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Sample records for gender specific brood

  1. Role of anxiety and brooding in specificity of autobiographical recall.

    PubMed

    Ricarte, Jorge Javier; Ros, Laura; Latorre, Jose Miguel; Muñoz, Maria Dolores; Aguilar, Maria Jose; Hernandez, Jose Vicente

    2016-12-01

    Overgeneral schemas and lack of autobiographical memory (AM) specificity about our past experiences can predict mood disturbance. Rumination, functional avoidance and executive processes are the main explanatory variables of such overgenerality. However, in non-clinical samples, rumination predicts overgenerality most consistently after the induction of dysphoric mood. Anxiety also activates rumination. Furthermore, anxiety predicts memory performance and has effects on mood which are independent of the effects of rumination. So, what might be the role of anxiety in autobiographical memory performance? A sample of 210 voluntary participants reported measures of autobiographical memory, anxiety, rumination (brooding and reflection), functional avoidance and executive functions (semantic and phonetic verbal fluency task). Autobiographical performance (specificity) was negatively associated with brooding and age and positively with phonetic verbal fluency but not with functional avoidance and anxiety. However, anxiety and brooding were positively correlated even after controlling for depression scores. Moreover, using structural equation modeling, anxiety showed a significant indirect effect on autobiographical specificity through brooding rumination. These results suggest a possible association of anxiety with autobiographical recall through brooding rumination.

  2. Specific Cues Associated With Honey Bee Social Defence against Varroa destructor Infested Brood

    PubMed Central

    Mondet, Fanny; Kim, Seo Hyun; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Mercer, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    Social immunity forms an essential part of the defence repertoire of social insects. In response to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its associated viruses, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have developed a specific behaviour (varroa-sensitive hygiene, or VSH) that helps protect the colony from this parasite. Brood cells heavily infested with mites are uncapped, the brood killed, and the cell contents removed. For this extreme sacrifice to be beneficial to the colony, the targeting of parasitized brood for removal must be accurate and selective. Here we show that varroa-infested brood produce uniquely identifiable cues that could be used by VSH-performing bees to identify with high specificity which brood cells to sacrifice. This selective elimination of mite-infested brood is a disease resistance strategy analogous to programmed cell death, where young bees likely to be highly dysfunctional as adults are sacrificed for the greater good of the colony. PMID:27140530

  3. Age-specific responses to spring temperature in a migratory songbird: older females attempt more broods in warmer springs

    PubMed Central

    Bulluck, L; Huber, S; Viverette, C; Blem, C

    2013-01-01

    Increasing global temperature has led to an interest in plasticity in the timing of annual events; however, little is known about the demographic consequences of changing phenology. Annual reproductive success varies significantly among individuals within a population, and some of that variation has to do with the number of broods attempted by reproducing adults. In birds, female age and the timing of reproduction are often predictors of multiple breeding. We hypothesize that double brooding rates may be affected by spring temperature and that the response may vary with female age. We used a long-term reproductive data set for a migratory songbird, the prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) to assess which factors influence (a) an individual female's probability of double brooding and (b) the annual variation in population-level double brooding rates. We found that older and earlier nesting birds are more likely to double brood, and that there is no evidence for senescence with regard to this trait such that the oldest females were most likely to double brood. Previous experience with double brooding (i.e., whether the female double brooded in the previous year) significantly increased the probability of doing so again. When assessing annual variation in the double brooding rate, we found an interaction between spring temperature and the proportion of older females in the population. Specifically, older females are more likely to double brood in years with warmer springs, but this relationship was not seen for younger females. Previous studies have shown that warmer temperatures lead to earlier and narrower peaks in resources and we hypothesize that these peaks are more available to older and earlier arriving females, enabling them to successfully raise more than one brood in a season. Understanding how different age classes respond to changing environmental conditions will be imperative to managing declining species. PMID:24223269

  4. Brooding Rumination and Internalizing Symptoms in Childhood: Investigating Symptom Specificity in a Multi-Wave Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Cristina M; Felton, Julia W; Driscoll, Kimberly A; Kistner, Janet A

    2012-01-01

    Specificity of brooding rumination as a cognitive vulnerability for anxiety and depression was examined using the tripartite theory as a framework. The three factors of the tripartite theory (negative affect, positive affect, and physiological hyperarousal) were included in the same structural equation model (latent growth curves) to test three competing hypotheses: brooding rumination as a depression-specific vulnerability (i.e., brooding uniquely predicts shared negative affect + specific positive affect), anxiety-specific vulnerability (i.e., brooding predicts shared negative affect + specific physiological hyperarousal), or shared risk vulnerability (i.e., brooding predicts negative affect, the shared tripartite component common to both anxiety and depression). Data from children in 2nd through 7th grades (N = 303) were collected in three waves over two years. Results revealed brooding to be uniquely associated with initial levels of negative affect and physiological hyperarousal, thus providing support for the anxiety-specific vulnerability. Results from the multigroup analysis confirmed that the relationship among these variables did not differ across sex. Longitudinal associations between brooding and the tripartite factors are also discussed.

  5. Effects of Experimental Brood Size Manipulation and Gender on Carotenoid Levels of Eurasian Kestrels Falco tinnunculus

    PubMed Central

    Laaksonen, Toni; Negro, Juan J.; Lyytinen, Sami; Valkama, Jari; Ots, Indrek; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    Background Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. Methodology To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). Principal Findings Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal) on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. Significance These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood. PMID:18545646

  6. Ancient host specificity within a single species of brood parasitic bird

    PubMed Central

    Spottiswoode, Claire N.; Stryjewski, Katherine Faust; Quader, Suhel; Colebrook-Robjent, John F. R.; Sorenson, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Parasites that exploit multiple hosts often experience diversifying selection for host-specific adaptations. This can result in multiple strains of host specialists coexisting within a single parasitic species. A long-standing conundrum is how such sympatric host races can be maintained within a single parasitic species in the face of interbreeding among conspecifics specializing on different hosts. Striking examples are seen in certain avian brood parasites such as cuckoos, many of which show host-specific differentiation in traits such as host egg mimicry. Exploiting a Zambian egg collection amassed over several decades and supplemented by recent fieldwork, we show that the brood parasitic Greater Honeyguide Indicator indicator exhibits host-specific differentiation in both egg size and egg shape. Genetic analysis of honeyguide eggs and chicks show that two highly divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages are associated with ground- and tree-nesting hosts, respectively, indicating perfect fidelity to two mutually exclusive sets of host species for millions of years. Despite their age and apparent adaptive diversification, however, these ancient lineages are not cryptic species; a complete lack of differentiation in nuclear genes shows that mating between individuals reared by different hosts is sufficiently frequent to prevent speciation. These results indicate that host specificity is maternally inherited, that host-specific adaptation among conspecifics can be maintained without reproductive isolation, and that host specificity can be remarkably ancient in evolutionary terms. PMID:21949391

  7. Ancient host specificity within a single species of brood parasitic bird.

    PubMed

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stryjewski, Katherine Faust; Quader, Suhel; Colebrook-Robjent, John F R; Sorenson, Michael D

    2011-10-25

    Parasites that exploit multiple hosts often experience diversifying selection for host-specific adaptations. This can result in multiple strains of host specialists coexisting within a single parasitic species. A long-standing conundrum is how such sympatric host races can be maintained within a single parasitic species in the face of interbreeding among conspecifics specializing on different hosts. Striking examples are seen in certain avian brood parasites such as cuckoos, many of which show host-specific differentiation in traits such as host egg mimicry. Exploiting a Zambian egg collection amassed over several decades and supplemented by recent fieldwork, we show that the brood parasitic Greater Honeyguide Indicator indicator exhibits host-specific differentiation in both egg size and egg shape. Genetic analysis of honeyguide eggs and chicks show that two highly divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages are associated with ground- and tree-nesting hosts, respectively, indicating perfect fidelity to two mutually exclusive sets of host species for millions of years. Despite their age and apparent adaptive diversification, however, these ancient lineages are not cryptic species; a complete lack of differentiation in nuclear genes shows that mating between individuals reared by different hosts is sufficiently frequent to prevent speciation. These results indicate that host specificity is maternally inherited, that host-specific adaptation among conspecifics can be maintained without reproductive isolation, and that host specificity can be remarkably ancient in evolutionary terms.

