Science.gov

Sample records for gender balanced investigator-blinded

  1. Heider balance, asymmetric ties, and gender segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.; del Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo; Hernández-Ramírez, Eric; Naumis, Gerardo G.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    To remove a cognitive dissonance in interpersonal relations, people tend to divide their acquaintances into friendly and hostile parts, both groups internally friendly and mutually hostile. This process is modeled as an evolution toward the Heider balance. A set of differential equations have been proposed and validated (Kułakowski et al., 2005) to model the Heider dynamics of this social and psychological process. Here we generalize the model by including the initial asymmetry of the interpersonal relations and the direct reciprocity effect which removes this asymmetry. Our model is applied to the data on enmity and friendship in 37 school classes and 4 groups of teachers in México. For each class, a stable balanced partition is obtained into two groups. The gender structure of the groups reveals stronger gender segregation in younger classes, i.e. of age below 12 years, a fact consistent with other general empirical results.

  2. Library Resources for Gender Balancing the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Nancy Seale

    This paper argues that gender/women's studies are becoming an essential element of research and curricula in a number of disciplines. Several scholars of gender who conduct research in various disciplines are mentioned, and their areas of work are briefly outlined: Kate Millett, Shulamith Firestone, Simone de Beauvoir, Anne Oakley, Nancy Chodorow,…

  3. Balancing acts: drag queens, gender and faith.

    PubMed

    Sullivan-Blum, Constance R

    2004-01-01

    While engaged in research on the same-sex marriage debate in mainline denominations, I interviewed 23 LGBT Christians, four of whom were drag queens. While it is not possible to generalize from such a small sample, the drag queens in this study insist on maintaining their identity as Christians despite the hegemonic discourse that renders faith and LGBT identities mutually exclusive. They developed innovative approaches to reconciling their gender and sexual identities with their spirituality. Their innovations are potentially liberating not just for them personally, but for LGBT people generally because they challenge Christianity's rigid dichotomies of gender and sexuality.

  4. Gender Balance in Teaching Debate: Tensions between Gender Theory and Equality Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Tett, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on findings from a research project funded by the Scottish Executive which analysed the gender balance in teaching and explored the underlying reasons for the decline in the number and proportion of men, particularly in secondary schools. As in other developed countries, such as Australia, the USA and Canada, the proportion of men…

  5. Gender Balance in Teaching Debate: Tensions between Gender Theory and Equality Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Tett, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on findings from a research project funded by the Scottish Executive which analysed the gender balance in teaching and explored the underlying reasons for the decline in the number and proportion of men, particularly in secondary schools. As in other developed countries, such as Australia, the USA and Canada, the proportion of men…

  6. Gender Differences in Insulin Resistance, Body Composition, and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Geer, Eliza B.; Shen, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Men and women differ substantially in regard to degrees of insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance. Adipose tissue distribution, in particular the presence of elevated visceral and hepatic adiposity, plays a central role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity-related complications. Objective This review summarizes published data on gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance, to provide insight into novel gender-specific avenues of research as well as gender-tailored treatments of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, and obesity. Methods English-language articles were identified from searches of the PubMed database through November 2008, and by reviewing the references cited in these reports. Searches included combinations of the following terms: gender, sex, insulin resistance, body composition, energy balance, and hepatic adipose tissue. Results For a given body mass index, men were reported to have more lean mass, women to have higher adiposity. Men were also found to have more visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, whereas women had more peripheral or subcutaneous adipose tissue. These differences, as well as differences in sex hormones and adipokines, may contribute to a more insulin-sensitive environment in women than in men. When normalized to kilograms of lean body mass, men and women had similar resting energy expenditure, but physical energy expenditure was more closely related to percent body fat in men than in women. Conclusion Greater amounts of visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, in conjunction with the lack of a possible protective effect of estrogen, may be related to higher insulin resistance in men compared with women. PMID:19318219

  7. Educators' Responses to Policy Concerns about the Gender Balance of the Teaching Profession in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn; Riddell, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    Concepts of gender equity are changing and the necessity of actively developing a fairer gender balance is now enshrined in the Gender Equality Legislation implemented in 2007 that required public bodies to positively promote equality. This study examines, from the perspectives of educators, their understandings of gendered inequalities in…

  8. Gender, Technology, and Instructional Design: Balancing the Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    1999-01-01

    Examines the pervasive messages of gender stereotypes and their influence on instructional design, schooling, and society. Topics discussed include: society and gender-role construction; gender stereotypes; culture, groups, and schooling; images of males and females; and increasing equity through good instructional design. Contains 41 references.…

  9. Whose Freedom and Equity in Public Relations? The Gender Balance Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Elizabeth Lance

    Unequal treatment, unequal value and unequal power are three aspects of the gender balance argument in public relations. The few models describing how public relations is practiced do not distinguish the component parts on the basis of gender. Such models do not consider the men and women in the intra-institutional processes as processors of…

  10. Gender Differences in Life-Work Balance and Their Impact on Female Occupational Choice and Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    gender and marital status alone are weak predictors of WFC. Byron’s meta- analysis (2005) concludes that females have slightly larger FWC than males...balance of subordinates, regardless of their gender , impacting current quality of work and future career aspirations and decisions. Definitions of...Patterns were compared across various demographics including gender , designator, and marital status. The specific noted themes and analysis are discussed

  11. Why are some STEM fields more gender balanced than others?

    PubMed

    Cheryan, Sapna; Ziegler, Sianna A; Montoya, Amanda K; Jiang, Lily

    2017-01-01

    Women obtain more than half of U.S. undergraduate degrees in biology, chemistry, and mathematics, yet they earn less than 20% of computer science, engineering, and physics undergraduate degrees (National Science Foundation, 2014a). Gender differences in interest in computer science, engineering, and physics appear even before college. Why are women represented in some science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields more than others? We conduct a critical review of the most commonly cited factors explaining gender disparities in STEM participation and investigate whether these factors explain differential gender participation across STEM fields. Math performance and discrimination influence who enters STEM, but there is little evidence to date that these factors explain why women's underrepresentation is relatively worse in some STEM fields. We introduce a model with three overarching factors to explain the larger gender gaps in participation in computer science, engineering, and physics than in biology, chemistry, and mathematics: (a) masculine cultures that signal a lower sense of belonging to women than men, (b) a lack of sufficient early experience with computer science, engineering, and physics, and (c) gender gaps in self-efficacy. Efforts to increase women's participation in computer science, engineering, and physics may benefit from changing masculine cultures and providing students with early experiences that signal equally to both girls and boys that they belong and can succeed in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Relationship between Anthropometric Factors, Gender, and Balance under Unstable Conditions in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Cuğ, Mutlu; Dülgeroğlu, Deniz; Brech, Guilherme Carlos; Alonso, Angelica Castilho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the anthropometric factors of height, body mass, body mass index and postural balance and to compare the balance indices between genders in the upright standing position, in healthy adult subjects under conditions of instability. Forty individuals were subjected to functional tests of body stability using the Biodex Balance System, and the resulting indices were correlated with body mass, height, and body mass index, and also compared between genders. Body mass was the main anthropometric factor that influenced variations in postural balance, with a high correlation between groups and with all variables. A linear regression analysis showed that body mass associated with BMI explained 66% of the overall stability, and body mass explained 59% of the anteroposterior stability index and 65% of the mediolateral stability index. In the female group, body mass explained 72% of the overall balance, 66% of the anteroposterior, and 76% of the medio-lateral stability index. Increased body mass requires greater movements to maintain postural balance. Height and BMI presented moderate correlations with balance. Women showed less movement than men on the Biodex Balance System. PMID:23509788

  13. Gender Equity in High School World History Curriculum: Support for a Balanced Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackett, Kirianne

    2008-01-01

    We are providing our secondary students with an unbalanced, inaccurate view of world history, this can lead to greater social injustice. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: (1) examine the reasons for and issues with providing a gender balanced view of history in order to lead to a more well rounded illustration of history; and (2) demonstrate…

  14. Unwilling Brides: "Phallic Attack" as a Barrier to Gender Balance in Higher Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadigwe, Charles E.

    2007-01-01

    Gender balance in access to quality education is a crucial item on the agenda of the Millennium Development Goals. But this ideal appears beset by a number of barriers, especially at higher education level. This study investigated the problem of sexual harassment in the Nigerian university system as a barrier to the educational advancement of…

  15. Development and Validation of a Gender-Balanced Measure of Aggression-Relevant Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Webster-Stratton, Barbara T.; Cavell, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Social?Cognitive Assessment Profile (SCAP), a gender-balanced measure of social information processing (SIP) in a sample of 371 (139 girls, 232 boys) 2nd- to 4th-grade children. The SCAP assesses 4 dimensions of SIP (Inferring Hostile Intent, Constructing Hostile Goals, Generating Aggressive…

  16. Career and Family Balance of Texas Agricultural Science Teachers by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainline, Mark S.; Ulmer, Jonathan D.; Ritz, Rudy R.; Burris, Scott; Gibson, Courtney D.

    2015-01-01

    With the high rates of agricultural teacher burnout and attrition in the United States, the need for teachers to strike a balance between their work and family responsibilities is imperative. The purpose of this research study was to explore the influence of gender on Texas agricultural teachers' perceived job obligations and family…

  17. Unwilling Brides: "Phallic Attack" as a Barrier to Gender Balance in Higher Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadigwe, Charles E.

    2007-01-01

    Gender balance in access to quality education is a crucial item on the agenda of the Millennium Development Goals. But this ideal appears beset by a number of barriers, especially at higher education level. This study investigated the problem of sexual harassment in the Nigerian university system as a barrier to the educational advancement of…

  18. The Successful Education Sector Development in Tanzania--Comment on Gender Balance and Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okkolin, Mari-Anne; Lehtomaki, Elina; Bhalalusesa, Eustella

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss to what extent the international and national equality goals regarding gender balance and inclusive education have been reached in the education sector development in Tanzania. According to recent reports, the development trend has been generally positive, and the country is close to achieving its primary education…

  19. Gender-specific influences of balance, speed, and power on agility performance.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Damir; Spasic, Miodrag; Mirkov, Dragan; Cavar, Mile; Sattler, Tine

    2013-03-01

    The quick change of direction (i.e., agility) is an important athletic ability in numerous sports. Because of the diverse and therefore hardly predictable manifestations of agility in sports, studies noted that the improvement in speed, power, and balance should result in an improvement of agility. However, there is evident lack of data regarding the influence of potential predictors on different agility manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the gender-specific influence of speed, power, and balance on different agility tests. A total of 32 college-aged male athletes and 31 college-aged female athletes (age 20.02 ± 1.89 years) participated in this study. The subjects were mostly involved in team sports (soccer, team handball, basketball, and volleyball; 80% of men, and 75% of women), martial arts, gymnastics, and dance. Anthropometric variables consisted of body height, body weight, and the body mass index. Five agility tests were used: a t-test (T-TEST), zig-zag test, 20-yard shuttle test, agility test with a 180-degree turn, and forward-backward running agility test (FWDBWD). Other tests included 1 jumping ability power test (squat jump, SQJ), 2 balance tests to determine the overall stability index and an overall limit of stability score (both measured by Biodex Balance System), and 2 running speed tests using a straight sprint for 10 and 20 m (S10 and S20, respectively). A reliability analysis showed that all the agility tests were reliable. Multiple regression and correlation analysis found speed and power (among women), and balance (among men), as most significant predictors of agility. The highest Pearson's correlation in both genders is found between the results of the FWDBWD and S10M tests (0.77 and 0.81 for men and women, respectively; p < 0.05). Power, measured using the SQJ, is significantly (p < 0.05) related to FWDBWD and T-TEST results but only for women (-0.44; -0.41). The balance measures were significantly related to the agility

  20. Explaining phenotypic selection on plant attractive characters: male function, gender balance or ecological context?

    PubMed Central

    Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Morgan, Martin T.

    2004-01-01

    It is widely agreed that the flowers of hermaphrodite plants evolve in response to selection acting simultaneously through male and female sexual functions, but we know very little about the pattern of gender-specific selection. We review three current hypotheses for gender-specific selection by viewing them within a single phenotypic selection framework. We compile data from phenotypic selection and manipulative studies and evaluate the fit between empirical data and the hypotheses. In this preliminary analysis, we find that neither the male-function hypothesis nor the gender-balance hypothesis is well supported. However, the context-dependence hypothesis is supported by the documented diversity of gender-specific selection and by evidence that selection through female fertility is significantly correlated with pollen limitation of seed production. Future studies contributing to our understanding of selection through male and female function in plants need to quantify and manipulate the ecological context for reproduction, as well as describe male and female fitness responses to fine-scale trait manipulation. PMID:15156911

  1. A theoretical look at the gender balance of power in the American couple.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, R L; Coleman, M T

    1989-06-01

    Despite the very rich theoretical literature on marital power, recent empirical investigations on this subject have, in general, relied on disappointing measures of power. The empirically testable model developed in this article is an application of Blumberg's general theory of gender stratification to the contemporary American heterosexual couple. In the model, the authors concur with prior studies that identify economic power as the key variable in the power balance within a marital relationship. Their conceptualization of economic power, however, attempts to reflect the extremely complex nature of marital power. Thus, they offer the notion of overall economic power and then suggest that there are a number of discount factors operating at both the macro and micro levels that affect the power balance, resulting in what is termed net economic power. The fully elaborated model is dynamic, taking into account birth cohort differences, stable versus transitional relationships, and cross-class differences.

  2. Preliminary results in the redox balance in healthy cats: influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Victor; Abuelo, Angel; Guimarey, Rebeca; García-Vaquero, Marco; Benedito, José L; Hernández, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) impairs organic function and is considered causally related to cellular senescence and death. This study aims to evaluate if the redox balance varies in relation to age and gender in healthy cats. To quantify the oxidative status of this species we determined the oxidative damage as serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and the total serum antioxidant capacity (SAC). In addition, we used the ratio of ROM to SAC as a measure of the oxidative balance, with higher values meaning higher oxidative stress (oxidative stress index). Our results suggest that the male population is at oxidative risk when compared with females, especially between the age of 2 and 7 years. Nutritional strategies in this population looking for additional antioxidant support would probably avoid the oxidative stress status that predisposes to chronic processes in senior male cats. Further clinical trials in this field are recommended.

  3. Stress and recovery balance in amateur basketball players: differences by gender and preparation phase.

    PubMed

    di Fronso, Selenia; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Bortoli, Laura; Robazza, Claudio; Bertollo, Maurizio

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in stress and recovery across gender and time (preseason and play-offs) in a sample of amateur basketball players of the Italian league (C division). Fifty amateur basketball players (33 men and 17 women) age 17-30 y (23.5 ± 9.19 y) participated in the study. Twenty-eight athletes (16 men and 12 women) completed the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Sport (RESTQ-Sport) in the preseason phase, after a training period of 21 days, and in the competition phase during the play-off period. Repeated-measures MANOVA showed significant differences by gender and preparation phase. Univariate follow-up ANOVA highlighted differences by gender on physical recovery, sleep quality, and self-efficacy, with higher scores in men. Moreover, differences between preseason and competition phases were shown on emotional stress and fatigue, with higher scores on emotional stress and lower scores on fatigue in the competition phase. These findings suggest that RESTQ-Sport could be a useful tool for coaches to monitor stress/recovery balance in male and female team-sport athletes during different periods of the season.

  4. Statin prescribing according to gender, age and indication: what about the benefit-risk balance?

    PubMed

    Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Stovring, Henrik; Holme Hansen, Ebba; Howse, Kenneth; Pétursson, Hálfdán

    2016-04-01

    The increasing dispensing of statins has raised concern about the appropriateness of prescribing to various population groups. We aimed to (1) investigate incident and prevalent statin prescribing according to indication, gender and age and (2) relate prescribing patterns to evidence on beneficial and adverse effects. A cohort of Danish inhabitants (n = 4 424 818) was followed in nationwide registries for dispensed statin prescriptions and hospital discharge information. We calculated incidence rates (2005-2009), prevalence trends (2000-2010) and absolute numbers of statin users according to register proxies for indication, gender and age. In 2010, the prevalence became highest for ages 75-84 and was higher in men than women (37% and 33%, respectively). Indication-specific incidences and prevalences peaked at ages around 65-70, but in myocardial infarction, the prevalence was about 80% at ages 45-80. Particularly, incidences tended to be lower in women until ages of about 60 where after gender differences were negligible. In asymptomatic individuals (hypercholesterolaemia, presumably only indication) aged 50+, dispensing was highest in women. The fraction of statin dispensing for primary prevention decreased with age: higher for incident than prevalent prescribing. Independent of age, this fraction was highest among women, e.g. 60% versus 45% at ages 55-64. The fraction for potential atherosclerotic condition (PAC, e.g. heart failure) increased with age. Prevalence of statin utilization was highest for ages 75-84, although indication-specific measures were relatively low. Despite inconclusive evidence for a favourable risk-benefit balance, statin prescribing was high among people aged 80+, asymptomatic women and PAC patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Interactions among drinking identity, gender and decisional balance in predicting alcohol use and problems among college students.

    PubMed

    Foster, Dawn W; Young, Chelsie M; Bryan, Jennifer; Steers, Mai-Ly N; Yeung, Nelson C Y; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to test promising constructs (decisional balance and drinking identity) and their interaction with gender as predictors of risky college drinking. We expected that, consistent with previous work, drinking identity would be positively associated with alcohol consumption and problems. We further expected that drinking identity would be more strongly related to outcomes among individuals scoring low in decisional balance. Additionally, we expect the relationship between drinking identity and alcohol behavior to vary as a function of decisional balance. Participants included 329 undergraduates (M=23.11; SD=5.63; 74.47% female) who met heavy drinking criteria (defined as women who consumed 4 or more drinks per occasion and men who consumed 5 or more drinks per occasion) and completed an online survey comprised of self-report measures. Decisional balance was negatively correlated with both drinking and problems, which partially supported expectations. As expected, drinking identity was positively correlated with drinking and problems. A two-way interaction emerged between drinking identity and decisional balance regarding problems, indicating that drinking identity was associated with more problems, especially among those lower in decisional balance. A three-way interaction between drinking identity, decisional balance, and gender emerged regarding problems such that drinking identity was associated with more problems for those lower in decisional balance and this effect was stronger among men. Findings lend support to the perspective that decisional balance, drinking identity, and gender are all influential factors that are associated with the experience of alcohol problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interactions among drinking identity, gender and decisional balance in predicting alcohol use and problems among college students

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Bryan, Jennifer; Steers, Mai-Ly N.; Yeung, Nelson C. Y.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to test promising constructs (decisional balance and drinking identity) and their interaction with gender as predictors of risky college drinking. We expected that, consistent with previous work, drinking identity would be positively associated with alcohol consumption and problems. We further expected that drinking identity would be more strongly related to outcomes among individuals scoring low in decisional balance. Additionally, we expect the relationship between drinking identity and alcohol behavior to vary as a function of decisional balance. Methods Participants included 329 undergraduates (M = 23.11; SD = 5.63; 74.47% female) who met heavy drinking criteria (defined as women who consumed 4 or more drinks per occasion and men who consumed 5 or more drinks per occasion) and completed an online survey comprised of self-report measures. Results Decisional balance was negatively correlated with both drinking and problems, which partially supported expectations. As expected, drinking identity was positively correlated with drinking and problems. A two-way interaction emerged between drinking identity and decisional balance regarding problems, indicating that drinking identity was associated with more problems, especially among those lower in decisional balance. A three-way interaction between drinking identity, decisional balance, and gender emerged regarding problems such that drinking identity was associated with more problems for those lower in decisional balance and this effect was stronger among men. Discussion Findings lend support to the perspective that decisional balance, drinking identity, and gender are all influential factors that are associated with the experience of alcohol problems. PMID:25127705

  7. Perceptions of gender equality in work-life balance, salary, promotion, and harassment: results of the NASPGHAN task force survey.

    PubMed

    Tomer, Gitit; Xanthakos, Stavra; Kim, Sandra; Rao, Meenakshi; Book, Linda; Litman, Heather J; Fishman, Laurie N

    2015-04-01

    Gender equality in the workplace has not been described in pediatric gastroenterology. An electronic survey that explored perceptions of career parity, work-life balance, and workplace harassment was sent to all members of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Reponses were anonymous. Of the 303 respondents (21%), there was an even distribution across geographic region, age, and gender (54% men). Gender affected perception of salary and promotion; 46% of men but only 9% of women feel that "women earn the same as men" (P < 0.001). Similarly, 48% of men but only 12% of women feel that "women rise at the same rate as men" (P < 0.001). Both genders of academic practice respondents, compared with other practice models, perceived men were promoted more quickly than women (P = 0.008). Women had higher dissatisfaction with mentoring than men (29% vs 13%, P = 0.03). Significantly more men than women reported spouses with "flexible jobs" (35% vs 14%, P < 0.001). Having a spouse with "flexible job" or having children (preschool or school age), however, did not affect satisfaction with work-life balance for either gender. Overall, women are more likely to be dissatisfied with work-life balance than men (P = 0.046). Satisfaction with work-life balance is lower among women versus men pediatric gastroenterologists, but does not correlate with flexibility of spouse's job or caring for young children. Gender-divergent perception of promotion, parity of compensation, and mentoring requires further investigation.

  8. BALANCE

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  9. Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  10. Gender, ethnic and school type differences in overweight and energy balance-related behaviours among Dutch adolescents.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Klazine; Oenema, Anke; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate gender, ethnic and school type differences in overweight and energy balance-related behaviours: snack, soft drink and breakfast consumption, walking, bicycling, and playing sports during leisure time, active commuting to school, television viewing and computer use among 12-15-year-old adolescents. Cross-sectional data on weight status and energy balance-related behaviours were obtained from 1 206 adolescents (2005-06). Energy balance-related behaviours were self-reported and body mass index was calculated from measured height and weight. Gender, ethnic and school type differences in weight status and behaviours were examined with multi-level logistic regression analyses. Overweight and unfavourable energy balance-related behaviours were more likely among youth from non-Western ethnic backgrounds and those attending vocational schools. Analyses stratified by ethnicity showed that girls from non-Western ethnic backgrounds were more likely to be overweight (OR = 1.5) and to report not bicycling (OR = 2.4) and watching more than two hours of television (OR = 2.3) compared with boys from non-Western ethnic backgrounds. Vocational students from Western ethnic backgrounds were more likely to report high levels of soft drink consumption (OR = 3.2), watching television (OR = 2.9) and computer use (OR = 2.1) compared with higher-level education students from Western ethnic backgrounds. The study findings indicate important ethnic and educational differences in overweight and energy balance-related behaviours. Future research should focus on what kind of interventions work and for which target groups they work, taking demographic variables, such as gender, ethnicity, school type into account.

  11. Gender Balance in Leadership?: Reform and Modernization in the UK Further Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTavish, Duncan; Miller, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The further education (FE) sector employs a high proportion of women yet relatively few women progress into leadership positions. The article seeks to provide explanations for this gender imbalance and argues that despite change and modernization initiatives, the further education sector remains gendered in many aspects of leadership, governance…

  12. Gender Balance amongst Educational Psychologists: An Attempt to Explain the Male Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Anthony; Monsen, Jeremy J.

    2008-01-01

    The Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) has begun an investigation into why most jobs currently have a gender imbalance within their workforce. The latest in a series of updates has been published by the Association of Educational Psychologists (AEP) on gender distribution amongst educational psychologists. This may therefore be an opportune time…

  13. Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    At many occasions we are asked to achieve a “balance” in our lives: when it comes, for example, to work and food. Balancing is crucial in game design as well as many have pointed out. In games with a meaningful purpose, however, balancing is remarkably different. It involves the balancing of three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. From the experience of designing Levee Patroller, I observed that different types of tensions can come into existence that require balancing. It is possible to conceive of within-worlds dilemmas, between-worlds dilemmas, and trilemmas. The first, the within-world dilemmas, only take place within one of the worlds. We can think, for example, of a user interface problem which just relates to the world of Play. The second, the between-worlds dilemmas, have to do with a tension in which two worlds are predominantly involved. Choosing between a cartoon or a realistic style concerns, for instance, a tension between Reality and Play. Finally, the trilemmas are those in which all three worlds play an important role. For each of the types of tensions, I will give in this level a concrete example from the development of Levee Patroller. Although these examples come from just one game, I think the examples can be exemplary for other game development projects as they may represent stereotypical tensions. Therefore, to achieve harmony in any of these forthcoming games, it is worthwhile to study the struggles we had to deal with.

  14. Gender Balance in Teaching Awards: Evidence from 18 Years of National Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Teresa; Wallace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Gender implications of nationally competitive teaching awards were examined to determine whether women receive sufficient accolades, given their dominant position in university teaching. Quantitative methods and secondary data provided objective analysis of teaching awards for Australian universities, for an 18-year data set with 2046 units of…

  15. Guidelines for a Gender-Balanced Curriculum in English, Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Women in Literature and Life Assembly.

    This booklet presents a book list, activities, and teacher resources to provide teachers a starting place for works of adolescent literature that will initiate conversations and questions about gender roles and the perceptions of appropriate behavior and activities. It is designed to bring teachers' attention to more recent titles in order to…

  16. Gender Balance in Teaching Awards: Evidence from 18 Years of National Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Teresa; Wallace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Gender implications of nationally competitive teaching awards were examined to determine whether women receive sufficient accolades, given their dominant position in university teaching. Quantitative methods and secondary data provided objective analysis of teaching awards for Australian universities, for an 18-year data set with 2046 units of…

  17. Impact of birth weight and gender on early postnatal hypothalamic energy balance regulatory gene expression in the young lamb.

    PubMed

    Adam, C L; Bake, T; Findlay, P A; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Wallace, J M

    2013-11-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is involved in developmental metabolic programming and here we test the hypothesis that IUGR affects the developing hypothalamic energy balance regulatory pathways in a sex-specific manner. This experiment investigated early postnatal hypothalamic gene expression for six primary leptin- and insulin-sensitive neuropeptides and receptors in male and female IUGR (n = 8 and 9, respectively) and normal (N) birth weight lambs (n = 8 per gender) gestated and suckled by overnourished mothers. IUGR lambs were smaller at birth, had increased fractional growth rates (FGR), lower final body weight (11 weeks) and similar body fat content compared with N lambs, while males had higher final body weight and insulinemia but lower body fat and leptinemia than females. In situ hybridization revealed greater gene expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus at 11 weeks for anorexigenic genes in females and orexigenic genes in males, with no effect of IUGR. Leptinemia correlated with gene expression for neuropeptide Y (NPY, negatively) in both sexes and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, positively) in females but with leptin receptor (negatively) only in males. Current FGR for girth correlated negatively with gene expression for NPY in males and POMC in females. Neither IUGR nor gender affected suckling activity (proxy for appetite) assessed at 3 weeks, but final NPY gene expression correlated with suckling weight gain in males. This study has revealed no effect of IUGR on early postnatal hypothalamic energy balance gene expression but a major effect of gender associated with major sex differences in adiposity and leptinemia. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Work, family, and gender: elements for a theory of work-family balance.

    PubMed

    Cantera, Leonor M; Cubells, Ma Eugenia; Martínez, Luz Ma; Blanch, Josep M

    2009-11-01

    Over last century, work was not only a means of economic survival, but also a very strong factor of psychological structuring and of organization of personal, family, and everyday life. The new world of work provides new challenges to the balance of work and family life. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 453 people with the aim of analyzing the relation between variables such as family burdens and domestic responsibilities, and the appraisal of work and family, values involved in work-family balance. The results of this study show that, in the present economic and cultural context, assuming family burdens and domestic responsibilities increases the positive appraisal of work and family, both in men and women. This has theoretical and practical implications concerning the challenge of work-family balance.

  19. A gender-based analysis of work patterns, fatigue, and work/life balance among physicians in postgraduate training.

    PubMed

    Gander, Philippa; Briar, Celia; Garden, Alexander; Purnell, Heather; Woodward, Alistair

    2010-09-01

    To document fatigue in New Zealand junior doctors in hospital-based clinical training positions and identify work patterns associated with work/life balance difficulties. This workforce has had a duty limitation of 72 hours/week since 1985. The authors chose a gender-based analytical approach because of the increasing proportion of female medical graduates. The authors mailed a confidential questionnaire to all 2,154 eligible junior doctors in 2003. The 1,412 respondents were working > or = 40 hours/week (complete questionnaires from 1,366: response rate: 63%; 49% women). For each participant, the authors calculated a multidimensional fatigue risk score based on sleep and work patterns. Women were more likely to report never/rarely getting enough sleep (P < .05), never/rarely waking refreshed (P < .001), and excessive sleepiness (P < .05) and were less likely to live with children up to 12 years old (P < .001). Fatigue risk scores differed by specialty but not by gender.Fatigue risk scores in the highest tertile were an independent risk factor for reporting problems in social life (odds ratio: 3.83; 95% CI: 2.79-5.28), home life (3.37; 2.43-4.67), personal relationships (2.12; 1.57-2.86), and other commitments (3.06; 2.23-4.19).Qualitative analyses indicated a common desire among men and women for better work/life balance and for part-time work, particularly in relation to parenthood. Limitation of duty hours alone is insufficient to manage fatigue risk and difficulties in maintaining work/life balance. These findings have implications for schedule design, professional training, and workforce planning.

  20. Effects of two-months balanced diet in metabolically healthy obesity: lipid correlations with gender and BMI-related differences.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Chaterine; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena Anna; Montorfano, Gigliola; Roderi, Paola; Colombo, Irma; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Fioravanti, Marisa; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Rizzo, Angela Maria

    2015-10-29

    Nowadays no researches has been performed on fatty acid profile (FA) and desaturase activity in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). The aim of this study was to assessed gender and BMI-related difference in FA, estimated desaturase activities and the efficacy on metabolic changes produced by 2-months well-balance diet in MHO subjects. In 103 MHO subjects (30/73 M/F; age:42.2 ± 9.5) FA, estimated desaturase activity, body composition (by DXA), Body Mass Index (BMI), lipid profile, adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, grelin, glucagon-like peptide-1), insulin resistence (by Homestasis metabolic assessment), C-reactive proteine, Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and Body Shape Index (ABSI) have been assessed. Gender and BMI related difference have been evaluated and the efficacy produced by 2-months well-balance diet has been considered. At baseline, obese subjects, compared to overweight, show a significantly higher oleic (p <0.050), monounsaturated fatty acids (p <0.040), C18:0 delta-9 desaturase activity (D9D) (p <0.040) and lower linoleic acid (p <0.020), polyunsaturated fatty acids (p <0.020) and n-6 LCPUFA (p <0.010). Concerning gender-related difference, women show a significantly higher arachidonic acid (p <0.001), polyunsaturated fatty acids (p <0.001), n-6 LCPUFA (p <0.002), and lower monounsaturated fatty acids (p <0.001), D6D activity (p <0.030), C18:0 D9D (0.000) and C16:0 D9D (p <0.030). The 2-months diet was associated with a significantly increase in arachidonic acid (p = 0.007), eicosapentaenoic acid (p = 0.030), docosahexaenoic acid (p <0.001), long chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) (p <0.001), delta-5 desaturase activity (D5D) (p = 0.002), glucagon like peptide-1 (p <0.001) and a significant decrease in palmitoleic acid (p = <0.030), n-6/n-3 LCPUFA (p <0.001), insulin resistance (p = 0.006), leptin (p = 0.006), adiponectin (p <0.001), grelin (p = 0.030), CRP (p

  1. Tenure Track Policy Increases Representation of Women in Senior Academic Positions, but Is Insufficient to Achieve Gender Balance

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Martha M.; Jacobs, Maarten H.

    2016-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in senior positions is a persistent problem in universities worldwide, and a wide range of strategies to combat this situation is currently being contemplated. One such strategy is the introduction of a tenure track system, in which decisions to promote scientific staff to higher ranks are guided by a set of explicit and transparent criteria, as opposed to earlier situations in which decisions were based on presumably more subjective impressions by superiors. We examined the effect of the introduction of a tenure track system at Wageningen University (The Netherlands) on male and female promotion rates. We found that chances on being promoted to higher levels were already fairly equal between men and women before the tenure track system was introduced, and improved–more for women than for men–after the introduction of the tenure track system. These results may partly be explained by affirmative actions, but also by the fact that legacy effects of historical discrimination have led to a more competitive female population of scientists. In spite of these outcomes, extrapolations of current promotion rates up to 2025 demonstrate that the equal or even higher female promotion rates do not lead to substantial improvement of the gender balance at higher levels (i.e., associate professor and higher). Since promotion rates are small compared to the total amount of staff, the current distribution of men and women will, especially at higher levels, exhibit a considerable degree of inertia—unless additional affirmative action is taken. PMID:27684072

  2. Tenure Track Policy Increases Representation of Women in Senior Academic Positions, but Is Insufficient to Achieve Gender Balance.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Martha M; Jacobs, Maarten H

    Underrepresentation of women in senior positions is a persistent problem in universities worldwide, and a wide range of strategies to combat this situation is currently being contemplated. One such strategy is the introduction of a tenure track system, in which decisions to promote scientific staff to higher ranks are guided by a set of explicit and transparent criteria, as opposed to earlier situations in which decisions were based on presumably more subjective impressions by superiors. We examined the effect of the introduction of a tenure track system at Wageningen University (The Netherlands) on male and female promotion rates. We found that chances on being promoted to higher levels were already fairly equal between men and women before the tenure track system was introduced, and improved-more for women than for men-after the introduction of the tenure track system. These results may partly be explained by affirmative actions, but also by the fact that legacy effects of historical discrimination have led to a more competitive female population of scientists. In spite of these outcomes, extrapolations of current promotion rates up to 2025 demonstrate that the equal or even higher female promotion rates do not lead to substantial improvement of the gender balance at higher levels (i.e., associate professor and higher). Since promotion rates are small compared to the total amount of staff, the current distribution of men and women will, especially at higher levels, exhibit a considerable degree of inertia-unless additional affirmative action is taken.

