternative scenarios to complement the current provision: coverage of proactive telephone calls; nicotine replacement therapy (mono and combo) [prescription nicotine replacement therapy (Rx NRT)]; varenicline (standard duration); or bupropion. A rate of 3% was used to discount life-time costs and benefits. Spain. Adult smoking population (16+ years). Health-care costs associated with treatment of smoking attributable diseases (lung cancer, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary infection and stroke); intervention costs; quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Costs and outcomes were summarized using various ROI estimates. The cost of implementing the current provision of smoking cessation services is approximately €61 million in the current year. This translates to 18 quitters per 1000 smokers and a life-time benefit-cost ratio of 5, compared with no such provision. All alternative scenarios were dominant (cost-saving: less expensive to run and generated more QALYs) from the life-time perspective, compared with the current provision. The life-time benefit-cost ratios were: 1.87 (proactive telephone calls); 1.17 (Rx NRT); 2.40 (varenicline-standard duration); and bupropion (2.18). The results remained robust in the sensitivity analysis. According to the EQUIPTMOD modelling tool it would be cost-effective for the Spanish authorities to expand the reach of existing GP brief interventions for smoking cessation, provide pro-active telephone

  9. Potential for Using Acetic Acid Plus Pear Ester Combination Lures to Monitor Codling Moth in an SIT Program.

    PubMed

    Judd, Gary J R

    2016-11-25

    Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-( E , Z )-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE), with either acetic acid (AA) or sex pheromone, ( E , E )-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), might improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in an area-wide programme integrating sterile insect technology (SIT) and mating disruption (MD). Catches of sterile and wild codling moths were compared in apple orchards receiving weekly delivery of sterile moths (1:1 sex ratio) using white delta traps baited with either AA or PE alone, and in combination. Sterile and wild codling moths responded similarly to these kairomone lures. For each moth sex and type (sterile and wild), AA-PE lures were significantly more attractive than AA or PE alone. Bisexual catches with AA-PE lures were compared with those of commercial bisexual lures containing 3 mg of codlemone plus 3 mg of PE (Pherocon CM-DA Combo lure, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK, USA), and to catches of males with standard codlemone-loaded septa used in SIT (1 mg) and MD (10 mg) programmes, respectively. CM-DA lures caught the greatest number of sterile and wild male moths in orchards managed with SIT alone, or combined with MD, whereas AA-PE lures caught 2-3× more females than CM-DA lures under both management systems. Sterile to wild (S:W) ratios for male versus female moths in catches with AA-PE lures were equivalent, whereas in the same orchards, male S:W ratios were significantly greater than female S:W ratios when measured with CM-DA lures. Male S:W ratios measured with CM-DA lures were similar to those with codlemone lures. CM-DA and codlemone lures appear to overestimate S:W ratios as measured by AA-PE lures, probably by attracting relatively more sterile males from long range. Using AA-PE lures to monitor codling moths in an SIT programme removes fewer functional sterile males and reduces the need for trap maintenance compared with using

  10. Clinical performance of three bolus calculators in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a head-to-head-to-head comparison.

    PubMed

    Zisser, Howard; Wagner, Robin; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Jendrike, Nina; Parkin, Chris; Schweitzer, Matthias; Freckmann, Guido

    2010-12-01

    Insulin pump systems now provide automated bolus calculators (ABCs) that electronically calculate insulin boluses to address carbohydrate intake and out-of-range blood glucose (bG) levels. We compared the efficacy of three ABCs (Accu-Chek(®) Combo [Roche Insulin Delivery Systems (IDS), Inc., Fishers, IN, a member of the Roche Group], Animas(®) 2020 [Animas Corp., West Chester, PA, a Johnson and Johnson company], and MiniMed Paradigm Bolus Wizard(®) [Medtronic MiniMed, Northridge, CA]) to safely reduce postprandial hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). T1DM subjects (n = 24) were recruited at a single center for a prospective, triple crossover study. ABCs with the programmed target range (80-140 mg/dL) were used in random order. Postprandial hyperglycemia was induced by reducing the calculated bolus by 25%. Two hours after test meals, the ABCs were allowed to determine whether a correction bolus was needed. Differences between 6-h bG values after test meals that achieved 2-h postprandial hyperglycemia and the mean of the target range (110 mg/dL) were determined. The mean difference between 6-h bG levels following test meals and the 110 mg/dL bG target with the MiniMed device (47.4 ± 31.8 mg/dL) was significantly higher than the Animas (17.3 ± 30.9 mg/dL) and Roche IDS (18.8 ± 33.8 mg/dL) devices (P = 0.0022 and P = 0.0049, respectively). The number of meals with 2-h postprandial hyperglycemia and bG levels at 2 h was similar. Roche IDS and Animas devices recommended correction boluses significantly (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively) more frequently than the MiniMed device. ABC use was not associated with severe hypoglycemia. There was no significant difference in the rate of mild hypoglycemia (bG <60 mg/dL not requiring assistance) among the three groups (Roche IDS and Animas, n = 2; MiniMed, n = 0). In this study, the Roche IDS and Animas devices were more efficacious in controlling

  11. MiRroring the Multiple Potentials of MicroRNAs in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Solenne; Agbulut, Onnik

    2017-01-01

    or prognostic biomarkers. Furthermore, a precise combo was shown to be powerful enough to transdifferentiate human fibroblasts into CMs opening doors in the therapeutics. Following these discoveries, they also emerged as optional tools to transfect in order to mature CMs derived from pluripotent stem cells. Ultimately, the multiple potentials carried by the myomiRs miR-1; miR-133; miR-208a/b; and miR-499a still remain to be fully unveiled. PMID:29209617

