Science.gov

Sample records for gender matched elderly

  1. Influence of Gender on Visual Shade Matching in Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Pecho, Oscar E; Ghinea, Razvan; Perez, Maria M; Della Bona, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    Accuracy on visual shade matching (VSM) is one of the most difficult procedures in esthetic dentistry. Some variables can influence on this process and gender is one of the most controversial. This observational study evaluated the influence of gender on accuracy of VSM. One-hundred observers (65 females and 35 males) shade matched four human upper central incisors (UCI) to shade tabs from Vita Classical (VC) shade guide. In addition, the spectral reflectance values from the four UCI and from the 16 VC shade tabs were measured using a spectroradiometer (SP). Measurements were performed over a gray background, inside a viewing booth and under D65 illuminant (diffuse/0º geometry). CIELAB coordinates (L*, a*, and b*) were calculated according to CIE D65 illuminant and CIE 2º Standard Observer. Instrumental shade matching for each UCI, based on minimum color difference, was performed using two color difference metrics (CIELAB and CIEDE2000(2:1:1)). Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and McNemar test (α = 0.05). Irrespective of the color difference metric, the most prevalent shade performed by females showed greater success (50% for CIELAB and 100% for CIEDE2000(2:1:1)) than males (25% for CIELAB and 50% for CIEDE2000(2:1:1)). However, such difference on gender was statistically significant only when using CIEDE2000(2:1:1) color difference metric (p ≤ 0.05). The most prevalent shade option resultant from VSM performed by females using VC shade guide perfectly agreed (100% success rate) with measurements from SP and CIEDE2000(2:1:1) color difference metric. The ability to understand and distinguish color differences in VSM is critical in clinical dentistry. Variation in shade perception due to observer gender can be minimized using additional observers and/or improving shade matching ability. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:E15-E23, 2017). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Gender differences, polypharmacy, and potential pharmacological interactions in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Venturini, Carina Duarte; Engroff, Paula; Ely, Luísa Scheer; de Araújo Zago, Luísa Faria; Schroeter, Guilherme; Gomes, Irenio; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze pharmacological interactions among drugs taken by elderly patients and their age and gender differences in a population from Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the database provided by the Institute of Geriatric and Gerontology, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The database was composed of 438 elderly and includes information about the patients' disease, therapy regimens, utilized drugs. All drugs reported by the elderly patients were classified using the Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical Classification System. The drug-drug interactions and their severity were assessed using the Micromedex® Healthcare Series. RESULTS: Of the 438 elderly patients in the data base, 376 (85.8%) used pharmacotherapy, 274 were female, and 90.4% of females used drugs. The average number of drugs used by each individual younger than 80 years was 3.2±2.6. Women younger than 80 years old used more drugs than men in the same age group whereas men older than 80 years increased their use of drugs in relation to other age groups. Therefore, 32.6% of men and 49.2% of women described at least one interaction, and 8.1% of men and 10.6% of women described four or more potential drug-drug interactions. Two-thirds of drug-drug interactions were moderate in both genders, and most of them involved angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, loop and thiazide diuretics, and β-blockers. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients should be closely monitored, based on drug class, gender, age group and nutritional status. PMID:22086515

  3. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  4. Scientist Role Models in the Classroom: How Important Is Gender Matching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Laura D. Carsten; Danielson, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Gender-matched role models are often proposed as a mechanism to increase identification with science among girls, with the ultimate aim of broadening participation in science. While there is a great deal of evidence suggesting that role models can be effective, there is mixed support in the literature for the importance of gender matching. We used…

  5. The Effect of Teacher-Student Gender Matching: Evidence from OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Insook

    2012-01-01

    While some educators argue that teacher-student gender matching improves student performance, there is little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. This paper assesses the impact of teacher-student gender matching on academic achievement across fifteen OECD countries using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science…

  6. Scientist Role Models in the Classroom: How Important Is Gender Matching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Laura D. Carsten; Danielson, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Gender-matched role models are often proposed as a mechanism to increase identification with science among girls, with the ultimate aim of broadening participation in science. While there is a great deal of evidence suggesting that role models can be effective, there is mixed support in the literature for the importance of gender matching. We used…

  7. Immunologic outcome in elderly kidney transplant recipients: is it time for HLA-DR matching?

    PubMed

    Halleck, Fabian; Khadzhynov, Dmytro; Liefeldt, Lutz; Schrezenmeier, Eva; Lehner, Lukas; Duerr, Michael; Schmidt, Danilo; Bamoulid, Jamal; Lachmann, Nils; Waiser, Johannes; Budde, Klemens; Staeck, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    The Eurotransplant Senior Program (ESP) neglects HLA matching for elderly (≥65 years) kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Few data regarding the influence of DR matching on clinical and immunologic outcome in elderly KTR exist. This retrospective long-term observational study included 244 elderly out of n = 972 adult KTR between 2004 and 2014. Data analysis included patient and graft survival, biopsy-proven rejections [T-cell-mediated rejections (TCMR) and antibody-mediated rejections] and development of de novo donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA). Outcome data were assessed over a maximum period of 10 years. Due to the nature of the ESP, elderly KTR showed significantly more HLA mismatches, shorter time on dialysis and shorter cold ischaemia time. Elderly KTR had significantly worse graft and patient survival, and after 7 years, the rate of de novo DSA (33 versus 25%, P = 0.034) and TCMR (39 versus 27%, P < 0.001) was significantly higher compared with younger KTR. Multivariate analysis identified donor age, delayed graft function and HLA-DR mismatches as independent risk factors for TCMR. Within the group of elderly KTR, HLA-DR mismatches were associated with a significantly higher incidence of TCMR and development of de novo DSA. Occurrence of TCMR and de novo DSA in elderly KTR resulted in significantly worse graft survival. In elderly KTR, HLA-DR mismatches are independent risk factors for TCMR and the development of all classes of de novo DSA, both of which significantly impair graft survival. Introduction of HLA-DR matching in elderly KTR might significantly improve immunologic and overall outcome. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. Preadolescent Attitudes toward the Elderly: An Analysis of Race, Gender and Contact Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Julianne; Fiedler, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    White, Mexican-American, and Black preadolescents (N=157) completed Tuckman-Lorge Old People Scale and contact questionnaire to examine preadolescent attitudes toward elderly through analysis of race, gender, and contact variables. Found only one variable studied, race, was significantly related to attitudes toward elderly. White preadolescents…

  9. Preadolescent Attitudes toward the Elderly: An Analysis of Race, Gender and Contact Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Julianne; Fiedler, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    White, Mexican-American, and Black preadolescents (N=157) completed Tuckman-Lorge Old People Scale and contact questionnaire to examine preadolescent attitudes toward elderly through analysis of race, gender, and contact variables. Found only one variable studied, race, was significantly related to attitudes toward elderly. White preadolescents…

  10. Effects of Sex, Gender Role Identification, and Gender Relevance of Two Types of Stressors on Cardiovascular and Subjective Responses: Sex and Gender Match and Mismatch Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Well, Sonja; Kolk, Annemarie M.; Klugkist, Irene G.

    2008-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that a match between the gender relevance of a stressor and one's sex or gender role identification would elicit higher cardiovascular responses. Healthy female and male undergraduates (n = 108) were exposed to two stressors: the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) and the n-back task. Stressor relevance was manipulated to be…

  11. Sex hormones and adipokines in healthy pre-menopausal, post-menopausal and elderly women, and in age-matched men: data from the Brisighella Heart study.

    PubMed

    Cicero, A F G; Magni, P; Lentini, P; Ruscica, M; Dozio, E; Strollo, F; Borghi, C

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormones and adipokines seem to differently interact in both genders at different ages. To comparatively evaluate the serum level of adipokines and sex hormones in healthy non-pharmacologically treated premenopausal women, post-menopausal women, and elderly women, and in age-matched men. From the historical cohort of the Brisighella Heart Study we selected 199 adult healthy subjects (males: 89; females: 110), aged 62.5±12.4 yr. Men and women included in the age-class subgroups were matched for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, fasting plasma glucose, plasma lipids. Leptin did not differ among various age classes in men, while pre-menopausal women displayed significantly lower serum leptin than post-menopausal women (-6.7 ± 2.2 pg/ml, p=0.036). Post-menopausal women had significantly greater serum leptin when compared with age-matched men (+13.1 ± 2.0 pg/ml, p<0.001); the same was observed for elderly women when compared with elderly men (+11.2 ± 2.3 pg/ml, p<0.001). At any age, women had significantly lower serum testosterone/estrone ratio than age-matched men (p<0.01). Serum DHEAS was inversely proportional to age in both genders. The main predictors of adiponectin level are age in men (p=0.027) and BMI in women (p=0.003). The main predictors of leptin level are BMI and the testosterone/estrone ratio in both sexes (p<0.05). The testosterone/estrone ratio is also the main predictor of ghrelin levels in women (p=0.006). Sex hormones and adipokines show specific interactions in the two genders and in different age-classes in a representative sample of adult healthy subjects.

  12. Theories of Family Labor as Applied to Gender Differences in Caregiving for Elderly Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Nancy J.

    1989-01-01

    Examined four popular hypotheses of family labor--time-available, socialization/ideology, external-resources, and specialization-of-tasks--to explain gender differences in caregiving to elderly parents. Data from adults with mother over age 70 revealed that these theories of gender differences in divisions of family labor did not adequately…

  13. [Oral health satisfaction among Brazilian elderly: a gender study using a hierarchical model].

    PubMed

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigênia

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify gender differences in relation to factors associated with oral health satisfaction among the elderly and to estimate the prevalence of edentulism by gender and age. The study included 2,052 elderly (≥ 60 years) residing in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence of edentulism. The association between oral health satisfaction and independent variables was estimated using ordinal regression with a hierarchical multidimensional model. Prevalence rates for edentulism in males and females were 63% and 68.8%, respectively. Most elderly males (63%) and females (57%) were satisfied with their oral health. The final adjusted model for both genders consisted of variables related to environmental characteristics, health behaviors, and oral health conditions. The study concludes that oral satisfaction is heavily influenced by oral health status and health behaviors, while the associated factors differ by gender.

  14. Effects of sex, gender role identification, and gender relevance of two types of stressors on cardiovascular and subjective responses: sex and gender match and mismatch effects.

    PubMed

    van Well, Sonja; Kolk, Annemarie M; Klugkist, Irene G

    2008-07-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that a match between the gender relevance of a stressor and one's sex or gender role identification would elicit higher cardiovascular responses. Healthy female and male undergraduates (n = 108) were exposed to two stressors: the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) and the n-back task. Stressor relevance was manipulated to be masculine or feminine relevant or gender neutral. Data were analyzed using a Bayesian model selection procedure. The results showed stronger cardiovascular responses for the CPT in the case of a gender match effect. In contrast, results for the n-back task revealed stronger cardiovascular responses for sex and gender mismatch effects. These discrepant match and mismatch effects are discussed in terms of differential task appraisal (i.e., threat vs. challenge). Additional results (a) support the success of measuring gender role identification indirectly by means of the Gender Implicit Association Test, (b) do not show that the effect of stressor relevance is more pronounced on those hemodynamic parameters typically increased by the stressor, and (c) reveal differential effects of stressor relevance for subjective and cardiovascular stress responses. Taken together, it can be concluded that the process of the cognitive appraisal of stressor relevance outlines individual variability in cardiovascular responding to acute stress.

  15. Gender (in)equality among employees in elder care: implications for health.

    PubMed

    Elwér, Sofia; Aléx, Lena; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-01-04

    Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (in)equality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (in)equality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender. The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (in)equality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men.

  16. Gender (in)equality among employees in elder care: implications for health

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (in)equality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. Methods All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. Results We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (in)equality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender. Conclusion The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (in)equality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men. PMID:22217427

  17. Myopia and cognitive dysfunction among elderly Chinese adults: a propensity score matching analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Peng; Liu, Hu; Xu, Yong; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The association between myopia and cognitive dysfunction among elderly adults was assessed by applying a Propensity Score Matching (PSM) approach. This is a statistical method which allows investigators to estimate causal treatment effects using observational or nonrandomised data. The study was designed as a community-based cross-sectional study based on a Chinese cohort aged 60 years or older in China. Objective refraction was measured using an autorefractor and subjective refraction was used to refine vision, using the results of the objective refraction as the starting point. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent value of less than -0.50 dioptre (D) in the right eye. The Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) was used for cognitive assessment. The propensity scores for myopia were formulated using 13 potential confounders. We matched the propensity scores for subjects with and without myopia within a caliper of 0.01 of logit function of propensity scores. About 4123 elderly adults who successfully completed the AMT were included in this analysis. The odds ratio (OR) of cognitive dysfunction for myopia before matching was 1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61, 2.44; p < 0.001). There were significant covariate imbalances between comparison groups and after propensity score matching, covariate imbalance was significantly reduced. After propensity score matching, the OR of cognitive dysfunction was marginally significant and the magnitude of association was reduced (OR: 1.31 95% CI 1.00, 1.71; p = 0.05). Traditional multivariate logistic regression modelling found an OR of 1.52 (95% CI 1.23, 2.06; p < 0.001) after adjusting for the 13 potential confounders. Myopia was associated with a higher prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among elderly Chinese aged 60 years or older in China. The PSM approach may be a useful method to address selection bias in observational studies when randomised trials cannot ethically be conducted. © 2015 The Authors Ophthalmic

  18. A Vignette Study on Gendered Filial Expectations of Elders in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cong, Zhen; Silverstein, Merril

    2012-01-01

    This investigation integrated vignette and survey design to study how sons' reduced availability and daughters' increased contributions to parents influenced Chinese rural elders' gendered filial expectations, measured with their beliefs about obligations of a vignette daughter and a vignette son to their postsurgery parent. The sample included…

  19. A Vignette Study on Gendered Filial Expectations of Elders in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cong, Zhen; Silverstein, Merril

    2012-01-01

    This investigation integrated vignette and survey design to study how sons' reduced availability and daughters' increased contributions to parents influenced Chinese rural elders' gendered filial expectations, measured with their beliefs about obligations of a vignette daughter and a vignette son to their postsurgery parent. The sample included…

  20. Effects of age and gender on finger coordination in MVC and submaximal force-matching tasks.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Minoru; Li, Sheng; Kang, Ning; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the effects of age and gender on finger coordination. Twelve young (24 +/- 8 yr; 6 men and 6 women) and 12 elderly (75 +/- 5 yr; 6 men and 6 women) subjects performed single-finger maximal contraction [maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)], four-finger MVC, and four-finger ramp force production tasks by pressing on individual force transducers. A drop in the force of individual fingers during four-finger MVC tasks compared with single-finger MVC tasks (force deficit) was larger, whereas unintended force production by other fingers during single-finger MVC tasks (enslaving) was smaller, in elderly than in young subjects and in women than in men. Force deficit was smaller and enslaving was larger in subjects with higher peak force. During the ramp task, the difference between the variance of total force and the sum of variances of individual forces showed a logarithmic relation to the level of total force, across all subject groups. These findings suggest that indexes of finger coordination scale with force-generating capabilities across gender and age groups.

  1. Caring and Daring Discourses at Work: Doing Gender through Occupational Choices in Elderly Care and Police Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejes, Andreas; Haake, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to problematise how gender is being done--1. through occupational choices in two occupations that are traditionally gender divided, elderly care and police work, and 2. through the division of work assignments in police work. Interviews with care workers and police officers are analysed using a "doing gender" perspective, a…

  2. Caring and Daring Discourses at Work: Doing Gender through Occupational Choices in Elderly Care and Police Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejes, Andreas; Haake, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to problematise how gender is being done--1. through occupational choices in two occupations that are traditionally gender divided, elderly care and police work, and 2. through the division of work assignments in police work. Interviews with care workers and police officers are analysed using a "doing gender" perspective, a…

  3. Race and Gender Differences in Correlates of Death Anxiety Among Elderly in the United States.

    PubMed

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    Death anxiety among elderly is a major public health concern. Few studies, however, have been conducted on factors associated with death anxiety. This study investigated race and gender differences in psychosocial correlates of death anxiety among elderly in the US. With a cross-sectional design, we used data of the Religion, Aging, and Health survey. 1,074 White and Black elderly (age > 65 years, 615 women, 359 men) were entered to this study. Demographic (age, gender, and race), socio-economic (family income, perceived financial difficulty), health (number of chronic medical conditions and self-rated health), and psychological (perceived control over life) factors were measured. Death anxiety was measured using four items. We used linear regressions to determine factors associated with death anxiety based on race and gender. Although race and gender did not have main effects on death anxiety (P > 0.05), they altered correlates of death anxiety. Age was a predictor of death anxiety among women (B = 0.165, P = 0.002) but not men (B = 0.082, P = 0.196). Self-rated health was associated with death anxiety among Whites (B = - 0.120, P = 0.050) but not Blacks (B = - 0.077, P = 0.268). Total family income was only associated with death anxiety among White men. Demographic, socio-economic, health, and psychological determinants of death anxiety in United States differ based on race, gender, and their intersection. Findings advocate that geriatric psychiatrists and gerontologists who wish to reduce death anxiety among elderly people may need to tailor their interventions to race and gender.

  4. Race and Gender Differences in Correlates of Death Anxiety Among Elderly in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background Death anxiety among elderly is a major public health concern. Few studies, however, have been conducted on factors associated with death anxiety. Objectives This study investigated race and gender differences in psychosocial correlates of death anxiety among elderly in the US. Materials and Methods With a cross-sectional design, we used data of the Religion, Aging, and Health survey. 1,074 White and Black elderly (age > 65 years, 615 women, 359 men) were entered to this study. Demographic (age, gender, and race), socio-economic (family income, perceived financial difficulty), health (number of chronic medical conditions and self-rated health), and psychological (perceived control over life) factors were measured. Death anxiety was measured using four items. We used linear regressions to determine factors associated with death anxiety based on race and gender. Results Although race and gender did not have main effects on death anxiety (P > 0.05), they altered correlates of death anxiety. Age was a predictor of death anxiety among women (B = 0.165, P = 0.002) but not men (B = 0.082, P = 0.196). Self-rated health was associated with death anxiety among Whites (B = - 0.120, P = 0.050) but not Blacks (B = - 0.077, P = 0.268). Total family income was only associated with death anxiety among White men. Conclusions Demographic, socio-economic, health, and psychological determinants of death anxiety in United States differ based on race, gender, and their intersection. Findings advocate that geriatric psychiatrists and gerontologists who wish to reduce death anxiety among elderly people may need to tailor their interventions to race and gender. PMID:27803717

  5. Determinants of gender differences in health among the elderly in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Antonio J; Mroz, Thomas A; Piras, Claudia; Vernon, John A; Angeles, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies the main gender differences in health and socio-economic characteristics of the elderly in four Latin American cities. Using locally weighted regressions as well as a flexible model specification that treats age non-parametrically, we investigate whether these unadjusted gender gaps in health are due to gender differences in the distribution of age and other explanatory variables. Interestingly, for all cities, the analyses show a gender gap in health in favour of males at each age. The gaps are larger when one uses functional impairment in mobility and personal self-care as indicators of an individual's health instead of self-reported health. Furthermore, controlling for demographic characteristics, baseline health and the availability of family support do little to change the disadvantage for women in measured health outcomes. Controlling for socio-economic variables does, however, reduce most of the gender differences in health.

  6. Predicting tooth color from facial features and gender: results from a white elderly cohort.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Alexander J; Nitschke, Ina; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Wegener, Ina; Rammelsberg, Peter; Hassel, Jessica C

    2008-02-01

    Clinicians providing edentulous patients with complete dentures are often confronted with the problem of not knowing the patient's natural tooth color. It would be valuable to be able to determine this from other facial features. The purpose of this study was to assess the possibility of predicting tooth color in the elderly from hair and eye color, facial skin complexion, and gender. The lightness (L*), chroma (C*), and hue (h*) of the color of 541 natural teeth were measured for a white study population (94 subjects, 75 to 77 years old, 55.3% male) by means of a single measurement with a clinically applicable spectrophotometer. Hair and eye color and facial skin complexion were recorded in categories. Mixed-effects regression models were calculated for each L*, C*, and h* value with hair and eye color, facial skin complexion, and gender as independent variables (alpha=.05). Only gender and hair color in univariate analysis and, additionally, eye color in multivariate analysis, were significant predictors of tooth color. Higher L* values (lighter color) were associated with lighter eye color and with female gender. The C* value was lower (less saturated) for women. More yellow/green than yellow/red h* values were associated with hair colors other than black and with female gender. However, the parameter estimates of the variables were rather low. Determination of tooth color from hair and eye color and from gender in the white elderly was only partially possible.

  7. Gender Differences of Airway Dimensions in Anatomically Matched Sites on CT in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Il; Schroeder, Joyce; Lynch, David; Newell, John; Make, Barry; Friedlander, Adam; Estépar, Raúl San José; Hanania, Nicola A.; Washko, George; Murphy, James R.; Wilson, Carla; Hokanson, John E.; Zach, Jordan; Butterfield, Kiel; Bowler, Russell P.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives There are limited data on, and controversies regarding gender differences in the airway dimensions of smokers. Multi-detector CT (MDCT) images were analyzed to examine whether gender could explain differences in airway dimensions of anatomically matched airways in smokers. Materials and Methods We used VIDA imaging software to analyze MDCT scans from 2047 smokers (M:F, 1021:1026) from the COPDGene® cohort. The airway dimensions were analyzed from segmental to subsubsegmental bronchi. We compared the differences of luminal area, inner diameter, wall thickness, wall area percentage (WA%) for each airway between men and women, and multiple linear regression including covariates (age, gender, body sizes, and other relevant confounding factors) was used to determine the predictors of each airway dimensions. Results Lumen area, internal diameter and wall thickness were smaller for women than men in all measured airway (18.4 vs 22.5 mm2 for segmental bronchial lumen area, 10.4 vs 12.5 mm2 for subsegmental bronchi, 6.5 vs 7.7 mm2 for subsubsegmental bronchi, respectively p < 0.001). However, women had greater WA% in subsegmental and subsubsegmental bronchi. In multivariate regression, gender remained one of the most significant predictors of WA%, lumen area, inner diameter and wall thickness. Conclusion Women smokers have higher WA%, but lower luminal area, internal diameter and airway thickness in anatomically matched airways as measured by CT scan than do male smokers. This difference may explain, in part, gender differences in the prevalence of COPD and airflow limitation. PMID:21756032

  8. Effectiveness of adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines (Inflexal V ® and Fluad ® ) in preventing hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia in the elderly: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Rossi, Stefania; Panatto, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Annual vaccination is the main mean of preventing influenza in the elderly. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines available in Italy in preventing hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia, a matched case-control study was performed in elderly subjects during the 2010-2011 season in Genoa (Italy). Cases and controls were matched in a 1:1 ratio according to gender, age, socio-economic status and type of influenza vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as IVE = [(1-OR)x100] and crude odds ratios were estimated through conditional logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated through multivariable logistic models.   In the study area, influenza activity was moderate in the 2010-2011 season, with optimal matching between circulating viruses and vaccine strains. We recruited 187 case-control pairs; 46.5% of cases and 79.1% of controls had been vaccinated. The adjuvanted influenza vaccines (Fluad (®) considered together with Inflexal V (®) ) were associated with a significant reduction in the risk of hospitalization, their effectiveness being 94.8% (CI 77.1-98.8). Adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 95.2% (CI 62.8-99.4) and 87.8 (CI 0.0-98.9) for Inflexal V (®) and Fluad (®) , respectively. Both adjuvanted vaccines proved effective, although the results displayed statistical significance only for Inflexal V (®) (p = 0.004), while for Fluad (®) statistical significance was not reached (p = 0.09). Our study is the first to provide information on the effectiveness of Inflexal V (®) in terms of reducing hospitalizations for influenza or pneumonia in the elderly, and demonstrates that this vaccine yields a high degree of protection and that its use would generate considerable saving for the National Health Service.

  9. Gender differences in healthy life expectancy among Brazilian elderly.

    PubMed

    Belon, Ana Paula; Lima, Margareth G; Barros, Marilisa B A

    2014-06-06

    This study examined gender differences in healthy life expectancy (HLE) and unhealthy life expectancy (UHLE) among people aged 60 years or older living in a large Brazilian city. Based on Chiang method, abridged life tables were constructed for men and for women. To calculate HLE, the Sullivan method was applied. Estimates of the prevalence of self-rated health and self-reported functional disability (global, mild/moderate, and severe) were obtained from a population-based household survey carried out in 2008, which involved non-institutionalized individuals. Findings showed that women live longer and these extra years would be spent in good self-rated health. For example, women aged 60 would live, on average, 4 more years in good health in comparison to men. In terms of global limitations and mild/moderate limitations, no gender differences were detected for HLE. However, UHLE was statistically higher among women than among men at all ages in the global limitations and mild/moderate limitations (except for the age 80). Women at age 60, for instance, could expect to live 3.1 years longer with mild/moderate limitations compared to men. Gender differences were identified for severe limitations for either HLE or UHLE. In comparison to men, women at age 60, for example, would expect to live 2.5 and 2.0 more years without and with severe limitations. By showing that the advantage of longer life expectancy among women is not necessarily accompanied by worse health conditions, these findings add some evidence to the debate about male-female health-survival paradox. Policy efforts are necessary to reduce gender differences in the quantity and quality of years to be lived, providing equal opportunities to women and men live longer with quality of life, autonomy, and independence.

  10. Gender differences in healthy life expectancy among Brazilian elderly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined gender differences in healthy life expectancy (HLE) and unhealthy life expectancy (UHLE) among people aged 60 years or older living in a large Brazilian city. Methods Based on Chiang method, abridged life tables were constructed for men and for women. To calculate HLE, the Sullivan method was applied. Estimates of the prevalence of self-rated health and self-reported functional disability (global, mild/moderate, and severe) were obtained from a population-based household survey carried out in 2008, which involved non-institutionalized individuals. Results Findings showed that women live longer and these extra years would be spent in good self-rated health. For example, women aged 60 would live, on average, 4 more years in good health in comparison to men. In terms of global limitations and mild/moderate limitations, no gender differences were detected for HLE. However, UHLE was statistically higher among women than among men at all ages in the global limitations and mild/moderate limitations (except for the age 80). Women at age 60, for instance, could expect to live 3.1 years longer with mild/moderate limitations compared to men. Gender differences were identified for severe limitations for either HLE or UHLE. In comparison to men, women at age 60, for example, would expect to live 2.5 and 2.0 more years without and with severe limitations. Conclusions By showing that the advantage of longer life expectancy among women is not necessarily accompanied by worse health conditions, these findings add some evidence to the debate about male-female health-survival paradox. Policy efforts are necessary to reduce gender differences in the quantity and quality of years to be lived, providing equal opportunities to women and men live longer with quality of life, autonomy, and independence. PMID:24906547

  11. Gender, sleep problems, and obesity in Taiwan: a propensity-score-matching approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan-Rung; Kuan, Ping-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a major health risk in industrialized countries, with disturbed sleep identified as a correlate. This study used data drawn from Taiwan's 2005 Social Development Trend Survey on Health and Safety and the propensity-score-matching method to shed light on gender-specific associations between sleep problems and obesity among 24,113 adults aged 20-64 years. The average increase in obesity prevalence among respondents with disrupted sleep was 1.85%, as compared to those who did not report disrupted sleep, with similar psycho-social attributes. Similarly, the prevalence of obesity among those who reported restless sleep was increased by an average of 1.40% compared to those who did not report restless sleep with similar psycho-social attributes. We also found gender-specific vulnerability to different types of sleep problems. Among men who reported disrupted sleep, we found a 3.12% increase in the prevalence of obesity. Among women exposed to restless sleep, the increase in obesity prevalence was 1.84%. The observed gender difference in the prevalence of increases in obesity may be attributed to gender-specific behavioral responses to poor sleep. With poor sleep, men may respond to hunger by overeating; women may respond by physical inactivity. Both can contribute to an elevated risk of obesity.

  12. Elderly Support and Intergenerational Transfer in Zimbabwe: An Analysis by Gender, Marital Status, and Place of Residence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamchak, Donald J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed elderly persons (n=150) in Zimbabwe to determine elderly support and intergenerational transfer by gender, marital status, and place of residence. Found respondents received considerable support from their children, because 45 percent received cash support and 61 percent received noncash support in the prior year. (ABL)

  13. Sex and Gender Impact Immune Responses to Vaccines Among the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Ashley L.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the recommended vaccines in older-aged individuals, sex differences occur in response to those that protect against influenza, tetanus, pertussis, shingles, and pneumococcal infections. The efficacy of vaccines recommended for older-aged adults is consistently greater for females than for males. Gender differences as well as biological sex differences can influence vaccine uptake, responses, and outcome in older-aged individuals, which should influence guidelines, formulations, and dosage recommendations for vaccines in the elderly. PMID:26525340

  14. Leisure participation and subjective well-being: Exploring gender differences among elderly in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Qiushi; Lacanienta, Joy; Zhen, Zhihong

    To explore the association between leisure participation and subjective well-being and the role gender in this issue among elderly Chinese in Shanghai, China. Principal components analysis and logistic regressions are used to analyze the cross-sectional data of the 2013 Shanghai Elderly Life and Opinion Survey that contains 2884 respondents (60+ with a mean age of 72.6) recruited from a multistage cluster sampling design. Subjective well-being is measured by happiness and life satisfaction, and leisure participation is examined by the type and diversity of leisure activities. Principal components analysis identifies four major types of leisure activity that elderly Chinese are actively engaged in-detachment-recovery, aesthetic, social, and performing-arts activities. Among them, social activities and performing-arts activities have the most relevance to subjective well-being. Females are more likely to engage in social and performing-arts activities whereas males are more likely to engage in detachment-recovery and aesthetic activities. Performing-arts activities promote subjective well-being only for females. Social activities are beneficial for both gender groups, but more so for males than for females. While increased levels of leisure diversity are linearly related to increased odds of subjective well-being for females, moderate level of leisure diversity is found to be the most important for males. Leisure participation is positively related to subjective well-being among elderly Chinese, and thus could play a critical role in promoting healthy aging. The major gender differences as observed suggest the need to further explore gender-specific barriers in leisure participation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender differences in widowhood effects among community-dwelling elders by causes of death in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shao-You; Huang, Nicole; Chen, Kuang-Hung; Yeh, Hsueh-Han; Lin, Keh-Ming; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2012-07-01

    We sought to determine whether widowhood-associated excess mortality differs by gender in terms of causes of death. Data were collected from a five-wave interview of approximately 2500 community-dwelling elders in the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Nearly Elderly and Elderly. Baseline characteristics were used to derive the risk score (RS) to reflect individual's baseline pre-widowhood vulnerability. Time-dependent Cox regression analyses were used to estimate spousal loss-related mortality by causes. For males, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of widowhood for all-cause and some major causes of death (e.g., neoplasm) increased inversely with RS: the aHRs for all-cause death were 4.81 and 1.76 in the lowest and highest RS groups, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding aHRs were relatively homogeneous for women (1.52 and 1.70). Identifying gender heterogeneity in widowhood effects can guide further efforts to devise gender-tailored programs to enhance healthy aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of suicide rates for elderly age bands with gender equality.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2008-06-01

    A lower sex ratio (male to female) of elderly suicide rates in several Asian countries have been attributed to gender inequality on several parameters. The association of two proxy measures of gender equality (value of the gender empowerment measure and the gender-related development index) and the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates in the age bands 65-74 yr. and 75+ yr. was examined using multiple linear regression. The two proxy measures of gender equality did not account for significant variance in the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates in the age bands 65-74 yr. and 75+ yr. Association of gender equality with the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates requires further clarification in both cross-sectional studies across different countries and longitudinal studies within individual countries for all age bands. Such studies should, in addition to the GEM and the GDI, include other measures of gender equality including sex differences in educational attainment, income, poverty, housing, employment, access to healthcare and social welfare services, and urbanisation.

  17. Closing the Need-Service Gap: Gender Differences in Matching Services to Client Needs in Comprehensive Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Cao, Dingcai; Shin, Hee-Choon

    2009-01-01

    Despite the broad recognition in social work that services are more effective when they are tailored to individual client needs, we have only limited evidence of the impact that services matched to client needs have on treatment outcomes. This study examines gender differences in the impact of matched services, access services, and…

  18. Closing the Need-Service Gap: Gender Differences in Matching Services to Client Needs in Comprehensive Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Cao, Dingcai; Shin, Hee-Choon

    2009-01-01

    Despite the broad recognition in social work that services are more effective when they are tailored to individual client needs, we have only limited evidence of the impact that services matched to client needs have on treatment outcomes. This study examines gender differences in the impact of matched services, access services, and…

  19. Does widowhood explain gender differences in out-of-pocket medical spending among the elderly?

    PubMed

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2013-05-01

    Despite the presence of Medicare, out-of-pocket medical spending is a large expenditure risk facing the elderly. While women live longer than men, elderly women incur higher out-of-pocket medical spending than men at each age. In this paper, we examine whether differences in marital status and living arrangements can explain this difference. We find that out-of-pocket medical spending is approximately 24 percent higher when an individual becomes widowed, a large portion of which is spending on nursing homes. Our results suggest a substantial role of living arrangements in out-of-pocket medical spending. Our estimates combined with differences in rates of widowhood across gender suggest that marital status can explain about one third of the gender difference in total out-of-pocket medical spending, leaving a large portion unexplained. On the other hand, gender differences in widowhood more than explain the observed gender difference in out-of-pocket spending on nursing homes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Recruiter and Recruit Match: The Effect of Gender and Race Match or Mismatch on the Quality of Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    variables on the quality of recruits vary by gender or race/ethnicity of the recruits? A multivariate analysis is used to answer these research questions...interaction effects are valid. One applicable study is the analysis of the characteristics of teachers and students and how these interactions affect... ANALYSIS .........................................................................21 B. GENDER INTERACTION EFFECT

  1. Female gender lost protective effect against disease progression in elderly patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    You, Hong; Kong, Yuanyuan; Hou, Jinlin; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Yuexin; Niu, Junqi; Han, Tao; Ou, Xiaojuan; Dou, Xiaoguang; Shang, Jia; Tang, Hong; Xie, Qing; Ding, Huiguo; Ren, Hong; Xu, Xiaoyuan; Xie, Wen; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Youqing; Li, Yujie; Li, Jie; Chow, Shein-Chung; Zhuang, Hui; Jia, Jidong

    2016-01-01

    Female gender and younger age are protective factors against disease progression in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, it is not clear whether the disease progression still remains slow in elderly females. This study investigated the interaction of female gender and older age on the development of cirrhosis in patients recorded in China Registry of Hepatitis B. A total of 17,809 CHB patients were enrolled in this multi-center cross-sectional study. The prevalence of cirrhosis in female CHB patients increased faster than that in male CHB patients over 50 years old. Multivariate analysis showed that the increase of adjusted ORs for developing cirrhosis in females started to accelerate after 50 years old: 11.19 (95% CI: 5.93–21.11) in women versus 14.75 (95% CI: 8.35–26.07) in men at ages of 50–59 years, 21.67 (95% CI: 11.05–42.47) versus 24.4 (95% CI: 13.00–45.80) at ages 60–69 years, and 18.78 (95% CI: 6.61–53.36) versus 12.09 (95% CI: 4.35–33.61) in those over 70 years. In conclusion, the protective effect of female gender against cirrhosis gradually lost with increasing age, therefore disease progression should be monitored more closely in elderly women with CHB. PMID:27892487

  2. Sex/Gender-Based Pharmacology and Statin Utilization Amongst Elderly Patients with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Pendar; Johnson, Ana; Whitehead, Marlo; Rohland, Susan

    2015-12-04

    The purpose of this study was to explore the ten-year trends in utilization of bioequivalent doses of statin amongst elderly patients with diabetes according to sex/gender in Ontario, Canada. A cohort of patients with diabetes (>65 years) was constructed using the Ontario Diabetes Database Statin utilization data (2003-2012) was obtained from the Ontario Drug Benefit Program for both women and men. Bioequivalent doses for statins were calculated according to the dosing conversion factor in therapeutic interchange programs in clinical practice. Utilization pattern of high potency (Atorvastatin and Rosuvastatin) vs. low potency statins (Simvastatin, Lovastatin, Fluvastatin, Pravastatin) were also analyzed. The average bioequivalent Simvastatin utilization in 2003 was 29.22 mg/day for women and 30.35 mg/day for men. By 2008, this gap in dosing was higher for both women and men and by 2013 it had increased to 47.75 mg/day for women and 52.98 mg/day for men. For average number of day supply per year, there was no significant trend of changes over the 10-year period, although the use of high potency statins increased significantly (P<0.001) for both women and men. No differences were seen for sex/gender; either for the 10-year period or for each year. There has been significant increase in bioequivalent statin utilization amongst elderly patients with diabetes in Ontario; for both men and women. In a publicly-funded healthcare system such as Ontario, there were no sex/gender differences in the utilization of high potency statin (Atorvastatin and Rosuvastatin) amongst elderly patient with diabetes.

  3. Gender-differences in disease distribution and outcome in hospitalized elderly: data from the REPOSI study.

    PubMed

    Corrao, S; Santalucia, P; Argano, C; Djade, C D; Barone, E; Tettamanti, M; Pasina, L; Franchi, C; Kamal Eldin, T; Marengoni, A; Salerno, F; Marcucci, M; Mannucci, P M; Nobili, A

    2014-09-01

    Women live longer and outnumber men. On the other hand, older women develop more chronic diseases and conditions such as arthritis, osteoporosis and depression, leading to a greater number of years of living with disabilities. The aim of this study was to describe whether or not there are gender differences in the demographic profile, disease distribution and outcome in a population of hospitalized elderly people. Retrospective observational study including all patients recruited for the REPOSI study in the year 2010. Analyses are referred to the whole group and gender categorization was applied. A total of 1380 hospitalized elderly subjects, 50.5% women and 49.5% men, were considered. Women were older than men, more often widow and living alone or in nursing homes. Disease distribution showed that malignancy, diabetes, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were more frequent in men, but hypertension, osteoarthritis, anemia and depression were more frequent in women. Severity and comorbidity indexes according to the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS-s and CIRS-c) were higher in men, while cognitive impairment evaluated by the Short Blessed Test (SBT), mood disorders by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and disability in daily life measured by Barthel Index (BI) were worse in women. In-hospital and 3-month mortality rates were higher in men. Our study showed a gender dimorphism in the demographic and morbidity profiles of hospitalized elderly people, emphasizing once more the need for a personalized process of healthcare. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanical properties of cortical bone and their relationships with age, gender, composition and microindentation properties in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Mirzaali, Mohammad J; Schwiedrzik, J Jakob; Thaiwichai, Suwanwadee; Best, James P; Michler, Johann; Zysset, Philippe K; Wolfram, Uwe

    2016-12-01

    The growing incidence of skeletal fractures poses a significant challenge to ageing societies. Since a major part of physiological loading in the lower limbs is carried by cortical bone, it would be desirable to better understand the structure-mechanical property relationships and scale effects in this tissue. This study aimed at assessing whether microindentation properties combined with chemical and morphological information are usable to predict macroscopic elastic and strength properties in a donor- and site-matched manner. Specimens for quasi-static macroscopic tests in tension, compression, and torsion and microindentation were prepared from a cohort of 19 male and 20 female donors (46 to 99 years). All tests were performed under fully hydrated conditions. The chemical composition of the extra-cellular matrix was investigated with Raman spectroscopy. The results of the micro-mechanical tests were combined with morphological and compositional properties using a power law relationship to predict the macro-mechanical results. Microindentation properties were not gender dependent, remarkably constant over age, and showed an overall small variation with standard deviations of approximately 10 %. Similar results were obtained for chemical tissue composition. Macro-mechanical stiffness and strength were significantly related to porosity for all load cases (p<0.05). In case of macroscopic yield strain and work-to-failure this was only true in torsion and compression, respectively. The correlations of macro-mechanical with micro-mechanical, morphological, and chemical properties showed no significance for cement line density, mineralisation, or variations in the microindentation results and were dominated by porosity with a moderate explanatory power of predominately less than 50 %. The results confirm that age, with minor exceptions gender, and small variations in average mineralisation have negligible effect on the tissue microindentation properties of human

  5. Sex and Gender Impact Immune Responses to Vaccines Among the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Fink, Ashley L; Klein, Sabra L

    2015-11-01

    In response to the recommended vaccines in older-aged individuals, sex differences occur in response to those that protect against influenza, tetanus, pertussis, shingles, and pneumococcal infections. The efficacy of vaccines recommended for older-aged adults is consistently greater for females than for males. Gender differences as well as biological sex differences can influence vaccine uptake, responses, and outcome in older-aged individuals, which should influence guidelines, formulations, and dosage recommendations for vaccines in the elderly. ©2015 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  6. Facial trauma as physical violence markers against elderly Brazilians: A comparative analysis between genders.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Rayanne Izabel Maciel; de Macedo Bernardino, Ítalo; Castro, Ricardo Dias; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Bento, Patricia Meira; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of elderly Brazilians with injuries resulting from physical violence and identify victimization differences. A descriptive and exploratory study was conducted involving the analysis of medico-legal and social records of 259 elderly victims of physical violence treated at an Institute of Forensic Medicine and Dentistry over four years (from January 2008 to December 2011). The forensic service database was evaluated by researchers properly trained and calibrated to perform this function between January and March 2013. Socio-demographic variables of victims, aggression characteristics, aggressor's profile and types of lesions were evaluated. Descriptive and multivariate statistics using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) were performed. The prevalence of facial trauma was 42.9%. Based on the MCA results, two groups with different victimization profiles were identified: married men aged 70-79 years, victims of community violence at night, suffering facial injuries; and single, widowed or separated women aged 60-69 years, victims of domestic violence during the day, suffering trauma in other areas of the body. The results suggest that there is a high prevalence of facial injuries among elderly Brazilians victims of physical violence and there are important differences related to victimization characteristics according to gender.

  7. Relationships between gender, age, family conditions, physical and mental health, and social isolation of elderly caregivers.

    PubMed

    Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Fortes-Burgos, Andréa Cristina Garofe; Mantovani, Efigênia Passarelli; Arbex, Flávia Silva; de Souza Torres, Stella Vidal; Perracini, Mônica Rodrigues; Guariento, Maria Elena

    2012-03-01

    In an aging population an increasing number of elderly caregivers will be called upon to provide care over a long period, during which time they will be burdened both by caregiving and by the physiological effects of their own aging. Among them there will be more aged male caregivers, who will probably be less prepared than women to become caregivers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between caregivers' gender, age, family income, living arrangements and social support as independent variables, and depressive symptoms, comorbidities, level of frailty, grip strength, walking speed and social isolation, as dependent variables. 176 elderly people (123 women) were selected from a sample of a population-based study on frailty (n = 900), who had cared for a spouse (79.3%) and/or parents (31.4%) in the past five years (mean age = 71.8 ± 4.86 years; mean monthly family income in minimum wages = 4.64 ± 5.14). The study used questionnaires and self-report scales, grip strength and walking speed tests. 65% of participants evaluated caregiving as being very stressful. Univariate analyses of regression showed low family income as a risk factor for depression; being female and low perceived social support as a risk for comorbidities; being 80 years of age and above for low grip strength; and being male for social isolation indicated by discontinuity of activities and social roles. In multivariate analyses of regression, poverty arose as a risk factor for depression and being female for comorbidities. Gender roles, age, income and social support interacted with physical and emotional health, and with the continuity of social participation of elderly caregivers. Special attention must be given to male caregivers.

  8. Sex-Related Difference in Muscle Deoxygenation Responses Between Aerobic Capacity-Matched Elderly Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Muscle O2 dynamics during ramp cycling exercise were compared between aerobic capacity-matched elderly men (n=8, age 65±2 years) and women (n=8, age 66±3 years). Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative change in deoxygenated (Δdeoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (Δtotal-Hb) were monitored continuously during exercise in the vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. SmO2 was significantly higher during exercise in women than in men in VL, but not in GM. In VL, Δdeoxy-Hb and Δtotal-Hb were significantly higher in men than in women, especially during high intensity exercise. However, no significant difference was observed in Δdeoxy-Hb or Δtotal-Hb in GM. Sex-related differences in muscle deoxygenation response may be heterogeneous among leg muscles in elderly subjects.

  9. An Investigation of Same- versus Cross-Gender Matching for Boys in Formal School-Based Mentoring Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanchewa, Stella S.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Schwartz, Sarah E. O.; Olsho, Lauren E. W.

    2014-01-01

    Although assigned mentoring relationships have typically involved same-gender matches, a growing number of programs, particularly those in schools, have begun pairing female mentors with male mentees. This practice stems, in large part, from the relative dearth of male mentors and programs' efforts to increase the availability of youth mentoring…

  10. An Investigation of Same- versus Cross-Gender Matching for Boys in Formal School-Based Mentoring Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanchewa, Stella S.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Schwartz, Sarah E. O.; Olsho, Lauren E. W.

    2014-01-01

    Although assigned mentoring relationships have typically involved same-gender matches, a growing number of programs, particularly those in schools, have begun pairing female mentors with male mentees. This practice stems, in large part, from the relative dearth of male mentors and programs' efforts to increase the availability of youth mentoring…

  11. The impact of gender on cardiovascular system calcification in very elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Luckmini; Lee, Nam Ju; Cook, Tessa; Herrmann, Howard C; Jagasia, Dinesh; Litt, Harold; Han, Yuchi

    2016-01-01

    There is an established sex difference in cardiovascular disease among pre-menopausal women and age-matched men, with men having greater susceptibility to cardiovascular and coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular calcification may be linked to the atherosclerotic process and resulting disease, but the sex difference regarding coronary artery disease susceptibility and calcification is incompletely understood. We thought to measure calcium volume in different chest vascular beds in very elderly men and women with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Computed tomography scans of 94 patients with severe AS were calcium volume scored on Aquarius iNtuition Terarecon (Terarecon Inc., CA, USA) work stations. Coronary beds, aortic valve, mitral valve apparatus, and the thoracic aorta were examined. A significant sex difference in the mean total calcium volume of the coronary arteries was found in elderly (p = 0.001), with men having greater levels of calcification. There is also a significant sex difference in the amount of aortic valve calcium (p = 0.003). Furthermore, aortic and coronary calcification was independently correlated with sex. This study demonstrates a significant sex impact on calcification in the coronary beds and aortic valve in elderly patients with severe AS.

  12. Life course, gender and ethnic inequalities in functional disability in a Brazilian urban elderly population.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Ricardo O; Alvarado, Beatriz Eugenia; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2008-02-01

    To examine life course social, gender and ethnic inequalities in ADL disability in a Brazilian urban elderly population. We used the São Paulo-SABE study (health, well-being and aging in Latin America and the Caribbean) to assess the associations between ADL disability and gender, ethnicity and life course social conditions (childhood socio-economic and health status, education, lifetime occupation, current perception of income), controlling for current physical and mental health (cognitive impairment and comorbidity). ADL disability was defined as the presence of one or more difficulties with six tasks: bathing, toileting, dressing, walking across the room, eating, and getting out of bed. Results suggest that social inequalities during the life course (hunger and poverty in early life; illiteracy, a low skilled occupation, having been a housewife; insufficient income) tend to result in disability in later life. The prevalence of ADL disability was higher among women (22.4%) than among men (14.8%). Mestizo/ Native elders reported higher prevalence of disability compared with Whites and Blacks/Mulattos. Ethnic inequalities concerning ADL disability were explained by social and health conditions, but the gender gap persisted (OR women vs men= 2.16; 95% CI 1.32-3.55). Despite their higher rate of ADL disability in old age, women appear to be more resilient than men toward poor socio-economic conditions throughout the life course. Chronic conditions were more likely to result in ADL disability among men than women (OR= 1.83; 95% CI 1.41-2.38 in women; OR= 3.42; 95% CI 2.41-4.86 in men). Decreasing social inequalities during childhood and adulthood will reduce socio-economic inequalities in disability in old age, especially among men.

  13. Preserved Learning during the Symbol-Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Morrens, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit-symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol-digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol-Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol-digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. The repetition of the same symbol-digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the interpretation of task scores for processing speed. Equal

  14. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  15. Gender Differences in Physical Health and Psychosocial Well Being among Four Age-Groups of Elderly People in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; Bernstein, Judith H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the well-established gender differences in physical and psychosocial well being in adulthood persist throughout different age groups of elderly persons, in order to support one of two opposing hypotheses: the convergence and divergence hypotheses. Data were collected by structured…

  16. Gender Differences in Physical Health and Psychosocial Well Being among Four Age-Groups of Elderly People in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; Bernstein, Judith H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the well-established gender differences in physical and psychosocial well being in adulthood persist throughout different age groups of elderly persons, in order to support one of two opposing hypotheses: the convergence and divergence hypotheses. Data were collected by structured…

  17. Does physical activity change following hip and knee replacement? Matched case-control study evaluating Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Smith, T O; Mansfield, M; Dainty, J; Hilton, G; Mann, C J V; Sackley, C M

    2017-09-13

    To determine whether physical activity measured using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), changes during the initial 24 months post-total hip (THR) or knee replacement (TKR), and how this compares to a matched non-arthroplasty cohort. Case-controlled study analysis of a prospectively collected dataset. USA community-based. 116 people post-THR, 105 people post-TKR compared to 663 people who had not undergone THR or TKR, or had hip or knee osteoarthritis. Cohorts were age-, gender- and BMI-matched. Physical activity assessed using the 12-item PASE at 12 and 24 months post operatively. There was no significant difference in total PASE score between pre-operative to 12 months (mean: 136 vs 135 points; p=0.860) or 24 months following THR (mean: 136 vs 132 points; p=0.950). Whilst there was no significant difference in total PASE score from pre-operative to 12 months post-TKR (126 vs 121 points; p=0.930), by 24 months people following TKR reported significantly greater physical activity (126 vs 142 points; p=0.040). There was no statistically significant difference in physical activity between the normative matched and THR (p≥0.140) or TKR (p≥0.060) cohorts at 12 or 24 months post joint replacement. Physical activity is not appreciably different to pre-operative levels at 12 or 24 months post-THR, but was greater at 24 months following TKR. Health promotion strategies are needed to encourage greater physical activity participation following joint replacement, and particularly targeting those who undergo THR. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The match between institutional elderly care management research and management challenges - a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elderly care practice and its management together with policy and research play a crucial role in responding to increasing challenges in institutional care for elderly people. Successful dialogue between these is necessary. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to compare how institutional elderly care management research meets the care challenges currently emphasized in international long-term care policy documents. Methods This paper was based on a systematic literature review. After screening 1971 abstracts using inclusion/exclusion criteria, 58 refereed articles published between 2000 and 2010 remained for analysis. The articles were analyzed using theory-based content analysis by comparing the results to the framework based on analysis of international long-term care management policy documents. Results The current challenges of long-term care management identified from policy documents were Integrated Care Management, Productivity Management, Quality Management, Workforce Management and ICT Management. The research on institutional elderly care management responded somewhat to the challenges mentioned in policy documents. However, some of the challenges were studied broadly and some were paid only minor attention. Further, only few studies focused on the core items of challenges addressed in policy documents. Conclusions Institutional care management research needs to focus more on challenges in integrated care, productivity, ICT and division of labor. Managers, researchers and policy-makers should assume more active collaborative roles in processes of research, policymaking and policy implementation. In addition managers’ and policymakers’ scientific literacy needs to be enhanced. PMID:23137416

  19. [Medical comorbidity in elderly patients with dementia. Differences according age and gender].

    PubMed

    Formiga, F; Fort, I; Robles, M J; Barranco, E; Espinosa, M C; Riu, S

    2007-11-01

    Prevalence of dementia in elderly patients is high. The goal of the study was to assess some aspects of comorbidity in the patients with dementia. We also analyzed comorbidity differences according to age and gender. A total of 311 patients older than 64 years old with dementia were prospectively evaluated. Data were collected on sociodemographic endpoints, type of dementia, Barthel Index (BI), Lawton Index (LO), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Charlson Index, total number of drugs, history of high blood pressure (HT), diabetes (DM), dyslipidemia (DL), heart failure (HF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancer. The sample consisted of 222 women (71.4%) and 89 men. Mean age (standard deviation [SD]) was 80.6 (6) years. Patients were taking an average of 5.8 (2.6) drugs. The mean of Charlson Index was of 2.1 (1.3). Fifty-one percent had HT, 24% DM, 24% DL, 13% HF, 11% COPD and 8% cancer. We found better scores in the MMSE, higher comorbidity and percentage of married people and prevalence of vascular dementia in men with respect to women, who had higher percentage of Alzheimer disease, and widowers. When differences were analyzed according to age, we found a higher percentage of widowers and HF diagnosis, a lower LI values and DL percentage in the patients older than 84 years with respect to younger subjects. Our results showed the presence of high comorbidity and chronic drugs prescription in elderly people with dementia. There are some differences in comorbidity according to age and gender that must be taken into account.

  20. Gender Differences in Sleep Disturbance among Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Quan, Shan Ai; Li, Yong Chun; Li, Wen Jie; Li, Yan; Jeong, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Sleep is an important component in our lives as it is necessary throughout one's entire life span. This study was conducted to elucidate whether there are gender differences in sleep quality and what factors can affect sleep quality in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. A total of 382 subjects (175 males and 207 females) were recruited among elderly aged 45 or over who participated in the 2010 Hallym Aging Study (HAS). They were invited to a general hospital and were evaluated for socioeconomic status, smoking history, and various clinical measures. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A higher score indicates poorer subjective sleep quality, (PSQI global score > 5 suggests sleep disturbance). After adjusting for potential covariates, our results show that alcohol increases the odds for poor sleep (odds ratio [OR] = 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-10.10) in males. In females, lack of exercise was the major risk factor of poor sleep as they are 4.46 times more likely to suffer from low sleep quality than those who exercise regularly (95% CI=1.56-13.75). Stress was also a risk factor for poor sleep. It was 5.60 times higher in the "always have stress" group than the "do not have stress" group (95% CI = 1.54-20.34). Thus, alcohol consumption is associated with men's sleep quality, while exercise and stress level affect women's.

  1. Use, perceived effectiveness, and gender differences of pain relief strategies among the community-dwelling elderly in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Kuo, Benjamin Ing-Tiau; Yu, Shu

    2011-03-01

    Pain is a common problem among the elderly. The entire scope of chronic pain relief strategies used by community elderly is still unclear. A limited number of studies have investigated this issue from diverse culture perspectives. In the present study, we investigated the use and perceived effectiveness of pain relief strategies adopted by the elderly; gender differences between frequently used relief strategies were also explored. Two hundred nineteen participants living in Taiwan City, Taiwan, were recruited by a random sampling method and interviewed face to face. The prevalence of chronic pain among the elderly was 42.0% (n = 92). The elderly tended to adopt multiple strategies (mean ± SD = 9.08 ± 3.56; range = 2-18) to relieve their chronic pain. In three domains of pain relief strategies, conventional medicine was used more frequently than complementary and alternative medicine and psychologic approaches. Most pain relief strategies were ineffective. Among the 22 strategies used, no strategy was reported as "much improved" by a majority of users. The top five pain relief strategies used by men and women were the same. Elderly women tended to adopt more psychologic approaches, such as acceptance and ignoring to relieve pain, than men. The findings suggest that nurses should pay more attention to the issue of chronic pain relief and provide the elderly with more effective pain relief strategies.