  8. Sex-specific effects of altered competition on nestling growth and survival: an experimental manipulation of brood size and sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Nicolaus, Marion; Michler, Stephanie P M; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2009-03-01

    1. An increase of competition among adults or nestlings usually negatively affects breeding output. Yet little is known about the differential effects that competition has on the offspring sexes. This could be important because it may influence parental reproductive decisions. 2. In sexual size dimorphic species, two main contradictory mechanisms are proposed regarding sex-specific effects of competition on nestling performance assuming that parents do not feed their chicks differentially: (i) the larger sex requires more resources to grow and is more sensitive to a deterioration of the rearing conditions ('costly sex hypothesis'); (ii) the larger sex has a competitive advantage in intra-brood competition and performs better under adverse conditions ('competitive advantage hypothesis'). 3. In the present study, we manipulated the level of sex-specific sibling competition in a great tit population (Parus major) by altering simultaneously the brood size and the brood sex ratio on two levels: the nest (competition for food among nestlings) and the woodlot where the parents breed (competition for food among adults). We investigated whether altered competition during the nestling phase affected nestling growth traits and survival in the nest and whether the effects differed between males, the larger sex, and females. 4. We found a strong negative and sex-specific effect of experimental brood size on all the nestling traits. In enlarged broods, sexual size dimorphism was smaller which may have resulted from biased mortality towards the less competitive individuals i.e. females of low condition. No effect of brood sex ratio on nestling growth traits was found. 5. Negative brood size effects on nestling traits were stronger in natural high-density areas but we could not confirm this experimentally. 6. Our results did not support the 'costly sex hypothesis' because males did not suffer from higher mortality under harsh conditions. The 'competitive advantage hypothesis' was

  9. Reproductive-tactic-specific variation in sperm swimming speeds in a shell-brooding cichlid.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Desjardins, J K; Milligan, N; Montgomerie, R; Balshine, S

    2007-08-01

    Theory predicts that males experiencing elevated levels of sperm competition will invest more in gonads and produce faster-swimming sperm. Although there is ample evidence in support of the first prediction, few studies have examined sperm swimming speed in relation to sperm competition. In this study, we tested these predictions from sperm competition theory by examining sperm characteristics in Telmatochromis vittatus, a small shell-brooding cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Males exhibit four different reproductive tactics: pirate, territorial, satellite, and sneaker. Pirate males temporarily displace all other competing males from a shell nest, whereas sneaker males always release sperm in the presence of territorial and satellite males. Due to the fact that sneakers spawn in the presence of another male, sneakers face the highest levels of sperm competition and pirates the lowest, whereas satellites and territorials experience intermediate levels. In accordance with predictions, sperm from sneakers swam faster than sperm from males adopting the other reproductive tactics, whereas sperm from pirates was slowest. Interestingly, we were unable to detect any variation in sperm tail length among these reproductive tactics. Thus, sperm competition appears to have influenced sperm energetics in this species without having any influence on sperm size.

  10. Emergency Medicine Gender-specific Education.

    PubMed

    Ashurst, John V; McGregor, Alyson J; Safdar, Basmah; Weaver, Kevin R; Quinn, Shawn M; Rosenau, Alex M; Goyke, Terrence E; Roth, Kevin R; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference has taken the first step in identifying gender-specific care as an area of importance to both emergency medicine (EM) and research. To improve patient care, we need to address educational gaps in this area concurrent with research gaps. In this article, the authors highlight the need for sex- and gender-specific education in EM and propose guidelines for medical student, resident, and faculty education. Specific examples of incorporating this content into grand rounds, simulation, bedside teaching, and journal club sessions are reviewed. Future challenges and strategies to fill the gaps in the current education model are also described.

  11. Curious Genders: Gender Specific Obstacles in Exploration and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanshaw-King; Shari

    2004-01-01

    Does one sex explore more than the other? Is one sex more curious than the other? That's a tough question to answer definitively. We know that we explore in varying degrees. Whether sociological or biological, good or bad, this investigation attempts to determine if there are substantive differences in acting upon inquisitiveness between genders.…

  12. Interspecific brood parasitism in blackbirds (Icterinae): a phylogenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, S M

    1992-01-03

    An 852-base pair region of the cytochrome-b gene was sequenced for the brood parasitic cowbirds and 20 additional taxa of the New World blackbirds (Icterinae). The goal of the study was to determine (i) whether interspecific brood parasitism is multiply derived within the assemblage and (ii) the nature of the evolutionary transformation between various forms of interspecific brood parasitism. Cladistic analysis of the sequence data indicates that brood parasitism evolved a single time within the Icterinae. The primitive form of interspecific brood parasitism in this assemblage is host-specificity, with host-generality representing the derived condition.

  13. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Moll, Kristina; Kunze, Sarah; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  14. Bird brood parasitism.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin

    2013-10-21

    For many animals, the effort to rear their young is considerable. In birds, this often includes building nests, incubating eggs, feeding the chicks, and protecting them from predators. Perhaps for this reason, about 1% of birds (around 100 species) save themselves the effort and cheat instead. They are obligate brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other species and leaving the hosts or foster parents to rear the foreign chicks for them. Some birds also cheat on individuals of the same species (intraspecific brood parasitism). Intraspecific brood parasitism has been reported in around 200 species, but is likely to be higher, as it can often only be detected by genetic analyses.

  15. Constructing the 'gender-specific body': A critical discourse analysis of publications in the field of gender-specific medicine.

    PubMed

    Annandale, Ellen; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-11-01

    Gender-specific medicine, a new and increasingly influential ethos within medical research and practice, has received little critical attention to date. The objective of this article is to critically examine the attributes of gender-specific medicine as imparted by its advocates. Through a critical discourse analysis of its two leading academic journals, we identify five interrelated discourses: of male/female difference; of hegemonic biology; of men's disadvantages; of biological and social reductionism; and of the fragmented body. Together these comprise a master discourse of the 'gender-specific body'. The discourse of the 'gender-specific body' is discussed in relation to the current neoliberal political agenda which frames healthcare as a market good and locates health and illness in individual bodies rather than in the wider social arrangements of society. We argue that the 'gender-specific body' threatens not only to turn back the clock to a vision of the biological body as fixed and determinate, but to extend this ever deeper into the social imagination. Lost in the process is any meaningful sense of the human body as a relatively open system which develops in interaction with its social world. We propose that, as it gains momentum, the 'gender-specific body' is likely progressively to circumscribe our thinking about the health of women and men in potentially problematic ways.

  16. No clinical benefit of gender-specific total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chen; Wang, Jiaxing; Cheng, Mengqi; Peng, Xiaochun; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose There is no consensus regarding the clinical relevance of gender-specific prostheses in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We summarize the current best evidence in a comparison of clinical and radiographic outcomes between gender-specific prostheses and standard unisex prostheses in female patients. Methods We used the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Science Citation Index, and Scopus databases. We included randomized controlled trials published up to January 2013 that compared gender-specific prostheses with standard unisex prostheses in female patients who underwent primary TKAs. Results 6 trials involving 423 patients with 846 knee joints met the inclusion criteria. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 designs regarding pain, range of motion (ROM), knee scores, satisfaction, preference, complications, and radiographic results. The gender-specific design (Gender Solutions; Zimmer Inc, Warsaw, Indiana) reduced the prevalence of overhang. However, it had less overall coverage of the femoral condyles compared to the unisex group. In fact, the femoral prosthesis in the standard unisex group matched better than that in the gender-specific group. Interpretation Gender-specific prostheses do not appear to confer any benefit in terms of clinician- and patient-reported outcomes for the female knee. PMID:24954488

  17. Willems II. Non-gender-specific dental maturity scores.

    PubMed

    Willems, G; Thevissen, P W; Belmans, A; Liversidge, H M

    2010-09-10

    Demirjian's dental maturity scoring system has been adapted for a Belgian Caucasian population for males and females. The purpose of this study was to adapt Demirjian's dental maturity scoring system from a Belgian Caucasian population to provide non-gender-specific scores. We selected 2116 orthopantomograms of 1029 boys and 1087 girls aged 3-16 years. A weighted ANOVA was performed in order to adapt the scoring system for this Belgian population. A second test sample of 273 orthopantomograms of individuals with immature dentitions aged 3-16 years was used to evaluate the accuracy of the original method, gender-specific scores and non-gender-specific scores of the adapted method. Mean/median difference between dental age and real age was calculated as well as other measures of accuracy. The adapted scoring system resulted in new age scores expressed in years and in a higher accuracy compared to the original method in Belgian Caucasians.