  12. Strain and Defect Engineering for Tailored Electrical Properties in Perovskite Oxide Thin Films and Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsing, Greg Hsiang-Chun

    Functional complex-oxides display a wide spectrum of physical properties, including ferromagnetism, piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity, photocatalytic and metal-insulating transition (MIT) behavior. Within this family, oxides with a perovskite structure have been widely studied, especially in the form of thin films and superlattices (heterostructures), which are strategically and industrially important because they offer a wide range of opportunities for electronic, piezoelectric and sensor applications. The first part of my thesis focuses on understanding and tuning of the built-in electric field found in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 (PTO/STO) ferroelectric superlattices and other ferroelectric films. The artificial layering in ferroelectric superlattices is a potential source of polarization asymmetry, where one polarization state is preferred over another. One manifestation of this asymmetry is a built-in electric field associated with shifted polarization hysteresis. Using off-axis RF-magnetron sputtering, we prepared several compositions of PTO/STO superlattice thin films; and for comparison PbTiO3/SrRuO 3 (PTO/SRO) superlattices, which have an additional intrinsic compositional asymmetry at the interface. Both theoretical modeling and experiments indicate that the layer-by-layer superlattice structure aligns the Pb-O vacancy defect dipoles in the c direction which contributes significantly to the built-in electric field; however the preferred polarization direction is different between the PTO/STO and PTO/SRO interface. By designing a hybrid superlattice that combines PTO/STO and PTO/SRO superlattices, we show the built-in electric field can be tuned to zero by changing the composition of the combo-superlattice. The second part of my thesis focuses on the epitaxial growth of SrCrO 3 (SCO) films. The inconsistent reports regarding its electrical and magnetic properties through the years stem from the compositionally and structurally ill-defined polycrystalline samples, but

  13. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of HIV Infection/AIDS in Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmetagic, Sead; Porobić-Jahic, Humera; Piljic, Dilista; Custovic, Amer; Sabitovic, Damir; Zepic, Denis

    2015-02-01

    More than three decades after recognition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the United States, the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has dramatically changed the global burden of disease. The main goal of this research is retrospective analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 28 HIV infected patients, who were diagnosed and treated at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases in University Clinical Center Tuzla in the period from 1996 until the end of 2013. Retrospective analysis was performed using the medical records of 28 HIV-infected persons. Two rapid tests were used for HIV testing: OraQuick Advance test, Vikia HIV1/2, Elisa combo test, HIV RNA test. AIDS disease was determined by using the criteria from WHO. Among a total of 28 HIV-infected persons, 23 (82.14%) were males and 5 (17.86%) were females, with the male: female ratio of 4,6:1. In terms of the transmission route, a large proportion of cases were infected through heterosexual contact 19 (67.86%). At the time of the first visit, 16 (57.15%) patients showed asymptomatic HIV infection, 4 (14.28%) HIV infection with symptoms other than the AIDS defining diseases, and 8 (28.57) had AIDS. At the time of first hospital visit, the CD4 + cells count ranged from 40 to 1795/µl (conducted in 19 patients), and mean value of CD4 + cells was 365,31/µl, and mean HIV RNA titer was 287 118 copies/ml³. Of 28 HIV-infected persons 39 cases of opportunistic diseases developed in 12 patients (42.9%). In terms of the frequency of opportunistic diseases, tuberculosis (12 cases, 42.9%). Among a total of 28 HIV-infected patients, 6 (21.4%) of them died. This study characterizes the epidemiological and clinical patterns of HIV-infected patients in Tuzla region of Bosnia and Herzegovina to accurately understand HIV infection/AIDS in our region, in the hope to contribute in the establishment of effective HIV guidelines in the Tuzla region of B&H in the future.

  14. Prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in domesticated and feral cats in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Norris, Jacqueline M; Bell, Erin T; Hales, Louise; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; White, Joanna D; Wigney, Denise I; Baral, Randolph M; Malik, Richard

    2007-08-01

    Serum samples from 340 pet cats presented to three inner city clinics in Sydney Australia, 68 feral cats from two separate colonies in Sydney, and 329 cattery-confined pedigree and domestic cats in eastern Australia, were collected over a 2-year period and tested for antibodies directed against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) using immunomigration (Agen FIV Rapid Immunomigration test) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods (Snap Combo feline leukaemia virus antigen/FIV antibody test kit, IDEXX Laboratories). Western blot analysis was performed on samples in which there was discrepancy between the results. Information regarding breed, age, gender, housing arrangement and health status were recorded for all pet and cattery-confined cats, while the estimated age and current physical condition were recorded for feral cats. The FIV prevalence in the two feral cat populations was 21% and 25%. The majority of FIV-positive cats were male (60-80%). The FIV prevalence in cattery-confined cats was nil. The prevalence of FIV in the pet cat sample population was 8% (27/340) with almost equal prevalence in 'healthy' (13/170) and 'systemically unwell' (14/170) cats. The age of FIV-positive pet cats ranged from 3 to 19 years; all FIV-positive cats were domestic shorthairs with outside access. The median age of FIV-positive pet cats (11 years) was significantly greater than the median age of FIV-negative pet cats (7.5 years: P<0.05). The prevalence of FIV infection in male pet cats (21/172; 12%) was three times that in female pet cats (6/168; 4%; P<0.05). With over 80% of this pet cat population given outside access and continued FIV infection present in the feral population, this study highlights the need to develop rapid, accurate and cost-effective diagnostic methods that are not subject to false positives created by concurrent vaccination against FIV. This is especially important in re-homing stray cats within animal shelters and monitoring the efficacy of the new