  2. Social support and psychological well-being in gender dysphoria: a comparison of patients with matched controls.

    PubMed

    Davey, Amanda; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    There is a paucity of research in the area of social support and psychological well-being among people with gender dysphoria. The present study aimed to investigate levels of social support among individuals with gender dysphoria compared with a matched control group. It also aimed to examine the relationship between social support and psychological well-being. Participants were 103 individuals diagnosed with gender dysphoria (according to ICD-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic and an age- and gender-matched nonclinical control group recruited via social networking websites. All participants completed measures of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, MSPSS), psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, SCL), quality of life (Short Form 36 version 2, SF), and life satisfaction (Personal Wellbeing Index, PWI). Trans women reported significantly lower MSPSS total and MSPSS family scores compared with control women, although these differences in levels of social support were no longer significant when SCL depression was controlled for. No significant differences were found between trans men and any other group. MSPSS scores did not significantly predict SCL subscales but did predict both SF subscales and PWI total scores. Trans women perceived themselves to be lacking social support. Given that social support is beneficial to quality of life and life satisfaction in those with gender dysphoria, this is of great concern. Though these findings have been derived from correlational results, extended research may highlight the value of clinicians helping trans women to seek out and maintain social support. Additionally, efforts could be made to educate and challenge attitudes of nontrans people towards those with gender dysphoria. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Education, College Major, and Job Match: Gender Differences in Reasons for Mismatch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have examined the match between years of schooling and the schooling required for the job. The quantity of schooling is only one way to consider the match between schooling and jobs. This paper considers an alternative match between education and jobs based on the relationship between college majors and work activities. Twenty percent…

  4. A propensity-matched analysis of surgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Dong; Guo, Xue-Guang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Du, Le-Hui; Sun, Bao-Jun; Fang, Xiang-Qun; Guo, Ying-Hua; Guo, Jun; An, Li; Qu, Ge-Ping; Liu, Chang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Elderly patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who undergo surgical resection are at a high risk of treatment-related complications. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is considered an alternative treatment option with a favorable safety profile. Given that prospective comparative data on SBRT and surgical treatments are limited, we compared the 2 treatments for early stage NSCLC in the elderly. We retrospectively collected information from the database at our geriatric institution on patients with clinical stage IA/B NSCLC who were treated with surgery or SBRT. The patients were matched using a propensity score based on gender, age, T stage, tumor location, pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]% and FEV1), Charlson comorbidity score, and World Health Organization performance score. We compared locoregional control rate, recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) between the 2 treatment cohorts before and after propensity score matching. A total of 106 patients underwent surgery, and 74 received SBRT. Surgical patients were significantly younger (72.6 ± 7.9 vs 82.6 ± 4.1 years, P = 0.000), with a significantly higher rate of adenocarcinoma (P = 0.000), better Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance scores (P = 0.039), and better pulmonary function test results (P = 0.034 for predicted FEV1 and P = 0.032 for FEV1). In an unmatched comparison, there were significant differences in locoregional control (P = 0.0012) and RFS (P < 0.001). The 5-year OS was 69% in patients who underwent surgery and 44.6% in patients who underwent SBRT (P = 0.0007). The 5-year CSS was 73.9% in the surgery group and 57.5% in the SBRT group (P = 0.0029). Thirty-five inoperable or marginally operable surgical patients and 35 patients who underwent SBRT were matched to their outcomes in a blinded manner (1:1 ratio, caliper

  5. Donor-recipient size matching and mortality in heart transplantation: Influence of body mass index and gender.

    PubMed

    Bergenfeldt, Henrik; Stehlik, Josef; Höglund, Peter; Andersson, Bodil; Nilsson, Johan

    2017-09-01

    The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) guidelines advise against inappropriate weight match (IWM) for heart transplant, defined as donor weight <70% of recipient's weight. Few studies have explored in detail this size-matching recommendation, especially with regard to body mass index (BMI) and gender matching. We aimed to determine whether any difference could be observed between size-matching in obese and non-obese recipients with regard to mortality after cardiac transplantation. Data from 52,455 adult heart transplants (recipients ≥18 years of age) between 1994 and 2013 were obtained from the ISHLT Registry. We defined the following subgroups of patients based on BMI: underweight, BMI <18.5; non-obese, BMI 18.5 to 30; and obese, BMI >30. The end-points were all-cause 30-day mortality and cumulative mortality. IWM was associated with increased 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.43, p = 0.041) and cumulative mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.22, p < 0.001). In non-obese recipients, IWM was associated with increased 30-day mortality (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.41, p < 0.001) as well as cumulative mortality (HR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.41, p < 0.001), whereas, for obese recipients, IWM was not associated with 30-day or cumulative mortality. Male recipients of female allografts (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12, p < 0.001) as well as female recipients of male allografts (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.13, p = 0.003) had increased cumulative mortality compared with gender-matched transplants. There was no interaction between IWM and gender mismatch. Our results indicate that donor weight <70% of recipient weight increases mortality in non-obese heart transplant recipients, but not in obese transplant recipients. Gender mismatch increases mortality independently of weight match. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by

  6. Gender Differences in Sleep Disturbance among Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is an important component in our lives as it is necessary throughout one’s entire life span. This study was conducted to elucidate whether there are gender differences in sleep quality and what factors can affect sleep quality in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. A total of 382 subjects (175 males and 207 females) were recruited among elderly aged 45 or over who participated in the 2010 Hallym Aging Study (HAS). They were invited to a general hospital and were evaluated for socioeconomic status, smoking history, and various clinical measures. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A higher score indicates poorer subjective sleep quality, (PSQI global score > 5 suggests sleep disturbance). After adjusting for potential covariates, our results show that alcohol increases the odds for poor sleep (odds ratio [OR] = 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11–10.10) in males. In females, lack of exercise was the major risk factor of poor sleep as they are 4.46 times more likely to suffer from low sleep quality than those who exercise regularly (95% CI=1.56–13.75). Stress was also a risk factor for poor sleep. It was 5.60 times higher in the “always have stress” group than the “do not have stress” group (95% CI = 1.54–20.34). Thus, alcohol consumption is associated with men’s sleep quality, while exercise and stress level affect women’s. PMID:27709844

  7. Matching Youth and Jobs? Gender Dynamics in New Deal Job Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werum, Regina

    2002-01-01

    A study examined whether federal New Deal policy goals matched local policy outcomes in Mississippi, Georgia, and North Carolina. Data from 337 counties indicate that policy outcomes matched goals in that women's access to vocational training remained narrowly constrained. Additional funds mostly benefitted men's programs. Contrary to…

  8. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-23

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  9. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012–2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132–1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673–0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094–1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  10. Effects of gender-matching and racial self-labeling on paranoia in African-American men with severe mental illness.

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Arthur L.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effects of gender-matching and racial self-labeling on the paranoid symptoms of African-American men with severe mental illness. It was hypothesized that gender matching would: 1) reduce self-reports of both interpersonal and cultural paranoia in these male participants with severe mental illness, and 2) the gender effect would be strongest among those patients who racially self-label as African-American. METHOD: One-hundred-twenty-four African-American male psychiatric patients were interviewed by a male or female black psychologist. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted with the Fenigstein Paranoia Scale (FPS) and Cultural Mistrust Inventory (CMI) as dependent variables, and the male gender-matched group (0=no, 1=yes) and racial self-labeling as the independent variables controlling for age; education; never married (0=no, 1=yes); diagnosis of schizophrenia (0=no, 1=yes); need for approval; self-esteem; and the scales of Distrust, Perceived Hostility of Others, and False Beliefs and Perceptions from the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview. RESULTS: There was a significant main effect for male gender-matching on the FPS. Participants in the male gender-matched group scored lower than the other group on the FPS. For the CMI, there was a significant interaction of male gender match by racial self-labeling effect. Participants who were male gender-matched and self-labeled as African-American reported the highest scores on the CMI. CONCLUSION: The findings provide partial support for the hypotheses. Both gender-matching and racial identity together may be important considerations for black males needing mental health services. PMID:16623068

  11. The HUGE formula (hematocrit, urea, gender) for screening for chronic kidney disease in elderly patients: a study of diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Musso, Carlos G; de Los Rios, Eduardo; Vilas, Manuel; Terrasa, Sergio; Bratti, Griselda; Varela, Federico; Diez, Guillermo Rosa; Jauregui, Jose; Luna, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Chronically reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in old people does not always mean that they suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD) since their GFR can just be reduced by aging. The HUGE equation has been recently described and validated in Spain for screening CKD without taking into account the patient's GFR value. This equation is based on patient's hematocrit, plasma urea levels and gender. The present study documented that the HUGE equation had and acceptable performance for screening CKD in elderly Argentine patients.

  12. Injurious falls and subsequent adverse drug events among elderly - a Swedish population-based matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rausch, C; Laflamme, L; de Rooij, S E; Bültmann, U; Möller, J

    2017-09-04

    Fall injuries are stressful and painful and they have a range of serious consequences for older people. While there is some clinical evidence of unintentional poisoning by medication following a severe fall injuries, population-based studies on that association are lacking. This is investigated in the current study, in which attention is also paid to different clinical conditions of the injured patients. We conducted a matched case-control study of Swedish residents 60 years and older from various Swedish population-based registers. Cases defined as adverse drug events (ADE) by unintentional poisoning leading to hospitalization or death were extracted from the National Patient Register (NPR) and the Cause of Death Register from January 2006 to December 2009 (n = 4418). To each case, four controls were matched by sex, age and residential area. Information on injurious falls leading to hospitalization six months prior to the date of hospital admission or death from ADE by unintentional poisoning, and corresponding date for the controls, was extracted from the NPR. Data on clinical conditions, such as dispensed medications, comorbidity and previous fall injuries were also extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) and NPR. Effect estimates were calculated using conditional logistic regression and presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found a three-fold increased risk of unintentional poisoning by medication in the six-month period after an injurious fall (OR 3.03; 95% CI, 2.54-3.74), with the most pronounced increase 1-3 weeks immediately after (OR, 7.66; 95% CI, 4.86-12.1). In that time window, from among those hospitalized for a fall (n = 92), those who sustained an unintentional poisoning (n = 60) tended to be in poorer health condition and receive more prescribed medications than those who did not, although this was not statistically significant. Age stratified analyses revealed a higher risk of poisoning among

  13. A comparison of the Sensory Profile scores of children with autism and an age- and gender-matched sample.

    PubMed

    Brockevelt, Barbara L; Nissen, Ranelle; Schweinle, William E; Kurtz, Eric; Larson, Kyle J

    2013-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects one in 88 children in the United States. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) defines ASD as a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by qualitative impairment in communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive and stereotyped behavior patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with autism differ in their response to sensory input relative to typically developing age- and gender-matched peers. The Sensory Profile (SP) is a 125-item caregiver questionnaire designed to measure a child's ability to process sensory information and to profile the effect of sensory processing on daily life activity. The results of the SP of 21 participants with autism ages 3 to 9 years were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of typically developing children. Significant differences were found across all four SP quadrants (Registration, Seeking, Sensitivity, and Avoiding) as well as eight of the nine SP factor scores. This study adds to the evidence indicating that children with autism process and respond to sensory input differently than typically-developing peers. The findings from this study support previous research findings that sensory processing differences exist between children with ASD and their typically-developing peers, as measured by the SP.

  14. The gender gap in depressive symptoms among Japanese elders: evaluating social support and health as mediating factors.

    PubMed

    Tiedt, Andrew D

    2010-09-01

    Depression has been described as the world's most prevalent illness and a leading cause of disability across age groups. The global literature on aging and depression reports greater prevalence of depressive symptoms among women than men. This research applies data from the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging to the gender gap in depressive symptoms reported by Japanese elders. This study takes the position that cultural norms centered on obligations to care determine both the prevalence of social support and its application by family members. Since gender is the lens through which social and cultural expectations are filtered, the experiences of men and women are distinguished from one another. This study hypothesized that coresidency and filial obligations should protect elders from depression. At the same time, combative relationships within households were posited to aggravate depressive symptoms among mothers-in-law and daughters-in-law. Weak social support networks, as captured through not being married, living alone and lack of community contact were also hypothesized to exacerbate isolation and heighten depressive symptoms. The analyses found that receipt of support both protected elders as well as worsened depressive symptoms. While women reported greater frequency of depressive symptoms overall, results indicated that men experienced a larger effect of decreased mobility and transitions to poor physical health on depressive symptoms than women.

  15. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2 ± 3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P < 0.01) and LV ejection fraction was higher (P < 0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging revealed an augmented LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P < 0.001) and longitudinal 2D strain was 12% higher (P < 0.05), in VPG. In VPG, resting heart rate was lower (6 bpm, P < 0.05), and VO2max was higher (18%, P < 0.05). In addition, RHI was 21% higher (P < 0.05) in VPG. VPG also had lower body mass index (P < 0.05), body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P < 0.01). Lifelong participation in football training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  16. Disability life expectancy for the elderly, city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000: gender and educational differences.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Machado, Carla Jorge; do Nascimento Rodrigues, Roberto

    2007-05-01

    There is evidence that 'health life expectancy' (expected number of years to be lived in health) differs by socioeconomic status. Time spent in health or disability plays a critical role in the use of health care services. The objective of this study was to estimate 'disability life expectancy' by age, gender and education attainment for the elderly of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2000. Data came from the SABE database, population censuses and mortality statistics (SEADE Foundation). Life expectancy with disability was calculated using Sullivan's method on the basis of the current probability of death and prevalence of disability by educational level. The prevalence of disability increased with age, for both sexes and both levels of educational attainment studied. Men showed a lower prevalence of disability, in general, and persons with lower educational attainment showed a higher prevalence of disability. Regarding life expectancy, women could expect to live longer than men, with and without disability. For both sexes, the percentage of life expectancy lived with disability decreased with increasing educational attainment. With increasing educational attainment, the sex differences in the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased for most ages. Finally, the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased with age for males and females, except for males with high educational attainment between the ages 70-75 and 75-80. The results may serve as a guide for public policies in the country, since health problems faced by older persons, such as disability, are the result of a number of past experiences during their life-times, such as health care, housing conditions, hygiene practices and education. Education influences health behaviours and is related, to some extent, to all these factors. Therefore, improvements in education for the disadvantaged may improve health.

  17. Gender differences in the associations of life satisfaction with family and social relations among the Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the associations of life satisfaction with family and social relations among the Japanese elderly. Ordered logit models were estimated to explain life satisfaction with a rich set of explanatory variables, using micro data of 3,277 elderly Japanese adults (1,679 men and 1,598 women) collected from the first-wave sample from the Japanese Study of Aging and Retirement (JSTAR). This study found that men are less satisfied with life when living without their spouse; women are less satisfied with life when they live and/or have close relations with their parents-in-law; coresidence with an unmarried son is negatively associated with life satisfaction for both men and women; and, a larger number of friends and social activities enhance life satisfaction for women but not for men. Men are more sensitive than women to overall family relations, while the relative importance of social relations is higher for women. These results confirmed gender differences in the associations of life satisfaction with family and social relations in Japan-a nation characterized by a gender-asymmetric society and multi-generational family settings.

  18. A comparative biomarker study of 514 matched cases of male and female breast cancer reveals gender-specific biological differences.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Abeer M; Ball, Graham R; Brannan, Rebecca A; Cserni, Gabor; Di Benedetto, Anna; Dent, Jo; Fulford, Laura; Honarpisheh, Helen; Jordan, Lee; Jones, J Louise; Kanthan, Rani; Maraqa, Loaie; Litwiniuk, Maria; Mottolese, Marcella; Pollock, Steven; Provenzano, Elena; Quinlan, Philip R; Reall, Georgina; Shousha, Sami; Stephens, Mark; Verghese, Eldo T; Walker, Rosemary A; Hanby, Andrew M; Speirs, Valerie

    2012-06-01

    Male breast cancer remains understudied despite evidence of rising incidence. Using a co-ordinated multi-centre approach, we present the first large scale biomarker study to define and compare hormone receptor profiles and survival between male and female invasive breast cancer. We defined and compared hormone receptor profiles and survival between 251 male and 263 female breast cancers matched for grade, age, and lymph node status. Tissue microarrays were immunostained for ERα, ERβ1, -2, -5, PR, PRA, PRB and AR, augmented by HER2, CK5/6, 14, 18 and 19 to assist typing. Hierarchical clustering determined differential nature of influences between genders. Luminal A was the most common phenotype in both sexes. Luminal B and HER2 were not seen in males. Basal phenotype was infrequent in both. No differences in overall survival at 5 or 10 years were observed between genders. Notably, AR-positive luminal A male breast cancer had improved overall survival over female breast cancer at 5 (P = 0.01, HR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.26-0.87) but not 10 years (P = 0.29, HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.46-1.26) and both 5 (P = 0.04, HR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.07-0.97) and 10 years (P = 0.04, HR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.12-0.97) in the unselected group. Hierarchical clustering revealed common clusters between genders including total PR-PRA-PRB and ERβ1/2 clusters. A striking feature was the occurrence of ERα on distinct clusters between genders. In female breast cancer, ERα clustered with PR and its isoforms; in male breast cancer, ERα clustered with ERβ isoforms and AR. Our data supports the hypothesis that breast cancer is biologically different in males and females suggesting implications for clinical management. With the incidence of male breast cancer increasing this provides impetus for further study.

  19. Age and Gender Differences in Body Attitudes: A Comparison of Young and Elderly Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzoi, Stephen L.; Koehler, Virginia

    1998-01-01

    The attitudes of young and elderly adults toward their own bodies were investigated; subjects (N=274) rated 35 aspects of their bodies. Elderly subjects expressed less positive attitudes toward bodily functioning and attractiveness. Some sex differences and areas in which age differences are reversed are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  20. Gender-related Differences in Maximum Gait Speed and Daily Physical Activity in Elderly Hospitalized Cardiac Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P.; Watanabe, Satoshi; Hirano, Yasuyuki; Matsushima, Shinya; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Oka, Koichiro; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto; Brubaker, Peter H.; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Akashi, Yoshihiro J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maximum gait speed and physical activity (PA) relate to mortality and morbidity, but little is known about gender-related differences in these factors in elderly hospitalized cardiac inpatients. This study aimed to determine differences in maximum gait speed and daily measured PA based on sex and the relationship between these measures in elderly cardiac inpatients. A consecutive 268 elderly Japanese cardiac inpatients (mean age, 73.3 years) were enrolled and divided by sex into female (n = 75, 28%) and male (n = 193, 72%) groups. Patient characteristics and maximum gait speed, average step count, and PA energy expenditure (PAEE) in kilocalorie per day for 2 days assessed by accelerometer were compared between groups. Gait speed correlated positively with in-hospital PA measured by average daily step count (r = 0.46, P < 0.001) and average daily PAEE (r = 0.47, P < 0.001) in all patients. After adjustment for left ventricular ejection fraction, step counts and PAEE were significantly lower in females than males (2651.35 ± 1889.92 vs 4037.33 ± 1866.81 steps, P < 0.001; 52.74 ± 51.98 vs 99.33 ± 51.40 kcal, P < 0.001), respectively. Maximum gait speed was slower and PA lower in elderly female versus male inpatients. Minimum gait speed and step count values in this study might be minimum target values for elderly male and female Japanese cardiac inpatients. PMID:25789953

  1. Outsourcing Elderly Care to Migrant Workers: The Impact of Gender and Class on the Experience of Male Employers

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Ester; Scrinzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    This article, based on semi-structured interviews, addresses masculinity in the international division of reproductive labour through an analysis of the impact of gender and class on the outsourcing of elderly care services to migrant care workers. In the Italian context, characterised by a limited provision of long-term care services and by cash-for-care benefits, the strategies of men as employers of migrant care workers are shaped by class and gender. The outsourcing of care to migrant workers reproduces hegemonic masculinity in so far as male employers are able to withdraw from the ‘dirty work’. At the same time, men engage with tasks which are, in principle, kept at a distance. The employers’ family status, combined with their class background, are crucial factors in shaping the heterogeneity of men’s experiences as employers and managers of care labour, and the ways in which they make sense of their masculinity. PMID:27041775

  2. Time-motion, tactical and technical analysis in top-level karatekas according to gender, match outcome and weight categories.

    PubMed

    Tabben, Montassar; Coquart, Jeremy; Chaabène, Helmi; Franchini, Emerson; Ghoul, Nihel; Tourny, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the time-motion (i.e., fighting, preparatory and breaking activity), technical (i.e., attack, timed-attack, counterattack, blocking and grasps) and tactical (i.e., upper limb, lower-limb, combination and throwing) profiles of the senior top-level karate competition played under the most recent rules of the International Karate Federation in relation to gender, match outcome and weight categories. Time-motion, tactical actions and technical executions were investigated of senior karatekas (n = 60) during the Karate World Championship. The referee's decisions caused an overall activity-to-break ratio of ~1:1.5 with a significant difference (P = 0.025) between karateka's weight categories (light = 1:1.5; middle = 1:2 and heavy = 1:1). High-intensity actions (i.e., attack and defensive actions performed quickly and powerfully) were higher in male compared to female athletes. Top-level karatekas used upper limb techniques more than lower limb ones, with both applied in the head more than in the body. For the high-intensity-actions to pause ratio and the percentage of combined techniques, light weight category was significantly higher than middle weight category. These findings suggest that training programs may need to be specific to the requirements of the gender and weight categories.

  3. [New tools for the management of renal function in the elderly: Berlin Initiative Study equation and hematocrit, urea and gender formulae].

    PubMed

    Heras, Manuel; Fernández-Reyes, María José

    2016-05-20

    In the last few years a debate has emerged on the range of normal renal function in the elderly, and if every elderly person with a glomerular filtration rate estimated using formulas (Cockroft-Gault, MDRD, CKD-EPI) of less than 60ml/min/1.73m(2) has kidney disease. In this review we analysed, based on the results of the study Elderly people with chronic kidney disease of the Hospital de Segovia, the new equations to measure kidney function in the elderly: the Berlin Initiative Study equation designed to estimate the glomerular filtration rate in people aged 70 or more, and the hematocrit, urea and gender formula to establish whether an elderly person with a glomerular filtration rate lower than 60mL/min/1.73m(2) has kidney disease.

  4. Relationship between gender, income and education and self-perceived oral health among elderly Mexicans. An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Palacios, Rosa Diana; Ramírez-Amador, Velia; Jarillo-Soto, Edgar Carlos; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between sociodemographic factors and self-perceived oral health (SPOH) among the elderly. A cross-sectional, exploratory examination of 150 elderly subjects whose ages ranged from 60-86 was conducted. These subjects used the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) to assess their SPOH. In addition, sociodemographic data were collected from study participants. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test, the examination of odds ratio (OR) of logistic regression analysis, the chi-square test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index for the study participants was 20.1 ± 5.8; 21.3% of subjects were edentulous, and 69.3% of subjects wore removable dentures. 62.7% of study participants had poor SPOH (defined as GOHAI score <44). Poor SPOH was significantly more frequent among males (OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.03-7.13, p < 0.05), low-income individuals (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3 -5.8, p < 0.01), and subjects with less education (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.1-4.6, p < 0.05) than among the overall subject population. The findings suggest that gender (male), low income and low educational levels have a significant influence on the self-perceived oral health status of elderly individuals, irrespective of tooth loss.

  5. Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  6. A comparison of risperidone and haloperidol for the risk of ischemic stroke in the elderly: a propensity score-matched cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ju-Young; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Lee, Joongyub; Park, Mi-Ju; Lee, Shin Haeng; Park, Byung-Joo

    2015-08-01

    With an increase in antipsychotic use in the elderly, the safety profile of antipsychotics has been emphasized. Strong concerns have been raised about whether the risk of ischemic stroke differs between risperidone and haloperidol. This study compared the risk of ischemic stroke between elderly patients taking risperidone and haloperidol. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database, applying a propensity-matched analysis. The cohort consisted of elderly patients who were newly prescribed haloperidol or risperidone between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2009. Patients with prior cerebrovascular diseases (ICD-10, I60-I69), transient ischemic attack (ICD-10, G45), or cerebral tumors (ICD-10, C31) during 365 days prior to the initiation date were excluded. The study subjects were selected by propensity score matching. The outcome was defined as the first hospitalization for ischemic stroke (ICD-10, I63). Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for ischemic stroke with haloperidol compared with risperidone use. A total of 14,103 patients were included in the propensity-matched cohort for each drug. Overall, the incidence rate was higher for haloperidol users compared to the risperidone users (6.43 per 1000 person-years vs. 2.88 per 1000 person-years). A substantially increased risk was observed in haloperidol users (adjusted HR = 2.02, 95% CI, 1.12-3.62). The evidence showed that haloperidol should be prescribed in the elderly with caution. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  8. Surgery for meningioma in the elderly and long-term survival: comparison with an age- and sex-matched general population and with younger patients.

    PubMed

    Brokinkel, Benjamin; Holling, Markus; Spille, Dorothee Cäcilia; Heß, Katharina; Sauerland, Cristina; Bleimüller, Caroline; Paulus, Werner; Wölfer, Johannes; Stummer, Walter

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare long-term prognosis after meningioma surgery in elderly and younger patients as well as to compare survival of elderly patients with surgically treated meningioma to survival rates for the general population. METHODS Five hundred meningioma patients (median follow-up 90 months) who underwent surgery between 1994 and 2009 were subdivided into "elderly" (age ≥ 65 years, n = 162) and "younger" (age < 65 years, n = 338) groups for uni- and multivariate analyses. Mortality was compared with rates for the age- and sex-matched general population. RESULTS The median age at diagnosis was 71 in the elderly group and 51 years in the younger group. Sex, intracranial tumor location, grade of resection, radiotherapy, and histopathological subtypes were similar in the 2 groups. High-grade (WHO Grades II and III) and spinal tumors were more common in older patients than in younger patients (15% vs 8%, p = 0.017, and 12% vs 4%, p = 0.001, respectively). The progression-free interval (PFI) was similar in the 2 groups, whereas mortality at 3 months after surgery was higher and median overall survival (OS) was shorter in older patients (7%, 191 months) than in younger patients (1%, median not reached; HR 4.9, 95% CI 2.75-8.74; p < 0.001). Otherwise, the median OS in elderly patients did not differ from the anticipated general life expectancy (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.70-1.50; p = 0.886). Within the older patient group, PFI was lower in patients with high-grade meningiomas (HR 24.74, 95% CI 4.23-144.66; p < 0.001) and after subtotal resection (HR 10.57, 95% CI 2.23-50.05; p = 0.003). Although extent of resection was independent of perioperative mortality, the median OS was longer after gross-total resection than after subtotal resection (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.09-6.69; p = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS Elderly patients with surgically treated meningioma do not suffer from impaired survival compared with the age-matched general population, and their PFI is

  9. ["Doing gender" in a nursing home for the elderly : Perspectives of staff and management].

    PubMed

    Reitinger, Elisabeth; Lehner, Erich; Pichler, Barbara; Heimerl, Katharina

    2016-12-01

    "Doing gender" plays an important role in nursing interactions in long-term care settings. The aim of this article is to focus on the experiences of staff and management in a long-term care setting on the social categorization of gender and to reflect and discuss these findings against already existing research. Within a qualitative study, one to one interviews and group discussions with a total of 28 participants were conducted. The results show how "doing gender" as a social practice effects interactions with residents, within the working team and in the context of management and hierarchy in the long-term care setting. In interactions with residents, gender-specific behavior can be observed. Within the working team gender-specific differences with respect to division of labor and working hours are reported. Concerning management and hierarchy it can be observed that male executives react more strongly in correspondence with the expectations of their gender role whereas female executives show more discrepancies between the expectations towards their position and gender role.

  10. Gender-specific impact of personal health parameters on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Katja; Ristow, Michael; Gaser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function. Personal health markers and modifiable lifestyle factors are related to individual brain aging as well as to the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study used a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarker to assess the effects of 17 health markers on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE) score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for developing AD. Within this cross-sectional, multi-center study 228 cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects (118 males) completed an MRI at 1.5Tesla, physiological and blood parameter assessments. The multivariate regression model combining all measured parameters was capable of explaining 39% of BrainAGE variance in males (p < 0.001) and 32% in females (p < 0.01). Furthermore, markers of the metabolic syndrome as well as markers of liver and kidney functions were profoundly related to BrainAGE scores in males (p < 0.05). In females, markers of liver and kidney functions as well as supply of vitamin B12 were significantly related to BrainAGE (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects several clinical markers of poor health were associated with subtle structural changes in the brain that reflect accelerated aging, whereas protective effects on brain aging were observed for markers of good health. Additionally, the relations between individual brain aging and miscellaneous health markers show gender-specific patterns. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of subtly abnormal patterns of brain aging probably preceding cognitive decline and development of AD. PMID:24904408

  11. Exploring gender perceptions of risk of HIV infection and related behaviour among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa, Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious

    2016-12-01

    The literature shows that there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of transmission of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS. These stem from sexual behaviour and socially constructed 'gender' differences between women and men in roles and responsibilities. Despite the fact that numerous gender-related sociocultural factors influence HIV/AIDS protective behaviours, little gender specificity is included in HIV prevention among the elderly. In order to close this gap, this study explored gender-related perceptions of risk of HIV infection among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa in Gauteng Province, South Africa. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to conduct three focus group interviews with 22 women and 10 men who were above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that both genders blame each other for the spreading of HIV/AIDS. Male participants displayed the tendency to have multiple partners, whereas females accepted that males are promiscuous. Mixed perceptions about disclosure of HIV status were found. Condom use was a challenge, as men did not know how to introduce it with their wives, and some female participants indicated that men are resistant to using condoms. The elderly men also believed that women will have sex in exchange for money. It is concluded that there is a need for substantial behaviour change among both elderly males and females, which should address gender power relations. More in-depth and extensive research in this area is recommended.

  12. Gender inequality in self-reported health among the elderly in contemporary welfare countries: A cross-country analysis of time use activities, socioeconomic positions and family characteristics.

    PubMed

    Adjei, Nicholas Kofi; Brand, Tilman; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    Paradoxically, despite their longer life expectancy, women report poorer health than men. Time devoted to differing social roles could be an explanation for the observed gender differences in health among the elderly. The objective of this study was to explain gender differences in self-reported health among the elderly by taking time use activities, socio-economic positions, family characteristics and cross-national differences into account. Data from the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS) on 13,223 men and 18,192 women from Germany, Italy, Spain, UK and the US were analyzed. Multiple binary logistic regression models were used to examine the association between social factors and health for men and women separately. We further identified the relative contribution of different factors to total gender inequality in health using the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method. Whereas time allocated to paid work, housework and active leisure activities were positively associated with health, time devoted to passive leisure and personal activities were negatively associated with health among both men and women, but the magnitude of the association varied by gender and country. We found significant gender differences in health in Germany, Italy and Spain, but not in the other countries. The decomposition showed that differences in the time allocated to active leisure and level of educational attainment accounted for the largest health gap. Our study represents a first step in understanding cross-national differences in the association between health status and time devoted to role-related activities among elderly men and women. The results, therefore, demonstrate the need of using an integrated framework of social factors in analyzing and explaining the gender and cross-national differences in the health of the elderly population.

  13. Psychometric properties of the Symptom Checklist-90 in adolescent psychiatric inpatients and age- and gender-matched community youth.

    PubMed

    Rytilä-Manninen, Minna; Fröjd, Sari; Haravuori, Henna; Lindberg, Nina; Marttunen, Mauri; Kettunen, Kirsi; Therman, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) is a questionnaire that is widely used to measure subjective psychopathology. In this study we investigated the psychometric properties of the SCL-90 among adolescent inpatients and community youth matched on age and gender. The final SCL-90 respondents comprised three subsets: 201 inpatients at admission, of whom 152 also completed the instrument at discharge, and 197 controls. The mean age at baseline was 15.0 years (SD 1.2), and 73 % were female. Differential SCL-90 item functioning between the three subsets was assessed with an iterative algorithm, and the presence of multidimensionality was assessed with a number of methods. Confirmatory factor analyses for ordinal items compared three latent factor models: one dimension, nine correlated dimensions, and a one-plus-nine bifactor model. Sensitivity to change was assessed with the bifactor model's general factor scores at admission and discharge. The accuracy of this factor in detecting the need for treatment used, as a gold standard, psychiatric diagnoses based on clinical records and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) interview. Item measurement properties were largely invariant across subsets under the unidimensional model, with standardized factor scores at admission being 0.04 higher than at discharge and 0.06 higher than those of controls. Determination of the empirical number of factors was inconclusive, reflecting a strong main factor and some multidimensionality. The unidimensional factor model had very good fit, but the bifactor model offered an overall improvement, though subfactors accounted for little item variance. The SCL-90s ability to identify those with and without a psychiatric disorder was good (AUC = 83 %, Glass's Δ = 1.4, Cohen's d = 1.1, diagnostic odds ratio 12.5). Scores were also fairly sensitive to change between admission and discharge (AUC 72 %, Cohen's d = 0

  14. Serum leptin levels in the elderly: relationship with gender and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Smirnoff, P; Almiral-Seliger, D; Schwartz, B

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of whether, there is a positive correlation between serum leptin levels, and BMI or/ nutritional status in the elderly as reported for the younger population. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 62 elderly residents of a nursing home in Israel, and the subjects were divided into three different categories according to BMI. Serum leptin and other biochemical parameters were assessed. Correlation was calculated by the Pearson's correlation coefficients and statistical analysis by paired Student's t test. The relationship of BMI, leptin levels and nutritional status was determined. Significant differences between men and women were obtained for weight, total energy intake, carbohydrates, cholesterol and leptin. Serum leptin levels in women were three times higher than in men and higher compared with to their respective parallel BMI categories in men. A positive correlated scattering between BMI and leptin levels (r=0.65, p< 0.0001) was shown only for the different BMI categories in women. In the elderly, as in the young population, a positive correlation was obtained for BMI and leptin. In addition, significantly higher differences in circulating leptin were found in the women compared with the consistently low levels found in the men. The results suggest that female hormones do not play a significant role in determining serum leptin levels.

  15. Health aspects, nutrition and physical characteristics in matched samples of institutionalized vegetarian and non-vegetarian elderly (> 65yrs).

    PubMed

    Deriemaeker, Peter; Aerenhouts, Dirk; De Ridder, Dolf; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-06-14

    Epidemiological studies indicate that a well balanced vegetarian diet offers several health benefits including a lower prevalence of prosperity diseases in vegetarians compared to omnivores. It was the purpose of the present study to compare nutritional and physical characteristics in matched samples of institutionalized vegetarian (V) and non-vegetarian (NV) elderly. Twenty-two female and 7 male V (females: 84.1 ± 5.1yrs, males: 80.5 ± 7.5yrs) and 23 female and 7 male NV (females: 84.3 ± 5.0yrs, males: 80.6 ± 7.3yrs) participated. All subjects were over 65 years of age, and free of major disease or physical handicap. Dietary intake, blood profile, anthropometrics, and handgrip strength were determined. Mean daily energy intake was 6.8 ± 2.0MJ in V females, and 8.0 ± 1.4MJ in the NV females, only the V did not reach the recommended value of 7.8 MJ. Male V and NV had a mean daily energy intake of 8.7 ± 1.6MJ and 8.7 ± 1.2MJ respectively (RDI: 8.8 MJ). Mean carbohydrate intake was significantly below the RDI in NV only (female V: 47.8 ± 7.5E%, female NV: 43.3 ± 4.6E%, male V: 48.1 ± 6.4E%, male NV: 42.3 ± 3.6E%), while protein (female V: 17.3 ± 3.4E%, female NV: 19.5 ± 3.5E%, male V: 17.8 ± 3.4E%, male NV: 21.0 ± 2.0E%), and saturated fat intake (female V: 25.4 ± 8.2 g/day, female NV: 32.2 ± 6.9 g/day, male V: 31.4 ± 12.9 g/day, male NV: 33.4 ± 4.7 g/day) were too high in both V and NV. Mean micronutrient intakes met the RDI's in all 4 groups. Mean blood concentrations for vitamin B12, folic acid, iron, and calcium were normal in all 4 groups. Mean zinc blood serum was below the reference value in all groups, whereas estimated zinc intake was in agreement with the RDI. The mean blood cholesterol concentration was above the 200 mg/dl upper limit in the V group (213 ± 40 mg/dl) and below that limit in the NV (188 ± 33 mg/dl) group. Mean BMI was 26.1 ± 4.7 kg/m2 in the female V, 26.8 ± 3.7 kg/m2 in the female NV, 23.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2 in the male V

  16. Health aspects, nutrition and physical characteristics in matched samples of institutionalized vegetarian and non-vegetarian elderly (> 65yrs)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies indicate that a well balanced vegetarian diet offers several health benefits including a lower prevalence of prosperity diseases in vegetarians compared to omnivores. It was the purpose of the present study to compare nutritional and physical characteristics in matched samples of institutionalized vegetarian (V) and non-vegetarian (NV) elderly. Methods Twenty-two female and 7 male V (females: 84.1 ± 5.1yrs, males: 80.5 ± 7.5yrs) and 23 female and 7 male NV (females: 84.3 ± 5.0yrs, males: 80.6 ± 7.3yrs) participated. All subjects were over 65 years of age, and free of major disease or physical handicap. Dietary intake, blood profile, anthropometrics, and handgrip strength were determined. Results Mean daily energy intake was 6.8 ± 2.0MJ in V females, and 8.0 ± 1.4MJ in the NV females, only the V did not reach the recommended value of 7.8 MJ. Male V and NV had a mean daily energy intake of 8.7 ± 1.6MJ and 8.7 ± 1.2MJ respectively (RDI: 8.8 MJ). Mean carbohydrate intake was significantly below the RDI in NV only (female V: 47.8 ± 7.5E%, female NV: 43.3 ± 4.6E%, male V: 48.1 ± 6.4E%, male NV: 42.3 ± 3.6E%), while protein (female V: 17.3 ± 3.4E%, female NV: 19.5 ± 3.5E%, male V: 17.8 ± 3.4E%, male NV: 21.0 ± 2.0E%), and saturated fat intake (female V: 25.4 ± 8.2 g/day, female NV: 32.2 ± 6.9 g/day, male V: 31.4 ± 12.9 g/day, male NV: 33.4 ± 4.7 g/day) were too high in both V and NV. Mean micronutrient intakes met the RDI's in all 4 groups. Mean blood concentrations for vitamin B12, folic acid, iron, and calcium were normal in all 4 groups. Mean zinc blood serum was below the reference value in all groups, whereas estimated zinc intake was in agreement with the RDI. The mean blood cholesterol concentration was above the 200 mg/dl upper limit in the V group (213 ± 40 mg/dl) and below that limit in the NV (188 ± 33 mg/dl) group. Mean BMI was 26.1 ± 4.7 kg/m2 in the female V, 26.8 ± 3.7 kg/m2 in the female NV, 23.5

  17. The Impact of Matching Vaccine Strains and Post-SARS Public Health Efforts on Reducing Influenza-Associated Mortality among the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Hsiao, Chuhsing Kate; Lee, Chang-Chun; Chiang, Po-Huang; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Liu, Chung-Ming; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2010-01-01

    Public health administrators do not have effective models to predict excess influenza-associated mortality and monitor viral changes associated with it. This study evaluated the effect of matching/mismatching vaccine strains, type/subtype pattern changes in Taiwan's influenza viruses, and the impact of post-SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) public health efforts on excess influenza-associated mortalities among the elderly. A negative binomial model was developed to estimate Taiwan's monthly influenza-associated mortality among the elderly. We calculated three winter and annual excess influenza-associated mortalities [pneumonia and influenza (P&I), respiratory and circulatory, and all-cause] from the 1999–2000 through the 2006–2007 influenza seasons. Obtaining influenza virus sequences from the months/years in which death from P&I was excessive, we investigated molecular variation in vaccine-mismatched influenza viruses by comparing hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) of the circulating and vaccine strains. We found that the higher the isolation rate of A (H3N2) and vaccine-mismatched influenza viruses, the greater the monthly P&I mortality. However, this significant positive association became negative for higher matching of A (H3N2) and public health efforts with post-SARS effect. Mean excess P&I mortality for winters was significantly higher before 2003 than after that year [mean ± S.D.: 1.44±1.35 vs. 0.35±1.13, p = 0.04]. Further analysis revealed that vaccine-matched circulating influenza A viruses were significantly associated with lower excess P&I mortality during post-SARS winters (i.e., 2005–2007) than during pre-SARS winters [0.03±0.06 vs. 1.57±1.27, p = 0.01]. Stratification of these vaccine-matching and post-SARS effect showed substantial trends toward lower elderly excess P&I mortalities in winters with either mismatching vaccines during the post-SARS period or matching vaccines during the pre-SARS period. Importantly, all three excess

  18. Gender Differences in Functional Health and Mortality Among the Chinese Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kaneda, Toshiko; Zimmer, Zachary; Fang, Xianghua; Tang, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors focused on older adults in Beijing with three objectives: to examine gender differences in functional health and mortality at the end of a five-year study period, controlling for initial functional health; to determine the extent to which these differences were a function of exposure versus vulnerability to risk factors; and to analyze the relative importance of social, economic, and psychological risk factors in explaining gender differences. The results show that women were more likely to survive and to be functionally dependent at follow-up compared with men among those functionally independent at baseline. No significant differences among those who were initially dependent were apparent. Differential vulnerability to risk factors, more so than exposure, explained the variation in health outcomes across gender. Smoking, a lack of formal education, a lack of health insurance, a low sense of control, stressful events, and rural living played large roles in explaining the differences. PMID:20703370

  19. Gender Differences in Elders' Participation in the National Cancer Screening Program: Evidence from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-12.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang-Hyun; Kim, Kyunghee; Han, Kyung-do; Kim, Ji-Su

    2015-09-01

    Cancer-screening programs are effective in reducing cancer prevalence and mortality; however, cancer remains the leading cause of death in elderly people in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with elders' participation in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and differences in screening rates by gender. Original data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The sample consisted of 5,505 elderly individuals over age 60. Selected demographic variables, cancer screening participation, physical and psychological health status, and lifestyle were examined. The NCSP participation rates decreased in both men and women as age increased. Private medical insurance (OR 95% CI: 1.04-1.78), one or more chronic disease (OR 95% CI: 1.07-1.71), and current smoker (OR 95% CI: 0.52-0.94) had the strongest associations with cancer screening participation among men after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, cancer screening participation among women was significantly associated only with living place (OR 95% CI: 1.06-2.203) after multivariate adjustment. Effective health promoting interventions for elders require individualized programs that address gender-related factors associated with elders' participation in cancer screening programs.

  20. Team social cohesion, professionalism, and patient-centeredness: Gendered care work, with special reference to elderly care - a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Öhman, Ann; Keisu, Britt-Inger; Enberg, Birgit

    2017-06-02

    Healthcare organisations are facing large demands in recruiting employees with adequate competency to care for the increasing numbers of elderly. High degrees of turnover and dissatisfaction with working conditions are common. The gendered notion of care work as 'women's work', in combination with low salaries and status, may contribute to negative work experiences. There is abundant information about the negative aspects of elderly care health services, but little is known about positive aspects of this work. The study aim was to investigate work satisfaction from a gender perspective among Swedish registered nurses, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists, focusing specifically on healthcare services for the elderly. A mixed methods approach was adopted in which we combined statistics and open-ended responses from a national survey with qualitative research interviews with healthcare professionals in elderly care organisations. The survey was administered to a random sample of 1578 registered nurses, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists. Qualitative interviews with 17 professionals were conducted in six elderly care facilities. Qualitative and quantitative content analyses, chi(2) and constructivist grounded theory were used to analyse the data. There was a statistically significant difference in overall work satisfaction between those who worked in elderly care and those who did not (64 and 74,4% respectively, p <0.001). Nine themes were derived from open-ended responses in the questionnaire. The qualitative interviews revealed four prominent storylines: 'Team social cohesion', 'Career development and autonomy', 'Client-centeredness', and 'Invisible and ignored power structures'. The results show the complexity of elderly care work and describe several aspects that are important for work satisfaction among health professionals. The results reveal that work satisfaction is dependent on social interrelations and cohesion in the work team, in

  1. Judgments of Elderly and Young Clients as Functions of Gender and Interview Behaviors: Implications for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matyi, Cindy L.; Drevenstedt, Jean

    1989-01-01

    College students (N=375) listened to taped segments of a counseling interview concerning a spouse's drinking problem with tapes varying client's age, gender, and cognitive behaviors. Found no main or interaction effects of age on subjects' ratings of client behaviors; female clients were perceived as having better memory and greater alertness than…

  2. In healthy young and elderly adults, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity (HPA AR) varies with increasing pharmacological challenge and with age, but not with gender.

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, Martin; Brand, Serge; Herzig, Natalie; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2011-10-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity (HPA AR) is the key indicator of the psychophysiological response to stress. The HPA AR may vary with age and gender. To investigate these factors concurrently, the aims of the present study were to observe HPA AR (plasma ACTH and plasma cortisol) in response to a pharmacological challenge (dexamethasone/corticotropin releasing hormone test: DEX/CRH-test) and as a function of age and gender. 19 young (10 females and 9 males; mean age = 24.05 years) and 23 elderly (11 females and 12 males; mean age = 71.61 years) healthy volunteers took part in the study. To assess HPA AR, participants underwent the combined DEX/CRH test applied with the following DEX doses: 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg, respectively. A dose-dependent response was observed in young adult participants, but not in elderly participants. With increasing DEX doses, ACTH and cortisol values decreased in young adult participants, while the decrease was blunted among elderly compared to young adult participants. No differences were observed for gender. Results point to diminished HPA axis sensitivity as an effect of normal aging, irrespective of gender. Therefore, altered HPA regulation in old age should be taken into account for developing new therapeutic approaches acting on the HPA axis and its receptor mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinimetric Testing in Mexican Elders: Associations with Age, Gender, and Place of Residence

    PubMed Central

    Tavano-Colaizzi, Lorena; Arroyo, Pedro; Loria, Alvar; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the ability of five clinimetric instruments to discriminate between subjects >60 years of age living at home versus those living in a residency. Methods: Trained nutritionists applied five instruments (cognition/depression/functionality/nutrition/appetite) to 285 subjects with majorities of women (64%), aged <80 years (61%), and home residents (54%). Results: Multivariable regression models were generated for each instrument using age, gender, and residency as independent variables. Age was associated with worsening scores in the five instruments whereas residency showed association in three instruments, and gender in two. Score-age regressions by place of residency showed differences suggesting that Mundet residents had increasingly worse scores with increasing age than home dwellers for cognition, depression, and nutrition. Also, living at home prevented the worsening of depression with increasing age. In contrast, functionality and appetite deteriorated at a similar rate for home and Mundet residents suggesting an inability of these two instruments to discriminate between settings. Score-age regressions by gender suggested that males have less cognitive problems at 60 and 80 years of age but not at 100 years, and better appetite than women at all ages. Conclusion: Increasing age proved to be associated to worsening scores in the five instruments but only three were able to detect differences according to setting. An interesting observation was that living at home appeared to prevent the depression increase with increasing age seen in Mundet residents. PMID:25593910

  4. Pure Laparoscopic Versus Open Liver Resection for Primary Liver Carcinoma in Elderly Patients: A Single-Center, Case-Matched Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Tao; Wang, Hong-Guang; Duan, Wei-Dong; Wu, Cong-Ying; Chen, Ming-Yi; Li, Hao; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Fu-Bo; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2015-10-01

    Pure laparoscopic liver resection (PLLR) has been reported to be as safe and effective as open liver resection (OLR) for liver lesions, and it is associated with less intraoperative blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and lower complication rate. However, studies comparing PLLR with OLR in elderly patients were limited. The aim of this study was to analyze the short-term outcome of PLLR versus OLR for primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in elderly patients.Between January 2008 and October 2014, 30 consecutive elderly patients (≥70 years) who underwent PLLR for PLC were included into analysis. Sixty patients who received OLR for PLC during the same study period were also included as a case-matched control group. Patients were well matched in terms of age, sex, comorbid illness, Child Pugh class, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, tumor size, tumor location, and extent of hepatectomy.No significant differences were observed with regard to patient preoperative baseline status, median tumor size (Group PLLR 4.0 cm vs Group OLR 5.0 cm, P = 0.125), tumor location, extent of hepatectomy, and operation time (Group PLLR 133 minutes vs Group OLR 170 minutes, P = 0.073). Compared with OLR, the PLLR group displayed a significantly less frequent Pringle maneuver application (10.0% vs 70.0%, P < 0.001), less blood loss (100 vs 300 mL; P < 0.001), shorter hospital stay (5 vs 10 days; P < 0.001), and lower total hospitalization cost ($9147.50 vs $10,867.10, P = 0.008). The postoperative complication rates were similar between groups (Group PLLR 10.0% vs Group OLR 16.7%; P = 0.532). There was no hospital mortality in both groups.PLLR for PLC is as safe and feasible as OLR, but with less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and lower hospitalization cost for selected elderly patients.

  5. Gender-specific association between metabolic syndrome and decreased glomerular filtration rate in elderly population.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jia; Guo, Chen-Xian; Lu, Ming-Gen; Lu, Yao; Huang, Yun; Liu, Xing; Li, Ying; Huang, Zhi-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yuan, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and chronic kidney disease in the elderly. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the sex-specific association between MS and decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a Chinese elderly population. We performed cross-sectional analyses of older (age ≥60 years) males (n = 19,015) and females (n = 23,310) classified as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 component(s) or MS group based on the presenting MS component(s). Sex-specific relationship of decreased GFR with MS component(s) was analyzed by logistic regression models. Compared with participants with 0 component of MS, males with 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 component(s) had 1.40-, 1.79-, 2.41-, 3.29-, and 4.09-fold risks for decreased GFR; females with 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 component(s) had 1.65-, 1.71-, 1.88-, 2.32-, and 1.96-fold risks for decreased GFR, respectively. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for decreased GFR in males and females with MS compared with those without MS were 1.79 and 1.25, respectively. For participants without hypertension and diabetes, the association of MS with decreased GFR was still significant. In this study of 42,325 Chinese participants aged ≥60 years, MS was significantly associated with decreased GFR, and the association was more profound for males than females.

  6. Is female gender as harmful as bacteria? analysis of hospital admissions for urinary tract infections in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Fabbian, Fabio; De Giorgi, Alfredo; López-Soto, Pablo Jesús; Pala, Marco; Tiseo, Ruana; Cultrera, Rosario; Gallerani, Massimo; Manfredini, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial diseases. We related diagnosis of UTIs based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) and in-hospital mortality (IHM) in a cohort of hospitalized elderly subjects. All patients admitted between 2000 and 2013 to the general hospital of Ferrara, in northeast Italy, with ICD-9-CM code of UTIs were included. IHM was the main outcome, and age, sex, type of microorganism, sepsis, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) based on ICD-9-CM, were also analyzed. The total sample included 2,266 patients (1,670 women, 73.7%) with UTIs and identification of a cultural organism. Mean age was 81.7±7.5 years (range, 65-103). One hundred and sixteen (5.1%, of whom 34.5% were male and 65.5% were female) cases developed sepsis, and 84 (3.7%, of whom 45.2% were male, 54.8% were female) had a fatal outcome. Nonsurvivors had lower prevalence of IVUs due to Escherichia coli (53.6 vs. 71.7%, p<0.001) and higher prevalence of UTIs due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19 vs 7.1%, p<0.001). Moreover, non-survivors developed more frequently sepsis (31% vs. 4.1%, p<0.001), and had higher CCI (2.81±2.43 vs. 2.21±2.04, p=0.011). IHM was independently associated, in decreasing order of odds ratios (ORs), with sepsis (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 6.113-17.460, p<0.001), P. aeruginosa infection (OR 2.541; 95% CI 1.422-4.543, p=0.002), female gender (OR 2.324; 95% CI 1.480-3.650, p<0.001), CCI (OR 1.103; 95% CI 1.005-1.210, p=0.038), age (OR 1.034; 95% CI 1.002-1.066, p=0.036), and E. coli infection (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.320-0.780, p=0.002). In a large sample of elderly patients hospitalized for UTIs in a single center in northeastern Italy, apart the development of sepsis, IHM was much more dependent on pathogen and female gender than comorbidity index and age.

  7. Association of dietary fat intake with the risk of hip fractures in an elderly Chinese population: A matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang-fang; Xie, Hai-li; Fan, Fan; Xue, Wen-qiong; Wu, Bao-hua; Zhu, Hui-lian; Chen, Yu-ming

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between dietary fat intake and the risk of hip fractures in an elderly Chinese population. A case-control study of 646 patients with newly diagnosed hip fractures and 646 controls, matched by age (±3 years) and sex, was carried out among elderly Chinese (55-80 years) in Guangdong, China. Their dietary fat intake was measured and calculated using a 79-item food-frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for potential confounders, a dose-dependent increased risk of hip fractures was found to be associated with higher intakes of total fat, animal fat, saturated fatty acids and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P for trend < 0.005). The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for hip fractures from a comparison of extreme quartiles were 1.92 (1.26-2.92) for total fat, 2.60 (1.70-3.99) for animal fat, 1.95 (1.30-2.93) for saturated fatty acids and 2.22 (1.46-3.39) for animal mono-unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. No significant association was observed for plant fat or polyunsaturated fatty acids (P for trend = 0.063 for plant fat and 0.174 for polyunsaturated fatty acids). Our findings suggest that higher consumption of total fat and animal fat rich in saturated fatty acids might increase the risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Propensity score-matched analysis of effects of clinical characteristics and treatment on gender difference in outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Schiele, François; Meneveau, Nicolas; Seronde, Marie-France; Descotes-Genon, Vincent; Chopard, Romain; Janin, Sebastien; Briand, Florent; Guignier, Alexandre; Ecarnot, Fiona; Bassand, Jean-Pierre

    2011-09-15

    The greater mortality observed in women compared to men after acute myocardial infarction remains unexplained. Using an analysis of pairs, matched on a conditional probability of being male (propensity score), we assessed the effect of the baseline characteristics and management on 30-day mortality. Consecutive patients were included from January 2006 to December 2007. Two propensity scores (for being male) were calculated, 1 from the baseline characteristics and 1 from both the baseline characteristics and treatment. Two matched cohorts were composed using 1:1 matching and computed using the best 8 digits of the propensity score. Paired analyses were performed using conditional regression analysis. During the study period, 3,510 patients were included in the registry; 1,119 (32%) were women. Compared to the men, the women were 10 years older, had more co-morbidities, less often underwent angiography and reperfusion, and received less medical treatment. The 30-day mortality rate was 12.3% (130 of 1,060) for the women and 7.2% (167 of 2,324) for the men (p <0.001). The 2 matched populations represented 1,298 and 1,168 patients. After matching using the baseline characteristics, the only difference in treatment was a lower rate of angiography and reperfusion, with a trend toward greater 30-day mortality in women. After matching using both baseline characteristics and treatment, the 30-day mortality was similar for the men and women, suggesting that the increased use of invasive procedures in women could potentially be beneficial. In conclusion, compared to men, the 30-day mortality is greater in women and explained primarily by differences in baseline characteristics and to a lesser degree by differences in management. The difference in the use of invasive procedures persisted after matching by characteristics. In contrast, after matching using the baseline characteristics and treatment, the 30-day mortality was comparable across the genders.

  9. Death anxiety and attitudes toward the elderly among older adults: the role of gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Depaola, Stephen J; Griffin, Melody; Young, Jennie R; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2003-05-01

    The article investigated the relationship between death anxiety, attitudes toward older adults, and personal anxiety toward one's own aging in a group of 197 older men and women. As predicted, negative attitudes toward other older adults were predicted by personal anxieties about aging and death, and, more specifically, fear of the unknown. In addition, several distinctive anxieties were noted for particular subgroups of respondents. Older women scored higher on the Fear of the Dead subscale of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) than did men. Caucasian participants displayed higher Fear of the Dying Process than did older African American participants. Lastly, older African American participants reported higher levels of death anxiety on 3 of the subscales of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (Fear of the Unknown, Fear of Conscious Death, and Fear for the Body after Death) when compared with older Caucasian participants and also tended to accord less social value to the elderly. These findings are interpreted in terms of patterns of socialization, and their implications for end-of-life care preferences are noted.

  10. Immune response following H1N1pdm09 vaccination: differences in antibody repertoire and avidity in young adults and elderly populations stratified by age and gender.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Surender; Verma, Nitin; Talaat, Kawsar R; Karron, Ruth A; Golding, Hana

    2012-02-15

    The H1N1 2009 influenza (H1N1pdm09) pandemic had unexpected features, including lower morbidity and mortality in elderly populations. We performed in-depth elucidation of antibody responses generated post-H1N1pdm09 vaccination in elderly (aged 66-83 years) and younger (aged 18-45 or 46-65 years) adults using H1N1pdm09 whole-genome-fragment phage display library and measured antibody isotype and affinity to antigenic domains within hemagglutinin (HA). H1N1pdm09 vaccination induced 10-fold higher antibody levels in elderly compared with younger adults. These antibodies primarily targeted the HA1 globular domain, including neutralizing epitopes in the receptor-binding domain. Antibody epitope repertoire, isotype, and affinity maturation after H1N1pdm09 vaccination evolved independently for HA2, HA1, and HA1 N-terminus antigenic regions. Postvaccination serum samples from elderly subjects demonstrated substantially higher avidity than from younger subjects (>60% vs <30% resistance to 7 mol/L urea) and slower antibody dissociation rates using surface plasmon resonance. We also identified a gender difference in postvaccination antibody avidity (female < male subjects) in adults <65 years old. This is the first study in humans that provides evidence for a qualitatively superior antibody response in elderly adults after H1N1pdm09 vaccination. These findings may help explain the age-related mortality observed during the H1N1pdm09 pandemic. The difference in gender specific avidity merits further exploration.

  11. Age-gender matched comparison of SRS instrument scores between adult deformity and normal adults: are all SRS domains disease specific?