  18. Declining Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) populations are associated with landscape-specific reductions in brood parasitism and increases in songbird productivity.

    PubMed

    Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Root, Brian; Faaborg, John

    2012-01-01

    Many songbird species have experienced significant population declines, partly because of brood parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), which is positively associated with increasing landscape forest cover in the midwestern United States. However, cowbirds are also experiencing long-term population declines, which should reduce parasitism pressure and thus increase productivity of host species. We used 20 years of nest monitoring data from five sites in Missouri across a gradient of landscape forest cover to assess temporal trends in the rate and intensity of brood parasitism for Acadian Flycatchers (Empidonax virescens), Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea), and Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). We evaluated whether there were concomitant changes in fledging brood size, nest survival, a combination of the two metrics (i.e., host young produced per nest attempt), and whether such changes were more substantial with decreasing landscape forest cover. Parasitism rates and intensities declined substantially during 1991-2010. Fledging brood size and nest survival rates were positively associated with landscape forest cover, confirming the fragmentation hypothesis for Midwest forest birds. Declining parasitism rates were associated with increased fledging brood sizes, with more pronounced increases as landscape forest cover decreased. Nest survival increased insubstantially across time during laying and incubation, but not during the nestling stage. The best predictor of nest survival was parasitism status, with parasitized nests surviving at lower rates than unparasitized nests. Overall, productivity increased during 1991-2010, with more pronounced increases associated with lower levels of landscape forest cover. The negative effects of cowbirds on nest survival in addition to fledging brood size in less forested landscapes suggest that cowbirds may be a primary cause of forest fragmentation effects on songbird productivity in the Midwest. Our

  19. Smoking among Dutch Elementary Schoolchildren: Gender-Specific Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausems, M.; Mesters, I.; van Breukelen, G.; De Vries, H.

    2009-01-01

    Higher rates of smoking initiation and continuation by female compared with male adolescents, as found in many developed countries, may call for gender-specific prevention programs. Risk factors of smoking initiation and continuation were examined prospectively (1997-2002) among 3205 Dutch elementary schoolchildren (mean age 11.64) in an…

  20. Gender differences in colour naming performance for gender specific body shape images.

    PubMed

    Elliman, N A; Green, M W; Wan, W K

    1998-03-01

    Males are increasingly subjected to pressures to conform to aesthetic body stereotypes. There is, however, comparatively little published research on the aetiology of male body shape concerns. Two experiments are presented, which investigate the relationship between gender specific body shape concerns and colour-naming performance. Each study comprised a between subject design, in which each subject was tested on a single occasion. A pictorial version of a modified Stroop task was used in both studies. Subjects colour-named gender specific obese and thin body shape images and semantically homogeneous neutral images (birds) presented in a blocked format. The first experiment investigated female subjects (N = 68) and the second investigated males (N = 56). Subjects also completed a self-report measure of eating behaviour. Currently dieting female subjects exhibited significant colour-naming differences between obese and neutral images. A similar pattern of colour-naming performance was found to be related to external eating in the male subjects.

  1. [Gender medicine. Sex- and gender-specific aspects of clinical medicine].

    PubMed

    Kautzky-Willer, A

    2014-09-01

    Gender medicine studies sex- and gender-based differences in the development and prevention of diseases, the awareness and presentation of symptoms, and the effectiveness of therapy. Gender medicine is part of personalized medicine, considering differences in biological and psychosocial factors individually. There are differences in genes, chromosomes, hormones, and metabolism as well as differences in culture, environment, and society. Lifelong interactions between physical and psychosocial factors will influence the health and ill-health of men and women in different ways. Epigenetic modifications provide evidence of the impact of environment and lifestyle during vulnerable phases on biological processes, effecting future generations. Maternal lifestyle and environmental factors during pregnancy can impact the health of offspring in later life already in utero in a sex-specific way. Pain, stress, and coping styles differ between men and women. Women experience more dramatic physical changes during their lifetime, which are associated with specific burdens and psychosocial alterations. Women with multiple roles and responsibilities suffering from stress develop depression more frequently. However, men are often not diagnosed and treated appropriately in cases of depression or osteoporosis, diseases that are typically considered "female." There are prominent differences between men and women in medicine regarding the immune system, inflammation, and noncommunicable diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Women experience more often autoimmune diseases and suffer more frequently from (chronic) pain, neurodegenerative changes, and functional disabilities. Men have shorter life expectancy but relatively more healthy years of life, which is in greater part ascribed to psychosocial determinants. State-of-the-art clinical medicine comprises individual risk factors based on sex- and gender-sensitive health programs in order to

  2. Gender Inequities of Self-Efficacy on Task-Specific Computer Applications in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotick, Joyce; Stephens, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigated the impact of evolving technology on gender disparity and the contradictions found in previous research relating to the computing gender gap to determine if certain computer software tasks are gender specific and if those skills represent a gender gap in technology. Based on the social cognitive theory and…

  3. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitations for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on (90)Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has a similar structure to the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly re-evaluated: gastrointestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0-80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general populations exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  4. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  5. Woodcock brood ecology in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, T.J.; Derleth, E.L.; McAuley, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Captures of 102 American woodcock (Philohela minor) broods, including 338 chicks, from 1977 to 1980 provided data on age-related production by breeding females and on growth and survival of chicks. Although broods of second-year females are smaller and hatch at slightly later dates and the growth of the chicks is slower than that of broods of after-second-year hens, we could detect no difference in survival of the chicks. Yearly variation in the sex ratio of fledged young was probably the result of selection for or against larger female chicks during different environmental conditions. Broodmates associate with each other throughout the summer, and there are differences in habitat preferences between young (1-5 days old) and older (> 5 days old) broods. Older broods prefer more open, mature forest stands with fewer trees per hectare.

  6. Eider females form non-kin brood-rearing coalitions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ost, M.; Vitikainen, E.; Waldeck, P.; Sundstrom, L.; Lindstrom, K.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Kilpi, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    Kin selection is a powerful tool for understanding cooperation among individuals, yet its role as the sole explanation of cooperative societies has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. These studies suggest that direct benefits of cooperation are often overlooked, and that partner choice may be a widespread mechanism of cooperation. Female eider ducks (Somateria mollissima) may rear broods alone, or they may pool their broods and share brood-rearing. Females are philopatric, and it has been suggested that colonies may largely consist of related females, which could promote interactions among relatives. Alternatively, shared brood care could be random with respect to relatedness, either because brood amalgamations are accidental and nonadaptive, or through group augmentation, assuming that the fitness of all group members increases with group size. We tested these alternatives by measuring the relatedness of co-tending eider females in enduring coalitions with microsatellite markers. Females formed enduring brood-rearing coalitions with each other at random with respect to relatedness. However, based on previous data, partner choice is nonrandom and dependent on female body condition. We discuss potential mechanisms underlying eider communal brood-rearing decisions, which may be driven by the specific ecological conditions under which sociality has evolved in this species.

  7. Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.

    PubMed

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1994-01-01

    Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method.

  8. Gender-Specific Effects of Cognitive Load on Social Discounting.

    PubMed

    Strombach, Tina; Margittai, Zsofia; Gorczyca, Barbara; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We live busy, social lives, and meeting the challenges of our complex environments puts strain on our cognitive systems. However, cognitive resources are limited. It is unclear how cognitive load affects social decision making. Previous findings on the effects of cognitive load on other-regarding preferences have been ambiguous, allowing no coherent opinion whether cognitive load increases, decreases or does not affect prosocial considerations. Here, we suggest that social distance between individuals modulates whether generosity towards a recipient increases or decreases under cognitive load conditions. Participants played a financial social discounting task with several recipients at variable social distance levels. In this task, they could choose between generous alternatives, yielding medium financial rewards for the participant and recipient at variable social distances, or between a selfish alternative, yielding larger rewards for the participant alone. We show that the social discount function of male participants was significantly flattened under high cognitive load conditions, suggesting they distinguished less between socially close and socially distant recipients. Unexpectedly, the cognitive-load effect on social discounting was gender-specific: while social discounting was strongly dependent on cognitive load in men, women were nearly unaffected by cognitive load manipulations. We suggest that cognitive load leads men, but not women to simplify the decision problem by neglecting the social distance information. We consider our study a good starting point for further experiments exploring the role of gender in prosocial choice.