  3. Campylobacter pyloridis and associated gastritis: investigator blind, placebo controlled trial of bismuth salicylate and erythromycin ethylsuccinate.

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, C A; Gearty, J C; Crump, B; Davis, M; Donovan, I A; Melikian, V; Lister, D M; Wise, R

    1986-01-01

    An investigator blind trial was performed comparing bismuth salicylate, erythromycin ethylsuccinate, and placebo in the treatment of Campylobacter pyloridis associated gastritis in patients without peptic ulceration. Fifty patients fulfilled the study criteria. There was a strong correlation between the presence of C pyloridis and histologically confirmed gastritis. Clearance of organisms led to improvement of the gastritis. C pyloridis was cleared from 15 patients; of these, 13 had gastritis initially, which resolved in 12. Conversely, gastritis resolved in only four of 32 patients not cleared of organisms (p less than 0.0001). There was significantly greater improvement in endoscopic appearances in the patients cleared of C pyloridis compared with those whose infection persisted (p less than 0.001). In the three treatment groups organisms were cleared from 14 of 18 patients receiving the locally active bismuth salicylate, only one of 15 patients receiving erythromycin ethylsuccinate, and none of 17 patients taking placebo. These findings suggest that the ideal antimicrobial for the successful eradication of C pyloridis associated gastritis should be locally active, stable at low pH, and should penetrate gastric mucus. The resolution of gastritis and improvement in endoscopic appearances associated with clearance of C pyloridis support the view that these organisms may play a part in this condition. Images FIG 2 PMID:3092967

  4. Postural balance and functional independence of elderly people according to gender and age: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Helen Benincasa; Ferraresi, Juliana Rizzatto; Prata, Melina Galetti; Scheicher, Marcos Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Aging causes changes in men and women. Studies have shown that women have worse postural balance and greater functional dependence than men, but there is no consensus regarding this. The aim of this study was to compare the balance and functional independence of elderly people according to sex and age, and to evaluate the association between postural balance and the number of drugs taken. Cross-sectional at a state university. 202 elderly people were evaluated regarding balance (Berg Scale), independence (Barthel Index), age, sex, number of medications and physical activity. The subjects comprised 117 women (70.2 ± 5.6 years old) and 85 men (71.1 ± 6.9 years old). For balance, there was no significant difference regarding sex, but there was a difference regarding age (P < 0.0001). For functional independence, there was a difference regarding sex (P = 0.003), but not regarding age. The variables of age, medications and physical activity were significant for predicting the Berg score. For the Barthel index, only age and sex were significant. Elderly people who took three or more medications/day showed higher risk of falling than those who took up two drugs/day (odds ratio = 5.53, P < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval, 2.3-13.0). There was no sexual difference in relation to postural balance. However, people who were more elderly presented a high risk of falling. Functional dependence was worse among females. There was an association between the number of medication drugs and risk of falling.

  5. Normative data and the influence of age and gender on power, balance, flexibility, and functional movement in healthy service members.

    PubMed

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Riebel, Mark A; McArthur, Derrick R; Savini, Matthew; Jones, Mackenzie J; Goffar, Stephen L; Kiesel, Kyle B; Plisky, Phillip J

    2014-04-01

    Determine the influence of age and sex and describe normative data on field expedient tests associated with power, balance, trunk stability, mobility, and functional movement in a military population. Participants (n = 247) completed a series of clinical and functional tests, including closed-chain ankle dorsiflexion (DF), Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Y-Balance Test Lower Quarter (YBT-LQ), Y-Balance Test Upper Quarter (YBT-UQ), single leg vertical jump (SLVJ), 6-m timed hop (6-m timed), and triple hop. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Analysis of variance tests were performed to compare the results based on sex and age (<30 years, >30 years). Service members demonstrated DF of 34.2 ± 6.1°, FMS composite score of 16.2 ± 2.2, YBT-LQ normalized composite score of 96.9 ± 8.6%, YBT-UQ normalized composite score of 87.6 ± 9.6%, SLVJ of 26.9 ± 8.6 cm, 6-m hop of 2.4 ± 0.5 seconds, and a triple hop of 390.9 ± 110.8 cm. Men performed greater than women (p < 0.05) on the YBT-LQ, YBT-UQ, SLVJ, 6-m timed, and triple hop. Those <30 years of age performed better than older participants (p < 0.05) on the DF, FMS, YBT-LQ, SLVJ, 6-m hop, and triple hop. Findings provide normative data on military members. Men performed better on power, balance, and trunk stability tests, whereas younger individuals performed better on power, balance, mobility, and functional movement. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. A gender-balanced approach to the study of peer victimization and aggression subtypes in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Ostrov, Jamie M; Kamper, Kimberly E; Hart, Emily J; Godleski, Stephanie A; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J

    2014-08-01

    A short-term longitudinal study during early childhood (N = 301; 155 girls; M = 44.76 months old, SD = 8.20) investigated the prospective associations between peer victimization and aggression subtypes. Specifically, observations of relational and physical victimization as well as teacher reports of the forms (i.e., relational and physical) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggression were collected at two time points during an academic year. Within- and between-group gender differences were examined as part of the preliminary analyses. In order to address key study questions, both directions of effect between peer victimization and aggression subtypes were examined. We found that teacher-reported proactive relational aggression predicted decreases in observed relational victimization over time, whereas reactive relational aggression predicted increases in observed relational victimization over time. Ways in which these and other findings extend the literature are discussed.

  7. Use of work-life balance benefits guaranteed by law in Poland - Do size of the enterprise and gender matter?

    PubMed

    Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Drabek, Marcin; Stańczak, Aleksander; Andysz, Aleksandra; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra

    2017-07-26

    The paper is aimed at indicating the similarities and differences in use of benefits supporting work-life balance (WLB) between women and men working in Polish small/medium and large enterprises. The sample included 556 workers (311 women, 245 men), aged 20-68 years old employed on the basis of employment contracts for at least a year in Polish enterprises. The respondents completed a questionnaire on the use of benefits guaranteed by the Polish Labour Code, referring to their current workplaces. Women took maternity leaves and returned to the same work position after using childcare leaves more often than men. Men took leaves on demand more often than women. Our results also showed that in comparison to women working in smaller enterprises, those working in large enterprises were more likely to use almost all the analyzed WLB benefits - paid days off to take care of others, educational leaves, leaves on demand, maternity leaves and return to the same work position after childcare leave, reduction of business trips when pregnant or having young children and breastfeeding breaks. The size of enterprise, however, did not differentiate the take-up of benefits among the studied men. Our analysis brought unexpected results on the lack of common availability of the WLB benefits guaranteed by the law in the case of employees who worked on the basis of employment contracts. We also found that women used most of child rearing benefits guaranteed by the law more often than men, which might reflect still a traditional division of child care responsibilities in Poland. Med Pr 2017;68(5):575-581.

  8. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  9. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Luise; Eertmans, Frank; Wolf, Doerte; Rossel, Bart; Adriaens, Els

    2016-01-01

    Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo. This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23) was performed from October 2014-June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere), registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution). In total, 107 patients (>1 year) with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54). All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10. Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation) for the test product (96.1%) and control (94%) significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70%) (p < 0.001, 2-sided, 1-sample, chi-square test) with confirmed non-inferiority for the test product. Over all visits, cure rates were consistently higher for the test product, whereas more initially-cured subjects remained lice-free until end of study (78%; control: 60%). Both products were safe and well tolerated, offering good esthetical effects. This study showed that substance-based medical devices (including the tested mineral oil shampoo) can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for development of resistance because of

  10. Triple combination as adjuvant to cryotherapy in the treatment of solar lentigines: investigator-blinded, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hexsel, D; Hexsel, C; Porto, M D; Siega, C

    2015-01-01

    Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation is a frequent concern when treating solar lentigines. To assess the safety and efficacy of a triple combination cream with fluocinolone acetonide 0.01%, hydroquinone 4% and tretinoin 0.05% as adjuvant to cryotherapy in the treatment of solar lentigines in hands dorsum, and in the prevention of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation after cryotherapy. This prospective, randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, single-centre study enrolled 50 patients. Twenty-five patients received a 2-week daily triple combination cream plus sunscreen pre-treatment and 25 received sunscreen alone. After that, cryotherapy was performed in all patients followed by a 3-week recovery period. After this period, patients received the same initial treatment and were followed up for 8 weeks. Melanin and erythema levels of a target and a control lentigo were objectively measured using a narrowband reflectance spectrophotometer. Lentigines count, colour homogeneity and global improvement were also assessed. The number of solar lentigines reduced in the first 2 weeks only in patients who used the triple combination 25 ± 7 vs. 22 ± 8 (P < 0.0001), and reduced at the end of the study for both groups (P < 0.0001). The melanin levels also reduced in the first 2 weeks only in patients who used the triple combination 297 ± 69 vs. 273 ± 66 (P < 0.0001) and reduced at the end of the study for both groups (P < 0.0001). Erythema and residual blisters from cryotherapy were the reported adverse reactions. Triple combination cream can be used to enhance the resolution of solar lentigines, and to significantly reduce melanin levels and lentigines count, improving treatment results. It was well-tolerated and did not increase the occurrence of neither erythema nor other side-effects after the cryotherapy. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Luise; Eertmans, Frank; Wolf, Doerte; Rossel, Bart; Adriaens, Els

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo. Methods This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23) was performed from October 2014—June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere), registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution). In total, 107 patients (>1 year) with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54). All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10. Results Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation) for the test product (96.1%) and control (94%) significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70%) (p < 0.001, 2-sided, 1-sample, chi-square test) with confirmed non-inferiority for the test product. Over all visits, cure rates were consistently higher for the test product, whereas more initially-cured subjects remained lice-free until end of study (78%; control: 60%). Both products were safe and well tolerated, offering good esthetical effects. Conclusion This study showed that substance-based medical devices (including the tested mineral oil shampoo) can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for

  12. School-to-Work Transition Performance of "Male", "Female" and "Neutral" Vocational Streams: A Gender Balance Sheet for Vocational Education Graduates in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleocrassas, Stamatis; Rousseas, Panagiotis; Vretakou, Vassilia

    2003-01-01

    The issue of gender-related differences in the transition of secondary vocational education graduates from school-to-work is discussed, relative to "male", "female" and "neutral" curriculum choices, using findings from a national survey of graduates. The discussion explores this issue using matched employment and…

  13. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  14. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  15. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  16. Balancing thromboembolic and bleeding risk with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs): A systematic review and meta-analysis on gender differences.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Marco; Cheli, Paola; Basili, Stefania; Mazurek, Michal; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-03-01

    Sex and gender differences have been reported in atrial fibrillation (AF), especially in relation to differences in thromboembolic and bleeding risks. More recently, pharmacological treatments have changed following the introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) progressively replacing vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). The aims of this systematic review are to summarize the available evidence on NOACs and the relationship to major adverse outcomes according to sex. Moreover, we performed a meta-analysis of data from the phase III clinical trials investigating the sex effect on stroke/systemic embolic events (SEE) and major bleeding. Our literature review found small differences in NOACs efficacy and safety between male and female patients, even if so far available literature is limited to post-hoc ancillary analyses from randomized trials and one cohort study. Meta-analysis from NOAC trials found a differential effect of NOACs, with male patients being more protected from stroke/SEE and female patients more protected from major bleeding events. Further data are needed to fully elucidate sex differences in AF patients treated with NOACs.

  17. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  18. Effect of two new chlorhexidine mouthrinses on the development of dental plaque, gingivitis, and discolouration. A randomized, investigator-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-week experimental gingivitis study.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, K; Bruhn, G; Heumann, C; Netuschil, L; Brecx, M; Hoffmann, T

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this experimental gingivitis study was to assess the efficacy and safety of two new chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthrinses. Ninety volunteers participated in this investigator-blind, randomized, clinical-controlled trial in parallel groups. During the treatment period, no oral hygiene measures except rinsing with non-alcoholic 0.2% CHX or 0.2% CHX/0.055% sodium fluoride mouthrinses, a positive control, or a negative control were permitted. The primary parameter was the gingival index; the secondary parameters were plaque index, discolouration index, and bleeding on probing. Clinical examinations were conducted 14 days before the start of the study, at baseline, and after 7, 14, and 21 days. The two sample t-test, anova, and ancova were used for the statistical analysis. No difference in efficacy was found between the two new CHX formulations and the positive control. On day 21, statistically significantly less gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation compared with placebo were observed. Besides discolouration and taste irritations, no adverse events were recorded. The two new CHX mouthrinses were able to inhibit plaque re-growth and gingivitis. Neither the omission of alcohol nor the supplementation with sodium fluoride had weakened the clinical efficacy of CHX with respect to the analysed clinical parameters.

  19. Comparison of chocolate to cacao-free white chocolate in Parkinson's disease: a single-dose, investigator-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Martin; Schleiffer, Christine; Klingelhöfer, Lisa; Schneider, Christine; Proft, Florian; Schwanebeck, Uta; Reichmann, Heinz; Riederer, Peter; Storch, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    A previous questionnaire study suggests an increased chocolate consumption in Parkinson's disease (PD). The cacao ingredient contains caffeine analogues and biogenic amines, such as β-phenylethylamine, with assumed antiparkinsonian effects. We thus tested the effects of 200 g of chocolate containing 80 % of cacao on UPDRS motor score after 1 and 3 h in 26 subjects with moderate non-fluctuating PD in a mono-center, single-dose, investigator-blinded crossover study using cacao-free white chocolate as placebo comparator. At 1 h after chocolate intake, mean UPDRS motor scores were mildly decreased compared to baseline in both treatments with significant results only for dark chocolate [-1.3 (95 % CI 0.18-2.52, RMANOVA F = 4.783, p = 0.013¸ Bonferroni p = 0.021 for 1 h values)]. A 2 × 2-cross-over analysis revealed no significant differences between both treatments [-0.54 ± 0.47 (95 % CI -1.50 to 0.42), p = 0.258]. Similar results were obtained at 3 h after intake. β-phenylethylamine blood levels were unaltered. Together, chocolate did not show significant improvement over white cacao-free chocolate in PD motor function.

  20. Reconceptualizing balance: attributes associated with balance performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Julia C; Odonkor, Charles; Griffith, Laura; Holt, Nicole; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Leveille, Suzanne; Ni, Pensheng; Latham, Nancy K; Jette, Alan M; Bean, Jonathan F

    2014-09-01

    Balance tests are commonly used to screen for impairments that put older adults at risk for falls. The purpose of this study was to determine the attributes that were associated with balance performance as measured by the Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test. This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort study, the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study of the Elderly (Boston RISE). Boston RISE was performed in an outpatient rehabilitation research center and evaluated Boston area primary care patients aged 65 to 96 (N=364) with self-reported difficulty or task-modification climbing a flight of stairs or walking 1/2 of a mile. The outcome measure was standing balance as measured by the FICSIT-4 balance assessment. Other measures included: self-efficacy, pain, depression, executive function, vision, sensory loss, reaction time, kyphosis, leg range of motion, trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength and leg velocity at peak power. Participants were 67% female, had an average age of 76.5 (±7.0) years, an average of 4.1 (±2.0) chronic conditions, and an average FICSIT-4 score of 6.7 (±2.2) out of 9. After adjusting for age and gender, attributes significantly associated with balance performance were falls self-efficacy, trunk extensor muscle endurance, sensory loss, and leg velocity at peak power. FICSIT-4 balance performance is associated with a number of behavioral and physiologic attributes, many of which are amenable to rehabilitative treatment. Our findings support a consideration of balance as multidimensional activity as proposed by the current International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model.

  1. GET.ON Mood Enhancer: efficacy of Internet-based guided self-help compared to psychoeducation for depression: an investigator-blinded randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ebert, David Daniel; Lehr, Dirk; Baumeister, Harald; Boß, Leif; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Reins, Jo Annika; Buntrock, Claudia; Berking, Matthias

    2014-01-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) imposes a considerable disease burden on individuals and societies. A large number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have shown the efficacy of Internet-based guided self-help interventions in reducing symptoms of depression. However, study quality varies considerably. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a new Internet-based guided self-help intervention (GET.ON Mood Enhancer) compared to online-based psychoeducation in an investigator-blinded RCT. A RCT will be conducted to compare the efficacy of GET.ON Mood Enhancer with an active control condition receiving online psychoeducation on depression (OPD). Both treatment groups will have full access to treatment as usual. Adults with MDD (n=128) will be recruited and randomised to one of the two conditions. Primary outcome will be observer-rated depressive symptoms (HRSD-24) by independent assessors blind to treatment conditions. Secondary outcomes include changes in self-reported depressive symptom severity, anxiety and quality of life. Additionally, potential negative effects of the treatments will systematically be evaluated on several dimensions (for example, symptom deteriorations, attitudes toward seeking psychological help, relationships and stigmatisation). Assessments will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks after randomisation. This study evaluates a new Internet-based guided self-help intervention for depression using an active control condition (psychoeducation-control) and an independent, blinded outcome evaluation. This study will further enhance the evidence for Internet-based guided self-help interventions for MDD. German Clinical Trial Registration (DRKS): DRKS00005025.

  2. Comparable efficacy of standardized Ayurveda formulation and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQS) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA): a randomized investigator-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Arvind; Saluja, Manjit; Tillu, Girish; Venugopalan, Anuradha; Narsimulu, Gumdal; Handa, Rohini; Bichile, Lata; Raut, Ashwinikumar; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2012-02-01

    Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQS) is a popular disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) despite modest efficacy and toxicity. Ayurveda (ancient India medicinal system) physicians treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with allegedly safer herbal formulations. We report a head-to-head comparison in an exploratory drug trial. The objective is to compare standardized Ayurvedic formulations and HCQS in the treatment of RA. One hundred twenty-one patients with active moderately severe RA (ACR 1988 classified) were randomized into a 24-week investigator-blind, parallel efficacy, three-arm (two Ayurvedic and HCQS) multicenter drug trial study; polyherb (Tinospora cordifolia and Zingiber officinale based) and monoherb (Semecarpus anacardium). Study measures included joint counts (pain/tenderness and swelling), pain visual analogue scale, global disease assessments, and health assessment questionnaire. Oral meloxicam (fixed-dosage schedule) was prescribed to all patients during the initial 16 weeks. Patients on prednisolone could continue a fixed stable dose (<7.5 mg daily). Rescue oral use of paracetamol was permitted and monitored. All groups matched well at baseline. An intent-to-treat analysis (ANOVA, significance P < 0.05) did not show significant differences by treatment groups. In the polyherb, monoherb, and HCQS arms, 44%, 36%, and 51%, respectively, showed ACR 20 index improvement. Several efficacy measures improved significantly in the HCQS and polyherb groups with no difference between the groups (corrected P). However, the latter was individually superior to monoherb. Only mild adverse events (gut and skin, and none withdrew) were reported with no differences between the groups. Forty-two patients dropped out. This preliminary drug trial controlled for HCQS demonstrated a standardized Ayurvedic polyherb drug to be effective and safe in controlling active RA. A better-designed study with a longer evaluation period is recommended.

  3. A treatment for severe nodular acne: a randomized investigator-blinded, controlled, noninferiority trial comparing fixed-dose adapalene/benzoyl peroxide plus doxycycline vs. oral isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Tan, J; Humphrey, S; Vender, R; Barankin, B; Gooderham, M; Kerrouche, N; Audibert, F; Lynde, C

    2014-12-01

    Oral isotretinoin (ISO) is the gold standard for severe nodular acne. However, as some patients are unwilling or unable to take, or are intolerant to, ISO, other options are needed. To compare efficacy and safety of oral ISO vs. doxycycline 200 mg plus adapalene 0·1%/benzoyl peroxide 2·5% gel (D+A/BPO) in severe nodular acne over 20 weeks. This was a multicentre, randomized, controlled, noninferiority investigator-blinded study involving 266 subjects. D+A/BPO showed a significantly earlier onset of action in reducing nodules, papules/pustules and total lesions at week 2. ISO was superior in reducing nodules (95·6% vs. 88·7%), papules/pustules (95·2% vs. 79·6%) and total lesions (92·9% vs. 78·2%; all P < 0·01) at week 20. Half as many subjects for D+A/BPO compared with ISO had treatment-related, medically relevant adverse events (33 events in 18·0% of subjects vs. 73 in 33·8% of subjects, respectively). D+A/BPO was noninferior to ISO in the intent-to-treat population [95% confidence interval (CI) -2·7 to 20·8 (P = 0·13); 63·9% vs. 54·9% of subjects, respectively] and per-protocol population [95% CI 3·9-28·6 (P = 0·01); 74·3% vs. 58% of subjects, respectively), based on the composite efficacy/safety end point. D+A/BPO showed a favourable composite efficacy/safety profile compared with ISO. This combination is an alternative to ISO in patients intolerant to, or unable or unwilling to take, oral ISO, and is an option for treatment of severe nodular acne. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Randomized, investigator-blinded, controlled clinical study with lice shampoo (Licener®) versus dimethicone (Jacutin® Pedicul Fluid) for the treatment of infestations with head lice.

    PubMed

    Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Gestmann, Falk; Abdel-Aty, Mohammed; Rizk, Ibrahim; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Lehmacher, Walter; Hoff, Norman-Philipp

    2017-07-01

    The present clinical trial was conducted to obtain additional data for the safety and efficacy of a head lice shampoo that is free of silicone compared with an anti-head lice product containing dimethicone. Both products act by a physical mode of action. This randomized, investigator-blinded, controlled clinical study was conducted between July and November 2016 in households of two villages (Abou Rawash and Shandalat) in Egypt. Children older than 2 years with an active head lice infestation were treated with either a shampoo-based head lice treatment containing neem extract (Licener®) or dimethicone (Jacutin® Pedicul Fluid) on day 1 and additionally on day 9. Assessment for living lice by combing was conducted before and 1-2 h after treatment and on days 5 and 13. The main objective was to demonstrate a cure rate of the test product of at least 85% after a single application (day 5 and 9). Secondary objectives were to scrutinize patient safety and satisfaction as well as cure rates on day 13 after two treatments and the evaluation of ovicidal and licicidal efficacies of the products. Sixty-one children in the test-group (Licener®) and 58 children in the reference group (Jacutin® Pedicul Fluid) were included in this study. The test product and the reference product were very well tolerated. Both products exceeded the objective of cure rates of over 85% after single treatment (test group 60/60 = 100%; 95% CI = 94.04-100.00%; reference group 54/57 = 94.74%; 95% CI = 85.38-98.90%; p = 0.112; CI by Clopper-Pearson) and after two treatments (test group 58/58 = 100%; 95% CI = 93.84-100.00%; reference group 52/54 = 96.30%; 95% CI = 87.25-99.55%; p = 0.230) with higher cure rates and non-inferiority for the test product. The combined success rate shows significant superiority of the test product against the reference product (test group 58/58 = 100%; 95% CI = 93.84-100.00%; reference group 49/54 = 90.7%; 95% CI = 79.70-96.92%; p = 0

  5. Laser Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical Technology, Incorporated developed a fully automatic laser machining process that allows more precise balancing removes metal faster, eliminates excess metal removal and other operator induced inaccuracies, and provides significant reduction in balancing time. Manufacturing costs are reduced as a result.

  6. Laser Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical Technology, Incorporated developed a fully automatic laser machining process that allows more precise balancing removes metal faster, eliminates excess metal removal and other operator induced inaccuracies, and provides significant reduction in balancing time. Manufacturing costs are reduced as a result.

  7. Gender Imputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In late 2007, the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC) expanded its Enrollment Reporting service to include several additional data elements (commonly referred to as the "A2" or "expanded" data elements). One of these expanded data elements is student gender. Although gender is potentially important to a number of research…

  8. Gender Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…

  9. Gender Fictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lesley

    1992-01-01

    Reviews and compares "Gender and Mathematics" edited by Leone Burton and Valerie Walkerdine's book "Schoolgirl Fictions" on proposed truths related to gender issues in mathematics. Issues include (1) attention given to boys and girls in mathematics class; (2) the effects of noncompetitive classroom environments; and (3) sex differences in…

  10. Gender Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  11. On Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James Q.

    1993-01-01

    Explores differences between males and females and their manifestation in biology and culture. Cultures differ, not in whether they cope with the socialization of males to invest in child rearing, but in how they deal with this problem. Issues of gender and power and gender and child rearing are discussed. (SLD)

  12. Gender Representation in Geography: Singapore. Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeoh, Brenda S. A.; Huang, Shirlena; Wong, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    In Singapore, geography emerged as a strongly masculinist university discipline during the interwar years under colonial rule. Localizing staff hires in the postcolonial era did not immediately produce gender-balanced staff profiles. Instead, a more equitable gender representation was achieved only in the last decade, following the increasing…

  13. Gender equity.

    PubMed

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender equity. Gender equity is difficult to achieve when there is no economic, social, or political equity. The Gender Development Index evidenced this. There were a lot of instances where women are psychologically traumatized, whether it is through domestic rape, purchased sexual services in the red light area, and seduction or violation of neighbors, relatives, daughter or child. The economic changes linked with globalization and media's influence have worsened women's position. The policy for empowerment of women is an attempt toward ensuring equity. Furthermore, many women and women's organizations are trying to address these inequities; wherein they fight for strong acceptance of women's rights, social, economic, and political rights, as well as equities between gender and within gender.

  14. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... a new type of balance therapy using computerized, virtual reality. UPMC associate professor Susan Whitney, Ph.D., developed ... a virtual grocery store in the university's Medical Virtual Reality Center. Patients walk on a treadmill and safely ...

  15. Gender, technology and jobs.

    PubMed

    Brynin, Malcolm

    2006-09-01

    Men have traditionally gained more than women from access to technologies at work which bring prestige, job security, more satisfying work and higher pay. Typically female jobs have centred on technologies, if they have at all, which tend towards routine and possibly deskilled work. Typing is a prime example. It is possible that this is changing through computerization, which is extensive but also equally distributed by gender. Does the wage premium, which use of a computer has been found to confer on users, benefit women sufficiently to suggest some sort of equalization through technology, or possibly even a female advantage? This is tested using data from four European countries. There is no across-the-board benefit from the use of computers. For both men and women it depends on the nature of their occupation. Some, more routine usages of computers are associated with a negative outcome. However, this occupational balance itself varies by gender.

  16. Beyond Gender Performance in Accounting: Does Personality Distinction Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallan, Lars; Opstad, Leiv

    2014-01-01

    This study questions whether the contradictory results from previous studies of gender and performance in accounting is because gender has no mutually homogeneous groups. A combination of gender and personality types will provide a more balanced picture of academic performance in accounting. There are three main findings in this study: the…

  17. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  18. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  19. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  20. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help ... whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance retraining exercise ...

  1. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance.

  2. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo® Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults’ body balance. PMID:26957722

  3. Balanced Can

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-12-01

    The ordinary 12-oz beverage cans in the figures below are not held up with any props or glue. The bottom of such cans is stepped at its circumference for better stacking. When this kind of can is tilted, as shown in Fig. 1, the outside corners of the step touch the surface beneath, providing an effective contact about 1 cm wide. Because the contact is relatively wide and the geometry is symmetrical, it is easy to balance an empty can by simply adding an appropriate amount of water so that the overall center of mass is located directly above the contact. In fact, any amount of water between about 40 and 210 mL will work. A computational animation of this trick by Sijia Liang and Bruce Atwood that shows center of mass as a function of amount of added water is available at http://demonstrations.wolfram.com. Once there, search "balancing can."

  4. Airplane Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huguet, L

    1921-01-01

    The authors argue that the center of gravity has a preponderating influence on the longitudinal stability of an airplane in flight, but that manufacturers, although aware of this influence, are still content to apply empirical rules to the balancing of their airplanes instead of conducting wind tunnel tests. The author examines the following points: 1) longitudinal stability, in flight, of a glider with coinciding centers; 2) the influence exercised on the stability of flight by the position of the axis of thrust with respect to the center of gravity and the whole of the glider; 3) the stability on the ground before taking off, and the influence of the position of the landing gear. 4) the influence of the elements of the glider on the balance, the possibility of sometimes correcting defective balance, and the valuable information given on this point by wind tunnel tests; 5) and a brief examination of the equilibrium of power in horizontal flight, where the conditions of stability peculiar to this kind of flight are added to previously existing conditions of the stability of the glider, and interfere in fixing the safety limits of certain evolutions.

  5. Gender Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn

    In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…

  6. Gender Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn

    In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…

  7. A National Study of Gender-Based Occupational Segregation in Municipal Bureaucracies: Persistence of Glass Walls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Will; Kerr, Brinck; Reid, Margaret

    1999-01-01

    Investigates gender-based municipal employment patterns in discrete functional-policy areas. Indicates that even though cities have achieved gender balance in redistributive functions, women are severely underrepresented in distributive and regulatory agencies. (Author)

  8. Balanced Matrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Kapoor M.R. Rao § Kristina Vu~kovic ¶ DTIC April 1994 ELECTE 1 SJjUN 01 1994uG - ,)ýK94-16267 "Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata...introduce the connection with propositional logic and nonlinear 0, 1 optimization. In Section 3, we show how to sign a 0,1 matrix into a 0, ±1 balanced...polytope P(A) is irreducible. Then A is perfect if and only if all the monotone completions of A are perfect 0, 1 matrices. 2.4 Propositional Logic In

  9. Keeping Your Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercise/Safe Movement › Keeping Your Balance Keeping Your Balance Balance is very important for people with osteoporosis. Your ... all play an important role in maintaining your balance and preventing broken bones. Medical conditions and medicines ...

  10. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Balance Disorders KidsHealth > For Parents > Balance Disorders Print A ... feel as happy and healthy as possible. How Balance Works To understand balance problems, it's important to ...

  11. Shaft balancing

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, John A.

    1979-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an internal drive shaft including one end connected to a driven load and an opposite end connected to a turbine wheel and wherein the shaft has an in situ adjustable balance system near the critical center of a bearing span for the shaft including two 360.degree. rings piloted on the outer diameter of the shaft at a point accessible through an internal engine panel; each of the rings has a small amount of material removed from its periphery whereby both of the rings are precisely unbalanced an equivalent amount; the rings are locked circumferentially together by radial serrations thereon; numbered tangs on the outside diameter of each ring identify the circumferential location of unbalance once the rings are locked together; an aft ring of the pair of rings has a spline on its inside diameter that mates with a like spline on the shaft to lock the entire assembly together.

  12. [Gender mainstreaming and nursing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2011-12-01

    Gender mainstreaming is one of the most important strategies in promoting global gender equality. The Taiwan government launched policies on gender mainstreaming and gender impact assessment in 2007 in response to strong public and academic advocacy work. With rising awareness of gender issues, nursing professionals in Taiwan should keep pace with global trends and become actively involved in advancing gender-mainstreaming policies. This article shows that nursing professionals should prepare themselves by cultivating gender competence, understanding gender-related regulations, recognizing the importance of gender impact assessment implementation, integrating gender issues into nursing education, conducting gender-related research and participating in decision-making processes that promote gender mainstreaming. Nursing professionals should enhance their knowledge and understanding of gender mainstreaming-related issues and get involved in the gender-related decision-making process in order to enhance gender awareness and women's health and further the professional development of nurses.

  13. Doing gender in sex and sex research.

    PubMed

    Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2009-12-01

    Gender is central to sexuality, and vice versa, but there are a number of difficulties with the treatment of gender in sex research. Apparently, it is hard to find a balance between two conflicting needs. First, obviously, it is necessary to make distinctions between women and men, for political as well as research-technical and theoretical reasons. A second requirement, at odds with the first one, is the necessity to understand gender and its relation to sexuality and the body as much more complex than simplistically referring to two sets of individuals. This is all the more necessary when one realizes the possible drawbacks of exaggerating the differences between the sexes (in particular when they are biologically explained), because of stereotyping, stigmatizing, and expectancy confirmatory processes. This essay identifies and discusses 10 difficulties in the treatment of gender in sex research, reflects on their origins, and reviews theory and evidence with the aim to (1) consider the relative strength of gender/sex as an explanatory variable compared to other factors and processes explaining differences between men and women on a number of sexual aspects, (2) inform an understanding of gender and its relation to sexuality as an ongoing, open-ended, multi-determined, situated, interactional process, with the body as a third player, and (3) argue in favor of a nuanced, well-balanced treatment of gender in sex research.

  14. Adjunctive usage of a non-comedogenic moisturizer with adapalene gel 0.1% improves local tolerance: a randomized, investigator-blinded, split-face study in healthy Asian subjects.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Kayoko; Leow, Yung-Hian; Chan, Roy; Kerrouche, Nabil; Paliargues, Florence

    2013-08-01

    Adapalene gel 0.1% is an efficacious treatment for acne vulgaris in Asians. It is generally well tolerated, but may still cause cutaneous side effects among patients with sensitive skin. To assess the ability of a moisturizing lotion (Cetaphil®) in improving the local tolerance of adapalene. In this 4-week, randomized, investigator-blinded, split-face study among 30 healthy volunteers of Chinese origin, adapalene gel was applied once daily to the whole face and the moisturizing lotion was applied once daily to only one side of the face according to the randomization scheme. At each study visit, both investigators and subjects reported better tolerance on the side of moisturizing lotion + adapalene gel than the side of adapalene gel only, with significant differences reported by the subjects during the first 2 weeks (p = 0.039 and 0.013, respectively). Global worst score, defined as the average of worst scores for erythema, desquamation, dryness, stinging/burning and pruritus, was significantly lower for the side of moisturizing lotion + adapalene gel than for the side of adapalene gel alone (0.43 ± 0.34 vs. 0.59 ± 0.44, p = 0.032). The adjunctive usage of an effective moisturizer improves local tolerance of adapalene gel and may contribute to better adherence.