    PubMed

    Baldus, Christine; Bridwell, Keith H; Harrast, John; Edwards, Charles; Glassman, Steven; Horton, William; Lenke, Lawrence G; Lowe, Thomas; Mardjetko, Steve; Ondra, Stephen; Schwab, Frank; Shaffrey, Christopher

    2008-09-15

    Prospective, observational study. To further validate the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) instrument by comparing scores of adult deformity patients with no prior history of spine surgery to the scores of normal adult volunteers in age-gender matched groups. Efforts have been made to validate the SRS questionnaire in adolescent and adult deformity patients. An important psychometric attribute of any quality of life tool is its ability to discriminate between subjects with and without the condition of interest. Discriminate validity of the SRS questionnaire has not been established in the primary (no prior surgical treatment) adult deformity population. The SRS questionnaire was issued prospectively to 935 primary adult deformity patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic or de novo scoliosis and minimum Cobb angle of 30 degrees (average Cobb angle: 54 degrees; range: 30 degrees-132 degrees). Five hundred forty-three patients were treated nonsurgically while 392 patients underwent surgical intervention. Baseline SRS scores of the deformity population were compared to 1222 volunteers with no history of spine disease randomly sampled from the US population. Analysis between the 2 populations was broken down into 6 age-gender groups: male/female; 20-40, 41-60, 61-80 years of age. SRS domain scores of the deformity subgroups demonstrated significant statistical differences from their corresponding age-gender matched normative group. The only exceptions were the mental health domain in the older males, 61-80 years of age. The average SRS subscore for each age-gender subgroup was less than the tenth percentile in the corresponding normative population, indicating substantial limitations in these patients. Our findings confirm the SRS instrument has excellent discriminate validity in the adult population. It appears to be disease-specific in the domains of pain, appearance and activity in adult spinal deformity patients who have not had prior surgery.

  12. Gender Differences in Tea, Coffee, and Cognitive Decline in the Elderly: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Lenore; Biggs, Mary L.; O’Meara, Ellen S.; Longstreth, W.T.; Crane, Paul K.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2013-01-01

    Although caffeine can enhance cognitive function acutely, long-term effects of consumption of caffeine-containing beverages such as tea and coffee are uncertain. Data on 4,809 participants aged 65 and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) were used to examine the relationship of consumption of tea and coffee, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, on change in cognitive function by gender. Cognitive performance was assessed using serial Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examinations, which were administered annually up to 9 times. Linear mixed models were used to estimate rates of change in standard 3MS scores and scores modeled using item response theory (IRT). Models were adjusted for age, education, smoking status, clinic site, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease, depression score, and APOE genotype. Over the median 7.9 years of follow-up, participants who did not consume tea or coffee declined annually by an average of 1.30 points (women) and 1.11 points (men) on standard 3MS scores. In fully adjusted models using either standard or IRT 3MS scores, we found modestly reduced rates of cognitive decline for some, but not all, levels of coffee and tea consumption for women, with no consistent effect for men. Caffeine consumption was also associated with attenuation in cognitive decline in women. Dose-response relationships were not linear. These longitudinal analyses suggest a somewhat attenuated rate of cognitive decline among tea and coffee consumers compared to non-consumers in women but not in men. Whether this association is causal or due to unmeasured confounding requires further study. PMID:21841254

  13. Gender differences in tea, coffee, and cognitive decline in the elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore; Biggs, Mary L; O'Meara, Ellen S; Longstreth, W T; Crane, Paul K; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2011-01-01

    Although caffeine can enhance cognitive function acutely, long-term effects of consumption of caffeine-containing beverages such as tea and coffee are uncertain. Data on 4,809 participants aged 65 and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) were used to examine the relationship of consumption of tea and coffee, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, on change in cognitive function by gender. Cognitive performance was assessed using serial Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examinations, which were administered annually up to 9 times. Linear mixed models were used to estimate rates of change in standard 3MS scores and scores modeled using item response theory (IRT). Models were adjusted for age, education, smoking status, clinic site, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease, depression score, and APOE genotype. Over the median 7.9 years of follow-up, participants who did not consume tea or coffee declined annually an average of 1.30 points (women) and 1.11 points (men) on standard 3MS scores. In fully adjusted models using either standard or IRT 3MS scores, we found modestly reduced rates of cognitive decline for some, but not all, levels of coffee and tea consumption for women, with no consistent effect for men. Caffeine consumption was also associated with attenuation in cognitive decline in women. Dose-response relationships were not linear. These longitudinal analyses suggest a somewhat attenuated rate of cognitive decline among tea and coffee consumers compared to non-consumers in women but not in men. Whether this association is causal or due to unmeasured confounding requires further study.

  14. Increased masticatory activity and quality of life in elderly persons with dementia-a longitudinal matched cluster randomized single-blind multicenter intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, millions of people are suffering from dementia and this number is rising. An index of quality of life (QoL) can describe the impact a disease or treatment has on a person’s wellbeing. QoL comprises many variables, including physical health and function, and mental health and function. QoL is related to masticatory ability and physical activity. Animal studies show that disruption of mastication due to loss of teeth or a soft diet leads to memory loss and learning problems. Since these are common complaints in dementia, it is hypothesized that improvement of masticatory function and normalization of diet consistency can increase QoL in elderly persons suffering from dementia. Therefore, the goal of the present study is to examine whether an increase in masticatory activity, achieved by increased food consistency and enhancement of masticatory function through improved oral health care has a positive effect on QoL, including cognition, mood, activities of daily living (ADL), and circadian rhythm in elderly persons with dementia. Methods and design The described study is a prospective longitudinal matched cluster randomized single-blind multicenter study. Participants are elderly persons living in the Netherlands, suffering from dementia and receiving psychogeriatric care. An intervention group will receive improved oral health care and a diet of increased consistency. A control group receives care as usual. Participants will be assessed four times; outcome variables besides QoL are cognition, mood, independence, rest-activity rhythm, blood pressure, and masticatory function. Discussion This research protocol investigates the effect of an intervention executed by daily caregivers. The intervention will increase masticatory activity, which is achieved by three different actions, (providing oral health care, increasing food consistency, or a combination of both). There is a certain amount of variety in the nature of the interventions due to local

  15. Greater intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese: a 1:1 matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Xie, H-L; Wu, B-H; Xue, W-Q; He, M-G; Fan, F; Ouyang, W-F; Tu, S-L; Zhu, H-L; Chen, Y-M

    2013-11-01

    In this case-control study, we examined the relationship between the consumption of fruit and vegetables and risk of hip fractures in 646 pairs of incident cases and controls in elderly Chinese. We found that greater consumption of both fruit and vegetables in men and vegetables in women was associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of osteoporotic fractures remains controversial due to limited published evidence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consuming fruits and vegetables has a protective effect against hip fractures. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 646 (162 males, 484 females) incident cases (70.9 ± 6.8 years) of hip fractures were enrolled from five hospitals, with 646 sex- and age-matched (±3 years) controls (70.7 ± 6.8 years) from hospitals or the community. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to assess habitual dietary intakes using a 79-item food frequency questionnaire and various covariates by structured questionnaires. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed dose-dependent inverse correlations between the intake of total fruit (p-trend = 0.014), total vegetables (p-trend <0.001), fruits and vegetables combined (p-trend < 0.001) and the risk of hip fractures after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, dietary factors and other potential confounders. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for hip fractures in the top quartiles (vs. the lowest quartiles) for the intake of fruits, vegetables and the combination of fruits and vegetables were 0.53 (0.32-0.87), 0.37 (0.23-0.60) and 0.25 (0.15-0.41), respectively. Stratified analyses showed that the benefits remained significant in males (p = 0.001) but not in females (p = 0.210) (p-interaction 0.045). Among the subcategories of fruits and vegetables, similar associations were observed for all subgroups except light

  16. Aphrodisiac use associated with HIV infection in elderly male clients of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi, China: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenzhu; Wu, Xinghua; Li, Guojian; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Hongman; Lan, Guanghua; Feng, Xue; Lin, Rui; Abdullah, Abu S; Wu, Zunyou; Shi, Cynthia X

    2014-01-01

    Rising HIV infection rates have been observed among elderly people in Guangxi, China. Inexpensive aphrodisiacs are available for purchase in suburban and rural areas. This study aims to investigate the association between aphrodisiac use and increased HIV risk for middle-aged and elderly men in Guangxi. A matched case-control study of aphrodisiac use-associated HIV infection was performed among male subjects over 50 years old who were clients of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi. The cases were defined as clients who were HIV-positive and two controls were selected for each case. The cases and the controls were matched on the visited sex venue, age (±3 years), number of years of purchasing sex (±3 years), and educational attainment. Subjects were interviewed and tested for HIV. Paired t-test or McNemar Chi-squared test were used to compare the characteristics between the cases and controls. A stepwise conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with HIV infection. This study enrolled 103 cases and 206 controls. Aphrodisiac use (P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.08-3.04), never using condom during commercial sex encounter (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.08-3.07), and lacking a stable partner (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR) = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.05-2.98) were found to be risk factors for HIV infection among the study groups. For subjects reporting aphrodisiac use, the frequency of purchasing sex was positively correlated with the frequency of aphrodisiac use (r = 0.3; p = 0.02). Aphrodisiac use was significantly associated with increased HIV infection risk in men over 50 years old who purchased commercial sex in the suburban and rural areas of Guangxi. Further research and interventions should address the links between aphrodisiac use, commercial sex work, condom use, and increased HIV transmission.

  17. The spheno-occipital synchondrosis fuses prematurely in patients with Crouzon syndrome and midface hypoplasia compared with age- and gender-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Tahiri, Youssef; Paliga, J Thomas; Vossough, Arastoo; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

    2014-06-01

    Premature closure of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) has been associated with midface hypoplasia in animal models and patients with specific forms of syndromic craniosynostosis. The present study aimed to characterize SOS fusion in patients with Crouzon syndrome. A case-control study was performed in patients with Crouzon syndrome treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from 1984 to 2012. The cases included patients with Crouzon syndrome and at least 1 high-quality computed tomography (CT) scan in which SOS patency could be assessed. Age- and gender-matched control CT scans were identified for comparison. The patient age at the CT scan was evaluated as the predictor, with SOS patency identified as the outcome variable. Three independent reviewers with high inter-rater reliability graded the SOS patency as open, partially fused, or completely fused. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare the Crouzon group and the controls. During the study period, 30 patients were identified with Crouzon syndrome. A total of 24 patients, all with midface hypoplasia and with 112 cranial CT scans, met the inclusion criteria. Accordingly, 112 age- and gender-matched control CT scans were assessed. No patient in the control group had midface hypoplasia. Within the Crouzon group, the average age at complete closure (14.0 ± 3.4 years) evident on the CT scan was significantly younger than that in the control group (16.6 ± 2.2 years; P = .0152). The average age when the scans showed complete patency of the SOS in the Crouzon group (1.3 ± 1.1 years) was significantly younger than that in the control group (3.2 ± 2.3 years; P = .0001). The SOS closes significantly earlier in patients with Crouzon syndrome compared with age- and gender-matched controls. The strong statistical correlation supports premature closure of the SOS as a possible mechanistic contributor to midface hypoplasia. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

  18. Women Have Farther to Fall: Gender Differences Between Normal Elderly and Alzheimer’s Disease in Verbal Memory Engender Better Detection of AD in Women

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert M.; Mapstone, Mark; Gardner, Margaret N.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; McCrary, John W.; Guillily, Maria D.; Reilly, Lindsey A.; DeGrush, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed verbal episodic memory learning and recall using the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III in order to determine how gender differences in AD compare to those seen in normal elderly and whether or not these differences impact assessment of AD. We administered the LM to both an AD and a Control group, each comprised of 21 men and 21 women, and found a large drop in performance from normal elders to AD. Of interest was a gender interaction whereby the women’s scores dropped 1.6 times more than the men’s did. Control women on average outperformed Control men on every aspect of the test, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and learning. Conversely, AD women tended to perform worse than AD men. Additionally, the LM achieved perfect diagnostic accuracy in discriminant analysis of AD vs. Control women, a statistically significantly higher result than for men. The results indicate the LM is a more powerful and reliable tool in detecting AD in women than in men. PMID:21486518

  19. The male cosmetic surgery patient: a matched sample gender analysis of elective cosmetic surgery and cosmetic dentistry patients.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Nicki A; Honigman, Roberta J; Jackson, Alun C

    2010-06-01

    Plastic surgeons have traditionally perceived male patients as more psychologically disturbed than female patients. This study employed a matched sample design to explore the psychosocial experiences of 50 male and 50 female elective cosmetic surgery and cosmetic dentistry patients. It also aimed to compare male and female patients on preoperative psychosocial dysfunction on standardized measures (psychiatric disturbance, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, dysmorphic concern, and low body image) and postoperative dissatisfaction. The findings revealed that there were many similarities between the self-reported appearance concerns, motivations for surgery, and expectations of surgery between male and female patients. Although male patients did not report higher levels of preoperative psychosocial dysfunction than their female counterparts, they were more likely to report postoperative dissatisfaction. Preoperative screening is recommended to identify the minority of male patients who will report an unsatisfactory outcome despite a technically good result.

  20. Health-related quality of life in Brazilian community-dwelling and institutionalized elderly: Comparison between genders.

    PubMed

    Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Carvalho, José Maria Maluf DE; Nasri, Fábio; Costa, Maria Luiza Monteiro; Matos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot DE; Franco, Fábio Gazelato DE Mello

    2016-12-01

    To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQL) indicators between institutionalized and community-dwelling elderly men and women. This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 496 elderly men and women, surveyed by researchers at a private hospital that attends institutionalized and community-dwelling elderly. HRQL (World Health Organization Quality of Life), daily living activities (Katz questionnaire), and instrumental daily living activities (Lawton questionnaire), mini-mental state examination, handgrip strength test, and function capacity (timed up and go test) were obtained. Institutionalized men presented higher scores in physical and psychological domains of HRQL compared to elderly men living alone (p<0.05). Among women, the scores in all domains (physical, psychological, relationship, and environment) were similar between institutionalized and community-dwelling individuals. Institutionalized elderly men reported better scores in physical and psychological domains of HRQL compared to their community-dwelling pairs, while both institutionalized and community-dwelling elderly women presented similar HRQL.

  1. Spatial analysis of gender variation in the prevalence of hypertension among the middle-aged and elderly population in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Lai, Dejian; Fang, Ya

    2016-05-26

    Previous studies have shown that there may be gender disparities in the prevalence of hypertension; however, these studies do not address the spatial information contained in the sample which may limit the analytical results. Our study extends the existing Shared Component Model (SCM) and compares its utility with a logistic regression model to evaluate the significance of spatial information for identifying risk factors for hypertension and other non-rare diseases. A total of 1267 residents aged 45 years of age and over were included in our study, of which 48.1 % were males. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 33.2 %, with females experiencing a higher prevalence than males (35.5 % vs. 30.6 %). The research variables included body mass index (BMI), Waist -to-Height Ratio (WHtR), smoking status, alcohol consumption etc. The extended SCM is employed to investigate regional gender variations in the risk of hypertension and assess the gender variation in the middle-aged and elderly populations of Zhejiang Province in eastern China and then its performance is compared with that of a traditional multiple logistic regression model. Our SCM analysis determined that the spatial pattern of hypertension risk for the middle-aged and elderly populations of Zhejiang Province in eastern China is quite different for males and females. Furthermore, Waist -to-Height Ratio (WHtR) continues to be a simple and effective predictor of hypertension risk for males at the regional level. We believe that the extended SCM spatial model is a useful tool for identifying risk factors at the regional level.

  2. Age, gender, and education may have little influence on error patterns in the assessment of set-shifting and rule induction among normal elderly.

    PubMed

    Lowe, P A; Reynolds, C R

    1999-04-01

    Error patterns have been found to be sensitive to cognitive status, but the relationship between aging and error patterns remains unclear, and may differ as a function of gender, education, and whether a task is verbal or nonverbal. The present study examined the error patterns of normal elderly individuals on a verbal measure of set-shifting and rule induction to determine whether demographic variables, that is, age, gender, and education, influenced test performance. The sample of 109 individuals, 38 males and 71 females, ranging in age from 54 to 89 years with 6 to 19 years of education, was assessed on the Classification subtest of the Test of Verbal Conceptualization and Fluency, a verbal measure of set-shifting and rule induction. Subjects' protocols were scored for perseverative, nonperseverative, and random errors, tabulated, and analyzed. Multivariate analysis of covariance with education as the covariate as well as other statistical tests revealed nonsignificant relationships between error scores and age, gender, and education. Years of education, however, showed a significant correlation with a reduction in random responses. Results are interpreted based on Horn's (1978) fluid-crystallized explanations of changes in intelligence with advancing age.

  3. Regional, age and gender differences in architectural measures of bone quality and their correlation to bone mechanical competence in the human radius of an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Thomas L; van Lenthe, G Harry; Stauber, Martin; Gratzke, Christian; Eckstein, Felix; Müller, Ralph

    2009-11-01

    An accurate prediction of bone strength in the human radius is of major interest because distal radius fractures are amongst the most common in humans. The objective of this study was to determine gender and age-related changes in bone morphometry at the radius and how these relate to bone strength. Specifically, our aims were to (i) analyze gender differences to get an insight into different bone quantities and qualities between women and men, (ii) to determine which microarchitectural bone parameters would best correlate with strength, (iii) to find the region of interest for the best assessment of bone strength, and (iv) to determine how loss of bone quality depends on age. Intact right forearms of 164 formalin-fixed cadavers from a high-risk elderly population were imaged with a new generation high-resolution pQCT scanner (HR-pQCT). Morphometric indices were derived for six different regions and were related to failure load as assessed by experimental uniaxial compression testing. Significant gender differences in bone quantity and quality were found that correlated well with measured failure load. The most relevant region to determine failure load based on morphometric indices assessed in this study was located just below the proximal end of the subchondral plate; this region differed from the one measured clinically today. Trends in bone changes with increasing age were found, even though for all morphometric indices the variation between subjects was large in comparison to the observed age-related changes. We conclude that HR-pQCT systems can determine how gender and age-related changes in morphometric parameters relate to bone strength, and that HR-pQCT is a promising tool for the assessment of bone quality in patient populations.

  4. Independently ambulant, community-dwelling stroke survivors have reduced cardiorespiratory fitness, mobility and knee strength compared to an age- and gender-matched cohort.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Ashlee; Marsden, Dianne L; Van Vliet, Paulette; Spratt, Neil J; Callister, Robin

    2017-04-01

    Most exercise interventions for stroke survivors are designed for those who have substantial motor and functional disabilities. There remains a group of well-recovered stroke survivors who have yet to be investigated in terms of their physical capacity and fitness levels. To assess and compare the physical capacities of independently ambulant, community-dwelling stroke survivors to age- and gender-matched comparison participants. Data were obtained from 17 stroke survivors participating in the How FITSS? Trial, all with functional ambulatory category of ≥4 and a self-selected walking speed ≥0.8 m s(-1). An additional 17 healthy control participants were recruited. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was measured using oxygen consumption (VO2peak), and additional measures of walking speed (m s(-1)), leg strength and body composition were also assessed. Differences between groups were assessed by matched pairs t-tests. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d. There were no significant differences in age, BMI, muscle mass or body fat between groups (p > 0.05). Peak VO2 was lower in the stroke group for the shuttle walk test (p = 0.037) and progressive cycle test (p = 0.019), as were all CRF test performance measures (p < 0.05). Stroke survivors walked significantly (p < 0.001) slower at both self-selected and fast speeds. Effect sizes of group differences for all leg strength variables were medium to large, with peak torque lower in the stroke group for all trials. Despite being independently ambulant and community dwelling, the CRF, walking speed and leg strength of this group were reduced compared to non-stroke comparison participants. These patients may benefit from undertaking targeted exercise programmes.

  5. The relation of education and gender on the attention items of the Mini-Mental State Examination in Spanish speaking Hispanic elders.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, Mónica; Tappen, Ruth; Williams, Christine; Salvatierra, Judy

    2006-10-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) [Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini-Mental State: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189-198] has frequently been challenged for its bias against individuals with lower levels of education and the use of scoring adjustments for lower educational levels has become standard practice [Ostrosky-Solis, F., Lopez-Arango, G., & Ardila, A. (2000). Sensitivity and specificity of the Mini Mental State Examination in a Spanish-speaking population. Applied Neuropsychology, 7, 25-31]. An additional source of concern is that original instructions specify that the "serial 7's" item may be replaced by an apparently less difficult "backwards spelling" task. This study compared the performance on these items and the effects for total scores on 102 unimpaired and 58 memory impaired elder Hispanic individuals (age 54-98), divided into 3 groups based on educational level (<7, 7-11, and >11 years of education). The effects of education and gender on the total MMSE scores were analyzed using the "serial 7's" and the "backwards spelling" items. For all the studied groups, MMSE scores were higher by an average of 1.5 points when using the "backwards spelling" task. Correlation between "serial 7's" and "backwards spelling" was a modest .37. Education had a significant effect on the MMSE scores in both the impaired and the unimpaired groups. After controlling for education, gender also explains a significant proportion of the variance of the results. The "backwards spelling" and "serial 7's" items do not appear to be either equivalent in difficulty or to test the same abilities in the unimpaired and the impaired Hispanics elders tested in this study.

  6. Gender differences in the relationship between self-rated health (SRH) and 6-year mortality risks among the elderly in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kazushi; Momose, Yumiko; Fujino, Ayumi; Osawa, Yukari

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between SRH and mortality among 784 non-institutionalized community-living elderly in Japan from 1995 to 2001. The data were collected by face-to-face interviews. The direct effect was estimated by the ratio of regression coefficient of two adjacent models (full model entered all covariates to total effect of SRH), and composed of the direct and indirect effect. Cox analysis stratified by gender was employed to examine the relationship between SRH and mortality. At follow-up in 2001, 148 (18.9%) died, and 636 (81.1%) were alive. Mortality rates were significantly increased with worsening SRH responses for men, but not for women. Men had a significant dose-response association between SRH and mortality, in comparison with fair or poor SRH, the odds ratio for good SRH were multiplied by 0.63 and 0.48, respectively. The magnitude of the direct effect of SRH on mortality was much larger in men (95.7%) than in women (52.5%). These findings suggest that SRH may be more strongly and directly associated with mortality in men, compared to women. Further researches are needed to explore the relationship between the changes in SRH and mortality among elderly people.

  7. Postural balance and functional independence of elderly people according to gender and age: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Helen Benincasa; Ferraresi, Juliana Rizzatto; Prata, Melina Galetti; Scheicher, Marcos Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Aging causes changes in men and women. Studies have shown that women have worse postural balance and greater functional dependence than men, but there is no consensus regarding this. The aim of this study was to compare the balance and functional independence of elderly people according to sex and age, and to evaluate the association between postural balance and the number of drugs taken. Cross-sectional at a state university. 202 elderly people were evaluated regarding balance (Berg Scale), independence (Barthel Index), age, sex, number of medications and physical activity. The subjects comprised 117 women (70.2 ± 5.6 years old) and 85 men (71.1 ± 6.9 years old). For balance, there was no significant difference regarding sex, but there was a difference regarding age (P < 0.0001). For functional independence, there was a difference regarding sex (P = 0.003), but not regarding age. The variables of age, medications and physical activity were significant for predicting the Berg score. For the Barthel index, only age and sex were significant. Elderly people who took three or more medications/day showed higher risk of falling than those who took up two drugs/day (odds ratio = 5.53, P < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval, 2.3-13.0). There was no sexual difference in relation to postural balance. However, people who were more elderly presented a high risk of falling. Functional dependence was worse among females. There was an association between the number of medication drugs and risk of falling.

  8. Gender and ethnic health disparities among the elderly in rural Guangxi, China: estimating quality-adjusted life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tai; Shi, Wuxiang; Huang, Zhaoquan; Gao, Dong; Guo, Zhenyou; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnic health inequalities for males and females among the elderly have not yet been verified in multicultural societies in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of disparities in health expectancy among the elderly from different ethnic groups using quality-adjusted life expectancy. Design A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted. A total of 6,511 rural elderly individuals aged ≥60 years were selected from eight different ethnic groups in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China and assessed for health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The HRQoL utility value was combined with life expectancy at age 60 years (LE60) data by using Sullivan's method to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy at age 60 years (QALE60) and loss in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for each group. Results Overall, LE60 and QALE60 for all ethnic groups were 20.9 and 18.0 years in men, respectively, and 24.2 and 20.3 years in women. The maximum gap in QALE60 between ethnic groups was 3.3 years in males and 4.6 years in females. The average loss in QALY was 2.9 years for men and 3.8 years for women. The correlation coefficient between LE60 and QALY lost was −0.53 in males and 0.12 in females. Conclusion Women live longer than men, but they suffer more; men have a shorter life expectancy, but those who live longer are healthier. Attempts should be made to reduce suffering in the female elderly and improve longevity for men. Certain ethnic groups had low levels of QALE, needing special attention to improve their lifestyle and access to health care. PMID:27814777

  9. Gender and ethnic health disparities among the elderly in rural Guangxi, China: estimating quality-adjusted life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tai; Shi, Wuxiang; Huang, Zhaoquan; Gao, Dong; Guo, Zhenyou; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnic health inequalities for males and females among the elderly have not yet been verified in multicultural societies in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of disparities in health expectancy among the elderly from different ethnic groups using quality-adjusted life expectancy. Design A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted. A total of 6,511 rural elderly individuals aged ≥60 years were selected from eight different ethnic groups in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China and assessed for health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The HRQoL utility value was combined with life expectancy at age 60 years (LE60) data by using Sullivan's method to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy at age 60 years (QALE60) and loss in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for each group. Results Overall, LE60 and QALE60 for all ethnic groups were 20.9 and 18.0 years in men, respectively, and 24.2 and 20.3 years in women. The maximum gap in QALE60 between ethnic groups was 3.3 years in males and 4.6 years in females. The average loss in QALY was 2.9 years for men and 3.8 years for women. The correlation coefficient between LE60 and QALY lost was -0.53 in males and 0.12 in females. Conclusion Women live longer than men, but they suffer more; men have a shorter life expectancy, but those who live longer are healthier. Attempts should be made to reduce suffering in the female elderly and improve longevity for men. Certain ethnic groups had low levels of QALE, needing special attention to improve their lifestyle and access to health care.

  10. Gender and ethnic health disparities among the elderly in rural Guangxi, China: estimating quality-adjusted life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tai; Shi, Wuxiang; Huang, Zhaoquan; Gao, Dong; Guo, Zhenyou; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic health inequalities for males and females among the elderly have not yet been verified in multicultural societies in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of disparities in health expectancy among the elderly from different ethnic groups using quality-adjusted life expectancy. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted. A total of 6,511 rural elderly individuals aged ≥60 years were selected from eight different ethnic groups in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China and assessed for health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The HRQoL utility value was combined with life expectancy at age 60 years (LE60) data by using Sullivan's method to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy at age 60 years (QALE60) and loss in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for each group. Overall, LE60 and QALE60 for all ethnic groups were 20.9 and 18.0 years in men, respectively, and 24.2 and 20.3 years in women. The maximum gap in QALE60 between ethnic groups was 3.3 years in males and 4.6 years in females. The average loss in QALY was 2.9 years for men and 3.8 years for women. The correlation coefficient between LE60 and QALY lost was -0.53 in males and 0.12 in females. Women live longer than men, but they suffer more; men have a shorter life expectancy, but those who live longer are healthier. Attempts should be made to reduce suffering in the female elderly and improve longevity for men. Certain ethnic groups had low levels of QALE, needing special attention to improve their lifestyle and access to health care.

  11. An acoustical assessment of pitch-matching accuracy in relation to speech frequency, speech frequency range, age and gender in preschool children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollinger, Valerie L.

    predictor of subjects' ability to sing the notes E and F♯; (3) mean speech frequency correlated moderately and significantly (p < .001) with sharpness and flatness of singing response accuracy in Hz; (4) speech range was the strongest predictor of singing accuracy for the pitches G and A in the study (p < .001); (5) gender emerged as a significant, but not the strongest, predictor for ability to sing the pitches in the study above C and D; (6) gender did not correlate with mean speech frequency and speech range; (7) age in months emerged as a low but significant predictor of ability to sing the lower notes (C and D) in the study; (8) age correlated significantly but negatively low (r = -.23, p < .05, two-tailed) with mean speech frequency; and (9) age did not emerge as a significant predictor of overall singing accuracy. Ancillary findings indicated that there were significant differences in singing accuracy based on geographic location by gender, and that siblings and fraternal twins in the study generally performed similarly. In addition, reliability for using the CSpeech for acoustical analysis revealed test/retest correlations of .99, with one exception at .94. Based on these results, suggestions were made concerning future research concerned with studying the use of voice in speech and how it may affect singing development, overall use in singing, and pitch-matching accuracy.

  12. Age, gender, insulin and blood glucose control status alter the risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke among elderly diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshio; Kawashima, Seinosuke; Nomura, Hideki; Itoh, Hideki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohrui, Takashi; Yokote, Koutaro; Sone, Hirohito; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Yoshizumi, Masao; Ina, Koichiro; Kubota, Kiyoshi

    2011-10-06

    We analyzed the effects of insulin therapy, age and gender on the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) according to glycemic control. We performed a prospective cohort study (Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study) of type 2 diabetes patients (n = 4014) for 2 years. The primary endpoint was the onset of fatal/non-fatal IHD and/or CVA, which occurred at rates of 7.9 and 7.2 per 1000 person-years, respectively. We divided diabetic patients into four groups based on age (≤ 70 and > 70) and hemoglobin A1C levels (≤ 7.0 and > 7.0%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that IHD was associated with high systolic blood pressure and low HDL-C in patients under 70 years of age with fair glycemic control and was associated with low diastolic blood pressure in the older/fair group. Interestingly, insulin use was associated with IHD in the older/poor group (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.11-5.89; p = 0.026) and was associated with CVA in the older/fair group (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.06-4.25; p = 0.028). CVA was associated with lower HDL-C and longer duration of diabetes in younger/poor glycemic control group. Results by stepwise analysis were similar. Next, patients were divided into four groups based on gender and diabetic control(hemoglobinA1C < or > 7.0%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that IHD was associated with high systolic blood pressure in male/fair glycemic control group, age in male/poor control group, and short duration of diabetic history in females in both glycemic control groups. Interestingly, insulin use was associated with IHD in the male/poor group(OR = 4.11, 95% CI = 1.22-8.12; p = 0.018) and with CVA in the female/poor group(OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.12-6.24; p = 0.02). CVA was associated with short duration of diabetes in both female groups. IHD and CVA risks are affected by specific factors in diabetics, such as treatment, gender and age. Specifically, insulin use has a potential role in preventing IHD but may also

  13. Age, gender, insulin and blood glucose control status alter the risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke among elderly diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We analyzed the effects of insulin therapy, age and gender on the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) according to glycemic control. Methods and Results We performed a prospective cohort study (Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study) of type 2 diabetes patients (n = 4014) for 2 years. The primary endpoint was the onset of fatal/non-fatal IHD and/or CVA, which occurred at rates of 7.9 and 7.2 per 1000 person-years, respectively. We divided diabetic patients into four groups based on age (≤ 70 and > 70) and hemoglobin A1C levels (≤ 7.0 and > 7.0%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that IHD was associated with high systolic blood pressure and low HDL-C in patients under 70 years of age with fair glycemic control and was associated with low diastolic blood pressure in the older/fair group. Interestingly, insulin use was associated with IHD in the older/poor group (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.11-5.89; p = 0.026) and was associated with CVA in the older/fair group (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.06-4.25; p = 0.028). CVA was associated with lower HDL-C and longer duration of diabetes in younger/poor glycemic control group. Results by stepwise analysis were similar. Next, patients were divided into four groups based on gender and diabetic control(hemoglobinA1C < or > 7.0%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that IHD was associated with high systolic blood pressure in male/fair glycemic control group, age in male/poor control group, and short duration of diabetic history in females in both glycemic control groups. Interestingly, insulin use was associated with IHD in the male/poor group(OR = 4.11, 95% CI = 1.22-8.12; p = 0.018) and with CVA in the female/poor group(OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.12-6.24; p = 0.02). CVA was associated with short duration of diabetes in both female groups. Conclusions IHD and CVA risks are affected by specific factors in diabetics, such as treatment, gender and age. Specifically, insulin use has a

  14. Racial/Ethnic and gender gaps in the use of and adherence to evidence-based preventive therapies among elderly Medicare Part D beneficiaries after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lauffenburger, Julie C; Robinson, Jennifer G; Oramasionwu, Christine; Fang, Gang

    2014-02-18

    It is unclear whether gender and racial/ethnic gaps in the use of and patient adherence to β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins after acute myocardial infarction have persisted after establishment of the Medicare Part D prescription program. This retrospective cohort study used 2007 to 2009 Medicare service claims among Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 years of age who were alive 30 days after an index acute myocardial infarction hospitalization in 2008. Multivariable logistic regression models examined racial/ethnic (white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and other) and gender differences in the use of these therapies in the 30 days after discharge and patient adherence at 12 months after discharge, adjusting for patient baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Of 85 017 individuals, 55%, 76%, and 61% used angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, and statins, respectively, within 30 days after discharge. No marked differences in use were found by race/ethnicity, but women were less likely to use angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and β-blockers compared with men. However, at 12 months after discharge, compared with white men, black and Hispanic women had the lowest likelihood (≈30%-36% lower; P<0.05) of being adherent, followed by white, Asian, and other women and black and Hispanic men (≈9%-27% lower; P<0.05). No significant difference was shown between Asian/other men and white men. Although minorities were initially no less likely to use the therapies after acute myocardial infarction discharge compared with white patients, black and Hispanic patients had significantly lower adherence over 12 months. Strategies to address gender and racial/ethnic gaps in the elderly are needed.

  15. Effects of smoking severity and moderate and severe periodontitis on serum C-reactive protein levels: an age- and gender-matched retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Arash; Sarlati, Fatemeh; Bidi, Mohsen; Mansouri, Leila; Azaminejad, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) which might affect cardiovascular events can be affected by chronic diseases and smoking. Since the effects of smoking dosage as well as the mutual effect of smoking and periodontitis on CRP levels have not been evaluated, we aimed to assess these. This retrospective age- and gender-matched study was performed on 120 dental patients. Clinical attachment loss, pocket probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BoP), O'Leary plaque index and serum CRP were recorded. Patients were divided into one control and five cohort groups (n = 20 each) according to smoking severity [pack years (PY) below or above 30] and periodontal condition (healthy periodontium and moderate/severe periodontitis). The effects of clinical measurements, age, gender, smoking and periodontitis on CRP were assessed using one- and two-way analyses of variance, Tukey and Bonferroni post hoc tests, and multiple linear regression (α = 0.05). CRP concentrations were 0.07255 ± 0.009539, 0.09645 ± 0.010625, 0.122235 ± 0.018442, 0.3758 ± 0.187369, 0.81595 ± 0.0410299 and 1.8717 ± 0.652728 mg/l, respectively, in the control (PY ≤ 30 with healthy periodontium), cohort 1 (PY > 30 with healthy periodontium), cohort 2 (PY ≤ 30 with moderate periodontitis), cohort 3 (PY > 30 with moderate periodontitis), cohort 4 (PY ≤ 30 with severe periodontitis) and cohort 5 (PY > 30 with severe periodontitis). The positive effects of age, smoking severity, periodontitis and PPD, on CRP increase were significant (Regression p < 0.02). BoP had a negative effect (p = 0.015). Clinicians should warn the patients, especially the older ones, about the effects of their gingival health and smoking on their cardiovascular condition.

  16. Effects of Gender on Inpatient Rehabilitation Outcomes in the Elderly With Incomplete Paraplegia From Nontraumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Elizabeth; Deutsch, Anne; Chen, David; Semik, Patrick; Rowles, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine gender differences in rehabilitation outcomes for patients with nontraumatic spinal cord injury. Research Design: Secondary analysis was conducted on Medicare beneficiary data from 65 to 74 year olds with incomplete paraplegia discharged from inpatient rehabilitation facilities in 2002 through 2005. Main Outcome Measures: Length of stay, Functional Independence Measure instrument motor item and subscale scores on discharge, and discharge destination. Results: Among patients with degenerative spinal disease, men had significantly longer rehabilitation stays than women (P < 0.001). Men with degenerative spinal disease had significantly lower discharge Functional Independence Measure scores than women, indicating more dependence in self-care (P < 0.001) and mobility (P < 0.001). Among patients with degenerative spinal disease, men were less likely to walk (odds ratio  =  0.58; 95% CI  =  0.38–0.87) and less likely to be independent with bladder management (odds ratio  =  0.44; 95% CI  =  0.31–0.62). Among patients with vascular ischemia, men were more independent (B  =  2.59; 99% CI  =  0.42–4.76) in mobility than women. There were no gender differences in the malignant spinal tumors group. There were no gender differences in being discharged to a community-based residence. Conclusions: Gender distributions varied by etiology. Gender differences were found in demographics, length of stay, and functional outcomes but not discharge destination. Men were more dependent than women at discharge in the etiology group with the least overall disability (degenerative spinal disease) and more independent in mobility than women at discharge in the etiology group with the most overall disability (vascular ischemia). PMID:21061897

  17. Increases in summer serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in elderly subjects in São Paulo, Brazil vary with age, gender and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypovitaminosis D is a common condition among elderly individuals in temperate-climate countries, with a clear seasonal variation on 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels, increasing after summer and decreasing after winter, but there are few data from sunny countries such as Brazil. Many factors can interfere on vitamin D cutaneous synthesis. We aimed at studying the 25OHD variations during winter and summer in an outdoor physically active elderly population living in São Paulo city, and analysed their determining factors. Methods Ninety-nine individuals (52 women and 47 men, from 55 to 83 years old) from different ethnic groups were selected from an outdoor physical activity group. Data are reported as Mean ± SD, and we used Pearson Linear Correlation, Student's t-test for non-related samples, Chi-square (χ²) test and One-way ANOVA for analysis. Results Mean 25OHD value for the whole group was 78.9 ± 30.9 nmol/L in the winter and 91.6 ± 31.7 nmol/L in the summer (p = 0.005). Mean winter serum 25OHD concentrations were not different between men and women (81.2 ± 30.1 nmol/L vs. 76.7 ± 31.8 nmol/L, respectively), and 19.2% of the individuals showed values < 50 nmol/L. In the summer, we noticed an increase only for men (107.6 ± 31.4 nmol/L) compared to women (76.7 ± 24.0 nmol/L), and 6.5% showed values < 50 nmol/L. A decrease in the mean PTH in the summer compared to the winter was noticed, with PTH levels showing a relationship with 25OHD concentrations only in the winter (r = -0.208, p = 0.041). White individuals showed an increase in mean serum 25OHD in the summer (p = 0.016) which was not noticed for other ethnic groups (Asians, native Brazilians and blacks). An increase in 25OHD values in the summer was observed in the age groups ranging from 51-60 and 61-70 years old (p < 0.05), but not in the age group from 71 years old on. Conclusions 25OHD values increased during the summer in elderly residents of São Paulo, but to different extents depending on

  18. Gender differences between WOMAC index scores, health-related quality of life and physical performance in an elderly Taiwanese population with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wen-Hui; Huang, Guo-Shu; Chang, Hsien-Feng; Chen, Ching-Yang; Kang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Chih-Chien; Lin, Chin; Yang, Jia-Hwa; Su, Wen; Kao, SenYeong; Su, Sui-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the importance of the WOMAC index score, health-related quality of life and physical performance in each domain affected by knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to identify gender differences in the importance of these domains and physical performances. Material and methods We performed a population-based study for radiographic knee OA among participants aged more than 65 years. Demographic data were collected and anthropometric measurement, radiographic assessment, the WOMAC index score, the short-form 12 (SF-12), the Timed and Up to Go Test (TUGT) and the Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST) were performed. Result There were 901 individuals (409 males and 492 females) aged 74.04±6.92 (male: 76.35±7.33; female: 72.12±5.92) years included in this study. The WOMAC scores of participants with OA were higher than those without OA in males and females (male: 11.97±15.79 vs 8.23±12.84, p<0.001; female: 10.61±14.97 vs 7.59±3.31, p=0.032). The physical component summary (PCS) score was only significant in females with knee OA (62.14±24.66 vs 66.59±23.85, p=0.043), while the mental component summary (MCS) score was only significant in males with knee OA (78.02±18.59 vs 81.98±15.46, p=0.02). The TUGT and FTSST were not significant in individuals with and without OA in males and females. Moreover, the multivariate results for the WOMAC score were significant for females (3.928 (95% CI 1.287 to 6.569), p=0.004). Conclusions The PCS domains of SF-12 and MCS domains of SF-12 are crucial in Taiwanese females and elderly males, respectively, with knee OA. Different evaluation and treatment strategies based on gender differences should be considered in elderly Taiwanese patients with knee OA to improve their quality of life. PMID:26373405

  19. Are Boys Better Off with Male and Girls with Female Teachers? A Multilevel Investigation of Measurement Invariance and Gender Match in Teacher-Student Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Jak, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Although research consistently points to poorer teacher-student relationships for boys than girls, there are no studies that take into account the effects of teacher gender and control for possible measurement non-invariance across student and teacher gender. This study addressed both issues. The sample included 649 primary school teachers (182…

  20. Are Boys Better Off with Male and Girls with Female Teachers? A Multilevel Investigation of Measurement Invariance and Gender Match in Teacher-Student Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Jak, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Although research consistently points to poorer teacher-student relationships for boys than girls, there are no studies that take into account the effects of teacher gender and control for possible measurement non-invariance across student and teacher gender. This study addressed both issues. The sample included 649 primary school teachers (182…

  1. Associations among the NEO Personality Inventory, Revised and the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region in elders: effects of depression and gender.

    PubMed

    Brummett, Beverly H; Siegler, Ilene C; McQuoid, Douglas R; Svenson, Ingrid K; Marchuk, Douglas A; Steffens, David C

    2003-03-01

    The short variant of the serotonin transporter gene-linked functional polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with personality traits related to anxiety, hostility, and depression. We attempted to replicate findings suggesting a positive relation between the short allele variant of 5-HTTLPR and Neuroticism, and a negative association between the short allele variant and Agreeableness. Participants in the present study were 103 geriatric depressed patients and 99 non-depressed age matched controls. Depression status and gender were examined as potential modifiers of the association between 5-HTTLPR and personality. Neuroticism was associated with allele frequency such that individuals with the short variant of the allele (ss or sl, group S) were significantly lower on Neuroticism ( P<0.04) compared with individuals with the long allele variant (group L), a pattern opposite to that of previous reports. The association did not vary by clinical group (depressed or controls) but was conditional on gender ( P<0.01): the mean Neuroticism for males in group S was 48.2, whereas the mean Neuroticism for males in group L was 55.9; and the mean Neuroticism for females did not differ by allele group. In the total sample, Agreeableness was not associated with allele frequency; however, there was a significant allele groupxclinical groupxgender interaction ( P<0.01). The present findings failed to replicate prior work suggesting that the short variant of the 5-HTTLPR allele is associated with higher Neuroticism and lower Agreeableness.

  2. Ageing under unequal circumstances: a cross-sectional analysis of the gender and socioeconomic patterning of functional limitations among the Southern European elderly.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Alarcón, Manuel; Perelman, Julian

    2017-10-03

    In a context of population ageing, it is a priority for planning and prevention to understand the socioeconomic (SE) patterning of functional limitations and its consequences on healthcare needs. This paper aims at measuring the gender and SE inequalities in functional limitations and their age of onset among the Southern European elderly; then, we evaluate how functional status is linked to formal and informal care use. We used Portuguese, Italian and Spanish data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) of 2011 (n = 9233). We constructed a summary functional limitation score as the sum of two variables: i) Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and ii) Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). We modelled the functional limitation as a function of age, gender, education, subjective poverty, employment and marital status using multinomial logit models. We then estimated how functional limitation affected informal and formal care demand using negative binomial and logistic models. Women were 2.3 percentage points (pp) more likely to experience severe functional limitation than men, and overcame a 10% probability threshold of suffering from severe limitation around 5 years earlier. Subjective poverty was associated with a 3.1 pp. higher probability of severe functional limitation. Having a university degree reduced the probability of severe functional limitation by 3.5 pp. as compared to none educational level. Discrepancies were wider for the oldest old: women aged 65-79 years old were 3.3 pp. more likely to suffer severe limitations, the excess risk increasing to 15.5 pp. among those older than 80. Similarly, educational inequalities in functional limitation were wider at older ages. Being severely limited was related with a 32.1 pp. higher probability of receiving any informal care, as compared to those moderately limited. Finally, those severely limited had on average 3.2 hospitalization days and 4.6 doctor consultations more

  3. The associations of gender, depression and elder mistreatment in a community-dwelling Chinese population: the modifying effect of social support.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi; Beck, Todd; Simon, Melissa A

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to: (1) examine the gender differences in the association of depression and elder mistreatment (EM) in a community-dwelling Chinese population; and (2) examine the potential differential modifying effect of greater social support on these associations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 141 women and 270 men aged 60 years or greater who presented to an urban medical center. EM was assessed using the modified Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale (VASS) and depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and overall social support was measured using the Social Support Index (SSI). After adjusting for potential confounders, depression was associated with 447% increased risk for EM among men (odds ratio, OR = 4.47; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.52-13.13) and 854% increased risk for EM among women (OR = 8.54; 95% CI = 2.85-25.57). After examining the effect of greater social support on depression (social support x depression), depression was no longer associated with increased risk for EM in men (parameter estimate = PE = 0.62 + or - 0.82 (+ or - S.E.M.) = 0.82, p = 0.454). However, among women, depression remained as a significant risk factor for EM (PE = 1.49 + or - 0.68, p = 0.029). Depression is significant risk factor for EM for both men and women. However, effect of greater overall social support may have higher protective effect in men than in women. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender differences in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress among married adults: A propensity score-matched analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific associations between cohabitation with parents and stress using an econometric approach. A total of 13,565 (41.7% men and 58.3% women) Korean adults aged 20-59 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008 to 2011 were pooled. They reported their gender, age, marital status, education level, employment status, income, home ownership, and cohabitation status with their parents. The association of living with parents and stress, as well as the gender difference in the association, was investigated using propensity score matching and the average treatment effect on the treated. Adults with higher education and income, not owning a house, or living in larger cities were less likely to live with parents. Stress was associated with having children and participating in the labor market for both married men and women. Moreover, living with parents was a protective factor for stress among husbands, but a risk factor for wives in Korea. Gender differences existed in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress. Greater stress was related to cohabiting with parents and working for married women.

  5. Association Between Psychotropic and Cardiovascular Iatrogenic Alerts and Risk of Hospitalizations in Elderly People Treated for Dementia: A Self-Controlled Case Series Study Based on the Matching of 2 French Health Insurance Databases.

    PubMed

    Zerah, Lorene; Boddaert, Jacques; Leperre-Desplanques, Armelle; Bonnet-Zamponi, Dominique; Verny, Marc; Deligne, Jean; Boelle, Pierre-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Elderly people are at risk of repeated hospitalizations, some of which may be drug related and preventable. In 2011, a group of French healthcare experts selected 5 iatrogenic alerts (IAs), based on criteria identified in a literature search and from their professional experience, to assess the appropriateness of medication in elderly patients. Our objective was to examine the association between hospitalizations and IAs in elderly patients treated for Alzheimer disease who are particularly sensitive to adverse drug events. A 2-year (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012) longitudinal national database study, with a study design similar to self-controlled case series, was performed to analyze data on drug prescriptions and hospitalization. IAs were defined as (1) long half-life benzodiazepine; (2) antipsychotic drugs in patients with Alzheimer disease; (3) co-prescription of 3 or more psychotropic drugs; (4) co-prescription of 2 or more diuretics; and (5) co-prescription of 4 or more antihypertensive drugs. Data were obtained by matching of 2 French National Health Insurance Databases. France. All affiliates, aged ≥75 years, receiving treatment for Alzheimer disease, alive on January 1, 2011 were included. We calculated the relative increase in the number of hospitalizations in patients with IAs. The analysis was performed over four 6-month periods. A total of 10,754 patients were included. During the periods with IAs, hospitalization rates increased by 0.36/year compared with 0.23/year in the periods without for the same patient, and the number of hospitalizations doubled [proportional fold change = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (1.8, 2.1)]. We estimated that 22% [95% confidence interval (20%, 23%)] of all hospitalizations were associated with IAs, 80% of which were due to psychotropic IAs. The IAs could be used as a simple and clinically relevant tool by prescribing physicians to assess the appropriateness of the prescription in elderly patients treated for

  6. Long term survival with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) versus thoracoscopic sublobar lung resection in elderly people: national population based study with propensity matched comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Subroto; Lee, Paul C; Mao, Jialin; Isaacs, Abby J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare cancer specific survival after thoracoscopic sublobar lung resection and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for tumors ≤2 cm in size and thoracoscopic resection (sublobar resection or lobectomy) and SABR for tumors ≤5 cm in size. Design National population based retrospective cohort study with propensity matched comparative analysis. Setting Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry linked with Medicare database in the United States. Participants Patients aged ≥66 with lung cancer undergoing SABR or thoracoscopic lobectomy or sublobar resection from 1 Oct 2007 to 31 June 2012 and followed up to 31 December 2013. Main outcome measures Cancer specific survival after SABR or thoracoscopic surgery for lung cancer. Results 690 (275 (39.9%) SABR and 415 (60.1%) thoracoscopic sublobar lung resection) and 2967 (714 (24.1%) SABR and 2253 (75.9%) thoracoscopic resection) patients were included in primary and secondary analyses. The average age of the entire cohort was 76. Follow-up of the entire cohort ranged from 0 to 6.25 years, with an average of three years. In the primary analysis of patients with tumors sized ≤2 cm, 37 (13.5%) undergoing SABR and 44 (10.6%) undergoing thoracoscopic sublobar resection died from lung cancer, respectively. The cancer specific survival diverged after one year, but in the matched analysis (201 matched patients in each group) there was no significant difference between the groups (SABR v sublobar lung resection mortality: hazard ratio 1.32, 95% confidence interval 0.77 to 2.26; P=0.32). Estimated cancer specific survival at three years after SABR and thoracoscopic sublobar lung resection was 82.6% and 86.4%, respectively. The secondary analysis (643 matched patients in each group) showed that thoracoscopic resection was associated with improved cancer specific survival over SABR in patients with tumors sized ≤5 cm (SABR v resection mortality: hazard ratio 2.10, 1.52 to 2.89; P<0

  7. Elder mistreatment in women.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, Terry; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton, Marguarette M

    2004-01-01

    Elder mistreatment is a serious syndrome that affects more than 1.5 million older Americans every year. Actions such as abuse, neglect, exploitation, and abandonment by caregivers, relatives, friends, or acquaintances can have devastating sequelae for the elderly. Such actions may be intentional or unintentional, but the detrimental outcomes for older individuals can destroy the elder's quality of life and health. A lack of empirical research addresses gender differences in elder mistreatment. There is also confusion and debate over what constitutes elder mistreatment in older women versus what is domestic violence that has continued into later life. Professional nurses need to include both types of screening for their older female patients in order to address both types of family violence.

  8. Are boys better off with male and girls with female teachers? A multilevel investigation of measurement invariance and gender match in teacher-student relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Spilt, Jantine L; Koomen, Helma M Y; Jak, Suzanne

    2012-06-01

    Although research consistently points to poorer teacher-student relationships for boys than girls, there are no studies that take into account the effects of teacher gender and control for possible measurement non-invariance across student and teacher gender. This study addressed both issues. The sample included 649 primary school teachers (182 men) and 1493 students (685 boys). Teachers completed a slightly adapted version of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale. The results indicated limited measurement non-invariance in teacher reports. Female teachers reported better (i.e., more close, less conflictual, and less dependent) relationships with students than male teachers. In addition, both male and female teachers reported more conflictual relationships with boys than with girls, and female teachers also reported less close relationships with boys than with girls. The findings challenge society's presumption that male teachers have better relationships with boys than women teachers.

  9. Social networks: a profile of the elderly who self-neglect.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Jason; Regev, Tziona; Pickens, Sabrina; Prati, Laura Lane; Aung, Koko; Moore, Jenny; Dyer, Carmel Bitondo

    2006-01-01

    Self-neglect is an independent risk factor for early mortality in older people and has been linked to depression and the occurrence of mental and physical decline. Sound social networks have been shown to slow the process of decline in the elderly, and currently little is known about the social networks associated with elder self-neglect. The aim of this study was to explore the social networks associated with elder self-neglect compared with a matched-control group. Ninety-one Adult Protective Services-validated cases of elder self-neglect were compared on formal and informal social network factors with 91controls matched for age, race, gender, and socio-economic status. Elders in the self-neglect group were significantly less likely to (1) Live with a spouse, (2) Live with others, (3) Have weekly contact with children or siblings, (4) Visit with neighbors and friends and (5) Participate in religious activities. Less adequate social resources related to family, friends, and religious affiliations are significantly associated with elder self-neglect.

  10. Gender differences in food craving among overweight and obese patients attending low energy diet therapy: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Innamorati, Marco; Tamburello, Stella; Continisio, Massimo; Contardi, Anna; Tamburello, Antonino; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta

    2013-09-01

    This case-control study examined gender differences in food craving among a sample of overweight and obese patients attending low energy diet therapy. To disentangle the specific role of gender from the role of confounders, we paired groups for BMI, age and severity of binge eating as assed by the Binge Eating Scale (BES). The participants were 73 pairs of patients who were attending low energy diet therapy. All the participants were administered the State and Trait Food Cravings Questionnaire, trait version (FCQ-T) and the BES. Female patients had higher mean scores on six out of nine dimensions of the FCQ-T. When controlling for the effect of other variables, obese and overweight female patients were 1.1 times more likely to report higher anticipation of relief of negative states and feelings from eating than their male pairs. Obese and overweight female patients experience more cravings for food than their male pairs despite comparable severity of binge eating and obesity suggesting the need for tailored interventions.

  11. Elderly patients diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension: results from the COMPERA registry.

    PubMed

    Hoeper, Marius M; Huscher, Doerte; Ghofrani, H Ardeschir; Delcroix, Marion; Distler, Oliver; Schweiger, Christian; Grunig, Ekkehard; Staehler, Gerd; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Halank, Michael; Held, Matthias; Grohé, Christian; Lange, Tobias J; Behr, Juergen; Klose, Hans; Wilkens, Heinrike; Filusch, Arthur; Germann, Martin; Ewert, Ralf; Seyfarth, Hans-Juergen; Olsson, Karen M; Opitz, Christian F; Gaine, Sean P; Vizza, C Dario; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Kaemmerer, Harald; Gibbs, J Simon R; Pittrow, David

    2013-09-30

    Originally reported to occur predominantly in younger women, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is increasingly diagnosed in elderly patients. We aimed to describe the characteristics of such patients and their survival under clinical practice conditions. Prospective registry in 28 centers in 6 European countries. Demographics, clinical characteristics, hemodynamics, treatment patterns and outcomes of younger (18-65 years) and elderly (>65 years) patients with newly diagnosed IPAH (incident cases only) were compared. A total of 587 patients were eligible for analysis. The median (interquartile, [IQR]) age at diagnosis was 71 (16) years. Younger patients (n=209; median age, 54 [16] years) showed a female-to-male ratio of 2.3:1 whereas the gender ratio in elderly patients (n=378; median age, 75 [8] years) was almost even (1.2:1). Combinations of PAH drugs were widely used in both populations, albeit less frequently in older patients. Elderly patients were less likely to reach current treatment targets (6 min walking distance>400 m, functional class I or II). The survival rates 1, 2, and 3 years after the diagnosis of IPAH were lower in elderly patients, even when adjusted for age- and gender-matched survival tables of the general population (p=0.006 by log-rank analysis). In countries with an aging population, IPAH is now frequently diagnosed in elderly patients. Compared to younger patients, elderly patients present with a balanced gender ratio and different clinical features, respond less well to medical therapy and have a higher age-adjusted mortality. Further characterization of these patients is required. NCT01347216. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Significant association of female gender with lower degree of pathological 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy results as well as higher cardiac-related deaths free survival in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Bucerius, Jan; Joe, Alexius Y; Herder, Ellen; Brockmann, Holger; Reinhardt, Michael J; Palmedo, Holger; Tiemann, Klaus; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of female gender on the extent of myocardial perfusion defects as revealed by (99m)Tc-sestamibi myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and on emerging cardiac events (CE) in patients aged ≥ 70 years. 86 patients aged ≥ 70 years with known or suspected CAD undergoing MPS (74.4 ± 3.2 years; women: n = 46; 53.5%) were included in this study. Semiquantitative analysis of MPS was performed and summed stress (SSS), summed difference (SDS), and summed rest scores (SRS) were calculated. Emerging CE comprised myocardial revascularization and -infarction and cardiac-related death. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the independent prognostic impact of several patient related variables on MPS results. Kaplan-Meier- and log rank analyses were calculated for assessment of CE free survival as related to gender. Normal SSS (87.0% vs. 27.5%; p < 0.0001), SDS (80.4% vs. 27.5%; p < 0.0001), and SRS (97.8% vs. 82.5%; p = 0.023) were significantly more often found in women, whereas incidence of mildly and severely impaired SSS (6.5% vs. 35%; p = 0.001 and 2.2% vs. 25%; p = 0.002, respectively) and SDS (15.2% vs. 52.5%; p < 0.0001 and 2.2% vs. 17.5%; p = 0.023, respectively) were significantly higher in men. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed female gender as an independent predictor of normal SSS (odds ratio/OR: 17.6) and SDS (OR: 53.3). Female gender was associated with a significant higher cardiac-death free survival compared to male patients (p = 0.031). Female gender is independently associated with a significantly lower degree of pathological MPS results and a higher cardiac-death free survival in elderly patients.