  9. Gender-Specific Effects of Cognitive Load on Social Discounting

    PubMed Central

    Strombach, Tina; Margittai, Zsofia; Gorczyca, Barbara; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We live busy, social lives, and meeting the challenges of our complex environments puts strain on our cognitive systems. However, cognitive resources are limited. It is unclear how cognitive load affects social decision making. Previous findings on the effects of cognitive load on other-regarding preferences have been ambiguous, allowing no coherent opinion whether cognitive load increases, decreases or does not affect prosocial considerations. Here, we suggest that social distance between individuals modulates whether generosity towards a recipient increases or decreases under cognitive load conditions. Participants played a financial social discounting task with several recipients at variable social distance levels. In this task, they could choose between generous alternatives, yielding medium financial rewards for the participant and recipient at variable social distances, or between a selfish alternative, yielding larger rewards for the participant alone. We show that the social discount function of male participants was significantly flattened under high cognitive load conditions, suggesting they distinguished less between socially close and socially distant recipients. Unexpectedly, the cognitive-load effect on social discounting was gender-specific: while social discounting was strongly dependent on cognitive load in men, women were nearly unaffected by cognitive load manipulations. We suggest that cognitive load leads men, but not women to simplify the decision problem by neglecting the social distance information. We consider our study a good starting point for further experiments exploring the role of gender in prosocial choice. PMID:27788192

  10. Varroa Sensitive Hygiene and Drone Brood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...

  11. Straight but Not Narrow; Within-Gender Variation in the Gender-Specificity of Women’s Sexual Response

    PubMed Central

    Chivers, Meredith L.; Bouchard, Katrina N.; Timmers, Amanda D.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in the specificity of sexual response have been a primary focus in sexual psychophysiology research, however, within-gender variability suggests sexual orientation moderates category-specific responding among women; only heterosexual women show gender-nonspecific genital responses to sexual stimuli depicting men and women. But heterosexually-identified or “straight” women are heterogeneous in their sexual attractions and include women who are exclusively androphilic (sexually attracted to men) and women who are predominantly androphilic with concurrent gynephilia (sexually attracted to women). It is therefore unclear if gender-nonspecific responding is found in both exclusively and predominantly androphilic women. The current studies investigated within-gender variability in the gender-specificity of women’s sexual response. Two samples of women reporting concurrent andro/gynephilia viewed (Study 1, n = 29) or listened (Study 2, n = 30) to erotic stimuli varying by gender of sexual partner depicted while their genital and subjective sexual responses were assessed. Data were combined with larger datasets of predominantly gyne- and androphilic women (total N = 78 for both studies). In both studies, women reporting any degree of gynephilia, including those who self-identified as heterosexual, showed significantly greater genital response to female stimuli, similar to predominantly gynephilic women; gender-nonspecific genital response was observed for exclusively androphilic women only. Subjective sexual arousal patterns were more variable with respect to sexual attractions, likely reflecting stimulus intensity effects. Heterosexually-identified women are therefore not a homogenous group with respect to sexual responses to gender cues. Implications for within-gender variation in women’s sexual orientation and sexual responses are discussed. PMID:26629910

  12. Gender-Specific Effects of Artificially Induced Gender Beliefs in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Men outperform women in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) by about one standard deviation. The present study replicated a gender belief account [Moe, A., & Pazzaglia, F. (2006). Following the instructions! Effects of gender beliefs in mental rotation. Learning and Individual Differences, 16, 369-377.] for (part of) this effect. A sample of 300…

  13. Examining gender specificity of sexual response with concurrent thermography and plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Huberman, Jackie S; Chivers, Meredith L

    2015-10-01

    Men's genital responses are significantly greater to sexual stimuli of their preferred gender compared to their nonpreferred gender (gender-specific), whereas androphilic (i.e., sexually attracted to men) women's genital responses are similar to sexual stimuli depicting either women or men (gender-nonspecific). This gendered pattern of genital response has only been demonstrated using vaginal photoplethysmography (VPP) in women and primarily penile plethysmography (PPG) in men. These measures assess different aspects of genital vasocongestion, thereby limiting comparisons between genders. Thermography is a newer sexual psychophysiology methodology that measures genital vasocongestion via temperature change and is better suited to assess sexual response between genders because the dependent measure, change in genital temperature, is similar for women and men. Further, previous studies have assessed gender specificity of sexual response across relatively short sexual stimuli, allowing only the examination of initial phases of sexual response. We examined gender specificity of sexual arousal by measuring women's and men's genital responses to lengthier stimuli with concurrent thermography and VPP/PPG. Gynephilic men (i.e., sexually attracted to women; n = 27) and androphilic women (n = 28) viewed 10-min films depicting men masturbating, women masturbating, and a nonsexual film, and reported feelings of sexual arousal while genital responses were assessed. Across measures, men's sexual responses were gender-specific and women's responses were gender-nonspecific, indicating that the gender difference in gender specificity of arousal is robust to methodology and stimulus duration. These findings replicate previous research, extend knowledge of gendered sexual response, and highlight the utility of multimethod approaches in sexual psychophysiology.

  14. Gender-Specific Nonverbal Communication: Impact for Speaker Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Lori

    1995-01-01

    A literature review notes how gender expectations lead to nonverbal communication differences in such behaviors as smiling, eye contact, kinesics, proximics, and decoding. The importance of the effective use of nonverbal communication in human resource development is emphasized. (SK)

  15. From child maltreatment to violent offending: an examination of mixed-gender and gender-specific models.

    PubMed

    Topitzes, James; Mersky, Joshua P; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2012-08-01

    Research suggests that child maltreatment predicts juvenile violence, but it is uncertain whether the effects of victimization persist into adulthood or differ across gender. Furthermore, we know little about the mechanisms underlying the victim-perpetrator cycle for males and females. Consequently, this study analyzed associations between child maltreatment and a number of adult measures of violent offending within mixed-gender and gender-specific models. Along with main effects, the study directly tested the moderating effects of gender on the maltreatment-violence link and analyzed theory-informed gender-specific mediators. Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel investigation of 1,539 low-income minority participants born in 1979 or 1980. Child welfare, juvenile court, and criminal court records informed the study's explanatory and outcome measures. Prospectively collected covariate and mediator measures originated with parent, teacher, and self-reports along with several administrative sources. Results indicated that child maltreatment, ages 0 to 11, significantly predicted all study indicators of violence in the full sample and most study outcomes in the male and female subsamples. In no instance did gender moderate the maltreatment-violence association. Late childhood/early adolescence environmental instability, childhood externalizing behaviors, and adolescent peer social skills fully mediated the maltreatment-violence nexus among males. Adolescent externalizing behavior partially mediated the relationship of interest among females. Evidence also indicated that internalizing processes protected females who had been maltreated in childhood against perpetrating violence later in life. Implications of results are discussed.

  16. Gender-specific reproductive tissue in ratites and Tyrannosaurus rex.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Mary H; Wittmeyer, Jennifer L; Horner, John R

    2005-06-03

    Unambiguous indicators of gender in dinosaurs are usually lost during fossilization, along with other aspects of soft tissue anatomy. We report the presence of endosteally derived bone tissues lining the interior marrow cavities of portions of Tyrannosaurus rex (Museum of the Rockies specimen number 1125) hindlimb elements, and we hypothesize that these tissues are homologous to specialized avian tissues known as medullary bone. Because medullary bone is unique to female birds, its discovery in extinct dinosaurs solidifies the link between dinosaurs and birds, suggests similar reproductive strategies, and provides an objective means of gender differentiation in dinosaurs.

  17. Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  18. [Gender-specific aspects of the physician-patient interaction].

    PubMed

    Cronauer, C Klöckner; Schmid Mast, M

    2010-10-01

    This article aims at shedding light on the role of physician and patient gender in the medical consultation. Because of the scarce amount of studies concentrating on gender aspects of the physician-patient interaction in rehabilitation or chronic disease, mostly results from general medicine are reported. Female physicians have a more emotional and less dominant communication style. Female patients bring up more psychosocial topics and disclose more information about themselves in general. Both female and male physicians give more information and apply a more partnership-oriented communication style when seeing a female patient. Female and male patients communicate more partnership-oriented with female physicians and share more psychosocial and medical information with them. Same-gender dyads seem beneficial most of the time for physician-patient communication. Mixed-gender dyads are more difficult, especially when a younger female physician sees a male patient. There is no single good communication style recommendable for all physicians. Rather, the research results presented should be applied to communication trainings for physicians. This could provide physicians with a flexible choice of communication styles to apply according to different situations.