  15. Investigator-Blinded, Single-Center Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerability of a 4% Hydroquinone Skin Care System Plus 0.02% Tretinoin Cream in Mild-to-Moderate Melasma and Photodamage.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Marta; Dryer, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the treatment of mild-to-moderate epidermal melasma and photodamage using a 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin 0.02% cream. Single-center, investigator-blinded study in 39 adult females with mild-to-moderate epidermal melasma, mild-to-marked pigmentation intensity, and Fitzpatrick skin type III to VI treated for 24 weeks. Improvements in melasma severity, pigmentation intensity, photodamage, and patient satisfaction were assessed at weeks 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24. Cutaneous tolerability was assessed by investigator (erythema, dryness, peeling) and patients (burning and stinging). Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout. Melasma severity, pigmentation intensity, and melasma area and severity index (MASI) scores relative to baseline were all significantly reduced from week 4 onward (P<.001). In addition, signs of facial photodamage were significantly improved. At week 24, 87.9% of patients were "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with the overall treatment effectiveness and Quality of Life (QoL) was much improved. No patient discontinued due to lack of efficacy or treatment-related AEs. One patient (2.8%) reported severe cutaneous intolerability (erythema at week 4). Treating mild-to-moderate melasma using a 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus 0.02% tretinoin cream can significantly reduce the severity and intensity of melasma and associated pigmentation, and improve signs of photodamage within four weeks. Treatment was generally well tolerated and associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  16. Balance Food and Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... eNewsletters Calendar Balance Food and Activity What is Energy Balance? Energy is another word for "calories." Your ... adults, fewer calories are needed at older ages. Energy Balance in Real Life Think of it as ...

  17. Dizziness and Balance

    MedlinePlus

    AUDIOLOGY Dizziness and Balance Inform ation Seri es Our balance system helps us walk, run, and move without falling. ... if I have a problem with balance or dizziness? It is important to see your doctor if ...

  18. Gender, Gender Role, and Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.; And Others

    This study examined the importance of gender and gender role in understanding self-perceptions of body image. Male and female college students (N=166) who differed in gender role as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory completed the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, a new measure of body image containing 140 items which fit a 3 x 3 matrix that…

  19. Protocol for an investigator-blinded, randomised, 3-month, parallel-group study to compare the efficacy of intraoperative tendon sheath irrigation only with both intraoperative and postoperative irrigation in the treatment of purulent flexor tenosynovitis

    PubMed Central

    Jokihaara, Jarkko; Kaivorinne, Antti; Havulinna, Jouni; Göransson, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The management of purulent flexor tenosynovitis of the hand consists of surgical debridement followed by antibiotic treatment. Usually, the debridement is carried out by irrigating the tendon sheath in a proximal to distal direction facilitated by two small incisions. It is unclear whether intraoperative irrigation by itself is adequate for healing or if it should be combined with postoperative irrigation in the ward. The hypothesis of this prospective randomised trial is that intraoperative catheter irrigation alone is as effective as a combination of intraoperative and postoperative intermittent catheter irrigation in the treatment of purulent flexor tenosynovitis. Methods and analysis In this investigator-blinded, prospective randomised trial, 48 patients suffering from purulent flexor tenosynovitis are randomised in two groups. Intraoperative catheter irrigation of the flexor tendon sheath and antibiotic treatment is identical in both groups, whereas only the patients in one group are subjected to intermittent postoperative catheter irrigation three times a day for 3 days. The primary outcome measure is total active range of movement of the affected finger after 3 months of surgery. The secondary outcome is the need for reoperation. Ethics and dissemination The research ethics committee of Pirkanmaa Hospital District has approved the study protocol. The protocol has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov registry (#NCT02320929). All participants will give written informed consent. The study results will elucidate the role of postoperative irrigation, which can be criticised as being labour consuming and unpleasant to the patient. The results of the study will be disseminated as a published article in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number: NCT02320929; pre-results. PMID:26671952

  20. Protocol for an investigator-blinded, randomised, 3-month, parallel-group study to compare the efficacy of intraoperative tendon sheath irrigation only with both intraoperative and postoperative irrigation in the treatment of purulent flexor tenosynovitis.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Olli V; Jokihaara, Jarkko; Kaivorinne, Antti; Havulinna, Jouni; Göransson, Harry

    2015-12-15

    The management of purulent flexor tenosynovitis of the hand consists of surgical debridement followed by antibiotic treatment. Usually, the debridement is carried out by irrigating the tendon sheath in a proximal to distal direction facilitated by two small incisions. It is unclear whether intraoperative irrigation by itself is adequate for healing or if it should be combined with postoperative irrigation in the ward. The hypothesis of this prospective randomised trial is that intraoperative catheter irrigation alone is as effective as a combination of intraoperative and postoperative intermittent catheter irrigation in the treatment of purulent flexor tenosynovitis. In this investigator-blinded, prospective randomised trial, 48 patients suffering from purulent flexor tenosynovitis are randomised in two groups. Intraoperative catheter irrigation of the flexor tendon sheath and antibiotic treatment is identical in both groups, whereas only the patients in one group are subjected to intermittent postoperative catheter irrigation three times a day for 3 days. The primary outcome measure is total active range of movement of the affected finger after 3 months of surgery. The secondary outcome is the need for reoperation. The research ethics committee of Pirkanmaa Hospital District has approved the study protocol. The protocol has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov registry (#NCT02320929). All participants will give written informed consent. The study results will elucidate the role of postoperative irrigation, which can be criticised as being labour consuming and unpleasant to the patient. The results of the study will be disseminated as a published article in a peer-reviewed journal. NCT02320929; pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam versus imipenem-cilastatin in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including acute pyelonephritis, in hospitalized adults: results of a prospective, investigator-blinded, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, José A; González Patzán, Luis Demetrio; Stricklin, David; Duttaroy, Dipesh D; Kreidly, Zouheir; Lipka, Joy; Sable, Carole

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective phase II, randomized, investigator-blinded study (NCT00690378) was to compare the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam and imipenem-cilastatin in hospitalized adults with serious complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) due to Gram-negative pathogens. Patients aged between 18 and 90 years with cUTI were enrolled and stratified by infection type (acute pyelonephritis or other cUTI) and randomized 1:1 to receive intravenous ceftazidime 500 mg plus avibactam 125 mg every 8 hours or imipenem-cilastatin 500 mg every 6 hours. Patients meeting pre-specified improvement criteria after 4 days could be switched to oral ciprofloxacin. Patients were treated for a total of 7-14 days. The primary efficacy objective was a favorable microbiological response at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit 5-9 days post-therapy in microbiologically evaluable (ME) patients. Overall, 135 patients received study therapy (safety population); 62 were included in the ME population (ceftazidime-avibactam, n = 27; imipenem-cilastatin, n = 35). The predominant uropathogen was Escherichia coli. Favorable microbiological response was achieved in 70.4% of ME patients receiving ceftazidime-avibactam and 71.4% receiving imipenem-cilastatin at the TOC visit (observed difference -1.1% [95% CI: -27.2%, 25.0%]). Among ME patients with ceftazidime-resistant uropathogens, response was observed in 6/7 (85.7%) receiving ceftazidime-avibactam. Adverse events were observed in 67.6% and 76.1% of patients receiving ceftazidime-avibactam and imipenem-cilastatin, respectively. Limitations of the study include the small number of patients in the ME population. The results suggest that the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam may be similar to that of imipenem-cilastatin.

  2. One-year investigator-blind randomized multicenter trial comparing Asacol 2.4 g once daily with 800 mg three times daily for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, A Barney; Stenson, Rachel; Gillespie, David; Swarbrick, Edwin T; Dhar, Anjan; Kapur, Kapil C; Hood, Kerry; Probert, Chris S J

    2012-10-01

    Mesalazine (Asacol) is still widely prescribed in divided doses for ulcerative colitis (UC), despite evidence that adherence is improved by once-daily (OD) prescribing. We aimed to investigate whether OD Asacol was as effective as three times (TDS) daily dosing, and to evaluate the role of treatment adherence. An investigator-blind randomized trial was undertaken comparing OD Asacol (three 800 mg tablets) versus one 800 mg TDS in maintenance of remission of UC over 1 year. The primary endpoint was relapse rate, and noninferiority would be concluded if the lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference in proportions relapsing (TDS-OD) exceeded -10%. Adherence was measured by tablet counts and self-reported adherence. A subgroup of patients used a bottle cap that recorded all bottle opening events. In all, 213 patients were randomized. In the intention-to-treat (ITT) population, relapse rates were 31% (95% CI 22%-40%) in the OD and 45% (95% CI 35%-54%) in the TDS group. Primary analysis confirmed the noninferiority of OD dosing. Two of the study populations, ITT and per-protocol (PP), showed potential superiority of OD dosing. All measures of adherence showed that it was significantly better in the OD group. Multivariate analysis, however, showed OD dosing was associated with lower relapse risk independently of adherence. OD dosing with Asacol 2.4 g is as safe and effective as TDS dosing, and secondary analysis confirmed significantly reduced relapse rates. The benefit, however, was clinically borderline and may relate in part to ease of adherence. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  3. One-year Investigator-blind Randomized Multicenter Trial Comparing Asacol 2.4 g Once Daily with 800 mg Three Times Daily for Maintenance of Remission in Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hawthorne, A Barney; Stenson, Rachel; Gillespie, David; Swarbrick, Edwin T; Dhar, Anjan; Kapur, Kapil C; Hood, Kerry; Probert, Chris SJ

    2012-01-01

    Background Mesalazine (Asacol) is still widely prescribed in divided doses for ulcerative colitis (UC), despite evidence that adherence is improved by once-daily (OD) prescribing. We aimed to investigate whether OD Asacol was as effective as three times (TDS) daily dosing, and to evaluate the role of treatment adherence. Methods An investigator-blind randomized trial was undertaken comparing OD Asacol (three 800 mg tablets) versus one 800 mg TDS in maintenance of remission of UC over 1 year. The primary endpoint was relapse rate, and noninferiority would be concluded if the lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference in proportions relapsing (TDS-OD) exceeded −10%. Adherence was measured by tablet counts and self-reported adherence. A subgroup of patients used a bottle cap that recorded all bottle opening events. Results In all, 213 patients were randomized. In the intention-to-treat (ITT) population, relapse rates were 31% (95% CI 22%–40%) in the OD and 45% (95% CI 35%–54%) in the TDS group. Primary analysis confirmed the noninferiority of OD dosing. Two of the study populations, ITT and per-protocol (PP), showed potential superiority of OD dosing. All measures of adherence showed that it was significantly better in the OD group. Multivariate analysis, however, showed OD dosing was associated with lower relapse risk independently of adherence. Conclusions OD dosing with Asacol 2.4 g is as safe and effective as TDS dosing, and secondary analysis confirmed significantly reduced relapse rates. The benefit, however, was clinically borderline and may relate in part to ease of adherence. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012) PMID:22081522

  4. Efficacy and tolerability of natural synergised pyrethrins in a new thermo labile foam formulation in topical treatment of scabies: a prospective, randomised, investigator-blinded, comparative trial vs. permethrin cream.

    PubMed

    Amerio, PierLuigi; Capizzi, Rodolfo; Milani, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    We compared in a prospective, randomised, investigator-blinded trial, the efficacy and tolerability of a new synergised-pyrethrins thermo-labile foam (F) formulation with permethrin 5 % cream (P) in 40 patients with scabies. Clinical evolution of scabetic lesions (Clinical grading = CG) and itching intensity (IS) were assessed, using a 5-point semi-quantitative score, at baseline, at week 2 and 4. F and P were equally effective in the clinical resolution of scabetic lesions. As compared to baseline, P reduced CG and IS from 3.4 0.7 and 3.1 0.4 to 0.2 0.6 and 1.4 1, at week 2, and to 0.0 0.0 and 0.1 0.3 at week 4, respectively (P < 0.001). F reduced CG and IS from 3.3 0.5 and 3.2 0.4 to 0.05 0.2 and 0.4 0.6 (week 2) and to 0.0 0.0 and 0.0 0.0 (week 4), respectively (P < 0.0001). As compared to P group, the IS in F group, at week 2, was significantly lower (0.4 0.6 vs. 1.4 1.1) (P < 0.0013). This foam formulation was at least as effective as permethrin 5 % cream in the treatment of scabies. In comparison with permethrin the foam induced a more rapid and complete resolution of itching.

  5. Discourse Roles, Gender and Language Textbook Dialogues: Who Learns What from John and Sally?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martha A.; Kitetu, Catherine; Sunderland, Jane

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes discourse roles and gender fairness in dialogs within three recent textbooks for the teaching of English as a foreign language. Results show fairness was achieved through gender balance in social and occupational roles. Negative implications of gender-imbalanced dialogs for female students plus language practice opportunities are…

  6. Campaigning on the welfare state: The impact of gender and gender diversity.

    PubMed

    Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz

    2017-07-01

    Social policy matters have long been considered women's issues. Extant research has documented a strong link between gender and the policies of the welfare state in the legislative, executive and electoral arenas. Yet what determines the strength of this association has largely been left unexplored. Drawing on tokenism theory, this article proposes gender diversity at the group level as a key explanatory factor. It hypothesizes that the gender gap in social policy diminishes as the female representation in a political party increases. To test this argument, it examines almost 8000 press releases issued by over 600 politicians during four election campaigns in Austria between 2002 and 2013. The analysis demonstrates that women talk more about social policy issues during election campaigns than men, but that this emphasis gap disappears for parties with a more equal gender balance. These results have important implications for our understanding of the politics of gender and social policy.

  7. Campaigning on the welfare state: The impact of gender and gender diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz

    2017-01-01

    Social policy matters have long been considered women’s issues. Extant research has documented a strong link between gender and the policies of the welfare state in the legislative, executive and electoral arenas. Yet what determines the strength of this association has largely been left unexplored. Drawing on tokenism theory, this article proposes gender diversity at the group level as a key explanatory factor. It hypothesizes that the gender gap in social policy diminishes as the female representation in a political party increases. To test this argument, it examines almost 8000 press releases issued by over 600 politicians during four election campaigns in Austria between 2002 and 2013. The analysis demonstrates that women talk more about social policy issues during election campaigns than men, but that this emphasis gap disappears for parties with a more equal gender balance. These results have important implications for our understanding of the politics of gender and social policy. PMID:28751817

  8. Gender lost and gender found: BRAC's Gender Quality Action-Learning Programme.

    PubMed

    Rao, A; Kelleher, D

    1998-05-01

    This article describes and analyzes the BRAC Gender Quality Action-Learning (GQAL) Program. BRAC aims to bring about organizational change and improve program quality through issue analysis, action planning, and implementation with an understanding of gender. During the 1990s, BRAC increased the number of women staff and set up a women's committee. In 1993, it piloted a gender training program. By 1994, BRAC did not know what the real problems were. A needs assessment was carried out among 400 staff in various program types and levels and revealed 3 empowerment issues. An intuitive understanding did not translate into creative solutions. Staff preferred non-confrontation in dealing with women's subordination in the family and community. Staff strongly believed in training as a way of changing behavior and values. BRAC is an organization in transition. The goal is changing the relationship between men and women. BRAC needs multiple perspectives of men and women staff and primary stakeholders. BRAC is gendered. Quantitative targets must be balanced with quality improvements. Quality occurs by analyzing the process and outcomes of programs. The GQAL program and cycle began in 1995. The GQAL outcome was improved working and democratic relationships and more open communication. Success was based on, for example, a field-based learning intervention, followed by trained facilitators, and innovative and tested methodology. Constraints were the perceived lack of top management support in some programs, frequent transfers of staff, and natural disasters. The authors identify future issues.

  9. Gender-related academic and occupational interests and goals.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jennifer; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the theories and empirical evidence concerning whether gender differences in academic and occupational goals and interests exist, and if so, why those differences may be present. Expectancy-value theory, stereotype threat, sociocultural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis lay the theoretical framework for this chapter. Following a brief review of these theories, we describe the evidence for gender differences in academic ability and occupational interests and goals, using meta-analytic reviews wherever possible. Although there are few gender differences in academic ability, some gender differences in occupational goals and interests persist, particularly in science and mathematics. These gender differences may be due to parental or cultural expectations, changes in developmental trends, stereotypes and discrimination, or gendered-expectations to achieve work-family balance. Overall, the pathways to adult occupations are complex, involving many factors that affect occupational goals, interests, and self-concept.

  10. A Question of Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, David B.; Troy, Maridy; Dupree, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities consider balance to be a component of skill-related physical fitness. Balance, however, is directly related to health, especially for older adults. Falls are a leading cause of injury and death among the elderly. Improved balance can help reduce falls and contribute to older people remaining physically active. Balance is a…

  11. A Question of Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, David B.; Troy, Maridy; Dupree, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities consider balance to be a component of skill-related physical fitness. Balance, however, is directly related to health, especially for older adults. Falls are a leading cause of injury and death among the elderly. Improved balance can help reduce falls and contribute to older people remaining physically active. Balance is a…

  12. Balance in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  13. Balance in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  14. Dynamic balance improvement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The reduction of residual unbalance in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure turbopump rotors was addressed. Elastic rotor response to unbalance and balancing requirements, multiplane and in housing balancing, and balance related rotor design considerations were assessed. Recommendations are made for near term improvement of the SSME balancing and for future study and development efforts.

  15. Justice in the context of family balancing

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    Bioethics and feminist scholarship has explored various justice implications of non-medical sex selection and family balancing. However, prospective users’ viewpoints have been absent from the debate over the socially acceptable bounds of non-medical sex selection. This qualitative study provides a set of empirically-grounded perspectives on the moral values that underpin prospective users’ conceptualizations of justice in the context of a family balancing program in the United States. The results indicate that couples pursuing family balancing understand justice primarily in individualist and familial terms rather than in terms of social justice for women and girls or for children resulting from sex selection. Study participants indicated that an individual’s desire for gender balance in their family is ethically complex and may not be inherently sexist, immoral or socially consequential, particularly given the social context in which they live. Our findings suggest that the social conditions that contribute to prospective users’ desires for gender balance in their families may direct them away from recognizing or engaging broader social justice concerns relating to sexism and stratified reproduction. PMID:24371364

  16. Balancing Vanguard Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simkovich, A.; Baumann, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    The Vanguard satellites and component parts were balanced within the specified limits by using a Gisholt Type-S balancer in combination with a portable International Research and Development vibration analyzer and filter, with low-frequency pickups. Equipment and procedures used for balancing are described; and the determination of residual imbalance is accomplished by two methods: calculation, and graphical interpretation. Between-the-bearings balancing is recommended for future balancing of payloads.

  17. A randomized investigator-blind parallel-group study to assess efficacy and safety of azelaic acid 15% gel vs. adapalene 0.1% gel in the treatment and maintenance treatment of female adult acne.

    PubMed

    Thielitz, A; Lux, A; Wiede, A; Kropf, S; Papakonstantinou, E; Gollnick, H

    2015-04-01

    Growing numbers of post-adolescent females are suffering from treatment-resistant or relapsing adult acne forms, therefore requiring the definition of safe and effective treatment options for this burdening disease. To assess the efficacy of azelaic acid 15% gel (AzA) vs. no treatment during maintenance therapy of female adult acne and to compare its efficacy and safety vs. adapalene 0.1% gel (AD) during a 9-month period (3-month treatment and 6-month maintenance treatment). A total of 55 women between 18 and 45 years with adult acne were included in this investigator-blind trial and randomized into three groups receiving AzA gel b.i.d. for 9 months (AzA9M, n = 17) or AzA gel b.i.d. for 3 months followed by a 6-month observational phase (AzA3M, n = 19) or AD gel once daily for 9 months (AD9M, n = 19). Parameters of efficacy, safety and patient-related factors were analysed. The reduction in lesion counts, severity and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significant (P < 0.05) and comparable between groups during the treatment phase, while dryness and scaling were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group AzA9M vs. AD9M. During maintenance, AzA9M was superior to AzA3M in the control of inflammatory lesions (P = 0.008) and total lesions (P = 0.014) at week 24. From week 12 to week 36, a mild relative increase in inflammatory lesions could be observed in all groups. In AzA3M, this increase exceeded that of AzA9M by 23.1% (P = 0.109), while the difference of total lesions diverged to 30.8% (P = 0.038). No significant differences could be detected between AzA9M and AD9M. Group AzA9M was non-inferior to AD9M (non-inferiority margin of 50% for the confidence limit for the relative effect) in the control of inflammatory acne lesions. AzA15% gel is a safe and effective treatment and maintenance treatment of female adult acne with non-inferior efficacy to AD 0.1% gel in the control of inflammatory acne. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. Skylab water balance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

  19. Occlusal cranial balancing technique.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gerald H

    2007-01-01

    The acronym for Occlusal Cranial Balancing Technique is OCB. The OCB concept is based on the architectural principle of a level foundation. The principles of Occlusal Cranial Balancing are a monumental discovery and if applied will enhance total body function.

  20. Baltic Consortium on Promoting Gender Equality in Marine Research Organisations (Baltic Gender)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kısakürek Ibsen, Başak; Braun, Sarah; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Kutser, Tiit; Stadmark, Johanna; Vaitkevičienė, Viktorija; Waniek, Joanna; Werner, Iris; Matthes, Katja

    2017-04-01

    Marine Science and Technology has been traditionally a male-dominated research field, with a significant lack of women in leadership positions. However, the whole intellectual capacity of men and women alike are needed to create innovative solutions for the sustainable use of marine resources in the face of major global challenges for the development of the marine environment. The EU-funded project, Baltic Gender (GA No. 710363), responds to this need for creating policies and implementing measures at the institutional level with the aim of harvesting the full human capital for the needs of marine research. The main goal of Baltic Gender is to help reduce gender segregation and gender inequalities in Marine Science and Technology. To this end, eight partner institutions from five countries in the Baltic Sea region (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania and Sweden) came together for the exchange of institutional practices as well as for the transfer of knowledge from institutions/countries leading in gender equality to those following. Baltic Gender will sow the seeds for long-lasting institutional practices by initiating schemes and strategies that promote gender equality in the partner institutions. These include, for instance: the founding of grass-root networks that support the career advancement of women; creating strategies for better reconciliation of work and family life of women and men; the review and improvement of institutional policies and practices with regard to gender balance, fairness and transparency; development of a method protocol for incorporating gender analysis into research projects or programmes of Marine Science and Technology; initiating gender focused training and mentoring in or across all partner institutions. The project will support the implementation of Gender Equality Plans (GEPs), which consist of a set of actions an institution commits to in order to identify any existing gender bias and to implement strategies to advance gender

  1. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Derek E.

    1998-01-01

    A beamsplitter assembly that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting.

  2. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  3. Coaching for Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses coaching for balance the integration of the whole self: physical (body), intellectual (mind), spiritual (soul), and emotional (heart). Offers four ways to identify problems and tell whether someone is out of balance and four coaching techniques for creating balance. (Contains 11 references.) (JOW)

  4. Human Balance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... and vision problems, and difficulty with concentration and memory. What is balance? Balance is the ability to maintain the body’s center of mass over its base of support. 1 A properly functioning balance system allows humans to see clearly while moving, identify orientation with ...

  5. Wind Tunnel Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P; Norton, F H

    1920-01-01

    Report embodies a description of the balance designed and constructed for the use of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, and also deals with the theory of sensitivity of balances and with the errors to which wind tunnel balances of various types are subject.

  6. Workshop I: Gender Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessey, Eden; Kurup, Anitha; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Shastri, Prajval; Ghose, Shohini

    2015-12-01

    Participants in the Gender Studies workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics discussed the gender question in science practice from a policy perspective, informed by investigations from the social science disciplines. The workshop's three sessions—"Equity and Education: Examining Gender Stigma in Science," "A Comparative Study of Women Scientists and Engineers: Experiences in India and the US," and "Toward Gender Equity Through Policy: Characterizing the Social Impact of Interventions—are summarized, and the resulting recommendations presented.

  7. Effects of travoprost 0.004% ophthalmic solution, six weeks after its laminated packaging had been removed, in primary open-angle glaucoma: a randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Reis, Ricardo; dos Santos, Lucia Cristina; Vila, Marcos P; Magacho, Leopoldo

    2004-12-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a chronic and progressive optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer neuropathy, with characteristic visual field damage. The intraocular pressure (IOP) is typically higher than the level considered statistically normal. Although there is no known cure, appropriate reduction of IOP with hypotensive drugs (eg, the topical prostaglandin analogue travoprost) delays the progression of POAG. Chemical-stability studies of travoprost performed by the manufacturer suggest that the stability of travoprost is maintained beyond the expiration date, which is 6 weeks after the laminated packaging has been opened. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of travoprost 0.004% ophthalmic solution, 6 to 12 weeks after its expiration date, in patients with POAG. This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded study was conducted at 2 centers in Brazil: the Ophthalmology Department, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, and the Ophthalmology Department, Santa Casa de Misericordia Hospital in São José do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo. Patients with POAG (in 1 or both eyes) were randomly assigned to receive travoprost, either from a bottle from which the laminated packaging had been removed and that had been stored at room light and temperature for 6 weeks (ie, after the expiration date; opened group), or from a bottle that had been sealed until first use by the patient (control group). Drug was to be administered, 1 drop in the lower conjunctival sac (in the affected eye[s]), QD between 7 pm and 9 pm, for 6 weeks. IOP was measured at study weeks 0 (baseline), 4, and 6. The 2 treatment groups were compared with regard to hypotensor effect and incidence of adverse events (AEs). : Thirty-one patients completed the study (55 eyes; 28 right and 27 left eyes; 35 eyes of women, 20 eyes of men). The mean (SD) ages of the opened and control groups were 61.8 (13.5) and 62.8 (14.1) years, respectively. Twenty-four patients were included

  8. Balancing Act: Addressing Culture and Gender in ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michelle A.; Chang, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    ESL educators find themselves teaching a diverse group of students in today's classroom. This study investigated how ESL instructors address diversity in their teaching. The literature review revealed research on the experiences of teachers using culturally responsive teaching strategies. Using qualitative research methods, this study explores the…

  9. Gender Balance in Primary Initial Teacher Education: Some Current Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szwed, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The drive to recruit more male primary teachers has been a longstanding aim of many Western countries. Within England the Training and Development Agency for Schools has undertaken a 10-year marketing campaign to increase the numbers with limited success. Researchers have attempted to analyse the reasons for this failure, considering many areas,…

  10. The Teaching of Psychology with a Gender-Balanced Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaremba, Stacey Beth

    Traditional psychological theories are designed, in large part, to explain the behavior of white males, viewing female behavior as deviant or deficient, or ignoring it altogether. While special undergraduate topics courses, such as those on the psychology of women, address this problem in part, many institutions cannot afford to offer them. In…

  11. Female Flight? Gender Balance and Outmigration by Native Alaskan Villagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Lawrence C.; Seyfrit, Carole L.

    Surveys in Alaska's predominantly Native, Bristol Bay and Northwest Arctic regions examined attitudes toward education and migration among high school students, as well as outcomes among high school graduates. These surveys encompassed 430 high school students and 144 recent high school graduates in 15 predominantly Native villages. About 63…

  12. Righting the balance: Gender diversity in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Robin E.; Kastens, Kim A.; Cane, Mark; Muller, Roberta B.; Mutter, John C.; Pfirman, Stephanie

    The blatant barriers are down. Women are now routinely chief scientists on major cruises, lead field parties to all continents, and have risen to leadership positions in professional organizations, academic departments, and funding agencies. Nonetheless, barriers remain. Women continue to be under-represented in the Earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences. Let's do the numbers: As of 1997, women received 41% of all Ph.D.s in science and engineering, but only 29% of the doctorates in the Earth, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences [NSF, 1999a]. Women were 23% of employed Ph.D.s across all fields of science, but only accounted for 13% in the geosciences. Women's salaries also lag: the median salary for all Ph.D. geoscientists was $60,000; for women, the figure is $47,000 [NSF, 1999b]. The growing number of women students is a step in the right direction, but only a step.

  13. Gender Balance in ECEC: Why Is There so Little Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, J.; Rohrmann, T.; Emilsen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Social attitudes about male participation in the upbringing of children have changed considerably over the past few decades. Men are now seen as important for children's development and learning. Research from many countries worldwide shows that in early childhood care and education (ECEC), male workers are welcomed by female colleagues and…

  14. Using ICT To Improve the Gender Balance in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alha, Katariina; Gibson, Ivan S.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes the activities, contents, and overall outcomes of an international seminar organized jointly by two working groups of SEFI--the Working Group on Women in Engineering and the Working Group on Information and Communication Technologies. Replaces traditional teaching methods and concentration on narrow technical contents with a more…

  15. Comment on ``Righting the Balance: Gender Diversity in the Geosciences''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Floyd

    2004-03-01

    To say that the fraction of geoscientists who are women is too small, as a recent Forum essay (Eos, 5 August 2003, p. 292) did, is mathematically equivalent to saying that the complementary set, male geoscientists, is too large. Does this mean that many of the male geoscientists should be eliminated? A similar article in Science proposed that Title IX should be used in science as it was in college athletics, when a comparable quota requirement forced the elimination of a large fraction of the male athletes in order to reach a male/female ratio less than one.

  16. Gender Balance in ECEC: Why Is There so Little Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, J.; Rohrmann, T.; Emilsen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Social attitudes about male participation in the upbringing of children have changed considerably over the past few decades. Men are now seen as important for children's development and learning. Research from many countries worldwide shows that in early childhood care and education (ECEC), male workers are welcomed by female colleagues and…

  17. Gender Equity Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This document reports on the implementation of two bills adopted by the Washington State legislature in 1989 to achieve gender equity in higher education. The gender equity statute prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender against any student, and, in particular, it forbids discrimination in student assistance and services, academic…

  18. Gender and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  19. Gender Differences in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diedrick, Patricia

    Gender differences in spoken and unspoken emotional expression exist and may be related to gender differences in other realms, particularly in self-esteem. This literature review investigated gender differences in communication, particularly as related to emotional expressiveness, detection of emotional responses, and self-disclosures, in relation…

  20. Gender Effects in Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Anne P.; Grossman, Frances K.

    The literature on how parent gender influences responses to children has grown enormously in the past decade; mothers and fathers have been found to differ on many dimensions and to be similar on just as many. Conflicting evidence also exists on how a child's gender affects parenting style. This paper reports some important gender differences in…

  1. Beyond Gender Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the continuing significance of gender identity as a category of analysis within the field of gender theory and research in education. I begin by considering contemporary discussions of the limitations of research relating to gender theory and research in education. Following on from this, I explore some contemporary…

  2. The Embryology of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorge, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    More than 50 years after the appearance of the term "gender" in the clinical setting, we have yet to uncover the mechanisms and factors that lead to gender identity formation. Based on human embryology principles, the scientific reasoning with regard to the sexual differentiation of the body is erroneously applied to gender identity formation. The…

  3. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  4. The Morpheme Gender Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Fanny; Seigneuric, Alix; Spinelli, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments we explored the mental representation of morphologically complex words in French. Subjects were asked to perform a gender decision task on morphologically complex words that were of the same gender as their base or not. We found that gender decisions were made more slowly for morphologically complex words made from a base with…

  5. Gender and Science.

    PubMed

    2016-05-10

    We are delighted to expand our Cell Metabolism "Rosie project" to highlight an upcoming LabLinks meeting, "The Gender of Science and the Science of Gender" on May 19th in Cambridge, MA. We present the viewpoints of the speakers and other leaders on the ever-fascinating topic of gender in science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  7. Gender and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  8. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  9. Gender representation in the vision sciences: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Emily A; Radonjic, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the current status and historical trends of gender representation within a research field is an important component of fostering a diverse and inclusive scientific community. Here, we report on the gender representation of a large sample of the vision science research community--the attendees of the Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS). Our analysis shows that the majority of scientists at all career levels in our sample are male. This imbalance is most pronounced for the senior scientists, whereas predoctoral students are nearly balanced between the genders. Historically, the gender imbalance was larger than it is at present, and it has followed a slow-but-steady trend toward gender parity over the past decade. A longitudinal analysis based on tracking individual attendees shows a larger dropout rate for female than male predoctoral trainees. However, among the trainees who continue in the vision science field after graduate school, evidence suggests that career advancement is quite similar between the genders. In an additional analysis, we found that the VSS Young Investigator awardees and the abstract review committee members reflect substantial gender imbalances, suggesting that these recognitions have yet to catch up with the greater gender balance of the rising generation of junior vision scientists. We hope that this report will encourage awareness of issues of diversity in the scientific community and further promote the development of a research field in which all talented scientists are supported to succeed.

  10. Gender interactions and success.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Carla; Peterson, Teri

    2004-01-01

    Does gender by itself, or does gender's interaction with career variables, better explain the difference between women and men's careers in healthcare management? US healthcare managers were surveyed regarding career and personal experiences. Gender was statistically interacted with explanatory variables. Multiple regression with backwards selection systematically removed non-significant variables. All gender interaction variables were non-significant. Much of the literature proposes that work and career factors impact working women differently than working men. We find that while gender alone is a significant predictor of income, it does not significantly interact with other career variables.