  13. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  14. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  15. Social inclusion affects elderly suicide mortality.

    PubMed

    Yur'yev, Andriy; Leppik, Lauri; Tooding, Liina-Mai; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Peeter; Wu, Jing; Värnik, Airi

    2010-12-01

    National attitudes towards the elderly and their association with elderly suicide mortality in 26 European countries were assessed, and Eastern and Western European countries compared. For each country, mean age-adjusted, gender-specific elderly suicide rates in the last five years for which data had been available were obtained from the WHO European Mortality Database. Questions about citizens' attitudes towards the elderly were taken from the European Social Survey. Correlations between attitudes and suicide rates were analyzed using Pearson's test. Differences between mean scores for Western and Eastern European attitudes were calculated, and data on labor-market exit ages were obtained from the EUROSTAT database. Perception of the elderly as having higher status, recognition of their economic contribution and higher moral standards, and friendly feelings towards and admiration of them are inversely correlated with suicide mortality. Suicide rates are lower in countries where the elderly live with their families more often. Elderly suicide mortality and labor-market exit age are inversely correlated. In Eastern European countries, elderly people's status and economic contribution are seen as less important. Western Europeans regard the elderly with more admiration, consider them more friendly and more often have elderly relatives in the family. The data also show gender differences. Society's attitudes influence elderly suicide mortality; attitudes towards the elderly are more favorable among Western European citizens; and extended labor-market inclusion of the elderly is a suicide-protective factor.

  16. Gender- and age-specific associations between sleep duration and prevalent hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: a cross-sectional study from CHARLS 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Fei, Yue; Li, Junqin; Zhang, Lisan; Luo, Qiong; Chen, Guangdi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The impact of gender and age on the association between sleep duration and hypertension is not well known in Asians. The objective of this study was to analyse gender- and age-specific associations between sleep duration and prevalent hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Design Secondary analysis of a cohort sample. Setting This study used data from the national baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2011–2012), covering 150 counties/districts and 450 villages/resident committees from 28 provinces in China. Participants Community-based subjects were drawn from the CHARLS through multistage probability sampling. Overall, this study included 9086 eligible subjects aged 45 years or above. Outcome measures Self-reported sleep duration was obtained using a structured questionnaire. The mean of three measures of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was calculated. By gender and age groups (45–60 years, middle-aged; ≥60 years, elderly), relationships between self-reported sleep duration and prevalent hypertension were examined using logistic regression models to estimate OR and 95% CIs. Results Compared with the reference group (≥7 and <8 hours/night), the group who had less sleep (<6 hours/night) had a higher likelihood of hypertension in the whole sample (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.52). Significant ORs (95% CIs) of hypertension were 1.68 (1.17 to 2.42), 1.69 (1.11 to 2.59) and 2.21 (1.29 to 3.80) for <6, 6–7 (≥6 and <7) and 8–9 (≥8 and <9) hours/night, respectively, in middle-aged men but not women. Interestingly, a significant association was observed between long sleep duration (≥9 hours/night) and hypertension in middle-aged women (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.35) but not in men. Conclusions Extremes of sleep duration increased the likelihood of prevalent hypertension in middle-aged Chinese depending on gender, suggesting that appropriate strategies for

  17. Gender- and age-specific associations between sleep duration and prevalent hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: a cross-sectional study from CHARLS 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Fei, Yue; Li, Junqin; Zhang, Lisan; Luo, Qiong; Chen, Guangdi

    2016-09-06

    The impact of gender and age on the association between sleep duration and hypertension is not well known in Asians. The objective of this study was to analyse gender- and age-specific associations between sleep duration and prevalent hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Secondary analysis of a cohort sample. This study used data from the national baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2011-2012), covering 150 counties/districts and 450 villages/resident committees from 28 provinces in China. Community-based subjects were drawn from the CHARLS through multistage probability sampling. Overall, this study included 9086 eligible subjects aged 45 years or above. Self-reported sleep duration was obtained using a structured questionnaire. The mean of three measures of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was calculated. By gender and age groups (45-60 years, middle-aged; ≥60 years, elderly), relationships between self-reported sleep duration and prevalent hypertension were examined using logistic regression models to estimate OR and 95% CIs. Compared with the reference group (≥7 and <8 hours/night), the group who had less sleep (<6 hours/night) had a higher likelihood of hypertension in the whole sample (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.52). Significant ORs (95% CIs) of hypertension were 1.68 (1.17 to 2.42), 1.69 (1.11 to 2.59) and 2.21 (1.29 to 3.80) for <6, 6-7 (≥6 and <7) and 8-9 (≥8 and <9) hours/night, respectively, in middle-aged men but not women. Interestingly, a significant association was observed between long sleep duration (≥9 hours/night) and hypertension in middle-aged women (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.35) but not in men. Extremes of sleep duration increased the likelihood of prevalent hypertension in middle-aged Chinese depending on gender, suggesting that appropriate strategies for improvement in sleep health are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  18. Gender Differences in Five Factor Model Personality Traits in an Elderly Cohort: Extension of Robust and Surprising Findings to an Older Generation

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Sörensen, Slivia; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    In college and adult samples, women score higher then men on the Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits of Neuroticism and Agreeableness. The present study assessed the extent to which these gender differences held in a sample of 486 older adults, ranging in age from 65-98 (M = 75, SD = 6.5), using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Mean and Covariance Structure models testing gender differences at the level of latent traits revealed higher levels of Neuroticism (d = .52) and Agreeableness (d = .35) in older women than older men. The consistency of these findings with prior work in younger samples attests to the stability of gender differentiation on Neuroticism and Agreeableness across the lifespan. Gender differences on these traits should be considered in personality research among older, as well as middle age and younger adults. PMID:18836509

  19. Exploiting quality and texture features to estimate age and gender from fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Lugini, Luca; Cukic, Bojan

    2014-05-01

    Age and gender of an individual, when available, can contribute to identification decisions provided by primary biometrics and help improve matching performance. In this paper, we propose a system which automatically infers age and gender from the fingerprint image. Current approaches for predicting age and gender generally exploit features such as ridge count, and white lines count that are manually extracted. Existing automated approaches have significant limitations in accuracy especially when dealing with data pertaining to elderly females. The model proposed in this paper exploits image quality features synthesized from 40 different frequency bands, and image texture properties captured using the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and the Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) operators. We evaluate the performance of the proposed approach using fingerprint images collected from 500 users with an optical sensor. The approach achieves prediction accuracy of 89.1% for age and 88.7% for gender.

  20. Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

  1. Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

  2. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    PubMed

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  3. Age and gender differential relationship between employment status and body mass index among middle-aged and elderly adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of age and gender, respectively, on the association between employment status and body mass index (BMI) in Korean adults using a large, nationally representative sample. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting South Korea. Participants 7228 from fourth wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA), the survey's short form and year: ‘KLoSA 2012’. Main outcome measures BMI. Results BMI among the employed was higher than among the unemployed for those under 60. In terms of gender, employed men reported higher BMI than their unemployed counterparts, whereas employed women reported lower BMI than did unemployed women. Conclusions Employment status showed varying impacts on obesity by age and gender. Both unemployment at or after 60, as well as unemployment among women, is associated with increased BMI compared with unemployment among younger individuals or men, respectively. PMID:27852710

  4. [Gender-specific predictors of institutionalisation in the elderly--results of the Leipzig longitudinal study of the aged (LEILA 75+)].

    PubMed

    Luppa, Melanie; Gentzsch, Katrin; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Weyerer, Siegfried; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2011-05-01

    Especially given the different socialization and life conditions of men and women, it could not be assumed that factors leading to nursing home admission (NHA) can be equally applied to both genders. We aimed to determine gender-specific predictors of NHA. Data were derived from the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged, a population-based study of individuals aged 75 years and older. 1,058 older adults were interviewed six times on average every 1.4 years. Sociodemographic, clinical, and psychometric variables were obtained. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine predictors of NHA. 10.3 % of men and 19.5 % of women (p < 0.001) were admitted to nursing home during the study period. The mean time to nursing home was 7.2 years for men and 6.8 years for women. Characteristics associated with a shorter time to NHA were increased age for men and women; cognitive impairment, poor self-rated health status, and less than two specialist's visits in the preceding 12 months for women, and being unmarried, moderate educational status, and hospitalization in the preceding 12 months were predictors of NHA for men. Gender differences in prediction of NHA do actually exist. The inclusion of gender-specific factors in design and application of interventions to support individuals at home and delay or prevent NHA appears to be warranted. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Personality in patients with pituitary adenomas is characterized by increased anxiety-related traits: comparison of 70 acromegalic patients with patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas and age- and gender-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Sievers, C; Ising, M; Pfister, H; Dimopoulou, C; Schneider, H J; Roemmler, J; Schopohl, J; Stalla, G K

    2009-03-01

    Although neuropsychiatric and morphological brain alterations in acromegalic patients have been described and a distinct disease personality is clinically suspected, this has never been systematically investigated. We examined whether patients with acromegaly showed an altered personality profile compared with patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas and healthy controls. In this cross-sectional study, 70 acromegalic patients and 58 patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas were compared with 140 mentally healthy population controls, matched for age and gender. Personality traits were measured by standardized personality questionnaires (Eysenck personality questionnaire-RK and tridimensional personality questionnaire). Compared with healthy controls, acromegalic patients described themselves as distinctly more harm avoidant and neurotic and presented themselves with high social conformity. On harm avoidant subscales, they reported more anticipatory worries and pessimism, higher fear of uncertainty, higher fatigability and asthenia. This personality pattern was not specific for acromegaly, but could similarly be observed in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas. However, specific for patients with GH-producing adenomas was an even more reduced novelty-seeking behaviour, especially in terms of lower impulsiveness, compared with patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Patients with pituitary adenomas show a distinct pattern of increased anxiety-related personality traits compared with the general population, potentially as a result of the pituitary lesion and/or associated hormonal dysregulations and comorbidities. Acromegaly is additionally associated with reduced impulsivity and novelty-seeking behaviour, which might affect patients' management and their quality of life.

  6. [Association between waist circumference and the prevalence/control of hypertension by gender and different body mass index classification in an urban elderly population].

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Miao; Yang, Shanshan; Zeng, Jing; Wang, Yiyan; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Di

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between waist circumference and the prevalence/control of hypertension in an urban elderly population. From September 2009 to June 2010, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Wanshoulu area of Beijing, China. A total of 2 035 elderly (828 male, 1 207 females) participants aged ≥60 years from a community were included in this study for data analysis. We found that the increased waist circumference could significantly increase the risk of prevalence and poor control of hypertension, with the adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) as 1.04 (1.01-1.08) and 0.96 (0.92-1.00) , respectively. Among those identified pure central obesity females (64.7%) , the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher than those females with normal body mass index (BMI) or with normal waist circumference (52.2%). The adjusted odds ratio (95%CI) between the above said groups appeared as 1.58 (1.07-2.32). The control rate of hypertension among females (32.9%) with pure central obesity, was lower than that of the females with normal BMI and waist circumference (43.5%) , with an adjusted odds ratio (95%CI) as 0.62 (0.37-1.04, P=0.071). There appeared significant association between people with pure central obesity and the increased risk of prevalence or with poor control of hypertension. More attention should be paid to both the prevalence and control of hypertension programs among females with pure central obesity.

  7. The Association in Elderly Hospitalized Patients, Between Psychotropic Drugs and Hip Fractures Resulting from Falls.

    PubMed

    Aizenberg, Dov; Weizman, Abraham; Weiss, Avraham; Akopian, Maria; Amitai, Maya; Beloosesky, Yichayaou

    2015-01-01

    Psychotropic drug treatment has been associated with increased risk for falls and hip fractures in elderly patients. The authors examined the association between drug treatment and hip fractures resulting from falls in elderly hospitalized patients, focusing on the medications' anticholinergic properties. This retrospective case-control study was conducted in an acute geriatric ward in a general medical center. Medical records, including demographic, clinical, biochemical, and pharmacological variables, of elderly patients with hip fractures from falls (N = 185), admitted during a 2-year period, were reviewed and compared with a control group (N = 187) of patients matched for age and gender and without hip fractures. The usage rates of antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and various nonpsychiatric medications were similar in the two groups, except for hypnotics-anxiolytics (higher rates in hip-fracture patients). The Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) and diastolic blood pressure constituted very modest predictors of falls (R(2) = .038, p = .004). There were no significant differences in the anticholinergic burden values, clinical dementia ratings, and comorbidity burden between the two groups. The rate of psychotropic drug use in general and their anticholinergic burden are similar in acutely admitted elderly patients with or without hip fractures. However, higher usage rate of anxiolytics found in the patients with hip fractures may indicate that this is a risk factor for hip fractures related to falls in elderly patients living in the community.

  8. [The end of discrimination in social security for the elderly? Some remarks on the consequences of the paradigm shift in a life course perspective on gender].

    PubMed

    Fachinger, Uwe

    2008-10-01

    Trying to analyse the effects of the paradigm shift in the old age social security system in Germany (GRV) from a life cycle gender perspective yields light and shade - it is a conglomeration of individual- and family-specific transfers, financed by a mix of contributions and taxes, and with measures of explicit and implicit, intended and not intended ex-post and ex-ante redistribution and discrimination.The paradigm shift has increased the complexity of the system and created additional elements of gender specific discrimination as well as reduced established elements of the so called "social compensation". Furthermore, the relevance of complementary private and occupational pensions will increase absolute and relative due to the reduction of the pension level. This will raise the importance of earnings in old age especially those that are without any elements of social security compensation or without elements of recognition of activities beside employment. Overall the paradigm shift has intensified the discrimination of women in two ways and the pension privatisation has caused redistribution from the bottom to the top. In other words, there is an increase in inter- and intra-gender discrimination. Due to the changes and the emphasis of aspects of an independent old age security savings for women the norm of the "male breadwinner model" has increased. The importance of "providing one's own pension" additionally creates distribution conflicts within a partnership. Because of the necessity of constant payments over time within a private insurance and the changes of an individual income and gender-specific life cycle, conflicts may occur time and again. The dependence of life-long partnerships on each other is not reduced or abolished with the strengthening of the individualistic model of protection, but is qualitatively and quantitatively improved. Against this background, the measures of the statutory pension system which are aimed towards the situation of a

  9. Gender Differences in Expectations for Filial Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seelbach, Wayne C.

    1977-01-01

    Responses from 331 elderly mothers and 261 elderly fathers were compared on four indexes of filial responsibility expectations with significant gender differences being found in two of the four measures. The findings indicate that women in this cohort tend to expect more filial support than do their male counterparts. (Author)

  10. Fat-Soluble Vitamin Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kala, G.; Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is a form of elder mistreatment. The systematic characterization of self-neglecting individuals is the goal of the CREST project. Reported here is the evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects were recruited and consented following referral from Adult Protective Services. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status, as possible. We report here on 47 SN subjects (age 77 plus or minus 7, mean plus or minus SD; body weight 76 kg plus or minus 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 y plus or minus 7, 79 kg plus or minus 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of fat-soluble vitamin status. Plasma retinol (p less than 0.01) was lower in SN subjects. Plasma tocopherol tended (p less than 0.06) to be lower in SN subjects, while gamma-tocopherol was unchanged. SN subjects tended to have lower serum 25-OH vitamin D (p less than 0.11), and to be vitamin D deficient (26% below 23 mmol/L). Hypercalcemia occurred more often in SN subjects (23% had values above 2.56 mmol/L), as did elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations (p less than 0.05). These data demonstrate that many nutrients are affected in the self-neglecting elderly, and that long-term deficits are evident by the nature of changes in fat soluble vitamins.

  11. Fat-Soluble Vitamin Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kala, G.; Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is a form of elder mistreatment. The systematic characterization of self-neglecting individuals is the goal of the CREST project. Reported here is the evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects were recruited and consented following referral from Adult Protective Services. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status, as possible. We report here on 47 SN subjects (age 77 plus or minus 7, mean plus or minus SD; body weight 76 kg plus or minus 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 y plus or minus 7, 79 kg plus or minus 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of fat-soluble vitamin status. Plasma retinol (p less than 0.01) was lower in SN subjects. Plasma tocopherol tended (p less than 0.06) to be lower in SN subjects, while gamma-tocopherol was unchanged. SN subjects tended to have lower serum 25-OH vitamin D (p less than 0.11), and to be vitamin D deficient (26% below 23 mmol/L). Hypercalcemia occurred more often in SN subjects (23% had values above 2.56 mmol/L), as did elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations (p less than 0.05). These data demonstrate that many nutrients are affected in the self-neglecting elderly, and that long-term deficits are evident by the nature of changes in fat soluble vitamins.

  12. Gender differences in the relationship between socioeconomic status and height loss among the elderly in South Korea: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang-Hyun; Ahn, Kyung-Sik; Cho, Kyung-Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum; Han, Kyungdo; Rho, Yong-Kyun; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to examine average height loss and the relationship between height loss and socioeconomic status (SES) among the elderly in South Korea.Data were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. A total of 5265 subjects (2818 men and 2447 women) were included. Height loss was calculated as the difference between the subject's self-reported maximum adult height and their measured current height. The height loss values were divided into quartiles (Q1-Q4) for men and women. SES was determined using a self-reported questionnaire for education level, family income, and occupation.Height loss was associated with SES in all age groups, and mean height loss increased with age. In the relationship between education level and maximum height loss (Q4), men with ≤6, 7-9, or 10-12 years of education had higher odds ratios for the prevalence of height loss (Q4) than men with the highest education level (≥13 years). With regard to the relationship between the income level and height loss (Q4), the subjects with the lowest income had an increased prevalence of maximum height loss (Q4) than the subjects with the highest income (odds ratios = 2.03 in men and 1.94 in women). Maximum height loss (Q4) was more prevalent in men and women with a low SES and less prevalent in men with a high SES than in men with a middle SES.Height loss (Q4) was associated with education level in men and with income level (especially low income) in men and women. Height loss was also associated with a low SES in men and women.

  13. Decrease of delta oscillatory responses is associated with increased age in healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Emek-Savaş, Derya Durusu; Güntekin, Bahar; Yener, Görsev G; Başar, Erol

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in delta event-related oscillations (EROs) in younger and older healthy elderly subjects. We hypothesized that delta EROs were affected by age-related changes, which could be reflected in a visual oddball paradigm. The study included two groups of subjects, 17 younger healthy elderly (mean age: 63.1±2.8years) and 17 gender- and education-matched older healthy elderly (mean age: 79.6±5.2years), who performed a visual oddball paradigm. EEG was recorded from F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz, C4, P3, Pz, P4, O1, Oz and O2 locations. Peak-to-peak amplitudes of delta (0.5-3Hz) target ERO responses during the post-stimulus 0-800ms time window were measured. Repeated measures of ANOVA was used to analyze four locations (frontal, central, parietal, occipital), at three sagittal (left, midline, right) sites. Independent t-tests were applied for post-hoc analyses. The older healthy elderly group had 16-25% lower values for the maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes of delta ERO compared with the younger healthy elderly group over frontal (p<0.003), central (p<0.0001) and parietal (p<0.007) locations [F3.96=4.396, p=0.015]. Furthermore, there was a moderate negative correlation between age and Cz peak-to-peak amplitude of target delta responses [r=-0.401, p<0.02], indicating the notion that peak-to-peak amplitude of Cz decreases as age increases. In the present study younger healthy elderly showed significantly higher event-related delta responses than older healthy elderly at frontal, central and parietal locations. Moreover, delta ERO responses decreased in accordance with age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pigmented striae of the anterior lens capsule and age-associated pigment dispersion of variable degree in a group of older African-Americans: an age, race, and gender matched study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D K; Winters, J E; Castells, D D; Clark, C A; Teitelbaum, B A

    2001-01-01

    To investigate pigmented striae of the anterior lens capsule in African-Americans, a potential indicator of significant anterior segment pigment dispersion. A group of 40 African-American subjects who exhibited pigmented lens striae (PLS) were identified from a non-referred, primary eye care population in Chicago, IL, USA. These subjects were then compared to an age, race, and gender matched control group relative to refractive error and the presence or absence of diabetes and hypertension. The PLS subjects (mean age = 65.4 +/- 8.8 years, range = 50-87 years) consisted of 36 females and 4 males. PLS were bilateral in 36 (85%) of the 40 subjects. Among the eyes with PLS, 21 (55%) of 38 right eyes and 22 (61%) of 36 left eyes also had significant corneal endothelial pigment dusting, commonly in the shape of a Krukenberg's spindle. Ten (25%) of the PLS subjects had either glaucoma or ocular hypertension (7 bilateral, 3 unilateral). The presence of trabecular meshwork pigment varied from minimal to heavy. The mean +/- SD (range) refractive error of the PLS right eyes was +1.61 +/- 1.43D (-1.50 to +5.00D) and +1.77 +/- 1.37D (-1.00 to +5.00D) for the left eyes. Based on these data, the PLS right eyes were +1.63D (Student's t, p = 0.0001; 95% CI = +0.82 to +2.44D) more hyperopic on average than the control right eyes, and the PLS left eyes were +1.77D (p = 0.0001; 95% CI = +0.92 to +2.63D) more hyperopic on average than the control left eyes. Trend analysis showed a gradually increasing likelihood of PLS with increasing magnitude of hyperopia in both eyes (Mantel-Haenszel chi-square, p = 0.001). Among PLS subjects, 24 (60%) of 40 were hypertensive and 9 (23%) of 40 were diabetic. However, these proportions were not significantly different (two-tailed Fisher's exact test; hypertension: p = 0.30; diabetes: p = 0.70) from the randomly selected controls. Among our African-American group, which consisted predominately of females >50 years of age, the likelihood of PLS

  15. Differential association of socio-economic status with gender- and age-defined suicidal ideation among adult and elderly individuals in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Hahm, Myung-Il; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2013-11-30

    South Korea has the highest suicide rate among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), with a rising trend that contrasts with the trend in most other OECD countries. This study assessed differential associations of socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation in South Korea. We used five waves of data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Study subjects included 5803 men and women aged >25 years. We analysed weighted percentages with consideration of the complex survey sample design and unequal weights. Surveylogistic regressions were applied. Protective effects against suicidal ideation were found for higher household income, higher educational attainment, and being married. Functional limitations and depressive symptoms were risk factors for suicidal ideation. However, these significant factors may exert different effects on vulnerability for suicidal ideation among different genders and age groups. Thus, household income was mainly protective for women and subjects aged 25-44 years, and educational attainment was protective for individuals aged >65 years. Our findings suggest the need for extended social protection policies for the less privileged population and special strategies for different groups.

  16. Elder mistreatment: its relevance to older women.

    PubMed

    Hudson, M F

    1997-01-01

    Elder mistreatment, both abuse and neglect, is an important health care problem for women since they are involved as victims and as perpetrators. The incidence of both forms of such mistreatment is increasing, and both often occur within the context of long-term care. Elder abuse occurs in both unidirectional and dual directional forms, and includes parent abuse and spouse abuse. Elder neglect occurs in two forms; neglect by others and self-neglect. While elderly men and women are both neglected and/or abused, women may suffer greater physical and psychological consequences. To date, researchers have inadequately addressed the relevance of gender to both forms of elder mistreatment. This literature review addresses what is currently known about elder abuse and neglect that is of particular relevance to older women.

  17. The influences of age and gender on blood ethanol concentrations in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Lucey, M R; Hill, E M; Young, J P; Demo-Dananberg, L; Beresford, T P

    1999-01-01

    Previous cross-section studies suggested that blood ethanol concentrations (BAC) increase with age. To establish this, and to account for putative gender differences, we studied four cohorts of nonalcoholic subjects. Fifty-seven subjects were studied: 14 men and 14 women in the young (21-40 years) and 14 men and 15 women in the old (> or = 60 years) groups. All subjects received ethanol (0.3 g/kg) on three occasions: orally (PO) after an overnight fast; PO after a standard meal; and by intravenous (IV) infusion after a standard meal. In all four cohorts, PO ethanol in the fasted state produced the greatest average areas under the curve (AUC) for ethanol, followed by IV ethanol and PO ethanol, both in the fed state. Pooled by age, blood ethanol AUCs were significantly greater in old subjects given PO ethanol when fasted (p = .001) and IV ethanol when fed (p < .004) but not after PO ethanol in the fed state. Pooled by gender, blood ethanol AUCs did not separate men and women in any of the experiments. Corrected for relative volumes of distribution (Vdist) among the four cohorts, only elderly women evidenced AUC values that could not be explained by Vdist alone and only in the fasted state. Both elderly men and women in the fasted state showed higher average peak ethanol levels than gender-matched younger cohorts; this effect was most pronounced in elderly women (47% vs 12%). The data confirm the influence of age, but fail to confirm that of gender, on blood ethanol response after a moderate dose of ethanol. They also show that feeding state can negate differences due to Vdist alone. In the fasted state, Vdist alone explains AUC and peak increases in elderly men but not in elderly women. Neither gastric metabolism nor motility account for age/BAC differences since these were independent of route. These data suggest caution for elderly drinkers or for those prescribing alcoholic beverages to elderly persons as well as for studies of ethanol ingestion that do not

  18. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  19. Elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Marshall, C

    1991-11-01

    Elder abuse encompasses physical, psychological, and financial abuse and also includes the violation of an individual's rights, or social abuse. Detection of elder abuse is often obstructed by the denial or shame of the abused older adult and the denial or improper assessment by health care professionals. The ethical struggle professionals face when they suspect abuse may also impede assessment or intervention. Preliminary data on etiologic factors related to elder abuse suggest that misinformation, the caregiver's lack of understanding of the needs of older adults, social isolation, a history of dysfunctional family relationships, and the psychopathologic factors of the caregiver are salient factors for understanding elder abuse. In addition, caregiver burden related to the care of the impaired elder and other external life events is a risk factor for elder abuse. Self-neglect is the type of elder abuse most often reported and the most difficult to handle, because older adults have a right to refuse services. Home care providers often face practical and ethical dilemmas in cases of self-neglect. When making an assessment for elder abuse, it is best to use a multidisciplinary approach. In addition to physical indicators (bruises, malnutrition, fractures), attention must be paid to the social, family, and sexual history of the patient. The psychological history of the patient and caregiver is also important. Reporting laws exist in all states, and health care practitioners must become familiar with the laws in their states. Awareness of elder abuse by professionals working in home care is essential, because the failure to detect abuse can interfere with interventions and in some cases lead to death.

  20. Gendered perceptions of aging: an examination of college students.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anne E; von Rohr, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Few studies examine how the gendered nature of aging impacts young adults--shaping their images of later life, attitudes toward elderly persons, aging anxieties, and conceptions of the start of "old age." We examine gender differences in young adults' views of elders and the aging process using a survey of college students and content analysis of student-drawn sketches of elders (N = 391). Results indicate that both genders hold more positive images of elderly women than men; however, they view "old age" as beginning at a younger age for women. In addition, we find that, compared with men, women report later starts of "old age" for both genders and more favorable attitudes toward elders, but also greater aging anxiety.

  1. Gender Differences in Family Stories: Moderating Influence of Parent Gender Role and Child Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Skillman, Gemma

    2000-01-01

    Examined thematic differences in family stories told by parents according to parent and child gender, noting differences according to parent gender-type and matches between story themes and personal values related to child behavior. No significant main effects or interactions for affiliation themes existed. Interaction existed between parent…

  2. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and ...

  3. Elderly Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview (continued) • One of the leading causes of suicide among the elderly is depression; often undiagnosed and/or untreated. Risk Factors The act of completing suicide is rarely preceded by only one cause or ...

  4. Tinnitus in elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Negrila-Mezei, A.; Enache, R.; Sarafoleanu, C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Tinnitus is a common health problem that affects between 10 - 30% of the population, approximately 3 - 4% presenting to the doctor at least once in their life. There are many causes that lead to tinnitus in elderly population, including otology, metabolic, neurologic or cardiovascular conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the association of tinnitus with these chronic comorbidities among elderly community and its impact upon their quality of life. Materials and Methods: We performed a clinical retrospective study on 471 ENT patients hospitalized for various diseases, up to 60 years old, for a period of 24 months. All subjects were assessed for subjective tinnitus, neuro-vascular comorbidities and QoL by use of the brief version of the World Health Organization QoL instrument. Results: Tinnitus was reported in 114 patients, giving a prevalence of 24,2%. Variables like gender, residence, economic status, alcohol or smoking were not significantly associated with tinnitus. On the other hand, otic and sinonasal pathology, dizziness, hypertension, arteriosclerosis or diabetes were significantly correlated. All patients with tinnitus presented a more negative perception of their overall health and a poorer QoL, compared to those without. Conclusions: Tinnitus is a common pathology among elderly community. Its association with chronic treatable health comorbidities reduces QoL and highlights the need of cooping strategies among this group population. Abbreviations: RR = Relative Risk; 95%CL=95%Confidence Level; OR = Ods Ratio; QoL= quality of life PMID:22514575

  5. Elder homicide: a 20-year study.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kim A; Presnell, S Erin

    2006-06-01

    A subcategory of elder maltreatment is the fatal outcome, or elder homicide. Some cases of elder homicide result from chronic abuse and/or neglect, while others appear to be sudden, with no pertinent history. The research and literature of elder homicide are lacking, making the investigation of each case difficult; the typical victim, perpetrator, scenario, and cause of death are not known. Components of homicide such as sexual assault and toxicology also lack study. We analyzed all elder deaths over a 20-year period. Cases included those with victims greater than or equal to 65 years of age. These deaths totaled 2137: natural = 1506, accident = 344, suicide = 139, homicide = 127, and undetermined = 21. Focusing on homicides, variables analyzed were age, race, gender, cause of death, location of death, time of year, motive, perpetrator, toxicology, and sexual assault component. By identifying the typical victim, perpetrator, scenario, and autopsy findings, these cases can be more completely investigated and possibly prevented.

  6. [Family functioning of elderly with depressive symptoms].

    PubMed

    Souza, Rosely Almeida; Desani da Costa, Gislaine; Yamashita, Cintia Hitomi; Amendola, Fernanda; Gaspar, Jaqueline Correa; Alvarenga, Márcia Regina Martins; Faccenda, Odival; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2014-06-01

    To classify families of elderly with depressive symptoms regarding their functioning and to ascertain the presence of an association between these symptoms, family functioning and the characteristics of the elderly. This was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study performed with 33 teams of the Family Health Strategy in Dourados, MS. The sample consisted of 374 elderly divided into two groups (with and without depressive symptoms). The instruments for data collection were a sociodemographic instrument, the GeriatricDepression Scale (15 items) and the Family Apgar. An association was observed between depressive symptoms and family dysfunction, female gender, four or more people living together, and physical inactivity. The functional family may represent effective support for the elderly with depressive symptoms, because it offers a comfortable environment that ensures the well-being of its members. The dysfunctional family can barely provide necessary care for the elderly, which can exacerbate depressive symptoms.

  7. European Elder (Elderberry)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common Names: European elder, black elder, elderberry, elder flower, sambucus Latin Name: Sambucus nigra Background European elder ... Saxon word “aeld,” meaning fire. The terms “elder flower” and “elderberry” may refer to either European elder ...

  8. Relation between mode of pacing and long-term survival in the very elderly.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, A; Shen, W K; Neubauer, S A; Ballard, D J; Hammill, S C; Hodge, D O; Lohse, C M; Gersh, B J; Hayes, D L

    1999-04-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between pacing mode and long-term survival in a large group of very elderly patients (> or = 80 years old). The relationship between pacing mode and long-term survival is not clear. Because the number of very elderly who are candidates for pacing is increasing, issues related to pacemaker (PM) use in the elderly have important clinical and economic implications. We retrospectively reviewed 432 patients (mean age, 84.5+/-3.9 years) who received their initial PM (ventricular in 310 and dual chamber in 122) between 1980 and 1992. Follow-up was complete (3.5+/-2.6 years). Observed survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Age- and gender-matched cohorts from the Minnesota population were used for expected survival. Log-rank test and Cox regression hazard model were used for univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients with ventricular PMs appeared to have poor overall survival compared with those with dual-chamber PMs. Observed survival after PM implantation in high grade atrioventricular block (AVB) patients was significantly worse than expected survival of the age- and gender-matched population (p < 0.0001), whereas observed survival of patients with sinus node dysfunction was not significantly different from expected survival of the matched population (p = 0.413). By univariate analysis, ventricular pacing in patients with AVB appeared to be associated with poor survival compared with dual-chamber pacing (hazard ratio [HR] 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33 to 3.33). After multivariate analysis, this difference was no longer significant (HR 1.41; 95% CI 0.88 to 2.27). Independent predictors of all-cause mortality were number of comorbid illnesses, New York Heart Association functional class, left ventricular depression and older age at implant. Pacing mode was not an independent predictor of overall survival. Older age at implantation, diabetes mellitus, dementia, history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and

  9. Is pain a significant factor in elder self-neglect?

    PubMed

    Pickens, Sabrina; Burnett, Jason; Naik, Aanand D; Holmes, Holly M; Dyer, Carmel Bitondo

    2006-01-01

    Pain is a worldwide health concern leading to cognitive impairments, depression, and decline in activities of daily living when poorly controlled. Self-neglect is also a serious public health issue being the most common allegation reported to Adult Protective Services (APS). The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether self-reported pain is associated with validated cases of self-neglect compared with matched controls. This is a cross-sectional study of 80 (APS) validated cases of self-neglect aged 65 years and older and 80 control participants recruited from a geriatric clinic at Harris County Hospital District. Control participants were matched for age, race, gender, and zip code. Both groups were administered the Wong-Baker FACES rating scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination in their homes by a geriatric nurse practitioner and a research assistant. Self-reported pain was noted in 43% of the self-neglect group compared with only 28% in the control group (X2 = 3.85, df = 1, p = .05). This difference became non-significant after stratifying for MMSE scores of 19 or greater (X2 = 3.38, df = 1, p = .066). The self-neglecting elderly also reported significantly higher levels of pain compared with the matched controls (t = 2.5, df = 143, p = .014). This mean difference remained significant after stratifying by MMSE scores of 19 or greater (t = 2.6, df = 124, p = .009). The data provide preliminary support for the relationship between self-reported pain and elder self-neglect. Research is needed to determine whether pain is a causal or associated factor in self-neglect and whether therapeutic intervention can improve the syndrome of self-neglect.

  10. Comparison of Outpatient Services between Elderly People with Intellectual Disabilities and the General Elderly Population in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiang, Po-Huang; Chang, Yu-Chia; Tung, Ho-Jui

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the ambulatory visit frequency and medical expenditures of the general elderly population versus the elderly with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan, while examining the effects of age, gender, urbanization and copayment status on ambulatory utilization. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 103,183…

  11. Comparison of Outpatient Services between Elderly People with Intellectual Disabilities and the General Elderly Population in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiang, Po-Huang; Chang, Yu-Chia; Tung, Ho-Jui

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the ambulatory visit frequency and medical expenditures of the general elderly population versus the elderly with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan, while examining the effects of age, gender, urbanization and copayment status on ambulatory utilization. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 103,183…

  12. Influenza vaccination in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Jan; Chlibek, Roman; Shaw, Jana; Splino, Miroslav; Prymula, Roman

    2017-07-14

    Seasonal influenza is a prevalent and serious annual illness resulting in widespread morbidity and economic disruption throughout the population; the elderly and immunocompromised are particularly vulnerable to serious sequelae and mortality. The changing demographics worldwide to an aging society have important implications for public health policy and pharmaceutical innovations. For instance, primary prevention via immunization is effective in reducing the burden of influenza illness among the elderly. However, the elderly may be insufficiently protected by vaccination due to the immunosenescence which accompanies aging. In addition, vaccine hesitancy among the younger populations increases the likelihood of circulating infectious diseases, and thus concomitant exposure. While it is clear that the development of more immunogenic vaccines is an imperative and worthy endeavor, clinical trials continue to demonstrate that the current influenza vaccine formulation remains highly effective in reducing morbidity and mortality when well matched to circulating strains.

  13. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among urban elderlies: Lucknow elderly study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, S. C.; Tripathi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Aditya; Kar, A. M.; Singh, Ragini; Kohli, V. K.; Agarwal, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paucity of systematic studies in elderly mental health in an aging population is an urgent need, which is required to address services and planning issues for health. Aim: The present study aims to investigate the distribution of physical, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive disorders of a community sample of elderlies with certain socioeconomic data. Materials and Methods: A door-to-door household survey was conducted to identify houses with elderlies (≥55 years) in two urban localities of Lucknow. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), Survey Psychiatric Assessment Schedule (SPAS)/Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and physical and neurological examination were used for screening all consenting elderlies. MMSE positive participants were assessed on Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination-Revised for diagnosis of cognitive disorders; SPAS/MDQ positives were assessed on Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry based clinical interview for diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders other than cognitive disorders (using ICD-10 criteria). Routine and indicated laboratory/radiological investigations on all and on MMSE/SPAS (organic section) positive/physically ill participants respectively were done to confirm organic and/or physical illness. Only percentages were calculated to find the distribution of morbidity. Results: The sample had proportionate age structure as that of the surveyed population and had balanced gender representation in each age deciles. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders (with/without comorbidities) was 11.8% in the elderlies (60 years and above) highest being in the 60-69 years age group. Being women and of lower socioeconomic status was more commonly associated with a neuropsychiatric diagnosis. 7.6% of the elderlies had cognitive impairment. Overall findings suggest a prevalence rate of 17.34% of total psychiatric morbidity among elderlies. A significant number had comorbid physical illness diagnoses

  14. Hospitalisation among the elderly in urban China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Raven, Joanna H; Tang, Shenglan

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the trend of hospitalisation amongst the elderly in urban China and analyse the main socio-economic factors which are affecting the use of inpatient care. Data from the Chinese national household health interview surveys conducted in 1993, 1998 and 2003 were analysed. The following variables were selected: gender, health insurance coverage and household income. Elderly people with insurance are more likely to use inpatient services than those who were not insured. Elderly people in the low income group are less likely than ones in the high income group to use inpatient services. Non-hospitalisation is more common amongst elderly women than elderly men and amongst the non-insured. The likelihood of elderly people in the low income groups not using inpatient services has increased dramatically from 12% in 1993 to 134% in 2003. Financial difficulty appeared to be the most common reason for not accessing inpatient care, particularly for elderly people without health insurance. Elderly people with low income, without health insurance, and women appear to be more vulnerable in their access to inpatient care. Appropriate policies could be developed to protect these groups of people from high health care expenses.

  15. Isolated Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Lucy Rose; And Others

    The Minnesota Senior Study, the first statewide survey of the elderly in nearly 20 years, was based on a telephone survey with a statewide sample of 1,500 non-institutionalized Minnesotans age 60 and older. Substantial numbers of Minnesotans age 60-plus were found to have low social contacts. Five percent, or about 33,000 older Minnesotans, fell…

  16. America's Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldo, Beth J.; Agree, Emily M.

    1988-01-01

    The older population in the United States grew twice as fast as the rest of the population in the last 20 years. This growth is expected to accelerate early in the next century as the large baby-boom cohorts move through middle age and become elderly. Substantial improvements in life expectancy at all ages, particularly at extreme old age, mean…

  17. Predictors of binge drinking in elderly Americans.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Roopali B; Junquera, Patricia; Canaan, Yusef; Oms, Juan D

    2015-10-01

    The increasing trend in elderly binge drinking in the U.S. is cause for alarm. We sought to describe the predictors of binge drinking in elderly men and women and evaluate the relationship between binge drinking and mental health disorders in this population. The 2008 Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey was utilized to identify a cohort of 4,815 individuals in the U.S. of age 65 or older. The primary outcome of interest was self-reported binge drinking, defined as an affirmative response to the question: "How many times in the past 30 days have you had more than five drinks (in men) or more than four drinks (in women) on an occasion?" Among 4,815 elderly participants studied, a total of 466 (9.7%) participants reported binge drinking over the past 30 days while 4,349 (90.3%) participants reported no binge drinking. Binge drinking was not associated with anxiety or depressive disorders in the overall population, however, elderly women reporting binge drinking had higher rates of depressive disorders. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of binge drinking in elderly participants included younger age, male gender, smoking, absence of college education, lower annual income, and absence of coronary artery disease. Predictors of binge drinking differed in elderly men and women. Younger age, male gender, smoking, lack of college education, lower annual income, and absence of coronary artery disease are independently associated with higher rates of binge drinking among elderly Americans. Elderly men and women had disparate predictors of binge drinking. This study provides valuable information to be applied to the substance abuse screening process in elderly men and women. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Mentoring in Gerontology Doctoral Education: The Role of Elders in Mentoring Gerontologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangmo, Tenzin; Ewen, Heidi H.; Webb, Alicia K.; Teaster, Pamela B.; Russell Hatch, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined elder mentors' and students' roles, functions, and satisfaction with the Elder Mentorship program at the Graduate Center for Gerontology, University of Kentucky. The Elder Mentorship program matches gerontology doctoral students with older adults in the community. Parallel surveys were constructed to evaluate the program from…

  19. Holding Abusers Accountable: An Elder Abuse Forensic Center Increases Criminal Prosecution of Financial Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Adria E.; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing awareness of elder abuse, cases are rarely prosecuted. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an elder abuse forensic center compared with usual care to increase prosecution of elder financial abuse. Design and Methods: Using one-to-one propensity score matching, cases referred to the Los Angeles County…

  20. Holding Abusers Accountable: An Elder Abuse Forensic Center Increases Criminal Prosecution of Financial Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Adria E.; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing awareness of elder abuse, cases are rarely prosecuted. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an elder abuse forensic center compared with usual care to increase prosecution of elder financial abuse. Design and Methods: Using one-to-one propensity score matching, cases referred to the Los Angeles County…

  1. Mentoring in Gerontology Doctoral Education: The Role of Elders in Mentoring Gerontologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangmo, Tenzin; Ewen, Heidi H.; Webb, Alicia K.; Teaster, Pamela B.; Russell Hatch, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined elder mentors' and students' roles, functions, and satisfaction with the Elder Mentorship program at the Graduate Center for Gerontology, University of Kentucky. The Elder Mentorship program matches gerontology doctoral students with older adults in the community. Parallel surveys were constructed to evaluate the program from…

  2. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.

  3. Gastric bypass for obesity in the elderly: is it as appropriate as for young and middle-aged populations?

    PubMed

    Robert, Maud; Pasquer, Arnaud; Espalieu, Philippe; Laville, Martine; Gouillat, Christian; Disse, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Obesity prevalence increases in elderly population. Bariatric surgery has been underused in patients over 60 because of fears of complications and lower weight loss. We postulated worse outcomes in the elderly in comparison to young and middle-aged population 1 year after gastric bypass. We retrospectively analyzed gastric bypass outcomes in young (<40 years), middle-aged (40 to 55 years), and elderly (>60 years) patients between 2007 and 2013. Each subject over 60 (n = 24) was matched with one subject of both the other groups according to gender, preoperative body mass index (BMI), surgical procedure, and history of previous bariatric surgery (n = 72). Older subjects demonstrated higher prevalence of preoperative metabolic comorbidities (70 vs 30 % in the <40-year-old group, p < 0.0001). Mean duration of the surgical procedure, mean length of stay, and early and late complication rates were similar between age groups. A trend towards fewer early complications and less-severe complications in the younger groups was noted. One-year weight loss results were similar between young, middle-aged, and elderly patients (percentage of excess BMI loss (EBL%), 74.4 ± 3.5; 78.9 ± 4.5, and 73.7 ± 4.5 respectively, p = 0.69). Age was not predictive of weight loss failure 1 year after surgery. Remission and improvement rates of comorbidities were similar between age groups 6 months after surgery. Our study confirms weight loss efficacy of gastric bypass in the elderly with acceptable risks. Further studies evaluating the benefit-risk balance of bariatric surgery in the elderly population will be required so as to confirm the relevance of increasing age limit.

  4. Quantitative analysis of digital videokymography: a preliminary study on age- and gender-related difference of vocal fold vibration in normal speakers.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Kymography is an effective method for assessing temporal patterns of vocal fold vibrations. Because kymographic data for a number of normal speakers based on high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) were limited in the literature, this prospective study was conducted to provide normative kymographic HSDI data and clarify gender- and age-related normal variations. Vocally healthy adults were divided into young (≤35 years) and elderly groups (≥65 years). Kymograms were recomposed from HSDI data at the midglottal level, and kymographic parameters were analyzed quantitatively. Then gender- and age-related differences were evaluated. A total of 26 young subjects (9 men and 17 women, mean age: 27 years) and 20 elderly subjects (8 men and 12 women, mean age: 73 years) were investigated. Obtained data generally matched the values in the literature. Slight asymmetry was seen in all groups, with the elderly subjects having more evident asymmetry than the young subjects. Most of the kymographic parameters showed a negative correlation with fundamental frequency (F0), whereas the open quotient displayed a positive correlation with F0. There were significant intergroup differences in F0, amplitude and lateral peak at a speaking F0. The present quantitative findings generally matched the qualitative kymographic data reported in the literature. When judging whether a vibratory pattern is normal or pathological, both gender and age should be taken into account, because gender- and age-related variations of symmetry, F0, and phase were frequently observed in the present study. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender reassignment surgery: an overview.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Bellringer, James

    2011-05-01

    Gender reassignment (which includes psychotherapy, hormonal therapy and surgery) has been demonstrated as the most effective treatment for patients affected by gender dysphoria (or gender identity disorder), in which patients do not recognize their gender (sexual identity) as matching their genetic and sexual characteristics. Gender reassignment surgery is a series of complex surgical procedures (genital and nongenital) performed for the treatment of gender dysphoria. Genital procedures performed for gender dysphoria, such as vaginoplasty, clitorolabioplasty, penectomy and orchidectomy in male-to-female transsexuals, and penile and scrotal reconstruction in female-to-male transsexuals, are the core procedures in gender reassignment surgery. Nongenital procedures, such as breast enlargement, mastectomy, facial feminization surgery, voice surgery, and other masculinization and feminization procedures complete the surgical treatment available. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health currently publishes and reviews guidelines and standards of care for patients affected by gender dysphoria, such as eligibility criteria for surgery. This article presents an overview of the genital and nongenital procedures available for both male-to-female and female-to-male gender reassignment.

  6. Improved automated perimetry performance in elderly subjects after listening to Mozart.

    PubMed

    Marques, Junia Cabral; Vanessa, Adriana Chaves Oliveira; Fiorelli, Macedo Batista; Kasahara, Niro

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of automated perimetry of elderly subjects naïve to AP after listening to a Mozart sonata. Automated perimetry (AP) is a psychophysical test used to assess visual fields in patients with neurological disorders and glaucoma. In a previous study, Fiorelli et al. showed that young subjects who listened to a Mozart sonata prior to undergoing AP performed better in terms of reliability than those who did not listen to the sonata. Fifty-two AP-naïve, normal subjects underwent Automated perimetry (SITA 24-2). The study group (25 subjects) underwent AP after listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, and the control group (27 subjects) underwent Automated perimetry without prior exposure to the music. The study group had significantly lower false negative rates and a lower visual field reliability score than the controls (P=0.04 and P=0.04, respectively). The test time was shorter for the study group (P=0.03). This study shows that elderly subjects, when exposed to the Mozart sonata immediately before AP testing, have lower false negative rates and lower visual field reliability scores when compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Our results differ from those of Fiorelli et al. who found lower false positive rates and less fixation loss in addition to lower false negative rates. Listening to a Mozart sonata seems to improve automated perimetry reliability in elderly subjects.

  7. What is Elder Abuse?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources and Links National Elder Abuse Incidence Study Domestic Violence in Later Life What If I Suspect ... Demonstrations (PPHF) Elder Justice Innovation Grants Late Life Domestic Violence World Elder Abuse Awareness Day State Grants ...

  8. Elderly people. Old testament.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M; Roberts, E

    2000-02-03

    Primary care groups need to address the needs of elderly people. Elderly people and their carers should be consulted about services. Elderly service users can be enthusiastic participants in consultation initiatives.

  9. Conflicting views on elder care responsibility in Japan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2016-05-01

    I examine the attitudinal ambivalence created by conflicting social expectations regarding parent-child devotion, filial obligation and family membership, and gender norms in a national population of Japanese adults. I ask: in a context of rapidly changing family and elder care norms, how do different beliefs and attitudes overlap and conflict and how are they related to elder care preferences? I analyze data from the 2006 Japanese General Social Survey and use Latent Class Analysis to identify latent groups in the population defined by their beliefs and examine the relationship between class membership and elder care preferences. I found variation in the population with respect to the measured beliefs as well as a relationship between patterns of beliefs and choice of elder caregiver. I found conflicting expectations regarding elder care responsibility in one latent class and this class also expressed elder care preferences that conflict with at least some of their strongly held beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Matching forensic sketches to mug shot photos.

    PubMed

    Klare, Brendan F; Li, Zhifeng; Jain, Anil K

    2011-03-01

    The problem of matching a forensic sketch to a gallery of mug shot images is addressed in this paper. Previous research in sketch matching only offered solutions to matching highly accurate sketches that were drawn while looking at the subject (viewed sketches). Forensic sketches differ from viewed sketches in that they are drawn by a police sketch artist using the description of the subject provided by an eyewitness. To identify forensic sketches, we present a framework called local feature-based discriminant analysis (LFDA). In LFDA, we individually represent both sketches and photos using SIFT feature descriptors and multiscale local binary patterns (MLBP). Multiple discriminant projections are then used on partitioned vectors of the feature-based representation for minimum distance matching. We apply this method to match a data set of 159 forensic sketches against a mug shot gallery containing 10,159 images. Compared to a leading commercial face recognition system, LFDA offers substantial improvements in matching forensic sketches to the corresponding face images. We were able to further improve the matching performance using race and gender information to reduce the target gallery size. Additional experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework leads to state-of-the-art accuracys when matching viewed sketches.

  11. Nutritional risk of European elderly.

    PubMed

    de Morais, C; Oliveira, B; Afonso, C; Lumbers, M; Raats, M; de Almeida, M D V

    2013-11-01

    The elderly constitute a population group with a high prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases and high risk of malnutrition. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated to nutritional risk in free-living European elderly. The sample included 644 European citizens, free living in the community, aged 65 years or more. The sample was quota controlled for age groups (65-74, ≥75 years), gender (male/female) and living circumstances (living alone/with others). Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with nutritional risk. Several variables regarding socio-demographic characteristics, food choice, health status and the satisfaction with food-related life were included in the analysis. According to the recoded score of the 'Determine your nutritional health' (NSI checklist), 53% of the elderly were at nutritional risk. Nutritional risk was more likely to occur in elderly who considered that it was more important to choose foods 'easy to chew'; with lower average number of fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake episodes and lower score for general health. It was also found in non-married participants; those that did not identify changes in their appetite; and those that felt changes in health status. In this sample, the lowest nutritional risk was found for body mass index (BMI) around 18.5 kg/m(2). Country of residence, gender and age were not found to have a significant effect on nutritional risk. Attention should be drawn to the living circumstances, changes in appetite or health, the general heath perception, F&V intake, choice of foods easy to chew and having a low or high BMI.

  12. The Superior Sleep of Healthy Elderly Nuns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Carolyn C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared nocturnal sleep structure of 10 healthy elderly nuns to that of 10 healthy age-matched female controls. The nuns fell asleep more quickly and had less early morning awakening, as well as greater rapid eye movement sleep time. These differences may reflect the more highly entrained life style of the nuns, including modest habitual sleep…

  13. Gender Differences in Social Support among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal; Keith, Verna

    1989-01-01

    Studies exposure to life stress as an explanation for gender differences in older adults' utilization of social support. Results suggest that, as stressful events increase, elderly men and women are equally likely to become more involved in their social network, while gender differences emerge in response to chronic financial strain. (JS)

  14. Matching a Distribution by Matching Quantiles Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sgouropoulos, Nikolaos; Yao, Qiwei; Yastremiz, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of selecting representative portfolios for backtesting counterparty credit risks, we propose a matching quantiles estimation (MQE) method for matching a target distribution by that of a linear combination of a set of random variables. An iterative procedure based on the ordinary least-squares estimation (OLS) is proposed to compute MQE. MQE can be easily modified by adding a LASSO penalty term if a sparse representation is desired, or by restricting the matching within certain range of quantiles to match a part of the target distribution. The convergence of the algorithm and the asymptotic properties of the estimation, both with or without LASSO, are established. A measure and an associated statistical test are proposed to assess the goodness-of-match. The finite sample properties are illustrated by simulation. An application in selecting a counterparty representative portfolio with a real dataset is reported. The proposed MQE also finds applications in portfolio tracking, which demonstrates the usefulness of combining MQE with LASSO. PMID:26692592

  15. Matching a Distribution by Matching Quantiles Estimation.

    PubMed

    Sgouropoulos, Nikolaos; Yao, Qiwei; Yastremiz, Claudia

    2015-04-03

    Motivated by the problem of selecting representative portfolios for backtesting counterparty credit risks, we propose a matching quantiles estimation (MQE) method for matching a target distribution by that of a linear combination of a set of random variables. An iterative procedure based on the ordinary least-squares estimation (OLS) is proposed to compute MQE. MQE can be easily modified by adding a LASSO penalty term if a sparse representation is desired, or by restricting the matching within certain range of quantiles to match a part of the target distribution. The convergence of the algorithm and the asymptotic properties of the estimation, both with or without LASSO, are established. A measure and an associated statistical test are proposed to assess the goodness-of-match. The finite sample properties are illustrated by simulation. An application in selecting a counterparty representative portfolio with a real dataset is reported. The proposed MQE also finds applications in portfolio tracking, which demonstrates the usefulness of combining MQE with LASSO.

  16. Gendered education in a gendered world: looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education to explore the underlying gendered assumptions of a research project aiming to contribute to improving recruitment, retention and gender equity patterns in STEM educations and careers. Much research has been carried out to understand this gender gap phenomenon as well as to suggest measures to reduce its occurrence. A significant portion of this research has focused on detecting the typical "female" and "male" interest in science and has consequently suggested that adjustments be made to science education to cater for these interests. This article argues that adjusting science subjects to match perceived typical girls' and boys' interests risks being ineffective, as it contributes to the imposition of stereotyped gender identity formation thereby also imposing the gender differences that these adjustments were intended to overcome. This article also argues that different ways of addressing gender issues in science education themselves reflects different notions of gender and science. Thus in order to reduce gender inequities in science these implicit notions of gender and science have to be made explicit. The article begins with an overview of the current situation regarding gender equity in some so- called gender equal countries. We then present three perspectives from feminist critiques of science on how gender can be seen to impact on science and science education. Thereafter we analyze recommendations from a contemporary research project to explore which of these perspectives is most prevalent.