  19. Habitat selection and movements of Piping Plover broods suggest a tradeoff between breeding stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Pearse, Aaron T.

    2015-01-01

    In precocial birds, adults select breeding areas using cues associated with habitat characteristics that are favorable for nesting success and chick survival, but there may be tradeoffs in habitat selection between these breeding stages. Here we describe habitat selection and intra-territory movements of 53 Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) broods (320 observations) during the 2007–2008 breeding seasons on mainland- and island-shoreline habitats at Lake Sakakawea, North Dakota, USA. We used remotely sensed habitat characteristics to separately examine habitat selection and movements at two spatiotemporal scales to account for potential confounding effects of nest-site selection on brood-rearing habitat used. The scales used were (1) the entire brood-rearing period within available brood-rearing areas and (2) 2-day observation intervals within age-specific discrete habitat selection choice sets. Analyses at both scales indicated that broods selected areas which were non-vegetated, moderately level, and nearer to the shoreline. Rate of brood movement increased with age up to 5 days, then stabilized; broods that hatched >50 m away from the shoreline moved toward the shoreline. Brood movements were greater when they were in vegetated areas, when the brood-rearing area was of greater topographic complexity, and when broods aged 6–25 days were further away from the shoreline. Using inferences from our results and those of previously published work, we postulate how a potential tradeoff in habitat selection between nesting and brood-rearing can contribute to an ecological trap in a novel habitat. This work, in the context of published works, suggests that plover breeding habitat is a complex of both nesting and brood-rearing habitats and provides a basis for making remotely sensed abundance estimates of suitable breeding habitat for Piping Plovers.

  20. How the gender or morphological specific TKA prosthesis improves the component fit in the Chinese population?

    PubMed

    Yue, Bing; Wang, Jun; Wang, You; Yan, Mengning; Zhang, Jun; Zeng, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the gender specific or morphological specific total knee prostheses improve the component fit in the distal femur of the Chinese population. The data showed that the perfect fit rate of the femoral component remarkably increased in both the male and female subjects when using the gender specific (Nexgen-LPS GSF, Zimmer) or morphological specific (Advance Stature Knee, Wright Medical Technology) knee prostheses, compared to their standard counterparts. The highest femoral component perfect fit rate was achieved when both the standard and the corresponding gender or morphological specific knee prostheses were available for selection. Additionally, the percentage of the gender or morphological specific prosthesis selection in the females was significantly higher than the males.

  1. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…

  2. Pollination by brood-site deception.

    PubMed

    Urru, Isabella; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Hansson, Bill S

    2011-09-01

    Pollination is often regarded as a mutualistic relationship between flowering plants and insects. In such a relationship, both partners gain a fitness benefit as a result of their interaction. The flower gets pollinated and the insect typically gets a food-related reward. However, flower-insect communication is not always a mutualistic system, as some flowers emit deceitful signals. Insects are thus fooled by irresistible stimuli and pollination is accomplished. Such deception requires very fine tuning, as insects in their typically short life span, try to find mating/feeding breeding sites as efficiently as possible, and following deceitful signals thus is both costly and time-consuming. Deceptive flowers have thus evolved the ability to emit signals that trigger obligate innate or learned responses in the targeted insects. The behavior, and thus the signals, exploited are typically involved in reproduction, from attracting pheromones to brood/food-site cues. Chemical mimicry is one of the main modalities through which flowers trick their pollen vectors, as olfaction plays a pivotal role in insect-insect and insect-plant interactions. Here we focus on floral odors that specifically mimic an oviposition substrate, i.e., brood-site mimicry. The phenomenon is wide spread across unrelated plant lineages of Angiosperm, Splachnaceae and Phallaceae. Targeted insects are mainly beetles and flies, and flowers accordingly often emit, to the human nose, highly powerful and fetid smells that are conversely extremely attractive to the duped insects. Brood-site deceptive plants often display highly elaborate flowers and have evolved a trap-release mechanism. Chemical cues often act in unison with other sensory cues to refine the imitation.

  3. GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

  4. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    PubMed

    Römer, Daniela; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density-dependent digging behavior

  5. Gender-specific Issues in Traumatic Injury and Resuscitation: Consensus-based Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Sethuraman, Kinjal N.; Marcolini, Evie G.; McCunn, Maureen; Hansoti, Bhakti; Vaca, Federico E.; Napolitano, Lena M.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injury remains an unacceptably high contributor to morbidity and mortality rates across the United States. Gender-specific research in trauma and emergency resuscitation has become a rising priority. In concert with the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference “Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes,” a consensus-building group consisting of experts in emergency medicine, critical care, traumatology, anesthesiology, and public health convened to generate research recommendations and priority questions to be answered and thus move the field forward. Nominal group technique was used for the consensus-building process and a combination of face-to-face meetings, monthly conference calls, e-mail discussions, and preconference surveys were used to refine the research questions. The resulting research agenda focuses on opportunities to improve patient outcomes by expanding research in sex- and gender-specific emergency care in the field of traumatic injury and resuscitation. PMID:25420732

  6. Gender-Specific Effects of Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Prosocial Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Cáceda, Ricardo; Moskovciak, Tori; Prendes-Alvarez, Stefania; Wojas, Justyna; Engel, Anzhelika; Wilker, Samantha H.; Gamboa, Jorge L.; Stowe, Zachary N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prosocial behaviors are essential to the ability to relate to others. Women typically display greater prosocial behavior than men. The impact of depression on prosocial behaviors and how gender interacts with those effects are not fully understood. We explored the role of gender in the potential effects of depression on prosocial behavior. Methods We examined prosocial behaviors using a modified version of the Trust Game in a clinical population and community controls. Study participants were characterized on the severity of depression and anxiety, presence of suicidal ideation, history of childhood trauma, recent stressful life events, and impulsivity. We correlated behavioral outcomes with gender and clinical variables using analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. Results The 89 participants comprised four study groups: depressed women, depressed men, healthy women and healthy men (n = 16–36). Depressed men exhibited reciprocity more frequently than healthy men. Depression induced an inversion of the gender-specific pattern of self-centered behavior. Suicidal ideation was associated with increased reciprocity behavior in both genders, and enhancement of the effect of depression on gender-specific self-centered behavior. Conclusions Depression, particularly suicidal ideation, is associated with reversal of gender-specific patterns of prosocial behavior, suggesting abnormalities in sexual hormones regulation. This explanation is supported by known abnormalities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axes found in depression. PMID:25259712

  7. Gender-specific outcomes for sexually abused adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chandy, J M; Blum, R W; Resnick, M D

    1996-12-01

    This study examined the gender differences in outcomes related to school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, sexual risk taking, substance use, and delinquent behaviors of male (n = 370) and female teenagers (n = 2,681) who self-reported a history of sexual abuse. It was found that female adolescents, by and large, engaged in internalizing behaviors and males in externalizing behaviors. Male adolescents were found to be at higher risk than females in poor school performance, delinquent activities, and sexual risk taking. Female adolescents, on the other hand, showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior as well as disordered eating. Females showed more frequent use of alcohol. However, male adolescents exhibited more extreme use of alcohol and more frequent and extreme use of marijuana. Among index female adolescents, protective factors against adverse correlates included a higher emotional attachment to family, being religious or spiritual, presence of both parents at home, and a perception of overall health. Factors that augmented adverse correlates for them included a stressful school environment due to perceived high levels of substance use in and around school, worry of sexual abuse, maternal alcohol consumption, and physical abuse. For male adolescents, maternal education and parental concern appeared to be protective factors.