  11. Explicit and implicit assessment of gender roles.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, M Ángeles; Escorial, Sergio; Privado, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Gender roles have been assessed by explicit measures and, recently, by implicit measures. In the former case, the theoretical assumptions have been questioned by empirical results. To solve this contradiction, we carried out two concatenated studies based on a relatively well-founded theoretical and empirical approach. The first study was designed to obtain a sample of genderized activities of the domestic sphere by means of an explicit assessment. Forty-two raters (22 women and 20 men, balanced on age, sex, and level of education) took part as raters. In the second study, an implicit assessment of gender roles was carried out, focusing on the response time given to the sample activities obtained from the first study. A total of 164 adults (90 women and 74 men, mean age = 43), with experience in living with a partner and balanced on age, sex, and level of education, participated. Taken together, results show that explicit and implicit assessment converge. The current social reality shows that there is still no equity in some gender roles in the domestic sphere. These consistent results show considerable theoretical and empirical robustness, due to the double implicit and explicit assessment.

  12. Gender determination in populus

    SciTech Connect

    McLetchie, D.N.; Tuskan, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  13. Balance in scientific impact assessment: the EGU Awards Committe experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of scientific impact is becoming an essential step all over the world for assigning academic positions, funding and recognition. Impact is generally assessed by means of objective bibliometric indicators which are frequently integrated with a subjective evaluation by one or more individuals. An essential requirement of impact assessment is to ensure balance across several potential discriminating factors, including gender, ethnics, culture, scientific field and many others. Scientific associations need to ensure balance in any step of their activity and in particular when electing their representatives, evaluating scientific contributions, reviewing papers and assigning awards. While ensuring balance is a strict necessity, how to get to target is still a matter of vivid debates. In fact, the context of science is very different with respect to the general context of society and the need for scientific associations to maintain confidentiality in their evaluation procedures makes the application of transparent procedures more complicated. This talk aims to present the experience and the efforts of the European Geosciences Union to ensure balance, with a particular focus on gender balance. Data and statistics will be presented in the attempt to provide constructive indications to get to the target of giving equal opportunities to researchers across gender, continents and ethnic groups. Science is a unifying discipline and balance will be vital to ensure that humans and our planet co-evolve sustainably.

  14. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  15. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  16. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources: A Visual Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoven, Anne H.; Land-Zandstra, Anne M.; Saxena, Aayush; Rodenburg, Frans J.

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people’s social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are visible in education include the use of gender-biased visuals, language, teaching methods, and teachers’ attitudes. The goal of this study was to determine whether science education resources for primary school contained gender-biased visuals. Specifically, the total number of men and women depicted, and the profession and activity of each person in the visuals were noted. The analysis showed that there were more men than women depicted with a science profession and that more women than men were depicted as teachers. This study shows that there is a stereotypical representation of men and women in online science education resources, highlighting the changes needed to create a balanced representation of men and women. Even if the stereotypical representation of men and women in science is a true reflection of the gender distribution in science, we should aim for a more balanced representation. Such a balance is an essential first step towards showing children that both men and women can do science, which will contribute to more gender-balanced science and technology fields. PMID:27851759

  17. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources: A Visual Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kerkhoven, Anne H; Russo, Pedro; Land-Zandstra, Anne M; Saxena, Aayush; Rodenburg, Frans J

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people's social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are visible in education include the use of gender-biased visuals, language, teaching methods, and teachers' attitudes. The goal of this study was to determine whether science education resources for primary school contained gender-biased visuals. Specifically, the total number of men and women depicted, and the profession and activity of each person in the visuals were noted. The analysis showed that there were more men than women depicted with a science profession and that more women than men were depicted as teachers. This study shows that there is a stereotypical representation of men and women in online science education resources, highlighting the changes needed to create a balanced representation of men and women. Even if the stereotypical representation of men and women in science is a true reflection of the gender distribution in science, we should aim for a more balanced representation. Such a balance is an essential first step towards showing children that both men and women can do science, which will contribute to more gender-balanced science and technology fields.

  18. Balance and flexibility.

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    The 'work-life balance' and flexible working are currently key buzz terms in the NHS. Those looking for more information on these topics should visit Flexibility at www.flexibility.co.uk for a host of resources designed to support new ways of working, including information on flexible workers and flexible rostering, the legal balancing act for work-life balance and home working.

  19. Patterns of Gender Development

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive theory of gender development must describe and explain long-term developmental patterning and changes and how gender is experienced in the short term. This review considers multiple views on gender patterning, illustrated with contemporary research. First, because developmental research involves understanding normative patterns of change with age, several theoretically important topics illustrate gender development: how children come to recognize gender distinctions and understand stereotypes, and the emergence of prejudice and sexism. Second, developmental researchers study the stability of individual differences over time, which elucidates developmental processes. We review stability in two domains—sex segregation and activities/interests. Finally, a new approach advances understanding of developmental patterns, based on dynamic systems theory. Dynamic systems theory is a metatheoretical framework for studying stability and change, which developed from the study of complex and nonlinear systems in physics and mathematics. Some major features and examples show how dynamic approaches have been and could be applied in studying gender development. PMID:19575615

  20. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  1. Gender and physics: a sociological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendick, Heather

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, I take a sociological approach to understanding the under-representation of gender and physics. I argue that gender is something we do not something that we are. Thus, every aspect of our behaviour, including our engagement (or not) with physics becomes part of our performance of gender. I then use a brief historical analysis and an example from popular culture to show how physics is culturally aligned with masculinity. The impact is that the subject feels more ‘natural’ for men than for women. I end with some of the implications of this for those who want to make physics more accessible to girls and women. (EDITORS NOTE: This paper was given at the Improving Gender Balance (IGB) conference in Cambridge, UK, in March 2015, organised by the Institute of Physics. This conference was for schools and their supporters who were part of the IGB strand of the Stimulating Physics Network, funded by the Department for Education. It aimed to summarise some of the sociological perspectives on girls and physics for the benefit of the teachers attending the conference. We feel that it may be a useful summary for those teachers of physics who are unfamiliar with sociological approaches to gender and the classroom.)

  2. Father Influences on Employed Mothers' Work-Family Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Press, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This study employed the ecological systems perspective and gender ideology theory to examine the influence of fathers' paid work-family crossover and family involvement on self-reports of work-family balance by employed mothers with children under the age of 13 (N = 179). Multiple regression analyses revealed that fathers' crossover factors had a…

  3. Father Influences on Employed Mothers' Work-Family Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Press, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This study employed the ecological systems perspective and gender ideology theory to examine the influence of fathers' paid work-family crossover and family involvement on self-reports of work-family balance by employed mothers with children under the age of 13 (N = 179). Multiple regression analyses revealed that fathers' crossover factors had a…

  4. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  5. A balanced view of balanced solutions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The present review of fluid therapy studies using balanced solutions versus isotonic saline fluids (both crystalloids and colloids) aims to address recent controversy in this topic. The change to the acid-base equilibrium based on fluid selection is described. Key terms such as dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis (correctly used instead of dilutional acidosis or hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis to account for both the Henderson-Hasselbalch and Stewart equations), isotonic saline and balanced solutions are defined. The review concludes that dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis is a side effect, mainly observed after the administration of large volumes of isotonic saline as a crystalloid. Its effect is moderate and relatively transient, and is minimised by limiting crystalloid administration through the use of colloids (in any carrier). Convincing evidence for clinically relevant adverse effects of dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis on renal function, coagulation, blood loss, the need for transfusion, gastrointestinal function or mortality cannot be found. In view of the long-term use of isotonic saline either as a crystalloid or as a colloid carrier, the paucity of data documenting detrimental effects of dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis and the limited published information on the effects of balanced solutions on outcome, we cannot currently recommend changing fluid therapy to the use of a balanced colloid preparation. PMID:21067552

  6. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  7. The gender similarities hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-09-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships.

  8. Class and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mechthild

    2005-01-01

    Everyone is dependent on caring labor. Because women's labor is financially beneficial to global capitalism, gender is inseparable from class, regardless of the specific national or cultural contexts.

  9. Controversies in Gender Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jack

    2014-03-01

    This article presents the author's thoughts on gender diagnosis controversies during his tenure at the DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders and the ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health. The work summarizes some of the published conclusions of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 revision processes regarding three particular controversies: (1) stigma versus access to care; (2) the retention of a child gender diagnosis; and (3) the treatment of prepubescent transgender children. Both the DSM and ICD work groups decided that despite the stigma associated with a diagnosis, retaining an adolescent and adult gender diagnosis is necessary to maintain access to care. As for the child gender diagnosis, given the heterogeneity of this clinical population and that gender dysphoria does not persist in most children, a child diagnosis of Gender Dysphoria (DSM) and Gender Incongruence (ICD) should be retained to facilitate ongoing evaluation and management in childhood while acknowledging the uncertainty of the outcome. The treatment of extremely gender variant prepubescent children remains a controversial subject since some underlying assumptions of the treating clinicians are a matter of opinion rather than of empirical data.

  10. How sex became gender.

    PubMed

    Nye, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that "sex" which had been commonly assumed in the West to refer to a permanent set of biological and behavioural traits particular to men and women, is gradually being replaced in general usage by "gender." Though feminist theorists attempted to attach a constructivist meaning to gender, a generation of developmental theorists, clinicians and analysts has imbued the term with the determinism and biological qualities formerly ascribed to "sex." The triumph of this materialist conception of gender is not assured, but it threatens our ability to think about gender identity as a historically-constructed category.

  11. From Gender Bias to Gender Awareness in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…

  12. From Gender Bias to Gender Awareness in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…

  13. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  14. The Technology Balance Beam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Eddie K.

    2006-01-01

    "The Technology Balance Beam" is designed to question the role of technology within school districts. This case study chronicles a typical school district in relation to the school district's implementation of technology beginning in the 1995-1996 school year. The fundamental question that this scenario raises is, What is the balance between…

  15. A smartphone inertial balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-04-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  16. A Balance of Power?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosey, Edward

    1991-01-01

    The booming economy of the Pacific Northwest region promotes the dilemma of balancing the need for increased electrical power with the desire to maintain that region's unspoiled natural environment. Pertinent factors discussed within the balance equation are population trends, economic considerations, industrial power requirements, and…

  17. Judicial Checks and Balances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Porta, Rafael; Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio; Pop-Eleches, Cristian; Shleifer, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    In the Anglo-American constitutional tradition, judicial checks and balances are often seen as crucial guarantees of freedom. Hayek distinguishes two ways in which the judiciary provides such checks and balances: judicial independence and constitutional review. We create a new database of constitutional rules in 71 countries that reflect these…

  18. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  19. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  20. A Balance of Power?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosey, Edward

    1991-01-01

    The booming economy of the Pacific Northwest region promotes the dilemma of balancing the need for increased electrical power with the desire to maintain that region's unspoiled natural environment. Pertinent factors discussed within the balance equation are population trends, economic considerations, industrial power requirements, and…

  1. A Smartphone Inertial Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-01-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  2. Cultures of Work-Life Balance in Higher Education: A Case of Fragmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    In response to demographic shifts, colleges and universities implemented new policies, adopted new practices, and created professional development opportunities to gain support for work-life balance. Research on work-life balance reveals gender disparities, lack of policy usage, and a lack of cultural change with little understanding of the ways…

  3. Role Balance and Depression among College Students: The Moderating Influence of Adult Attachment Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Fons-Scheyd, Alia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among role balance perceptions, adult attachment orientations, and depression within an ethnically diverse, mixed-gender sample of college students. Adult attachment orientations--and particularly attachment avoidance--significantly interacted with students' role balance levels to predict their depression…

  4. Cultures of Work-Life Balance in Higher Education: A Case of Fragmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    In response to demographic shifts, colleges and universities implemented new policies, adopted new practices, and created professional development opportunities to gain support for work-life balance. Research on work-life balance reveals gender disparities, lack of policy usage, and a lack of cultural change with little understanding of the ways…

  5. Gender in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelland, Nicola, Ed.

    The construction of gender is a systematic process that begins at birth and is continually shaped, molded, and reshaped throughout life. This book examines practices with young children with respect to the construction of gender and the expectations of society, schools, and families. The book is organized into two parts. The first part considers…

  6. Gender and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1990-01-01

    Contends that, to understand role of gender in psychological problems, counselors need to be aware of gender-socialized individual characteristics, which may affect what psychological problems people develop, associated symptoms, and how people respond to problems. Claims it is important to recognize how broader sociological context presents men…

  7. Gender Equity. IDRA Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles on issues of gender equity for Chicanas and other women. "Recognizing Chicana Contributions: Cultural History & Gender Equity on the Line" (Mikki Symonds) discusses the invisibility of Mexican Americans in general and of Chicanas in particular in U.S. history books, school curricula, and pop…

  8. Issues of Gender. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on issues of gender in human resource development (HRD). "The Impact of Awareness and Action on the Implementation of a Women's Network" (Laura L. Bierema) reports on research to examine how gender consciousness emerges through the formation of in-company networks to promote corporate women's…

  9. Gender, Toys and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Becky

    2010-01-01

    In spite of continuing patterning of curriculum subject preference and choice by gender, there has been little recent attention to the argument developed in the 1970s that children play with different toys according to their gender, and that these provide girls and boys with (different) curriculum-related skills. The article describes a…

  10. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  11. Gender-Friendly Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kelley; Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The authors, who have worked with more than 2,000 schools across the United States in efforts to close gender gaps, describe how gender-related issues consistently intersect and interfere with school improvement efforts. They present statistics showing that schools are now failing boys in more areas than girls, and describe how "the…

  12. The Gender Reality Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippa, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Comments on the article by J. S. Hyde (see record 2005-11115-001), in which Hyde reviewed meta-analytic evidence on gender differences and concluded that most psychological gender differences are in the close-to-zero or small range. The current author notes some omissions from Hyde's review, including the findings through other research large…

  13. Gender Roles and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship of gender-role orientation and specific behavioral coping responses of wives (N=82) experiencing a long-term separation from their military spouses. Results showed that an androgynous gender-role orientation was significantly associated with four of the five coping patterns identified as helpful to wives managing a…

  14. Interrupting Gendered Assessment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Gaell M.

    This paper is part of the symposium on "Gender and Assessment of Physics in Context: Getting It Right!" It examines ways in which current practices privilege the "masculine" over the "feminine" and presents an agenda for gender inclusive assessment practices. It is argued that physics like other domains of knowledge,…

  15. Gender and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1990-01-01

    Contends that, to understand role of gender in psychological problems, counselors need to be aware of gender-socialized individual characteristics, which may affect what psychological problems people develop, associated symptoms, and how people respond to problems. Claims it is important to recognize how broader sociological context presents men…

  16. Gender in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelland, Nicola, Ed.

    The construction of gender is a systematic process that begins at birth and is continually shaped, molded, and reshaped throughout life. This book examines practices with young children with respect to the construction of gender and the expectations of society, schools, and families. The book is organized into two parts. The first part considers…

  17. Are Numbers Gendered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  18. Gender Inequality at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.

    These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…

  19. Gender and Peer Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines written peer response materials generated by small groups with varying gender compositions. Based on those observations, the author offers several pedagogical implications. She suggests that groups' gender make-up often does influence written feedback provided by group members during peer response sessions. By better…

  20. Are Numbers Gendered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  1. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  2. Gender, Toys and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Becky

    2010-01-01

    In spite of continuing patterning of curriculum subject preference and choice by gender, there has been little recent attention to the argument developed in the 1970s that children play with different toys according to their gender, and that these provide girls and boys with (different) curriculum-related skills. The article describes a…

  3. Gender-Friendly Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kelley; Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The authors, who have worked with more than 2,000 schools across the United States in efforts to close gender gaps, describe how gender-related issues consistently intersect and interfere with school improvement efforts. They present statistics showing that schools are now failing boys in more areas than girls, and describe how "the…

  4. Gender and the JRME.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennema, Elizabeth; Hart, Laurie E.

    1994-01-01

    Addresses two questions: (1) How has gender and mathematics been treated in the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" (JRME), and how does that record fit into the broader societal concern with gender and mathematics? (2) What kinds of studies should be published in the future to achieve equity for females in mathematics? (31…

  5. Active balance system and vibration balanced machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass.

  6. Teacher Perceptions of Gender-Based Differences among Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Tracy D.

    2009-01-01

    Far fewer males than females work in elementary education today. This deficit may represent an unacceptable balance in elementary teacher gender demographics. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher perceptions of gender-based differences among elementary school teachers. In this mixed-methods study, 217 elementary teachers in four public…

  7. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  8. Gender dysphoria and children.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Chance; McGuinness, Teena M

    2014-08-01

    The age at which gender dysphoria can be diagnosed with enough certainty to justify medical intervention is controversial. The aim of this article is to explore current literature as it relates to the gender reassignment process and diagnostic indicators supporting an appropriate age for intervention. The timing of diagnosis and treatment of gender dysphoria remains the center of debate between the long-term effects of early intervention versus delay of treatment. Limited research is available on gender dysphoria treatment protocols for children. However, preliminary studies suggest that early intervention improves the quality of life in individuals who are transgender. Ongoing research suggests that it may be possible to confirm gender dysphoria at an earlier age.

  9. Teaching Strategies and Gender in Higher Education Instrumental Studios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhukov, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates instrumental music teaching strategies in higher education settings, in order to identify those employed and their frequency and context of use. An instrument- and gender-balanced sample of 24 lessons from five institutions was analysed using a researcher-designed observational instrument. The results reveal the…

  10. Gender Equality in Swedish Higher Education: Patterns and Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Leif; Riis, Ulla; Silander, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    In most European countries, more women than men attend undergraduate Higher Education (HE) and more women than men obtain degrees. In Sweden the proportion of female students has long been in the vicinity of 51-60%. The number of doctoral entrants and degrees meet a "balanced gender criterion," defined as no sex constituting more than…

  11. Gender Equality in Swedish Higher Education: Patterns and Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Leif; Riis, Ulla; Silander, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    In most European countries, more women than men attend undergraduate Higher Education (HE) and more women than men obtain degrees. In Sweden the proportion of female students has long been in the vicinity of 51-60%. The number of doctoral entrants and degrees meet a "balanced gender criterion," defined as no sex constituting more than…

  12. Teaching Strategies and Gender in Higher Education Instrumental Studios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhukov, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates instrumental music teaching strategies in higher education settings, in order to identify those employed and their frequency and context of use. An instrument- and gender-balanced sample of 24 lessons from five institutions was analysed using a researcher-designed observational instrument. The results reveal the…

  13. Errors in potassium balance

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by /sup 40/K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies.

  14. Balance Evaluation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NeuroCom's Balance Master is a system to assess and then retrain patients with balance and mobility problems and is used in several medical centers. NeuroCom received assistance in research and funding from NASA, and incorporated technology from testing mechanisms for astronauts after shuttle flights. The EquiTest and Balance Master Systems are computerized posturography machines that measure patient responses to movement of a platform on which the subject is standing or sitting, then provide assessments of the patient's postural alignment and stability.

  15. Consideration of Dynamical Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    The quasi-balance of extra-tropical tropospheric dynamics is a fundamental aspect of nature. If an atmospheric analysis does not reflect such balance sufficiently well, the subsequent forecast will exhibit unrealistic behavior associated with spurious fast-propagating gravity waves. Even if these eventually damp, they can create poor background fields for a subsequent analysis or interact with moist physics to create spurious precipitation. The nature of this problem will be described along with the reasons for atmospheric balance and techniques for mitigating imbalances. Attention will be focused on fundamental issues rather than on recipes for various techniques.

  16. Doing Gender in Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Judi

    1999-01-01

    Explores teaching gender to management students, mainly those working toward Masters in Business Administration degrees. Introduces a gender awareness approach and illustrates it with two examples of "doing" gender using multiple associations of that term. (SLD)

  17. Gender nonconforming youth: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ehrensaft, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Beginning with a case vignette, a discussion follows of the reformulation of theories of gender development taking into consideration the recent upsurge of gender nonconforming and transgender youth presenting for gender services and also in the culture at large. The three predominant models of pediatric gender care are reviewed and critiqued, along with a presentation of the recently developed interdisciplinary model of gender care optimal in the treatment of gender nonconforming youth seeking either puberty blockers or cross-sex hormones.

  18. Balancing Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chris

    1991-01-01

    Describes the responses of some companies to increasing demands for family-work balance in terms of flexibility in working hours and leave policies, child care, and fringe benefits. Identifies some of the effects on the "bottom line." (SK)

  19. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... right balance of electrolytes helps your body's blood chemistry, muscle action and other processes. Sodium, calcium, potassium, chlorine, phosphate and magnesium are all electrolytes. You get them from the foods you eat and the fluids you drink. Levels ...

  20. The Balanced Literacy Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale

    2002-01-01

    Describes professional development program in Ontario school district to improve student reading and writing skills. Program used food-pyramid concepts to help teacher learn to provide a balanced and flexible approach to literacy instruction based on student needs. (PKP)

  1. Mars Balance Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Challenge is to develop ideas for how NASA can turn available entry, descent, and landing balance mass on a future Mars mission into a scientific or technological payload. Proposed concepts sho...

  2. The Balancing Act

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2008-05-01

    This essay is being proposed as part of a book titled: "Motherhood: The Elephant in the Laboratory." It offers professional and personal advice on how to balance working in the research field with a family life.

  3. Strength and Balance Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If you have medical ... if you have been inactive and want to exercise vigorously, check with your doctor before beginning a ...

  4. Posttraumatic Balance Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    69 International Tinnitus Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, 69–72 (2007) Posttraumatic Balance Disorders Michael E. Hoffer, Ben J. Balough, and Kim R...trauma is being more frequently recognized as a causative agent in balance disorders . Most of the published literature examining traumatic brain injury...TBI) after head trauma has focused on short-term prognostic indicators and neurocognitive disorders . Few data are available to guide those individuals

  5. Balance Function Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

  6. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  7. [Gender patterns in Spanish otolaryngologic doctoral theses].

    PubMed

    Prim-Espada, María Pilar; De Diego-Sastre, Juan Ignacio; Pérez-Fernández, Elia

    2010-01-01

    In last decades women in Spain have a greater access to postgraduate education. The objective of this study was to perform a gender analysis on the Otolaryngology doctoral theses presented in a 25 year-period. The TESEO data base on doctoral theses was searched for theses on Otorhinolaryngology written between 1981 and 2005. As strategy for the research we employed the terms: 1) Otorrinolaringología (Otorhinolaryngology); 2) Cirugía de garganta, nariz y oídos (Ear, nose and throat surgery); 3) Fisiología de la audición (Physiology of hearing); 4) Fisiología del equilibrio (Physiology of balance); 5) Física de la audición (Physics of hearing); and 6) Bioacústica (Bioacoustics). A total of 450 theses (18.0±8.3 theses/year) were found, of which 129 were written by females (28.6%). There was a gender imbalance among authors, with 5.2±3.4 theses/year for women vs. 12.9±6.6 theses/year for men (p=0.0002). Nevertheless, there was a tendency toward equality in the last 10 years (p=0.001). On the other hand, the PhD student's gender was clearly related to the supervisor's gender (p=0.0001). With respect to the main topics in our area (otology, audiology/vestibular diseases, rhinology and pathology of paranasal sinuses and neck diseases), there were no significant differences between males and females (p=0.231). These results indicate a tendency towards equality in the number of men and women successfully completing doctoral studies in Otolaryngology. However, the PhD student's gender is clearly related to the supervisor's gender. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender training: creating change.

    PubMed

    Craun-selka, P

    1997-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) has developed a training program concerning gender policies and practices; it includes a curriculum, "Gender and Development," and a handbook, "Gender Equity: Concepts and Tools for Development." Gender training focuses on increasing individual awareness of gender issues and incorporating gender practices in programs. CEDPA has expanded its programs to include projects promoting increased decision-making power for women regarding their own lives. Family planning and reproductive health projects now include programs designed to increase "women's literacy, credit and income-generation opportunities, and participation in civil society and the political process." Projects address reproductive and human rights, land distribution, economic expansion, credit and savings, and violence against women. Youth programs focus on the changing nature of gender roles, the equal rights of women and girls, and the shared responsibility and mutual respect of the sexes. In the Better Life Options projects, youth of both sexes attend family life and sex education programs. The curriculum "Choose a Future" provides life skills training for young women; a version for young men will be provided in the future. Including men (community health workers and supervisors, educators, trainers, leaders, fathers, and husbands) in the CEDPA programs is essential for the empowerment of women.

  9. Balance Functional Assessment in People with Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Izabela; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Koc, Krzysztof

    2015-11-22

    The aims of this study were twofold: to assess the level of balance of people with visual impairment against the BOT-2 standard scores for the able-bodied, and to identify in which trials subjects had the greatest difficulties in maintaining balance with respect to the degree of vision loss and age categories. One hundred twenty-seven subjects with visual impairment aged 6-16 years, participated in the study (68 girls and 59 boys). The division for partially sighted people (61) and the blind (66) was made according to the WHO classification. Functional balance assessment was made using a balance subtest from the Bruininks-Oseretsky test. Significant relationships were noticed between age and the level of balance (χ2 = 8.35 p <0,05), as well as between the degree of vision loss and the level of balance (χ2 = 24.53 p <0,001). The level of balance of almost all blind subjects was below (20%) or well-below (60%) the average for the able-bodied. The subjects' ability to maintain balance was not dependent on gender and was associated primarily with the degree of visual impairment and age. Partially sighted people had better balance than the blind and the decrease in visual acuity resulted in reduction of balance skills. The lowest level of balance was observed in blind students aged 7-11 years. Elaborating physical fitness improvement programs for children and adolescents with visual impairment, diversity of age, the degree of vision loss and limitations of ablility to maintain balance should be taken into account.

  10. Balance Functional Assessment in People with Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowska, Izabela; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Koc, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: to assess the level of balance of people with visual impairment against the BOT-2 standard scores for the able-bodied, and to identify in which trials subjects had the greatest difficulties in maintaining balance with respect to the degree of vision loss and age categories. One hundred twenty-seven subjects with visual impairment aged 6–16 years, participated in the study (68 girls and 59 boys). The division for partially sighted people (61) and the blind (66) was made according to the WHO classification. Functional balance assessment was made using a balance subtest from the Bruininks-Oseretsky test. Significant relationships were noticed between age and the level of balance (χ2 = 8.35 p <0,05), as well as between the degree of vision loss and the level of balance (χ2 = 24.53 p <0,001). The level of balance of almost all blind subjects was below (20%) or well-below (60%) the average for the able-bodied. The subjects’ ability to maintain balance was not dependent on gender and was associated primarily with the degree of visual impairment and age. Partially sighted people had better balance than the blind and the decrease in visual acuity resulted in reduction of balance skills. The lowest level of balance was observed in blind students aged 7–11 years. Elaborating physical fitness improvement programs for children and adolescents with visual impairment, diversity of age, the degree of vision loss and limitations of ablility to maintain balance should be taken into account. PMID:26834878

  11. Energy Balance and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hill, James O.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Peters, John C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the interplay among energy intake, energy expenditure and body energy stores and illustrates how an understanding of energy balance can help develop strategies to reduce obesity. First, reducing obesity will require modifying both energy intake and energy expenditure and not simply focusing on either alone. Food restriction alone will not be effective in reducing obesity if human physiology is biased toward achieving energy balance at a high energy flux (i.e. at a high level of energy intake and expenditure). In previous environments a high energy flux was achieved with a high level of physical activity but in today's sedentary environment it is increasingly achieved through weight gain. Matching energy intake to a high level of energy expenditure will likely be more a more feasible strategy for most people to maintain a healthy weight than restricting food intake to meet a low level of energy expenditure. Second, from an energy balance point of view we are likely to be more successful in preventing excessive weight gain than in treating obesity. This is because the energy balance system shows much stronger opposition to weight loss than to weight gain. While large behavior changes are needed to produce and maintain reductions in body weight, small behavior changes may be sufficient to prevent excessive weight gain. In conclusion, the concept of energy balance combined with an understanding of how the body achieves balance may be a useful framework in helping develop strategies to reduce obesity rates. PMID:22753534

  12. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital.

  13. Is the gap more than gender? A longitudinal analysis of gender, gender role orientation, and earnings.

    PubMed

    Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-individual differences in gender role orientation were also considered). Results indicated that whereas traditional gender role orientation was positively related to earnings, gender significantly predicted the slope of this relationship: Traditional gender role orientation was strongly positively associated with earnings for men; it was slightly negatively associated with earnings for women. Occupational segregation partly explained these gender differences. Overall, the results suggest that although gender role attitudes are becoming less traditional for men and for women, traditional gender role orientation continues to exacerbate the gender wage gap.

  14. [The gender gap in Italian medicine].

    PubMed

    De Simone, Silvia; Podda, Daiana; Lampis, Jessica

    2015-01-28

    This study is collocated in the debate about the gender gap in Medicine giving voice to female physicians who have damaged the "glass ceiling". Our research offers a contribute to the exploration about the motivations of persistence of gender gap in Medicine despite current changes. This study is based on 21 biographical interviews to female physicians who are managers in Italian hospitals. The themes emerged by data analysis concerned the participants 'discrimination experiences in their hierarchical advancement, the evidences of a persistence of horizontal segregation in some medical specializations, the difficult to find a work-life balance and the effects of this difficult on the female physicians' health. Our research confirmed a persistence of gender gap in the medical world, which disadvantages women in their career choices and in their hierarchical advancement and which appears in the form of invisible barriers impregnated of stereotypes and prejudices that are taken for granted by many men and women, especially those who have the power; these barriers make the female doctors 'health more vulnerable to the event of work-related stress. By the dates emerged the necessity of cultural and institutional interventions, actions for deconstruction of gender stereotypes, and the necessity of intervention for a more flexible and functioning work organization that satisfies the female physicians' needs.

  15. Continuity and change in work-life balance choices.

    PubMed

    Charles, Nickie; Harris, Chris

    2007-06-01

    This paper explores the ways in which the work-life balance choices made by heterosexual couples differ in different generations, how such choices are gendered, and the extent to which 'individualization' provides an adequate conceptualization of the effects of social change on heterosexual couples. It argues that processes of individualization need to be seen in the context of changing social institutions, and that it is the de-institutionalization of 'the family' and the life course that is leading to a de-gendering of work-life balance choices. The paper draws on findings from a restudy of the family and social change and a study of the gender dimensions of job insecurity both of which were carried out in the same geographical location. The studies provide evidence of generational change in work-life balance choices and increasing occupational differentiation between heterosexual partners. This leads to a situation where increasingly choices are made which blur gendered boundaries and which has been made possible by a process of de-institutionalization of the male breadwinner family. Our findings support the contention that processes of individualization are more apparent amongst younger than older generations and that, because of changes external to the family, there is more negotiation and pragmatism amongst younger generations about work-life choices.

  16. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  17. Gender Beliefs and Embedded Gendered Values in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emilson, Anette; Folkesson, Anne-Mari; Lindberg, Ingeborg Moqvist

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore practitioners' gender beliefs and how gendered values are embedded in Swedish preschool practice. The research question is: What beliefs about gender and the associated values, can be identified in practitioners' talk when they discuss gender issues? The study is informed by Bronwyn Davies' theoretical ideas…

  18. Gender Attribution and Gender Agreement in French Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloh, Yves; Ibernon, Laure; Royer, Stephanie; Escudier, Frederique; Danillon, Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies on grammatical gender in French individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have led to conflicting findings and interpretations regarding keys abilities--gender attribution and gender agreement. New production data from a larger SW sample (N = 24) showed that gender attribution scores in SW participants exactly mirrored those of…

  19. Gender Beliefs and Embedded Gendered Values in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emilson, Anette; Folkesson, Anne-Mari; Lindberg, Ingeborg Moqvist

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore practitioners' gender beliefs and how gendered values are embedded in Swedish preschool practice. The research question is: What beliefs about gender and the associated values, can be identified in practitioners' talk when they discuss gender issues? The study is informed by Bronwyn Davies' theoretical ideas…

  20. Gender Attribution and Gender Agreement in French Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloh, Yves; Ibernon, Laure; Royer, Stephanie; Escudier, Frederique; Danillon, Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies on grammatical gender in French individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have led to conflicting findings and interpretations regarding keys abilities--gender attribution and gender agreement. New production data from a larger SW sample (N = 24) showed that gender attribution scores in SW participants exactly mirrored those of…

  1. Grammatical Gender vs. Natural Gender in French Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibernon, Laure; Boloh, Yves

    2010-01-01

    This article reports grammatical gender attribution scores in French Williams participants (N = 28, mean chronological age = 15.1) in an experiment similar to the classic one from Karmiloff-Smith (1979) where grammatical gender was pitted against natural gender. WS participants massively opted for the masculine gender as the default one, just as…

  2. Cavendish Balance Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report for a project carried out to modify a manual commercial Cavendish Balance for automated use in cryostat. The scope of this project was to modify an off-the-shelf manually operated Cavendish Balance to allow for automated operation for periods of hours or days in cryostat. The purpose of this modification was to allow the balance to be used in the study of effects of superconducting materials on the local gravitational field strength to determine if the strength of gravitational fields can be reduced. A Cavendish Balance was chosen because it is a fairly simple piece of equipment for measuring gravity, one the least accurately known and least understood physical constants. The principle activities that occurred under this purchase order were: (1) All the components necessary to hold and automate the Cavendish Balance in a cryostat were designed. Engineering drawings were made of custom parts to be fabricated, other off-the-shelf parts were procured; (2) Software was written in LabView to control the automation process via a stepper motor controller and stepper motor, and to collect data from the balance during testing; (3)Software was written to take the data collected from the Cavendish Balance and reduce it to give a value for the gravitational constant; (4) The components of the system were assembled and fitted to a cryostat. Also the LabView hardware including the control computer, stepper motor driver, data collection boards, and necessary cabling were assembled; and (5) The system was operated for a number of periods, data collected, and reduced to give an average value for the gravitational constant.