  15. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. IV. Third public data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; García-Benito, R.; Zibetti, S.; Walcher, C. J.; Husemann, B.; Mendoza, M. A.; Galbany, L.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Mast, D.; Aceituno, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alves, J.; Amorim, A. L.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrado-Navascues, D.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Bekeraitè, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cano Díaz, M.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Cavichia, O.; Cortijo, C.; Dannerbauer, H.; Demleitner, M.; Díaz, A.; Dettmar, R. J.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; del Olmo, A.; Galazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gil de Paz, A.; González Delgado, R.; Holmes, L.; Iglésias-Páramo, J.; Kehrig, C.; Kelz, A.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Kleemann, B.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López Fernández, R.; López Sánchez, A. R.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R.; Márquez, I.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Ortega Minakata, R.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Pérez, E.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Schilling, U.; Spekkens, K.; Vale Asari, N.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van de Ven, G.; Vilchez, J. M.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Yıldırım, A.; Ziegler, B.

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the third public data release (DR3) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. Science-grade quality data for 667 galaxies are made public, including the 200 galaxies of the second public data release (DR2). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. Three different spectral setups are available: I) a low-resolution V500 setup covering the wavelength range 3745-7500 Å (4240-7140 Å unvignetted) with a spectral resolution of 6.0 Å (FWHM) for 646 galaxies, II) a medium-resolution V1200 setup covering the wavelength range 3650-4840 Å (3650-4620 Å unvignetted) with a spectral resolution of 2.3 Å (FWHM) for 484 galaxies, and III) the combination of the cubes from both setups (called COMBO) with a spectral resolution of 6.0 Å and a wavelength range between 3700-7500 Å (3700-7140 Å unvignetted) for 446 galaxies. The Main Sample, selected and observed according to the CALIFA survey strategy covers a redshift range between 0.005 and 0.03, spans the color-magnitude diagram and probes a wide range of stellar masses, ionization conditions, and morphological types. The Extension Sample covers several types of galaxies that are rare in the overall galaxy population and are therefore not numerous or absent in the CALIFA Main Sample. All the cubes in the data release were processed using the latest pipeline, which includes improved versions of the calibration frames and an even further improved image reconstruction quality. In total, the third data release contains 1576 datacubes, including ~1.5 million independent spectra. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).The spectra are available at http://califa.caha.es/DR3

  16. Acute undifferentiated fever in India: a multicentre study of aetiology and diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Mørch, Kristine; Manoharan, Anand; Chandy, Sara; Chacko, Novin; Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Patil, Suvarna; Henry, Anil; Nesaraj, Joel; Kuriakose, Cijoy; Singh, Ashita; Kurian, Siby; Gill Haanshuus, Christel; Langeland, Nina; Blomberg, Bjørn; Vasanthan Antony, George; Mathai, Dilip

    2017-10-04

    The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of malaria, bacteraemia, scrub typhus, leptospirosis, chikungunya and dengue among hospitalized patients with acute undifferentiated fever in India, and to describe the performance of standard diagnostic methods. During April 2011-November 2012, 1564 patients aged ≥5 years with febrile illness for 2-14 days were consecutively included in an observational study at seven community hospitals in six states in India. Malaria microscopy, blood culture, Dengue rapid NS1 antigen and IgM Combo test, Leptospira IgM ELISA, Scrub typhus IgM ELISA and Chikungunya IgM ELISA were routinely performed at the hospitals. Second line testing, Dengue IgM capture ELISA (MAC-ELISA), Scrub typhus immunofluorescence (IFA), Leptospira Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), malaria PCR and malaria immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic test (RDT) Parahit Total™ were performed at the coordinating centre. Convalescence samples were not available. Case definitions were as follows: Leptospirosis: Positive ELISA and positive MAT. Scrub typhus: Positive ELISA and positive IFA. Dengue: Positive RDT and/or positive MAC-ELISA. Chikungunya: Positive ELISA. Bacteraemia: Growth in blood culture excluding those defined as contaminants. Malaria: Positive genus-specific PCR. Malaria was diagnosed in 17% (268/1564) and among these 54% had P. falciparum. Dengue was diagnosed in 16% (244/1564). Bacteraemia was found in 8% (124/1564), and among these Salmonella typhi or S. paratyphi constituted 35%. Scrub typhus was diagnosed in 10%, leptospirosis in 7% and chikungunya in 6%. Fulfilling more than one case definition was common, most frequent in chikungunya where 26% (25/98) also had positive dengue test. Malaria and dengue were the most common causes of fever in this study. A high overlap between case definitions probably reflects high prevalence of prior infections, cross reactivity and subclinical infections, rather than high prevalence of

  17. Oral atorvastatin therapy increases nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in humans by decreasing ascorbate-sensitive oxidants