  8. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  9. Reflection of Confucianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism on gender relations and gender specific occupation in Thai society.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, M; Weber, K E

    1994-01-01

    It is posited that present-day Thai society is the product of different settlement patterns among Chinese Confucian followers and those ascribing to matrilocal practices. Chinese settled in urban areas and maintained Confucian dogma that barred women from high ranking positions and dictated a women's role of subservience to men. Matrilocal systems proliferated in rural areas. The village kinship system was egalitarian, until a class-state society was instituted and patriarchal systems dominated. At that time, women's status was reduced. Massive Chinese immigration occurred during the mid-19th century until World War II. Some Indians also migrated during this time period. The dominant use of the Thai language forced the Chinese to assimilate into Thai culture. Thai Buddhist practices were open and similar enough to Confucian ideology that religious assimilation also occurred. A small group of Chinese immigrants retained their ties to Chinese customs. The pattern of foreigners' involvement in the Thai economy was promoted by official policy. In the last several decades Thai policy shifted to an increasingly Thai-influenced economy. Other influences on gender patterns and Thai culture were the Hinduism of Indians who settled in Central Siam, the Mon aristocracy, and Brahmin cults. After the Khmers took over control of this region, the Indian caste system and the Hindu belief in Manu were integrated into Khmer culture. Women were considered the weaker and inferior sex and dependent upon men. The kings of Siam followed Brahmin rituals after the 15th century. Buddhism and the "sangha" became the central Thai religious institution. Even today Buddhist monks are given 3 months time off with pay for time spent as a monk, while maternity leave for women is limited to 45 days. The status of women is traced during the Sukothai period (1250-1350), the Ayudhaya period (1350-1767), and the Ratanakosin period (since 1782). Present occupational patterns reflect women's dominance in

  10. Conference on Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: An Executive Summary

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Basmah; Greenberg, Marna Rayl

    2015-01-01

    With the goal of reducing inequalities in patient care, the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, “Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes,” convened a diverse group of researchers, clinicians, health care providers, patients, and representatives of federal agencies and policy-makers in Dallas, Texas, in May 2014. The executive and steering committees identified seven clinical domains as key to gender-specific emergency care: cardiovascular, neurological, trauma/injury, substance abuse, pain, mental health, and diagnostic imaging. The main aims of the conference were to: 1) summarize and consolidate current data related to sex-and gender-specific research for acute care and identify critical gender-related gaps in knowledge to inform an EM research agenda; 2) create a consensus-driven research agenda that advances sex- and gender-specific research in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of acute diseases and identify strategies to investigate them; and 3) build a multinational interdisciplinary consortium to disseminate and study the sex and gender medicine of acute conditions. Over a 2-year period, this collaborative network of stakeholders identified key areas where sex- and gender-specific research is most likely to improve clinical care and ultimately patient outcomes. The iterative consensus process culminated in a daylong conference on May 13, 2014, with a total of 133 registrants, with the majority being between ages 31 and 50 years (57%), females (71%), and whites (79%). Content experts led the consensus-building workshops at the conference and used the nominal group technique to consolidate consensus recommendations for priority research. In addition, panel sessions addressed funding mechanisms for gender-specific research as well as gender-specific regulatory challenges to product development and approval. This special issue of AEM reports the

  11. Aircraft noise and incidence of hypertension--gender specific effects.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Charlotta; Bluhm, Gösta; Hilding, Agneta; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Pershagen, Göran

    2010-11-01

    Recent studies show associations between aircraft noise and cardiovascular outcomes such as hypertension. However, these studies were mostly cross-sectional and there are uncertainties regarding potential gender differences as well as sensitive subgroups. In this study, we investigated the cumulative incidence of hypertension in relation to aircraft noise exposure among Swedish men and women living in Stockholm County. A total of 4721 subjects, aged 35-56 at baseline, were followed for 8-10 years. The population was selected according to family history of diabetes, which was present for half of the subjects. The exposure assessment was performed by geographical information systems and based on residential history during the period of follow-up. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and at the end of follow-up. Additional information regarding diagnosis and treatment of hypertension as well as various lifestyle factors was provided by questionnaires. In the overall population, no increased risk for hypertension was found among subjects exposed to aircraft noise ≥ 50 dB(A) L(den); relative risk (RR) 1.02 (95% CI 0.90-1.15). When restricting the cohort to those not using tobacco at the blood pressure measurements, a significant risk increase per 5 dB(A) of aircraft noise exposure was found in men; RR 1.21 (1.05-1.39), but not in women; RR 0.97 (0.83-1.13). In both sexes combined, an increased risk of hypertension related to aircraft noise exposure was indicated primarily among those reporting annoyance to aircraft noise; RR 1.42 (1.11-1.82). No consistent effect modification was detected for any of the cardiovascular risk factors under investigation although a family history of diabetes appeared to modify the risk in women. In conclusion, the results suggest an increased risk of hypertension following long-term aircraft noise exposure in men, and that subjects annoyed by aircraft noise may be particularly sensitive to noise related hypertension.

  12. Gender-specific Regulatory Challenges to Product Approval: a panel discussion.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alyson J; Barr, Helen; Greenberg, Marna R; Safdar, Basmah; Wildgoose, Peter; Wright, David W; Hollander, Judd E

    2014-12-01

    On May 13, 2014, a 1-hour panel discussion session titled "Gender-specific Regulatory Challenges to Product Approval" was held during the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Medicine: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes." The session sought to bring together leaders in emergency medicine (EM) research, authors, and reviewers in EM research publications, as well as faculty, fellows, residents, and students engaged in research and clinical practice. A panel was convened involving a representative from the Office of Women's Health of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, two pharmaceutical executives, and a clinical EM researcher. The moderated discussion also involved audience members who contributed significantly to the dialogue. Historical background leading up to the session along with the main themes of the discussion are reproduced in this article. These revolve around sex- and gender-specific research, statistical analysis of sex and gender, clinical practice, financial costs associated with pharmaceutical development, adaptive design, and specific recommendations on the regulatory process as it affects the specialty of EM.

  13. Gender-specific statistical models of pathological coronary arteries for generating simulated angiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyprianou, Iacovos S.; Thompson, Laura; Banh, Diem Phuc; Pritchard, William; Karanian, John; Rosen, Lee; Myers, Kyle J.

    2006-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is considered the leading cause of death in the US, accounting for 38% of all deaths. There are gender differences in the size of coronary arteries and in the character and location of atherosclerotic lesions that affect the detection of coronary artery disease with the medical imaging modalities currently used (e.g. angiography, computed tomography). These differences also affect the safety and effectiveness of image-guided interventions using therapeutic devices. For the optimization of the medical imaging modalities used for this specific task we require the generation of clinically-realistic, gender-specific images of healthy and pathological coronary angiograms. For this purpose we have created a gender-specific statistical model of a pathological coronary artery tree. Starting from "healthy" heart-phantoms created from high resolution CT scans of cadaver hearts of both genders, the model uses prevalence data obtained from clinical studies of patients with significant (>50% stenosis) coronary artery disease (CAD). The model determines the plaque deposit locations and character (length, percent stenosis) for each case, based on a flow model. These data are then used to generate artificially diseased artery trees, embedded in a gender-specific torso model. Using an x-ray and optical photon Monte-Carlo simulation program, we then generate simulated angiograms exhibiting realistic disease patterns. The severity of each angiogram is determined from a set of rules that combines the geometrically increasing severity of lesions, the cumulative effects of multiple obstructions, the significance of their locations, the modifying influence of the collaterals, and the size and quality of the distal vessels. The simulated angiograms will consequently be read by model and human observers. The probability of detection derived in combination with the severity score will be used as a figure of merit for the patient- and gender-specific optimization of

  14. Gender-specific gene expression in post-mortem human brain: localization to sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Vawter, Marquis P; Evans, Simon; Choudary, Prabhakara; Tomita, Hiroaki; Meador-Woodruff, Jim; Molnar, Margherita; Li, Jun; Lopez, Juan F; Myers, Rick; Cox, David; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda; Jones, Edward G; Bunney, William E

    2004-02-01

    Gender differences in brain development and in the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression have been reported. Gender differences in human brain might be related to patterns of gene expression. Microarray technology is one useful method for investigation of gene expression in brain. We investigated gene expression, cell types, and regional expression patterns of differentially expressed sex chromosome genes in brain. We profiled gene expression in male and female dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and cerebellum using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray platform. Differentially expressed genes between males and females on the Y chromosome (DBY, SMCY, UTY, RPS4Y, and USP9Y) and X chromosome (XIST) were confirmed using real-time PCR measurements. In situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of gender-specific genes and neuronal expression of XIST, RPS4Y, SMCY, and UTY in three brain regions examined. The XIST gene, which silences gene expression on regions of the X chromosome, is expressed in a subset of neurons. Since a subset of neurons express gender-specific genes, neural subpopulations may exhibit a subtle sexual dimorphism at the level of differences in gene regulation and function. The distinctive pattern of neuronal expression of XIST, RPS4Y, SMCY, and UTY and other sex chromosome genes in neuronal subpopulations may possibly contribute to gender differences in prevalence noted for some neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies of the protein expression of these sex-chromosome-linked genes in brain tissue are required to address the functional consequences of the observed gene expression differences.