  3. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within +/-0.05% the entire system has an accuracy of +/-0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  4. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  5. Gender Disparities in Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khaled A.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a growing health concern worldwide and its complications are as prevalent as other common chronic disease complications such as hypertension and diabetes. In this review, we will discuss the role of gender in osteoporosis, especially related to peak bone mass and maturation, rate of annual bone loss, screening, prevalence of osteoporosis and its related fractures, mortality after osteoporosis-related fracture, fracture risk predication using different technologies and the impact of gender on osteoporosis management. PMID:28392857

  6. Gender dysphoria in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ristori, Jiska; Steensma, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood is a complex phenomenon characterized by clinically significant distress due to the incongruence between assigned gender at birth and experienced gender. The clinical presentation of children who present with gender identity issues can be highly variable; the psychosexual development and future psychosexual outcome can be unclear, and consensus about the best clinical practice is currently under debate. In this paper a clinical picture is provided of children who are referred to gender identity clinics. The clinical criteria are described including what is known about the prevalence of childhood GD. In addition, an overview is presented of the literature on the psychological functioning of children with GD, the current knowledge on the psychosexual development and factors associated with the persistence of GD, and explanatory models for psychopathology in children with GD together with other co-existing problems that are characteristic for children referred for their gender. In light of this, currently used treatment and counselling approaches are summarized and discussed, including the integration of the literature detailed above.

  7. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  8. Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

  9. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Karen A.; Katz, Albert N.; Leith, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in "Language and social identity." Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp…

  10. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Karen A.; Katz, Albert N.; Leith, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in "Language and social identity." Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp…

  11. Extraordinary hall balance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S. L.; Liu, Y.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Hesjedal, T.; Zhang, J. Y.; Wang, S. G.; Yu, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) effects are at the heart of modern information technology. However, future progress of giant and tunnelling MR based storage and logic devices is limited by the usable MR ratios of currently about 200% at room-temperature. Colossal MR structures, on the other hand, achieve their high MR ratios of up to 106% only at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. We introduce the extraordinary Hall balance (EHB) and demonstrate room-temperature MR ratios in excess of 31,000%. The new device concept exploits the extraordinary Hall effect in two separated ferromagnetic layers with perpendicular anisotropy in which the Hall voltages can be configured to be carefully balanced or tipped out of balance. Reprogrammable logic and memory is realised using a single EHB element. PACS numbers: 85.75.Nn,85.70.Kh,72.15.Gd,75.60.Ej. PMID:23804036

  12. Intravenous fluids: balancing solutions.

    PubMed

    Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-08-01

    The topic of intravenous (IV) fluids may be regarded as "reverse nephrology", because nephrologists usually treat to remove fluids rather than to infuse them. However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base. It will review both indications and complications of IV fluid therapy, including the characteristics of the currently available solutions. It will also cover the use of IV fluids in specific settings such as kidney transplantation and pediatrics. Finally, this review will address the pathogenesis of saline-induced hyperchloremic acidosis, its potential effect on outcomes, and the question if this should lead to a definitive switch to balanced solutions.

  13. Sport-specific balance.

    PubMed

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  14. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  15. Rotary and Magnus balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  16. Rotary and Magnus balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  17. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  18. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  19. Prosocial behavior and gender.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, María Paz; Kovářík, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in "neutral" baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i) the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context; and (ii) gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies.

  20. Prosocial behavior and gender

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, María Paz; Kovářík, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in “neutral” baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i) the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context; and (ii) gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies. PMID:25926783

  1. Lives in the Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time…

  2. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  3. Dynamic localized load balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandin, Sergey I.; Heiner, Andreas P.

    2003-08-01

    Traditionally dynamic load balancing is applied in resource-reserved connection-oriented networks with a large degree of managed control. Load balancing in connectionless networks is rather rudimentary and is either static or requires network-wide load information. This paper presents a fully automated, traffic driven dynamic load balancing mechanism that uses local load information. The proposed mechanism is easily deployed in a multi-vendor environment in which only a subset of routers supports the function. The Dynamic Localized Load Balancing (DLLB) mechanism distributes traffic based on two sets of weights. The first set is fixed and is inverse proportional to the path cost, typically the sum of reciprocal bandwidths along the path. The second weight reflects the utilization of the link to the first next hop along the path, and is therefore variable. The ratio of static weights defines the ideal load distribution, the ratio of variable weights the node-local load distribution estimate. By minimizing the difference between variable and fixed ratios the traffic distribution, with the available node-local knowledge, is optimal. The above mechanism significantly increases throughput and decreases delay from a network-wide perspective. Optionally the variable weight can include load information of nodes downstream to prevent congestion on those nodes. The latter function further improves network performance, and is easily implemented on top of the standard OSPF signaling. The mechanism does not require many node resources and can be implemented on existing router platforms.

  4. Balancing Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, L. G.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study of students' ability to balance equations. Answers to a test on this topic were analyzed to determine the level of understanding and processes used by the students. Presented is a method to teach this skill to high school chemistry students. (CW)

  5. Finding a Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Milton A.; Gordon, Margaret F.

    1996-01-01

    New college presidents are inundated with requests for their time, and their private life is often sacrificed. Each administrator must decide what is the appropriate balance among various aspects of his/her position. Physical separation of public and private lives is essential, and the role of the spouse, who may have other professional…

  6. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  7. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tamika; Mobley, Mary; Huttenlock, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It's the season for the job hunt, whether one is looking for their first job or taking the next step along their career path. This article presents first-person accounts to see how teachers balance the rewards and challenges of working in different types of schools. Tamica Lewis, a third-grade teacher, states that faculty at her school is…

  8. Finding Your Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurvis, Joan; Patterson, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    Balance is not an issue of time, but an issue of choice. It is about living values by aligning behavior with what each individual believes is really important. Aligning behavior with values is much like any other developmental experience; the basic process involves assessment, challenge, and support. This guidebook will help readers determine…

  9. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Leland, Robert W.

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  10. Maintaining an Environmental Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A recent conference of the National Environmental Development Association focused on the concepts of environment, energy and economy and underscored the necessity for balancing the critical needs embodied in these issues. Topics discussed included: nuclear energy and wastes, water pollution control, federal regulations, environmental technology…

  11. Balance functions reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Bialas, A.

    2011-02-15

    The idea of glue clusters, i.e., short-range correlations in the quark-gluon plasma close to freeze-out, is used to estimate the width of balance functions in momentum space. A good agreement is found with the recent measurements of the STAR Collaboration for central Au-Au collisions.

  12. Balancing Family and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Sally; And Others

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a series of activities designed to teach strategies needed for effectively managing the multiple responsibilities of family and work. The guide contains 11 lesson plans dealing with balancing family and work that can be used in any home economics class, from middle school through college. The lesson…

  13. Balancing Your Evaluation Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willyerd, Karie A.

    1997-01-01

    Looks at different performance-measurement tools than can ensure that a training or performance solution is strategically aligned, objectively evaluated, and quantitatively measured for results. Suggests aiming for a balance among the financial, customer, and internal perspectives and the innovation and learning that can result. (Author/JOW)

  14. Balancing Family and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Sally; And Others

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a series of activities designed to teach strategies needed for effectively managing the multiple responsibilities of family and work. The guide contains 11 lesson plans dealing with balancing family and work that can be used in any home economics class, from middle school through college. The lesson…

  15. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tamika; Mobley, Mary; Huttenlock, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It's the season for the job hunt, whether one is looking for their first job or taking the next step along their career path. This article presents first-person accounts to see how teachers balance the rewards and challenges of working in different types of schools. Tamica Lewis, a third-grade teacher, states that faculty at her school is…

  16. Maintaining an Environmental Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A recent conference of the National Environmental Development Association focused on the concepts of environment, energy and economy and underscored the necessity for balancing the critical needs embodied in these issues. Topics discussed included: nuclear energy and wastes, water pollution control, federal regulations, environmental technology…

  17. Lives in the Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time…

  18. Marriage and family therapy faculty members' balance of work and personal life.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Jennifer L; Rosen, Karen H

    2012-04-01

    A sense of imbalance is common among both professors and therapists, though few studies have been published examining the work and personal life balance of those who work in both professions simultaneously. Using in-depth telephone interviews, this study examined the work and personal life balance of 16 marriage and family therapy (MFT) faculty members. Results showed that six were satisfied with their balance, six were dissatisfied, and four were "middle of the road." Men, older participants, and those who were in their career longer were more likely to report feeling satisfied with their balance. Internal indicators of their balance included family and workplace messages, health indicators, feelings of contentment, and congruence with personal values. Child and relationship status, tenure status, and gender issues also impacted their sense of balance. Specific balance enhancers and reducers were highlighted, and participants discussed coping strategies and recommendations for other MFT faculty members. Clinical, training, and career implications are discussed.

  19. Gender differences in depression.

    PubMed

    Sagud, M; Hotujac, Lj; Mihaljević-Peles, A; Jakovljević, M

    2002-06-01

    Depression is twice as common in women as in men, although some concern has been raised in terms of misdiagnosing depression in men. The incidence of depression in women varies during the life span. The peak incidence during childbearing years appears to be associated with cyclic hormonal changes. Women also present with reproductive -specific mood disorders: pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), depression in pregnancy, postpartal mood disorder (PDD) and perimenopausal depressive disorder. Gender differences were repeatedly observed in response to antidepressant medication. Premenopausal women appear to respond poorly and to show low tolerability to TCAs, but they tend to show greater responsiveness to the SSRIs. In contrast, men and postmenopausal women can respond equally to the TCAs and SSRIs. These differences are contributed to gender differences in pharmacokinetics of antidepressants and to the influence of menstrual cycle. These findings suggest the need for a gender-specific approach to the evaluation and management of depression.

  20. Gender Dysphoria in Adults.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Lawrence, Anne A; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities.

  1. [Diagnosing gender identity].

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Mattila, Aino; Kärnä, Teemu; Joutsenneimi, Kaisla

    2015-01-01

    Transsexualism and other variations of gender identity are based on a stable sense of identity. The aetiology of this phenomenon is not fully known. Suffering caused by gender dysphoria is alleviated with sex reassignment. The psychiatric assessment of both adolescents and adults has been centralized in Finland to two university hospitals, the Helsinki University Hospital and Tampere University Hospital. In both hospitals, multidisciplinary teams aim at differential diagnosis by using well-known psychiatric and psychological instruments. Wishes for sex reassignment that are caused by a mental health disorder are excluded. Assessment in adolescence is challenging because the identity in youth is still forming.

  2. Gender and Psychological Essentialism

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY When individuals reason in an essentialist way about social categories, they assume that group differences reflect inherently different natures (Gelman, 2003; Rothbart & Taylor, 1992). This paper describes the psychological and social implications of essentialist beliefs, and examines the extent to which children exhibit psychological essentialism when reasoning about gender. The authors discuss reasons young children as well as older children show essentialist reasoning in some contexts, but not in others. Finally, the authors suggest directions for future research, and discuss a primary challenge to many working in this field: reduction of rigid gender beliefs. PMID:21528097

  3. The materiality of gender.

    PubMed

    Boyd, N A

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY Lesbian and transgender histories often recuperate the same historical figures; however, many lesbian spaces (like the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival) have excluded lesbian-identified male-to-female transsexuals. Through an analysis of historical inclusion and socio-political exclusion, this essay examines the relationship between "birth bodies," gender and sexuality. It argues that the lesbian body appears in history through the naturalization of "birth-bodies" and the recuperation of cross-gender behavior. In this way, the body becomes a template for lesbian historical recuperation and an organizing principle for contemporary lesbian communities.

  4. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education.

    PubMed

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W M; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L M

    2009-03-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was 'gender blind' by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly, medicine is said to be 'male biased' because the largest body of knowledge on health and illness is about men and their health. Thirdly, gender role ideology negatively influences treatment and health outcomes. Finally, gender inequality has been overlooked as a determinant of health and illness. The uptake of gender issues in medical education brings about specific challenges for several reasons. For instance, the political-ideological connotations of gender issues create resistance especially in traditionalists in medical schools. Secondly, it is necessary to clarify which gender issues must be integrated in which domains. Also, some are interdisciplinary issues and as such more difficult to integrate. Finally, schools need assistance with implementation. The integration of psychosocial issues along with biomedical ones in clinical cases, the dissemination of literature and education material, staff education, and efforts towards structural embedding of gender in curricula are determining factors for successful implementation. Gender equity is not a spontaneous process. Medical education provides specific opportunities that may contribute to transformation for medical schools educate future doctors for future patients in future settings. Consequently, future benefits legitimize the integration of gender as a qualitative investment in medical education.

  5. The Social Perception of Heroes and Murderers: Effects of Gender-Inclusive Language in Media Reports

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karolina; Littwitz, Cindy; Sczesny, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The way media depict women and men can reinforce or diminish gender stereotyping. Which part does language play in this context? Are roles perceived as more gender-balanced when feminine role nouns are used in addition to masculine ones? Research on gender-inclusive language shows that the use of feminine-masculine word pairs tends to increase the visibility of women in various social roles. For example, when speakers of German were asked to name their favorite “heroine or hero in a novel,” they listed more female characters than when asked to name their favorite “hero in a novel.” The research reported in this article examines how the use of gender-inclusive language in news reports affects readers’ own usage of such forms as well as their mental representation of women and men in the respective roles. In the main experiment, German participants (N = 256) read short reports about heroes or murderers which contained either masculine generics or gender-inclusive forms (feminine-masculine word pairs). Gender-inclusive forms enhanced participants’ own usage of gender-inclusive language and this resulted in more gender-balanced mental representations of these roles. Reading about “heroines and heroes” made participants assume a higher percentage of women among persons performing heroic acts than reading about “heroes” only, but there was no such effect for murderers. A post-test suggested that this might be due to a higher accessibility of female exemplars in the category heroes than in the category murderers. Importantly, the influence of gender-inclusive language on the perceived percentage of women in a role was mediated by speakers’ own usage of inclusive forms. This suggests that people who encounter gender-inclusive forms and are given an opportunity to use them, use them more themselves and in turn have more gender-balanced mental representations of social roles. PMID:27047410

  6. The Social Perception of Heroes and Murderers: Effects of Gender-Inclusive Language in Media Reports.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karolina; Littwitz, Cindy; Sczesny, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The way media depict women and men can reinforce or diminish gender stereotyping. Which part does language play in this context? Are roles perceived as more gender-balanced when feminine role nouns are used in addition to masculine ones? Research on gender-inclusive language shows that the use of feminine-masculine word pairs tends to increase the visibility of women in various social roles. For example, when speakers of German were asked to name their favorite "heroine or hero in a novel," they listed more female characters than when asked to name their favorite "hero in a novel." The research reported in this article examines how the use of gender-inclusive language in news reports affects readers' own usage of such forms as well as their mental representation of women and men in the respective roles. In the main experiment, German participants (N = 256) read short reports about heroes or murderers which contained either masculine generics or gender-inclusive forms (feminine-masculine word pairs). Gender-inclusive forms enhanced participants' own usage of gender-inclusive language and this resulted in more gender-balanced mental representations of these roles. Reading about "heroines and heroes" made participants assume a higher percentage of women among persons performing heroic acts than reading about "heroes" only, but there was no such effect for murderers. A post-test suggested that this might be due to a higher accessibility of female exemplars in the category heroes than in the category murderers. Importantly, the influence of gender-inclusive language on the perceived percentage of women in a role was mediated by speakers' own usage of inclusive forms. This suggests that people who encounter gender-inclusive forms and are given an opportunity to use them, use them more themselves and in turn have more gender-balanced mental representations of social roles.

  7. Gender differences in trusting strangers: Role of the target's gender.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    Previous findings on gender differences in the behaviors of individuals, including trusting behaviors, are inconsistent. A criticism is that these studies neglect contextual factors. The present study aims to examine how the target's gender, as a primary context factor, influences the trusting behavior of individuals in one survey and two experimental situations. Results indicate that people tend to trust strangers of the opposite gender more than those of the same gender in mixed-gender situations. Furthermore, females trust females much more than males trust males. The results help people understand that when talking about gender differences in interpersonal situations, the gender identity of target persons should be considered. These findings are somewhat in conflict with those of previous studies conducted in Western cultures, and suggest that culture should also be explored in future studies on gender differences in interpersonal relationships.

  8. Gender dysphoria and gender change in androgen insensitivity or micropenis.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Tom

    2005-08-01

    This review article answers three questions relevant to the medical management and care of individuals born with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), or a micropenis: (1) Do any of these individuals reassign themselves from their initial gender assignment? (2) Do more reassign than the ones who do not? (3) Is there evidence of gender dysphoria in those who do not self-initiate reassignment? Reviewed were all articles on CAIS, PAIS, and micropenis cited in K. J. Zucker (1999) plus articles published through 2004. There were no documented cases of gender change in individuals with CAIS (N= 156 females) or micropenis (N= 89: 79 males, 10 females). Nine (9.1%) out of 99 individuals with PAIS changed gender. Thus, self-initiated gender reassignment was rare. Gender dysphoria also appears to be a rare occurrence. The best predictor of adult gender identity in CAIS, PAIS, and micropenis is initial gender assignment.

  9. An Exploration of the Interaction between Speech Rate, Gender, and Cognitive Style in Their Effect on Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Mick

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how the interaction between cognitive style, gender, and type of task predicts task outcome, particularly when presentation speed is varied. A sample of 91 11-year-old pupils completed the Cognitive Style Analysis. Pupils were assigned to one of two groups balanced for gender and cognitive style. Group 1 listened to a recording…

  10. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  11. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  12. Balanced Atmospheric Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastermann, Gottfried; Reinhardt, Maria; Klein, Rupert; Reich, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    The atmosphere's multi-scale structure poses several major challenges in numerical weather prediction. One of these arises in the context of data assimilation. The large-scale dynamics of the atmosphere are balanced in the sense that acoustic or rapid internal wave oscillations generally come with negligibly small amplitudes. If triggered artificially, however, through inappropriate initialization or by data assimilation, such oscillations can have a detrimental effect on forecast quality as they interact with the moist aerothermodynamics of the atmosphere. In the setting of sequential Bayesian data assimilation, we therefore investigate two different strategies to reduce these artificial oscillations induced by the analysis step. On the one hand, we develop a new modification for a local ensemble transform Kalman filter, which penalizes imbalances via a minimization problem. On the other hand, we modify the first steps of the subsequent forecast to push the ensemble members back to the slow evolution. We therefore propose the use of certain asymptotically consistent integrators that can blend between the balanced and the unbalanced evolution model seamlessly. In our work, we furthermore present numerical results and performance of the proposed methods for two nonlinear ordinary differential equation models, where we can identify the different scales clearly. The first one is a Lorenz 96 model coupled with a wave equation. In this case the balance relation is linear and the imbalances are caused only by the localization of the filter. The second one is the elastic double pendulum where the balance relation itself is already highly nonlinear. In both cases the methods perform very well and could significantly reduce the imbalances and therefore increase the forecast quality of the slow variables.

  13. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education.

  14. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Karen A; Katz, Albert N; Leith, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in Language and social identity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 196-216, 1982) can be found in interactive language. Of the eight tokens examined only three were found to differ in the hypothesized direction, and these only in male-male dyads. In the second study, we trained a male and a female confederate to use either male or female gendered tokens found to be reliable in Study One in their chats with participants. Our design permits disentangling of effects due to knowledge of the gender of the interlocutors and use of specific language tokens. We find that use of language tokens by the confederate promoted use of the same token by their interlocutor, regardless of knowledge of the confederate's gender. Moreover use of tokens consistent or inconsistent with visible gender influenced how the interlocutor perceived the confederate. Taken together these data are inconsistent with either the notion that gendered language is context independent (as suggested in the gender-as-culture hypothesis) or the notion that gendered language only emerges when gender is made salient, as would, in these studies, occur in mixed-gendered groups.

  15. Predictors of physician career satisfaction, work-life balance, and burnout.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Kristie; Fenner, Dee E; Johnson, Timothy R B; Hayward, Rodney A

    2007-04-01

    To explore factors associated with physician career satisfaction, work-life balance, and burnout focusing on differences across age, gender, and specialty. A cross-sectional, mailed, self-administered survey was sent to a national sample of 2,000 randomly-selected physicians, stratified by specialty, age, and gender (response rate 48%). Main outcome measures included career satisfaction, burnout, and work-life balance. Scales ranged from 1 to 100. Both women and men report being highly satisfied with their careers (79% compared with 76%, P<.01), having moderate levels of satisfaction with work-life balance (48% compared with 49%, P=.24), and having moderate levels of emotional resilience (51% compared with 53%, P=.09). Measures of burnout strongly predicted career satisfaction (standardized beta 0.36-0.60, P<.001). The strongest predictor of work-life balance and burnout was having some control over schedule and hours worked (standardized beta 0.28, P<.001, and 0.20-0.32, P<.001, respectively). Physician gender, age, and specialty were not strong independent predictors of career satisfaction, work-life balance, or burnout. This national physician survey suggests that physicians can struggle with work-life balance yet remain highly satisfied with their career. Burnout is an important predictor of career satisfaction, and control over schedule and work hours are the most important predictors of work-life balance and burnout. II.

  16. The New Gender Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on gender gap as a current trend in student population among schools. The author presents an honors course in statistics at Elon University--a class of 10 women and just one man--as an example. The imbalance is becoming more familiar at Elon and on many other campuses where women constitute a firm majority of undergraduates…

  17. The Gender Similarities Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-01-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses…

  18. [Gender in view].

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    A manual recently published by Mexico¿s National System for Integral Development of the Family, ¿The gender perspective: a tool for constructing equity between men and women¿, is intended to put into practice the Cairo accords. The gender perspective has been applied in recent years to interpretation of the situation of women in past and present societies. Gender is not sex; it is the manner in which societies have symbolized and understood relations between men and women. The manual concludes that the main difference between the sexes beyond the obvious genital differences is in the greater musculature and strength of males. In contemporary societies, these attributes are less needed than technical knowledge and skills, which may be obtained by either sex. Economic evolution has led increasing numbers of women to work outside their homes. The gender roles assigned for millennia, and accepted as the natural order, are no longer adequate. The power of men has been preserved by attributing the gigantic cultural differences resulting from specialization into male and female roles to the small physical differences between the sexes. Governments have slowly established legal equity, but discrimination against women has not disappeared in the workplace, public offices, or any other social sphere, and their incorporation into the work force has left them with the double workday as they continue to perform the great bulk of domestic work. It is therefore necessary to seek equity as well as equality, understood as the creation of equivalent opportunities for men and women.

  19. Gender Object Identification Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This test was designed primarily for the purpose of assisting social psychologists in researching sex roles and/or sex differences when a nonverbal instrument is desired. The hypothesis was that some objects would be easier for members of one gender to name. The subjects were 30 female and 20 male undergraduate students. Pictures of 65 commercial…

  20. Gender Attitudes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalk, Sue Rosenberg; Katz, Phyllis A.

    1978-01-01

    The present study investigated the gender biases of children judging the competencies and weaknesses of other children in a school setting as a function of their sex, age, and race as well as a geographical SES factor. It was found that these biases exist and diminish somewhat with age. (Author/AM)

  1. Explaining gender segregation.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Robert M; Browne, Jude; Brooks, Bradley; Jarman, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Occupational gender segregation--the tendency for women and men to work in different occupations--is an important feature of all societies, and particularly the wealthy industrialized ones. To understand this segregation, and to explain its significance, we need to distinguish between vertical segregation entailing inequality and horizontal segregation representing difference without inequality, with overall segregation being the resultant of these components. Three major theoretical approaches to understanding occupational gender segregation are examined: human capital/rational choice, patriarchy, and preference theories. All are found to be inadequate; they tend to confuse overall segregation with its vertical component, and each entails a number of other faults. It is generally assumed or implied that greater empowerment of women would reduce gender segregation. This is the reverse of what actually happens; in countries where the degree of women's empowerment is greater, the level of gender segregation is also greater. An alternative theoretical approach based on processes of social reproduction is shown to be more useful.

  2. Education and Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  3. Parents, Gender, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Miriam E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses social justice in education, specifically gender issues. Explores how rightist governments in advanced industrialized societies have tried to implement an agenda of parental choice and standards, in contrast to earlier liberal administrations' efforts to reduce differences between families and involve mothers in children's education.…

  4. Genre and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curti, Lidia

    This paper begins by discussing the difference between genre and gender, defining the former as the study of a systemic totality, and the latter as the split in the totality, reversal, upturning, and break-up of any systemic logic. Also discussed are (1) the difference between nature and culture, and the quarrel between essentialist and…

  5. Gender Differences in Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Vivian H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences of 103 physically active men and women in upper and lower body strength as a function of lean body weight and the distribution of muscle and subcutaneous fat in the upper and lower limbs. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  6. Gender and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Lucy E.; Graves, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe broad patterns and key developments in gender and education scholarship to provide an overview of the state of the field. They incorporate historical developments shaping research patterns, broad tensions and shifts, and emerging trajectories in inquiry. Cognizant that reviews are inherently political endeavors in both…

  7. Genre and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curti, Lidia

    This paper begins by discussing the difference between genre and gender, defining the former as the study of a systemic totality, and the latter as the split in the totality, reversal, upturning, and break-up of any systemic logic. Also discussed are (1) the difference between nature and culture, and the quarrel between essentialist and…

  8. Gender Equity Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    Under a legislative mandate from the state of Washington, this report provides updated information on gender equity at each of the public institutions of higher education in Washington and at the community and technical colleges, as applicable. A look at student support and services shows that pay scales in student employment are not…

  9. Gender and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Cornelia

    This article examines distance learning from a gender perspective. In any new area of enterprise, expectations have an important effect on planning, implementation, and evaluation. When it comes to distance learning, a variety of images of what this exciting new technology will look like and what it can empower us to achieve will determine how we…

  10. Gender and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Lucy E.; Graves, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe broad patterns and key developments in gender and education scholarship to provide an overview of the state of the field. They incorporate historical developments shaping research patterns, broad tensions and shifts, and emerging trajectories in inquiry. Cognizant that reviews are inherently political endeavors in both…

  11. [Gender differences in depression].

    PubMed

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system.

  12. Gender Equity. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles on gender equity and related issues in education, with particular reference to the education of Hispanic girls. "IDRA's MIJA Program Expands" (Aurora Yanez-Perez) describes a program for sixth-grade Hispanic girls that promotes awareness of science- and math-related careers, provides training in…

  13. Gender Differences in Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, John; Kaufman, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a…

  14. Gendered Avatar Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolums, Viola

    2011-01-01

    Gendered appearance in "World of Warcraft" is of particular interest because it seems to infiltrate interactions between individuals without serving a functional purpose within the game itself. It provides an opportunity to look at avatar choice in environments that have a primary purpose aside from existing as an arena for creating identity, and…

  15. Risky, Generous, Gender Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Mollie V.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author offers guidelines to teachers on shaping pedagogy and classrooms in ways that include and value the experiences and learning of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) students. In order for teachers to create a context in which gender trouble can happen without violent consequences, they need to…

  16. Seismic offset balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Beale, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to successfully predict lithology and fluid content from reflection seismic records using AVO techniques is contingent upon accurate pre-analysis conditioning of the seismic data. However, all too often, residual amplitude effects remain after the many offset-dependent processing steps are completed. Residual amplitude effects often represent a significant error when compared to the amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response that the authors are attempting to quantify. They propose a model-based, offset-dependent amplitude balancing method that attempts to correct for these residuals and other errors due to sub-optimal processing. Seismic offset balancing attempts to quantify the relationship between the offset response of back-ground seismic reflections and corresponding theoretical predictions for average lithologic interfaces thought to cause these background reflections. It is assumed that any deviation from the theoretical response is a result of residual processing phenomenon and/or suboptimal processing, and a simple offset-dependent scaling function is designed to correct for these differences. This function can then be applied to seismic data over both prospective and nonprospective zones within an area where the theoretical values are appropriate and the seismic characteristics are consistent. A conservative application of the above procedure results in an AVO response over both gas sands and wet sands that is much closer to theoretically expected values. A case history from the Gulf of Mexico Flexure Trend is presented as an example to demonstrate the offset balancing technique.

  17. Wind tunnel balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Warren L. (Inventor); Kunz, Nans (Inventor); Luna, Phillip M. (Inventor); Roberts, Andrew C. (Inventor); Smith, Kenneth M. (Inventor); Smith, Ronald C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A flow-through balance is provided which includes a non-metric portion and a metric portion which form a fluid-conducting passage in fluid communication with an internal bore in the sting. The non-metric and metric portions of the balance are integrally connected together by a plurality of flexure beams such that the non-metric portion, the metric portion and the flexure beams form a one-piece construction which eliminates mechanical hysteresis between the non-metric and the metric portion. The system includes structures for preventing the effects of temperature, pressure and pressurized fluid from producing asymmetric loads on the flexure beams. A temperature sensor and a pressure sensor are located within the fluid-conducting passage of the balance. The system includes a longitudinal bellows member connected at two ends to one of the non-metric portion and the metric portion and at an intermediate portion thereof to the other of (1) and (2). A plurality of strain gages are mounted on the flexure beams to measure strain forces on the flexure beams. The flexure beams are disposed so as to enable symmetric forces on the flexure beams to cancel out so that only asymmetric forces are measured as deviations by the strain gages.

  18. Gait and balance disorders.

    PubMed

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach.

  19. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  20. The Role of Gender Constancy in Early Gender Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruble, Diane N.; Taylor, Lisa J.; Cyphers, Lisa; Greulich, Faith K.; Lurye, Leah E.; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    Kohlberg's (1966) hypothesis that the attainment of gender constancy motivates children to attend to gender norms was reevaluated by examining these links in relation to age. Ninety-four 3- to 7-year-old children were interviewed to assess whether and how constancy mediates age-related changes in gender-related beliefs. As expected, results…

  1. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  2. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  3. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  4. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  5. Gender, Gender Relations, and the Social Dynamics of Children's Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.; Ahmed, Shahina; Ozarow, Louise

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of gender on the social dynamics and outcomes of conversations involving 120 children (mean age = 8 years 7 months). Children were taught particular values for different shaped counters and placed in same-gender or mixed-gender pairs with children who were taught different values. Pairs were asked to add the…

  6. Gender, Gender Relations, and the Social Dynamics of Children's Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.; Ahmed, Shahina; Ozarow, Louise

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of gender on the social dynamics and outcomes of conversations involving 120 children (mean age = 8 years 7 months). Children were taught particular values for different shaped counters and placed in same-gender or mixed-gender pairs with children who were taught different values. Pairs were asked to add the…

  7. Improving Balance with Tai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8428 · INFO @ VESTIBULAR . ORG · WWW . VESTIBULAR . ORG Improving Balance with Tai Chi By the Vestibular Disorders Association ... symptoms commonly experi- enced with vestibular (inner ear balance) disorders can cause overwhelming fatigue and anxiety. Many ...

  8. Gender cognition in transgender children.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kristina R; Key, Aidan C; Eaton, Nicholas R

    2015-04-01

    A visible and growing cohort of transgender children in North America live according to their expressed gender rather than their natal sex, yet scientific research has largely ignored this population. In the current study, we adopted methodological advances from social-cognition research to investigate whether 5- to 12-year-old prepubescent transgender children (N = 32), who were presenting themselves according to their gender identity in everyday life, showed patterns of gender cognition more consistent with their expressed gender or their natal sex, or instead appeared to be confused about their gender identity. Using implicit and explicit measures, we found that transgender children showed a clear pattern: They viewed themselves in terms of their expressed gender and showed preferences for their expressed gender, with response patterns mirroring those of two cisgender (nontransgender) control groups. These results provide evidence that, early in development, transgender youth are statistically indistinguishable from cisgender children of the same gender identity.

  9. Disaster Vulnerability in South Korea under a Gender Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Gunhui

    2017-04-01

    The most affected natural disaster has been flooding in South Korea, however, many unexpected natural disasters cause by snow or drought have become severe due to the climate change. Therefore it is very important to analyze disaster vulnerability under the unexpected climate condition. When the natural disaster happens, in many cases, female was more damaged than male because of the cultural and physical limitations. Disaster is never gender neutral. For example, four times as many female as male died in Indonesia tsunami. Therefore, it is very important to consider gender sensitivity in the disaster vulnerability to mitigate effects on the female. In this study, the current disaster management guideline in South Korea is investigated in the gender perspective and compared to the other countries. As a result, gender analysis in the disaster preparedness and response is not implemented in South Korea. Thus, the gender balanced disaster management guideline is newly proposed. Also, the disaster vulnerability considering gendered factors are evaluated and analyzed in the urban area. Acknowledgement This research was supported by Support Program for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and future Planning(No. 2016H1C3A1903202)

  10. More on Chemical Reaction Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    A previous article stated that only the matrix method was powerful enough to balance a particular chemical equation. Shows how this equation can be balanced without using the matrix method. The approach taken involves writing partial mathematical reactions and redox half-reactions, and combining them to yield the final balanced reaction. (JN)

  11. Assessment of balance among adolescent track and field athletes.

    PubMed

    Knight, Adam C; Holmes, Megan E; Chander, Harish; Kimble, Amari; Stewart, Joshua Ty

    2016-06-01

    Track and field events place different demands on athletes and may have an effect on balance. This study investigated the effects of event specialty, gender, and leg dominance on balance among adolescent track and field athletes. Forty healthy adolescent track and field athletes (male = 23, female = 17) categorised into three different groups (sprinter = 20, distance runners = 13, throwers = 7) had their single leg static balance measured with the eyes open and the eyes closed using an AMTI force platform. Dependent variables included average displacement (cm) of the centre of pressure (COP) in the anterior/posterior direction and medial/lateral directions, the average velocity of the COP (cm/s) and the 95% ellipse area (cm(2)). Variables were analysed using a 3 (event specialty) × 2 (gender) × 2 (leg) ANOVA with repeated measures on the leg variable (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the average displacement of the COP in the medial/lateral direction for both the eyes open and closed condition, with the non-dominant leg demonstrating greater displacement than the dominant leg. This might increase the risk of injury for the non-dominant leg, but additional data should be collected and analysed on both dynamic balance and performance.