  17. Elder neglect.

    PubMed

    del Carmen, Tessa; LoFaso, Veronica M

    2014-11-01

    Because neglect is the most common form of elder abuse, identifying patients who are vulnerable to neglect allows clinicians to intervene early and potentially prevent situations that can escalate and lead to harm or even death. Health care workers have a unique opportunity to uncover these unfortunate situations and in many cases may be the only other contact isolated vulnerable patients have with the outside world. Responding appropriately and quickly when neglect is suspected and using a team approach can improve the health and well-being of older victims of neglect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of gender, age, diabetes mellitus and renal and hepatic impairment on tadalafil pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Forgue, S Thomas; Phillips, Diane L; Bedding, Alun W; Payne, Christopher D; Jewell, Hayley; Patterson, Beverley E; Wrishko, Rebecca E; Mitchell, Malcolm I

    2007-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the effects of gender, age, diabetes mellitus, renal and hepatic impairment on tadalafil pharmacokinetics and tolerability. Methods Six single-dose (5, 10 or 20 mg orally) clinical pharmacology studies were conducted in the UK, Belgium, Poland and Germany in healthy male and female subjects, elderly subjects and subjects with diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) or hepatic impairment. The gender study also incorporated administration of 10 mg tadalafil daily for 10 days. Results Systemic exposure in the elderly was 25% greater than in young subjects (mean AUC ratio 1.25; 90% confidence interval 0.972, 1.61). The AUC was 19% lower in subjects with diabetes mellitus than in healthy age/gender-matched controls. Pharmacokinetics in female subjects were essentially similar to those in males. Exposure in subjects with mild or moderate renal insufficiency was approximately twice that in healthy subjects. The mean AUC for the major metabolite (total methylcatechol glucuronide) in the presence of ESRF was three times the mean for healthy subjects. Haemodialysis contributed negligibly to elimination of tadalafil or the metabolite. Hepatic impairment had negligible effects on exposure. The most common adverse events in these six studies were headache, back pain and myalgia. A 10-mg dose was not well tolerated by subjects with moderate renal dysfunction in this study. Conclusions No clinically significant effect of gender, age, diabetes mellitus or hepatic impairment on tadalafil pharmacokinetics was observed. Renal insufficiency resulted in increased systemic exposure. Tadalafil was not associated with any serious clinically significant adverse events or study discontinuations due to adverse events. PMID:16869816

  19. Physical fitness levels among independent non-institutionalized Spanish elderly: the elderly EXERNET multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Chamizo, R; Gómez-Cabello, A; Delgado, S; Rodríguez-Llarena, S; Rodríguez-Marroyo, J A; Cabanillas, E; Meléndez, A; Vicente-Rodríguez, G; Aznar, S; Villa, G; Espino, L; Gusi, N; Casajus, J A; Ara, I; González-Gross, M

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is gaining in importance in all population groups, including elderly, but data are still scarce. The aim of this study was to report gender and age specific physical fitness levels in non-institutionalized Spanish elderly. A representative sample of 3136 elderly (≥ 65 y), 724 men and 2412 women, from 6 Regions of Spain: Madrid, Aragón, Castilla y León, Castilla-La Mancha, Extremadura and Canarias were assessed in the elderly EXERNET multi-center study between 2008 and 2009. The authors assessed static balance, muscular strength, flexibility, agility, walking speed and cardiorespiratory fitness using eight different fitness tests: one leg balance, chair stand, arm curl, chair sit-and-reach, back scratch, 8-foot up-and-go, 30-m walk, and 6 min walk tests. The authors derived gender and age-specific normative values for physical fitness in the non-institutionalized Spanish elderly. The figures showed greater physical fitness in the elderly men than in women, except for the flexibility test, and a trend toward decreased physical fitness in both genders as their age increased. The normative values hereby provided will enable evaluation and correct interpretation of independent non-institutionalized Spanish elderly fitness status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender Imputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In late 2007, the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC) expanded its Enrollment Reporting service to include several additional data elements (commonly referred to as the "A2" or "expanded" data elements). One of these expanded data elements is student gender. Although gender is potentially important to a number of research…

  1. Gender Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…

  2. Gender Fictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lesley

    1992-01-01

    Reviews and compares "Gender and Mathematics" edited by Leone Burton and Valerie Walkerdine's book "Schoolgirl Fictions" on proposed truths related to gender issues in mathematics. Issues include (1) attention given to boys and girls in mathematics class; (2) the effects of noncompetitive classroom environments; and (3) sex differences in…

  3. Gender Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  4. On Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James Q.

    1993-01-01

    Explores differences between males and females and their manifestation in biology and culture. Cultures differ, not in whether they cope with the socialization of males to invest in child rearing, but in how they deal with this problem. Issues of gender and power and gender and child rearing are discussed. (SLD)

  5. Gender equity.

    PubMed

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender equity. Gender equity is difficult to achieve when there is no economic, social, or political equity. The Gender Development Index evidenced this. There were a lot of instances where women are psychologically traumatized, whether it is through domestic rape, purchased sexual services in the red light area, and seduction or violation of neighbors, relatives, daughter or child. The economic changes linked with globalization and media's influence have worsened women's position. The policy for empowerment of women is an attempt toward ensuring equity. Furthermore, many women and women's organizations are trying to address these inequities; wherein they fight for strong acceptance of women's rights, social, economic, and political rights, as well as equities between gender and within gender.

  6. Crime and the Elderly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    The elderly are differentially affected by crime and the fear of crime due to their increased vulnerability and, as such, warrant a certain degree of...specialized handling and understanding by the police. The information presented in this thesis will enhance police knowledge of the elderly and... elderly and, ideally, result in less elderly victimization and a better living environment and quality of life for the elderly .

  7. [Kidney grafts from elderly donors].

    PubMed

    Hiesse, Christian; Pessione, Fabienne; Cohen, Sophie

    2003-06-07

    FROM AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL POINT OF VIEW: The epidemiology of renal transplantation had greatly changed over the past 10 years. The increasing number of patients with renal failure and candidates for transplantation increases the demand for grafts, whereas the sampling rate of organs remains stable. The mean age of the donors is rising, hence underlining the question of the use of organs of so-called "borderline" quality. THE WEAK POINTS OF ELDERLY GRAFTS: Aging of the kidneys affects the structure of the parenchyma and renal function, which decreases, notably in hypertensive persons. The elderly graft exhibits a critical mass of nephrons that is insufficient to fulfil the functional requirements of a poorly equipped recipient. The recipient is more sensitive to the added agressions: prolonged ischemia and immunological and medicinal agressions. THE RESULTS OF RENAL GRAFT FROM ELDERLY DONORS: They are quantitatively and qualitatively inferior to those of renal transplants from "ideal" donors. The donor's age is a significant factor influencing negatively influences the survival of the transplanted kidney, but dependent on past vascular history. Good results regarding the maintenance of dialysis are obtained by selecting the donors and by avoiding added risk factors. THE ASSESSMENT OF A GRAFT FROM AN ELDERLY DONOR: This, basically, relies on clinical criteria: donor's history, cause of death and accurate measurement of the renal function. A biopsy of the graft, at the time of sampling, provides useful information. TRANSPLANTATION STRATEGY OF A GRAFT FROM AN ELDERLY DONOR: Donor-recipient matching by age is a common approach. Grafting of both kidneys in the same recipient is a method presently under assessment. The episode of ischemia must be reduced and the immunosuppressive therapy adapted.

  8. Ontology Matching Across Domains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    matching include GMO [1], Anchor-Prompt [2], and Similarity Flooding [3]. GMO is an iterative structural matcher, which uses RDF bipartite graphs to...AFRL under contract# FA8750-09-C-0058. References [1] Hu, W., Jian, N., Qu, Y., Wang, Y., “ GMO : a graph matching for ontologies”, in: Proceedings of

  9. DOE Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Marvin Adams

    2002-03-01

    OAK 270 - The DOE Matching Grant Program provided $50,000.00 to the Dept of N.E. at TAMU, matching a gift of $50,000.00 from TXU Electric. The $100,000.00 total was spent on scholarships, departmental labs, and computing network.

  10. Matched-pair classification

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, James P

    2009-01-01

    Following an analogous distinction in statistical hypothesis testing, we investigate variants of machine learning where the training set comes in matched pairs. We demonstrate that even conventional classifiers can exhibit improved performance when the input data has a matched-pair structure. Online algorithms, in particular, converge quicker when the data is presented in pairs. In some scenarios (such as the weak signal detection problem), matched pairs can be generated from independent samples, with the effect not only doubling the nominal size of the training set, but of providing the structure that leads to better learning. A family of 'dipole' algorithms is introduced that explicitly takes advantage of matched-pair structure in the input data and leads to further performance gains. Finally, we illustrate the application of matched-pair learning to chemical plume detection in hyperspectral imagery.

  11. Bromazepam pharmacokinetics: influence of age, gender, oral contraceptives, cimetidine, and propranolol.

    PubMed

    Ochs, H R; Greenblatt, D J; Friedman, H; Burstein, E S; Locniskar, A; Harmatz, J S; Shader, R I

    1987-05-01

    Pharmacokinetics of the benzodiazepine bromazepam were evaluated in volunteer subjects who received single 6 mg oral doses followed by blood sampling during the next 48 hours. Age and gender effects were studied in 32 subjects, divided into young (aged 21 to 29 years) and elderly (aged 60 to 81 years) groups. Compared with young subjects, the elderly had significantly higher peak serum bromazepam concentrations (132 vs. 82 ng/ml), smaller volume of distribution (0.88 vs. 1.44 L/kg), lower oral clearance (0.41 vs. 0.76 ml/min/kg), and increased serum free fraction (34.8% vs. 28.8% unbound). However, gender had no significant influence on bromazepam kinetics. In 11 young female users of oral contraceptive steroids, compared with seven age- and weight-matched control women not using oral contraceptives, no differences in bromazepam kinetics were observed. Coadministration of cimetidine (1.2 gm daily) significantly reduced bromazepam clearance (0.41 vs. 0.82 ml/min/kg) and prolonged elimination half-life (29 vs. 23 hours). Propranolol (160 mg daily) significantly prolonged bromazepam half-life (28 vs. 23 hours), but the reduction in clearance associated with propranolol (0.65 vs. 0.82 ml/min/kg) did not reach significance. Bromazepam has the pharmacokinetic characteristics of benzodiazepines with half-life values between 20 and 30 hours. Consistent with its biotransformation pathway by hepatic microsomal oxidation, bromazepam clearance is significantly impaired in elderly individuals, by coadministration of cimetidine and possibly propranolol.

  12. Demographically corrected normative data for the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised in an elderly sample.

    PubMed

    Duff, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Demographic variables, such as age, education, and gender, routinely affect performance on neuropsychological tests. Whereas normative data are available to correct for these variables on many tests, data are lacking on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R), especially in the elderly. The current study examined the influence of age, education, and gender on HVLT-R and BVMT-R scores in 290 cognitively intact older adults. Age negatively correlated with nearly every score on the HVLT-R and BVMT-R, and education positively correlated with most scores on these same 2 memory tests. There were fewer gender differences on these tests. Using stepwise multiple regression, HVLT-R and BVMT-R scores were predicted from age, education, and/or gender. When observed scores are compared to these demographically adjusted predicted scores, clinicians can make assumptions about how an individual compared to his/her age-, education-, and gender-matched peers. The current conorming of these 2 memory tests also allows for direct comparison between verbal and visual memory in older patients.

  13. [Disability among elderly women in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Parahyba, Maria Isabel; Veras, Renato; Melzer, David

    2005-06-01

    To estimate disability rates and explore associations, identifying the most significant socioeconomic markers associated with the prevalence of mobility disability among elderly women. National mobility disability rates were estimated based on information from the 1998 National Household Survey (PNAD), conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. The present study analyzes the elderly women population, totaling 16,186 subjects. Logistic regression models were constructed considering 'difficulty walking 100 meters' as the dependent variable. The prevalence of markers of mild, moderate and severe disability was greater among women, and increased with age. In logistic regression analysis, markers most strongly associated with increased prevalence of mobility disability were age, gender, low schooling, and low income. Rural residence was also associated with reduced prevalence. Our results suggest potential risk factors for the development of functional decline in elderly women, given that the associations encountered were consistent with those reported by other studies in the literature.

  14. Age-gender differences in the postural sway during squat and stand-up movement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Won; Kwon, Yuri; Ho, Yeji; Jeon, Hyeong-Min; Bang, Min-Jung; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Park, Byung Kyu; Cho, Yeong Bin

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of falling among elderly female has been reported to be much higher than that of elderly male. Although the gender differences in the elderly were reported for the static postural sway, there has been no investigation of the gender difference for the dynamic postural sway. This study investigates how age and gender affect the postural sway during dynamic squat and stand-up movement. 124 subjects (62 subjects for each of young and elderly) performed consecutive squat and stand-up movement, 2 times in one session, and 2 sessions per subject. Center of pressure (COP) was measured using force platform during the test. Outcome measures included peak-to-peak sways of the COP (COP sway) in the sagittal plane (anteroposterior) and frontal plane (mediolateral) and also those normalized by body height. Two-way ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons were performed for the outcome measures with the independent factors of age and gender. All outcome measures, excluding mediolateral COP sway, showed significant interaction of age and gender (p<0.05). Post-hoc test revealed that only female showed increase in COP sway with age. When normalized by height, increase in COP sways (both directions) with age significant only in women resulted in greater sways in elderly female than elderly male. This may be related to the greater fall rate of elderly female than that of elderly men while performing dynamic activities.

  15. Latent fingerprint matching.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang

    2011-01-01

    Latent fingerprint identification is of critical importance to law enforcement agencies in identifying suspects: Latent fingerprints are inadvertent impressions left by fingers on surfaces of objects. While tremendous progress has been made in plain and rolled fingerprint matching, latent fingerprint matching continues to be a difficult problem. Poor quality of ridge impressions, small finger area, and large nonlinear distortion are the main difficulties in latent fingerprint matching compared to plain or rolled fingerprint matching. We propose a system for matching latent fingerprints found at crime scenes to rolled fingerprints enrolled in law enforcement databases. In addition to minutiae, we also use extended features, including singularity, ridge quality map, ridge flow map, ridge wavelength map, and skeleton. We tested our system by matching 258 latents in the NIST SD27 database against a background database of 29,257 rolled fingerprints obtained by combining the NIST SD4, SD14, and SD27 databases. The minutiae-based baseline rank-1 identification rate of 34.9 percent was improved to 74 percent when extended features were used. In order to evaluate the relative importance of each extended feature, these features were incrementally used in the order of their cost in marking by latent experts. The experimental results indicate that singularity, ridge quality map, and ridge flow map are the most effective features in improving the matching accuracy.

  16. Learning graph matching.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Tibério S; McAuley, Julian J; Cheng, Li; Le, Quoc V; Smola, Alex J

    2009-06-01

    As a fundamental problem in pattern recognition, graph matching has applications in a variety of fields, from computer vision to computational biology. In graph matching, patterns are modeled as graphs and pattern recognition amounts to finding a correspondence between the nodes of different graphs. Many formulations of this problem can be cast in general as a quadratic assignment problem, where a linear term in the objective function encodes node compatibility and a quadratic term encodes edge compatibility. The main research focus in this theme is about designing efficient algorithms for approximately solving the quadratic assignment problem, since it is NP-hard. In this paper we turn our attention to a different question: how to estimate compatibility functions such that the solution of the resulting graph matching problem best matches the expected solution that a human would manually provide. We present a method for learning graph matching: the training examples are pairs of graphs and the 'labels' are matches between them. Our experimental results reveal that learning can substantially improve the performance of standard graph matching algorithms. In particular, we find that simple linear assignment with such a learning scheme outperforms Graduated Assignment with bistochastic normalisation, a state-of-the-art quadratic assignment relaxation algorithm.

  17. Assessing Attitudes toward the Elderly: Polizzi's Refined Version of the Aging Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzi, Kenneth G.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=300) assessed adults aged 70-85 using a revised Aging Semantic Differential. Factor analyses indicated that addition of new adjective pairs and removal of old ones updated the instrument. Principal component analyses revealed four-factor structures for elderly men and elderly women, indicating gender differences in attitudes.…

  18. Drug and Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly: Is Being Alone the Key?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, B. Bradford; Chiang, Chi-Pang

    1984-01-01

    Compared 21 older clients of drug treatment facilities, 30 older abusers not in treatment, and 155 elderly nonabusers. Analyses suggested that age and gender affect the likelihood of receiving treatment more than the likelihood of being an abuser. Substance abuse appeared more prevalent among single elderly who lived alone. (JAC)

  19. Health Behavior among the Elderly in Turkey: An Early Evaluation of the Geroatlas Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufan, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Scientific investigations have revealed that behaviors about health and illness states are related to socioeconomic status, gender, and cultural factors. Chronic diseases and comorbidity are common in elderly people when compared to the rest of the population. Major problems of the elderly in Turkey are related to health behaviors, financial…

  20. Health Behavior among the Elderly in Turkey: An Early Evaluation of the Geroatlas Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufan, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Scientific investigations have revealed that behaviors about health and illness states are related to socioeconomic status, gender, and cultural factors. Chronic diseases and comorbidity are common in elderly people when compared to the rest of the population. Major problems of the elderly in Turkey are related to health behaviors, financial…

  1. Rosalie Wolf Memorial Lecture: Reconsidering assumptions regarding men as elder abuse perpetrators and as elder abuse victims.

    PubMed

    Kosberg, Jordan I

    2014-01-01

    From research findings and practice experiences, it is concluded that abuse of older men is especially invisible and underreported, compared to abuse of older women. It is proposed that attention should be directed not to gender, but to those conditions in different countries and cultures leading to abuse of both older men and women, including (but not limited to) economic problems, few alternatives to family care of the elderly, violence, changing characteristics of the family, ageism, and sexism. Advocates for the prevention of elder abuse should work together in combating, reducing, and eliminating the problem of elder abuse of both older men and older women.

  2. Frailty among rural elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors related to frailty, by Fried criteria, in the elderly population in a rural area in the Andes Mountains, and to analyze the relationship of these with comorbidity and disability. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 1878 participants 60 years of age and older. The frailty syndrome was diagnosed based on the Fried criteria (weakness, low speed, low physical activity, exhaustion, and weight loss). Variables were grouped as theoretical domains and, along with other potential confounders, were placed into five categories: (a) demographic and socioeconomic status, (b) health status, (c) self-reported functional status, (d) physical performance-based measures, and (e) psychosocial factors. Chi-square, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test the prognostic value of frailty for the outcomes of interest. Results The prevalence of frailty was 12.2%. Factors associated with frailty were age, gender, health status variables that included self-perceived health and number of chronic conditions, functional covariate variables that included disability in activities in daily living (ADL), disabilities in instrumental ADL, chair stand time, and psychosocial variables that included depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment. Higher comorbidity and disability was found in frail elderly people. Only a subset of frail elderly people (10%) reported no disease or disability. Conclusions A relevant number of elderly persons living in rural areas in the Andes Mountains are frail. The prevalence of frailty is similar to that reported in other populations in the Latin American region. Our results support the use of modified Cardiovascular Health Study criteria to measure frailty in communities other than urban settings. Frailty in this study was strongly associated with comorbidities, and frailty and comorbidity predicted disability. PMID:24405584

  3. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  4. Elder Abuse FAQS

    MedlinePlus

    ... of older Americans Prev Play Pause Next Elder abuse is a complex issue that intersects with many ... You are a front line defender against elder abuse. Everyone has a role in preventing and combatting ...

  5. Elder care - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - elder care ... The following organizations are good resources for information on aging and elder care: Administration on Aging -- www.aoa.gov Eldercare Locator -- www.eldercare.gov National Institute on ...

  6. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  7. Pediatric MATCH Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    Infographic explaining NCI-COG Pediatric MATCH, a cancer treatment clinical trial for children and adolescents, from 1 to 21 years of age, that is testing the use of precision medicine for pediatric cancers.

  8. Project Matching Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership's Project Matching initiative works to connect green power users with new, not-yet-built renewable energy projects that may align with their energy, environmental, and financial objectives.

  9. Cognitive Levels Matching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Martin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Cognitive Levels Matching Project trains teachers to guide students' skill acquisition and problem-solving processes by assessing students' cognitive levels and adapting their teaching materials accordingly. (MLF)

  10. The molecular matching problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular chemistry contains many difficult optimization problems that have begun to attract the attention of optimizers in the Operations Research community. Problems including protein folding, molecular conformation, molecular similarity, and molecular matching have been addressed. Minimum energy conformations for simple molecular structures such as water clusters, Lennard-Jones microclusters, and short polypeptides have dominated the literature to date. However, a variety of interesting problems exist and we focus here on a molecular structure matching (MSM) problem.

  11. Magnetic safety matches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindén, J.; Lindberg, M.; Greggas, A.; Jylhävuori, N.; Norrgrann, H.; Lill, J. O.

    2017-07-01

    In addition to the main ingredients; sulfur, potassium chlorate and carbon, ordinary safety matches contain various dyes, glues etc, giving the head of the match an even texture and appealing color. Among the common reddish-brown matches there are several types, which after ignition can be attracted by a strong magnet. Before ignition the match head is generally not attracted by the magnet. An elemental analysis based on proton-induced x-ray emission was performed to single out iron as the element responsible for the observed magnetism. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for identifying the various types of iron-compounds, present before and after ignition, responsible for the macroscopic magnetism: Fe2O3 before and Fe3O4 after. The reaction was verified by mixing the main chemicals in the match-head with Fe2O3 in glue and mounting the mixture on a match stick. The ash residue after igniting the mixture was magnetic.

  12. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  13. Evaluation of stair climbing in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Mustafaoğlu, Rüstem; Unver, Bayram; Karatosun, Vasfi

    2015-01-01

    Stair climbing is an important but neglected aspect of independent living. Clinicians should pay attention to the ability to negotiate stairs in elderly and disabled patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age, gender, medication use, cognitive status, lower extremity pathology and pain on the activities of stair negotiation in the elderly population in Turkish society. Volunteer elderly people (254) were included the study. Participants were assessed in terms of their medication use, cognitive status, lower extremity pathology and pain and the activity of climbing the stairs. Significant differences were found on the activities of stair negotiation between the elderly with and without lower extremity pathology, with and without lower extremity pain, with and without medication use (p< 0.05). A positive and moderate correlation was found between age and the activity of stair climbing (r= 0.24, p< 0.01). Activity of stair climbing is affected by age, medication use, the presence of lower extremity pathology and pain. We consider that this information will be helpful for planning an appropriate and effective rehabilitation programme for elderly people for decreasing their risk of falling and increasing their independence level during their activities of daily living.

  14. Abnormality in glutamine–glutamate cycle in the cerebrospinal fluid of cognitively intact elderly individuals with major depressive disorder: a 3-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, K; Bruno, D; Nierenberg, J; Marmar, C R; Zetterberg, H; Blennow, K; Pomara, N

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), common in the elderly, is a risk factor for dementia. Abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission via the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) have a key role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study examined whether depression was associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of NMDA-R neurotransmission-associated amino acids in cognitively intact elderly individuals with MDD and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. CSF was obtained from 47 volunteers (MDD group, N=28; age- and gender-matched comparison group, N=19) at baseline and 3-year follow-up (MDD group, N=19; comparison group, N=17). CSF levels of glutamine, glutamate, glycine, l-serine and d-serine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. CSF levels of amino acids did not differ across MDD and comparison groups. However, the ratio of glutamine to glutamate was significantly higher at baseline in subjects with MDD than in controls. The ratio decreased in individuals with MDD over the 3-year follow-up, and this decrease correlated with a decrease in the severity of depression. No correlations between absolute amino-acid levels and clinical variables were observed, nor were correlations between amino acids and other biomarkers (for example, amyloid-β42, amyloid-β40, and total and phosphorylated tau protein) detected. These results suggest that abnormalities in the glutamine–glutamate cycle in the communication between glia and neurons may have a role in the pathophysiology of depression in the elderly. Furthermore, the glutamine/glutamate ratio in CSF may be a state biomarker for depression. PMID:26926880

  15. Latent palmprint matching.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang

    2009-06-01

    The evidential value of palmprints in forensic applications is clear as about 30 percent of the latents recovered from crime scenes are from palms. While biometric systems for palmprint-based personal authentication in access control type of applications have been developed, they mostly deal with low-resolution (about 100 ppi) palmprints and only perform full-to-full palmprint matching. We propose a latent-to-full palmprint matching system that is needed in forensic applications. Our system deals with palmprints captured at 500 ppi (the current standard in forensic applications) or higher resolution and uses minutiae as features to be compatible with the methodology used by latent experts. Latent palmprint matching is a challenging problem because latent prints lifted at crime scenes are of poor image quality, cover only a small area of the palm, and have a complex background. Other difficulties include a large number of minutiae in full prints (about 10 times as many as fingerprints), and the presence of many creases in latents and full prints. A robust algorithm to reliably estimate the local ridge direction and frequency in palmprints is developed. This facilitates the extraction of ridge and minutiae features even in poor quality palmprints. A fixed-length minutia descriptor, MinutiaCode, is utilized to capture distinctive information around each minutia and an alignment-based minutiae matching algorithm is used to match two palmprints. Two sets of partial palmprints (150 live-scan partial palmprints and 100 latent palmprints) are matched to a background database of 10,200 full palmprints to test the proposed system. Despite the inherent difficulty of latent-to-full palmprint matching, rank-1 recognition rates of 78.7 and 69 percent, respectively, were achieved in searching live-scan partial palmprints and latent palmprints against the background database.

  16. Ontogeny, aging, and gender-related changes in hepatic multidrug resistant protein genes in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiong-Ni; Hou, Wei-Yu; Xu, Shang-Fu; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Liu, Jie

    2017-02-01

    Multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps) are efflux transporters playing important roles in endogenous substances and xenobiotics transport out of the liver. Children, elderly, gender and physio-pathological conditions could influence their expression and result in changes in drug disposition.

  17. Aided speech recognition in single-talker competition by elderly hearing-impaired listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Maureen; Humes, Larry

    2004-05-01

    This study examined the speech-identification performance in one-talker interference conditions that increased in complexity while audibility was ensured over a wide bandwidth (200-4000 Hz). Factorial combinations of three independent variables were used to vary the amount of informational masking. These variables were: (1) competition playback direction (forward or reverse); (2) gender match between target and competition talkers (same or different); and (3) target talker uncertainty (one of three possible talkers from trial to trial). Four groups of listeners, two elderly hearing-impaired groups differing in age (65-74 and 75-84 years) and two young normal-hearing groups, were tested. One of the groups of young normal-hearing listeners was tested under acoustically equivalent test conditions and one was tested under perceptually equivalent test conditions. The effect of each independent variable on speech-identification performance and informational masking was generally consistent with expectations. Group differences in the observed informational masking were most pronounced for the oldest group of hearing-impaired listeners. The eight measures of speech-identification performance were found to be strongly correlated with one another, and individual differences in speech understanding performance among the elderly were found to be associated with age and level of education. [Work supported, in part, by NIA.

  18. Gender Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn

    In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…

  19. Gender Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn

    In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…

  20. Factors Associated with Anemia in the Institutionalized Elderly

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Emanuelle Cruz; Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; Eickemberg, Michaela; Mello, Adriana Lima; Côrtes, Elvira Barbosa Quadros; Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Medeiros, Jairza Maria Barreto; Ramos, Lílian Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    As a common problem in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), anemia affects 25–63% of the elderly. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of anemia and its associated factors in the institutionalized elderly. The cross-sectional study was carried out with three hundred thirteen individuals aged ≥ 60 years, of both genders, living in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Poisson regression (PR) with robust variance estimates was used to assess the factors related to anemia. The prevalence of anemia was 38%. Mild anemia was predominant in both genders (male: 26.8%; female: 21.1%), as normocytic and normochromic anemia, with no anisocytosis (69.75%). Anemia was associated with thinness (PR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04–2.72) and with moderate (PR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.07–3.63) and total (PR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.34–5.07) dependence in the final model. Severe dependence exhibited borderline significance (PR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.00–3.77). The prevalence of anemia was high in the institutionalized elderly in both genders, with characteristics suggesting chronic diseases as the causal factor, and the frequency of occurrence was higher in thinness elderly with moderate to total dependence. PMID:27607057

  1. Factors Associated with Anemia in the Institutionalized Elderly.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emanuelle Cruz da; Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; Eickemberg, Michaela; Mello, Adriana Lima; Côrtes, Elvira Barbosa Quadros; Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Medeiros, Jairza Maria Barreto; Ramos, Lílian Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    As a common problem in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), anemia affects 25-63% of the elderly. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of anemia and its associated factors in the institutionalized elderly. The cross-sectional study was carried out with three hundred thirteen individuals aged ≥ 60 years, of both genders, living in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Poisson regression (PR) with robust variance estimates was used to assess the factors related to anemia. The prevalence of anemia was 38%. Mild anemia was predominant in both genders (male: 26.8%; female: 21.1%), as normocytic and normochromic anemia, with no anisocytosis (69.75%). Anemia was associated with thinness (PR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04-2.72) and with moderate (PR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.07-3.63) and total (PR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.34-5.07) dependence in the final model. Severe dependence exhibited borderline significance (PR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.00-3.77). The prevalence of anemia was high in the institutionalized elderly in both genders, with characteristics suggesting chronic diseases as the causal factor, and the frequency of occurrence was higher in thinness elderly with moderate to total dependence.

  2. Body Mass Index and Mortality according to Gender in a Community-Dwelling Elderly Population: The 3-Year Follow-up Findings from the Living Profiles of Older People Surveys in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seon Yeong; Kim, Byung Sung; Won, Chang Won; Choi, Hyunrim; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Hyung Woo; Kim, Min Joung

    2016-11-01

    Body mass index is widely regarded as an important predictor of mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between body mass index and mortality and to compare community-dwelling elderly people in South Korea according to sex. Data were collected from the 2008 and 2011 Living Profiles of Older People Surveys, which comprised 10,613 community-living South Korean men and women aged 65 years or older. The participants were stratified into five groups according to body mass index as defined by the World Health Organization guidelines. The sociodemographic characteristics of participants and mortality rates were compared across the body mass index groups. The highest survival rates were observed in men with a body mass index of 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2). A similar trend was observed in women, but it was not statistically significant. After adjusting for covariates, this association was also found in men across all BMI index groups, but not in women. This study supports previous findings that overweight or mild obesity is associated with the lowest mortality and suggests that the current categories of obesity require revision. Furthermore, the absence of statistically significant findings in the female cohort suggests that body mass index is not a suitable predictor of mortality in women and that an alternative is required.

  3. Is Matching Innate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallistel, C. R.; King, Adam Philip; Gottlieb, Daniel; Balci, Fuat; Papachristos, Efstathios B.; Szalecki, Matthew; Carbone, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Experimentally naive mice matched the proportions of their temporal investments (visit durations) in two feeding hoppers to the proportions of the food income (pellets per unit session time) derived from them in three experiments that varied the coupling between the behavioral investment and food income, from no coupling to strict coupling.…

  4. Dewey Concentration Match.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Giving students a chance to associate numbers with subjects can be useful in speeding their location of desired print or nonprint materials and helping students feel independent when browsing. A matching game for helping students learn the Dewey numbers is presented. Instructions for the library media specialist or teacher, instructions for…

  5. School Match Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mary Jo; Weeks, Ann

    1988-01-01

    Reports an interview with the director of School Match, a firm that has created a database of information on public and private schools to assist relocated families in identifying the best local schools. The firm's finding that library and media services' expenditures relates most significantly to student achievement is discussed. (CLB)

  6. Is matching innate?

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; King, Adam Philip; Gottlieb, Daniel; Balci, Fuat; Papachristos, Efstathios B; Szalecki, Matthew; Carbone, Kimberly S

    2007-03-01

    Experimentally naive mice matched the proportions of their temporal investments (visit durations) in two feeding hoppers to the proportions of the food income (pellets per unit session time) derived from them in three experiments that varied the coupling between the behavioral investment and food income, from no coupling to strict coupling. Matching was observed from the outset; it did not improve with training. When the numbers of pellets received were proportional to time invested, investment was unstable, swinging abruptly from sustained, almost complete investment in one hopper, to sustained, almost complete investment in the other-in the absence of appropriate local fluctuations in returns (pellets obtained per time invested). The abruptness of the swings strongly constrains possible models. We suggest that matching reflects an innate (unconditioned) program that matches the ratio of expected visit durations to the ratio between the current estimates of expected incomes. A model that processes the income stream looking for changes in the income and generates discontinuous income estimates when a change is detected is shown to account for salient features of the data.

  7. Is Matching Innate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallistel, C. R.; King, Adam Philip; Gottlieb, Daniel; Balci, Fuat; Papachristos, Efstathios B.; Szalecki, Matthew; Carbone, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Experimentally naive mice matched the proportions of their temporal investments (visit durations) in two feeding hoppers to the proportions of the food income (pellets per unit session time) derived from them in three experiments that varied the coupling between the behavioral investment and food income, from no coupling to strict coupling.…

  8. Factorized Graph Matching.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; de la Torre, Fernando

    2015-11-19

    Graph matching (GM) is a fundamental problem in computer science, and it plays a central role to solve correspondence problems in computer vision. GM problems that incorporate pairwise constraints can be formulated as a quadratic assignment problem (QAP). Although widely used, solving the correspondence problem through GM has two main limitations: (1) the QAP is NP-hard and difficult to approximate; (2) GM algorithms do not incorporate geometric constraints between nodes that are natural in computer vision problems. To address aforementioned problems, this paper proposes factorized graph matching (FGM). FGM factorizes the large pairwise affinity matrix into smaller matrices that encode the local structure of each graph and the pairwise affinity between edges. Four are the benefits that follow from this factorization: (1) There is no need to compute the costly (in space and time) pairwise affinity matrix; (2) The factorization allows the use of a path-following optimization algorithm, that leads to improved optimization strategies and matching performance; (3) Given the factorization, it becomes straight-forward to incorporate geometric transformations (rigid and non-rigid) to the GM problem. (4) Using a matrix formulation for the GM problem and the factorization, it is easy to reveal commonalities and differences between different GM methods. The factorization also provides a clean connection with other matching algorithms such as iterative closest point; Experimental results on synthetic and real databases illustrate how FGM outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for GM. The code is available at http://humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/fgm.

  9. Inter-image matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. H., Jr.; Juday, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Interimage matching is the process of determining the geometric transformation required to conform spatially one image to another. In principle, the parameters of that transformation are varied until some measure of some difference between the two images is minimized or some measure of sameness (e.g., cross-correlation) is maximized. The number of such parameters to vary is faily large (six for merely an affine transformation), and it is customary to attempt an a priori transformation reducing the complexity of the residual transformation or subdivide the image into small enough match zones (control points or patches) that a simple transformation (e.g., pure translation) is applicable, yet large enough to facilitate matching. In the latter case, a complex mapping function is fit to the results (e.g., translation offsets) in all the patches. The methods reviewed have all chosen one or both of the above options, ranging from a priori along-line correction for line-dependent effects (the high-frequency correction) to a full sensor-to-geobase transformation with subsequent subdivision into a grid of match points.

  10. Derivatives of Matching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrnstein, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The matching law for reinforced behavior solves a differential equation relating infinitesimal changes in behavior to infinitesimal changes in reinforcement. The equation expresses plausible conceptions of behavior and reinforcement, yields a simple nonlinear operator model for acquisition, and suggests a alternative to the economic law of…

  11. Tocopherol in Elder Self-Neglect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, K.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Although elder self-neglect is the most common form of elder mistreatment, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Alpha-tocopherol is a lipid soluble antioxidant required for the preservation of cell membranes. Since the association between tocopherol and cognitive impairment in older adults has been described, we explored the possibility of its role in elder self-neglect. OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine whether serum tocopherol levels are associated with elder self-neglect, and (2) to assess the association of serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function in elder self-neglect. METHODS: Serum tocopherol levels were measured in a cohort of 67 self-neglecting elders and 67 matched controls, recruited for the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas. Pearson s correlation tests were performed to assess bivariate associations between serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function. RESULTS: Mean serum alpha-tocopherol levels were 10.8 +/- 4.7 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 13.0 +/- 4.9 ug/mL in control group (p = 0.006, unpaired student s t-test). None of the participants from either group had alpha-tocopherol level lower than the reference range. Mean serum gamma-tocopherol levels were 2.0 +/- 1.0 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 2.0 +/- 1.1 in control group (p=0.83). Proportion of the elders with gamma-tocopherol level lower than the reference range were 4.5% (3/66) in self-neglect group and 10.4% (7/67) in control group (p=0.32, Fisher s Exact Test). Among the self-neglecting elders, no association was found between serum alpha-tocopherol levels and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Test (CDT) scores (r =-0.42, p=0.75 for MMSE; r=0.08, p=0.54 for CDT). No association was found between serum gamma-tocopherol levels and the MMSE or the CDT (r=-0.12, p=0.35 for MMSE; r=0.05, p=0.68 for CDT). CONCLUSION: In our sample, neither alpha-tocopherol nor gamma-tocopherol appears to have a role in pathophysiology of elder

  12. Tocopherol in Elder Self-Neglect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, K.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Although elder self-neglect is the most common form of elder mistreatment, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Alpha-tocopherol is a lipid soluble antioxidant required for the preservation of cell membranes. Since the association between tocopherol and cognitive impairment in older adults has been described, we explored the possibility of its role in elder self-neglect. OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine whether serum tocopherol levels are associated with elder self-neglect, and (2) to assess the association of serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function in elder self-neglect. METHODS: Serum tocopherol levels were measured in a cohort of 67 self-neglecting elders and 67 matched controls, recruited for the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas. Pearson s correlation tests were performed to assess bivariate associations between serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function. RESULTS: Mean serum alpha-tocopherol levels were 10.8 +/- 4.7 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 13.0 +/- 4.9 ug/mL in control group (p = 0.006, unpaired student s t-test). None of the participants from either group had alpha-tocopherol level lower than the reference range. Mean serum gamma-tocopherol levels were 2.0 +/- 1.0 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 2.0 +/- 1.1 in control group (p=0.83). Proportion of the elders with gamma-tocopherol level lower than the reference range were 4.5% (3/66) in self-neglect group and 10.4% (7/67) in control group (p=0.32, Fisher s Exact Test). Among the self-neglecting elders, no association was found between serum alpha-tocopherol levels and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Test (CDT) scores (r =-0.42, p=0.75 for MMSE; r=0.08, p=0.54 for CDT). No association was found between serum gamma-tocopherol levels and the MMSE or the CDT (r=-0.12, p=0.35 for MMSE; r=0.05, p=0.68 for CDT). CONCLUSION: In our sample, neither alpha-tocopherol nor gamma-tocopherol appears to have a role in pathophysiology of elder

  13. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    developed a new automated algorithm for matching supernovae to their host galaxies. Their work builds on currently existing algorithms and makes use of information about the nearby galaxies, accounts for the uncertainty of the match, and even includes a machine learning component to improve the matching accuracy.Gupta and collaborators test their matching algorithm on catalogs of galaxies and simulated supernova events to quantify how well the algorithm is able to accurately recover the true hosts.Successful MatchingThe matching algorithms accuracy (purity) as a function of the true supernova-host separation, the supernova redshift, the true hosts brightness, and the true hosts size. [Gupta et al. 2016]The authors find that when the basic algorithm is run on catalog data, it matches supernovae to their hosts with 91% accuracy. Including the machine learning component, which is run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy of the matching to 97%.The encouraging results of this work which was intended as a proof of concept suggest that methods similar to this could prove very practical for tackling future survey data. And the method explored here has use beyond matching just supernovae to their host galaxies: it could also be applied to other extragalactic transients, such as gamma-ray bursts, tidal disruption events, or electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave detections.CitationRavi R. Gupta et al 2016 AJ 152 154. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/154

  14. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    PubMed

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  15. Improved Automated Perimetry Performance in Elderly Subjects after Listening To Mozart

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Junia Cabral; Vanessa, Adriana Chaves Oliveira; Fiorelli, Macedo Batista; Kasahara, Niro

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of automated perimetry of elderly subjects naïve to AP after listening to a Mozart sonata. INTRODUCTION: Automated perimetry (AP) is a psychophysical test used to assess visual fields in patients with neurological disorders and glaucoma. In a previous study, Fiorelli et al. showed that young subjects who listened to a Mozart sonata prior to undergoing AP performed better in terms of reliability than those who did not listen to the sonata. METHODS: Fifty-two AP-naïve, normal subjects underwent Automated perimetry (SITA 24-2). The study group (25 subjects) underwent AP after listening to Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, and the control group (27 subjects) underwent Automated perimetry without prior exposure to the music. RESULTS: The study group had significantly lower false negative rates and a lower visual field reliability score than the controls (P=0.04 and P=0.04, respectively). The test time was shorter for the study group (P=0.03). DISCUSSION: This study shows that elderly subjects, when exposed to the Mozart sonata immediately before AP testing, have lower false negative rates and lower visual field reliability scores when compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Our results differ from those of Fiorelli et al. who found lower false positive rates and less fixation loss in addition to lower false negative rates. CONCLUSION: Listening to a Mozart sonata seems to improve automated perimetry reliability in elderly subjects. PMID:19606243

  16. Is It Time to Phase Out the Austin Moore Hemiarthroplasty? A Propensity Score Matched Case Control Comparison versus Cemented Hemiarthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui-Ping; Lau, Tak-Wing; Leung, Anderson; Wong, Tak-Man; Pun, Terence

    2016-01-01

    We compared the Austin Moore hemiarthroplasty versus cemented hemiarthroplasties using a propensity score matched cased control study. For a consecutive cohort of 450 patients with displaced intracapsular neck of femur fractures, 128 matched cases in each group were selected based on age, gender, walking status, nursing home residency, delays in surgery, ASA score, and the Charlson comorbidity score. At a mean follow-up of 16.3 months, we evaluated their outcomes. Significantly more patients with AMA experienced thigh pain (RR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.67–7.33,  p = 0.000), overall complications (RR = 4.47, 95% CI: 1.77–11.3, p = 0.000), and implant loosening (RR = 8.42, 95% CI: 2.63–26.95, p = 0.000). There were no definite cement related deaths in this series. There was no significant difference in mortality, walking status, and the number of revisions between the groups. We support the routine use of cemented hemiarthroplasty instead of the Austin Moore for treating elderlies with displaced intracapsular neck of femur fractures. PMID:27042669

  17. [Gender mainstreaming and nursing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2011-12-01

    Gender mainstreaming is one of the most important strategies in promoting global gender equality. The Taiwan government launched policies on gender mainstreaming and gender impact assessment in 2007 in response to strong public and academic advocacy work. With rising awareness of gender issues, nursing professionals in Taiwan should keep pace with global trends and become actively involved in advancing gender-mainstreaming policies. This article shows that nursing professionals should prepare themselves by cultivating gender competence, understanding gender-related regulations, recognizing the importance of gender impact assessment implementation, integrating gender issues into nursing education, conducting gender-related research and participating in decision-making processes that promote gender mainstreaming. Nursing professionals should enhance their knowledge and understanding of gender mainstreaming-related issues and get involved in the gender-related decision-making process in order to enhance gender awareness and women's health and further the professional development of nurses.

  18. Aortic valve replacement in the elderly. Risk factors and long-term results.

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, E E; Lee, C A; Cameron, D E; Stuart, R S; Greene, P S; Sussman, M S; Watkins, L; Gardner, T J; Baumgartner, W A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to determine long-term results of aortic valve replacement (AVR) in the elderly, to ascertain predictors of poor outcome, and to assess quality of life. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Aortic valve replacement is the procedure of choice for elderly patients with aortic valve disease. The number of patients aged 70 and older requiring AVR continues to increase. However, controversy exists as to whether surgery devoted to this subset reflect a cost-effective approach to attaining a meaningful quality of life. METHODS: This study reviews data on 247 patients aged 70 to 89 years who underwent isolated AVR between 1980 and 1995; there were 126 men (51%) and 121 women (49%). Follow-up was 97% complete (239/247 patients) for a total of 974.9 patient-years. Mean age was 76.2 +/- 4.8 years. Operative mortality and actuarial survival were determined. Patient age, gender, symptoms, associated diseases, prior conditions, New York Health Association class congestive heart failure, native valve disease, prosthetic valve type, preoperative catheterization data, and early postoperative conditions were analyzed as possible predictors of outcome. Functional recovery was evaluated using the SF-36 quality assessment tool. RESULTS: Operative mortality was 6.1% (15/247). Multivariate logistic regression showed that poor left ventricular function and preoperative pacemaker insertion were independent predictors of early mortality. After surgery, infection was predictive of early mortality. Overall actuarial survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 89.5 +/- 2% (198 patients at risk), 69.3 +/- 3.4% (89 patients at risk), and 41.2 +/- 6% (13 patients at risk), respectively. Cox proportional hazards model showed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and urgency of operation were independent predictors of poor long-term survival. Postoperative renal failure also was predictive of poor outcome. Using the SF-36 quality assessment tool, elderly patients who

  19. Matched designs and causal diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Mansournia, Mohammad A; Hernán, Miguel A; Greenland, Sander

    2013-01-01

    We use causal diagrams to illustrate the consequences of matching and the appropriate handling of matched variables in cohort and case-control studies. The matching process generally forces certain variables to be independent despite their being connected in the causal diagram, a phenomenon known as unfaithfulness. We show how causal diagrams can be used to visualize many previous results about matched studies. Cohort matching can prevent confounding by the matched variables, but censoring or other missing data and further adjustment may necessitate control of matching variables. Case-control matching generally does not prevent confounding by the matched variables, and control of matching variables may be necessary even if those were not confounders initially. Matching on variables that are affected by the exposure and the outcome, or intermediates between the exposure and the outcome, will ordinarily produce irremediable bias. PMID:23918854

  20. Disability in Singapore's Elderly Population.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Mithila; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Picco, Louisa; Jeyagurunathan, Anita; Shafie, Saleha Binte; Pang, Shirlene; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Seow, Esmond; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-07-01

    Disability increases an individual's dependence and negatively impacts their physical, mental, and social functioning. The current study aims to establish the prevalence and risk factors of disability in Singapore's population. Data was extracted from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly (WiSE) study. This cross-sectional study recruited participants aged 60 years and above (n = 2421) who were representative of Singapore's multiethnic population. We used the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0 to assess the severity of disability in our sample while establishing its associations and correlations with cognitive levels, sociodemographic variables, and chronic illness. Cognitive deficits, old age, female gender, Malay and Indian ethnicity, lack of education, retired or homemaker status, presence of chronic illness (specifically stroke, heart problems, depression, and dementia) were found to be significantly associated with disability in Singapore's elderly population. As hypothesised, participants with deficits in cognition were more likely to indicate higher WHODAS scores. The findings highlighted specific factors associated with disability in this multiethnic population. The identification of these factors would lead the way to the development of appropriate interventions.

  1. Elderly Mental Health: Needs*

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Shubhangi R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727

  2. Normative data for elderly African Americans for the Stroop Color and Word Test.

    PubMed

    Moering, Robert G; Schinka, John A; Mortimer, James A; Graves, Amy Borenstein

    2004-01-01

    The Stroop Color and Word Test is a measure of executive function that is commonly used in neuropsychological evaluations, but for which there are currently no normative date for elderly African American individuals. The present investigation examined the influence of demographic characteristics on this measure in a community-dwelling sample of 236 elderly African American adults (60-84 years of age). Age, education, gender, and the education by gender interaction were found to affect performance on the Stroop Color and Word Test tasks. Based on these results, normative tables for Stroop Color and Word Test scores, stratified by age and with score adjustments for education and gender, are provided.

  3. The association of physical activity to neural adaptability during visuo-spatial processing in healthy elderly adults: A multiscale entropy analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hao; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tseng, Philip; Yang, Albert C; Lo, Men-Tzung; Peng, Chung-Kang; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Muggleton, Neil G; Juan, Chi-Hung; Liang, Wei-Kuang

    2014-10-29

    Physical activity has been shown to benefit brain and cognition in late adulthood. However, this effect is still unexplored in terms of brain signal complexity, which reflects the level of neural adaptability and efficiency during cognitive processing that cannot be acquired via averaged neuroelectric signals. Here we employed multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) of electroencephalography (EEG), a new approach that conveys important information related to the temporal dynamics of brain signal complexity across multiple time scales, to reveal the association of physical activity with neural adaptability and efficiency in elderly adults. A between-subjects design that included 24 participants (aged 66.63±1.31years; female=12) with high physical activity and 24 age- and gender-matched low physical activity participants (aged 67.29±1.20years) was conducted to examine differences related to physical activity in performance and MSE of EEG signals during a visuo-spatial cognition task. We observed that physically active elderly adults had better accuracy on both visuo-spatial attention and working memory conditions relative to their sedentary counterparts. Additionally, these physically active elderly adults displayed greater MSE values at larger time scales at the Fz electrode in both attention and memory conditions. The results suggest that physical activity may be beneficial for adaptability of brain systems in tasks involving visuo-spatial information. MSE thus might be a promising approach to test the effects of the benefits of exercise on cognition.

  4. Elder abuse and neglect in an urban chinese population.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa A; Gorbien, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in an urban Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was performed in a major urban medical center in NanJing, China. A total of 412 participants completed the survey and 145 (35%) participants screened positive for elder abuse and neglect. The mean age of the victims was 69 years and 59% were male. Caregiver neglect was the most common form of abuse, followed by financial exploitation, psychological abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and abandonment. Thirty-six percent of the victims suffered multiple forms of abuse and neglect. In the logistical regression analyses of the data, female gender, lower education and lower income were demographic risk factors associated with elder abuse and neglect. A better understanding of these and additional risk factors associated with elder abuse and neglect in older Chinese people is needed.

  5. Matching controlled vocabulary words.

    PubMed

    Grabar, Natalia; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Soualmia, Lina; Darmoni, Stéfan

    2003-01-01

    This study examines an enabling condition for natural languages access to medical knowledge resources (Medline, CISMeF) indexed with controlled vocabularies (e.g., the MeSH): is the vocabulary of user queries comparable with that of the index terms? The two vocabularies were compared in their original form, then under incrementally normalized forms, using character-based normalizations then linguistic normalizations. Only 16.7% of the user vocabulary, in its original form, is in the MeSH. Progressive normalizations increase this proportion to 65.5%. Besides, if the frequencies of occurrence of words are taken into account, 89.3% of user word occurrences can be matched to MeSH words. This shows the interest of taking into account further matching methods between queries and index terms than those presented here.

  6. Surface matching via currents.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Marc; Glaunès, Joan

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method for computing an optimal deformation between two arbitrary surfaces embedded in Euclidean 3-dimensional space. Our main contribution is in building a norm on the space of surfaces via representation by currents of geometric measure theory. Currents are an appropriate choice for representations because they inherit natural transformation properties from differential forms. We impose a Hilbert space structure on currents, whose norm gives a convenient and practical way to define a matching functional. Using this Hilbert space norm, we also derive and implement a surface matching algorithm under the large deformation framework, guaranteeing that the optimal solution is a one-to-one regular map of the entire ambient space. We detail an implementation of this algorithm for triangular meshes and present results on 3D face and medical image data.

  7. Resurgence matches quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couso-Santamaría, Ricardo; Mariño, Marcos; Schiappa, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    The quest to find a nonperturbative formulation of topological string theory has recently seen two unrelated developments. On the one hand, via quantization of the mirror curve associated to a toric Calabi–Yau background, it has been possible to give a nonperturbative definition of the topological-string partition function. On the other hand, using techniques of resurgence and transseries, it has been possible to extend the string (asymptotic) perturbative expansion into a transseries involving nonperturbative instanton sectors. Within the specific example of the local {{{P}}2} toric Calabi–Yau threefold, the present work shows how the Borel–Padé–Écalle resummation of this resurgent transseries, alongside occurrence of Stokes phenomenon, matches the string-theoretic partition function obtained via quantization of the mirror curve. This match is highly non-trivial, given the unrelated nature of both nonperturbative frameworks, signaling at the existence of a consistent underlying structure.

  8. [The Impacts of Widowhood on the Health and Life of Elderly People and R elated Nursing Care].

    PubMed

    Li, Yueh-Ping; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2016-08-01

    Widowhood, an unavoidable and stressful situation, has been associated with negative effects in elderly people during later life. This article reviews and summarizes the influences of widowhood on the health, daily life, and social life of elderly people. The influences of widowhood on elderly people may vary by gender, spousal relationship, and cohort background. In order to provide nursing care as early as possible, nurses must cooperate with professionals from social-welfare and / or community-support systems to identify high-risk widowed elderly. When nurses assess the influences of widowhood on elderly people, they should consider the interactions among gender, spousal relationship, and cohort background. Furthermore, nurses may apply various strategies based on the needs of elderly people to improve the health and quality of life of patients. Suggestions include providing appropriate nursing care, offering positive social support, adjusting daily-life routines, and arranging activity programs based on care-recipient interests and resources.

  9. Match injury rates in professional soccer vary with match result, match venue, and type of competition.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Håkan; Ekstrand, Jan; Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Player activities in soccer matches are influenced by the match result and match venue. It is not known whether injury rates are influenced by these factors. To investigate whether there are associations between injury rates and the match result, venue, and type of competition in male soccer. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-six professional clubs from 10 countries were followed prospectively during 9 seasons (2001-2002 to 2009-2010). All matches, and injuries occurring in these matches, were registered by the team's medical staff. An injury was registered if it resulted in player absence from training or matches. Information about match result, venue, and type of competition for all reported matches was gathered by the authors from online databases. Injury rates in matches with varying match characteristics were compared by use of generalized estimating equations. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 2738 injuries during 6010 matches were registered. There were no associations between odds of 1 injury occurrence and match result or type of competition, whereas the odds were decreased in matches played away compared with home matches (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99). The odds of 2 or more injury occurrences in a match were increased in matches resulting in a draw (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.15-1.69) or loss (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.38-1.98) compared with matches won and were decreased in other cup matches compared with league matches (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39-0.84) and in matches played away compared with home matches (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.82). Finally, injuries with more than 1 week's absence occurred more frequently in Champions League matches compared with league matches both for matches with 1 injury (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45) and matches with 2 or more injuries (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.13-2.20). The odds of 2 or more injury occurrences in professional soccer were higher in matches resulting in a loss or a draw compared

  10. Gender minority social stress in adolescence: disparities in adolescent bullying and substance use by gender identity.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Greytak, Emily A; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Ybarra, Michele L

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the United States. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N = 5,542) sampled adolescents ages 13 to 18 years old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches theirs assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12-month alcohol use, marijuana use, and nonmarijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment.

  11. Gender compatibility, math-gender stereotypes, and self-concepts in math and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and physics. Statistical analysis of survey data was based on a sample of 170 male and female high school science students matched on propensity scores based on age and past GPA scores in math. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated that the combination of high personal gender compatibility with low endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with low gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts whereas the combination of high personal gender compatibility with high endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with high gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts. These results contribute to the recent theoretical and empirical work on antecedents to the math and physics identities critical to achieving gender equity in STEM fields.

  12. Gender Minority Social Stress in Adolescence: Disparities in Adolescent Bullying and Substance Use by Gender Identity

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Greytak, Emily A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Ybarra, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the U.S. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N=5,542) sampled adolescents 13–18 years-old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches one’s sex assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12 month alcohol use, marijuana use, and non-marijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment. PMID:24742006

  13. The Economics of Gender in Mexico: Work, Family, State, and Market. Directions in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Correia, Maria C., Ed.

    The studies compiled in this book analyze the effects of gender on the well-being of individuals and households in Mexico. Analyses examine gender issues over the life cycle, including education and child labor, adult urban and rural labor participation, and the situation of elderly Mexican men and women. Following an introduction by Elizabeth…

  14. The Economics of Gender in Mexico: Work, Family, State, and Market. Directions in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Correia, Maria C., Ed.

    The studies compiled in this book analyze the effects of gender on the well-being of individuals and households in Mexico. Analyses examine gender issues over the life cycle, including education and child labor, adult urban and rural labor participation, and the situation of elderly Mexican men and women. Following an introduction by Elizabeth…

  15. Nutritional anemias and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Ralph

    2008-10-01

    Nutritional anemias are important because they are easily reversed and because their underlying causes, most often unrelated to dietary intake, require individualized assessment. Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) usually results from iron losses accompanying chronic bleeding, including loss to intestinal parasites, or from gastric disorders or malabsorption in the elderly. Cobalamin-deficiency anemia, the only nutritional anemia with predilection for the elderly, nearly always stems from failure of intrinsic factor (IF)-related absorption. Folate-deficiency anemia, the only nutritional anemia usually caused by poor intake, has nearly disappeared in countries that fortify food with folic acid. Copper-deficiency anemia, which usually results from malabsorptive disorders or from medical or nutritional interventions that provide inadequate copper or excess zinc, is uncommon but increasingly recognized. The prevalences of nutritional anemias, which are not always distinguished from non-anemic deficiency, are uncertain. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) provides an essential diagnostic tool leading to judicious matching of relevant biochemical changes with relevant anemia. Nutritional anemias usually feature abnormal MCV, whereas the predominant anemias in the aged, especially the anemias of chronic disease/chronic inflammation (ACD/ACI), of renal failure, and of unknown causes, are typically normocytic.

  16. Health status among elderly Hungarians and Americans.

    PubMed

    Buss, T F; Beres, C; Hofstetter, C R; Pomidor, A

    1994-07-01

    Selected health status data for elderly populations from similar industrial cities-Youngstown, Ohio, USA, and Debrecen, Hungary-were compared. Because of their impoverished health care system, unregulated heavily industrialized society, and unhealthful life-styles Hungarians were hypothesized to have poorer health status than Americans, even after taking into account demographic mediating factors. The study provides a health status baseline for elderly Hungarians shortly after communism's fall in 1989-1990 and shows how great a gap exists between Hungarian health status and that in the West. Hungarians were in much poorer health as measured by functional status, symptomatology, medical condition, depression, and subjective health status. Distinctions persisted when controlling for gender, age, and education. Poverty-level (and income) did not explain health status differences. The paper concludes that Hungary should pay more attention to health promotion, prevention, and primary care, as well as to reforming patient management in hospitals, nursing homes, and home care programs.