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry

    2011-01-01

    Elevated low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are associated with cutaneous microvascular dysfunction partially mediated by increased arginase activity, which is decreased following a systemic atorvastatin therapy. We hypothesized that increased ascorbate-sensitive oxidant stress, partially mediated through uncoupled nitric oxide synthase (NOS) induced by upregulated arginase, contributes to cutaneous microvascular dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic (HC) humans. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of nine HC (LDL = 177 ± 6 mg/dl) men and women before and after 3 mo of a systemic atorvastatin intervention and at baseline in nine normocholesterolemic (NC) (LDL = 95 ± 4 mg/dl) subjects. Sites served as control, NOS inhibited, L-ascorbate, and arginase-inhibited+L-ascorbate. Skin blood flow was measured while local skin heating (42°C) induced NO-dependent vasodilation. After the established plateau in all sites, 20 mM ≪ngname≫ was infused to quantify NO-dependent vasodilation. Data were normalized to maximum cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) (sodium nitroprusside + 43°C). The plateau in vasodilation during local heating (HC: 78 ± 4 vs. NC: 96 ± 2% CVCmax, P < 0.01) and NO-dependent vasodilation (HC: 40 ± 4 vs. NC: 54 ± 4% CVCmax, P < 0.01) was reduced in the HC group. Acute L-ascorbate alone (91 ± 5% CVCmax, P < 0.001) or combined with arginase inhibition (96 ± 3% CVCmax, P < 0.001) augmented the plateau in vasodilation in the HC group but not the NC group (ascorbate: 96 ± 2; combo: 93 ± 4% CVCmax, both P > 0.05). After the atorvastatin intervention NO-dependent vasodilation was augmented in the HC group (HC postatorvastatin: 64 ± 4% CVCmax, P < 0.01), and there was no further effect of ascorbate alone (58 ± 4% CVCmax, P > 0.05) or combined with arginase inhibition (67 ± 4% CVCmax, P > 0.05). Increased ascorbate-sensitive oxidants contribute to hypercholesteromic associated cutaneous microvascular dysfunction which is partially reversed

  18. Flow-independent dynamics in aneurysm (FIDA): pressure measurements following partial and complete flow impairment in experimental aneurysm model

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masaki; Chaudhry, Saqib A; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2014-01-01

    Background: There have been growing concerns regarding delayed aneurysm rupture subsequent to the flow-diverting stent deployment. Therefore, more investigations are needed regarding hemodynamic changes secondary to flow-diverting stent deployment. Objective: To study intra-aneurysmal and perianeurysmal pressures after partial and complete flow impairment into the aneurysm. Methods A silicone model of an 8-mm-sized aneurysm (neck diameter: 5 mm, vessel size: 4 mm) was used. The aneurysm wall was encapsulated and sealed within a 5 ml syringe filled with saline and a pressure sensor guide wire (ComboWire, Volcano Corp.) to detect pressure changes in the perivascular compartment (outer aneurysm wall). A second pressure sensor guide wire was advanced inside the aneurysm sac. Both pressure sensors were continuously measuring pressure inside and outside the aneurysm under pulsatile flow under the following conditions: 1) baseline (reference); 2) a 16 mm by 3.75 mm flow-diverting stent (ev3/Covidien Vascular, Mansfield, MA) deployed in front of the aneurysm; 3) two flow-diverting stents (16 mm by 3.5 mm) were deployed; and 4) a covered stent (4 mm by 16 mm VeriFlex coronary artery stent covered with rubber sheet) was deployed. Results: Mean (±SD) baseline pressures inside and outside the aneurysm were 53.9 (±2.4) mmHg (range 120–40 mmHg) and 15.4 (±0.7) mmHg (range 40–8mmHg), respectively. There was no change in pressure inside and outside the aneurysm after deploying the first and second flow-diverting stents (partial flow impairment) and it remained at 53.9 (±2.7) mmHg and 14.9 (±1) mmHg for the pressure inside and outside the aneurysm, respectively. The pressure recording from outside the aneurysm dropped from 15.4 (±0.7) mmHg to 0.3 (±0.7) mmHg after deploying the covered stent (complete flow impairment). There was no change in pressure inside the aneurysm after deploying the covered stent. Mean (±SD) pressure within the aneurysm was 55.1 (±1.7) mmHg and

  19. The Monoclonal Antitoxin Antibodies (Actoxumab-Bezlotoxumab) Treatment Facilitates Normalization of the Gut Microbiota of Mice with Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Džunková, Mária; D'Auria, Giuseppe; Xu, Hua; Huang, Jun; Duan, Yinghua; Moya, Andrés; Kelly, Ciarán P; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics have significant and long-lasting impacts on the intestinal microbiota and consequently reduce colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Standard therapy using antibiotics is associated with a high rate of disease recurrence, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies that target toxins, the major virulence factors, rather than the organism itself. Human monoclonal antibodies MK-3415A (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab) to C. difficile toxin A and toxin B, as an emerging non-antibiotic approach, significantly reduced the recurrence of CDI in animal models and human clinical trials. Although the main mechanism of protection is through direct neutralization of the toxins, the impact of MK-3415A on gut microbiota and its restoration has not been examined. Using a CDI murine model, we compared the bacterial diversity of the gut microbiome of mice under different treatments including MK-3415A, vancomycin, or vancomycin combined with MK-3415A, sampled longitudinally. Here, we showed that C. difficile infection resulted in the prevalence of Enterobacter species. Sixty percent of mice in the vehicle group died after 2 days and their microbiome was almost exclusively formed by Enterobacter . MK-3415A treatment resulted in lower Enterobacter levels and restoration of Blautia, Akkermansia , and Lactobacillus which were the core components of the original microbiota. Vancomycin treatment led to significantly lower survival rate than the combo treatment of MK-3415A and vancomycin. Vancomycin treatment decreased bacterial diversity with predominant Enterobacter and Akkermansia , while Staphylococcus expanded after vancomycin treatment was terminated. In contrast, mice treated by vancomycin combined with MK-3415A also experienced decreased bacterial diversity during vancomycin treatment. However, these animals were able to recover their initial Blautia and Lactobacillus proportions, even though episodes of Staphylococcus overgrowth were