  12. Gender Issues within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…

  13. Bringing up Gender: Academic Abjection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    The principal questions raised in this article are: what does it mean to bring up the topic of gender in a space where it is not known, and how can this moment of bringing up gender--or not bringing it up--be conceptualised? The article departs from the thoughts and questions that were provoked by an interview conducted with a Gender Studies…

  14. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  15. Bringing up Gender: Academic Abjection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    The principal questions raised in this article are: what does it mean to bring up the topic of gender in a space where it is not known, and how can this moment of bringing up gender--or not bringing it up--be conceptualised? The article departs from the thoughts and questions that were provoked by an interview conducted with a Gender Studies…

  16. Gender Tracing and Literacy Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhne, Michael

    A good way "to get at gender" is to ask students to write about their literacy because literacy is a good catalyst for discussion and analysis regarding the complexities of gender. A number of recent articles connect composition studies with issues of gender, including those by Elizabeth Flynn, Geoff Sirc, Linda Peterson, Don Kraemer…

  17. Learning and Gender Fair Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Judith H.

    This learning unit is designed to sensitize educators to gender differences in learning styles, to help identify specific needs and issues for women adult learners, to help educators to identify their own gender biases, and to help teachers to develop strategies for eliminating gender bias from their own classrooms. The unit is divided into three…

  18. Motivation, Gender, and Possible Selves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair; Cliffordson, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Despite the consistency with which gender differences have been found in second language motivation, little systematic research has taken place on motivation and gender to date. Permeating self-concept development, gender impacts not only current selves but also future-oriented possible selves. In construing possible selves, females tend to…

  19. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  20. Gender Aspects of Human Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Ghada

    2008-01-01

    The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…

  1. Moral Orientation, Gender, and Salary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Roger W.

    A study examined the relationship among gender, moral orientation, and pay. Although the participants were about equal in terms of gender, 48 males and 53 females, males tended to hold higher degrees. The researcher hypothesized that salaries would be differentiated based on gender and moral orientation. Assumptions were that care-oriented males…

  2. Gender and Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Jim; Gunther, Georg; Walters, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    Studied the relationship between gender and mathematical problem solving in 83 male and 76 female high achieving Canadian 12-year-olds. Gender differences were found on the Canadian Test of Basic Skills but not on the GAUSS assessment. Implications for the discussion of the origin of gender differences in mathematics are discussed. (SLD)

  3. Gender Aspects of Human Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Ghada

    2008-01-01

    The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…

  4. Troubling Gender through Mail Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    A persistent and troubling trend in teacher education programmes is how gender is constructed heteronormatively. Finding ways that challenge novice teacher thinking about gender and gender identities has proven to be difficult ([Grace, A. P., and K. Wells. 2006. "The Quest for a Queer Inclusive Cultural Ethics: Setting Directions for…

  5. Gender bias affects forests worldwide

    Treesearch

    Marlène Elias; Susan S Hummel; Bimbika S Basnett; Carol J.P. Colfer

    2017-01-01

    Gender biases persist in forestry research and practice. These biases result in reduced scientific rigor and inequitable, ineffective, and less efficient policies, programs, and interventions. Drawing from a two-volume collection of current and classic analyses on gender in forests, we outline five persistent and inter-related themes: gendered governance, tree tenure,...

  6. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  7. Gender and Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Jim; Gunther, Georg; Walters, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    Studied the relationship between gender and mathematical problem solving in 83 male and 76 female high achieving Canadian 12-year-olds. Gender differences were found on the Canadian Test of Basic Skills but not on the GAUSS assessment. Implications for the discussion of the origin of gender differences in mathematics are discussed. (SLD)

  8. Troubling Gender through Mail Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    A persistent and troubling trend in teacher education programmes is how gender is constructed heteronormatively. Finding ways that challenge novice teacher thinking about gender and gender identities has proven to be difficult ([Grace, A. P., and K. Wells. 2006. "The Quest for a Queer Inclusive Cultural Ethics: Setting Directions for…

  9. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  10. Static and dynamic balance deficiencies in chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Tsigkanos, Christos; Gaskell, Lynne; Smirniotou, Athanasia; Tsigkanos, Georgios

    2016-11-21

    According to previously conducted studies, people with Low Back Pain (LBP) present with static balance deficiencies. The aim of the present study was to compare static, as well as dynamic balance ability between Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) and healthy subjects. The CLBP group comprised 17 subjects and the control group of 16 subjects, matched for age, BMI and gender. The protocol applied compared the balance ability when performing the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and the static 1-leg stance position. The innovation introduced in the protocol was that the participants performed not only the static 1-leg stance, but also the dynamic SEBT on a force plate which recorded the target sway (TS), i.e. the Center of Pressure (CoP) excursion. The CLBP group had significantly reduced performance in SEBT, coupled with greater static and dynamic TS values. Age and especially BMI also bear a significant effect on SEBT execution. The inclusion of SEBT and TS derived scores in a stepwise logistic regression equation lead to the correct classification of 85% of the subjects. Dynamic and static balance ability provide supplementary information for the identification of the presence of CLBP, with dynamic balance being more instrumental.

  11. Emotion, gender, and gender typical identity in autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.

  12. [Comment on “Looking at gender distribution among AGU Fellows”] A second look at gender distribution among AGU Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, David

    In the September 13,1994, issue of Eos, Ellen Druffel reported on the gender distribution of AGU Fellows [Druffel, 1994]. In brief, her findings were that women were underrepresented among AGU Fellows even when age differences and the overall low percentage of female AGU members were taken into consideration. Druffel concluded with a series of recommendations that were intended to “help balance the scales with respect to gender.” It was implicit in Druffel's conclusions that gender equity is desirable. However, her rationale for achieving gender equity was not so clear. Druffel may have been implying that women are kept from achieving Fellowship by biases of some type, and therefore well-qualified candidates for Fellowship are not receiving the recognition they deserve. Alternatively, Druffel may have been conceding that the selection process for Fellowship is unbiased, but that gender equity in Fellowship is desirable in and of itself, regardless of individual achievement levels. In the latter case, her recommendations amount to the installation of gender-based quotas for Fellowship. I hope that in her reply Druffel will clarify the philosophical basis for her recommendation. However, I disagree with Druffel's conclusion, regardless of her reasons.

  13. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  14. Energy balance in obesity.

    PubMed

    Webber, Jonathan

    2003-05-01

    The current epidemic of human obesity implies that whilst energy balance appears to be regulated, the extent of this regulatory process is being overwhelmed in large numbers of the population by environmental changes. Clearly, the shift towards positive energy balance reflects both alterations in energy intake and decreases in physical activity. Increased energy intake and, in particular, the rising proportion of energy from fat is linked with obesity. However, on a population level reduced levels of activity probably play the predominant role. It is apparent that individual susceptibility to weight gain varies enormously. The factors underlying this susceptibility are an area of intense research interest. Variations in BMR from that predicted appear to be linked to the propensity to gain weight. The genes responsible for this variation may include uncoupling proteins-2 and -3, with a number of studies showing a link with obesity. However, in vivo studies of these proteins have not yet demonstrated a physiological role for them that would explain the link with obesity. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis may also protect from weight gain, but the regulation of this type of thermogenesis is unclear, although the sympathetic nervous system may be important. A profusion of hormones, cytokines and neurotransmitters is involved in regulating energy intake, but whilst mutations in leptin and the melanocortin-3 receptor are responsible for rare monogenic forms of obesity, their wider role in common polygenic obesity is not known. Much current work is directed at examining the interplay between genetic background and environmental factors, in particular diet, that both lead to positive energy balance and seem to make it so hard for many obese subjects to lose weight.

  15. Micromechanical Oscillating Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, David A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A micromechanical oscillating mass balance and method adapted for measuring minute quantities of material deposited at a selected location, such as during a vapor deposition process. The invention comprises a vibratory composite beam which includes a dielectric layer sandwiched between two conductive layers. The beam is positioned in a magnetic field. An alternating current passes through one conductive layers, the beam oscillates, inducing an output current in the second conductive layer, which is analyzed to determine the resonant frequency of the beam. As material is deposited on the beam, the mass of the beam increases and the resonant frequency of the beam shifts, and the mass added is determined.

  16. Earth in the balance

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Earth in the Balance is a lucid, scientifically grounded treatise on the global environments. The author's description of the world's water, air, and land use problems is clear, lively, and knowledgable. A major section of the book explores the psychological dimensions of global environmental problems. He attempts to synthesize ideas across many fields of thought. Gore offers a Global Marshall Plan - a worldwide strategic environment initiative that would help phase out older technologies and disseminate benign substitutes, change accounting methods so environmental costs are considered, and use education as a tool.

  17. [Gender discourses and bioethics].

    PubMed

    Aparisi Miralles, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate.

  18. Audio-visual gender recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  19. [Gender effect on cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Biagini, Elena; Berardini, Alessandra; Graziosi, Maddalena; Rosmini, Stefania; Pazzi, Chiara; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2012-06-01

    The role of a gender effect (that means differences in clinical manifestations, access to therapies and response to treatments according to gender) in cardiomyopathies remains a matter of debate. Although recent studies have evaluated the differences in the clinical features and prognosis between the two sexes, many issues remain to be elucidated. At present, the only sex-specific condition that affects females is peripartum cardiomyopathy. Recent evidence suggests a pathogenetic role of a prolactin derivative, and ongoing clinical trials are investigating the possibility of targeted therapies using prolactin secretion inhibitors, such as bromocriptine and carbegoline. Although women were considered so far only carriers of X-linked diseases (Anderson-Fabry disease, Danon disease, Hunter syndrome and dystrophinopathies), clinical experience showed a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in females due to random X chromosome inactivation. Conversely, in mitochondrial diseases (with matrilineal inheritance), cardiomyopathies may occur in the context of clinical multisystemic involvement without significant gender-related differences. Autosomal inherited cardiomyopathies also show different phenotypes and prognostic impact according to gender. The hypothesis of a premenopausal protective role of female hormones towards myocardial involvement has been raised by recent data on transtiretin-related amyloidosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Preexisting cardiomyopathies may affect pregnancy, labor and delivery in women, since all these conditions are associated with important hemodynamic changes. Women with low-risk hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (asymptomatic and without left ventricular outflow tract gradient) usually can tolerate pregnancy. Conversely, women who are symptomatic before pregnancy or have severe hypertrophy with important outflow tract gradient are at higher risk and should be referred to a tertiary center to be evaluated on a case by case basis

  20. Gender specificity and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Bilezikian, J P

    2000-10-01

    To a certain extent, the emphasis placed on women in light of the predominance of osteoporosis in this sex is well-justified. As researchers are appreciating the potential size of the male population at risk for osteoporosis, increasing interest is becoming apparent on the part of investigators and the pharmaceutical companies that are developing therapies. As more is learned about osteoporosis in men, experts will then be in a position to better understand the similarities and differences between genders.

  1. Gender dysphoria in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Scott; de Vries, Annelou L C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents presenting with gender-related concerns are increasingly seeking support from providers from a variety of disciplines within health care settings across the world. For those treating young people who meet the criteria for the DSM 5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria (GD), complex decisions in clinical care are common. Defining best practice with this population with respect to interventions that span mental health, physical, and surgical domains can be challenging, given a relative dearth of empirical data available; yet practice guidelines have emerged from different professional organizations which can aid with this. For this review paper, a broad literature search was performed to identify relevant studies pertaining to the care of adolescents with GD. In addition, an overview of trends in clinical practice, including shifts in conceptualization of how clinicians and patients define care that is considered affirming when working with this population, is described. This paper explores the characteristics of referral patterns to specialized clinics, provides a brief overview of gender identity development in adolescence, and then describes the phenomenology of known aetiological factors and co-occurring psychiatric issues in adolescents with GD. Additionally, clinical management considerations that detail assessment aims and common treatment interventions across disciplines will be explored.

  2. Gender, globalisation, and democracy.

    PubMed

    Walby, S

    2000-03-01

    This article discusses the link between gender, globalization and democracy in relation to women¿s empowerment. Analyzing gender relations within the processes of development planning involves five approaches: 1) welfare, 2) equity, 3) anti-poverty, 4) efficiency, and 5) empowerment. In addition, a new approach, which combines efficiency and empowerment, must be added to highlight the problematic nature of the direction of causality assumed by traditional theory of development. The rise on women's representation in national parliament can be attributed to the increase of women's economic power and women's political struggles. However, promotion of globalization produces new opportunities for feminist politics, as well as difficulties, which include: the emergent position of productive engagement in which an efficient economy and democratic society are seen as interdependent; and increase in parliamentary representation correlates with increased paid employment for women. In conclusion, the author underscores that globalization is a gendered process which is restructuring social relations on a large scale and the challenges it bring provide opportunities for women in development.

  3. Configural information in gender categorisation.

    PubMed

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2006-01-01

    The role of configural information in gender categorisation was studied by aligning the top half of one face with the bottom half of another. The two faces had the same or different genders. Experiment 1 shows that participants were slower and made more errors in categorising the gender in either half of these composite faces when the two faces had a different gender, relative to control conditions where the two faces were nonaligned or had the same gender. This result parallels the composite effect for face recognition (Young et al, 1987 Perception 16 747-759) and facial-expression recognition (Calder et al, 2000 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 26 527-551). Similarly to responses to face identity and expression, the composite effect on gender discrimination was disrupted by inverting the faces (experiment 2). Both experiments also show that the composite paradigm is sensitive to general contextual interference in gender categorisation.

  4. Resource Balancing Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.

  5. [Balance in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Ruwer, Sheelen Larissa; Rossi, Angela Garcia; Simon, Larissa Fortunato

    2005-01-01

    Throughout years, the human organism goes through natural aging, having functional and structural changes. The part which is responsible for the corporal balance system also suffers from the aging process, creating great impact for the elderly. Thus, the present paper aims to study the vestibular function of old people suffering from dizziness, tinnitus and hearing impairment. Transversal cohort. 80 elderly individuals from two different groups were evaluated: group A - composed of 38 women and 2 men who belonged to an elderly group from Santa Maria, RS; and group B - composed of 35 women and 5 men with complaints of balance disorders. Both groups were undergone anamnesis (calling attention to aspects concerning the dizziness, tinnitus and the hearing impairment), and the vestibular function evaluation (by using the computerized system of vecto-electronystagmography SCV 5.0). The results displayed a statistical significant difference between both groups, concerning the complaints of dizziness and tinnitus, straightforward in group B. In the hypothetical diagnosis lead by the computerized examination, it was found that most individuals had presented normal diagnosis; however, it was found the predominance of vestibular disorders in the elderly such as Deficit Peripheral Vestibular Syndrome and Irritative Peripheral Vestibular Syndrome. It was concluded that the vestibular disorders, according to the vecto-electronystagmography, and to the complaints of dizziness, tinnitus and hearing impairment, are numerically similar in both studied groups.

  6. Spices and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D

    2012-11-05

    The sensory properties of foods and beverages are primary determinants of food choice. Some flavor components have an inherent hedonic valence that influences ingestive behavior. However, these hedonic impressions may be modified and others newly formed through their association with the post-ingestive consequences of food and beverage consumption. Flavor-active compounds, including spices, also modify digestive, absorptive and metabolic processes through direct activation of signaling pathways or via neurally-mediated cephalic phase responses. These may modify energy balance through effects on food digestion, energy absorption and metabolism. Thus, collectively, flavor has the potential to modify energy balance. Attempts to purposefully augment energy and nutrient intake have largely focused on the aging population where flavor fortification is posited to correct for diminishing sensory function. Evidence of efficacy is not strong, possibly due to methodological issues such as low statistical power and failure to match documented sensory limitations with the nature of the intervention. More rigorous testing should determine the viability of this therapeutic application of food flavors. The use of flavor compounds for weight reduction has yielded mixed results. Most trials have delivered the compounds via capsule precluding assessment of flavor to outcomes. Work with red pepper suggests there is an independent, albeit subtle, sensory effect on substrate oxidation coupled with a more general reduction of appetite and enhancement of energy expenditure. Flavor active compounds hold some promise for being more a part of the solution than the problem of disordered eating and unhealthy weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  8. Taekwondo training improves balance in volunteers over 40.

    PubMed

    Pons van Dijk, G; Lenssen, A F; Leffers, P; Kingma, H; Lodder, J

    2013-01-01

    Balance deteriorates with age, and may eventually lead to falling accidents which may threaten independent living. As Taekwondo contains various highly dynamic movement patterns, Taekwondo practice may sustain or improve balance. Therefore, in 24 middle-aged healthy volunteers (40-71 year) we investigated effects of age-adapted Taekwondo training of 1 h a week during 1 year on various balance parameters, such as: motor orientation ability (primary outcome measure), postural and static balance test, single leg stance, one leg hop test, and a questionnaire. Motor orientation ability significantly increased in favor of the antero-posterior direction with a difference of 0.62° toward anterior compared to pre-training measurement, when participants corrected the tilted platform rather toward the posterior direction; female gender being an independent outcome predictor. On postural balance measurements sway path improved in all 19 participants, with a median of 9.3 mm/s (range 0.71-45.86), and sway area in 15 participants with 4.2 mm(2)/s (range 17.39-1.22). Static balance improved with an average of 5.34 s for the right leg, and with almost 4 s for the left. Median single leg stance duration increased in 17 participants with 5 s (range 1-16), and in 13 participants with 8 s (range 1-18). The average one leg hop test distance increased (not statistically significant) with 9.5 cm. The questionnaire reported a better "ability to maintain balance" in 16. In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of balance control in healthy people over the age of 40.

  9. A gender analysis of secondary school physics textbooks and laboratory manuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostas, Nancy Ann

    Secondary school physics textbooks and laboratory manuals were evaluated for gender balance. The textbooks and manuals evaluated were all current editions available at the time of the study with copyrights of 1988 to 1992. Illustrations, drawings and photographs were judged gender balanced based on the number of men and women, boys and girls shown in both active and passive roles. Illustrations, drawings and photographs were also evaluated by the number of male and female scientists identified by name. The curricular content of the textbooks was analyzed for gender balance by three criteria: the number of named male and female scientists whose accomplishments were described in the text; the number of careers assigned to men and women; and the number of verbal analogies assigned to girls interests, boys interests or neutral interests. The laboratory activities in the manuals were categorized as demonstrations, experiments and observations. Three of each of these types of activities from each manual were analyzed for skills and motivating factors important to girls as identified by Potter and Rosser (1992). Data were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics of frequencies, means and chi-square goodness of fit. The.05 level of significance was applied to all analyses based upon an expected frequency of 50 - 50 percentage of men and women and a 4.5 percent for women scientists to 95.5 percent for men scientists. The findings were as follows. None of the textbooks had a balance of men/women, boys/girls in the illustrations, drawings and photographs. The Hewitt (Scott-Foresman, 1989) textbook was the only textbook with no significant difference. Using the expected frequency for male and female scientists, two textbooks were gender balanced for illustrations, drawings and photographs while all textbooks were gender balanced for described accomplishments of scientists. The Hewitt (Scott Foresman, 1989) textbook had the only gender balanced representation of careers

  10. Age- and gender-related test performance in community-dwelling adults.

    PubMed

    Steffen, T M; Mollinger, L A

    2005-12-01

    Interpretation of patient scores on functional tests is enhanced by an understanding of test performance in reference groups. The purpose of this study was to expand performance values, by age and gender, on balance tests [the Multi-Directional Reach (MDRT); Berg Balance (BBS); Sharpened Romberg, eyes open (SREO), eyes closed (SREC); Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC)], and a general mobility test [Physical Performance Test, (PPT-7, PPT-9)]. The study also examined relationships between test performance and subject characteristics. Eighty-three community-dwelling adults over 50 participated in the study and completed the 5 functional tests during one test session. Means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals were calculated for each of the tests. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine relationships between test scores and age, gender, height, and weight. Test performance is reported by gender,within 10-year age cohorts. Regression analysis showed that age contributed significantly to prediction of performance on all of the tests and gender contributed significantly to prediction of scores on the Berg, SREO, and SREC. Test performance values, in a sample of community-dwelling adults, is provided by age and gender cohorts to provide additional reference data that can be used by clinicians for comparison with client data. The small sample size for subjects over 80 years limits the reference value of data for this age group. In regression analyses, age and gender help predict outcomes on the dependent variables used in the study.

  11. GENDER EQUALITY AND THE GENDER GAP IN MATHEMATICS.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hung-Lin; Michalopoulos, Christos

    2017-05-08

    A gender gap has been found in mathematics (boys outperform girls) that has prevailed across countries for many decades. Whether this gap results from nature or nurture has been hotly debated. Using the evidence of PISA 2003 and the gender equality index of 2003, some researchers have argued that an improvement in gender equality reduces the gender gap in mathematics. This study used five waves of country-level PISA data and, controlling for country fixed effects, found no evidence to support this argument. Furthermore, individual data for PISA 2012 and the multilevel data model were used. The conclusion drawn also does not support the argument. In fact, the relationship between gender equality and the gender gap in mathematics vanished after PISA 2003.

  12. Gender incongruence/gender dysphoria and its classification history.

    PubMed

    Beek, Titia F; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) classification of gender identity-related conditions over time, and indicate how these changes were associated with the changes in conceptualization. A diagnosis of 'transsexualism' appeared first in DSM-III in 1980. This version also included a childhood diagnosis: gender identity disorder of childhood. As research about gender incongruence/gender dysphoria increased, the terminology, placement and criteria were reviewed in successive versions of the DSM. Changes in various aspects of the diagnosis, however, were not only based on research. Social and political factors contributed to the conceptualization of gender incongruence/gender dysphoria as well.

  13. Gender reassignment surgery: an overview.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Bellringer, James

    2011-05-01

    Gender reassignment (which includes psychotherapy, hormonal therapy and surgery) has been demonstrated as the most effective treatment for patients affected by gender dysphoria (or gender identity disorder), in which patients do not recognize their gender (sexual identity) as matching their genetic and sexual characteristics. Gender reassignment surgery is a series of complex surgical procedures (genital and nongenital) performed for the treatment of gender dysphoria. Genital procedures performed for gender dysphoria, such as vaginoplasty, clitorolabioplasty, penectomy and orchidectomy in male-to-female transsexuals, and penile and scrotal reconstruction in female-to-male transsexuals, are the core procedures in gender reassignment surgery. Nongenital procedures, such as breast enlargement, mastectomy, facial feminization surgery, voice surgery, and other masculinization and feminization procedures complete the surgical treatment available. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health currently publishes and reviews guidelines and standards of care for patients affected by gender dysphoria, such as eligibility criteria for surgery. This article presents an overview of the genital and nongenital procedures available for both male-to-female and female-to-male gender reassignment.

  14. Energy balance climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved, and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  15. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  16. [Balanced scorecard in health].

    PubMed

    Leyton-Pavez, Carolina Elena; Huerta-Riveros, Patricia Carolina; Paúl-Espinoza, Iván Renato

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the installation of strategies in the higher complexity hospitals (HMC, in Spanish) of public health in Chile starting from the results of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), during the years 2011-2012. The implementation of the BSC is described, the strategies and indicators identified, and the results of the 57 HMC compared and analyzed. Starting from the comparison of the results it is discovered that the BSC allows to evaluate the installation of the strategies. Differences are identified in the installation of the strategies by geographical area, with North presenting a higher score (20.21), followed by Center (10.41) and South (19.50), which can be explained by the size and complexity of this establishments, variables that should be incorporated in the evaluation of the results of the BSC.

  17. Walking the HMO balance.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, S M

    2001-03-01

    Fidelity is the ethical obligation to act in good faith to keep promises, fulfill agreements, and maintain relationships and fiduciary responsibilities. Consumers are increasingly interested in the balance between the fiscal viability of our current healthcare delivery system and the system's reason for existence--that is, to serve the health needs of clients. Escalating healthcare costs have driven many institutions and third party payors to examine service and payment practices. Some consumers and consumer rights groups contend that these evolving practices threaten the very essence of health and healthcare. The ethical obligation of fidelity, especially as it relates to the business model of healthcare, is examined. Threats to fidelity are reviewed, and the response to these threats by one consumer rights group is presented. A case study is included.

  18. Balancing Family and Career

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Dawson, Silvina Ponce; Horton, K. Renee; Sandow, Barbara

    2005-10-01

    In essentially all countries, responsibilities for child care, cooking, cleaning, and other homemaking tasks fall predominantly on the wife and mother. In addition, the childbearing years come during the period when a physicist must study hard, work long hours on research, and take temporary positions, often abroad. Thus, balancing family and career has long been one of the major barriers to women's participation in science and engineering fields, including physics. While many young women believe that they must choose between having children and having a science career, the fact is that the majority of women physicists in both developing and developed countries have successfully done both. This paper summarizes some ideas and recommendations raised in discussions, especially focused on easing the challenges of having children while in temporary jobs, returning to physics after a career break, the need for "family-friendly" working conditions, and the dual-career problem facing couples where both are scientists.

  19. The Role Of Gender In Asking Questions At Cool Stars 18 And 19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Douglas, Stephanie; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Booth, Rachel S.; Davenport, James R. A.; Mace, Gregory N.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the gender balance of the 18th and 19th meetings of the Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stellar Systems and the Sun (CS18 and CS19). The percent of female attendees at both meetings (31% at CS18 and 37% at CS19) was higher than the percent of women in the American Astronomical Society (25%) and the International Astronomical Union (18%). The representation of women in Cool Stars as SOC members, invited speakers, and contributed speakers was similar to or exceeded the percent of women attending the meetings. We requested that conference attendees assist in a project to collect data on the gender of astronomers asking questions after talks. Using this data, we found that men were over-represented (and women were under-represented) in the question sessions after each talk. Men asked 79% of the questions at CS18 and 75% of the questions at CS19, but were 69% and 63% of the attendees respectively. Contrary to findings from previous conferences, we did not find that the gender balance of questions was strongly affected by the session chair gender, the speaker gender, or the length of the question period. We also found that female and male speakers were asked a comparable number of questions after each talk. The contrast of these results from previous incarnations of the gender questions survey indicate that more data would be useful in understanding the factors that contribute to the gender balance of question askers. We include a preliminary set of recommendations based on this and other work on related topics, but also advocate for additional research on the demographics of conference participants. Additional data on the intersection of gender with race, seniority, sexual orientation, ability and other marginalized identities is necessary to fully address the role of gender in asking questions at conferences.

  20. Energy balance in peridynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2010-09-01

    The peridynamic model of solid mechanics treats internal forces within a continuum through interactions across finite distances. These forces are determined through a constitutive model that, in the case of an elastic material, permits the strain energy density at a point to depend on the collective deformation of all the material within some finite distance of it. The forces between points are evaluated from the Frechet derivative of this strain energy density with respect to the deformation map. The resulting equation of motion is an integro-differential equation written in terms of these interparticle forces, rather than the traditional stress tensor field. Recent work on peridynamics has elucidated the energy balance in the presence of these long-range forces. We have derived the appropriate analogue of stress power, called absorbed power, that leads to a satisfactory definition of internal energy. This internal energy is additive, allowing us to meaningfully define an internal energy density field in the body. An expression for the local first law of thermodynamics within peridynamics combines this mechanical component, the absorbed power, with heat transport. The global statement of the energy balance over a subregion can be expressed in a form in which the mechanical and thermal terms contain only interactions between the interior of the subregion and the exterior, in a form anticipated by Noll in 1955. The local form of this first law within peridynamics, coupled with the second law as expressed in the Clausius-Duhem inequality, is amenable to the Coleman-Noll procedure for deriving restrictions on the constitutive model for thermomechanical response. Using an idea suggested by Fried in the context of systems of discrete particles, this procedure leads to a dissipation inequality for peridynamics that has a surprising form. It also leads to a thermodynamically consistent way to treat damage within the theory, shedding light on how damage, including the

  1. Are high school chemistry textbooks gender fair?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazler, Judith A.; Simonis, Doris A.

    This study compared two generations of seven high school chemistry texts (1970/1973) and current editions analyzed for gender fairness in illustrations and in concrete analogies. Results support these conclusions: (a) considering the texts as a group, there are significant differences between relative frequencies of named and unnamed illustrations of men and women and no significant differences between relative frequencies of illustrations of boys and girls in seven high school chemistry texts in the 1970 editions compared to current edition of the same texts; (b) a current best-seller is the only text that has achieved balance between male/female illustrations; (c) the other texts overwhelmingly favor pictures of males; (d) most current texts had more analogies than their 1970 editions; the former favored images reflecting girls' interests.

  2. Gender issues in the university research environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpay, E.; Hari, A.; Kambouri, M.; Ahearn, A. L.

    2010-05-01

    Recruiting and retaining females within science, engineering and technology continues to challenge many European higher education institutions. This study looks at female self-perceptions relating to effective research work and career progression. Focus groups are used to examine the attitudes and experiences of females and a questionnaire is used to explore perceptions in four main skills areas: group work; communication; personal awareness; project planning and management. The study indicates consistent female concerns on issues pertaining to effective female role models, negative work-role stereotypes and the work-life balance of an academic career. For all four skills areas, the average confidence scores of the female participants fell below those of males, but these differences were only statistically significant for perceptions on group work and communication skills and prior to an intense skills development course. Based on these findings, a student workshop on gender issues has been developed, an outline of which is presented.

  3. Eyeglasses and gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Terry, R L

    1989-10-01

    Under the guise of forming impressions of a job applicant in a hiring interview, subjects rated a videotaped male or female stimulus person (SP) on several gender stereotypical and task relevant traits. In one condition, the SP's wore eyeglasses, and in the other condition they did not. Eyeglasses, especially when worn by the stimulus male, were associated with feminine stereotypes and positive task relevant attributes. The results were interpreted to suggest that men who wear eyeglasses may be the target of some negative social judgments but also redeeming task relevant attributes, whereas women who wear eyeglasses are more likely to be the target of only negative social judgments.

  4. Gender diversity in STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijerinck, Herman C. W.

    2017-03-01

    There is a strong business case for the value of diversity. Research by the World Economic Forum shows a 36% higher return on equity (ROE) for companies having a workforce with strong gender diversity1. Also growth is influenced in a positive way: in 2009 - 2012 companies with a strong female leadership have increased their ROE by 10.1% as compared to an average of 7.4% for the rest. Diversity is not a problem but a solution!2

  5. Gender perspectives in European research.

    PubMed

    Klinge, Ineke

    2008-01-01

    Attention to sex and gender aspects in biomedical and health-related research has been a major initiative of the EU gender equality policy for research. The EU funded GenderBasic project (2005-2008), conceived to stimulate this attention to sex and gender and to provide practical tools to researchers, resulted in the publication of 10 reviews by high-level scientists in a Supplement to Gender Medicine in December 2007: "Bringing Gender Expertise to Biomedical and Health-Related Research". Four commissioned reviews covered methodological aspects of addressing sex and gender in biomedical research--ranging from basic, molecular to public health research--next to six reviews that addressed sex and gender aspects relevant to selected health areas: anxiety disorders, asthma, metabolic syndrome, nutrigenomics, osteoporosis and work-related health. The review articles, that were discussed at an expert meeting, attended - upon invitation - by a mixed audience of basic and clinical researchers, epidemiologists, social scientists and gender researchers, came up with excellent state of the art data, solutions to methodological and conceptual problems, practical tools and interesting questions for further research. The expert meeting created great enthusiasm among the participants and a real exchange took place among researchers from various backgrounds. Most life sciences researchers were familiar with the concept of sex differences but confessed that the effects of socially constructed gender until now, had received too little attention. The GenderBasic project yielded three major achievements for European research: (1) it stimulated and promoted research into sex differences; (2) it stimulated research into the workings of gender, illustrated by useful examples in particular in understanding masculinity and its effects on the health of individual men; (3) it highlighted sex-gender interaction and granted gender a prominent place on the research agenda that resulted from

  6. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  7. Rotor balancing apparatus and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.

  8. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  9. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  10. The Limits of Offshore Balancing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    UNITED STATES ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS Carlisle Barracks, PA ST R ENGTH-’W I SDOM THE LIMITS OF OFFSHORE BALANCING Hal Brands U.S. ARMY WAR...Offshore Balancing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press THE LIMITS OF OFFSHORE BALANCING Hal Brands September 2015

  11. Assessing and documenting fluid balance.

    PubMed

    Pinnington, Sarah; Ingleby, Sarah; Hanumapura, Prasanna; Waring, Deryn

    2016-12-07

    Concerns about inadequate patient hydration and suboptimal monitoring of fluid balance have been documented in recent reports. The Fluid Balance Improvement Project at Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust was undertaken to identify risk factors influencing hydration and to implement a revised process to manage these risks, resulting in the development of a hydration pathway. This new approach to monitoring patient hydration, together with staff education and support, has resulted in improved compliance with fluid balance monitoring standards, as well as significant improvements in identifying patients at risk of dehydration, and an increase in patients with acute kidney injury commencing appropriate fluid balance monitoring.