  17. [An investigation on the risk factors of elderly falls in the countryside old folks' homes].

    PubMed

    Lin, Z; Yang, B; Liu, Y

    1998-12-01

    A case-control study was conducted among 154 cases of falls aged over 60 years in 18 old folks' homes in the countryside, using 1:1 pair-matching to explore the risk factors for the elderly falls. Data were analysed through Linear Logistic Regression. Results showed that spouseless, poor physical condition, abnormal gait, sufferying chronic situations as hypertension and sequelae of cerebral apoplexy, taking anti-hypertension drugs, abnormalities in taking static dynamic balance and walking tests in the elderly were main risk factors of the elderly falls. The strategies of prevention of the elderly falls were also discussed in the paper.

  18. Need for optimized immunosuppression in elderly kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lehner, L J; Staeck, Oliver; Halleck, Fabian; Liefeldt, Lutz; Bamoulid, Jamal; Budde, K

    2015-10-01

    The proportion of elderly kidney transplant candidates is increasing worldwide due to higher number of patients with end-stage renal disease in aging societies. Accordingly, organ allocation policies in this population were adjusted in several countries. The European Senior Program is the most prominent example, where elderly patients (≥65years) receive elderly (≥65years) donor organs with acceptable results. Because of age-dependent changes in the immune response and higher susceptibility to immunosuppressant side effects, outcomes in elderly patients are different compared to younger kidney transplant recipients. However, elderly patients do reject, especially poorly matched elderly donor organs. This warrants tailored immunosuppressive regimes with regard to the age-related changes of the immune system. Rejection therapies may have detrimental side effects in the seniors and are frequently leading to over-immunosuppression (malignancy and infections) in long-term therapy. It is hypothesized that after initial graft adaptation elderly patients may benefit from less immunosuppression in order to lower cancer risk and reduce infection rates and cardiovascular comorbidities. Current evidence on recommended standard immunosuppressive therapy was mainly derived from trials, where elderly patients were excluded or only a minority. In order to improve immunosuppressive therapy in elderly transplant recipients, current immunosuppressive regimes have to be re-investigated in this growing population. Up to date, only a few well-designed prospective studies were performed in elderly populations and demonstrate the need for effective immunosuppression in the first months after transplantation. It is evident that novel treatment strategies and adequately powered prospective clinical trials are needed to establish time-adapted immunosuppressive regimens according to the needs of this vulnerable group of kidney transplant recipients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Filial Responsibility Expectations among Mexican American Undergraduates: Gender and Biculturalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Bonnie; Chavez, Mary; Quintana, Fernando; Salinas, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    How Mexican American college students perceive responsibility for parental care is important as Mexican American elders' numbers increase. The authors applied mixed methods to investigate the impact of gender and biculturalism within this group. Two hundred and eighty-six Mexican American undergraduates completed the Hamon Filial Responsibility…

  20. Filial Responsibility Expectations among Mexican American Undergraduates: Gender and Biculturalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Bonnie; Chavez, Mary; Quintana, Fernando; Salinas, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    How Mexican American college students perceive responsibility for parental care is important as Mexican American elders' numbers increase. The authors applied mixed methods to investigate the impact of gender and biculturalism within this group. Two hundred and eighty-six Mexican American undergraduates completed the Hamon Filial Responsibility…

  1. Malnutrition among the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Rauscher, C.

    1993-01-01

    Nutrition is a significant determinant of health. Undernutrition presenting as malnutrition is a serious health concern for frail elderly people with many health problems. Understanding the risk factors for malnutrition helps physicians assess and manage the condition. Primary care physicians are in an excellent position to screen, educate, and manage their elderly malnourished patients. Images p1396-a PMID:8324408

  2. [Pneumonia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Catherinot, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Pneumonia is a serious medical pathology frequent in elderly people. The physiological changes of the respiratory system linked with age reduce postural drainage capacities and increase the risk of acute respiratory failure. Associated with other comorbidities, chronic inhalation is a major risk factor of pneumonia in elderly people. Prevention is based on vaccination, nutrition, dental care and an adapted diet.

  3. Cancer and the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Veath, J.M.; Meyer, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book compiles the pages presented at the annual conference on the subject of cancer of elderly patients and radiotherapy and surgery. The topics discussed were: Diagnostic techniques of radiology for elderly patients; cancer of breasts and its management and monitoring. Hormonal dependence of cancer breast was also partly discussed.

  4. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  5. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  6. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  7. Malnutrition among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, C

    1993-06-01

    Nutrition is a significant determinant of health. Undernutrition presenting as malnutrition is a serious health concern for frail elderly people with many health problems. Understanding the risk factors for malnutrition helps physicians assess and manage the condition. Primary care physicians are in an excellent position to screen, educate, and manage their elderly malnourished patients.

  8. Cognitive test performance among nondemented elderly African Americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Manly, J J; Jacobs, D M; Sano, M; Bell, K; Merchant, C A; Small, S A; Stern, Y

    1998-05-01

    We examined the neuropsychological test performance of a randomly selected community sample of English-speaking non-Hispanic African American and white elders in northern Manhattan. All participants were diagnosed as nondemented by a neurologist, whose assessment was made independent of neuropsychological test scores. African American elders obtained significantly lower scores on measures of verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, abstract reasoning, language, and visuospatial skill than whites. After using a stratified random sampling technique to match groups on years of education, many of the discrepancies became nonsignificant; however, significant ethnic group differences on measures of figure memory, verbal abstraction, category fluency, and visuospatial skill remained. Discrepancies in test performance of education-matched African Americans and whites could not be accounted for by occupational attainment or history of medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes. These findings emphasize the importance of using culturally appropriate norms when evaluating ethnically diverse elderly for dementia.

  9. Life Enhancement Counseling: Treating Depression Among Hispanic Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    Depression is the single most widespread mental health problem facing the elderly, with pharmacotherapy the most frequent standard treatment modality for these patients. A psycho-therapeutic alternative to pharmacotherapy is Life Enhancement Counseling, a counseling approach matching therapeutic techniques to client characteristics and providing…

  10. Lifestyle and Genetic Predictors of Stiffness Index in Community-dwelling Elderly Korean Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Ae; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Suh, Min-Hee; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2015-09-01

    Differing lifestyle, nutritional, and genetic factors may lead to a differing stiffness index (SI) determined by quantitative ultrasound in elderly men and women. The purpose of this study was to determine SI and the gender-specific factors associated with low SI in a Korean elderly cohort. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study identifying the gender-specific factors related to SI in 252 men and women aged 65 years and greater from local senior centers in Seoul, Korea between January and February 2009. The mean SI of elderly men was significantly higher than that of the women's. A multiple regression analysis reveals that age, nutritional status, and physical activity were predictive factors of lower SI in men, whereas age, alcohol consumption, educational level, and genetic polymorphism were predictive factors for elderly women. Low SI was common in both elderly men and women. We found gender differences in factors linked to low SI. In multiple regression analysis, nutritional status and physical activity were more important factors in men, whereas alcohol consumption, educational level, and genetic polymorphism were significant factors predicting low SI in women. Gender-specific modifiable risk factors associated with low SI should be considered when developing osteoporosis prevention programs for the elderly. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Skyline based terrain matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Lance A.

    1990-01-01

    Skyline-based terrain matching, a new method for locating the vantage point of stereo camera or laser range-finding measurements on a global map previously prepared by satellite or aerial mapping is described. The orientation of the vantage is assumed known, but its translational parameters are determined by the algorithm. Skylines, or occluding contours, can be extracted from the sensory measurements taken by an autonomous vehicle. They can also be modeled from the global map, given a vantage estimate from which to start. The two sets of skylines, represented in cylindrical coordinates about either the true or the estimated vantage, are employed as 'features' or reference objects common to both sources of information. The terrain matching problem is formulated in terms of finding a translation between the respective representations of the skylines, by approximating the two sets of skylines as identical features (curves) on the actual terrain. The search for this translation is based on selecting the longest of the minimum-distance vectors between corresponding curves from the two sets of skylines. In successive iterations of the algorithm, the approximation that the two sets of curves are identical becomes more accurate, and the vantage estimate continues to improve. The algorithm was implemented and evaluated on a simulated terrain. Illustrations and examples are included.

  12. Digital matched filter ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, D. T.; Edwards, G.

    The architecture of a digital matched filter (DMF) and the selected technology used is described. The characteristics of the DMF ASIC are summarized in tabular form. Three architectures are considered for the implementation of a DMF ASIC. First, there is the conventional trapped delay line architecture which requires a large adder tree. The second architecture is the systolic array DMF which consists of a number of identical stages cascaded together. The third architecture is the bank-of-correlators DMF, in which the reference code is recirculated around through the delay line. Since the objective is to maximize the length of the DMF, the tapped delay line architecture is selected. The tapped delay form is designed to support BPSK, QPSK, and OQPSK chip modulation. Matched filter lengths of up to 256 chips can be supported by cascading 4 ASICs. The DMF is designed as a gate array using an advanced double metal, 1.5 micron CMOS process. The regularity of FIR filter architecture allows the core of the device to be laid out very compactly, resulting in efficient usage of the gate array.

  13. Multinomial pattern matching revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Matthew S.; Rigling, Brian D.

    2015-05-01

    Multinomial pattern matching (MPM) is an automatic target recognition algorithm developed for specifically radar data at Sandia National Laboratories. The algorithm is in a family of algorithms that first quantizes pixel value into Nq bins based on pixel amplitude before training and classification. This quantization step reduces the sensitivity of algorithm performance to absolute intensity variation in the data, typical of radar data where signatures exhibit high variation for even small changes in aspect angle. Our previous work has focused on performance analysis of peaky template matching, a special case of MPM where binary quantization is used (Nq = 2). Unfortunately references on these algorithms are generally difficult to locate and here we revisit the MPM algorithm and illustrate the underlying statistical model and decision rules for two algorithm interpretations: the 1-of-K vector form and the scalar. MPM can also be used as a detector and specific attention is given to algorithm tuning where "peak pixels" are chosen based on their underlying empirical probabilities according to a reward minimization strategy aimed at reducing false alarms in the detection scenario and false positives in a classification capacity. The algorithms are demonstrated using Monte Carlo simulations on the AFRL civilian vehicle dataset for variety of choices of Nq.

  14. [Anemia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Maerevoet, M; Sattar, L; Bron, D; Gulbis, B; Pepersack, T

    2014-09-01

    Anaemia is a problem that affects almost 10% over 65 years and 20% over 85 years. There is no physiological anaemia in the elderly. Any anaemia expresses the existence of a pathological process, regardless of its severity. Anaemia in the elderly is always associated with a poor prognosis that is in terms of mortality, morbidity and risk of fragility. The diagnostic approach to anemia in the elderly is the same as in younger individual. There are many causes of anaemia; anaemia balance is a complex diagnostic process. Most anaemias are due to a deficiency, chronic inflammation or comorbidity. However, in the elderly, the etiology of anaemia is often multifactorial. In a number of cases remain unexplained anaemia. In a number of cases, anemia remain unexplained. Treatment of anaemia is the treatment of the cause, but specific therapeutic aspects to the elderly should be considered, as among other martial substitution or use of erythropoietin (EPO).

  15. Japanese elderly persons walk faster than non-Asian elderly persons: a meta-regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Masataka; Kamide, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify ethnic differences in walking speed by comparing walking speed in both Japanese and non-Asian elderly individuals and to investigate the necessity of consideration of ethnic differences in walking speed. [Subjects and Methods] Articles that reported comfortable walking speeds for community-dwelling elderly individuals were identified from electronic databases. Articles that involved community-dwelling individuals who were 60 years old or older and well functioning were included in the study. Articles that involved Asians were excluded. Weighted means for 5-m walking times were calculated as walking speeds from the Japanese and non-Asian sample data. The effects of age, gender, and ethnicity on 5-m walking times were then investigated using meta-regression analysis. [Results] Twenty studies (34 groups) were included for Japanese, and 16 studies (28 groups) were included for non-Asians. The weighted mean 5-m walking time was estimated to be 4.15 sec (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.87–4.44) for Japanese and 4.24 sec (95% CI: 4.09–4.40) for non-Asians. Furthermore, using meta-regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, the 5-m walking time was 0.40 sec faster (95% CI: 0.03–0.77) for Japanese than for non-Asian elderly individuals. [Conclusion] Walking speed appeared faster for Japanese community-dwelling elderly individuals than for non-Asian elderly individuals. PMID:26696722

  16. [How the Congolese young people consider their elderly].

    PubMed

    Bikouta, Firmin; Bileckot, Richard; Cauli, Marie; Massamba, Honorine; Puisieux, François

    2015-12-01

    The traditional image of the African family that has long grant a place of choice to the elderly does match maybe any more the reality of today. The WHO report on violence and health 2002 and some studies carried out in other African countries suggest that elder abuse also exists in sub-Saharan Africa. To describe how the young Congolese adults consider their elderly and mistreatments that can result. A cross sectional study was realized between January and April, 2008 with 300 youth and adults aged 15 to 55 years (203 ≤ 25 years old), living in Brazzaville or in Pointe-Noire. The sample of 300 people was constituted according to the method of non-probability sampling. The data collection was made on the ground by state employees of the Ministry of Health, social affairs and family by means of a pre-established questionnaire containing open and closed questions. Youth and adults have contrasted and contradictory representations of the elderly. In 70% of the cases they said have good relationships with the elderly and qualified them as wise persons and as models but, conversely, more than 50% of them found them unwanted and disturbing. Witchcraft accusations are frequent with often serious consequences. Social transformations dispossess little by little the elderly people of their status and their prerogatives in Congo-Brazzaville. They come along with a change of look and behavior of the young adults towards them. Elder abuse in Congo-Brazzaville is an underestimated problem insufficiently denounced and fought.

  17. Elderly poverty and Supplemental Security Income.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Joyce; Wiseman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, poverty is generally assessed on the basis of income, as reported in the Current Population Survey's (CPS's) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), using an official poverty standard established in the 1960s. The prevalence of receipt of means-tested transfers is underreported in the CPS, with uncertain consequences for the measurement of poverty rates by both the official standard and by using alternative "relative" measures linked to the contemporaneous income distribution. The article reports results estimating the prevalence of poverty in 2002. We complete this effort by using a version of the 2003 CPS/ASEC for which a substantial majority (76 percent) of respondents have individual records matching administrative data from the Social Security Administration on earnings and receipt of income from the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. Adjustment of the CPS income data with administrative data substantially improves coverage of SSI receipt. The consequence for general poverty is sensitive to the merge procedures employed, but under both sets of merge procedures considered, the estimated poverty rate among all elderly persons and among elderly SSI recipients is substantially less than rates estimated using the unadjusted CPS. The effect of the administrative adjustment is less significant for perception of relative poverty than for absolute poverty. We emphasize the effect of these adjustments on perception of poverty among the elderly in general and elderly SSI recipients in particular.

  18. The Utility of the KELS Test in Substantiated Cases of Elder Self-neglect

    PubMed Central

    Pickens, Sabrina; Naik, Aanand D.; Burnett, Jason; Kelly, P.A.; Gleason, Mary; Dyer, Carmel B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Self-neglect is the most prevalent finding among cases reported to Adult Protective Services and is characterized by an inability to meet one’s own basic needs. The Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills (KELS) has been validated in geriatric populations to assess performance with both instrumental (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (ADL), and as an assessment tool for the capacity to live independently, therefore, the purpose of this analysis was to compare the scores of the KELS between substantiated cases of self-neglect and matched community-dwelling elders. Methods This is a cross-sectional pilot study of 50 adults aged 65 years and older who were recruited from Adult Protective Services (APS) as documented cases of self-neglect and 50 control participants recruited from Harris County Hospital District outpatient clinics. Control participants were matched for age, race, gender and zip code. A geriatric nurse practitioner-led team administered a comprehensive geriatric assessment in homes of all study participants. The assessment included the KELS and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) tests. Chi-square analyses were used to determine if cases of self-neglect were significantly more likely to fail the KELS test than matched controls. Summary of Results The analyses revealed that self-neglectors were significantly more likely to fail the KELS than non-self-neglectors (50% vs. 30%, p=0.025). When stratified by MMSE scores, self-neglectors with intact cognitive function remained significantly more likely to fail the KELS compared to matched, cognitively intact controls (45% vs. 17%, p=0.013). Conclusion Abnormal results using an in-home KELS test was significantly associated with substantiated cases of self-neglect. These findings suggest that the KELS test has significant utility as part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment to aid clinicians in suspected cases of self-neglect. Implications for Practice There is currently no gold standard

  19. Health-related quality of life of among elders in rural China: the effect of widowhood.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianfang; Hearst, Norman

    2016-12-01

    China has an enormous and rapidly growing population of widowed elders. Little is known about how losing a spouse affects elders' health-related quality of life (QOL), especially in the rural areas where most Chinese elders live. This article analyzes QOL data collected in 2014 among rural Chinese elders to address this question. SF12 questionnaires and information about individual and household characteristics were collected from 3053 elders aged 60 and above in rural China. We compared the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores between 1925 married elders and 1060 widowed elders in a bivariate model stratifying by gender and age group and in a general factorial ANOVA multivariate analysis that examined and controlled for other predictors of PCS and MCS scores including education, chronic disease, and family and household factors. Widowed male and female elders' physical health and mental health were in decline with age. Widowed men had lower PCS and MCS scores than married men. Widowed women also had lower PCS scores, but differences in MCS scores did not reach statistical significance. In multivariate analysis, widowhood was associated with lower PCS and MCS scores overall. Support from children was associated with better QOL and, based on interaction analysis, appeared to mitigate negative effects of widowhood. Widowed rural elders in China have lower physical and mental quality of life than their married counterparts. These elders rely on their children for care, and a supportive family is associated with better QOL.

  20. The earliest matches.

    PubMed

    Goren-Inbar, Naama; Freikman, Michael; Garfinkel, Yosef; Goring-Morris, A Nigel; Goring-Morris, Nigel A; Grosman, Leore

    2012-01-01

    Cylindrical objects made usually of fired clay but sometimes of stone were found at the Yarmukian Pottery Neolithic sites of Sha'ar HaGolan and Munhata (first half of the 8(th) millennium BP) in the Jordan Valley. Similar objects have been reported from other Near Eastern Pottery Neolithic sites. Most scholars have interpreted them as cultic objects in the shape of phalli, while others have referred to them in more general terms as "clay pestles," "clay rods," and "cylindrical clay objects." Re-examination of these artifacts leads us to present a new interpretation of their function and to suggest a reconstruction of their technology and mode of use. We suggest that these objects were components of fire drills and consider them the earliest evidence of a complex technology of fire ignition, which incorporates the cylindrical objects in the role of matches.

  1. The Earliest Matches

    PubMed Central

    Goren-Inbar, Naama; Freikman, Michael; Garfinkel, Yosef; Goring-Morris, Nigel A.; Grosman, Leore

    2012-01-01

    Cylindrical objects made usually of fired clay but sometimes of stone were found at the Yarmukian Pottery Neolithic sites of Sha‘ar HaGolan and Munhata (first half of the 8th millennium BP) in the Jordan Valley. Similar objects have been reported from other Near Eastern Pottery Neolithic sites. Most scholars have interpreted them as cultic objects in the shape of phalli, while others have referred to them in more general terms as “clay pestles,” “clay rods,” and “cylindrical clay objects.” Re-examination of these artifacts leads us to present a new interpretation of their function and to suggest a reconstruction of their technology and mode of use. We suggest that these objects were components of fire drills and consider them the earliest evidence of a complex technology of fire ignition, which incorporates the cylindrical objects in the role of matches. PMID:22870306

  2. Gender, Gender Role, and Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.; And Others

    This study examined the importance of gender and gender role in understanding self-perceptions of body image. Male and female college students (N=166) who differed in gender role as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory completed the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, a new measure of body image containing 140 items which fit a 3 x 3 matrix that…

  3. [Stories by the elderly].

    PubMed

    Cintra, Fernanda A; Delboux Diogo, Maria José; Filomena Ceolim, Maria

    2005-10-01

    This Brazilian article bears interest for its qualitative methodology which allows us to get a feeling for the elderly of this country being able to relate the results of their lives and knowledge to our own. The lack of an educational health program for the elderly led the authors to create the Health Care Group for the Elderly (GRASI in Portuguese) in which we developed an educational program based on the social-historical perspective of L. S. Vygotsky. This current study analyzes the dynamic speeches recorded by a group of elderly in the GRASI educational program. A group of seven elderly people, from both sexes, having an age equal to or greater than 60, participated in an analysis of the content from meetings among themselves. To analyze the data obtained, in the underlying text as well as their recorded speech, the feelings and meanings of their conversations and stories were identified and separated into thematic units. The results obtained reveal that the opportunity to express their experiences regarding the transformation the elderly have lived during their lives, and to find new ways to treat health problems or how to carry out self health care, is an important resource for elderly nursing care which can lead to the development of health education programs.

  4. Hypertension in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hansson, L

    1996-10-01

    TREATMENT OF ELDERLY HYPERTENSIVES: Treatment of hypertension in the elderly is nowadays an accepted and highly effective medical intervention following the positive reports on the benefits of lowering elevated arterial pressure in elderly patients. Most of the intervention studies an antihypertensive treatment in elderly patients have used diuretics or beta-blockers or the two in combination as the therapy by which blood pressure was lowered. However, from a theoretical point of view, novel therapies such as calcium antagonists could offer advantages that would translate into an even greater reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than has been obtained with the traditional antihypertensive therapies used so far. DATA ON CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS IN THE ELDERLY: Some of the studies in elderly hypertensives that are currently in progress are using calcium antagonists as one of the main therapies, e.g. the Swedish Trial in Old patients with hypertension (STOP-Hypertension)-2 study and the Systolic hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) study. Another source of information is a large database on nicardipine, a dihydropyridine-derived calcium antagonist, used in the treatment of elderly hypertensives.

  5. Distinctiveness Maps for Image Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manduchi, Roberto; Tomasi, Carlo

    2000-01-01

    Stereo correspondence is hard because different image features can look alike. We propose a measure for the ambiguity of image points that allows matching distinctive points first and breaks down the matching task into smaller and separate subproblems. Experiments with an algorithm based on this measure demonstrate the ensuing efficiency and low likelihood of incorrect matches.

  6. Reduced peripheral arterial blood flow with preserved cardiac output during submaximal bicycle exercise in elderly heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Older heart failure (HF) patients exhibit exercise intolerance during activities of daily living. We hypothesized that reduced lower extremity blood flow (LBF) due to reduced forward cardiac output would contribute to submaximal exercise intolerance in older HF patients. Methods and Results Twelve HF patients both with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (aged 68 ± 10 years) without large (aorta) or medium sized (iliac or femoral artery) vessel atherosclerosis, and 13 age and gender matched healthy volunteers underwent a sophisticated battery of assessments including a) peak exercise oxygen consumption (peak VO2), b) physical function, c) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) submaximal exercise measures of aortic and femoral arterial blood flow, and d) determination of thigh muscle area. Peak VO2 was reduced in HF subjects (14 ± 3 ml/kg/min) compared to healthy elderly subjects (20 ± 6 ml/kg/min) (p = 0.01). Four-meter walk speed was 1.35 ± 0.24 m/sec in healthy elderly verses 0.98 ± 0.15 m/sec in HF subjects (p < 0.001). After submaximal exercise, the change in superficial femoral LBF was reduced in HF participants (79 ± 92 ml/min) compared to healthy elderly (222 ± 108 ml/min; p = 0.002). This occurred even though submaximal stress-induced measures of the flow in the descending aorta (5.0 ± 1.2 vs. 5.1 ± 1.3 L/min; p = 0.87), and the stress-resting baseline difference in aortic flow (1.6 ± 0.8 vs. 1.7 ± 0.8 L/min; p = 0.75) were similar between the 2 groups. Importantly, the difference in submaximal exercise induced superficial femoral LBF between the 2 groups persisted after accounting for age, gender, body surface area, LVEF, and thigh muscle area (p ≤ 0.03). Conclusion During CMR submaximal bike exercise in the elderly with heart failure, mechanisms other than low cardiac output are responsible for reduced lower extremity blood flow. PMID:19922666

  7. Reporting elder mistreatment.

    PubMed

    Capezuti, E; Brush, B L; Lawson, W T

    1997-07-01

    Elder mistreatment, defined as the abuse and neglect of older persons, includes physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, caregiver and self-neglect, and financial exploitation. Fifty states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation to establish adult protective service (APS) programs. State APS statutes authorize APS agencies to investigate cases of elder mistreatment. Some status fund services to alleviate the abusive or neglectful situation. This article analyzes the critical aspects of state-specific APS legislation affecting nursing practice with older adults and the nurse's role in reporting cases of elder mistreatment.

  8. Hydrogeological challenges through gender approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lorenzo, Maria Rosaria; Saltari, Davide; Di Giacomo, Tullia Valeria

    2017-04-01

    Women and Men play a different role in the society, tied from the differences (physical, biological, somatic, etc…) typical of each one. In the last decades, more gender approach has been introduced in a number of fields including the hydrogeological risk. Experiences, needs and potential of each one, women and men, covers both the risk reduction before the occurrence of extreme events (vulnerability assessment and prediction of the expected risk), then in the next emergency and intervention in follow-up actions to the overcoming of the event for the return to everyday life. The response of the extreme hydrological events are also subordinated from gender participation and it is closely related from other aspects, as natural disasters (flood events), gender inequalities and urban floodings. These aspects are also scheduled by the different approaches: a woman focuses different primary and social aspects than a man. How women can help organizations offering new 'policies' and government is the main aspect to be considered and how a gender approach can mitigate disasters to hydrological risk. It depends on some factors: gender inequalities (gender perception and sensibility), importance of natural disasters and urban floodings. Gender inequalities can match both in the natural disasters and urban floodings in a relevant way. ICT solutions can also give a helpful framework to accelerate and focus the quicker condition to get the better approach and solution. Gender has a particular significant, explanatory variable in disaster research. Many studies, show how women have higher mortality and morbidity rates than men during natural disasters, especially in lower income countries. In the aftermath disasters, at the same time, specific responsibilities on women are imposed from the gendered division of labour. Furthermore gender differences are sometimes attributed to traditional women's roles, discrimination, lower physical strength, nutritional deficiencies, etc. as

  9. The Pitch-Matching Ability of High School Choral Students: A Justification for Continued Direct Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegle, Aaron M.; Gerrity, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pitch-matching ability of high school choral students. Years of piano experience, middle school performance experience, and model were considered as variables that might affect pitch-matching ability. Gender of participants was also considered when identifying the effectiveness of each model.…

  10. Mental health and related influencing factors among the empty-nest elderly and the non-empty-nest elderly in Taiyuan, China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y-Q; Zhang, C-C; Huang, H; Zheng, X; Pan, X-J; Zheng, J-Z

    2016-12-01

    In China, elderly make up a large proportion of the society, but their mental health is often overlooked. The aim of this study is to compare mental health and related influencing factors among the empty-nest and the non-empty-nest elderly, and attain the purpose of improving their quality of life. Cross-sectional survey. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 488 elderly people aged 60-92 years in six districts of Taiyuan, China. A demographic questionnaire and SCL-90-R were employed to collect demographic variables and evaluate mental health, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was performed to estimate factors related to mental health of the elderly. The empty-nest elderly were mostly male, married, higher education level, higher income and living in urban areas. The scores of SCL-90-R among the empty-nest elderly were lower than those of the non-empty-nest elderly except for psychoticism. Comparing with scores of national norms, some dimension of SCL-90-R had statistically significant differences. Multiple regression analysis showed that the main risk factors of the empty-nest elderly were gender and income, whereas the main risk factor of the non-empty-nest elderly was chronic diseases. The mental health status of the empty-nest elderly was better than that of the non-empty-nest elderly. Overall mental health of the study population was at a high level compared with national norms. The elderly who were male, with younger age, having higher income, and without chronic diseases had better mental health status. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The ROVIGO study (risk of vascular complications: impact of genetics in old people): protocol, study design, and preliminary results of the initial survey : cardiovascular epidemiology in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Alberto; Zamboni, Sergio; Ramazzina, Emilio; Schiavon, Laura; Rempelou, Panagiota; Zorzan, Sara; Bascelli, Anna; Segato, Rosa; Redi, Rossana; Pagnin, Elisa; Camerotto, Alessandro; Zuin, Marco; Rizzato, Enzo; Marcolongo, Adriano; Orsini, Arturo; Rubello, Domenico; Casiglia, Edoardo

    2015-03-01

    The epidemiology of cardiovascular risk (CV) in the elderly is far from being defined, and the reasons why some subjects retain a healthy body while growing old while others are affected by different diseases or die prematurely are still unknown. To compare the CV risk pattern in two elderly cohorts living in North-East Italy. The Risk Of Vascular complications: Impact of Genetics in Old people (ROVIGO) study is a population-based study including 580 unrelated elderly subjects representative of general population living in Rovigo in the Veneto region. They were compared to a cohort of 580 age-gender-matched unrelated subjects from the CArdiovascular STudy in the Elderly (CASTEL) living in the same region in Castelfranco Veneto and Chioggia. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and prevalence of coronary heart disease, heart failure and chronic pulmonary disease were lower in the ROVIGO than in the CASTEL cohort, while high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the prevalence of diabetes were higher in the former than in the latter. In the ROVIGO cohort, diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary and cerebrovascular diseases were more represented in men. In the CASTEL cohort, systolic BP was higher in women. In both cohorts, the lipid pattern was less favourable and HR higher in women, chronic pulmonary disease more represented in men. People living in Rovigo were at lower CV risk than those in Castelfranco Veneto and Chioggia, mainly due to lower BP values, better lipid pattern and lower prevalence of CV and pulmonary disease.

  12. Elder Abuse in a Developing Area in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; López-Soto, Pablo Jesús; Coimbra-Roca, Ana Isabel; Gálvez-Rioja, Ruth Mary; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, M Aurora

    2015-10-06

    In many parts of the world, elder abuse happens almost unnoticed. Until recently, this serious social problem was hidden from public view and was regarded as an essentially private matter. However, there is growing evidence that elder abuse is an important problem of public health and in the society. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of abuse of elder and vulnerable people in the families and communities of Eastern Bolivia. With this end in mind, we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample size of 210 60-year-old people coming from different health care areas. Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI) and Yaffe's Evaluation Form of Social Work were used. An abuse rate of 39% of the older adults was identified. The most common type of abuse observed was psychological abuse (32.4% of cases), followed by neglect (21.9%). Children were identified as triggers of the abuse in 66.7% of cases of abuse. The prevalence of elder abuse was similar to the prevalence of other types of abuse that exist in Bolivia, such as the gender-based abuse. Also, this prevalence is comparable to other developing countries and European countries. The profile of abused older adult is as follows: woman, widow, 70 years old, incomplete primary education, without an occupation, and an average of 4.59 children. The information obtained shows that dysfunctional families have a higher percentage of elder abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Mobility disability and life satisfaction in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Mollaoğlu, Mukadder; Tuncay, Fatma Özkan; Fertelli, Tülay Kars

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this descriptive and analytical study is to examine mobility disability and life satisfaction in elderly people living in nursing home residences and analyze the relationship between them. The study was conducted over 78 elderly people in two nursing home residences. The data of this study were obtained through a personal information form (PIF), the Rivermead mobility index (RMI) and the life satisfaction scale (LSS). It was detected that life satisfaction levels of elderly people were average, a great majority of them went through mobility disability and there was a significant correlation between mobility and life satisfaction. It was established that in elderly people mobility was affected by the age, gender and chronic diseases while life satisfaction was related to age, education level and health perception level. Disability is a factor that has a significant effect on the life satisfaction of elderly people. The findings of this study will be useful for planning interventions to improve mobility and satisfaction with life among nursing home elders in Turkey.

  14. Constraint-based stereo matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, D. T.

    1987-01-01

    The major difficulty in stereo vision is the correspondence problem that requires matching features in two stereo images. Researchers describe a constraint-based stereo matching technique using local geometric constraints among edge segments to limit the search space and to resolve matching ambiguity. Edge segments are used as image features for stereo matching. Epipolar constraint and individual edge properties are used to determine possible initial matches between edge segments in a stereo image pair. Local edge geometric attributes such as continuity, junction structure, and edge neighborhood relations are used as constraints to guide the stereo matching process. The result is a locally consistent set of edge segment correspondences between stereo images. These locally consistent matches are used to generate higher-level hypotheses on extended edge segments and junctions to form more global contexts to achieve global consistency.

  15. Feature-accelerated block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Bo; Orchard, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    We study the relationship between local features and block matching in this paper. We show that the use of many features can greatly improve the block matching results by introducing several fast block matching algorithms. The first algorithm is pixel decimation-based. We show that pixels with larger gradient magnitude have larger motion compensation error. Therefore for pixel decimation-based fast block matching, it benefits to subsample the block by selecting pixels with the largest gradient magnitude. Such a gradient-assisted adaptive pixel selection strategy greatly outperforms two other subsampling procedures proposed in previous literature. Fast block matching can achieve the optimal performance obtained using full search. We present a family of such fast block matching algorithm using various local features, such as block mean and variance. Our algorithm reduces more than 80 percent computation, while achieving the same performance as the full search. This present a brand new approach toward fast block matching algorithm design.

  16. An HLA matched donor! An HLA matched donor? What do you mean by: HLA matched donor?

    PubMed

    van Rood, J J; Oudshoorn, M

    1998-07-01

    The term 'an HLA matched donor' is in general used without giving exact information on the level of resolution of the HLA typing. This can lead to misunderstandings. A proposal is formulated to agree on using six match categories according to the HLA typing technique used to indicate the level of confidence of the matching.

  17. Global Patch Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Hu, K.; Ling, X.; Zhang, Y.; Lu, Z.; Zhou, G.

    2017-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel global patch matching method that focuses on how to remove fronto-parallel bias and obtain continuous smooth surfaces with assuming that the scenes covered by stereos are piecewise continuous. Firstly, simple linear iterative cluster method (SLIC) is used to segment the base image into a series of patches. Then, a global energy function, which consists of a data term and a smoothness term, is built on the patches. The data term is the second-order Taylor expansion of correlation coefficients, and the smoothness term is built by combing connectivity constraints and the coplanarity constraints are combined to construct the smoothness term. Finally, the global energy function can be built by combining the data term and the smoothness term. We rewrite the global energy function in a quadratic matrix function, and use least square methods to obtain the optimal solution. Experiments on Adirondack stereo and Motorcycle stereo of Middlebury benchmark show that the proposed method can remove fronto-parallel bias effectively, and produce continuous smooth surfaces.

  18. Falls among elderly persons in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2005-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for falls among community-dwelling elders in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans in the southwestern United States. Data for the study came from a project called Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en América Latina y el Caribe) (the "SABE project") (surveys from seven cities, with a total of 9,765 subjects) and from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE) (1,483 subjects). The overall prevalence of falls across the seven SABE cities and the H-EPESE ranged from 21.6% in Bridgetown, Barbados, to 34.0% in Santiago, Chile. In multiple logistic regression analyses, female gender, increased age, high depressive symptoms, and having any functional limitations were significant independent risk factors for falls in most of the cities studied as well as among the elderly Mexican-Americans. In several of the cities, significant risk factors also included diabetes, urinary incontinence, and arthritis. The prevalence of falls had a large variation among the countries studied. Some of the risk factors that we identified could be modified so as to help prevent falls in older people in these populations. The factors deserving attention include depressive symptoms, functional limitations, diabetes, and urinary incontinence.

  19. Is esophageal dysphagia in the extreme elderly (>or=80 years) different to dysphagia younger adults? A clinical motility service audit.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J M; Fraser, R J; Heddle, R; Hebbard, G; Checklin, H

    2008-01-01

    Dysphagia in elderly patients has major effects on nutrition and quality of life. Although aging itself is associated with changes in esophageal motility, the impact of this on symptoms such as dysphagia is unclear. Data in the extreme elderly are also limited. Symptoms and manometric diagnoses from 23 consecutive older patients (older dysphagia [OD]) >or=80 reporting esophageal dysphagia (12 female, mean age 83 (range 80-93) were compared with those from 23 gender matched younger patients (young dysphagia [YD]) also with dysphagia (mean age 35, range [17-46]). More older patients reported dysphagia as their primary symptom (OD 22/23 vs YD 14/23, P = 0.005). Overall, dysphagia was most common for solids only (OD 16/23 vs YD 15/23) and rare for liquids only (OD 1/23 vs YD 3/23). Dysphagia for both liquids and solids was more frequent in older patients (OD 6/23 vs YD 1/23, P < 0.05). Fewer older patients reported heartburn (OD 3/23 vs YD 14/23, P = 0.001). Manometric diagnoses were generally similar between OD and YD patients with the most common diagnoses being 'nonspecific esophageal motility disorder' (nine each) and 'ineffective peristalsis' (OD = 6, YD = 7). There was a trend for diagnoses related to lower esophageal sphincter failure to be more frequent in younger subjects (OD 1 vs YD 7, P = 0.053). Despite differences in symptom patterns, broad manometric diagnoses in the extreme elderly with dysphagia are similar to younger dysphagia patients. Further studies are required to determine whether this relates to insensitivity in recording or reporting of esophageal manometry (or perceptual differences associated with aging).

  20. Neighbourhood vitality and physical activity among the elderly: The role of walkable environments on active ageing in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Marquet, Oriol; Miralles-Guasch, Carme

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether neighbourhood vitality and walkability were associated with active ageing of the elderly. Immobility, activity engagement and physical activity were explored in relation with age, gender and walkability of the built environment. Number of trips per day and minutes spent on walking by the elderly were extracted from a broad travel survey with more than 12,000 CATI interviews and were compared across vital and non-vital urban environments. Results highlight the importance of vital environments for elderly active mobility as subpopulations residing in highly walkable neighbourhoods undertook more trips and spent more minutes walking than their counterparts. The results also suggest that the built environment has different effects in terms of gender, as elderly men were more susceptible to urban vitality than elderly women.

  1. Five-year all-cause mortality rates across five categories of substantiated elder abuse occurring in the community.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Jason; Jackson, Shelly L; Sinha, Arup K; Aschenbrenner, Andrew R; Murphy, Kathleen Pace; Xia, Rui; Diamond, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse increases the likelihood of early mortality, but little is known regarding which types of abuse may be resulting in the greatest mortality risk. This study included N = 1,670 cases of substantiated elder abuse and estimated the 5-year all-cause mortality for five types of elder abuse (caregiver neglect, physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, and polyvictimization). Statistically significant differences in 5-year mortality risks were found between abuse types and across gender. Caregiver neglect and financial exploitation had the lowest survival rates, underscoring the value of considering the long-term consequences associated with different forms of abuse. Likewise, mortality differences between genders and abuse types indicate the need to consider this interaction in elder abuse case investigations and responses. Further mortality studies are needed in this population to better understand these patterns and implications for public health and clinical management of community-dwelling elder abuse victims.

  2. Pharmacokinetics in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Mayersohn, M

    1994-01-01

    Animals undergo substantial changes in many physiologic and biochemical functions as a natural consequence of aging. In the absence of disease or other pathologic conditions, these changes occur in a gradual manner with time (generally expressed as a fractional or percentage change in that function per year or decade). Furthermore, for any given function and at any given chronologic age, there is large variation in that function among individuals. Given the increase in life expectancy, the substantial increase in the number of elderly (and aged elderly) in the population, and the escalating costs of health care, there is great interest in learning more about the risks associated with aging as a result of toxic exposure. Are the elderly at greater risk than younger adults to the toxic effects of drugs and environmental exposure? Is the elderly population an inherently more sensitive one? PMID:7737036

  3. Elder Abuse FAQS

    MedlinePlus

    ... your community with our ready-to-use, research rich elder abuse presentations and pamphlets Community ... Policies & Disclaimers Right Column Social Media For Employees Office of the Inspector General Open ...

  4. [Solitude in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Delisle, I

    1998-11-01

    Elderly people who are deprived of the warmth of human contact are at the risk of turning inward. For the very old, an atmosphere such as this can become psychologically catastrophic and lead to depressive syndromes such as extreme sadness, a desire to do nothing, sleep problems and even dementia. An in-depth analysis of the environment of the elderly inspires readers to address care objectives and interventions that will minimize and prevent these negative consequences.

  5. Identity, gender, and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Using the self-reported level of happiness as a measure of subjective well-being, this study examines the relationship between gender identity and subjective well-being with data from Taiwan. The findings suggest that an individual's perceptions about the ideals of women's gender roles in the labor market, the family, and politics are strongly related to his or her assigned social category, the prescriptions and characteristics associated with the social category, and the actions taken to match the ideals of gender identity. Consistent with Akerlof and Kranton's (2000) identity model, it is also found that an individual's gains or losses in gender identity lead to increases or decreases in the level of happiness.

  6. DOE Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoukalas, L.

    2002-12-31

    Funding used to support a portion of the Nuclear Engineering Educational Activities. Upgrade of teaching labs, student support to attend professional conferences, salary support for graduate students. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded Purdue University School of Nuclear Engineering during the period of five academic years covered in this report starting in the academic year 1996-97 and ending in the academic year 2000-2001. The total amount of funding for the grant received from DOE is $416K. In the 1990's, Nuclear Engineering Education in the US experienced a significant slow down. Student enrollment, research support, number of degrees at all levels (BS, MS, and PhD), number of accredited programs, University Research and Training Reactors, all went through a decline to alarmingly low levels. Several departments closed down, while some were amalgamated with other academic units (Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, etc). The School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University faced a major challenge when in the mid 90's our total undergraduate enrollment for the Sophomore, Junior and Senior Years dropped in the low 30's. The DOE Matching Grant program greatly strengthened Purdue's commitment to the Nuclear Engineering discipline and has helped to dramatically improve our undergraduate and graduate enrollment, attract new faculty and raise the School of Nuclear Engineering status within the University and in the National scene (our undergraduate enrollment has actually tripled and stands at an all time high of over 90 students; total enrollment currently exceeds 110 students). In this final technical report we outline and summarize how the grant was expended at Purdue University.

  7. Institutionalization in Taiwan. The role of caregiver gender.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hsueh-Fen Sabrina

    2003-10-01

    The role of caregiver gender in the likelihood of institutionalization of Taiwanese older adults was explored in this study. A sample of 78 male and 69 female primary caregivers of elderly patients who had experienced a stroke at least 6 months prior to the study were interviewed. Logistic regression analyses were applied to examine direct and interaction effects of the elderly adult's functioning the caregiver's available resources, the degree of caregiver burden, perceived public opinion toward institutionalization, and precipitating events on the likelihood of institutionalization among Taiwanese male and female caregivers. Women were more likely to institutionalize the older adult for whom they cared. The proposed model correctly predicted the likelihood of institutionalization of an elderly adult based on male versus female caregivers at the 92% level. Perceived public opinion toward institutionalization was the most significant predictor of institutionalization for both genders. Perceived public opinion toward institutionalization has a strong influence on whether or not caregivers institutionalize an elderly relative. This is consistent with Chinese culture in which public opinion has a much stronger effect on individual behavior than in the United States. American concepts of "minding one's own business" do not exist in Taiwan. It is logical that the older adults' level of functioning would predict the likelihood of institutionalization regardless of caregiver gender. In terms of caregiver characteristics, working hours in male caregivers is more predictive, and the quality of the relationship with the older adult was more predictive of institutionalization for female caregivers.

  8. [Heat-related problems in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Karg, T; Rendenbach, U

    2005-06-30

    In particular in the elderly patient, exposure to heat can lead to disturbances of the circulatory system and of the water and electrolyte balance. Provided that certain prophylactic measures are taken, serious problems are unlikely to occur. Food and drink should be matched to the ambient temperature, and permanent medication should be checked. In the case of confused persons, nursing personnel should substitute for any failure to make the necessary acclimatization changes (appropriate clothing). In the case of incontinent patients, it must be remembered that the diapered area is not available for radiating off heat.

  9. [Suicide of elderly men in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    This paper assesses the suicide of elderly men in Brazil. The text is based on studies of gender and masculinity and emphasizes the sense of "hegemonic masculinity" within the logic of patriarchalism that, in the case of suicide, is expressed in the loss of employment as an existential reference and as a loss of honor. The study includes 40 cases of men over 60 who committed suicide between 2007 and 2010 in ten districts of the country. Using the psychosocial autopsy technique, data were collected and analyzed from their history and lifestyle; evaluation of the background to the act; the impact on their families; lethality of the method; proximity to sources of support; previous attempts; mental status which preceded the act; reaction of families and communities. Although many factors are associated with self-inflicted death in this social group, the influence of a hegemonic masculinity culture in the predominance of suicides among elderly men compared with elderly women is undeniable. It is essential to give special attention to men at the moment of transition from working life to retirement, loss or important family members, and when they are diagnosed with chronic and degenerative diseases that cause disabilities, loss of autonomy or sexual impotence.

  10. Death and dying anxiety among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel.

    PubMed

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-04-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no differences based on religiosity. Death anxiety was related to gender and education for elderly living in the community, but social support and self-esteem were additional correlates for those living in nursing homes. The results of this study indicate that fostering a sense that one has a supportive social and familial network is important in decreasing death and dying anxiety among elderly Arab people. It would also be beneficial to provide information and knowledge that might relieve some of the anxiety they experience.

  11. Mobile phones and elderly people: a noisy communication.

    PubMed

    Stamato, Cláudia; Moraes, Anamaria de

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the users is capital for building user-friendly digital interfaces. One way to think about the users is considering their familiarity with this technology. This article presents the results of twelve interviews with elderly people residing in the so-called South Zone of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) who have used mobile phones over at least one year. It is part of the Doctor's Thesis "Mobile phones for elderly people - usability for social integration" ("Celulares para idosos - usabilidade a serviço da integração social"), which is targeted at ascertaining if the current mobile phones are user-friendly for elderly people. Through the technique of Guided Interviews, we found usage time, criteria for choice of phones, reasons for changes, preferences, and manners of use. Preliminarily, we have noticed differences in the behavior of the participating users and performed a qualitative analysis according to groups of age and gender.

  12. Complexity matching in dyadic conversation.

    PubMed

    Abney, Drew H; Paxton, Alexandra; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies of dyadic interaction have examined phenomena of synchronization, entrainment, alignment, and convergence. All these forms of behavioral matching have been hypothesized to play a supportive role in establishing coordination and common ground between interlocutors. In the present study, evidence is found for a new kind of coordination termed complexity matching. Temporal dynamics in conversational speech signals were analyzed through time series of acoustic onset events. Timing in periods of acoustic energy was found to exhibit behavioral matching that reflects complementary timing in turn-taking. In addition, acoustic onset times were found to exhibit power law clustering across a range of timescales, and these power law functions were found to exhibit complexity matching that is distinct from behavioral matching. Complexity matching is discussed in terms of interactive alignment and other theoretical principles that lead to new hypotheses about information exchange in dyadic conversation and interaction in general.

  13. Multiflows and matchings

    SciTech Connect

    Ilani, H.

    1994-12-31

    Let G be a multigraph, with a set T {improper_subset} V(G) of terminals, and S = (T, U) be a graph (called the scheme), with E(G), {intersection} U = {O}. An integer S-flow in G is a collection of edge-disjoint paths linking pairs of terminals adjacent in S. We deal with the following: Find a maximum S-flow in G. For A {improper_subset} T, put {lambda}(A) := min {l_brace}degX : X {improper_subset} V(G), X{intersection}T = A{r_brace} where deg X is the number of edges between X and {bar X}. Assume the G and S satisfy the following conditions: (1) the degree of any v {element_of} V (G)/T is even (2) any terminal belongs to at most two anticliques of S (3){vert_bar}A{intersection}B{vert_bar}{<=}1 for any distinct anticliques A, B of S. Let A denote the hypergraph consisting of anticliques of S, and singletons {l_brace}t{r_brace}, for the terminals t belonging to exactly one anticlique, and A* be its dual (so that A* is a graph with the vertex-set A and the edge-set T). For A {element_of} A, let P{sub A} denote the polymatroid on A with the rank function r{sub a}(X) : = {1/2} ({sub t{element_of}X}{sup {Sigma}} {lambda}) + {lambda}(A / X) - {lambda}(A), X {improper_subset} A. A nonnegative integer function on T is called a poly-matchoid if its restriction to any A {element_of} A is independent in P{sub A}. The above Problem is polynomially equivalent to the problem of finding a maximum polymatchoid in A*. If, in addition {vert_bar}A{vert_bar} {<=} 4 for every anticlique A of S, then it is reducible to the maximum b-matching problem for a graph with O({vert_bar}T{vert_bar}) edges.

  14. Hamiltonian dynamics on matched pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esen, Oğul; Sütlü, Serkan

    2016-08-01

    The cotangent bundle of a matched pair Lie group, and its trivialization, are shown to be a matched pair Lie group. The explicit matched pair decomposition on the trivialized bundle is presented. On the trivialized space, the canonical symplectic two-form and the canonical Poisson bracket are explicitly written. Various symplectic and Poisson reductions are perfomed. The Lie-Poisson bracket is derived. As an example, Lie-Poisson equations on 𝔰𝔩(2, ℂ)∗ are obtained.

  15. Intersectional perspective in elderly care

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Marta; Rämgård, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that power relationships at workplaces are constructed by power structures. Processes related to power always influence the working conditions for (in this study in elderly care) the working groups involved. Power structures are central for intersectional analysis, in the sense that the intersectional perspective highlights aspects such as gender and ethnicity (subjective dimensions) and interrelates them to processes of power (objective dimension). This qualitative study aims to explore in what way an intersectional perspective could contribute to increased knowledge of power structures in a nursing home where the employees were mostly immigrants from different countries. By using reflexive dialogues related to an intersectional perspective, new knowledge which contributes to the employees’ well-being could develop. Narrative analysis was the method used to conduct this study. Through a multi-stage focus group on six occasions over 6 months, the staff were engaged in intersectional and critical reflections about power relationship with the researchers, by identifying patterns in their professional activities that could be connected to their subjectivities (gender, ethnicity, etc.). The result of this study presents three themes that express the staff's experiences and connect these experiences to structural discrimination. 1) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of professionalism; 2) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of collaboration; and 3) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of discrimination. The result demonstrates that an intersectional perspective reinforces the involved abilities, during the conversations, into being clear about, for example, their experiences of discrimination, and consequently developing a better understanding of their professionalism and collaboration. Such deeper reflections became possible through a process of consciousness raising, strengthening the employee's self

  16. Quick matching of binary images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Adnan A. Y.

    2015-09-01

    Matching images is a fundamental problem in image processing. The most common technique used to compare binary images is to calculate the correlation between two images or simply to subtract them. Both of these methods -as well as other matching methods- require some type of similarity operation to be applied to the whole image, and hence they are image size dependent. This implies that as image size increases, more processing time is required. However, with image sizes already exceeding 20 mega-pixels and standard image sizes doubling approximately every five years, the need to find a size invariant image matching method is becoming crucial. In this paper, we present a quick way to compare and match binary images based on the Probabilistic Matching Model (PMM). We present two simple image size invariant methods based on PMM: one for fast detection of dissimilar binary images and another for matching binary images. For detecting dissimilar binary images we introduce the Dissimilar Detection via Mapping method (DDM). We compare DDM to other popular matching methods used in the image processing arena and show that DDM is magnitudes faster than any other method. For binary image matching, we use DDM as a preprocessor for other popular methods to speed up their matching speed. In particular, we use DDM with cross correlation to speed it up. Test results are presented for real images varying in size from 16 kilo-pixel images to 10 mega-pixel images to show the method's size invariance.

  17. Norms for a neuropsychological test battery to diagnose dementia in the elderly: A study from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Srikanth; Jaleel, Qadir

    2015-01-01

    To pilot a neuropsychological battery for diagnosing dementia and provide normative scores in an elderly Sri Lankan sample. Consecutive subjects over the age of 60 yrs were administered tests assessing the individual domains of language, verbal episodic memory, visual perceptuospatial skills and executive functions in the Sinhala language. There were a total of 230 subjects in the final sample. The mean age of the entire sample was 69 years, mean education level was 12 years and the sample comprised 53% female. One-month test-retest reliability ranged from 0.71 to 0.85 for the various tests. Most tests were significantly influenced by age and education level but not gender. The exceptions to this were some language subtests (repetition, grammar comprehension and word picture matching) and two tests of executive functioning (maze completion and alternate target cancellation), which were uninfluenced by age. The subtests where ceiling performance was attained by almost all subjects were repetition, grammar comprehension and word picture matching from the language domain, dot position discrimination from the visuospatial domain and maze completion test from the executive function domain. Scores for various tests after stratifying subjects by age and educational level are given. The tests were well received and could provide a basis for cognitive profiling in similar settings elsewhere.

  18. Phototherapy in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Powell, J B; Gach, J E

    2015-08-01

    Elderly patients present with a unique spectrum of dermatoses that pose particular management opportunities and challenges, which will be increasingly encountered in dermatological practice. The skin of elderly patients differs from that of younger patients not only in appearance but also in structure, physiology and response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, little is known about the safety and efficacy of phototherapy in elderly patients and how phototherapy is currently being utilized to treat them. To investigate the safety, efficacy and utilization of phototherapy in elderly patients. In January 2014, we analysed all patients recently referred for, currently receiving or recently having completed a course of phototherapy at a university teaching hospital in England (UK). In total, 249 patients were identified; 37 (15%) were over the age of 65 years (the WHO definition of an elderly or older person). The dermatoses being treated were psoriasis (51%), eczema (11%), nodular prurigo (11%), pruritus (11%), Grover disease (5%) and others (11%). One patient with dementia was deemed not safe to embark on phototherapy, and five patients were yet to start. The remaining 31 elderly patients received 739 individual phototherapy treatments: 88% narrowband (NB)-UVB and 12% systemic, bath and hand/foot psoralen UVA (PUVA). The acute adverse event (AE) rate was 1.89%, all occurring in those receiving NB-UVB. No severe acute AEs occurred. Of those who completed their course of phototherapy, 80% achieved a clear/near clear or moderate response, while just two patients (8%) had minimal response and two (8%) had worsening of the disease during treatment. Of those receiving NB-UVB for psoriasis, 91% achieved a clear or near-clear response. In this small survey, the first of its kind to focus on elderly patients, phototherapy appears to be well-tolerated, safe and efficacious in the short term. Further thought and investigation should be given to delivering phototherapy to an

  19. Hypertension in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kendall, M J

    1998-01-01

    In those aged 65-85 years, the major causes of death and disability are cardiovascular diseases (myocardial infarction, sudden death and stroke). Clinical trials in elderly patients have demonstrated unequivocally that effective blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients up to the age of 85 years significantly reduces this mortality and morbidity. The larger trials are referred to as the SHEP trial (chlorthalidone), the STOP trial (beta-blockers and/or diuretics), the MRC Elderly Trial (atenolol or diuretic) and the SYST-EUR trial (nitrendipine). Patients entered into clinical trials are a selected population; those with serious coexisting diseases and with a poor prognosis are usually excluded. For this reason one has to carefully consider whether the results of these trials would provide the best treatment for the next patient the doctor sees who would probably not meet the entry criteria. Elderly hypertensives may fall into one of three categories. The sick elderly with serious disorders such as cancer or dementia have a poor quality of life and a bad prognosis. They should not be given antihypertensive drugs. The medically complicated elderly have serious disorders, which usually require drug therapy and the medical condition and the drugs used in treatment may complicate the choice of antihypertensive drugs. The potential adverse effects of adding another form of drug treatment may outweigh the potential benefits. The fit elderly do derive considerable benefit from adequate blood pressure control and need an effective, well-tolerated antihypertensive drug. The choice of drug to control blood pressure in the elderly is difficult. An effective, well-tolerated antihypertensive with little potential to interact with coexisting disorders and other drugs is needed.

  20. Superior sensory, motor, and cognitive performance in elderly individuals with multi-year dancing activities.

    PubMed

    Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kolankowska, Izabella; Kalisch, Tobias; Dinse, Hubert R

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline of mental and physical abilities. Considering the current demographic changes in many civilizations there is an urgent need for measures permitting an independent lifestyle into old age. The critical role of physical exercise in mediating and maintaining physical and mental fitness is well-acknowledged. Dance, in addition to physical activity, combines emotions, social interaction, sensory stimulation, motor coordination and music, thereby creating enriched environmental conditions for human individuals. Here we demonstrate the impact of multi-year (average 16.5 years) amateur dancing (AD) in a group of elderly subjects (aged 65-84 years) as compared to education-, gender- and aged-matched controls (CG) having no record of dancing or sporting activities. Besides posture and balance parameters, we tested reaction times, motor behavior, tactile and cognitive performance. In each of the different domains investigated, the AD group had a superior performance as compared to the non-dancer CG group. Analysis of individual performance revealed that the best participants of the AD group were not better than individuals of the CG group. Instead, the AD group lacked individuals showing poor performance, which was frequently observed for the CG group. This observation implies that maintaining a regular schedule of dancing into old age can preserve cognitive, motor and perceptual abilities and prevent them from degradation. We conclude that the far-reaching beneficial effects found in the AD group make dance, beyond its ability to facilitate balance and posture, a prime candidate for the preservation of everyday life competence of elderly individuals.