  15. Gender-specific expression of the DRD4 gene on adolescent delinquency, anger and thrill seeking.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, Julia; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Ding, Yuan-Chun

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in the associations between the DRD4 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism and adolescent delinquency, short temper and thrill seeking. We also explored whether the gender-specific expression of the DRD4 can be explained by gender differences in the exposure to psychosocial risks, such as poor parent-child relationship. Participants were 263 14- to 17-year olds (50% males) living in Russia. DNA was extracted from saliva samples and the VNTR DRD4 polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction. Participants reported on the extent of their delinquent behaviour, short temper, thrill seeking and exposure to psychosocial risk (i.e. poor parental monitoring of adolescent behaviour, exposure to violence and peer delinquency). Compared to individuals with the 4/4 genotype, males, but not females, with the 7-repeat allele (7R) had significantly higher delinquency, short temper and thrill seeking. This interaction effect, however, was completely explained by males' higher exposure to psychosocial risk factors. When parental monitoring of youths' activities and youth exposure to violence were included in the model, the 7R × gender interaction was no longer significant. Thus, social context plays an important role in explaining gender-specific phenotypic expression of the DRD4 gene.

  16. Funding mechanisms for gender-specific research: proceedings from a panel discussion at the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Basmah; Greenberg, Marna R; Anise, Ayodola; Brown, Jeremy; Conwit, Robin; Filart, Rosemarie; Scott, Jane; Choo, Esther K

    2014-12-01

    As part of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," we assembled a diverse panel of representatives from federal and nonfederal funding agencies to discuss future opportunities for sex- and gender-specific research. The discussion revolved around the mission and priorities of each organization, as well as its interest in promoting sex- and gender-specific research. The panelists were asked to provide specific examples of funding lines generated or planned for as pertinent to emergency care. Training opportunities for future researchers in this area were also discussed.

  17. Incorporating Gender Specific Approaches for Incarcerated Female Adolescents: Multilevel Risk Model for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…

  18. Better Educational Website Interface Design: The Implications from Gender-Specific Preferences in Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Yu-chang

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated graduate students gender-specific preferences for certain website interface design features, intending to generate useful information for instructors in choosing and for website designers in creating educational websites. The features investigated in this study included colour value, major navigation buttons placement, and…

  19. Are There Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Suicidal Activity among Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…

  20. The Utility of a Gender-Specific Definition of Binge Drinking on the AUDIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olthuis, Janine V.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Van Tyne, Kathryne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although binge drinking is commonly defined as the consumption of at least 5 drinks in 1 sitting for men and 4 for women, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) defines binge drinking as the consumption of 6 or more drinks in 1 sitting for both men and women. This study examined the effect of using gender-specific binge…

  1. Depression and Rejection: On Strangers and Friends, Symptom Specificity, Length of Relationship, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses four issues on depression and the response of others, studying undergraduates and their same-gender roommates, observed and rated on videotape. Indicates that depressed targets were rejected by their roommates, whereas anhedonic subjects were rejected by observers; rejection effects were specific to depression and anhedonia; and…

  2. Does Gender-Specific Differential Item Functioning Affect the Structure in Vocational Interest Inventories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinicke, Andrea; Pässler, Katja; Hell, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates consequences of eliminating items showing gender-specific differential item functioning (DIF) on the psychometric structure of a standard RIASEC interest inventory. Holland's hexagonal model was tested for structural invariance using a confirmatory methodological approach (confirmatory factor analysis and randomization…

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Negative Feelings: A Gender Specific Moderated Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakus, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the effect of emotional intelligence (EI) on negative feelings (stress, anxiety, burnout and depression) in a gender specific model. Four hundred and twenty-five primary school teachers (326 males, 99 females) completed the measures of EI, stress, anxiety, burnout and depression. The multi-group analysis was performed…

  4. Going against the Grain: Gender-Specific Media Education in Catholic High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapayese, Yvette V.

    2012-01-01

    The Catholic Church has addressed the power of media, as well as the critical importance of understanding and educating Catholic youth on the media's role and place in modern culture. In this article, the narratives of female Catholic teachers are prioritized to illustrate how gender-specific media education influences the schooling experiences of…

  5. Identifying Facial Emotions: Valence Specific Effects and an Exploration of the Effects of Viewer Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansari, Ashok; Rodway, Paul; Goncalves, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The valence hypothesis suggests that the right hemisphere is specialised for negative emotions and the left hemisphere is specialised for positive emotions (Silberman & Weingartner, 1986). It is unclear to what extent valence-specific effects in facial emotion perception depend upon the gender of the perceiver. To explore this question 46…

  6. Gender-Specific or Common Classroom Norms? Examining the Contextual Moderators of the Risk for Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Jenny; Voeten, Marinus; Salmivalli, Christina

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether gender-specific vs. common classroom norms were more powerful moderators of the association between a risk factor (rejection) and peer victimization among girls and boys. The participants were 1220 elementary schoolchildren from grades 4-6 (with 10-13 years of age). We compared different multilevel models including combined vs.…

  7. Brood care and social evolution in termites.

    PubMed

    Korb, Judith; Buschmann, Michael; Schafberg, Saskia; Liebig, Jürgen; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2012-07-07

    Cooperative brood care is assumed to be the common driving factor leading to sociality. While this seems to be true for social Hymenoptera and many cooperatively breeding vertebrates, the importance of brood care for the evolution of eusociality in termites is unclear. A first step in elucidating this problem is an assessment of the ancestral condition in termites. We investigated this by determining the overall level of brood care behaviour across four termite species that cover the phylogenetic diversity of the lower termites. Brood care was low in the three species (all from different families) that had an ancestral wood-dwelling lifestyle of living in a single piece of wood that serves as food and shelter. In the fourth species, a lower termite that evolved outside foraging, brood care was more common. Together with data for higher termites, this suggests that brood care in termites only becomes important when switching from a wood-dwelling to a foraging lifestyle. These results imply that early social evolution in termites was driven by benefits of increased defence, while eusociality in Hymenoptera and cooperative breeding in birds and mammals are primarily based on brood care.

  8. All giraffes have female-specific properties: influence of grammatical gender on deductive reasoning about sex-specific properties in German speakers.

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Schalk, Lennart; Saalbach, Henrik; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    Grammatical gender is independent of biological sex for the majority of animal names (e.g., any giraffe, be it male or female, is grammatically treated as feminine). However, there is apparent semantic motivation for grammatical gender classes, especially in mapping human terms to gender. This research investigated whether this motivation affects deductive inference in native German speakers. We compared German with Japanese speakers (a language without grammatical gender) when making inferences about sex-specific biological properties. We found that German speakers tended to erroneously draw inferences when the sex in the premise and grammatical gender of the target animal agreed. An over-generalization of the grammar-semantics mapping was found even when the sex of the target was explicitly indicated. However, these effects occurred only when gender-marking articles accompanied the nouns. These results suggest that German speakers project sex-specific biological properties onto gender-marking articles but not onto conceptual representations of animals per se.

  9. Seroconversion risk perception among jail populations: a call for gender-specific HIV prevention programming.

    PubMed

    Alarid, Leanne Fiftal; Hahl, Jeannie M

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV/AIDS infection among prisoners is 3 to 4 times higher than in the U.S. population. Given that one in seven HIV-positive Americans pass through a correctional facility every year, the criminal justice system is in an ideal position to aggressively implement effective HIV education, treatment, and prevention. This study examines barriers to the effective delivery of these services and evaluates differences in risk perception among nearly 600 female and male inmates. The results underscore gender differences in Perceived Risk of Seroconversion and Exposure to HIV Education, suggesting that jails should implement gender-specific HIV prevention programming.