  20. Evaluating Model Parameterizations of Submicron Aerosol Scattering and Absorption with in situ Data from ARCTAS 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, Matthew J.; Lonsdale, Chantelle R.; Macintyre, Helen L.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Ridley, David A.; Heald, Colette L.; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Cubison, Michael J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate modeling of the scattering and absorption of ultraviolet and visible radiation by aerosols is essential for accurate simulations of atmospheric chemistry and climate. Closure studies using in situ measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption can be used to evaluate and improve models of aerosol optical properties without interference from model errors in aerosol emissions, transport, chemistry, or deposition rates. Here we evaluate the ability of four externally mixed, fixed size distribution parameterizations used in global models to simulate submicron aerosol scattering and absorption at three wavelengths using in situ data gathered during the 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) campaign. The four models are the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) Combo model, GEOS-Chem v9- 02, the baseline configuration of a version of GEOS-Chem with online radiative transfer calculations (called GC-RT), and the Optical Properties of Aerosol and Clouds (OPAC v3.1) package. We also use the ARCTAS data to perform the first evaluation of the ability of the Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP v2.1) to simulate submicron aerosol scattering and absorption when in situ data on the aerosol size distribution are used, and examine the impact of different mixing rules for black carbon (BC) on the results. We find that the GMI model tends to overestimate submicron scattering and absorption at shorter wavelengths by 10-23 percent, and that GMI has smaller absolute mean biases for submicron absorption than OPAC v3.1, GEOS-Chem v9-02, or GC-RT. However, the changes to the density and refractive index of BC in GCRT improve the simulation of submicron aerosol absorption at all wavelengths relative to GEOS-Chem v9-02. Adding a variable size distribution, as in ASP v2.1, improves model performance for scattering but not for absorption, likely due to the assumption in ASP v2.1 that BC is present at a constant mass fraction

  1. Evaluating model parameterizations of submicron aerosol scattering and absorption with in situ data from ARCTAS 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, Matthew J.; Lonsdale, Chantelle R.; Macintyre, Helen L.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Ridley, David A.; Heald, Colette L.; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Cubison, Michael J.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kondo, Yutaka; Sahu, Lokesh K.; Dibb, Jack E.; Wang, Chien

    2016-07-01

    Accurate modeling of the scattering and absorption of ultraviolet and visible radiation by aerosols is essential for accurate simulations of atmospheric chemistry and climate. Closure studies using in situ measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption can be used to evaluate and improve models of aerosol optical properties without interference from model errors in aerosol emissions, transport, chemistry, or deposition rates. Here we evaluate the ability of four externally mixed, fixed size distribution parameterizations used in global models to simulate submicron aerosol scattering and absorption at three wavelengths using in situ data gathered during the 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) campaign. The four models are the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) Combo model, GEOS-Chem v9-02, the baseline configuration of a version of GEOS-Chem with online radiative transfer calculations (called GC-RT), and the Optical Properties of Aerosol and Clouds (OPAC v3.1) package. We also use the ARCTAS data to perform the first evaluation of the ability of the Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP v2.1) to simulate submicron aerosol scattering and absorption when in situ data on the aerosol size distribution are used, and examine the impact of different mixing rules for black carbon (BC) on the results. We find that the GMI model tends to overestimate submicron scattering and absorption at shorter wavelengths by 10-23 %, and that GMI has smaller absolute mean biases for submicron absorption than OPAC v3.1, GEOS-Chem v9-02, or GC-RT. However, the changes to the density and refractive index of BC in GC-RT improve the simulation of submicron aerosol absorption at all wavelengths relative to GEOS-Chem v9-02. Adding a variable size distribution, as in ASP v2.1, improves model performance for scattering but not for absorption, likely due to the assumption in ASP v2.1 that BC is present at a constant mass fraction

  2. Sensitivity of numerical simulation models of debris flow to the rheological parameters and application in the engineering environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, M.; Sesenna, R.; Magni, L.; Demurtas, L.; Uras, G.

    2009-04-01

    bidimensional and monodimensional commercial models for the simulation of debris flow, in particular because of the reconstruction of famous and expected events in the river basin of the Comboè torrent (Aosta Valley, Italy), it has been possible to reach careful consideration about the calibration of the rheological parameters and the sensitivity of simulation models, specifically about the variability of them. The geomechanical and volumetric characteristics of the sediment at the bottom of the debris could produce uncertainties in model implementation, above all in not exclusively cinematic models, mostly influenced by the rheological parameters. The parameter that mainly influences the final result of the applied numerical models is the volumetric solid concentration that is variable in space and time during the debris flow propagation. In fact rheological parameters are described by a power equation of volumetric concentration. The potentiality and the suitability of a numerical code in the engineering environmental application have to be consider not referring only to the quality and amount of results, but also to the sensibility regarding the parameters variability that are bases of the inner ruotines of the program. Therefore, a suitable model will have to be sensitive to the variability of parameters that the customer can calculate with greater precision. On the other side, it will have to be sufficiently stable to the variation of those parameters that the customer cannot define univocally, but only by range of variation. One of the models utilized for the simulation of debris flow on the Comboè Torrent has been demonstrated as an heavy influenced example by small variation of rheological parameters. Consequently, in spite of the possibility to lead accurate procedures of back-analysis about a recent intense event, it has been found a difficulty in the calibration of the concentration for new expected events. That involved an extreme variability of the final results

  3. GES DAAC HDF Data Processing and Visualization Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, D.; Cho, S.; Johnson, J.; Li, J.; Liu, Z.; Lu, L.; Pollack, N.; Qin, J.; Savtchenko, A.; Teng, B.