  1. Superior Sensory, Motor, and Cognitive Performance in Elderly Individuals with Multi-Year Dancing Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kolankowska, Izabella; Kalisch, Tobias; Dinse, Hubert R.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline of mental and physical abilities. Considering the current demographic changes in many civilizations there is an urgent need for measures permitting an independent lifestyle into old age. The critical role of physical exercise in mediating and maintaining physical and mental fitness is well-acknowledged. Dance, in addition to physical activity, combines emotions, social interaction, sensory stimulation, motor coordination and music, thereby creating enriched environmental conditions for human individuals. Here we demonstrate the impact of multi-year (average 16.5 years) amateur dancing (AD) in a group of elderly subjects (aged 65–84 years) as compared to education-, gender- and aged-matched controls (CG) having no record of dancing or sporting activities. Besides posture and balance parameters, we tested reaction times, motor behavior, tactile and cognitive performance. In each of the different domains investigated, the AD group had a superior performance as compared to the non-dancer CG group. Analysis of individual performance revealed that the best participants of the AD group were not better than individuals of the CG group. Instead, the AD group lacked individuals showing poor performance, which was frequently observed for the CG group. This observation implies that maintaining a regular schedule of dancing into old age can preserve cognitive, motor and perceptual abilities and prevent them from degradation. We conclude that the far-reaching beneficial effects found in the AD group make dance, beyond its ability to facilitate balance and posture, a prime candidate for the preservation of everyday life competence of elderly individuals. PMID:20725636

  2. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Levels are Highly Associated With Atrial Fibrillation in an Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Seljeflot, Ingebjorg; R. Ulimoen, Sara; Enger, Steve; Bratseth, Vibeke; Arnesen, Harald; Tveit, Arnljot

    2012-01-01

    Background The importance of endothelial dysfunction in atrial fibrillation (AF) is not clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate endothelial dysfunction assessed by selected inflammatory and haemostatic endothelial markers and nitric oxide (NO) associated variables as related to the presence of AF in an elderly population. NO is known to express anti-thrombotic as well as vasoactive properties. Methods This is a cross sectional study of 75-year old subjects with AF (n = 62) and control subjects in sinus rhythm (n = 124), matched for gender. Fasting blood samples were collected for analyses of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO-synthase, L-arginine, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Results Levels of vWF and ADMA were significantly higher in AF patients vs controls (P = 0.023 and P < 0.001, respectively) and the L-arginine/ADMA ratios were lower (P = 0.015), the latters still significant after adjustment for relevant covariates (P = 0.007 and P = 0.037, respectively). No significant differences in the levels of VCAM-1 and E-selectin were observed between the groups. When dividing the ADMA levels into quartiles there was a significant trend for having AF with increasing levels of ADMA (P < 0.001) with a cut-off at the 25th percentile (< 0.54 µmol/L), giving an adjusted OR for having AF of 12.46 (95% CI 3.11 - 49.86) (P < 0.001) with higher levels. A similar inverse trend was seen for the L-arginine/ADMA ratio. Conclusion Our population of 75-year-old AF patients had significantly impaired endothelial function assessed by increased levels of vWF, and more pronounced by high levels of ADMA. The results indicate AF in the elderly to be closely associated with the regulatory pathway of NO. PMID:28352406

  3. A cross-sectional study on quality of life among the elderly in non-governmental organizations' elderly homes in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Onunkwor, Obinna Francis; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; George, Philip Parikial; Arokiasamy, John; Yadav, Hemetram; Barua, Ankur; Shuaibu, Hassana Ojonuba

    2016-01-12

    There is a rapid increase in the population of the elderly globally, and Malaysia is anticipated to become an ageing nation in 2030. Maintaining health, social participation, reducing institutionalization, and improving quality of life of the elderly are public health challenges of the 21(st) century. Quality of life among elderly in Elderly Homes in Malaysia is under researched. This study aims to determine the quality of life and its associated factors among the Elderly in Elderly Homes in Kuala Lumpur. This was a cross-sectional study among 203 residents aged 60 years or more in eight randomly selected Elderly Homes in Kuala Lumpur in September 2014. Stratified simple random sampling was used to select participants. Study instruments included World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support, and a questionnaire for Socio-demographic variables. Data collection was by face to face interview. Univariate and Multivariate analysis were used to determine associations, and P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean (Standard deviation) for the physical domain was 14.3 (±2.7), 13.7 (±2.5) for the psychological domain, 10.8 (±3.4) for the social domain, and 13.0 (±2.5) for the environment domain. Factors significantly associated with quality of life included age, gender, level of education, economic status, outdoor leisure activity, physical activity, duration of residence, type of accommodation, co-morbidities, and social support. This study confirms that multiple factors are associated with quality of life among elderly in elderly homes. Social support, chronic co-morbidities, gender and outdoor leisure activity were significantly associated with all the domains of quality of life. Among the four domains of quality of life, the physical domain had the highest score while the social domain had the lowest score. This emphasizes the need for more social

  4. Contact Heat Evoked Potentials (CHEPs) in Patients with Mild-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease and Matched Control--A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Madsen, Caspar Skau; Waldemar, Gunhild; Ballegaard, Martin; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Johnsen, Birger; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2016-04-01

    Clinical studies have found that patients with Alzheimer's disease report pain of less intensity and with a lower affective response, which has been thought to be due to altered pain processing. The authors wished to examine the cerebral processing of non-painful and painful stimuli using somatosensory evoked potentials and contact heat evoked potentials in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in healthy elderly controls. Case-control study Twenty outpatients with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease and in 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included Contact heat evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded in all subjects. Furthermore, warmth detection threshold and heat pain threshold were assessed. Patients and controls also rated quality and intensity of the stimuli. The authors found no difference on contact heat evoked potential amplitude (P = 0.59) or latency of N2 or P2 wave (P = 0.62 and P = 0.75, respectively) between patients and controls. In addition, there was no difference in regard to pain intensity scores or pain quality. The patients and controls had similar warmth detection threshold and heat pain threshold. Somatosensory evoked potentials, amplitude, and latency were within normal range and similar for the two groups. The findings suggest that the processing of non-painful and painful stimuli is preserved in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Salmonella-related urinary tract infection in an elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Klosterman, Scott Anthony

    2014-09-05

    An elderly female patient with an uncomplicated urinary tract infection from Salmonella newport is presented. Radiological and laboratory studies were performed because of her systemic and exposure risk factors as well as prior urinary tract abnormalities. While this patient was successfully treated as an outpatient with oral antibiotics, complications and recurrence are common and deserve close follow-up with repeat urine cultures at a minimum. Further laboratory and radiological testing should be guided by patient gender, risk factors and recurrence.

  6. Categorizing with Gender: Does Implicit Grammatical Gender Affect Semantic Processing in 24-Month-Old Toddlers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobb, Susan C.; Mani, Nivedita

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the interaction of implicit grammatical gender and semantic category knowledge during object identification. German-learning toddlers (24-month-olds) were presented with picture pairs and heard a noun (without a preceding article) labeling one of the pictures. Labels for target and distracter images either matched or…

  7. Categorizing with Gender: Does Implicit Grammatical Gender Affect Semantic Processing in 24-Month-Old Toddlers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobb, Susan C.; Mani, Nivedita

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the interaction of implicit grammatical gender and semantic category knowledge during object identification. German-learning toddlers (24-month-olds) were presented with picture pairs and heard a noun (without a preceding article) labeling one of the pictures. Labels for target and distracter images either matched or…

  8. Riskiness in the Elderly: Attitudes of Young and Elderly Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.; Feldman, Barbara

    Risk-taking attitudes and behaviors among young and elderly adults were investigated. Elderly subjects, from both a nursing home and the community, and college students responded to choice dilemmas involving aged central characters. Each subject responded twice, once under "self" instructions, and once as the "average elderly person" would…

  9. Riskiness in the Elderly: Attitudes of Young and Elderly Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.; Feldman, Barbara

    Risk-taking attitudes and behaviors among young and elderly adults were investigated. Elderly subjects, from both a nursing home and the community, and college students responded to choice dilemmas involving aged central characters. Each subject responded twice, once under "self" instructions, and once as the "average elderly person" would…

  10. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  11. Chromium in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Offenbacher, E G

    1992-01-01

    Several studies indicate that glucose tolerance improves and lipid levels decline in the elderly after supplementation with Cr-rich brewer's yeast or inorganic Cr. Other studies report equivocal results or no changes. Interpretation of these investigations is hampered by 1. Lack of a marker to identify Cr-deficient people 2. Artifactually high levels of dietary and body Cr, owing to inadequate analytic techniques and 3. The interplay of chronic health problems, medications, institutionalization, and dietary practices. Investigators have studied the effects of aging on Cr in the body. In the rat, tissue retention of 51Cr decreases, and organ distribution changes with age. In humans, plasma Cr levels of healthy elderly subjects are not different from those of young adults. There is no evidence of malabsorption in aged humans or animals. Nevertheless, higher urinary Cr losses are reported in elderly people. These data suggest that Cr retention may decrease with aging and that aging may alter Cr metabolism. Diets of many healthy elderly people contain less than 30 micrograms Cr. Two elderly men living under controlled conditions maintained Cr balance with 37 micrograms/d. However, these levels may be insufficient during the stresses and illnesses associated with aging.

  12. Meals for the Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA is drawing upon its food-preparation expertise to assist in solving a problem affecting a large segment of the American population. In preparation for manned space flight programs, NASA became experienced in providing astronauts simple, easily-prepared, nutritious meals. That experience now is being transferred to the public sector in a cooperative project managed by Johnson Space Center. Called Meal System for the Elderly, the project seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally balanced meal packages to those who are unable to participate in existing meal programs. Many such programs are conducted by federal, state and private organizations, including congregate hot meal services and home-delivered "meals on wheels." But more than 3.5 million elderly Americans are unable to take advantage of these benefits. In some cases, they live in rural areas away from available services; in others, they are handicapped, temporarily ill, or homebound for other reasons. Meal System for the Elderly, a cooperative program in which the food-preparation expertise NASA acquired in manned space projects is being utilized to improve the nutritional status of elderly people. The program seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally-balanced food packages to the elderly who are unable to participate b existing meal service programs.

  13. [Depression in the very elderly].

    PubMed

    Linden, M; Kurtz, G; Baltes, M M; Geiselmann, B; Lang, F R; Reischies, F M; Helmchen, H

    1998-01-01

    In the Berlin Aging Study (BASE) an age and gender stratified sample of 516 persons aged 70 to over 100 was assessed by means of the semi-structured GMS-A interview, the CES-D-self-rating scale and the Hamiltion-Depression-observer-rating scale. Prevalence rates were 4.8% for Major Depression, 9.1% for all DSM III-R specified depressive disorders and 26.9% of subthreshold depression was included. There was no increase in prevalence rates with age but an increase in scores on the self rating CES-D. The prevalence rates for DSM III-R specified depression in females was 10.3% and almost double that of men (5.6%). Depressed persons do not show significant cognitive impairment as measured with the MMSE in comparison to controls. As compared to the total sample higher prevalence rates of overall depression were seen in persons with multimorbidity (36.8%) and lower rates in married persons. 13.2% of the elderly talked about feeling tired with life, 7.9% had thoughts about death and 1.2% reported suicidal ideation, which was closely linked to depressive disorders. In 44% of depressed cases undertreatment was observed. Only 6% got Antidepressants but 40% benzodiazepines.

  14. Oxaprozin pharmacokinetics in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Greenblatt, D J; Matlis, R; Scavone, J M; Blyden, G T; Harmatz, J S; Shader, R I

    1985-01-01

    A series of 42 healthy male and female volunteers aged 21 to 89 years received a single 1200 mg oral dose of oxaprozin. Kinetics were determined from multiple plasma oxaprozin concentrations measured by h.p.l.c. during 14 days after the dose. Peak plasma oxaprozin concentrations were reached between 3 and 6 h after dosage the majority of subjects, probably reflecting slow absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Elimination also was slow with a mean half-life of 59 h (range 36 to 92 h). Owing in part to extensive protein binding (mean free fraction 0.0023%), oxaprozin distribution was limited, with apparent volume of distribution averaging 0.25 l/kg. Apparent volume of distribution declined with increasing age, probably reflecting the reduction in lean mass relative to total weight that occurs in the elderly. Total apparent oxaprozin clearance declined with age in men (r = -0.58, P less than 0.01), but was not significantly related to age in women (r = -0.25, NS). This is consistent with the previously described gender-specific reduction in hepatic oxidizing capacity association with increasing age. Thus oxaprozin is a slowly eliminated nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent that should be suitable for once daily or every other day administration. PMID:3986088

  15. Psychomotor Retardation in Elderly Untreated Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beheydt, Lieve Lia; Schrijvers, Didier; Docx, Lise; Bouckaert, Filip; Hulstijn, Wouter; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR) is one of the core features in depression according to DSM V (1), but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study investigating PR in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, clinical ratings of PR, and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method multivariate analysis of variance to compare the clinical, cognitive, and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients performed worse on all clinical, cognitive, and PR measures. Both groups showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: Due to the restrictive inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric patients was found. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive load), it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression. PMID:25674065

  16. INFOODS guidelines for food matching

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is necessary to match food consumption data with food composition data in order to calculate estimates of nutrient intakes and dietary exposure. This can be done manually or through an automated system. As food matching procedures are key to obtaining high quality estimations of nutrient intake...

  17. Matched pair conical spiral antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzler, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    A matched pair of VHF (220-260 MHz) conical spiral antennas for use in a rocket-tracking interferometer array was designed and tested. While gain, bandwidth, impedance, and pattern measurements met specifications, the phase match between antennas at low elevations was not equal to the design goal.

  18. The effect of sex on immune cells in healthy aging: Elderly women have more robust natural killer lymphocytes than do elderly men.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Ahmad; Presnell, Steven R; Peterson, Charlotte A; Thomas, D Travis; Lutz, Charles T

    2016-06-01

    Immune gender differences have been reported, but are little studied in elderly humans. We compared monocyte and lymphocyte subsets, along with soluble immune mediators in healthy men and women over the age of 70. We also measured natural killer (NK) lymphocyte cytotoxic granule exocytosis, chemokine synthesis, and cytokine synthesis in response to a variety of stimuli. Elderly women had significantly more circulating B cells than men, whereas men had more CD4 central memory T cells and higher monocyte levels. Plasma adiponectin levels were higher in women, plasma retinol-binding protein 4 levels were higher in men, but there were no significant gender differences in C-reactive protein, IL-15, or sphingosine-1-phosphate. Women had a higher ratio of immature CD56(bright) NK cells to mature CD56(dim) NK cells, indicating a gender difference in NK cell maturation in the elderly. Comparing sexes, female mature NK cells had more vigorous cytotoxic granule responses to K562 leukemia cells and IFN-γ responses to NKp46 crosslinking. Moreover, female NK cells were more likely to produce MIP-1β in response to a variety of stimuli. These data show that gender influences NK cell activity in elderly humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ANTHROPOMETRIC DIFFERENCES RELATED TO GENDERS AND AGE IN THE ELDERLY.

    PubMed

    Canaan Rezende, Fabiane Aparecida; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia; Priore, Sílvia Eloiza; Castro Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: la antropometría facilita la evaluación de los riesgos asociados con la masa corporal magra reducida, así como con el exceso de adiposidad. Sin embargo, se conoce muy poco acerca de las diferencias antropométricas observadas entre los géneros y entre los grupos de edad en los ancianos. Objetivo: comparar indicadores e índices antropométricos de los ancianos por género y grupo de edad. Métodos: estudio transversal, con una muestra de 621 ancianos. Se evaluó el peso, la talla, circunferencias (cintura, cadera, pantorrilla y brazo), índice de masa corporal, índice de adiposidad corporal, relación cintura-cadera y cintura-talla. Resultados: se encontró que las mujeres tienen un promedio mayor de índice de masa corporal, relación cintura- talla, índice de adiposidad corporal y circunferencia del brazo (p < 0,001); mientras que los hombres presentaron mayores valores para el peso, la talla y la relación cintura-cadera (p < 0,001). Las circunferencias de brazo y pantorrilla, sin embargo, no fueron diferentes entre los géneros (p > 0,05). Se observaron peso y circunferencias de pantorrilla y brazo menores en los grupos de mayor edad (p < 0,001) y lo mismo sucedió para el índice de masa corporal y la talla solo en los hombres (p < 0,05). La circunferencia de cintura, índice de adiposidad corporal, relación cintura-cadera y cintura-talla no fue diferente entre los grupos de edad (p > 0,05). Conclusión: la masa corporal total y periférica, para los hombres, en particular, fue menor entre los sujetos de mayor edad. La adiposidad central no fue diferente entre los grupos de edad en ambos géneros.

  20. Intensity of tennis match play

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, J; Mendez‐Villanueva, A; Pluim, B M

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the characteristics of tennis players during match play and provides a greater insight into the energy demands of tennis. A tennis match often lasts longer than an hour and in some cases more than five hours. During a match there is a combination of periods of maximal or near maximal work and longer periods of moderate and low intensity activity. Match intensity varies considerably depending on the players' level, style, and sex. It is also influenced by factors such as court surface and ball type. This has important implications for the training of tennis players, which should resemble match intensity and include interval training with appropriate work to rest ratios. PMID:16632566

  1. Recreation and the Rural Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Michael J.; And Others

    This review of the literature on recreation for the rural elderly is organized into seven sections. The first section is a brief overview of the values and socio-economic characteristics of the rural elderly. In the next section, studies on the leisure interests and the recreation participation patterns of the rural elderly are presented. The…

  2. Elder Care Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, Mary D.

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of elder care looks at the extent to which government and employers are addressing the issue, how elder care affects the work performance of and productivity of employed caregivers, and how human resource professionals can respond effectively to the needs of both employee and employer as these needs relate to the issue of elder care.…

  3. The complexities of elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  5. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  6. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  7. Elderly Care Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagiman, Aliani; Haja Bava Mohidin, Hazrina; Ismail, Alice Sabrina

    2016-02-01

    The demand for elderly centre has increased tremendously abreast with the world demographic change as the number of senior citizens rose in the 21st century. This has become one of the most crucial problems of today's era. As the world progress into modernity, more and more people are occupied with daily work causing the senior citizens to lose the care that they actually need. This paper seeks to elucidate the best possible design of an elderly care centre with new approach in order to provide the best service for them by analysing their needs and suitable activities that could elevate their quality of life. All these findings will then be incorporated into design solutions so as to enhance the living environment for the elderly especially in Malaysian context.

  8. Matching by adjustment: if x matches y, does y match x?

    PubMed

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar; Perry, Lacey

    2010-01-01

    When dealing with pairwise comparisons of stimuli in two fixed observation areas (e.g., one stimulus on the left, one on the right), we say that the stimulus space is regular well-matched if (1) every stimulus is matched by some stimulus in another observation area, and this matching stimulus is determined uniquely up to matching equivalence (two stimuli being equivalent if they always match or do not match any stimulus together); and (2) if a stimulus is matched by another stimulus then it matches it. The regular well-matchedness property has non-trivial consequences for several issues, ranging from the ancient "sorites" paradox to "probability-distance hypothesis" to modeling of discrimination probabilities by means of Thurstonian-type models. We have tested the regular well-matchedness hypothesis for locations of two dots within two side-by-side circles, and for two side-by-side "flower-like" shapes obtained by superposition of two cosine waves with fixed frequencies in polar coordinates. In the location experiment the two coordinates of the dot in one circle were adjusted to match the location of the dot in another circle. In the shape experiment the two cosine amplitudes of one shape were adjusted to match the other shape. The adjustments on the left and on the right alternated in long series according to the "ping-pong" matching scheme developed in Dzhafarov (2006b, J. Math. Psychol., 50, 74-93). The results have been found to be in a good agreement with the regular well-matchedness hypothesis.

  9. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in centenarians and octogenarians: a case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Moubarak, Ghassan; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Badenco, Nicolas; Guiot, Aurélie; Guillausseau, Pierre-Jean; Bergmann, Jean-François; Bardin, Thomas; Leenhardt, Antoine; Solal, Alain Cohen

    2012-10-01

    Centenarians have been proposed as a model of successful aging but recent studies suggest a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Some findings on their electrocardiograms (ECGs) are simply age-related and others mirror underlying diseases. We aimed to identify ECG features truly associated with extreme age. Retrospective analysis of 55 centenarians hospitalized between January 2000 and June 2010. Each centenarian was matched with three octogenarians according to gender, presence of hypertension, aortic stenosis, heart failure, and ischemic heart disease. A history of hypertension was present in 32 (58%) centenarians, aortic stenosis in 6 (11%), heart failure in 8 (15%), and ischemic heart disease in 6 (11%). Centenarians had a higher heart rate than octogenarians (81 ± 15 bpm vs. 72 ± 15 bpm, respectively, P  <  0.001) but were less frequently on beta-blockers (7% vs. 36%, respectively, P < 0.001). Centenarians displayed more frequently atrial premature beats than octogenarians (18% vs. 3%, respectively, P < 0.001) but tended to have less atrial fibrillation (15% vs. 22% respectively, P = 0.21). Centenarians had more frequently left QRS axis deviation (48% vs. 28%, P = 0.009) and Q waves (14% vs. 1%, P = 0.02). QT interval was more prolonged in centenarians (446 ± 42 ms vs. 429 ± 39 ms, P = 0.008). Two centenarians (4%) and 24 (15%) octogenarians had a strictly normal ECG (P = 0.02). Abnormal ECG is a common finding in centenarians, with different characteristics than in younger elderly individuals. These differences are unrelated to the presence of cardiac diseases. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Anaemia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Leischker, Andreas Herbert; Fetscher, Sebastian; Kolb, Gerald Franz

    2016-07-01

    In the elderly, even mild anaemia leads to significantly decreased quality of life and reduced survival rate. Therefore even mild anaemias should be worked up especially in the elderly. More than 75 % of all anaemias have a specific and treatable cause.Differential diagnosis of anaemia in the elderly is much more challenging compared to the differential diagnosis in younger patients: in older patients often more than one dysfunction is responsible for the anaemia simultaneously. Many routine laboratory parameters are changed by ageing and are therefore only of limited value for diagnosis of anaemia. Soluble transferinreceptor and hepcidin are two parameters feasible for differential diagnosis of the causes of anaemia in the elderly.The most common cause of iron deficiency anaemia in the elderly is gastrointestinal bleeding. Many causes for gastrointestinal bleeding -like angiodysplasia of the colon - can readily be treated with endoscopic therapy. For this reason, colonoscopy is part of the standard workup for elderly patients with iron-deficient anaemia (IDA) if no contraindications exist.Therapy of anaemia is based on the specific cause or the causes. In IDA, the first step other than causal treatment is to replace iron orally. If this is not tolerated because of side effects or does not lead to a sufficient rise in the haemoglobin level, intravenous iron replacement therapy is indicated. Folic acid deficiency is generally treated orally, whereas vitamin B12 deficiency is generally treated by the parenteral - preferably subcutaneous - route. In anaemia due to chronic renal failure and anaemia due to myelodysplastic syndromes, the underlying cause must be treated, furthermore erythropoiesis-stimulating agents can be indicated.

  11. Neuropsychological impairments in elderly Neurofibromatosis type 1 patients.

    PubMed

    Costa, Danielle de Souza; de Paula, Jonas Jardim; de Rezende, Nilton Alves; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio; Miranda, Débora Marques de

    2014-04-01

    Cognitive performance is compromised in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients, but neuropsychological data including elderly NF1 are extremely sparse. We compared the cognitive performance of a small elderly NF1 group (n = 5) with an age-matched healthy control group (n = 49). NF1 group performed worse than control group on a global cognitive impairment task, verbal working memory, and visuospatial functioning. The results suggest that cognitive impairment is an important feature of NF1 across lifespan, including elderly individuals. Future studies approaching the NF1 cognitive profile might benefit from looking at the mechanisms linked to the age-related aspects of cognitive decline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Latency for cytomegalovirus impacts T cell ageing significantly in elderly end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Langerak, A W; Baan, C C; Litjens, N H R; Betjes, M G H

    2016-11-01

    The number of elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has increased significantly during the last decade. Elderly ESRD patients are vulnerable to infectious complications because of an aged immune system. Additional immunological ageing effects may be derived from the uraemic environment and cytomegalovirus (CMV) latency. Elderly patients may be affected by these factors in particular, but data in this age group are limited. To assess the degree of immunological ageing and proliferative capacity of T lymphocytes, 49 elderly ESRD patients (defined as aged ≥ 65 years) on the renal transplantation waiting list were recruited and compared to 44 elderly healthy individuals (HI), matched for age and CMV serostatus. CMV latency was associated with more highly differentiated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in both elderly HI and patients. Elderly CMV seropositive ESRD patients showed a substantial reduction in the number of naive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells compared with age- and CMV serostatus-matched HI. Elderly ESRD patients also showed significantly decreased numbers of central memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells compared with HI, independently of CMV serostatus. In addition, thymic output and relative telomere length of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were decreased in CMV seropositive ESRD patients compared with HI. The proliferative capacity of T cells was similar for patients and HI. Elderly ESRD patients have an advanced aged T cell compartment when compared to age-matched healthy controls, which is driven mainly by CMV latency. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  13. Physical Activity in Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  14. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  15. Loneliness and self-management abilities in the visually impaired elderly.

    PubMed

    Alma, Manna A; Van der Mei, Sijrike F; Feitsma, W Nathalie; Groothoff, Johan W; Van Tilburg, Theo G; Suurmeijer, Theo P B M

    2011-08-01

    To describe the degree of loneliness among the visually impaired elderly and to make a comparison with a matched reference group of the normally sighted elderly. In addition, we examined self-management abilities (SMAs) as determinants of loneliness among the visually impaired elderly. In a cross-sectional study, 173 visually impaired elderly persons completed telephone interviews. Loneliness and SMAs were assessed with the Loneliness Scale of De Jong Gierveld and the SMAS-30, respectively. The prevalence of loneliness among the visually impaired elderly was higher compared with the reference group (50% vs. 29%; p < .001). Multivariate hierarchical regression analysis showed that the SMA self-efficacy, partner status, and self-esteem were determinants of loneliness. Severity and duration of visual impairment had no effect on loneliness. The relationship between SMAs (i.e., self-efficacy) and loneliness is promising, as SMAs can be learned through training. Consequently, self-management training may reduce feelings of loneliness.

  16. Contour matching by epipolar geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mao-Lin; Zhang, Damin; Wei, Sui

    2003-09-01

    Matching features computed in images is an important process in multiview image analysis. When the motion between two images is large, the matching problem becomes very difficult. In this paper, we propose a contour matching algorithm based on geometric constraints. With the assumption that the contours are obtained from images taken from a moving camera with static scenes, we apply the epipolar constraint between two sets of contours and compute the corresponding points on the contours. From the initial epipolar constraints obtained from comer point matching, candidate contours are selected according to the epipolar geometry, the linear relation among tangent vectors of the contour. In order to reduce the possibility of false matches, the curvature of the contour of match points on a contour is also used as a selection method. The initial epipolar constraint is refined from the matched sets of contours. The algorithm can be applied to a pair or two pairs of images. All of the processes are fully automatic and successfully implemented and tested with various synthetic images.

  17. The utility of the Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills test is associated with substantiated cases of elder self-neglect.

    PubMed

    Pickens, Sabrina; Naik, Aanand D; Burnett, Jason; Kelly, P A; Gleason, Mary; Dyer, Carmel B

    2007-03-01

    Self-neglect is the most prevalent finding among cases reported to Adult Protective Services (APS) and is characterized by an inability to meet one's own basic needs. The Kohlman evaluation of living skills (KELS) has been validated in geriatric populations to assess performance with both instrumental and basic activities of daily living and as an assessment tool for the capacity to live independently; therefore, the purpose of this analysis was to compare the scores of the KELS between substantiated cases of self-neglect and matched community-dwelling elders. This is a cross-sectional pilot study of 50 adults aged 65 years and older who were recruited from APS as documented cases of self-neglect and 50 control participants recruited from Harris County Hospital District outpatient clinics. Control participants were matched for age, race, gender, and ZIP code. A geriatric nurse practitioner (NP)-led team administered a comprehensive geriatric assessment in homes of all study participants. The assessment included the KELS and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) tests. Chi-square analyses were used to determine if cases of self-neglect were significantly more likely to fail the KELS test than matched controls. The analyses revealed that self-neglectors were significantly more likely to fail the KELS than non-self-neglectors (50% vs. 30%, p = .025). When stratified by MMSE scores, self-neglectors with intact cognitive function remained significantly more likely to fail the KELS compared to matched, cognitively intact controls (45% vs. 17%, p = .013). Abnormal results using an in-home KELS test were significantly associated with substantiated cases of self-neglect. There is currently no gold-standard measure for identifying capacity with self-care behaviors among cases of self-neglect. As a result, self-neglect may remain unidentified in many clinical settings. The KELS provides clinicians with an objective measure of an individual's capacity and performance with

  18. Workshop I: Gender Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessey, Eden; Kurup, Anitha; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Shastri, Prajval; Ghose, Shohini

    2015-12-01

    Participants in the Gender Studies workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics discussed the gender question in science practice from a policy perspective, informed by investigations from the social science disciplines. The workshop's three sessions—"Equity and Education: Examining Gender Stigma in Science," "A Comparative Study of Women Scientists and Engineers: Experiences in India and the US," and "Toward Gender Equity Through Policy: Characterizing the Social Impact of Interventions—are summarized, and the resulting recommendations presented.

  19. Student Characteristics Associated with Successful Matching to a PGY1 Residency Program

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Milena M.; Rose, Christina; Gallagher, Jason C.; Gettig, Jacob P.; Rhodes, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify predictors for postgraduate matching success. Methods. In April 2014, a survey was distributed to students at five schools of pharmacy in the United States assessing organizational involvement, research and work experience, postgraduation plans, match status, and demographics. Results. Five hundred seventy-seven students (82%) completed the survey. Applicants who matched had a higher median number of interview offers compared to those who did not match. Significantly more females than males applied for a residency program. Those who matched had a higher median pharmacy school grade point average (GPA) compared to those who did not. No differences were observed in the rates of matching when leadership positions, student organizational membership, or previous work experience were considered. Conclusion. For pharmacy students in this study, number of applications and interviews, pharmacy school GPA, and female gender were associated with a higher likelihood of matching. PMID:27402987

  20. The effect of academic "misrepresentation" on residency match outcomes.

    PubMed

    Maverakis, Emanual; Li, Chin-Shang; Alikhan, Ali; Lin, Tzu-Chun; Idriss, Nayla; Armstrong, April W

    2012-01-15

    Studies have uniformly demonstrated misrepresentation of accomplishments by applicants to residency programs; yet it is unknown whether such applicants have a competitive advantage in the MATCH. Herein we identify the factors that influence an applicant's successful selection to a competitive residency. Comparative study of 317 dermatology residency applicants during the 2007 application season. successful matching of an applicant into a U.S. dermatology residency. Factors positively associated with matching in univariate analysis included age (p=0.023); membership, Alpha Omega Alpha honors society (p=0.007); medical school research rank (p=0.013); USMLE scores (p<0.001); and number of unpublished manuscripts (p<0.001). Factors not associated with matching included the number of published manuscripts (p=0.460) and the combined impact factor of all published manuscripts (p=0.490). Multivariate analysis revealed that the USMLE Step 1 score (p=0.001), medical school research rank (p=0.040), and total number of unpublished manuscripts (p=0.046) were significantly associated matching in dermatology. Male gender trended towards but did not reach significance (p=0.054). Applicants that list multiple unpublished manuscripts have a significant competitive advantage in matching into a dermatology residency, even if these manuscripts remain unpublished.

  1. Neuropsychological profiles of victims of financial elder exploitation at the los angeles county elder abuse forensic center.

    PubMed

    Wood, Stacey; Rakela, Benjamin; Liu, Pi-Ju; Navarro, Adria E; Bernatz, Susan; Wilber, Kathleen H; Allen, Robin; Homeier, Diana; Homier, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The current article examines neuropsychological correlates of financial elder exploitation in a sample of older adults who have been documented victims of financial elder exploitation. The purpose of this exploratory study was twofold. First, a subsample of the referrals at the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center (LACEAFC) was compared to community dwelling adults in terms of the specific cognitive domains linked to financial capacity including memory, calculation, and executive functioning. Next, the correlation between presence of neuropsychological data and the likelihood of filing a case with the LA County's District Attorney office was examined. Twenty-seven LACEAFC cases and 32 controls were assessed. Overall, the forensic center group performed worse than a community-based age-matched control group on the MMSE, calculation, and executive functioning (ps < .01). The presence of neuropsychological data was significantly correlated to an increased likelihood of a case being filed.

  2. Performance of Dental Students in Shade Matching: Impact of Training.

    PubMed

    Samra, Adriana P Buhrer; Moro, Marcella G; Mazur, Rui F; Vieira, Sergio; De Souza, Evelise M; Freire, Andrea; Rached, Rodrigo N

    2017-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of training on dental students' ability for matching two different shade guides. The study was conducted in 2012. The participants were 88 male and female undergraduate dental students from Brazil and Portugal, with or without previous color education and vision refractive errors (response rate of 73.33%). They were asked to match a pair set of the shade guides Vita Classical (VC) and Vitapan 3D Master (3DM), with a 20-minutes' rest between each match. The sets were assembled over a neutral gray background and under controlled light. About 7-10 days later, all participants watched a video lecture on color education and repeated the matching procedure. The percentage of matches was calculated and submitted to statistical analysis for the variables gender, geographic region, shade guide and previous color education (Mann-Whitney tests), vision refractive errors (Kruskal-Wallis), and training (Wilcoxon signed rank). All tests were performed at a confidence level of 95%. Training increased the percentage of matches for all groups, except for Portuguese and hyperopic individuals (VC and 3DM) and men (3DM). Previous color education affected VC shade matching before training. Gender, refractive errors, and geographic region did not affect shade matching ability. Previous education and training in color positively affected shade-matching ability of dental students on shade guide pairing tests. The subjectivity of the visual method might not be a clinical concern in daily practice. The human eye can detect small differences in color and visualize the tooth with all its complex geometry, multilayered tissues, and secondary color parameters. Therefore, any color-matching task will be judged by the patient and/or other observers with consideration to this complexity. In other words, visual assessment is paramount to the success/failure of esthetic restorative procedures. The efficiency of the visual color method may be improved by color

  3. MATCHING IN INFORMAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Eeckhout, Jan; Munshi, Kaivan

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes an informal financial institution that brings heterogeneous agents together in groups. We analyze decentralized matching into these groups, and the equilibrium composition of participants that consequently arises. We find that participants sort remarkably well across the competing groups, and that they re-sort immediately following an unexpected exogenous regulatory change. These findings suggest that the competitive matching model might have applicability and bite in other settings where matching is an important equilibrium phenomenon. (JEL: O12, O17, G20, D40) PMID:24027491

  4. MATCHING IN INFORMAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.

    PubMed

    Eeckhout, Jan; Munshi, Kaivan

    2010-09-01

    This paper analyzes an informal financial institution that brings heterogeneous agents together in groups. We analyze decentralized matching into these groups, and the equilibrium composition of participants that consequently arises. We find that participants sort remarkably well across the competing groups, and that they re-sort immediately following an unexpected exogenous regulatory change. These findings suggest that the competitive matching model might have applicability and bite in other settings where matching is an important equilibrium phenomenon. (JEL: O12, O17, G20, D40).

  5. Gender Equity Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This document reports on the implementation of two bills adopted by the Washington State legislature in 1989 to achieve gender equity in higher education. The gender equity statute prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender against any student, and, in particular, it forbids discrimination in student assistance and services, academic…

  6. Gender and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  7. Gender Differences in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diedrick, Patricia

    Gender differences in spoken and unspoken emotional expression exist and may be related to gender differences in other realms, particularly in self-esteem. This literature review investigated gender differences in communication, particularly as related to emotional expressiveness, detection of emotional responses, and self-disclosures, in relation…

  8. Gender Effects in Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Anne P.; Grossman, Frances K.

    The literature on how parent gender influences responses to children has grown enormously in the past decade; mothers and fathers have been found to differ on many dimensions and to be similar on just as many. Conflicting evidence also exists on how a child's gender affects parenting style. This paper reports some important gender differences in…

  9. Beyond Gender Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the continuing significance of gender identity as a category of analysis within the field of gender theory and research in education. I begin by considering contemporary discussions of the limitations of research relating to gender theory and research in education. Following on from this, I explore some contemporary…

  10. The Embryology of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorge, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    More than 50 years after the appearance of the term "gender" in the clinical setting, we have yet to uncover the mechanisms and factors that lead to gender identity formation. Based on human embryology principles, the scientific reasoning with regard to the sexual differentiation of the body is erroneously applied to gender identity formation. The…

  11. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  12. The Morpheme Gender Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Fanny; Seigneuric, Alix; Spinelli, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments we explored the mental representation of morphologically complex words in French. Subjects were asked to perform a gender decision task on morphologically complex words that were of the same gender as their base or not. We found that gender decisions were made more slowly for morphologically complex words made from a base with…

  13. Gender and Science.

    PubMed

    2016-05-10

    We are delighted to expand our Cell Metabolism "Rosie project" to highlight an upcoming LabLinks meeting, "The Gender of Science and the Science of Gender" on May 19th in Cambridge, MA. We present the viewpoints of the speakers and other leaders on the ever-fascinating topic of gender in science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  15. Gender and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  16. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  17. Impulse control disorders in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Tamam, Lut; Bican, Mehtap; Keskin, Necla

    2014-05-01

    There is no epidemiological study on the prevalence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in the elderly population. The studies on ICDs in elderly patients are limited and some of them are case reports about pathological gambling and kleptomania. The comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders makes diagnosis difficult and has negative effects on both treatment and the prognosis of ICDs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ICDs among elderly patients and to evaluate the related sociodemographic and clinical features. A total of 76 patients aged 60 and over who have been referred to our outpatient clinics in a one-year period were included in the study. A demographic data form was completed. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) was used to determine axis I psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of ICDs was investigated by using the modified version of the Minnesota Impulse Disorders Interview (MIDI). Impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 11 (BIS-11). The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test was performed to evaluate the cognitive status of patients and to exclude the diagnosis of dementia. In addition, all patients completed Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90). The prevalence rate of at least one comorbid ICD in our sample was 17%. When patients with a diagnosis of ICDs not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS) were included, the prevalence rate increased to 22.4%. The most common ICD was intermittent explosive disorder (15.8%), followed by pathological gambling (9.2%). The majority of the sample was men (54%), married (80%), had a high school education (51%), and mid-level socioeconomic status (79%). The only statistically significant difference between the sociodemographic characteristics of patients with or without ICDs was gender. The lifetime prevalence of ICDs was 34.1% in men and 8.6% in women. The prevalence of childhood conduct disorder

  18. [Comparative analysis of some factors in tooth color matching].

    PubMed

    Török, Judit; Mauks, Levente; Márton, Sándor; Hegedűs, Csaba

    2014-09-01

    Recently (nowadays) to achieve a natural looking restoration is an ever increasing demand from the patients and also from the doctor side. To select the right color of the restoration matching the remaining natural teeth is always a challenging task. A clinical study was performed at the University of Debrecen Faculty of Dentristry with the help of dental students using two different shade guides. The study tested the influence of gender and knowledge of color science on shade matching. 78 students were asked to find the right matching color of the same upper canine to two different shade guides (Vitapan Classic and Vita 3D-Master) under standard condition. After informing the student about the basic principles of color the matching procedure was repeated. Results were analyzed statistically. In our study we found that gender does not influence the color choice. Matching accuracy is not increased by better knowledge of colors. We can conclude that significantly less students matched the proper color with Vitapan Classic shade guide after information of the property of colors without training the shade selection. Within the limitation of the study design it was concluded that not more students selected the proper color even after giving them information about colors, instructions about shade selections. For the same one canine several color were selected by the participants (6 types with Vitapan Classic and 19 types with Vita 3D-Master) which conformed that visual determination is not a reliably consistent way of the tooth shade selection. The Vita Company 1990s developed 3D-Master shade guide is not widely used, although we found the repeatability is more than 70%.

  19. Association of parental education with tooth loss among Korean Elders.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-Hun; Khang, Young-Ho; Choi, Ho-Jun

    2015-12-01

    There are few reports showing an association between childhood socioeconomic circumstances and tooth loss among the elderly. The purpose of this study was (i) to examine the association between early childhood socioeconomic position (parental education level) and tooth loss and (ii) to determine the relative effects of the subjects' education level, occupation, and income on tooth loss in Korean elders. Data from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey on 8814 Korean elders (age ≥65 years) were analyzed. Demographic factors (age, survey year, marital status, and residence area), health behaviors (dental check-up during the past year and cigarette smoking), and the presence of a somatic health problem (diabetes) were included in our gender-specific analyses. Tooth loss was defined as edentulism or severe tooth loss (<20 teeth). For our analyses, chi-square test and Student's t-tests and multiple logistic regressions were performed. A low parental education level was associated with elevated odds of edentulism (OR = 1.87 for father's education and 1.52 for mother's education among male elders and OR = 1.73 for father's education and 1.55 for mother's education among female elders) and with severe tooth loss (OR = 1.58 for father's education and 1.53 for mother's education among male elders and OR = 1.25 for father's education and 1.48 for mother's education among female elders). The association between parental education level and tooth loss was attenuated after adjusting for the subject's education level, occupation, and income. Relative magnitude of attenuation varied with personal factors (education > income > occupation). In a fully adjusted model, father's education level was significantly associated with edentate status (OR = 1.96 for male elders and 1.46 for female elders), but not with severe tooth loss. Our results indicate that early life socioeconomic circumstances measured by the father's education

  20. Health care and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Eisdorfer, C

    1985-01-01

    America's health care crisis is hitting our elderly and threatens to cripple Medicare, the elderly's financial support system. Medicare was designed to ensure that every elderly American would be protected against the destruction of life savings as a result of illness. Elderly Americans would be able to enjoy their golden years without the financial burden of medical bills. Today, this vision is almost extinct. Medicare has been placed on the endangered species list. Market predictions indicate that Medicare's Hospital insurance Trust Fund will be depleted by 1988 if current trends continue. The elderly presently must pay on the average about 14% of their health care bill. In addition, Medicare pays little for long-term care; and about 45% of long-term care is paid for out-of-pocket by the elderly and their families. Alternative approaches are desperately needed of Medicare if our elderly are to survive.

  1. Effects of age and gender on pharmacokinetics of cefepime.

    PubMed Central

    Barbhaiya, R H; Knupp, C A; Pittman, K A

    1992-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of cefepime were examined in 48 volunteers following administration of a single 1,000-mg intravenous dose. Male and female subjects were divided into four groups, each consisting of 12 subjects, according to their age and gender. The young subjects were between 20 and 40 years of age and elderly subjects were between 65 and 81 years of age. Serial blood and urine samples were collected from each subject and were analyzed for cefepime by validated high-pressure liquid chromatographic assays with UV detection. Key pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental methods. There were no gender-related differences in elimination half-life (t1/2) and weight-normalized total body clearance (CLT), renal clearance (CLR), and steady-state volume of distribution (Vss). Statistically significant age-related effects were found for t1/2, CLT, CLR, and Vss parameters. In different study groups, Vss ranged from 0.21 to 0.24 liter/kg. The values for Vss were significant greater for elderly subjects than they were for young subjects. The cefepime t1/2 was significantly longer in elderly subjects (about 3 h) than that observed in young subjects (about 2.2 h). The mean values for CLT and CLR in the four study groups ranged from 1.11 to 1.56 and 0.99 to 1.44 ml/min/kg, respectively. In elderly subjects, the estimates for CLT and CLR were significantly lower than those observed in young subjects. Linear regression revealed good correlations between clearance values of cefepime and creatinine. The magnitude of age-related changes in the pharmacokinetics of cefepime is not significant enough to recommend dosage adjustment in elderly patients with kidney functions normal for their age. PMID:1416818

  2. Designing self-matching linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, R.S.; Crandall, K.R.; Farrell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The present trend in ion-linac design is to begin with a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac followed by one or more drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks in which permanent-magnet quadrupoles are used for transverse focusing. The lack of adjustable elements (knobs) strongly suggests that one should seek linac designs with intertank matching solutions that are insensitive to beam currents and emittances, which can be accomplished if there are no sharp discontinuities in the focusing properties along the entire linac. Guidelines are presented for linac design and describe techniques for longitudinal as well as transverse matching between tanks. For a wide range of beam currents and emittances, a beam matched at the entrance to the RFQ should remain well matched throughout the entire linac.

  3. Matching Network For Microwave Preamplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sifri, Jack D.

    1988-01-01

    Stable operation and broadband, optimum noise performance achieved. Amplifier designed by new method of matching input impedance for optimum noise figure and stability. Output more nearly constant over wider frequency range.

  4. Matching Faces Against the Clock

    PubMed Central

    Fysh, Matthew; Cross, Katie; Watts, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of time pressure on face-matching accuracy. Across two experiments, observers decided whether pairs of faces depict one person or different people. Time pressure was exerted via two additional displays, which were constantly updated to inform observers on whether they were on track to meet or miss a time target. In this paradigm, faces were matched under increasing or decreasing (Experiment 1) and constant time pressure (Experiment 2), which varied from 10 to 2 seconds. In both experiments, time pressure reduced accuracy, but the point at which this declined varied from 8 to 2 seconds. A separate match response bias was found, which developed over the course of the experiments. These results indicate that both time pressure and the repetitive nature of face matching are detrimental to performance. PMID:27757219

  5. Travel Patterns and Characteristics of Elderly Subpopulation in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Wilson, Daniel W.; Reuscher, Tim; Yang, Jianjiang; Taylor, Rob D.; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2015-03-01

    With the increasing demographic shift towards a larger population of elderly (individuals 65 years and older), it is essential for policy makers and planners to have an understanding of transportation issues that affect the elderly. These issues include livability of the community, factors impacting travel behavior and mobility, transportation safety, etc. In this study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the New York State (NYS) Department of Transportation to conduct a detailed examination of travel behaviors, and identify patterns and trends of the elderly within NYS. The National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) was used as the primary data source to analyze subjects and address questions such as: Are there differences in traveler demographics between the elderly population and those of younger age groups who live in various NYS regions; e.g., New York City, other urban areas of NYS, or other parts of the country? How do they compare with the population at large? Are there any regional differences (e.g., urban versus rural)? Gender differences? Do any unique travel characteristics or patterns exist within the elderly group? In addition to analysis of NHTS data, roadway travel safety concerns associated with elderly travelers were also investigated in this study. Specifically, data on accidents involving the elderly (including drivers, passengers, and others) as captured in the Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database was analyzed to examine elderly driver and elderly pedestrian travel safety issues in NYS. The analyses of these data sets provide a greater understanding of the elderly within NYS and their associated transportation issues. Through this study, various key findings on elderly population size, household characteristics, and travel patterns were produced and are report herein this report.

  6. The Elderly in Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas, Dan

    1974-01-01

    Two cases illustrate the vast number of the forgotten aged with acute problems and life and death experiences, who are in dire need of protective services. The time has come to evaluate and assist the elderly in their steps toward renewed pride, dignity, and self-respect. (Author/PC)

  7. Vaccines for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the human population is posing serious challenges to research and to public health authorities in order to prevent diseases that more frequently affect the elderly, a portion of the population that will increase more and more in the coming years. While some vaccines exist and are used in the elderly to effectively fight against some infections (e.g. influenza, pneumococci, varicella-zoster virus, diphtheria, and tetanus), still a lot of work remains to be done to better adapt these vaccines and to develop new ones for this age group. The prevention of infectious diseases affecting the elderly can be successful only through a holistic approach. This approach will aim at the following: (1) a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to the senescence of the immune system, (2) a better and broader use of vaccines recommended for the elderly, (3) the use of vaccines currently considered only for other age groups and (4) actively priming the population when they are immunological competent, before the physiological waning of immune responsiveness may affect the beneficial effects of vaccination.

  8. Honoring the Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazzie, Evangeline Parsons; St. Clair, Robert N.

    The co-directors of the 1998 Annual Symposium for Language Renewal and Revitalization describe how they came up with a focus and presenters for the symposium. They began by discussing their concern over the loss of indigenous languages and cultures, then decided to honor tribal elders by choosing one to represent them all as the symposium's…

  9. Loneliness among Elderly Widowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinick, Barbara H.

    The fact that few researchers have studied loneliness in widowhood may be related to the concept itself which spans intellectual perspectives, incorporating elements of affect, cognition, and social structure. To examine loneliness among elderly widowers, 24 adult males (participants in a more comprehensive study of widowed men, aged 63 to 93…

  10. [Dignity of the elderly].

    PubMed

    Ribera Casado, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A discussion is presented on what is understood by «dignity» when applied to the elderly, highlighting it universal character and contrasting it with the greater risks of suffering «indignities» to which the elderly are exposed. The discussion is divided into 3 sections. In the first, the risk factors in this sense could lead to physiological losses and illnessess, which in in the physical, mental and social sense are associated with ageing. In the second, the question of discrimination of the elderly as a form of aggression due to age, and is so widespread and infrequently studied. Lastly, it is discussed how to interpret the advice of the United Nations on how to promote active ageing as a defence system against indignities. It concludes with the message that neither the limitations that accompany the ageing process, nor the different forms of aggression that the elderly may be subjected to, provide sufficient argument neither for a loss of individual nor collective dignity. This is something which we all must endeavour to achieve and which must be maintained and be respected by individuals and by society at all times.

  11. [Balance in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Ruwer, Sheelen Larissa; Rossi, Angela Garcia; Simon, Larissa Fortunato

    2005-01-01

    Throughout years, the human organism goes through natural aging, having functional and structural changes. The part which is responsible for the corporal balance system also suffers from the aging process, creating great impact for the elderly. Thus, the present paper aims to study the vestibular function of old people suffering from dizziness, tinnitus and hearing impairment. Transversal cohort. 80 elderly individuals from two different groups were evaluated: group A - composed of 38 women and 2 men who belonged to an elderly group from Santa Maria, RS; and group B - composed of 35 women and 5 men with complaints of balance disorders. Both groups were undergone anamnesis (calling attention to aspects concerning the dizziness, tinnitus and the hearing impairment), and the vestibular function evaluation (by using the computerized system of vecto-electronystagmography SCV 5.0). The results displayed a statistical significant difference between both groups, concerning the complaints of dizziness and tinnitus, straightforward in group B. In the hypothetical diagnosis lead by the computerized examination, it was found that most individuals had presented normal diagnosis; however, it was found the predominance of vestibular disorders in the elderly such as Deficit Peripheral Vestibular Syndrome and Irritative Peripheral Vestibular Syndrome. It was concluded that the vestibular disorders, according to the vecto-electronystagmography, and to the complaints of dizziness, tinnitus and hearing impairment, are numerically similar in both studied groups.

  12. Loneliness among Elderly Widowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinick, Barbara H.

    The fact that few researchers have studied loneliness in widowhood may be related to the concept itself which spans intellectual perspectives, incorporating elements of affect, cognition, and social structure. To examine loneliness among elderly widowers, 24 adult males (participants in a more comprehensive study of widowed men, aged 63 to 93…

  13. Alcoholism and Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anetzberger, Georgia J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A comparison group study of abusing and nonabusing caregivers suggested a correlation between alcohol use and violence against elderly parents. Findings reveal that abusers were more likely than nonabusers to drink, to become intoxicated, and to be identified as having a drinking problem. Policy and practice implications are discussed. (Author)

  14. Biology of Elderly Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifai, A. Hind; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes age-related changes in central nervous system pertinent to biology of suicide. Reviews postmortem biological studies of brains of suicides and suicide attempters. As suicide attempts in elderly are characterized by violence, discusses biological studies of impulsive violence. Describes data on effect of degenerative diseases on serotonin…

  15. Hardiness among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagnild, Gail; Young, Heather

    Hardiness has been defined as a mediator in life stress and, within the health/illness context, has been conceptualized as a personality characteristic. This study used a descriptive exploratory design to examine the concept of hardiness among elderly women. The Stress, Appraisal, and Coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1986) was the…

  16. Matching games with partial information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laureti, Paolo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2003-06-01

    We analyze different ways of pairing agents in a bipartite matching problem, with regard to its scaling properties and to the distribution of individual “satisfactions”. Then we explore the role of partial information and bounded rationality in a generalized Marriage Problem, comparing the benefits obtained by self-searching and by a matchmaker. Finally we propose a modified matching game intended to mimic the way consumers’ information makes firms to enhance the quality of their products in a competitive market.

  17. Gender interactions and success.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Carla; Peterson, Teri

    2004-01-01

    Does gender by itself, or does gender's interaction with career variables, better explain the difference between women and men's careers in healthcare management? US healthcare managers were surveyed regarding career and personal experiences. Gender was statistically interacted with explanatory variables. Multiple regression with backwards selection systematically removed non-significant variables. All gender interaction variables were non-significant. Much of the literature proposes that work and career factors impact working women differently than working men. We find that while gender alone is a significant predictor of income, it does not significantly interact with other career variables.

  18. "Gray murder": characteristics of elderly compared with nonelderly homicide victims in New York City.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Robert C; Leon, Andrew C; Tardiff, Kenneth; Marzuk, Peter M; Sutherland, Kari

    2007-09-01

    We compared characteristics of homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 to determine differences in demographics, cause and place of death, and presence of illicit drugs and alcohol in the deceased's system. All medical examiner-certified homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 were studied (n = 11,850). Nonelderly (aged 18 to 64 years) and elderly (aged 65 years and older) victims were compared by gender, race/ethnicity, cause of death, place of death, and presence of illicit drugs or alcohol. Population-based homicide rates stratified by age, gender, and race were also calculated. Nonelderly homicide victims were significantly more likely to be male, non-White, to have been shot in the city streets, and to have evidence of illicit drug or alcohol use. Elderly victims were more likely to be female, White, to have been killed by nonfirearm injuries, and to have been killed in their own homes. The gender and race differences between age groups remained but were attenuated when population-based rates were compared. The characteristics of homicide in nonelderly adults do not apply to elderly adults in New York City. Demographic factors and vulnerabilities of the elderly may underlie these differences, pointing to the need for oversight of isolated or homebound elderly persons and for protective interventions.

  19. “Gray Murder”: Characteristics of Elderly Compared With Nonelderly Homicide Victims in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Robert C.; Leon, Andrew C.; Tardiff, Kenneth; Marzuk, Peter M.; Sutherland, Kari

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We compared characteristics of homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 to determine differences in demographics, cause and place of death, and presence of illicit drugs and alcohol in the deceased’s system. Methods. All medical examiner–certified homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 were studied (n = 11 850). Nonelderly (aged 18 to 64 years) and elderly (aged 65 years and older) victims were compared by gender, race/ethnicity, cause of death, place of death, and presence of illicit drugs or alcohol. Population-based homicide rates stratified by age, gender, and race were also calculated. Results. Nonelderly homicide victims were significantly more likely to be male, non-White, to have been shot in the city streets, and to have evidence of illicit drug or alcohol use. Elderly victims were more likely to be female, White, to have been killed by nonfirearm injuries, and to have been killed in their own homes. The gender and race differences between age groups remained but were attenuated when population-based rates were compared. Conclusions. The characteristics of homicide in nonelderly adults do not apply to elderly adults in New York City. Demographic factors and vulnerabilities of the elderly may underlie these differences, pointing to the need for oversight of isolated or homebound elderly persons and for protective interventions. PMID:17666708

  20. Socioeconomic inequality of overweight and obesity of the elderly in Iran: Bushehr Elderly Health (BEH) Program.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Alireza; Mehboudi, Mohammadbagher; Darabi, Hossein; Nabipour, Iraj; Larijani, Bagher; Mehrdad, Neda; Heshmat, Ramin; Shafiee, Gita; Sharifi, Farshad; Ostovar, Afshin

    2017-01-13

    The objective of this population-based, large sample size study was to investigate the socioeconomic inequality of overweight and obesity among the elderly in Iran. Baseline data of 3000 persons aged ≥60 years who participated in the Bushehr Elderly Health (BEH) program was analyzed. Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) equal to or higher than 25 and 30, respectively. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by an asset index, constructed using principal component analysis, income, education level, and employment status. The Concentration Index and the Lorenz curve were used to illustrate the levels of inequality for overweight and obesity by gender. The frequencies among men and women were, respectively, 840 (57.7%) and 1131 (73.2%), P < 0.001, for overweight, and 211 (14.7%) and 511 (33.7%), P < 0.001, for obesity. There were direct associations between asset index quintiles and both overweight and obesity among both genders (Ps for trend <0.01) except for obesity among men (P for trend = 0.118). The overall Concentration Indices for overweight and obesity were 0.031 (95%CI = 0.016-0.046, P < 0.001) and 0.041 (95%CI = 0.004-0.078, p = 0.028), respectively. Findings support the direct relationship between SES and obesity among women as previously reported in developing countries.