  12. Balanced multiwavelets with interpolatory property.

    PubMed

    Li, Baobin; Peng, Lizhong

    2011-05-01

    Balanced multiwavelets with interpolatory property are discussed in this paper. This kind of multiwavelets can have a sampling property like Shannon's sampling theorem. It has been shown that the corresponding matrix-valued refinable mask has special structure, and an orthogonal multifilter bank {H(z),G(z)} can be reduced to a scalar valued conjugate quadrature filter (CQF) a(z) . But it does not mean that any scalar CQF can form a "good" multifilter bank which can generate a vector-valued refinable function with some degree of smoothness. In the context of balanced multiwavelets, we give the definition of transferring balance order, which a scalar CQF a(z) satisfies, to guarantee that the multiwavelet Ψ generated is balanced. On the basis of the parametrization of a scalar CQF with any length and conditions of transferring balance order, parametrization of multifilter banks which can generate interpolatory multiwavelet and interpolatory scaling function, is gotten. Moreover, some balanced interpolatory multiwavelets have been constructed. Interpolatory analysis-ready multiwavelets (armlets) are also discussed in this paper. It is known that conditions of armlets are easy to validate, compared with balanced multiwavelets. But it will be present that if the corresponding scaling function Φ is interpolatory, the multiwavelet Ψ is balanced of order n if and only if it is an armlet of order n. Finally, the application of balanced multiwavelets with interpolatory property in image processing is also discussed.

  13. Libra: Scalable Load Balance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    Libra is a tool for scalable analysis of load balance data from all processes in a parallel application. Libra contains an instrumentation module that collects model data from parallel applications and a parallel compression mechanism that uses distributed wavelet transforms to gather load balance model data in a scalable fashion. Data is output to files, and these files can be viewed in a GUI tool by Libra users. The GUI tool associates particular load balance data with regions for code, emabling users to view the load balance properties of distributed "slices" of their application code.

  14. A prospective study examining balance confidence among individuals with lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Miller, W C; Deathe, A B

    In this study we assessed whether balance confidence scores changed over a 2-year follow up period, and identified predictors of balance confidence and predictors of change in balance confidence among lower limb amputees. A prospective follow-up survey of 245 community living adults with unilateral below and above knee lower limb amputation who used their prosthetic limb daily was conducted. Balance confidence, assessed using the 16-item Activity-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, socio-demographic, health and amputation related variables were collected at baseline and 2 years later. ABC scores were similar at baseline (mean = 67.6; SD = 25.7) and follow up (mean = 68.0; SD = 25.8). Lower balance confidence scores at follow up were predicted by older age, being female, use of a mobility device, poor perceived health, increased symptoms of depression, having to concentrate while walking, and fear of falling (all p < 0.05). Predictors of change in balance confidence included gender and perceived health (all p < 0.05). Balance confidence appears to be a persistent problem in the amputee population. Health professionals are encouraged to consider balance confidence as a potentially important variable that may influence function in this clinically unique group of individuals. The identified predictor variables may be useful to clinicians in targeting individuals who require attention to improve balance confidence.

  15. Gendered education in a gendered world: looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education to explore the underlying gendered assumptions of a research project aiming to contribute to improving recruitment, retention and gender equity patterns in STEM educations and careers. Much research has been carried out to understand this gender gap phenomenon as well as to suggest measures to reduce its occurrence. A significant portion of this research has focused on detecting the typical "female" and "male" interest in science and has consequently suggested that adjustments be made to science education to cater for these interests. This article argues that adjusting science subjects to match perceived typical girls' and boys' interests risks being ineffective, as it contributes to the imposition of stereotyped gender identity formation thereby also imposing the gender differences that these adjustments were intended to overcome. This article also argues that different ways of addressing gender issues in science education themselves reflects different notions of gender and science. Thus in order to reduce gender inequities in science these implicit notions of gender and science have to be made explicit. The article begins with an overview of the current situation regarding gender equity in some so- called gender equal countries. We then present three perspectives from feminist critiques of science on how gender can be seen to impact on science and science education. Thereafter we analyze recommendations from a contemporary research project to explore which of these perspectives is most prevalent.

  16. Gender identities and gender dysphoria in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kuyper, Lisette; Wijsen, Ciel

    2014-02-01

    Several studies estimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria among adults by examining the number of individuals turning to health services. Since individuals might be hesitant to seek medical care related to gender dysphoria, these studies could underestimate the prevalence. The studies also lack information regarding the variance among different aspects of gender dysphoric conditions. Therefore, the current study estimated the prevalence by examining self-reported gender identity and dysphoria in a Dutch population sample (N = 8,064, aged 15-70 years old). Three measures assessed aspects of gender dysphoria: gender identity, dislike of the natal female/male body, and wish to obtain hormones/sex reassignment surgery. Results showed that 4.6 % of the natal men and 3.2 % of the natal women reported an ambivalent gender identity (equal identification with other sex as with sex assigned at birth) and 1.1 % of the natal men and 0.8 % of the natal women reported an incongruent gender identity (stronger identification with other sex as with sex assigned at birth). Lower percentages reported a dislike of their natal body and/or a wish for hormones/surgery. Combining these figures estimated the percentage of men reporting an ambivalent or incongruent gender identity combined with a dislike of their male body and a wish to obtain hormones/surgery at 0.6 %. For women, this was 0.2 %. These novel findings show that studies based on the number of individuals seeking medical care might underestimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria. Furthermore, the findings argue against a dichotomous approach to gender dysphoria.

  17. Gender and medical careers.

    PubMed

    Riska, Elianne

    2011-03-01

    The concerns about physicians' career advancement tend to be raised in gender terms, because women presently constitute close to and will soon form a majority of the medical students in most western societies. The question is to what extent female and male medical students and residents today make similar or different career and lifestyle choices? Two major mechanisms have been referred to as the reason for gender differences in career paths for physicians. The major theoretical framework tends to be the socialization or sex-role theory and later versions of this explanatory framework. The other mechanism referred to is structural and points to the barriers or the concrete support that women and men experience in making their career decisions. Studies of medical students in the UK and US have shown that women students expected family demands to hamper career plans, while male students were less influenced by family concerns. The importance of role models and mentors in setting the career goals of medical students and residents has recently confirmed early studies of the topic. A number of studies have documented that early negative experiences or lack of encouragement in medical school deter women from choosing surgery as a career. Recent studies suggest that lifestyle choices rather than merely career advancement influence both female and male surgeons' career plans.

  18. Gender differences in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Angele, Martin K; Pratschke, Sebastian; Hubbard, William J; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2014-01-01

    During sepsis, a complex network of cytokine, immune, and endothelial cell interactions occur and disturbances in the microcirculation cause organ dysfunction or even failure leading to high mortality in those patients. In this respect, numerous experimental and clinical studies indicate sex-specific differences in infectious diseases and sepsis. Female gender has been demonstrated to be protective under such conditions, whereas male gender may be deleterious due to a diminished cell-mediated immune response and cardiovascular functions. Male sex hormones, i.e., androgens, have been shown to be suppressive on cell-mediated immune responses. In contrast, female sex hormones exhibit protective effects which may contribute to the natural advantages of females under septic conditions. Thus, the hormonal status has to be considered when treating septic patients. Therefore, potential therapies could be derived from this knowledge. In this respect, administration of female sex hormones (estrogens and their precursors) may exert beneficial effects. Alternatively, blockade of male sex hormone receptors could result in maintained immune responses under adverse circulatory conditions. Finally, administration of agents that influence enzymes synthesizing female sex hormones which attenuate the levels of pro-inflammatory agents might exert salutary effects in septic patients. Prospective patient studies are required for transferring those important experimental findings into the clinical arena. PMID:24193307

  19. Gender and Programming.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, Courtney A; Koons-Witt, Barbara A

    2017-05-01

    The current study examines U.S. prison programming availability and participation by gender on a national level. The authors build upon previous literature by using national-level data, something that has been done in very limited cases previously. The main concern of this study is gender and its effects on programming availability and participation. The U.S. corrections field has undergone major changes in regard to population trends, fiscal constraints, policies, and research over the last few decades without a large-scale examination of the effects of these changes on programming across the United States. In this study, multiple types of programming areas were examined and results indicated that often female prisons (i.e., prisons housing only females) were more likely to offer programs (e.g., mental health options) and women were more likely to participate in many programming options compared with male prisons and men, respectively. We discuss the possible reasons for this and implications for future research.

  20. [Gender differences in cardiology].

    PubMed

    Hochleitner, Margarethe; Bader, Angelika

    2003-01-01

    Frequent reports of gender differences in cardiology prompted us to study the cardiological situation in Tyrol, Austria, from 1995 to 2000. Mortality statistics for heart deaths 1995: women 1008 (53.5%), men 875 (46.5%); 2000: women 1104 (58.2%), men 792 (41.8%). Coronary heart deaths 1995: women 572 (50.0%), men 571 (50.0%); 2000: women 634 (54.4%), men 531 (45.6%). Angiograms 1995: women 332 (33.9%), men 646 (66.1%); 2000: women 688 (32.5%), men 1429 (67.5%). Bypass surgery 1995: women 54 (33.0%), men 156 (67.0%); 2000: women 42 (27.5%), men 157 (72.5%). Heart deaths 1995-2000: women +9.5%, men -9.5%; coronary heart deaths 1995-2000: women +10.8%, men -7.0%. By (welcome) contrast, coronary angiograms 1995-2000: women +107.2%, men +121.2%. Bypass operations 1995-2000: women -22.2%, men +0.6%. Life expectancy 1995-2000: women +0.6%, men +0.6%. Patient age at heart death 1995-2000: women +1.8%, men +2.5%. In aggregate, we see that for decades more women than men have died a heart death, but that cardiac mortalities remain a typically "male bastion" with persistent gender differences in access to clinical cardiology. The worsening trend for women begs for awareness programs and corresponding preventive measures.

  1. Relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hernandez, Lilian; Marek, Edmund A.; Renner, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development. Random samples of 70 females and 70 males were selected with each sex group equally divided into a low-age and a high-age group. The low-age group ranged in age from 16.25 years to 16.75 years and the high-age group from 16.76 years to 17.25 years. The Piaget tasks selected to measure cognitive development were: Conservation of Volume, Separation of Variables, and Equilibrium in the Balance and Combination of Colorless Chemical Liquids. Data from this research produced these findings: (1) males demonstrate a higher level of intellectual development than females, (2) males mature intellectually earlier than females, (3) the value of the conservation of volume task as a component of a battery of formal tasks depends upon whether the decisions are to be made on the basis of the total-task results or on individual task performance, and (4) there appear to be factors other than age and gender that are related to the development of formal operational reasoning. These investigators hypothesize that experiences is another important factor.

  2. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender, bullying victimization, and education.

    PubMed

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A; Day, Kristin R; Kahle, Lindsay L

    2014-01-01

    School bullying has detrimental consequences for its victims, including undermining students' educational outcomes. Furthermore, gender has been shown to play a significant role in determining the type of bullying victimization experienced and educational outcomes. This research examines whether an interaction between gender and bullying victimization exists as well as its impact on educational outcomes (i.e., academic self-efficacy and educational achievement). Multivariate regression analyses, drawing on the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, reveal that the interaction between gender and bullying victimization is linked to disparate educational outcomes. The findings and their implications are discussed regarding understanding the relationship between gender, bullying victimization, and education.

  4. Investigating gender violence in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Spiring, Fred

    2014-01-01

    As Jamaica moves through implementation of their National Policy on Gender Equality and develops harassment legislation, this article attempts to investigate current levels and trends of gender-based violence in Jamaica. All analyses make use of existing data and data formats in developing performance indicators that illustrate the current state of gender violence in Jamaica. The analyses provide a baseline for the future assessment and comparison with internationally accepted gender-based violence indicators. All source data has been included to facilitate comparisons and discussions regarding related levels and trends of violence as well as addressing performance indicator effectiveness.

  5. Gender identity in XY intersexuality.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Vivian; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne

    2004-07-01

    The following syndromes of XY intersexuality are reviewed: 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency, and complete and partial androgen insensitivity with attention focused on issues of gender identity. Each syndrome, with its unique presentation, provides an opportunity to explore the relative effects of nature (androgens) versus nurture (sex of rearing) in gender identity development. The phenomenon of gender role reversal in these conditions is described and theories on the determinants of gender identity formation are proposed. Issues of importance to psychiatrists in treating patients who have these conditions also are discussed.

  6. Haemostatic balance in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Baccouche, Héla; Labidi, Asma; Fekih, Monia; Mahjoub, Sonia; Kaabi, Houda; Hmida, Slama; Filali, Azza; Romdhane, Neila B

    2017-03-01

    Despite the prolongation of coagulation tests, recent studies reported an increased frequency of thromboembolic events in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the haemostatic balance in cirrhotic patients through assessing the variation of pro- and anticoagulant factors and evaluating the in-vitro thrombin generation in patients with cirrhosis and in healthy patients. Fifty-one cirrhotic patients with or without thromboembolic events and 50 controls matched by age and sex were enrolled. Procoagulant (factors VII, II, V, VIII, and XII) and inhibitor (protein C, protein S and antithrombin) factor activities were determined. Thrombin generation was measured as endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). Haemostatic balance was assessed by means of both procoagulant to inhibitor coagulation factor ratios and ETP with to without protein C activation ratios. There were 24 males and 27 females. The mean age was 57.8 years [16-91 years]. Pro and anticoagulant factors were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P < 0.001) except for factor VIII and protein S. In fact factor VIII level was significantly higher in patients than in controls and protein S levels were not significantly different between patients and controls. Almost all the pro to anticoagulant factor ratios were higher in cirrhotics than in controls, especially the factor VIII to protein C ratios which increased significantly from Child Pugh A to C (P < 0.001), the ratio of ETP with to without protein C activator was higher in patients than in controls, but did not reach a significant level (0.8 vs. 0.52) There was no statistically significant difference between Child classes. When comparing patients with history of thrombosis (n = 7) to those matched by age and sex and without history of thrombosis (n = 14), the ratios were not statistically different between the two groups. Haemostatic changes in cirrhosis tend to rebalance the haemostatic system. This state often

  7. Managing gender diversity in healthcare: getting it right.

    PubMed

    Vanderbroeck, Paul; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise

    2017-02-06

    Purpose Diversity, notably gender diversity, is growing in health care, both at the level of teams and the level of organizations. This paper aims to describe the challenges for team leaders and leaders of organizations to manage this diversity. The authors believe that more could be done to help leaders master these challenges in a way that makes diverse teams and organizations more productive. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on previously published research, using gender diversity as an example, the paper first describes how diversity can both have a positive and a negative influence on team productivity. Next, it describes the challenge of gender diversity at an organizational level, using Switzerland as an example. Findings The first part of the paper espouses the causes of gender diversity, undoes some of the myths surrounding diversity and presents a model for effective management of diversity in teams. The second part looks at gender diversity at an organizational level. Drawing from sources inside and outside healthcare, the effects of the "leaking pipeline", "glass wall" and "glass ceiling" that prevent health-care organizations from leveraging the potential of female talent are discussed. Practical implications The authors propose a model developed for intercultural teamwork as a framework for leveraging gender diversity for better team productivity. Proposals are offered to health-care organizations on how they can tip the gender balance at senior levels into their favor, so as to get the maximum benefit from the available talent. Originality/value Applying the "how to" ideas and recommendations from this general review will help leaders of health-care organizations gain a better return on investment from their talent development as well as to increase the productivity of their workforce by a better use of diverse talent.

  8. The Effects of Educational Kinesiology upon the Static Balance of Learning Disabled Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalsa, Guruchiter K.; Sifft, Josie M.

    This study sought to: (1) determine whether Educational Kinesiology (E-K) integration movements have an effect upon the static balance of learning disabled elementary students; (2) determine if E-K repatterning increases the effects of the movements; and (3) examine possible gender differences. Sixty elementary school students were matched on age…

  9. Adolescent Social Networks and Alcohol Use: Variability by Gender and Type.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Wura; Goodson, Patricia; Barry, Adam E; McLeroy, Kenneth R; McKyer, E Lisako J; Valente, Thomas W

    2017-03-21

    Scientists have established that social networks influence adolescents' substance use behavior, an influence that varies by gender. However, the role of gender in this mechanism of influence remains poorly understood. Particularly, the role an adolescent's gender, alongside the gender composition of his/her network, plays in facilitating or constraining alcohol use is still unclear. This study examined the associations among the gender composition of adolescents' networks, select network characteristics, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, and alcohol use among a sample of adolescents in the United States. We assessed cross-sectional data from a 2010 study of 1,523 high school students from a school district in Los Angeles. Analyses of adolescents' network characteristics were conducted using UCINET 6; and logistic regression analyses testing the associations between gender composition of the network and alcohol use were conducted using SPSS 20. Our results indicate that the gender composition of adolescents' networks in our sample is associated with alcohol use. Adolescents in predominantly female or predominantly male friendship networks were less likely to report alcohol use compared to adolescents in an equal/balanced network. In addition, depending upon the context/type of network, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors varied in their association with alcohol use. Conclusions/Importance: Based on these findings, we make several recommendations for the future research. We call for researchers to further examine gender as a risk factor for alcohol abuse, particularly within the complex interplay between gender and network contexts.

  10. Gait characteristics and sensory abilities of older adults are modulated by gender.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni-Solano, Pietro; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Despite the general perception that women and men walk differently, little is known about the reasons for these differences, especially in older adults. Previous work on gender differences in older adults has focused on spatiotemporal parameters. This study aims to assess gender-related differences in gait spatiotemporal and quality parameters when walking on a flat walkway at two different self-selected speeds: comfortable and fast. Sensorimotor abilities (Strength, agility, standing balance, reaction time) were also compared by gender, and gender-specific associations between spatiotemporal and sensorimotor parameters and gait quality were studied. Two tri-axial accelerometers were used at head and pelvis levels to investigate spatiotemporal parameters (step length, velocity and cadence), and gait quality (harmonic ratios (HR) and attenuation of accelerations between body levels) in 122 older adults (90 women, 69.7±5.1 y.o. and 32 men, 71.6±6.4 y.o.). Both men and women walked with similar speed; however women presented faster cadence and shorter steps than men at both walking speeds. Women also walked with greater vertical HR (head and pelvis), mediolateral pelvis HR, and attenuation (mediolateral and anteroposterior) than men. Women had better control of standing balance on foam (eyes open and closed) and tandem test. Moreover, balance on foam, tandem test, step length and cadence were associated to gender-specific gait quality parameters. The aging process seems to be affecting men and women differently, thus, gender differences should be considered when preparing intervention programs to improve balance and gait in older populations or when establishing normative data for balance and gait in older adults.

  11. Dynamic Balancing Of Turbomachinery Shafts And Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    Method for dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafts and rotors developed with view toward reducing time spent in balancing process. Improved method based on existing dynamic-balancing techniques and equipment, incorporating use of balancing arbor, which is mandrel duplicating mounting geometry and dynamic-balance properties of shaft balanced. Once shaft balanced, not necessary to disassemble machinery and/or shaft completely and rebalance shaft when replacing rotor on shaft. Instead, one balances replacement rotor on balancing arbor, then installs balanced rotor on shaft.

  12. Taekwondo Training Improves Balance in Volunteers Over 40

    PubMed Central

    Pons van Dijk, G.; Lenssen, A. F.; Leffers, P.; Kingma, H.; Lodder, J.

    2013-01-01

    Balance deteriorates with age, and may eventually lead to falling accidents which may threaten independent living. As Taekwondo contains various highly dynamic movement patterns, Taekwondo practice may sustain or improve balance. Therefore, in 24 middle-aged healthy volunteers (40–71 year) we investigated effects of age-adapted Taekwondo training of 1 h a week during 1 year on various balance parameters, such as: motor orientation ability (primary outcome measure), postural and static balance test, single leg stance, one leg hop test, and a questionnaire. Motor orientation ability significantly increased in favor of the antero-posterior direction with a difference of 0.62° toward anterior compared to pre-training measurement, when participants corrected the tilted platform rather toward the posterior direction; female gender being an independent outcome predictor. On postural balance measurements sway path improved in all 19 participants, with a median of 9.3 mm/s (range 0.71–45.86), and sway area in 15 participants with 4.2 mm2/s (range 17.39–1.22). Static balance improved with an average of 5.34 s for the right leg, and with almost 4 s for the left. Median single leg stance duration increased in 17 participants with 5 s (range 1–16), and in 13 participants with 8 s (range 1–18). The average one leg hop test distance increased (not statistically significant) with 9.5 cm. The questionnaire reported a better “ability to maintain balance” in 16. In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of balance control in healthy people over the age of 40. PMID:23494518

  13. Why Masculine Gender Studies? Education, Curriculum, and Masculine Gender Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Jeff

    This paper explores how white male adolescents construct themselves and the "other" within the context of reading and responding to multicultural literature. The purpose of the paper is not to derive a theory of adolescent male gender construction, but to see how gender is put into discourse and how white males appropriate those discourses to…

  14. Regulating Gender Performances: Power and Gender Norms in Faculty Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Despite the steady increase of women in faculty positions over the last few decades and the research on gender norms in the academy, what remains unclear is why many female faculty continue to conform to gender norms despite their acknowledgement of the discriminatory nature of these norms, their dissatisfaction performing the norms, and the lack…

  15. Analysing changing gender relations: methodological challenges for gender planning.

    PubMed

    Locke, C; Okali, C

    1999-05-01

    This paper is a starting point for a research project which will try to develop practical methods for analyzing changes in gender relations to inform policy research in improving the storage, processing, and marketing of crops in sub-Saharan Africa. While the research project will focus upon the crop post-harvest sector, many concerns raised in this study are relevant to a wide range of development interventions. This paper is based upon existing literature and offers no new empirical findings. Major conceptual advances in thinking about gender relations suggest the need to reassess conventional gender analyses in the context of development interventions. Evidence from development practice supports the argument that targeting can be undermined by processes of gendered bargaining around project interventions. Academic research points to key problems and potential methods for viewing changes in gender relations which may be adapted to project contexts. Existing gender planning frameworks focus upon shifts in gender relations, but also need to address the process by which gender relations are renegotiated if they are to inform better planning, monitoring, and evaluation.

  16. In the Balance:

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Lawrence T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The nineteenth century saw the incorporation of technology, such as the stethoscope, microscope, and thermometer, into clinical medicine. An instrument that has received less attention in the history of the role of technology in medicine is the weighing balance, or scale. Although not new to nineteenth-century medicine, it played an important part in the rise of the numerical method and its application to the development and shaping of pediatrics. This article explores the origin and development of the weighing of babies. During its clinical and scientific adoption, this simple procedure was refined and applied in a number of increasingly sophisticated and far-reaching ways: as a measure of the dimensions of the fetus and newborn, as an index of the viability of the newborn, as a means of estimating milk intake, as a way of distinguishing normality from abnormality, as a summary measure of infant health, and as an instrument of mass surveillance. In so doing it changed the way in which medical care was delivered to infants. PMID:20632732

  17. A Balanced Memory Network

    PubMed Central

    Roudi, Yasser; Latham, Peter E

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory—the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds—is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons. PMID:17845070

  18. [Mobility and balance].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Katrin; Kressig, Reto W

    2008-08-01

    Quality of life is strongly associated with the mobility of elderly people. Falls often cause restricted mobility, a decline in activities of daily living and an increased risk of institutionalisation. Frailty, commonly associated with aging, is a biologic syndrome of decreased resistance to stressors, resulting from declines across multiple physiological systems. Changes in mobility and gait constitute part of the frailty syndrome. Since more than one third of persons over the age of 65 fall each year, prevention of falls is very important. Already while taking the patients' history special emphasis should be laid on matters associated with an increased risk of falling, such as the use of more than four medications. To assess mobility several brief tests exist (i.e. Timed up & go [17], Walking while Talking [20]) which immediately yield information regarding mobility and falling risk. Patients with poor performance on such tests or those with a history of several falls should undergo a spatio-temporal gait analysis in order to determine a possible cause as well as suitable interventions. Additionally, the objective measurement of temporo-spatial gait parameters under dual task conditions may detect deficits in cognitive function. Several interventions have been shown to have favourable effects on gait stability and the occurrence of falls. Proprioceptive problems can be partially compensated for by wearing special shoes. Also, different movement exercises such as Tai Chi Chuan, Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics and social dancing are associated with better balance and gait safety, and a reduction of falls.

  19. A balanced memory network.

    PubMed

    Roudi, Yasser; Latham, Peter E

    2007-09-01

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory--the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds--is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons.

  20. Balancing "we" and "me".

    PubMed

    Congdon, Christine; Flynn, Donna; Redman, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    The open office is the dominant form of workspace design for good reason: It fosters collaboration, promotes learning, and nurtures strong culture. But what most companies fail to realize is that collaboration has a natural rhythm that requires both interaction and private contemplation. Companies have been trying for decades to find the balance between public and private workspace that best supports collaboration. In 1980 52% of U.S. employees lacked workspaces where they could concentrate without distraction. In response, high-walled cubicles took over the corporate landscape. By the late 1990s, the tide had turned, and only 23% of employees wanted more privacy, and 50% wanted more access to other people. Ever since, firms have been beefing up spaces that support collaboration and shrinking areas for individual work. But the pendulum seems to have swung too far: Once again, people feel a pressing need for privacy, not only to do heads-down work but to cope with the intensity of work today. To address these needs, according to the authors, we have to rethink our assumptions about privacy. Traditionally defined in physical terms, privacy is now about the individual's ability to control information and stimulation. In this article, the authors examine workspace design through the new lens of privacy and offer insights on how to foster teamwork and solitude.

  1. The gendered realities and talent management imperatives of women physicians.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Timothy; Scott, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    U.S. medicine is increasingly a gender-balanced profession with half of all medical school graduates now female. Despite this reality and the potentially transformative nature of a large female physician cohort in U.S. health care, there is less examination of their workplace realities and the key talent management strategies for health care organizations employing women physicians. First, we identify current knowledge about U.S. women physician satisfaction, role challenges, and work tradeoffs. Gender theory is used to help interpret these workplace realities. Second, we use this information to identify talent management strategies health care organizations might consider to mitigate the realities and provide greater support for women physicians. To facilitate our analysis, we conducted a narrative review of published research that includes analysis focused on U.S. women physicians for the time period 2006-2014. Applying ideas from gender theory, we extrapolated key findings from that research related to three issues: satisfaction, role challenges, and tradeoffs. Then we synthesized the findings to identify general talent management strategies that could address these dynamics proactively while enhancing recruitment and retention with respect to women physicians. U.S. women physicians express strong levels of satisfaction, particularly with their careers, at the same time they continue to experience gender-based inequities, role challenges, and lack of work-life balance in their chosen specialty fields. Lack of suitable role models and appropriate mentoring for women physicians, in addition to barriers to career advancement, are also prevalent across different medical specialties. Similar to other occupations and industries, gender-based inequities and role strains are very real issues for women physicians. Health care organizations must acknowledge these issues and employ effective talent management strategies aimed at women doctors if they are to be viewed as an

  2. Balancing Safety and Free Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, David L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    According to Jay Worona, general counsel for the New York State School Board Association, "Balancing safety and student constitutional rights is not easy. It has to be a careful balance. School officials must be prudent and not overreact. But one part of the equation has to be paramount. And safety should be the primary concern"…

  3. Balanced translocations in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Vandeweyer, Geert; Kooy, R Frank

    2009-07-01

    Over the past few decades, the knowledge on genetic defects causing mental retardation has dramatically increased. In this review, we discuss the importance of balanced chromosomal translocations in the identification of genes responsible for mental retardation. We present a database-search guided overview of balanced translocations identified in patients with mental retardation. We divide those in four categories: (1) balanced translocations that helped to identify a causative gene within a contiguous gene syndrome, (2) balanced translocations that led to the identification of a mental retardation gene confirmed by independent methods, (3) balanced translocations disrupting candidate genes that have not been confirmed by independent methods and (4) balanced translocations not reported to disrupt protein coding sequences. It can safely be concluded that balanced translocations have been instrumental in the identification of multiple genes that are involved in mental retardation. In addition, many more candidate genes were identified with a suspected but (as yet?) unconfirmed role in mental retardation. Some balanced translocations do not disrupt a protein coding gene and it can be speculated that in the light of recent findings concerning ncRNA's and ultra-conserved regions, such findings are worth further investigation as these potentially may lead us to the discovery of novel disease mechanisms.

  4. A balancing act for renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, David

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage will play a key role in increasing the use of variable energy sources. Nonetheless, storage is not the only balancing option and the overall design of power systems will incorporate a range of flexible generation, storage and grid-balancing options of different types and scales.

  5. Heat balance of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budyko, M. I.; Berlyand, T. G.; Yefimova, N. A.; Zubenok, L. I.; Strokina, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Results of improved calculations of the heat balance components of Earth's surface are reported for yearly average conditions. The technique used to determine the heat-balance components from land- and sea-based actinometric observations as well as from satellite data on the radiation balance of the Earth-atmosphere system is described, with special attention given to short-wavelength solar radiation on the continents, effective radiation from the land surface, the radiation balance of the ocean surface, heat expended by both evaporation from the ocean surface, and turbulent heat transfer between the ocean surface and the atmosphere. World maps of heat-balance components show yearly average values of total radiation, radiation balance, heat expended by evaporation, the turbulent heat flow between Earth's surface and atmosphere, and heat transfer between the ocean surface and underlying waters. The global surface heat balance is estimated along with global values of the various components and the heat-balance components for different latitude zones.

  6. Balancing Safety and Free Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, David L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    According to Jay Worona, general counsel for the New York State School Board Association, "Balancing safety and student constitutional rights is not easy. It has to be a careful balance. School officials must be prudent and not overreact. But one part of the equation has to be paramount. And safety should be the primary concern"…

  7. Can Gender-Fair Language Reduce Gender Stereotyping and Discrimination?

    PubMed Central

    Sczesny, Sabine; Formanowicz, Magda; Moser, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant… he or she instead of the applicant… he). By integrating research on (1) language structures, (2) language policies, and (3) individual language behavior, we provide a critical review of how GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination. Our review provides a basis for future research and for scientifically based policy-making. PMID:26869947

  8. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    PubMed

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there.

  9. Gender, gender relations, and the social dynamics of children's conversations.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J; Ahmed, Shahina; Ozarow, Louise

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of gender on the social dynamics and outcomes of conversations involving 120 children (mean age = 8 years 7 months). Children were taught particular values for different shaped counters and placed in same-gender or mixed-gender pairs with children who were taught different values. Pairs were asked to add the counters together to make a total of 100. Conversations were coded in terms of communication acts and simultaneous speech acts. Boys used more controlling acts overall and more negative interruptions in mixed-gender pairs. Girls used more affiliating acts. All children used more collaborative communication in same-gender pairings. Children whose perspective dominated used more controlling and comparatively fewer affiliating acts. When children reached a compromise, conversations were more collaborative. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Can Gender-Fair Language Reduce Gender Stereotyping and Discrimination?

    PubMed

    Sczesny, Sabine; Formanowicz, Magda; Moser, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant… he or she instead of the applicant… he). By integrating research on (1) language structures, (2) language policies, and (3) individual language behavior, we provide a critical review of how GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination. Our review provides a basis for future research and for scientifically based policy-making.

  11. Gender affects semantic competition: the effect of gender in a non-gender-marking language.

    PubMed

    Fukumura, Kumiko; Hyönä, Jukka; Scholfield, Merete

    2013-07-01

    English speakers tend to produce fewer pronouns when a referential competitor has the same gender as the referent than otherwise. Traditionally, this gender congruence effect has been explained in terms of ambiguity avoidance (e.g., Arnold, Eisenband, Brown-Schmidt, & Trueswell, 2000; Fukumura, Van Gompel, & Pickering, 2010). However, an alternative hypothesis is that the competitor's gender congruence affects semantic competition, making the referent less accessible relative to when the competitor has a different gender (Arnold & Griffin, 2007). Experiment 1 found that even in Finnish, which is a nongendered language, the competitor's gender congruence results in fewer pronouns, supporting the semantic competition account. In Experiment 2, Finnish native speakers took part in an English version of the same experiment. The effect of gender congruence was larger in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, suggesting that the presence of a same-gender competitor resulted in a larger reduction in pronoun use in English than in Finnish. In contrast, other nonlinguistic similarity had similar effects in both experiments. This indicates that the effect of gender congruence in English is not entirely driven by semantic competition: Speakers also avoid gender-ambiguous pronouns.

  12. Gendered war and gendered peace: truth commissions and postconflict gender violence: lessons from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Borer, Tristan Anne

    2009-10-01

    That war is profoundly gendered has long been recognized by feminist international relations scholars. What is less recognized is that the postwar period is equally gendered. Currently undertheorized is how truth-seeking exercises in the aftermath of conflict should respond to this fact. What happens to women victims of war violence? The difficulties of foregrounding gendered wartime violence in truth telling are illustrated by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The article explores some consequences of the failure to uncover gendered truth, including its impact on the government's reparations policy, and continued "peacetime" violence perpetrated against women in South Africa.

  13. Gender equality and violent behavior: how neighborhood gender equality influences the gender gap in violence.

    PubMed

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys' and girls' violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys' rates of violence decrease whereas girls' rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls' violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs.

  14. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys’ rates of violence decrease whereas girls’ rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls’ violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  15. Semantic Gender Assignment Regularities in German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwichtenberg, Beate; Schiller, Niels O.