    2002-12-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) plays a major role in enabling basic scientific research and providing access to scientific data to the general user community. Several GES DAAC Data Support Teams provide expert assistance to users in accessing data, including information on visualization tools and documentation for data products. To provide easy access to the science data, the data support teams have additionally developed many online and desktop tools for data processing and visualization. This presentation is an overview of major HDF tools implemented at the GES DAAC and aimed at optimizing access to EOS data for the Earth Sciences community. GES DAAC ONLINE TOOLS: MODIS and AIRS on-demand Channel/Variable Subsetter are web-based, on-the-fly/on-demand subsetters that perform channel/variable subsetting and restructuring for Level1B and Level 2 data products. Users can specify criteria to subset data files with desired channels and variables and then download the subsetted file. AIRS QuickLook is a CGI/IDL combo package that allows users to view AIRS/HSB/AMSU Level-1B data online by specifying a channel prior to obtaining data. A global map is also provided along with the image to show geographic coverage of the granule and flight direction of the spacecraft. OASIS (Online data AnalySIS) is an IDL-based HTML/CGI interface for search, selection, and simple analysis of earth science data. It supports binary and GRIB formatted data, such as TOVS, Data Assimilation products, and some NCEP operational products. TRMM Online Analysis System is designed for quick exploration, analyses, and visualization of TRMM Level-3 and other precipitation products. The products consist of the daily (3B42), monthly(3B43), near-real-time (3B42RT), and Willmott's climate data. The system is also designed to be simple and easy to use - users can plot the average or accumulated rainfall over their region of interest for a given time period, or plot

  4. Acute HIV infection (AHI) in a specialized clinical setting: case-finding, description of virological, epidemiological and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ammassari, Adriana; Abbate, Isabella; Orchi, Nicoletta; Pinnetti, Carmela; Rozera, Gabriella; Libertone, Raffaella; Pierro, Paola; Martini, Federico; Puro, Vincenzo; Girardi, Enrico; Antinori, Andrea; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of HIV infection during early stages is mandatory to catch up with the challenge of limiting HIV viral replication and reservoirs formation, as well as decreasing HIV transmissions by immediate cART initiation. Aims were to describe (a) virological characteristics of AHI identified, (b) epidemiological and clinical factors associated with being diagnosed with AHI. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. All individuals diagnosed with AHI according to Fiebig's staging between Jan 2013 and Mar 2014 at the INMI "L. Spallanzani" were included. Serum samples reactive to a fourth generation HIV-1/2 assay (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo, Abbott) were retested with another fourth generation assay (VIDAS DUO HIV Ultra, Biomérieux) and underwent confirmation with HIV-1 WB (New Lav I Bio-Rad) and/or with Geenius confirmatory assay (Bio-Rad). WHO criteria (two env products reactivity) were used to establish positivity of confirmatory assays. In case of clinically suspected AHI, HIV-1 RNA (Real time, Abbott) and p24 assay (VIDAS HIV P24 Bio-Rad) were also performed. Avidity test was carried out, on confirmed positive samples lacking p31 reactivity, to discriminate between recent (true Fiebig V phase) and late infections; to avoid possible misclassifications, clinical data were also used. Demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data are routinely, and anonymously recorded in the SENDIH and SIREA studies. During the study period, we observed 483 newly HIV diagnosed individuals, of whom 40 were identified as AHI (8.3%). Fiebig classification showed: 7 stage II/III, 13 stage IV, 20 stage V. Demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of patients are shown in the Table. Overall, the study population had a median S/Co ratio at fourth generation EIA (Architect) of 49.50 (IQR, 23.54-98.05): values were significantly lower in Fiebig II-IV than in Fiebig V (38.68 [IQR, 20.08-54.84] vs 75.72 [IQR, 42.66-249.80], p=0.01). Overall, median HIV-1 RNA was 5

  5. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon in the melt water of Icelandic glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chifflard, Peter; Reiss, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Recently, glaciers have been recognized as unique ecosystems with potential effects on the global carbon cycle. Among other transport processes organic carbon stored in glacier ecosystems is released from the glaciers through melt at the glaciers surface that discharges into proglacial streams and finally into the ocean. Nevertheless, the potential role of glaciers in the carbon cycle remains poorly understood (Hood et al. 2015). One particular problem in this respect is that there is a lack in regional and global analysis of the total amount of organic carbon released from glaciers. Although, the release of organic carbon has been investigated in proglacial streams in Alaska, the European Alps and Greenland, to our knowledge, there is no information available for Icelandic proglacial streams. Thus, the aims of this study are: 1) to develop a first base information about the concentration of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC) in several Icelandic proglacial streams and 2) to detect the variability of DOC and POC along a proglacial stream from the glacier source to the mouth into the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, a field trip was conducted between 23 and 31 July 2016, whereby, 25 water samples were taken. The sampling points cover melt water from the following Icelandic glaciers Vatnajökull, Langjökull, Hofsjökull, Myrdalsjökull and Tungnafellsjökull. Further water samples were taken along the river Hvitá starting at the glacier Langjökull and ending at the mouth into the Atlantic ocean in the southwest of Iceland. At every sample point electrical conductivity, water temperate and the pH-value were measured in situ using a calibrated portable water quality meter (Hanna Combo HI98129). The water samples (130 ml) were filtered using pre-combusted GF/F filters (Whatman, pore sizes 0.7 µm) and stored in a cooling box until the shipment to the laboratory of the Department for Geography, Philipps-University of Marburg. The DOC concentrations in