  1. America's elderly: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Barberis, M

    1981-01-01

    Senior citizens, particularly those aged 75 or older, are the fastest growing group in the US today. 25 million strong, the elderly make up 11% of the total population, the proportion ranging from 18.1% in Florida to 2.6% in Alaska. 1/4 of the federal budget, $155 billion in 1980, now goes to their support yet many face difficulty in gaining access to the programs designed to benefit them. The elderly, especially those who rely solely on Social Security, comprise a disproportionate share of all poor households. The retirement system itself is facing financing challenges that promise to grow as the baby boom generation swells the number of senior citizens to 55 million in 2030. Plans to coordinate government programs and improve the method of financing the retirement system are receiving increasing attention. Financing Social Security from revenue funds, or with actuarial reserves, are 2 alternatives to the present pay-as-you-go system. Another area of concern to policymakers is America's health care system, which is now crisis oriented and heavily biased toward institutionalization. Health care must be made more responsive to the long-term needs of the oldest segment of the population, many of whom suffer from chronic illnesses. Impaired elderly receive most of their care from family or friends, and private organizations, but this natural support network largely has been ignored by government. New program initiatives might emphasize homemaker services, geriatric day care, compensation for families that provide for the needs of an elderly relative, and the strengthening of the informal partnership between the elderly themselves, their families and friends, community groups, private organizations, and government at the state and local as well as the federal level.

  2. Homocysteine and life-style in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, M; Di Francesco, V; Zoico, E; Bissoli, L; Zivelonghi, A; Mandragona, R; Mazzali, G; Tosoni, P; Brocco, G; Faccini, G; Bosello, O

    2001-12-01

    Elevated homocysteine increases the risk of vascular diseases but little information is available about this issue in the elderly. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationships between homocysteinemia and gender, anthropometric, and life-style characteristics in a community-dwelling elderly population (65 men and 120 women; 67-78 years). Basal plasma homocysteine levels were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Clinical records, and nutritional and anthropometric variables were collected in all subjects. Body composition was evaluated in all subjects by Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Thirty-three percent of women and 66% of men had hyper-homocysteinemia. In women, a positive correlation was present between homocysteinemia, age, diastolic blood pressure and plasmatic creatinine, and a negative correlation between homocysteine, fiber intake and folates. In males, there was a positive correlation between plasma homocysteine, age, and body mass index. Multiple regression analysis showed that fat-free mass, cigarette smoking, fiber intake, vitamin B6 and total kcal intake accounted for 18% of homocysteine variance in males (R2 = 0.18, p<0.05). Significantly higher homocysteine values were found in women with a history of cardiovascular disease than in those without (16.6 +/- 9.4 vs 13.8 +/- 4.4 micromol/L, p<0.05). Homocysteinemia was significantly higher in elderly men compared to women (16.7 +/- 4.7 vs 15.3 +/- 7.6; p<0.05). Gender differences in homocysteine disappeared after adjusting for fat-free mass. This study confirms the age-related increase in plasma homocysteine. Life-style characteristics seem to influence significantly homocysteine levels in the elderly. Our study shows that gender effects on homocysteine may be attributed to differences in body composition.

  3. Penile malformation, gender identity and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Berg, R; Berg, G

    1983-09-01

    Gender identity and sexual orientation were investigated in 34 men operated for hypospadias in childhood and in 36 matched control subjects. Independent psychiatric assessments from semi-structured interviews, and double-blind formalized psychological ratings from the Rorschach, yielded similar findings. The probands were less secure in their maleness but were similar in sexual orientation as compared to the controls. A third blind, independent measure of unconscious gender identity, the Franck Drawing Completion Test, gave further evidence of uncertain gender identity in the patients. A self-administered inventory, the Gough Femininity Scale, showed a tendency for the patients to take more feminine sex roles. The findings are discussed from psychoendocrinological as well as psycho-analytical view points. The need for early psychological preventive measures for hypospadic boys and their parents is stressed.

  4. Gender determination in populus

    SciTech Connect

    McLetchie, D.N.; Tuskan, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  5. The Effect of Narrative Reminiscence on Happiness of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Zahra; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Tagharrobi, Zahra; Akbari, Hossien

    2015-01-01

    Background: Happiness has a considerable impact on elderly quality of life. Reminiscence therapy can be an effective intervention in increasing the positive emotions among elderly. Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on Iranian elderly women’s happiness. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial conducted on 32 elderly women (census sampling) attending the jahandidegan daycare elderly center IN Gorgan city, Iran, in 2013. Happiness scores of 4 phases were measured: before, the third session, the sixth session and one month after the intervention. Three instruments were used in this study including a demographic questionnaire, the mini mental state examination test, and Oxford happiness questionnaire. The intervention group participated in six sessions of narrative group reminiscence that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. The control group was also participated in six sessions of group discussions that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. Data analysis was performed the chi-square, independent t-test, Paired t-test. Results: From a total of 32 elderly women, 29 cases completed the study. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics. The mean happiness scores before the intervention between the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.824). Comparison of the mean happiness scores of the intervention group in the four measurement times revealed a significant difference only after the third and sixth sessions (P = 0.03), and no significant difference was found between the mean happiness scores of the control group in the four measurement times. Conclusions: The elderly participating in the matched group sessions can be effective in increasing positive emotions. PMID:26734470

  6. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  7. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  8. Self-management of oral anticoagulants with a whole blood prothrombin-time monitor in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Eldor, Amiram; Schwartz, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of oral anticoagulants (OAC) in reducing the incidence of stroke in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has been well documented. The intensity of OAC therapy and deviations in the prothrombin time (PT) are the strongest risk factor for bleeding complications in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate a more rigorous regulation of OAC by the use of a portable whole blood PT-monitor (CoaguChek) in elderly patients with AF (age 65-80 years). The study group consisted of 20 patients, of whom 17 were evaluable, which were trained to use to CoaguChek monitor and adjust their anticoagulant dose for 12 months. The control group, 20 patients matched for age, gender and the duration of OAC treatment, were tested in an anticoagulant clinic and their OAC dose was adjusted by a physician. To validate the PT-monitor results, the patients performed a total of 129 simultaneous venous blood PT tests at various time points. The correlation coefficient R(2) was 0.707 indicating the accuracy of the CoaguChek results. The self-managed patients perform more frequent measurements 46 +/- 8.9 vs. 15.7 +/- 3.1 PT tests per patient. They demonstrated a within the therapeutic range INR in 80.5% of the tests (95% confidence interval, 76.5-84.1%) as compared to 72.4% (95% confidence interval, 68.5-76.5%) in the control group (p = 0.057). The median value for all CoaguChek International Normalized Ratio (INR) recordings was within therapeutic range in the self-management group as well as in the control group. There were fewer INR results below or above the therapeutic range in the study group. None of the patients had hemorrhagic or thrombotic events during the study. Overall, the study group expressed high satisfaction from using the home monitor. We conclude that home PT monitoring and self-management of OAC are feasible in a motivated population of elderly patients with atrial fibrillation and are probably cost effective.

  9. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is effective in elderly adults over 75 years old--Taiwan's PPV vaccination program.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ying-Huang; Hsieh, Meng-Jer; Chang, Chee-Jen; Wen, Yu-Wen; Hu, Han-Chung; Chao, Yen-Nan; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Huang, Chung-Chi

    2015-06-09

    Pneumococcal infection is a serious cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly. A nationwide pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) program for elderly adults aged 75 years and older was conducted in Taiwan in 2008. The efficacy of the PPV in this very elderly population was evaluated. The data were analyzed using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), the cause-of-death registration database and the invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) notification database of Taiwan's Ministry of Health and Welfare. The efficacy of PPV administration in this very elderly population was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression after propensity score matching (PSM). The rates of IPD, death from IPD, pneumonia hospitalization, death from pneumonia, and all-cause mortality were compared for those who did and did not receive the PPV. Among the 1078,955 eligible people, 318,257 (29.5%) received the PPV, and 760,698 (70.5%) were not vaccinated. Using PSM to adjust for confounding factors, including age, gender, influenza vaccination status, associated chronic diseases and health care utilization, those who received the PPV had significantly lower odds ratios (ORs) for IPD (OR=0.24, 95% CI=0.123-0.461, p<0.001), death from IPD (OR=0.09, 95% CI=0.011-0.704, p<0.022, p<0.001), pneumonia hospitalization (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.395-0.415, p<0.001), death from pneumonia (OR=0.07, 95% CI=0.059-0.082, p<0.001), and all-cause mortality (OR=0.07, 95% CI=0.069-0.072, p<0.001) compared with those who were not vaccinated. PPV vaccination in the previous year was associated with a 60% reduction in pneumonia hospitalization, a 76% reduction in IPD, and a greater than 90% reduction in death from pneumonia, IPD and all causes among people over 75 years old in Taiwan. Data from subsequent years in Taiwan and similar populations elsewhere are needed to evaluate the contribution of underlying variations in the mortality rate and the confounding effects of prior disease

  10. Color matching in facial prosthetics: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ranabhatt, Rani; Singh, Kamleshwar; Siddharth, Ramashanker; Tripathi, Shuchi; Arya, Deeksha

    2017-01-01

    Color matching to the surrounding skin is extremely important in patients wearing maxillofacial prostheses. It is of utmost importance to know the different techniques of color matching and coloring in maxillofacial prostheses. The purpose of this study is to review the literature data with regard to color matching in maxillofacial prosthetics. An electronic search of peer review restricted to English language dental literature was conducted to identify the relevant scientific article on color matching and coloring in maxillofacial prostheses. The publication year was up to December 2015 so that the search could include all the articles provided in that particular database. Two independent observers independently read the abstracts and later preselected full-text articles. A full-text review was carried out only for 15 articles. Out of the 15 articles, 7 were related to coloring using tinting, spraying, milling, and use of commercial cosmetics. Three studies were related to shade matching in maxillofacial prostheses. Two studies conducted the measurement of color in maxillofacial prostheses. Only one study had explained color and its relevance in maxillofacial prosthetics. Only one study was done for reproducing silicone shade guide matching Indian skin color. In addition, a single pilot study was done to measure facial skin and lip color in a human population sample stratified by race, gender, and age. Currently, there is no evidence discussing the best technique available for perfectly matching the color for the fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. However, the latest instruments such as spectrophotometer and colorimeters are believed to have improved efficiency in matching the color.

  11. Influence of speaker gender on listener judgments of tracheoesophageal speech.

    PubMed

    Eadie, Tanya L; Doyle, Philip C; Hansen, Kerry; Beaudin, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this prospective and exploratory study are to determine: (1) naïve listener preference for gender in tracheoesophageal (TE) speech when speech severity is controlled; (2) the accuracy of identifying TE speaker gender; (3) the effects of gender identification on judgments of speech acceptability (ACC) and naturalness (NAT); and (4) the acoustic basis of ACC and NAT judgments. Six male and six female adult TE speakers were matched for speech severity. Twenty naïve listeners made auditory-perceptual judgments of speech samples in three listening sessions. First, listeners performed preference judgments using a paired comparison paradigm. Second, listeners made judgments of speaker gender, speech ACC, and NAT using rating scales. Last, listeners made ACC and NAT judgments when speaker gender was provided coincidentally. Duration, frequency, and spectral measures were performed. No significant differences were found for preference of male or female speakers. All male speakers were accurately identified, but only two of six female speakers were accurately identified. Significant interactions were found between gender and listening condition (gender known) for NAT and ACC judgments. Males were judged more natural when gender was known; female speakers were judged less natural and less acceptable when gender was known. Regression analyses revealed that judgments of female speakers were best predicted with duration measures when gender was unknown, but with spectral measures when gender was known; judgments of males were best predicted with spectral measures. Naïve listeners have difficulty identifying the gender of female TE speakers. Listeners show no preference for speaker gender, but when gender is known, female speakers are least acceptable and natural. The nature of the perceptual task may affect the acoustic basis of listener judgments.

  12. Care Received by Elderly US Stroke Survivors May Be Underestimated.

    PubMed

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Freedman, Vicki A; Feng, Chunyang; Wing, Jeffrey J; Burke, James F

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies exploring stroke-related caregiving focused solely on informal caregiving and a relatively limited set of activities. We sought to determine whether, and at what cost, stroke survivors receive more care than matched controls using an expanded definition of caregiving and inclusion of paid caregivers. Data were drawn from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), a nationally representative survey of Medicare beneficiaries. NHATS personnel conducted in-person interviews with respondents or proxies to determine the weekly hours of care received. We compared hours of assistance received between self-reported stroke survivors (n=892) and demography- and comorbidity-matched nonstroke controls (n=892). The annual cost of stroke caregiving was estimated using reported paid caregiving data and estimates of unpaid caregiving costs. Of community-dwelling elderly stroke survivors, 51.4% received help from a caregiver. Stroke survivors received an average of 10 hours of additional care per week compared with demography- and comorbidity-matched controls (22.3 hours versus 11.8 hours; P<0.01). We estimate that the average annual cost for caregiving for an elderly stroke survivor is ≈$11 300 or ≈$40 billion annually, for all elderly stroke survivors, of which $5000 per person, or $18.2 billion annually, is specific to stroke. Although stroke survivors are known to require considerable caregiving resources, our findings suggest that previous assessments may underestimate hours of care received and hence costs. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. College Students' Attitudes toward Elderly Sexual Behavior: Implications for Family Life Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Clara C.; Schmall, Vicki L.

    1989-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward elderly sexual behavior in college students (N=290). Found results indicated that the most salient factor related to attitudes was the specific behavior being evaluated and not the age, gender, or relationship to the subject. Presents implications of research. (Author/ABL)

  14. Undergraduate Attitudes toward the Elderly: The Role of Knowledge, Contact and Aging Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Linda J.; Johnson, James

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge, anxiety, and attitudes about the elderly were assessed in 113 university students using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Anxiety about Aging Scale, and the Fraboni Scale on Ageism. No significant differences in knowledge or anxiety based on age or gender were found in the sample. Female participants in the sample were found to be…

  15. Drawing on Stereotypes: Using Undergraduates' Sketches of Elders as a Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; Cantwell, Laura E.

    2007-01-01

    Using data collected from undergraduates at two large, public universities (N = 183), we examined features of student drawings (e.g., facial expressions) as reflections of dominant views of the elderly. Sketches depicted both negative (e.g., frailty) and positive stereotypes (e.g., kindness). They also illustrate gender inequality; for example,…

  16. Drawing on Stereotypes: Using Undergraduates' Sketches of Elders as a Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; Cantwell, Laura E.

    2007-01-01

    Using data collected from undergraduates at two large, public universities (N = 183), we examined features of student drawings (e.g., facial expressions) as reflections of dominant views of the elderly. Sketches depicted both negative (e.g., frailty) and positive stereotypes (e.g., kindness). They also illustrate gender inequality; for example,…

  17. Undergraduate Attitudes toward the Elderly: The Role of Knowledge, Contact and Aging Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Linda J.; Johnson, James

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge, anxiety, and attitudes about the elderly were assessed in 113 university students using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Anxiety about Aging Scale, and the Fraboni Scale on Ageism. No significant differences in knowledge or anxiety based on age or gender were found in the sample. Female participants in the sample were found to be…

  18. Prevalence of Hearing Loss in Black and White Elders: Results of the Cardiovascular Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sheila R.; Kuller, Lewis; Talbott, Evelyn O.; McHugh-Pemu, Kathleen; Buhari, Alhaji M.; Xu, Xiaohui

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of age, gender, and race on the prevalence and severity of hearing loss in elder adults, aged 72-96 years, after accounting for income, education, smoking, and clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Air-conduction thresholds for standard and extended high-frequency…

  19. Prevalence of Hearing Loss in Black and White Elders: Results of the Cardiovascular Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sheila R.; Kuller, Lewis; Talbott, Evelyn O.; McHugh-Pemu, Kathleen; Buhari, Alhaji M.; Xu, Xiaohui

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of age, gender, and race on the prevalence and severity of hearing loss in elder adults, aged 72-96 years, after accounting for income, education, smoking, and clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Air-conduction thresholds for standard and extended high-frequency…

  20. Going to the Mall: A Leisure Activity of Urban Elderly People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Dawn Fowler; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Telephone interviews with 300 elderly Montreal residents found that 67 percent use shopping malls to fulfill social and leisure needs. Predisposing variables (age, gender, education, and loneliness) and environmental/encouraging variables (design and ambiance of the malls) were found to be related to this activity. (SK)

  1. 78 FR 73195 - Privacy Act of 1974: CMS Computer Matching Program Match No. 2013-01; HHS Computer Matching...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Privacy Act of 1974: CMS Computer Matching Program Match No. 2013-01; HHS Computer Matching Program Match No. 1312 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of Computer Matching...

  2. 76 FR 5235 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA Internal Match)-Match Number 1014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA Internal Match)--Match Number 1014 AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA) ACTION: Notice of a new computer matching program. SUMMARY... computer matching program that we are conducting with ourselves. DATES: We will file a report of the...

  3. Skin cancers associated with HIV infection and solid organ transplant among elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Lanoy, Emilie; Costagliola, Dominique; Engels, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Immunosuppression may be etiologic for some skin cancers. We investigated the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and solid organ transplantation on skin cancer risk. We conducted a population-based case-control study among elderly U.S. adults (non-Hispanic whites, age 67 years or older), using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Medicare linked data. The study comprised 29,926 skin cancer cases (excluding basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) and 119,704 controls, frequency-matched by gender, age, and calendar year (1987–2002). Medicare claims identified solid organ transplantation or HIV infection before cancer diagnosis/control selection. As negative controls, we evaluated other medical conditions (e.g., hypertension, depression) and cancers (breast, colon, prostate) not linked to immunosuppression. Odds ratios (ORs) compared prevalence in cases and controls, adjusted for matching factors and number of prior physician claims. Risks of Kaposi sarcoma (N=602) and cutaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma (N=1,836) were increased with solid organ transplantation (OR [95%CI]: 11.06 [5.27–23.23] and 2.27 [1.00–5.15], respectively) and HIV infection (21.58 [11.94–38.99] and 2.41 [1.05–5.52], respectively). Solid organ transplantation was also associated with increased risks of Merkel cell carcinoma (N=1286; OR [95%CI] 4.95 [2.62–9.34]) and other cutaneous sarcomas (N=972; 4.19 [1.83–9.56]). Solid organ transplantation was non-significantly associated with melanoma (N=23,974; (OR 1.36 [95%CI 0.98–1.88]). Null or weak associations were observed for negative control medical conditions and cancers. Solid organ transplantation and HIV infection were followed by increased risk for some skin cancer subtypes among elderly adults. These results highlight the potential role of immunity in development of skin cancers. PMID:19810102

  4. Dyshomeostasis of Serum Oxidant/Antioxidant Status and Copper, Zinc, and Selenium Levels in Elderly Physically Disabled Persons: an AHAP-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Younesi, Simin; Parsian, Hadi; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Noreddini, Hajighorban; Mosapour, Abbas; Bijani, Ali; Halalkhor, Sohrab

    2015-08-01

    The percentage of elderly persons is rapidly growing. Physical disability is one of the main age-related diseases which affect life quality. There are some studies that suggest the oxidative stress and trace elements are involved in physical disability in elderly persons, but the results are inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the status of aforementioned parameters in elderly physically disabled patients vs. healthy ones. According to the Katz questionnaire form, 44 subjects with physical disability and 66 age-gender-matched healthy subjects were selected from Amirkola Health and Aging Project (AHAP). The results indicated that patient group had lower serum Zn, Se, and total antioxidant levels than the control group (p < 0.001), whereas serum total oxidant level and Cu to Zn ratio (CZr) were higher in control group than in healthy one (p < 0.001). A positive correlation was found between Zn, Se, total antioxidant, and bone mineral density of femur (BMD.F) with activities of daily living (ADL) score (p < 0.01); meanwhile, a negative correlation between CZr and total oxidant with ADL score was observed (p < 0.01). Serum total oxidant level and CZr index had the highest area under the curve in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis among the included parameters for discrimination of physically disabled patients than the normal ones. Decrease in serum Zn and Se levels, low BMD, and increase in CZr and oxidative stress were observed in physically disabled patients. It seems that CZr is more reliable parameter than the others to discriminate the physically disabled patients than the healthy persons.

  5. Patterns of Ocular Trauma among the Elderly in a South-American Urban Area and the Association between Eye Traumas with Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Sergio Henrique N.; Kasahara, Niro

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Eye trauma in the older population can lead to blindness. Sleep deterioration is associated with increased risk of occupational injuries. The purpose of the study was to assess the epidemiology of ocular trauma in the elderly population and to evaluate the relationship between eye trauma and sleep quality. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional, observational hospital based study done in a Sao Paulo, Brazil. Subjects and Methods: Patients with ocular trauma aged 60 years who attended the Eye Trauma Service of the Santa Casa de Sao Paulo Central Hospital were included. All subjects underwent a complete eye examination and answered to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. The results were compared with an age and gender matched control group. Results: Eighty-nine patients with ocular trauma were included in the epidemiological study, 71 (80%) were male and 18 (20%) were female. The patients’ ages ranged from 60 to 90 years (65.7 ± 7.1 years). Most accidents occurred at home and were of mild severity. The control group had a global PSQI score of 1.21 ± 1.37, whereas in the ocular trauma group the score was 3.11 ± 3.63 (P < 0.038). A post hoc analysis including only patients with severe trauma, the PSQI score was 8.80 ± 2.44 (P < 0.000). Conclusion: The elderly population represents an important group of ocular trauma in their own peculiar characteristics. Elderly victims of ocular trauma, particularly serious eye injury, have worse sleep quality than subjects of the same age. PMID:28855772

  6. Understanding Y haplotype matching probability.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    The Y haplotype population-genetic terrain is better explored from a fresh perspective rather than by analogy with the more familiar autosomal ideas. For haplotype matching probabilities, versus for autosomal matching probabilities, explicit attention to modelling - such as how evolution got us where we are - is much more important while consideration of population frequency is much less so. This paper explores, extends, and explains some of the concepts of "Fundamental problem of forensic mathematics - the evidential strength of a rare haplotype match". That earlier paper presented and validated a "kappa method" formula for the evidential strength when a suspect matches a previously unseen haplotype (such as a Y-haplotype) at the crime scene. Mathematical implications of the kappa method are intuitive and reasonable. Suspicions to the contrary raised in rest on elementary errors. Critical to deriving the kappa method or any sensible evidential calculation is understanding that thinking about haplotype population frequency is a red herring; the pivotal question is one of matching probability. But confusion between the two is unfortunately institutionalized in much of the forensic world. Examples make clear why (matching) probability is not (population) frequency and why uncertainty intervals on matching probabilities are merely confused thinking. Forensic matching calculations should be based on a model, on stipulated premises. The model inevitably only approximates reality, and any error in the results comes only from error in the model, the inexactness of the approximation. Sampling variation does not measure that inexactness and hence is not helpful in explaining evidence and is in fact an impediment. Alternative haplotype matching probability approaches that various authors have considered are reviewed. Some are based on no model and cannot be taken seriously. For the others, some evaluation of the models is discussed. Recent evidence supports the adequacy of

  7. Block Matching for Object Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Gyaourova, A; Kamath, C; Cheung, S

    2003-10-13

    Models which describe road traffic patterns can be helpful in detection and/or prevention of uncommon and dangerous situations. Such models can be built by the use of motion detection algorithms applied to video data. Block matching is a standard technique for encoding motion in video compression algorithms. We explored the capabilities of the block matching algorithm when applied for object tracking. The goal of our experiments is two-fold: (1) to explore the abilities of the block matching algorithm on low resolution and low frame rate video and (2) to improve the motion detection performance by the use of different search techniques during the process of block matching. Our experiments showed that the block matching algorithm yields good object tracking results and can be used with high success on low resolution and low frame rate video data. We observed that different searching methods have small effect on the final results. In addition, we proposed a technique based on frame history, which successfully overcame false motion caused by small camera movements.

  8. The Kent Face Matching Test.

    PubMed

    Fysh, Matthew C; Bindemann, Markus

    2017-09-05

    This study presents the Kent Face Matching Test (KFMT), which comprises 200 same-identity and 20 different-identity pairs of unfamiliar faces. Each face pair consists of a photograph from a student ID card and a high-quality portrait that was taken at least three months later. The test is designed to complement existing resources for face-matching research, by providing a more ecologically valid stimulus set that captures the natural variability that can arise in a person's appearance over time. Two experiments are presented to demonstrate that the KFMT provides a challenging measure of face matching but correlates with established tests. Experiment 1 compares a short version of this test with the optimized Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT). In Experiment 2, a longer version of the KFMT, with infrequent identity mismatches, is correlated with performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and the Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT). The KFMT is freely available for use in face-matching research. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Matching illumination of solid objects.

    PubMed

    Pont, Sylvia C; Koenderink, Jan J

    2007-04-01

    The appearance of objects is determined by their surface reflectance and roughness and by the light field. Conversely, human observers might derive properties of the light field from the appearance of objects. The inverse problem has no unique solution, so perceptual interactions between reflectance, roughness, and lightfield are to be expected. In two separate experiments, we tested whether observers are able to match the illumination of spheres under collimated illumination only (matching of illumination direction) and under more or less diffuse illumination (matching of illumination direction and directedness of the beam). We found that observers are quite able to match collimated illumination directions of two rendered Lambertian spheres. Matching of the collimated beam directions of a Lambertian sphere and that of a real object with arbitrary reflectance and roughness properties resulted in similar results for the azimuthal angle, but in higher variance for the polar angle. Translucent objects and a tennis ball were found to be systematic outliers. If the directedness of the beam was also varied, the direction settings showed larger variance for more diffuse illumination. The directedness settings showed an overall quite large variance and, interestingly, interacted with the polar angle settings. We discuss possible photometrical mechanisms behind these effects.

  10. Matching faces with emotional expressions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenfeng; Lander, Karen; Liu, Chang Hong

    2011-01-01

    There is some evidence that faces with a happy expression are recognized better than faces with other expressions. However, little is known about whether this happy-face advantage also applies to perceptual face matching, and whether similar differences exist among other expressions. Using a sequential matching paradigm, we systematically compared the effects of seven basic facial expressions on identity recognition. Identity matching was quickest when a pair of faces had an identical happy/sad/neutral expression, poorer when they had a fearful/surprise/angry expression, and poorest when they had a disgust expression. Faces with a happy/sad/fear/surprise expression were matched faster than those with an anger/disgust expression when the second face in a pair had a neutral expression. These results demonstrate that effects of facial expression on identity recognition are not limited to happy-faces when a learned face is immediately tested. The results suggest different influences of expression in perceptual matching and long-term recognition memory.

  11. Ghost publications in the pediatric surgery match.

    PubMed

    Gasior, Alessandra C; Knott, E Marty; Fike, Frankie B; Moratello, Vincent E; St Peter, Shawn D; Ostlie, Daniel J; Snyder, Charles L

    2013-09-01

    Pediatric surgery fellowship is considered one of the most competitive subspecialties in medicine. With fierce competition increasing the stakes, publications and first authorship are paramount to the success rate of matching. We analyzed Electronic Residency Application Service applications for verification of authorship to determine rate of misrepresentation. After institutional review board approval, the bibliographies of fellowship applications from 2007-2009 were reviewed to allow time for publication. Only peer-reviewed journal articles were evaluated. A Medline search was conducted for the article, by author or by title. If the article could not be found, other authors and journal were used as search parameters. If the article was still not found, the website for the journal was searched for abstract or manuscript. Finally, an experienced medical sciences librarian was consulted for remaining unidentified articles. Differences between misrepresented and accurate applications were analyzed, including: age, gender, medical and undergraduate school parameters, advanced degrees, other fellowships, number of publications, first author publications, American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination scores, and match success. There were 147 applications reviewed. Evidence of misrepresentation was found in 17.6% of the applicants (24/136), with 34 instances in 785 manuscripts (4.3%). Manuscripts classified as published were verified 96.7% of the time, were not found in 1.4%, and had incorrect authors or journal in less than 1% each. "In press" manuscripts were verified 88.3% of the time, 6.4% could not be found, and 4.3% had an incorrect journal listing. Number of publications (P = 0.026) and first author publications (P = 0.037) correlated with misrepresentation. None of the remaining variables was significant. The pediatric surgical pool has a very low incidence of suspicious citations; however, authorship claims should be verified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc

  12. Path similarity skeleton graph matching.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiang; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a novel framework to for shape recognition based on object silhouettes. The main idea is to match skeleton graphs by comparing the shortest paths between skeleton endpoints. In contrast to typical tree or graph matching methods, we completely ignore the topological graph structure. Our approach is motivated by the fact that visually similar skeleton graphs may have completely different topological structures. The proposed comparison of shortest paths between endpoints of skeleton graphs yields correct matching results in such cases. The skeletons are pruned by contour partitioning with Discrete Curve Evolution, which implies that the endpoints of skeleton branches correspond to visual parts of the objects. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to produce correct results in the presence of articulations, stretching, and occlusion.

  13. Matching optics for Gaussian beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunter, William D. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A system of matching optics for Gaussian beams is described. The matching optics system is positioned between a light beam emitter (such as a laser) and the input optics of a second optics system whereby the output from the light beam emitter is converted into an optimum input for the succeeding parts of the second optical system. The matching optics arrangement includes the combination of a light beam emitter, such as a laser with a movable afocal lens pair (telescope) and a single movable lens placed in the laser's output beam. The single movable lens serves as an input to the telescope. If desired, a second lens, which may be fixed, is positioned in the beam before the adjustable lens to serve as an input processor to the movable lens. The system provides the ability to choose waist diameter and position independently and achieve the desired values with two simple adjustments not requiring iteration.

  14. [Physiotherapy for the elderly].

    PubMed

    Ongaro, G; Zwisler, C; Grob, D

    2001-08-01

    One of the main goals of physical therapeutic procedures in the elderly is the restoration or maintenance of functional autonomy in daily living activities. Whilst necessity for care and assistance in an aged population rises dramatically with age, physical therapy can efficiently reduce these needs. For an optimal therapeutic approach the therapists should take into account the particular characteristics of the ageing process as well as the predominant comorbidities, which should be correctly assessed in order to integrate those context factors into the rehabilitation program. This is only possible with a good functioning teamwork: The team should therefore include physicians, nurses, physiotherapists as well as social workers and other professionals. We describe here the theoretical basis of the particular aspects of physiotherapy for the elderly and we illustrate this approach exemplarily for falls prevention through resistance- and balance training.

  15. [Catatonia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yuhei; Odawara, Toshinari

    2013-10-01

    Catatonia is a syndrome characterized by mutism, stupor, immobility, negativism, posturing, stereotypy, and echophenomena. Not only patients with schizophrenia, but also patients with general medical disease, mood disorder, and substance-related disorder exhibit catatonia. In the patients with catatonia, it is recommended to examine whether they have a general medical disease. We present two catatonic elder patients. Case 1 exhibited catatonia with vascular dementia, and was revealed to have anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome. Case 2 exhibited catatonia with dementia with Lewy bodies, and was revealed to have Hashimoto's encephalopathy. The first recommended treatment for catatonia is benzodiazepines. In case of benzodiazepine resistance or malignant catatonia, it should be considered electroconvulsive therapy, but it needs to be carefully implemented for elder patients.

  16. [Suicide in the Elderly].

    PubMed

    Velásquez Suarez, Juliana María

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is a public health problem worldwide, with multiple features and risk factors. It has some common and unique trends in each phase across the lifespan. To review the medical literature related to suicide in the elderly, in order to determine the current status of this problem in the world, and especially in Colombia. Literature review. There is a high volume of articles about suicide in general, even in Colombia, with many papers describing the problem in a comprehensive manner, but there is a need for more studies and publications on the scope of this problem in the elderly. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Restless Legs Syndrome in a Nigerian Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Fawale, Michael B.; Ismaila, Isiaka Alani; Mustapha, Adekunle F.; Komolafe, Morenikeji A.; Adedeji, Tewogbade A.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is highest in the elderly in Caucasian populations; the prevalence of RLS in elderly Africans is not known. This study aimed at determining the frequency and associations of RLS in a Nigerian elderly population. Methods: The study population comprised of 633 consecutive elderly individuals aged 65–105 years attending the general outpatient clinic of the State Hospital, Ilesa, for minor complaints and routine check-up. The diagnosis of RLS was made using the 2003 minimal criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical data, including sleep duration, were also obtained. Results: Restless legs syndrome was found in 3.5% of the study population with a male-female ratio of 2:1. There was no significant age (p = 0.427) or gender (p = 0.178) influence on the prevalence of RLS except in the 75- to 84-year age group where there was significant male preponderance (p = 0.044). A strong independent association between RLS and sleep duration (OR, 3.229; 95% CI, 1.283–8.486; p = 0.013) and past history of head injury (OR, 4.691; 95% CI, 1.750–12.577; p = 0.002) was found. Conclusions: Our finding support previous reports of a possible lower prevalence of RLS in Africans. Restless legs syndrome independently increases the odds of habitual sleep curtailment in elderly individuals. Head injury may be a risk factor for future RLS; this requires further investigation as indirect evidence for a possible link between RLS and traumatic brain injury exists. Citation: Fawale MB, Ismaila IA, Mustapha AF, Komolafe MA, Adedeji TA. Restless legs syndrome in a Nigerian elderly population. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):965–972. PMID:27070251

  18. Frailty among elderly adults in a rural area of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çakmur, Hülya

    2015-04-30

    The elderly population is growing in Turkey, as it is worldwide. The average age of residents in rural areas of Turkey is relatively high and is gradually increasing. The purpose of this study is to summarize the fitness and frailty of elderly adults living in a rural area of Turkey characterized by a relatively low level of socioeconomic development. This study was designed as a prospective, cross-sectional study, and was conducted in a rural area of Kars Province. A total of 168 elderly adults (≥65 years old) from 12 central villages were included in the study. The Fried Frailty Criteria was used to assess the frailty of the participants. In addition to frailty, the physical, social, and mental status of elderly adults was examined. The prevalence of frailty in this rural area of Turkey was 7.1%.The study group ranged in age from 65 to 96 years (mean 72.70±7.73 years), and 53.6% were female. Among the elderly adult group, 84.3% had not completed elementary school, and 43.29% had a monthly income of ≤500 Turkish liras ($200). No significant relationship was identified between gender and frailty. There was a statistically significant relationship between frailty and older age, lower education level, lower economic level, co-morbidities, polypharmacy, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastric disease, arthritis, generalized pain, benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary incontinence, auditory impairment, impaired oral care, caregiver burden, impaired cognitive function, depression, or a lack of social support (social isolation). It is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the health status and needs of elderly adults in Turkey and the health problems of this population as well as to planning the development of public health and geriatric services based on regional needs.

  19. Exploring Relationship Between Spiritual Intelligence, Religiosity and Life Satisfaction Among Elderly Pakistani Muslims.

    PubMed

    Munawar, Khadeeja; Tariq, Omama

    2017-01-21

    This study is an effort to explore the relationship between spiritual intelligence, religiosity and life satisfaction in elderly Pakistani Muslims. A non-probability purposive sampling technique is utilized in order to recruit a sample of 100 elderly people (n = 50 men; n = 50 = women). Standardized questionnaires were used for collecting data. Data analysis was carried out using Pearson product-moment correlation analysis and independent sample t test. Findings revealed a significant correlation between spiritual intelligence, religiosity and life satisfaction among Pakistani elderly Muslim people. Gender differences were considered while conducting the study, and findings are valid for both male and female elderly Pakistani Muslims. Some findings of this study endorse findings of some previous studies, and it adds latest insights to the existing body of knowledge on the subject.

  20. Quality of Life and Its Factors in Korean Elderly With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Kang, Younhee; Lee, Eliza

    2017-06-01

    Based on the secondary data analysis, this study aimed to identify quality of life and factors that affect quality of life among Korean elderly with mild cognitive impairment. Demographic characteristics, physical factors, and psychosocial factors as well as quality of life of the elderly with mild cognitive impairment were comprehensively measured. The research subjects consisted of 348 home-resident elderly and their quality of life scores were relatively high at 29.86. Their quality of life varied according to education and gender, and instrumental activities of daily living (actual, latent), somatic symptoms, sleep quality, depression, and social support affected their quality of life. Depression and social support were predictors of quality of life. The most powerful predictor was depression (β = -.583, p < .001). To improve the quality of life among elderly with mild cognitive impairment, nursing interventions to alleviate depression and to enhance social support from family, friends, and relevant neighbors are needed.

  1. Asymmetries in Gender-Related Familiarity with Different Semantic Categories. Data from Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gainotti, Guido; Spinelli, Pietro; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Marra, Camillo

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms subsuming the brain organization of categories and the corresponding gender related asymmetries are controversial. Some authors believe that the brain organization of categories is innate, whereas other authors maintain that it is shaped by experience. According to these interpretations, gender-related asymmetries should respectively be inborn or result from the influence of social roles. In a previous study, assessing the familiarity of young students with different 'biological' and 'artefact' categories, we had observed no gender-related difference on any of these categories. Since these data could be due to the fact that our students belonged to a generation in which the traditional social roles have almost completely disappeared, we predicted that gender-related asymmetries should be found in older men and women. The familiarity of young and elderly men and women with various semantic categories was, therefore, studied presenting in the verbal and pictorial modality different kinds of living and artefact categories. Results confirmed the hypothesis, because elderly women showed a greater familiarity for flowers and elderly men for animals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis assuming that gender-related asymmetries for different semantic categories is due to the influence of gender-related social roles. PMID:23242352

  2. Asymmetries in gender-related familiarity with different semantic categories. Data from normal adults.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido; Spinelli, Pietro; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Marra, Camillo

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms subsuming the brain organization of categories and the corresponding gender related asymmetries are controversial. Some authors believe that the brain organization of categories is innate, whereas other authors maintain that it is shaped by experience. According to these interpretations, gender-related asymmetries should respectively be inborn or result from the influence of social roles. In a previous study, assessing the familiarity of young students with different 'biological' and 'artefact' categories, we had observed no gender-related difference on any of these categories. Since these data could be due to the fact that our students belonged to a generation in which the traditional social roles have almost completely disappeared, we predicted that gender-related asymmetries should be found in older men and women. The familiarity of young and elderly men and women with various semantic categories was, therefore, studied presenting in the verbal and pictorial modality different kinds of living and artefact categories. Results confirmed the hypothesis, because elderly women showed a greater familiarity for flowers and elderly men for animals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis assuming that gender-related asymmetries for different semantic categories is due to the influence of gender-related social roles.

  3. Evaluation of diet quality of the elderly and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Pinto de Souza Fernandes, Dalila; Duarte, Maria Sônia Lopes; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz

    2017-09-01

    Observational studies suggest healthy dietary patterns are associated with risk reduction and better control of various chronic diseases. However, few Brazilian studies have focused on evaluating the quality of the elderly diet and its relationship with diseases. This study aimed to estimate the association between diet quality and socioeconomic factors, health and nutrition of the elderly. This is a cross-sectional population-based study whose target population were non-institutionalized elderly residents in the city of Viçosa, Brazil. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, health conditions, lifestyle and food consumption variables were obtained from a semi-structured questionnaire. The quality of the diet was assessed by the revised Healthy Eating Index classified into tertiles, considering the first tertile as "Poor diet quality," the second as 'Intermediate diet quality' and the third as "Better diet quality." To identify factors independently associated with diet quality model, the works used multinomial logistic regression. In the results of the multivariate analysis, the factors independently associated with "better diet quality" included female gender, higher education, history of one to five medical visits in the past year, history of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and the use of polypharmacy. Our results show that most seniors need to improve the quality of their diet and those of male gender with no or little education, and those who do not seek medical services constitute the group that needs attention concerning the measures to improve the quality of their diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical self-concept and physical fitness in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Amesberger, G; Finkenzeller, T; Würth, S; Müller, E

    2011-08-01

    This investigation examined the relations between physical self-concept and physical fitness (endurance, balance, muscle strength, muscle power) for gaining knowledge about the interrelationship between subjective ratings and objective fitness scores in the elderly in three steps: (1) detecting correlations and changes in time, (2) clarifying the influence of gender, and (3) of a skiing intervention lasting 12 weeks. Physical self-concept was assessed using a modified version of the Physical Self-Concepts (PSK) scales (Stiller et al., 2004) reflecting three first-order factors (endurance, strength, general sportiness) and one second-order factor (global fitness). Objective fitness scores were obtained by VO(2 max), counter movement jump, concentric muscle strength, and static balance. The results reveal that elderly individuals' global physical self and general sportiness are mainly linked to VO(2 max) and concentric muscle strength. Global physical self is predicted by VO(2 max) in females and by physical strength (concentric muscle strength) in males, indicating gender differences. Over time, correlations between subjective ratings and objective fitness scores become stronger in the sense of convergent validity in the skiing intervention group, whereas convergent and divergent validity cannot be supported by data of the control group. In sum, physical self-concept is an important factor in the context of physical intervention programs in the elderly. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Patterns of Gender Development

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive theory of gender development must describe and explain long-term developmental patterning and changes and how gender is experienced in the short term. This review considers multiple views on gender patterning, illustrated with contemporary research. First, because developmental research involves understanding normative patterns of change with age, several theoretically important topics illustrate gender development: how children come to recognize gender distinctions and understand stereotypes, and the emergence of prejudice and sexism. Second, developmental researchers study the stability of individual differences over time, which elucidates developmental processes. We review stability in two domains—sex segregation and activities/interests. Finally, a new approach advances understanding of developmental patterns, based on dynamic systems theory. Dynamic systems theory is a metatheoretical framework for studying stability and change, which developed from the study of complex and nonlinear systems in physics and mathematics. Some major features and examples show how dynamic approaches have been and could be applied in studying gender development. PMID:19575615

  6. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  7. Memristor-based pattern matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimo, Martin; Such, Ondrej; Skvarek, Ondrej; Fratrik, Milan

    2014-10-01

    Pattern matching is a machine learning area that requires high-performance hardware. It has been hypothesized that massively parallel designs, which avoid von Neumann architecture, could provide a significant performance boost. Such designs can advantageously use memristive switches. This paper discusses a two-stage design that implements the induced ordered weighted average (IOWA) method for pattern matching. We outline the circuit structure and discuss how a functioning circuit can be achieved using metal oxide devices. We describe our simulations of memristive circuits and illustrate their performance on a vowel classification task.

  8. The beauty of match play.

    PubMed

    Clark, Russell D

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated whether higher seeded players have an advanage in the only match play event on the PGA Tour. Analysis showed that the higher seeded won 54% of the time (p=.06); the correlation was .17 (p<.01) between higher seeded players winning and the difference in World Rankings between players. Given professional golfers are at the highest end of the distribution of golf ability, these players are so nearly equal in ability, it is mainly a matter of chance who will win a match play event or who will have the best round on any given day.

  9. Rethinking the Match: A Proposal for Modern Match-Making.

    PubMed

    Ray, Chris; Bishop, Steven E; Dow, Alan W

    2017-06-27

    Since the 1950s, the National Resident Matching Program, or "the Match," has governed the placement of medical students into residencies. The Match was created to protect students in an era when residency positions outnumbered applicants and hospitals pressured students early in their academic careers to commit to a residency position. Now, however, applicants outnumber positions, applicants are applying to increasing numbers of programs, and the costs of the Match for applicants and programs are high. Meanwhile, medical education is evolving toward a competency-based approach, a U.S. physician shortage is predicted, and some researchers describe a "July effect"-worse clinical outcomes correlated with the mass entry of new residents.Against this background, the authors argue for adopting a more modern, free-market approach to residency match-making that might better suit the needs of applicants, programs, and the public. They propose allowing students who have been identified by their medical schools as having achieved graduation-level competency to apply to residency programs at any point during the year. Residency programs would set their own application timetables and extend offers in an ongoing fashion. Students, counseled by their schools, would accept or decline offers as desired. The authors argue this approach would better support competency-based education while allowing applicants and programs more choice regarding how they engage and adapt within the selection process. The approach's staggered start times for new residents might attenuate the July effect and improve outcomes for patients. Medical students might also enter and thereby complete residency earlier, increasing the physician workforce.

  10. Elder abuse: a review.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, K C

    1997-10-01

    Elder abuse exists in many forms: physical, emotional, financial, and sexual; neglect; and self-neglect. As many as 2.5 million older people are abused each year, and the number of cases will likely increase as this population grows. Elder abuse receives less attention than other forms of domestic violence, and fewer than 10% of cases are reported. Although all states have legislation addressing elder abuse, financial support for evaluation and protective services is lacking. Most states have mandatory reporting; however, it may infringe on the autonomy of competent geriatric individuals. Physicians infrequently report elder abuse because they are not familiar with reporting laws, fear offending patients, are concerned with time limitations, and believe they do not have appropriate evaluation skills. Victims often have low self-esteem, blame themselves for the abuse, and do not want to admit their vulnerabilities or betray their families. The "caregiver stress hypothesis," which suggests abuse stems from caregiver stress and resentment resulting from chronic care of dependent geriatric patients, is a misconception. Abuse is actually better correlated with the emotional and financial dependence of the caregivers on the geriatric victims. Older patients are most commonly abused by the people with whom they live. Older men and women have similar per capita abuse rates. Assessment and management should be supportive without assigning blame and should focus on both the patient and the caregiver. Patients in immediate danger should be hospitalized or placed in emergency shelters. Suspected abuse should be reported directly to the appropriate state agency, which can provide a thorough long-term assessment.

  11. Obesity and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rising progressively, even among older age groups. By the year 2030 to 2035 over 20% of the adult US population and over 25% of the Europeans will be aged 65 years or older. The predicted prevalence of obesity in Americans, 60 years and older was 37% in 2010. The predicted prevalence of obesity in Europe in 2015 varies between 20% and 30% dependent on the model used. This means 20.9 million obese 60 years or older people in the United States in 2010 and 32 million obese elders in 2015 in EU. Although cutoff values of body mass index, waist circumference, and percentages of fat mass have not been defined for the elderly, it is clear from several meta-analyses that mortality and morbidity associated with overweight and obesity only increases at a body mass index >30 kg/m(2). Thus, treatment should only be offered to patients who are obese rather than overweight and who have functional impairments, metabolic complications, or obesity-related diseases, that can benefit from weight loss. The weight loss therapy should minimize muscle and bone loss and vigilance as regards the development of sarcopenic obesity--a combination of an unhealthy excess of body fat with a detrimental loss of muscle and fat-free mass including bone--is important. Lifestyle intervention should be the first step and consists of a diet with a 500 kcal energy deficit and an adequate intake of protein of high biological quality, together with calcium and vitamin D, behavioral therapy, and multicomponent exercise. Multicomponent exercise includes flexibility training, balance training, aerobic exercise, and resistance training. The adherence rate in most studies is around 75%. Knowledge of constraints and modulators of physical inactivity should be of help to engage the elderly in physical activity. The role of pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery in the elderly is largely unknown as in most studies people aged 65 years and older were excluded.

  12. Therapeutic Issues with Transgender Elders.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Lynne

    2017-03-01

    Research demonstrates that transgender and nonconforming (TGNC) elders face social isolation and discrimination in policies and practices in mental and health care settings. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with practical input about therapeutic issues and interventions for use with TGNC elders. A case vignette describes the challenges and rewards of therapy with an elder trans woman. Her story illustrates the complex interplay between age, life phase, and sociocultural and historical contexts. Recommendations regarding research, practice, and advocacy are offered.

  13. [Factors affecting subjective satisfaction with verbal communication among the disabled elderly and their family caregivers].

    PubMed

    Miura, Hiroko; Arai, Yumiko; Yamasaki, Kiyoko

    2005-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate satisfaction with verbal communication among the disabled elderly and their family caregivers; and to find the significantly influential factors of satisfaction with verbal communication. The subjects were 85 disabled elderly and 85 family caregivers. For the disabled elderly, satisfaction with verbal communication, demographic, and physical factors were examined using an interview survey. For the caregivers, satisfaction with verbal communication, demographic factors, and some factors related caregiving were examined using a self-administered questionnaire. In the disabled elderly, 82.4% were satisfied with their verbal communication while 55.3% of family caregivers were satisfied. Satisfaction with verbal communication between the disabled elderly and their caregivers showed low agreement (kappa = 0.17). Bivariate analysis revealed that satisfaction with verbal communication of the disabled elderly was significantly related to ADL (p < 0.01), dysphagia risk (p < 0.05), and ability of comprehension (p < 0.05) while satisfaction with verbal communication of caregivers was significantly related to the gender of the disabled elderly and caregivers' burden. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that the factor most related to satisfaction with verbal communication for the disabled elderly was ability of comprehension (p value = 0.032, odds ratio = 2.960), and the most related factor for their caregivers was the burden evaluated by J-ZBI_8 (p value = 0.004, odds ratio = 0.842). These results suggest that satisfaction with verbal communication of the disabled elderly disagrees with that of the family caregivers, and that some related factors for the disabled elderly are different from those in their family caregivers.

  14. The ED use and non-urgent visits of elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Gulacti, Umut; Lok, Ugur; Celik, Murat; Aktas, Nurettin; Polat, Haci

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the use of the emergency department (ED) by elderly patients, their non-urgent visits and the prevalence of main disease for ED visits. This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients aged 65 years and over who visited the ED of a tertiary care university hospital in Turkey between January 2015 and January 2016 retrospectively. A total of 36,369 elderly patients who visited the ED were included in the study. The rate of ED visits by elderly patients was higher than their representation within the general population (p < 0.001). While the rate of elderly patients visiting polyclinics was 15.8%, the rate of elderly patients visiting the ED was 24.3% (p < 0.001). For both genders, the rates of ED visits for patients between 65 and 74 years old was higher than for other elderly age groups (p < 0.001). The prevalence of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) was the highest within the elderly population (17.5%, CI: 17.1-17.9). The proportion of ED visits for non-urgent conditions was 23.4%. Most of the ED visits were during the non-business hours (51.1%), and they were highest in the winter season (25.9%) and in January (10.2%). The hospitalization rate was 9.4%, and 37.9% of hospitalized patients were admitted to intensive care units. The proportion of ED visits by elderly patients was higher than their representation within the general population. Elderly patients often visited the ED instead of a polyclinic. The rate of inappropriate ED use by elderly patients in this hospital was higher than in other countries.

  15. [Sleep in elderly].

    PubMed

    Rafrafi, Rym; Ben Romdhane, Imene; Elkateb, Malek; Bram, Nesrine

    2013-02-01

    Sleep disorders in the elderly are common. However, they are often under diagnosed and poorly supported. To study the characteristics of sleep in the elderly consultant at the front line. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of fifty persons aged 65 years and over, consultant in the center of basic health of Ezzahra and in a private practice in the same delegation. The sleep efficiency index was 0.85. Nighttime awakenings were present in 44 persons (88%). Unexplained late night awakening was reported by 19 subjects (38%). Among the respondents, 40 (80%) were considered to have at least one sleep disorder. The subjective complaint of insomnia was present in 70% of subjects. Excessive daytime sleepiness and/or hypersomnia were present in 70% of subjects. Nocturnal snoring was reported by 22 persons (44%). Nine subjects (18%) had respiratory pauses during sleep. Despite the high incidence of sleep disorder among the respondents, only 6 persons (15%) among them consulted their General Practitioner for this reason. Among patients with sleep disorder, 14 persons (40%) were taking hypnotics, from which 6 (43%) by self-medication. Sleep disorders in the elderly as well as self-medication with hypnotics are common and under diagnosed. They should be sought systematically in front-line consultation.

  16. Epilepsy in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Werhahn, Konrad J

    2009-02-01

    Epilepsy is the third most common disease affecting the brain in the elderly. Current demographic trends will lead to an increased prevalence of epilepsy in the general population. A selective literature search revealed 102 relevant publications as of September 2008, 50 of which were original articles. The level of evidence was found to be very low. No guidelines, systematic reviews or meta-analyses are available, and there have been only three randomized, double-blind trials of treatment for epilepsy in the elderly. The seizures often escape clinical attention, because premonitory symptoms (aura) and secondary generalization into tonic-clonic seizures are both rarer in older patients. On the other hand, sudden loss of consciousness from various causes becomes more common with increasing age, presenting a challenge in differential diagnosis. Treatment is often more complex because of comorbidities and multiple other drugs, and requires a cautious approach. Drug interactions, in particular, require special attention. On the positive side, epileptic seizures in the elderly seem to be more easily controlled by medications than they are in young adults. Epilepsy is often more difficult to recognize in old age. The treatment is hampered by side effects and drug interactions. Thus, certainty about the diagnosis is indispensable, and the treatment often requires the use of newer-generation antiepileptic drugs.

  17. Evaluation of the elderly driver.

    PubMed

    Craig, Kevin W; Zweig, Steven C

    2007-01-01

    Driving is a daily activity for people across the country. Most Americans, including the elderly, consider it a right. Driving, however, is dangerous and can become more challenging as people age. While evaluating the elderly driver is not a simple task, it is a responsibility that must be shared by Missouri physicians. This paper describes the epidemiology of this problem, common mistakes made by elderly drivers, risk factors that can cause unsafe driving, and strategies physicians can use to evaluate their elderly patients' ability to drive.

  18. A matched-pair longitudinal study on the relationship between maternal smoking and head circumference of newborns.

    PubMed

    Miyao, M; Furuta, M; Matsushita, Y; Ogiso, M; Ishihara, S; Teo, P C

    1995-02-01

    The relationship between maternal smoking and the head circumference of newborns were analyzed using a matched-pair longitudinal method. For the study, data was collected from Japanese primiparas in Aichi, Japan. Forty-seven smoking and nonsmoking mothers were matched using multivariate caliper matching for birth weight and gender for their newborns, and gestational period and age for the gravidas. Significantly smaller head circumferences of the newborns from the smoking mothers were observed.

  19. Stereotypes of the elderly in U.S. television commercials from the 1950s to the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Miller, Darryl W; Leyell, Teresita S; Mazachek, Juliann

    2004-01-01

    Critics have charged that American advertisers have often portrayed the elderly with negative stereotypes. These negative portrayals, they suggest, not only offend elderly consumers but also contribute to ageism. This study examined whether American advertisers have indeed used a great deal of negative stereotyping of the elderly, as the critics have suggested. Employing a concept of stereotypes found in cognitive psychology, the authors examined trends in the portrayal of the elderly in television commercials produced in the United States from the 1950s through the 1990s. Results of the study do not support the contentions of the critics. Very little negative stereotyping was discovered. Analysis indicated trends in the appearance of several positive stereotypes, and differences in the stereotyping of gender groups and age segments within the elderly group. Results are interpreted from both marketing and social science perspectives.

  20. Cough physiology in elderly women with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung infections.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsiu-Wen; Fennelly, Kevin; Wheeler-Hegland, Karen; Adams, Sherry; Condrey, Jillian; Hosford, Jennifer L; Davenport, Paul W

    2017-05-01

    Elderly white, thin, nonsmoking women appear to be more susceptible to lung infections with Mycobacterium avium complex and other nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It has been postulated that such disease in women is related to suppression of their cough. We hypothesized that patients with pulmonary NTM (pNTM) infections may have altered cough physiology compared with unaffected control subjects. We used capsaicin-induced cough to assess the cough reflex in pNTM subjects. Eight elderly white women with stable chronic pNTM infections and six unaffected age-matched control subjects were recruited. There was no significant difference between groups in capsaicin-elicited cough motor response, airflow pattern, or cough frequency. The urge-to-cough (UTC) score at the lowest capsaicin concentration was significantly lower in pNTM than control subjects (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the UTC score between pNTM and control subjects at >50 μM capsaicin. These results suggest lower UTC sensitivity to the lowest concentration of capsaicin in pNTM than control subjects. In other words, the pNTM subjects do not sense a UTC when the stimulus is relatively small.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study investigates the cough motor response and cough sensitivity in patients with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. In elderly white female pulmonary NTM subjects, we demonstrated a capacity to produce coughs similar to that of age-matched control subjects but decreased cough sensitivity in response to a low dose of capsaicin compared with control subjects. These findings are important to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms resulting in NTM disease in elderly white women and/or the syndrome developing in elderly white female NTM patients. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.