    2004-01-01

    Gender assignment relates to a native speaker's knowledge of the structure of the gender system of his/her language, allowing the speaker to select the appropriate gender for each noun. Whereas categorical assignment rules and exceptional gender assignment are well investigated, assignment regularities, i.e., tendencies in the gender distribution…

  16. Dance Dynamics: Gender Issues in Dance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meglin, Joellen A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Seven articles present gender issues from a variety of perspectives, discussing a gender fair dance education program in Australia, gender issues in dance history pedagogy, women and dance performance, encouraging male participation in dance, using West African dance to combat gender issues, and gender issues across the curriculum. (SM)

  17. Situational state balances and participation motivation in youth sport: a reversal theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Sit, Cindy H P; Lindner, Koenraad J

    2006-06-01

    Reversal theory (Apter, 1982, 1989, ) is one of the motivational frameworks which attempts to examine human subjective experiences and behaviours. There are four dyads of metamotivational states (telic-paratelic, conformist-negativistic, autic-alloic, and mastery-sympathy) and individuals may prefer to be in one rather than the other of a dyad of states in a specific context such as sport participation (i.e. situational state balances). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between situational state balances and motives for sport and physical activity participation in adolescents using the theoretical framework of reversal theory. Their participation motives and the interacting factors of their situational state balances, gender, and level of participation were examined. Secondary school students (N=1,235) aged about 14 to 20 years who participated in competitive or recreational sport completed the Participation Motivation Inventory (Gill, Gross, & Huddleston, 1983) to assess their motives for sport and physical activity participation, and the Apter Motivational Style Profile (Apter International, 1999) to assess their situational state balances. Factor analysis of the participation motives yielded factors to which MANOVAs and ANOVAs were applied with situational state balance, gender, and participation level as independent variables. Factor analysis resulted in seven motive factors: status, team/friend, excitement/challenge, skill, energy release, fitness, and situational factors. MANOVAs and ANOVAs indicated significant differences in the sport motives between the situational state balances, genders, and levels of participation, and between pairs of situational state balance groups in males and females of competitive and recreational level. The autic-alloic dyad produced the strongest motive strength differences of the four pairs. The variable of situational state balances is significantly linked with participation motives in sport.

  18. A balancing act: Physical balance, through arousal, influences size perception

    PubMed Central

    Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; de Benedictis-Kessner, Justin; Stevens, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that manipulating vision influences balance. Here, we question whether manipulating balance can influence vision and how it may influence vision, specifically the perception of width. In Experiment 1, participants estimated the width of beams while balanced and unbalanced. When unbalanced, participants judged the widths to be smaller. One possible explanation is that unbalanced participants did not view the stimulus as long as when balanced because they were focused on remaining balanced. In Experiment 2, we tested this notion by limiting viewing time. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 but viewing time had no effect on width judgments. In Experiment 3, participants’ level of arousal was manipulated because the balancing task likely produced arousal. While jogging, participants judged the beams to be smaller. In Experiment 4, participants completed another arousing task (counting backward by 7s) that did not involve movement. Again, participants judged the beams to be smaller when aroused. Experiment 5a raised participants’ level of arousal before estimating the board widths (to control for potential dual-task effects) and found that heightened arousal still influenced perceived width of the boards. Collectively, heightened levels of arousal, caused by multiple manipulations (including balance), influenced perceived width. PMID:20952786

  19. Threatened Because of Gender?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpherys, Candice; Pyper, Brian

    2006-05-01

    A good deal of research has been done on the issue of stereotype threat. [1, 2] This research proposes that if a person identifies with a group of people that is negatively stereotyped for performance, then they will not perform as well as someone from the same group of people who is not made aware of the negative stereotype. The research we conducted investigates the legitimacy of stereotype threat based on gender in the area of science in the BYU-Idaho student population. Our results have significance in the current national debate about the lack of women pursuing careers in scientific disciplines. [1] Quinn, Diane M.; Spencer, Steven J.. (2001). The Interference of Stereotype Threat With Women's Generation of Mathematical Problem-Solving Strategies. Journal of Social Issues. 57(1):55-71. [2] Schmader, Tony, & Johns, Michael. (2003). Converging Evidence That Stereotype Threat Reduces Working Memory Capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 85(3):440-452.

  20. Threatened by Gender?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpherys, Candice; Pyper, Brian

    2006-10-01

    A good deal of research has been done on the issue of stereotype threat.^1, 2 This research proposes that if a person identifies with a group of people that is negatively stereotyped for performance, then they will not perform as well as someone from the same group of people who is not made aware of the negative stereotype. The research we conducted investigates the legitimacy of stereotype threat based on gender in the area of science in the BYU-Idaho student population. Our results have significance in the current national debate about the lack of women pursuing careers in scientific disciplines. ^1 Quinn, Diane M.; Spencer, Steven J.. (2001). The Interference of Stereotype Threat With Women's Generation of Mathematical Problem-Solving Strategies. Journal of Social Issues. 57(1):55-71. ^2 Schmader, Tony, & Johns, Michael. (2003). Converging Evidence That Stereotype Threat Reduces Working Memory Capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 85(3):440-452.

  1. [Laughter: gender differences].

    PubMed

    Mora-Ripoll, R; Ubal-López, R

    2011-01-01

    Laughter is associated to many physiological and psychological benefits. Although women laugh more than men do, the daily frequency of laughter does not seem to differ. Laughter in all its forms and manifestations is an indicator of family vitality and healthy couples. Laughter is very attractive at the interpersonal level, especially for women. Men use humor much more and laughter when it comes to discussing sensitive health issues. In women, laughter would be more associated with greater social support in relationships and as a tool to cope with stress. Inviting laughter in the doctor's office may be very useful when directing certain messages on therapeutic management. Taking into account possible gender differences in the use of humor and laughter may help to improve the relationship with the patient and optimize the clinical application of laughter in health care and education setting.

  2. Geography and gender.

    PubMed

    Bondi, L

    1989-05-01

    Most people in Britain today work in jobs dominated very markedly by either women or men. Sex-typing occurs in many other activities. For example, child care and domestic work, whether paid or unpaid, are generally considered to be tasks for women. However, with the exception of domestic work and child care, the allocation of activities to women or men varies between societies. For example, in much of sub-Saharan Africa, women work in fields, growing basic subsistence crops for their families, whereas in much of Latin America, women's agricultural work is confined to tending animals and food processing. Inequality arises because the role of women is generally associated with inferior status, socially, politically and/or economically. When mapping the geography of gender, an example shows that female life expectancy at birth is highest in the developed countries and lowest in the poorest countries of the Third World. Regarding the relationship between gender divisions and various aspects of spatial organization within societies most attention has focused on differences in ethnic group, social class, and stage in the life cycle. In mid-19th century Britain large-scale factory production precipitated a spatial separation between home and work and created the possibility of separate spheres of life for women and men. A particular social form, namely a nuclear family with a dependent wife, can operate as a factor contributing to changes in the spatial organization of urban areas in the form of suburban growth. After decades of outward movement by affluent social groups, a return to small pockets within inner-urban areas is now evident. This process is known as gentrification. An additional factor of significance in connection with gentrification is the increasing success of middle-class women in obtaining well-paid career jobs.

  3. Gender, Masculinities and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowl, Marion, Ed.; Tobias, Robert, Ed.; Leahy, Jennifer, Ed.; Ferguson, Graeme, Ed.; Gage, Jeffrey, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Gender, Masculinities and Lifelong Learning" reflects on current debates and discourses around gender and education, in which some academics, practitioners and policy-makers have referred to a crisis of masculinity. This book explores questions such as: Are men under-represented in education? Are women outstripping men in terms of…

  4. Gender, Masculinities and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowl, Marion, Ed.; Tobias, Robert, Ed.; Leahy, Jennifer, Ed.; Ferguson, Graeme, Ed.; Gage, Jeffrey, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Gender, Masculinities and Lifelong Learning" reflects on current debates and discourses around gender and education, in which some academics, practitioners and policy-makers have referred to a crisis of masculinity. This book explores questions such as: Are men under-represented in education? Are women outstripping men in terms of…

  5. Gender, Children and Research Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The "productivity puzzle," or gender gap in research productivity, is often thought to be due, in part, to gendered child care responsibilities. The time, energy, and money devoted to child-rearing can reduce the research productivity of scholars, especially women. However, there is little systematic research on this issue. The present study…

  6. Why "Gender" Disappeared from the Gender Gap: (Re-)Introducing Gender Identity Theory to Educational Gender Gap Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Vermeersch, Hans; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Educational gender gap research tries to explain the differential achievement of boys and girls at secondary school, which manifests in many western countries. Several explanatory frameworks are used for this purpose, such as masculinities theory. In this review article, the history of educational gender gap research in Anglo-Saxon literature and…

  7. Gender in the EFL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderland, Jane

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of issues and research in three areas where gender manifests itself in the English-as-a-foreign-language classroom: the English language, materials (grammars, textbooks and teacher-guides), and processes (learning styles and strategies). Also examined are implications of gender in materials and classroom interaction for…

  8. Gender Stereotypes in Sports Photographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanta, Wayne; Leggett, Dawn

    A study investigated gender stereotypes in photographs of female and male athletes, noting differences in the way the two genders are depicted in photographs taken by the Associated Press (AP) and also in photos chosen by newspaper editors. Every photograph sent by AP from the 1987 Wimbledon tennis tournament to one Texas newspaper was coded in…

  9. Investigating Gender Differences in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

    2010-01-01

    Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

  10. Gender in the EFL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderland, Jane

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of issues and research in three areas where gender manifests itself in the English-as-a-foreign-language classroom: the English language, materials (grammars, textbooks and teacher-guides), and processes (learning styles and strategies). Also examined are implications of gender in materials and classroom interaction for…

  11. Gendered Performances during Peer Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styslinger, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the ways gender is accomplished in varied social contexts during the peer revision process in a secondary English classroom. Using a post-structural feminist theoretical framework, an analysis of classroom discourse provided a basis for understanding the performance of gender during peer revision, the effects of gender…

  12. Interrelationships between Gender and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Judy C.

    1987-01-01

    Every day, observations and predictions are made about people's gender on the basis of their communicative behaviors and the roles individuals play in their culture. Although interest in the relationship between biological sex and communication may be traced to the beginning of this century, much of the research on gender and communication has…

  13. Designing Exhibits for Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancu, Toni Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Gender equity has been a national and global aim for over half a century (Ceci & Williams, 2007; National Center for Education Statistics, 2003; National Science Board, 2008). While gains have been made, one area where inequity remains is spatial reasoning ability, where a large gender gap in favor of males has persisted over the years…

  14. Why "Gender" Disappeared from the Gender Gap: (Re-)Introducing Gender Identity Theory to Educational Gender Gap Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Vermeersch, Hans; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Educational gender gap research tries to explain the differential achievement of boys and girls at secondary school, which manifests in many western countries. Several explanatory frameworks are used for this purpose, such as masculinities theory. In this review article, the history of educational gender gap research in Anglo-Saxon literature and…

  15. Preservice Teacher Talk Surrounding Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engebretson, Kathryn Ellerhoff

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the discourses around gender present among a cohort of preservice secondary social studies teachers (n = 25) and how gender discourses manifested throughout their preparatory year with particular interest paid to their thoughts about curricula, schools, and students. Using ethnographic study design, the author presents…

  16. Gender Issues in Language Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on recent work in variationist sociolinguistics, sociology of language and linguistic anthropology, focuses on new approaches to explaining gender differentiated patterns of sound change and language shift, the success or failure of planned linguistic reforms, and changes in the social evaluation of gendered speech styles. (Author/VWL)

  17. Designing Exhibits for Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancu, Toni Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Gender equity has been a national and global aim for over half a century (Ceci & Williams, 2007; National Center for Education Statistics, 2003; National Science Board, 2008). While gains have been made, one area where inequity remains is spatial reasoning ability, where a large gender gap in favor of males has persisted over the years…

  18. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  19. Gender Differences in Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

  20. Sex, gender, genetics, and health.

    PubMed

    Short, Susan E; Yang, Yang Claire; Jenkins, Tania M

    2013-10-01

    This article addresses 2 questions. First, to what extent are sex and gender incorporated into research on genetics and health? Second, how might social science understandings of sex and gender, and gender differences in health, become more integrated into scholarship in this area? We review articles on genetics and health published in selected peer-reviewed journals. Although sex is included frequently as a control or stratifying variable, few articles articulate a conceptual frame or methodological justification for conducting research in this way, and most are not motivated by sex or gender differences in health. Gender differences in health are persistent, unexplained, and shaped by multilevel social factors. Future scholarship on genetics and health needs to incorporate more systematic attention to sex and gender, gender as an environment, and the intertwining of social and biological variation over the life course. Such integration will advance understandings of gender differences in health, and may yield insight regarding the processes and circumstances that make genomic variation relevant for health and well-being.

  1. Sex, Gender, Genetics, and Health

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang Claire; Jenkins, Tania M.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses 2 questions. First, to what extent are sex and gender incorporated into research on genetics and health? Second, how might social science understandings of sex and gender, and gender differences in health, become more integrated into scholarship in this area? We review articles on genetics and health published in selected peer-reviewed journals. Although sex is included frequently as a control or stratifying variable, few articles articulate a conceptual frame or methodological justification for conducting research in this way, and most are not motivated by sex or gender differences in health. Gender differences in health are persistent, unexplained, and shaped by multilevel social factors. Future scholarship on genetics and health needs to incorporate more systematic attention to sex and gender, gender as an environment, and the intertwining of social and biological variation over the life course. Such integration will advance understandings of gender differences in health, and may yield insight regarding the processes and circumstances that make genomic variation relevant for health and well-being. PMID:23927517

  2. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  3. Gender, Education, Extremism and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the complex relationships between gender, education, extremism and security. After defining extremism and fundamentalism, it looks first at the relationship of gender to violence generally, before looking specifically at how this plays out in more extremist violence and terrorism. Religious fundamentalism is also shown to have…

  4. Gender Mainstreaming or Promoting Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulstich-Wieland, Hannelore

    2005-01-01

    Gender inequalities in education are very apparent. Young women are overrepresented in educational training and in the school-based training and correspondingly underrepresented in the dual training courses. Gender segmentation in professional education continues to exist. Women are overrepresented in the service sector, while men are in…

  5. Gender, Education, Extremism and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the complex relationships between gender, education, extremism and security. After defining extremism and fundamentalism, it looks first at the relationship of gender to violence generally, before looking specifically at how this plays out in more extremist violence and terrorism. Religious fundamentalism is also shown to have…

  6. Gender Differences in Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

  7. Gender Issues in Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoubrey, Sharon, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The expectation of educators for more than a decade has been that they would be aware of and attend to gender issues. The British Columbia Visual Arts Curricula states "Gender-equitable education will initially focus on girls in order to redress historical inequities." However, it is important to be informed about the issues that…

  8. Gender and its clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Olesker, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    Based on a study of five analytic cases (three reported here), and using a modern classical psychoanalytic perspective in which both biology and social forces are integrated, our study group on gender investigated why for some gender assumes a distorted and exaggerated role in the subjective sense of self. Clinical material was used because we wanted data allowing us to study patterns emerging from an exploration of patients' unconscious fantasies as they shed light on the psychological significance and function of gender. We found that in each case gender disturbances were never primary but secondary to difficulties in integration, cohesiveness, separateness, stability of solid sense of self and of the object, to depression and especially to problems with aggression and rivalry which had to be analyzed first. Conflicted gender gave rise to solutions that were literal and concrete. Not surprisingly, in each case mothers wished for a child of the opposite gender and treated gender expression in highly ambivalent ways. In terms of technique we learned that ways of coping with rejection, evolving paternal transferences which allowed for metabolisis of the maternal relationship, and ego building techniques had to take place before conflicts around gender could be analyzed productively.

  9. Work-life balance: history, costs, and budgeting for balance.

    PubMed

    Raja, Siva; Stein, Sharon L

    2014-06-01

    The concept and difficulties of work-life balance are not unique to surgeons, but professional responsibilities make maintaining a work-life balance difficult. Consequences of being exclusively career focused include burn out, physical, and mental ailments. In addition, physician burn out may hinder optimal patient care and incur significant costs on health care in general. Assessing current uses of time, allocating goals catered to an individual surgeon, and continual self-assessment may help balance time, and ideally will help prevent burn out.

  10. Work–Life Balance: History, Costs, and Budgeting for Balance

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Siva; Stein, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    The concept and difficulties of work–life balance are not unique to surgeons, but professional responsibilities make maintaining a work–life balance difficult. Consequences of being exclusively career focused include burn out, physical, and mental ailments. In addition, physician burn out may hinder optimal patient care and incur significant costs on health care in general. Assessing current uses of time, allocating goals catered to an individual surgeon, and continual self-assessment may help balance time, and ideally will help prevent burn out. PMID:25067921

  11. Gender Affects Body Language Reading

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Arseny A.; Krüger, Samuel; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language reading. This effect, however, is modulated by emotional content of actions: males surpass in recognition accuracy of happy actions, whereas females tend to excel in recognition of hostile angry knocking. Advantage of women in recognition accuracy of neutral actions suggests that females are better tuned to the lack of emotional content in body actions. The study provides novel insights into understanding of gender effects in body language reading, and helps to shed light on gender vulnerability to neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental impairments in visual social cognition. PMID:21713180

  12. Balance, Proprioception, and Gross Motor Development of Chinese Children Aged 3 to 6 Years.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Gui-Ping; Jiao, Xi-Bian; Wu, Sheng-Kou; Ji, Zhong-Qiu; Liu, Wei-Tong; Chen, Xi; Wang, Hui-Hui

    2017-09-15

    The authors' aim was to find the features of balance, proprioception, and gross motor development of Chinese children 3-6 years old and their correlations, provide theoretical support for promoting children's motor development, and enrich the world theoretical system of motor development. This study used a Tekscan foot pressure measurement instrument (Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA), walking on a balance beam, Xsens 3-dimensional positional measuring system (Xsens Technologies, Enschede, the Netherlands), and Test of Gross Motor Development-2 to assess static balance, dynamic balance, knee proprioception, and levels of gross motor development (GMD) of 3- to 6-year-old children (n = 60) in Beijing. The results are as follows: children had significant age differences in static balance, dynamic balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children had significant gender differences in static balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children's static balance, dynamic balance, and proprioception had a very significant positive correlation with GMD (p < .01), but no significant correlation with body mass index.

  13. Standing balance and trunk position sense in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)-related peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Allon; Russell, James William; Alexander, Neil Burton

    2008-07-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and pre-diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) affect a large segment of the population. Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a common complication of T2DM, leading to sensory and motor deficits. While T2DM-related PN often results in balance- and mobility-related dysfunction which manifests as gait instability and falls, little is known about balance capabilities in patients who have evidence of PN related to IGT (IGT-PN). We evaluated patients with IGT-PN on commonly-used clinical balance and mobility tests as well as a new test of trunk position sense and balance impairment, trunk repositioning errors (TREs). Eight participants aged 50-72 years with IGT-PN, and eight age- and gender-matched controls underwent balance, mobility and trunk repositioning accuracy tests at a university neurology clinic and mobility research laboratory. Compared to controls, IGT-PN participants had as much as twice the magnitude of TREs and stood approximately half as long on the single leg balance test. People with IGT-PN exhibit deficits in standing balance and trunk position sense. Furthermore, there was a significant association between performance on commonly-used clinical balance and mobility tests, and electrophysiological and clinical measures of neuropathy in IGT-PN participants. Because IGT-related neuropathy represents the earliest stage of diabetic neuropathy, deficits in IGT-PN participants highlight the importance of early screening in the dysglycemic process for neuropathy and associated balance deficits.

  14. Gender Differences and the Risk of Falls in Individuals with Profound Vision Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Wolf, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments experience a loss of balance and mobility, which presents a barrier to independence and is associated with the fear of falling. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which visual status, age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and the strength of quadriceps and hamstrings contribute to compromised…

  15. Independent Reading: The Relationship of Challenge, Non-Fiction and Gender to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, K. J.; Samuels, J.; Paul, T.

    2008-01-01

    To explore whether different balances of fiction/non-fiction reading and challenge might help explain differences in reading achievement between genders, data on 45,670 pupils who independently read over 3 million books were analysed. Moderate (rather than high or low) levels of challenge were positively associated with achievement gain, but…

  16. Exploring the Content of Instrumental Lessons and Gender Relations in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhukov, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This observational study analysed the lesson content of 24 instrumental lessons (piano, strings and winds) using a gender-balanced sample (equal numbers of male/female teachers and students) from five Australian higher education institutions to ascertain the priorities of topics in advanced applied music lessons in the Western Classical tradition.…

  17. Gender Differences and the Risk of Falls in Individuals with Profound Vision Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Wolf, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments experience a loss of balance and mobility, which presents a barrier to independence and is associated with the fear of falling. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which visual status, age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and the strength of quadriceps and hamstrings contribute to compromised…

  18. Independent Reading: The Relationship of Challenge, Non-Fiction and Gender to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, K. J.; Samuels, J.; Paul, T.

    2008-01-01

    To explore whether different balances of fiction/non-fiction reading and challenge might help explain differences in reading achievement between genders, data on 45,670 pupils who independently read over 3 million books were analysed. Moderate (rather than high or low) levels of challenge were positively associated with achievement gain, but…

  19. Gender Policies Meet VET Practices--The Case of Health and Social Care in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Høst, Håkon; Seland, Idunn; Skålholt, Asgeir

    2015-01-01

    Could the labour market gender balance be improved by introducing new types of apprenticeship-trained workers? This article investigates what happened in the wake of the Norwegian VET programme for health and social care, a new approach introduced via the 1994 educational reform. By upgrading this traditionally female-dominated area of education,…

  20. Gender Policies Meet VET Practices--The Case of Health and Social Care in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Høst, Håkon; Seland, Idunn; Skålholt, Asgeir

    2015-01-01

    Could the labour market gender balance be improved by introducing new types of apprenticeship-trained workers? This article investigates what happened in the wake of the Norwegian VET programme for health and social care, a new approach introduced via the 1994 educational reform. By upgrading this traditionally female-dominated area of education,…

  1. A world in balance.

    PubMed

    Westing, A H

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to define the scope of global population growth within the uncompromising everyday realities of technology, economies, and politics and to demonstrate the intimate between the human population problem and the increasing problem of Nature's destruction. It is hoped that the human species will come to its sense in time to create an adequate standard of living of all of its members in peace and environmental balance. The number of people the world can support is considered in terms of 1) the provision for a standard of living adequate for everyone's health and wellbeing, 2) consideration for wildlife and nature, and 3) reliance on existing levels of technology and politics. Standards of living are suggested for the affluent and the austere. The focus on the discussion is on standards of living, global carrying capacity, the imperatives of population control and respect for nature, humans versus wildlife, and the need for a universal declaration of respect for nature. Carrying capacity is determined by total land area, cultivated land area, forest land area, cereals (grain), and wood. Use per capita of each of the 5 essentials is determined for the affluent or austere standard of living. An affluent standard means that world population would be limited to 2 billion, which is 50% of the current population. An austere standard of living means a limit of 3 billion, or 33% less than the existing population. The unfortunate reality is that today's total population of 4.5 billion is increasing at an annual rate of 1.9% and is not expected to level off until it has increased 3 times. This population growth occurs at the expense of wildlife. Of the total terrestrial animal biomass, humans constitute 4% and domestic livestock 15%, which, in 40 years, will reach a combined 40% and lead to more species extinction. One species of bird or mammal will become extinct for each increase of 220 million people, which happens every 3 years. The solution is

  2. Gender Affects Semantic Competition: The Effect of Gender in a Non-Gender-Marking Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukumura, Kumiko; Hyönä, Jukka; Scholfield, Merete

    2013-01-01

    English speakers tend to produce fewer pronouns when a referential competitor has the same gender as the referent than otherwise. Traditionally, this gender congruence effect has been explained in terms of ambiguity avoidance (e.g., Arnold, Eisenband, Brown-Schmidt, & Trueswell, 2000; Fukumura, Van Gompel, & Pickering, 2010). However, an…

  3. Gender Differences in Family Stories: Moderating Influence of Parent Gender Role and Child Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Skillman, Gemma

    2000-01-01

    Examined thematic differences in family stories told by parents according to parent and child gender, noting differences according to parent gender-type and matches between story themes and personal values related to child behavior. No significant main effects or interactions for affiliation themes existed. Interaction existed between parent…

  4. Picture My Gender(s): Using Interactive Media to Engage Students in Theories of Gender Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Carey; Corse, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    We present an exercise on "doing gender" that uses digital media to create an opportunity for interactive learning. Students create photo essays on gender performances in everyday life and then present their photo essays to their peers. This exercise allows undergraduates to engage in "real-life" learning regarding the socially…

  5. Novel balance rehabilitation and training apparatus to improve functional balance.

    PubMed

    Koceja, David M; Greiwe, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    A new balance rehabilitation and training apparatus has been developed to allow a balance-impaired person to cope with his or her fear of falling while safely and independently performing exercises necessary to improve functional balance. The apparatus consists of a stable platform where the user stands and a vertical structure that supports free-floating handles that the user holds with both hands while performing various exercises. The purpose of study 1 was to determine whether this new apparatus significantly alters the biological postural control system, and the purpose of study 2 was to document the benefits of balance training using the apparatus. Study 1 was a randomized repeated-measures design with six healthy adult subjects (mean age = 35.5 yr), and study 2 was a 4 wk intervention case study with a generally healthy 63-yr-old individual. The results suggest that postural sway characteristics and the cortical and proprioceptive feedback were not limited when using the apparatus. We also observed improvements in balance control and postural stability with 4 wk of training with the apparatus. These results support that the apparatus could be an effective tool to help individuals safely and independently perform balance exercises while potentially preventing falls and minimizing fear of falling.

  6. Influence of growth rate on nitrogen balance in adolescent sprint athletes.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Poortmans, Jacques Remi; Hauspie, Ronald; Clarys, Peter

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate nitrogen balance and protein requirements in adolescent sprint athletes as a function of growth rate and physical development. Sixty adolescent sprint athletes were followed up biannually over a 2-yr period. Individual growth curves and age at peak height velocity were determined. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was estimated based on anthropometric measurements and fat mass was estimated by underwater densitometry. Seven-day diet and physical activity diaries were completed to estimate energy balance and protein intake. Nitrogen analysis of 24-hr urine samples collected on 1 weekday and 1 weekend day allowed calculation of nitrogen balance. Body height, weight, and SMM increased throughout the study period in both genders. Mean protein intakes were between 1.4 and 1.6 g kg-1 day-1 in both genders. A protein intake of 1.46 g kg-1 day-1 in girls and 1.35 g kg-1 day-1 in boys was needed to yield a positive nitrogen balance. This did not differ between participants during and after their growth spurt. None of the growth parameters was significantly related to nitrogen balance. It can be concluded that a mean protein intake around 1.5 g kg-1 day-1 was sufficient to stay in a positive nitrogen balance, even during periods of peak growth. Therefore, protein intake should not be enhanced in peak periods of linear or muscular growth.

  7. Skylab water balance error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the precision of the net water balance were obtained for the entire Skylab preflight and inflight phases as well as for the first two weeks of flight. Quantitative estimates of both total sampling errors and instrumentation errors were obtained. It was shown that measurement error is minimal in comparison to biological variability and little can be gained from improvement in analytical accuracy. In addition, a propagation of error analysis demonstrated that total water balance error could be accounted for almost entirely by the errors associated with body mass changes. Errors due to interaction between terms in the water balance equation (covariances) represented less than 10% of the total error. Overall, the analysis provides evidence that daily measurements of body water changes obtained from the indirect balance technique are reasonable, precise, and relaible. The method is not biased toward net retention or loss.

  8. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  9. Aging: Balancing regeneration and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beausejour, Christian M.; Campisi, Judith

    2006-08-24

    The proliferation of cells must balance the longevity assured by tissue renewal against the risk of developing cancer. The tumor-suppressor protein p16{sup INK4a} seems to act at the pivot of this delicate equilibrium.

  10. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  11. Laboratory Workhorse: The Analytical Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Douglas W.

    1979-01-01

    This report explains the importance of various analytical balances in the water or wastewater laboratory. Stressed is the proper procedure for utilizing the equipment as well as the mechanics involved in its operation. (CS)

  12. Laboratory Workhorse: The Analytical Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Douglas W.

    1979-01-01

    This report explains the importance of various analytical balances in the water or wastewater laboratory. Stressed is the proper procedure for utilizing the equipment as well as the mechanics involved in its operation. (CS)

  13. The role of gender constancy in early gender development.

    PubMed

    Ruble, Diane N; Taylor, Lisa J; Cyphers, Lisa; Greulich, Faith K; Lurye, Leah E; Shrout, Patrick E

    2007-01-01

    Kohlberg's (1966) hypothesis that the attainment of gender constancy motivates children to attend to gender norms was reevaluated by examining these links in relation to age. Ninety-four 3- to 7-year-old children were interviewed to assess whether and how constancy mediates age-related changes in gender-related beliefs. As expected, results indicated a general pattern of an increase in stereotype knowledge, the importance and positive evaluation of one's own gender category, and rigidity of beliefs between the ages of 3 and 5. Moreover, the stability phase, rather than full constancy, mediated some of these relations. After age 5, rigidity generally decreased with age, with relations primarily mediated by consistency.

  14. Appetite and energy balancing.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    pleasure of eating it. The latter, which is similar to food reward, is determined primarily by the state of emptiness of the gut and food liking related to the food's sensory qualities and macronutrient value and the individual's dietary history. Importantly, energy density adds value because energy dense foods are less satiating kJ for kJ and satiation limits further intake. That is, energy dense foods promote energy intake by virtue (1) of being more attractive and (2) having low satiating capacity kJ for kJ, and (1) is partly a consequence of (2). Energy storage is adapted to feast and famine and that includes unevenness over time of the costs of obtaining and ingesting food compared with engaging in other activities. However, in very low-cost food environments with energy dense foods readily available, risk of obesity is high. This risk can be and is mitigated by dietary restraint, which in its simplest form could mean missing the occasional meal. Another strategy we discuss is the energy dilution achieved by replacing some sugar in the diet with low-calorie sweeteners. Perhaps as or more significant, though, is that belief in short-term energy balancing (the energy depletion model) may undermine attempts to eat less. Therefore, correcting narratives of eating to be consistent with biological reality could also assist with weight control. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SEX DIFFERENCES, GENDER AND ADDICTION

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jill B.; McClellan, Michele L.; Reed, Beth Glover

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses alcohol/other drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain after exposure to drugs of abuse and whether addiction results from drug-taking experiences. The basic laboratory evidence for sex differences in addiction is discussed within the context of four types of sex/gender differences. PMID:27870394

  16. Gender differences in romantic jealousy.

    PubMed

    Pines, A M; Friedman, A

    1998-02-01

    Findings of studies of gender differences in jealousy are contradictory. In the present study, conflicting literature was addressed by distinguishing 5 dimensions of jealousy: level, trigger, experience, focus, and responses. In 4 studies, 3 in the U.S. and 1 in Israel, gender differences were explored in these 5 dimensions of romantic jealousy. Although there were no gender differences in the likelihood, frequency, duration, or intensity of jealousy, there were differences in the responses to certain jealousy-producing occasions as well as in the focus, experience, and expression of jealousy.

  17. Classroom Racial Balance and Students' Interracial Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koslin, Sandra; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between classroom racial balance and third graders' interracial attitudes were analyzed. Interracial attitudes were more favorable in balanced than in unbalanced classes. Results suggest that classroom racial balance is strongly related to students' interracial attitudes. (Author)

  18. Walking (Gait), Balance, and Coordination Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... tizanidine are generally effective in treating this symptom. Balance : Balance problems typically result in a swaying and “drunken” ... assistive device. Spasticity or fatigue may indirectly affect balance. Sensory deficit : Some people with MS have such ...

  19. Techniques for the study of energy balance in man.

    PubMed

    Elia, Marinos; Stratton, Rebecca; Stubbs, James

    2003-05-01

    Energy balance can be estimated in tissues, body segments, individual subjects (the focus of the present article), groups of subjects and even societies. Changes in body composition in individual subjects can be translated into changes in the energy content of the body, but this method is limited by the precision of the techniques. The precision for measuring fat and fat-free mass can be as low as 0.5 kg when certain reference techniques are used (hydrodensitometry, air-displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and approximately 0.7 kg for changes between two time points. Techniques associated with a measurement error of 0.7 kg for changes in fat and fat-free mass (approximately 18 MJ) are of little or no value for calculating energy balance over short periods of time, but they may be of some value over long periods of time (18 MJ over 1 year corresponds to an average daily energy balance of 70 kJ, which is < 1% of the normal dietary energy intake). Body composition measurements can also be useful in calculating changes in energy balance when the changes in body weight and composition are large, e.g. > 5-10 kg. The same principles can be applied to the assessment of energy balance in body segments using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy balance can be obtained over periods as short as a few minutes, e.g. during measurements of BMR. The variability in BMR between individuals of similar age, weight and height and gender is about 7-9%, most of which is of biological origin rather than measurement error, which is about 2%. Measurement of total energy expenditure during starvation (no energy intake) can also be used to estimate energy balance in a whole-body calorimeter, in patients in intensive care units being artificially ventilated and by tracer techniques. The precision of these techniques varies from 1 to 10%. Establishing energy balance by measuring the discrepancy between energy intake and expenditure has to take into consideration

  20. Puberty suppression in gender identity disorder: the Amsterdam experience.

    PubMed

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2011-05-17

    The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) to suppress puberty in adolescents with gender dysphoria is a fairly new intervention in the field of gender identity disorders or transsexualism. GnRHa are used to give adolescents time to make balanced decisions on any further treatment steps, and to obtain improved results in the physical appearance of those who opt to continue with sex reassignment. The effects of GnRHa are reversible. However, concerns have been raised about the risk of making the wrong treatment decisions, as gender identity could fluctuate during adolescence, adolescents in general might have poor decision-making abilities, and there are potential adverse effects on health and on psychological and psychosexual functioning. Proponents of puberty suppression emphasize the beneficial effects of GnRHa on the adolescents' mental health, quality of life and of having a physical appearance that makes it possible for the patients to live unobtrusively in their desired gender role. In this Review, we discuss the evidence pertaining to the debate on the effects of GnRHa treatment. From the studies that have been published thus far, it seems that the benefits outweigh the risks. However, more systematic research in this area is needed to determine the safety of this approach.