  6. Active debris removal GNC challenges over design and required ground validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenarejo, Pablo; Avilés, Marcos; di Sotto, Emanuele

    2015-06-01

    Because of the exponential growth of space debris, the access to space in the medium-term future is considered as being seriously compromised, particularly within LEO polar Sun-synchronous orbits and within geostationary orbits. The active debris removal (ADR) application poses new and challenging requirements on: first, the new required Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) technologies and, second, how to validate these new technologies before being applied in real missions. There is no doubt about the strong safety and collision risk aspects affecting the real operational ADR missions. But it shall be considered that even ADR demonstration missions will be affected by significant risk of collision during the demonstration, and that the ADR GNC systems/technologies to be used shall be well mature before using/demonstrating them in space. Specific and dedicated on-ground validation approaches, techniques and facilities are mandatory. The different ADR techniques can be roughly catalogued in three main groups (rigid capture, non-rigid capture and contactless). All of them have a strong impact on the GNC system of the active vehicle during the capture/proximity phase and, particularly, during the active vehicle/debris combo control phase after capture and during the de-orbiting phase. The main operational phases on an ADR scenario are: (1) ground controlled phase (ADR vehicle and debris are far), (2) fine orbit synchronization phase (ADR vehicle to reach debris ±V-bar), (3) short range phase (along track distance reduction till 10-100 s of metres), (4) terminal approach/capture phase and (5) de-orbiting. While phases 1-3 are somehow conventional and already addressed in detail during past/on-going studies related to rendezvous and/or formation flying, phases 4-5 are very specific and not mature in terms of GNC needed technologies and HW equipment. GMV is currently performing different internal activities and ESA studies/developments related to ADR mission, GNC and

  7. SciTech Connect

    Rush, Jason; Holubnyak, Yevhen; Watney, Willard

    This DOE-funded project evaluates the utility of seismic volumetric curvature (VC) for predicting stratal and structural architecture diagnostic of paleokarst reservoirs. Of special interest are applications geared toward carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS). VC has been championed for identifying faults (offset <¼ λ) that cannot be imaged by conventional 3-D seismic attributes such as coherence. The objective of this research was to evaluate VC-techniques for reducing uncertainties in reservoir compartmentalization studies and seal risk assessments especially for saline aquifers. A 2000-ft horizontal lateral was purposefully drilled across VC-imaged lineaments—interpreted to record a fractured and a fault-bounded doline—to physically confirmmore » their presence. The 15-mi² study area is located in southeastern Bemis-Shutts Field, which is situated along the crest of the Central Kansas Uplift (CKU) in Ellis County, Kansas. The uppermost Arbuckle (200+ ft) has extensive paleokarst including collapsed paleocaverns and dolines related to exceedingly prolonged pre-Simpson (Sauk–Tippecanoe) and/or pre-Pennsylvanian subaerial exposure. A lateral borehole was successfully drilled across the full extent (~1100 ft) of a VC-inferred paleokarst doline. Triple combo (GR-neutron/density-resistivity), full-wave sonic, and borehole micro-imager logs were successfully run to TD on drill-pipe. Results from the formation evaluation reveal breccias (e.g., crackle, mosaic, chaotic), fractures, faults, vugs (1-6"), and unaffected host strata consistent with the pre-spud interpretation. Well-rounded pebbles were also observed on the image log. VC-inferred lineaments coincide with 20–80-ft wide intervals of high GR values (100+ API), matrix-rich breccias, and faults. To further demonstrate their utility, VC attributes are integrated into a geocellular modeling workflow: 1) to constrain the structural model; 2) to generate facies probability grids, and; 3) to

  8. Smisc - A collection of miscellaneous functions

    SciTech Connect

    Landon Sego, PNNL

    2015-08-31

    A collection of functions for statistical computing and data manipulation. These include routines for rapidly aggregating heterogeneous matrices, manipulating file names, loading R objects, sourcing multiple R files, formatting datetimes, multi-core parallel computing, stream editing, specialized plotting, etc. Smisc-package A collection of miscellaneous functions allMissing Identifies missing rows or columns in a data frame or matrix as.numericSilent Silent wrapper for coercing a vector to numeric comboList Produces all possible combinations of a set of linear model predictors cumMax Computes the maximum of the vector up to the current index cumsumNA Computes the cummulative sum of a vector without propogating NAsmore » d2binom Probability functions for the sum of two independent binomials dataIn A flexible way to import data into R. dbb The Beta-Binomial Distribution df2list Row-wise conversion of a data frame to a list dfplapply Parallelized single row processing of a data frame dframeEquiv Examines the equivalence of two dataframes or matrices dkbinom Probability functions for the sum of k independent binomials factor2character Converts all factor variables in a dataframe to character variables findDepMat Identify linearly dependent rows or columns in a matrix formatDT Converts date or datetime strings into alternate formats getExtension Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path getPath Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path grabLast Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path ifelse1 Non-vectorized version of ifelse integ Simple numerical integration routine interactionPlot Two-way Interaction Plot with Error Bar linearMap Linear mapping of a numerical vector or scalar list2df Convert a list to a data frame loadObject Loads and returns the object(s) in an ".Rdata" file more Display the contents of a file to the R terminal movAvg2

  9. Deepest Wide-Field Colour Image in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    months), as well as imaging and spectroscopical observations in the infrared and optical part of the spectrum by telescopes at the ground-based observatories of ESO (La Silla and Paranal) and NOAO (Kitt Peak and Tololo). A huge database is currently being created that will help to analyse the evolution of galaxies in all currently feasible respects. All participating teams have agreed to make their data on this field publicly available, thus providing the world-wide astronomical community with a unique opportunity to perform competitive research, joining forces within this vast scientific project. Concerted observations The optical true-colour WFI image presented here forms an important part of this broad, concerted approach. It combines observations of three scientific teams that have engaged in complementary scientific projects, thereby capitalizing on this very powerful combination of their individual observations. The following teams are involved in this work: * COMBO-17 (Classifying Objects by Medium-Band Observations in 17 filters) : an international collaboration led by Christian Wolf and other scientists at the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA, Heidelberg, Germany). This team used 51 hours of WFI observing time to obtain images through five broad-band and twelve medium-band optical filters in the visual spectral region in order to measure the distances (by means of "photometric redshifts") and star-formation rates of about 10,000 galaxies, thereby also revealing their evolutionary status. * EIS (ESO Imaging Survey) : a team of visiting astronomers from the ESO community and beyond, led by Luiz da Costa (ESO). They observed the CDF-S for 44 hours in six optical bands with the WFI camera on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope and 28 hours in two near-infrared bands with the SOFI instrument at the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) , both at La Silla. These observations form part of the Deep Public Imaging Survey that covers a total sky area of 3 square

  10. Application of Formation Testing While Drilling (GeoTap) for acquiring formation pressure data from the Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli wells which were drilled in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    A new technology to acquire wireline quality pressure tests using a Logging While Drilling approach has been successfully implemented few years ago in Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli wells which were drilled in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic. The Formation Tester While Drilling tool (GeoTap) uses a testing sequence similar to wireline tools. A single probe is extended to the borehole wall and a small pretest volume withdrawn from the formation. The resulting pressure transient is then analyzed for formation pressure, formation permeability and mobility information. Up-link and down-link capabilities have been added to achieve test control and quality feedback. An efficient downlink algorithm is used downhole to analyze the data. The parameters and pressure data are transmitted to the surface in real-time for continuous monitoring of the test. More detailed pressure data is recorded and retrieved after returning to surface. Use of a quartz gauge allows excellent accuracy. Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli fields consist of layered sand reservoirs alternation with shale sequences and detailed pressure data is acquired on a high percentage of wells in order to understand lateral and vertical continuity of different flow units. The formation tester can be utilized with the 'triple combo' Logging While Drilling string which eliminates the need to rig up wireline on many wells. Wireline formation tester runs are time consuming - particularly if high deviation or high overbalance conditions are encountered requiring pipe conveyed techniques. Non-Productive Time is high when the wireline tools are stuck and fishing operations are required. The Sperry Drilling GeoTap formation pressure tester service provides real-time formation pressure measurements. It bridges the critical gap between drilling safety and optimization, by providing early and reliable measurements of key reservoir properties, while improving reservoir understanding and completion design in real

  11. Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Broder, Karen R; Temte, Jonathan L; Snider, Dixie E; Seward, Jane F

    2010-05-07

    combination vaccines (available at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/provisional/downloads/combo-vax-Aug2009-508.pdf), which state that use of a combination vaccine generally is preferred over its equivalent component vaccines.

  12. Obituary: Malcolm Raff (1940-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuch, H.

    2011-12-01

    Riff Raff, a locally acclaimed jazz combo. Barry Lloyd, a mutual friend, is a former Army helicopter pilot who was injured in VietNam. He met Mal in the mid 1970s at a meeting of the UC Berkeley Flying Club. Mal expressed an interest in helicopters, and Barry was looking for a way to get back into flying following his long hospitalization and recuperation. Barry found Mal "very brash, and incredibly interesting. He seemed to know how everything worked." They struck a deal, in which they would instruct each other. To this day, Barry says he got the better end of the bargain. Benjamin Mendelsohn, another former flight student of Mal's, recalls that his professional life was "filled with careers in different disciplines, which presented a series of puzzles that engaged his curiosity. He combined his image processing skills and his aviation interests to develop a vision system that would allow aircraft to land in zero visibility conditions. After that, he moved into biotechnology where he spent most of his professional career. Mal worked on the programming of one of the first mechanisms that would take a prepared strand of genetic material, whose special dyes would light up when lit by a laser, and based on the light emanating from the strand the sequences of bases that made it up could be read out. Mal once joked that the expertise he developed as an astronomer to look at the dips in the spectra from stars now allowed him to look at the peaks in the signal by flipping his downs to ups in his programs. Clever, that!" Fred Leif, a fellow radio amateur, recalls that "some 30 years ago a group of amateur radio operators in Berkeley came together to talk about organizing so as to aid our community during disasters. Mal was recognized as one of the few who had experience in using radio during emergencies. As it turned out, he had a lot to teach us about the task at hand. We went through a year of internal bickering, but Mal was a guiding light ... he stuck to his principles