  10. EVIDENCE OF GENDER-SPECIFIC MOTOR TEMPLATES TO RESIST VALGUS LOADING AT THE KNEE

    PubMed Central

    Cammarata, Martha L.; Dhaher, Yasin Y.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in neuromuscular control of the lower extremity may contribute to increased injury risk in females, but the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear. In this study, we sought to explore the effect of gender on volitional and reflex neuromuscular responses to a rapid valgus perturbation at the knee applied under “intervene” and “do not intervene” conditions. Multiple 7° ramp-and-hold valgus perturbations were applied at the neutrally extended knee of 12 male and 12 female healthy subjects, while surface electromyography over the quadriceps and hamstrings recorded the neuromuscular response. Volitional responses did not vary between groups, perhaps reflecting the relative novelty of the loading direction. However, reflex responses observed under the “do not intervene” paradigm did vary by gender. Males demonstrated much more frequent and consistent reflex muscle activation than females. Moreover, muscle activation patterns were gender-specific. Diminished responses in female subjects may indicate that the position-based valgus perturbation did not produce the necessary mechanical stimulus to elicit reflexes. These gender differences in reflex control of the knee provide new insight into the control of frontal-plane knee joint movement and loading and may elucidate the neuromechanical underpinnings associated with neuromuscular control. PMID:19918763

  11. Dysfunctional remembered parenting in oncology outpatients affects psychological distress symptoms in a gender-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Kouzoupis, Anastasios V; Lyrakos, Dimitrios; Kokras, Nikolaos; Panagiotarakou, Meropi; Syrigos, Kostas N; Papadimitriou, George N

    2012-12-01

    Evidence suggests that gender differences appear in a variety of biological and psychological responses to stress and perhaps in coping with acute and chronic illness as well. Dysfunctional parenting is also thought to be involved in the process of coping with stress and illness; hence, the present study aimed to verify whether dysfunctional remembered parenting would influence psychological distress in a gender-specific manner in patients suffering from cancer. Patients attending an outpatient oncology clinic completed the Remembered Relationships with Parents (RRP), Hospital Anxiety and Depression and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scales and the National Cancer Center Network Distress Thermometer. Although no baseline gender differences were detected, a multivariate analysis confirmed that anxiety and depression symptoms of men and women suffering from cancer are differentially affected by the RRP Control and Alienation scores. Women with remembered parental alienation and overprotection showed significantly more anxiety symptoms than men, whereas men were more vulnerable to remembered alienation than overprotection with regard to the Distress Thermometer scores. These results suggest that remembered dysfunctional parenting is crucially, and in a gender-specific manner, involved in the coping strategy adopted by male and female cancer patients.

  12. Gender- and region-specific alterations in bone metabolism in Scarb1-null female mice.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Corine; Martin-Falstrault, Louise; Brissette, Louise; Moreau, Robert

    2014-08-01

    A positive correlation between plasma levels of HDL and bone mass has been reported by epidemiological studies. As scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), the gene product of Scarb1, is known to regulate HDL metabolism, we recently characterized bone metabolism in Scarb1-null mice. These mice display high femoral bone mass associated with enhanced bone formation. As gender differences have been reported in HDL metabolism and SR-BI function, we investigated gender-specific bone alterations in Scarb1-null mice by microtomography and histology. We found 16% greater relative bone volume and 39% higher bone formation rate in the vertebrae from 2-month-old Scarb1-null females. No such alteration was seen in males, indicating gender- and region-specific differences in skeletal phenotype. Total and HDL-associated cholesterol levels, as well as ACTH plasma levels, were increased in both Scarb1-null genders, the latter being concurrent to impaired corticosterone response to fasting. Plasma levels of estradiol did not differ between null and WT females, suggesting that the estrogen metabolism alteration is not relevant to the higher vertebral bone mass in female Scarb1-null mice. Constitutively, high plasma levels of leptin along with 2.5-fold increase in its expression in white adipose tissue were measured in female Scarb1-null mice only. In vitro exposure of bone marrow stromal cells to ACTH and leptin promoted osteoblast differentiation as evidenced by increased gene expression of osterix and collagen type I alpha. Our results suggest that hyperleptinemia may account for the gender-specific high bone mass seen in the vertebrae of female Scarb1-null mice.

  13. Restoration of Femoral Anatomy in TKA With Unisex and Gender-specific Components

    PubMed Central

    Hentz, Joseph G.

    2008-01-01

    Recent modifications in total knee prosthesis design theoretically better accommodate the anatomy of the female femur and thereby have the theoretical potential to improve clinical results in TKA by more accurately restoring femoral posterior condylar offset, reducing femoral notching, reducing femoral component flexion, and reducing component overhang. First, we radiographically evaluated whether a contemporary unisex prosthesis would accommodate female anatomy equally as well as male anatomy. Next, we radiographically evaluated female knees in which a gender-specific prosthesis was used. Pre- and postoperative radiographs of 122 knees (42 female unisex, 41 male unisex, 39 female gender-specific) were reviewed. In the unisex groups, there were no differences in femoral notching or femoral component flexion. Posterior femoral offset increased in both groups. However, femoral component overhang was worse in female knees (17%) than in male knees (0%). In the gender-specific female group, the incidence of component overhang was similar to that in the unisex female group. Unisex femoral components of this specific design do not equally match the native anatomy male and female knees. In some women, a compromise was required in sizing. PMID:18719972

  14. Exercise training-induced gender-specific heat shock protein adaptations in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Morton, James P; Holloway, Kathryn; Woods, Paul; Cable, Nigel T; Burniston, Jatin; Evans, Louise; Kayani, Anna C; McArdle, Anne

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of short-term endurance training on heat shock protein (HSP) adaptations of male and female human skeletal muscle. The data demonstrate that females did not respond to continuous or interval training in terms of increasing HSP content of the vastus lateralis muscle. In contrast, males displayed HSP adaptations to both training interventions. These data provide a platform for future human studies to examine a potential gender-specific stress response to exercise.

  15. Gender-Specific Differences in the Relationship between Autobiographical Memory and Intertemporal Choice in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seinstra, Maayke; Grzymek, Katharina; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    As the population of older adults grows, their economic choices will have increasing impact on society. Research on the effects of aging on intertemporal decisions shows inconsistent, often opposing results, indicating that yet unexplored factors might play an essential role in guiding one's choices. Recent studies suggest that episodic future thinking, which is based on the same neural network involved in episodic memory functions, leads to reductions in discounting of future rewards. As episodic memory functioning declines with normal aging, but to greatly variable degrees, individual differences in delay discounting might be due to individual differences in the vitality of this memory system in older adults. We investigated this hypothesis, using a sample of healthy older adults who completed an intertemporal choice task as well as two episodic memory tasks. We found no clear evidence for a relationship between episodic memory performance and delay discounting in older adults. However, when additionally considering gender differences, we found an interaction effect of gender and autobiographical memory on delay discounting: while men with higher memory scores showed less delay discounting, women with higher memory scores tended to discount the future more. We speculate that this gender effect might stem from the gender-specific use of different modal representation formats (i.e. temporal or visual) during assessment of intertemporal choice options. PMID:26335426

  16. Gender-Specific Correlates of Incarceration Among Marginally Housed Individuals in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Neilands, Torsten B.; Comfort, Megan L.; Dilworth, Samantha E.; Cohen, Jennifer; Tulsky, Jacqueline P.; Riley, Elise D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed how different patterns of housing instability affect incarceration and whether correlates of incarceration are gender specific. Methods. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess associations between patterns of housing instability and recent jail stays among a reproducible sample of 1175 marginally housed adults in San Francisco, California. Results. Over the previous year, 71% of men and 21% of women in the sample reported jail stays. Among women, long-term single-room occupancy hotel stays ( > 90 days) were protective for incarceration. Stays in the street were associated with incarceration among both genders, but among men, short-term (i.e., ≤ 90 days) street stays were associated with the highest odds of incarceration, and among women, long-term street stays were most correlated with incarceration. Sex trade increased the odds of incarceration among men only; recent drug use was associated with incarceration among both genders. Conclusions. Correlates of incarceration differed by gender, and patterns of housing instability differentially affected incarceration for men and women. Policies to improve housing options and drug treatment for the urban poor are critical to breaking the cycle of incarceration and homelessness and improving health outcomes. PMID:19542041

  17. Preschool externalizing behavior predicts gender-specific variation in adolescent neural structure.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Jessica Z K; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Hanson, Jamie L; Sutterer, Matthew J; Stodola, Diane E; Koenigs, Michael; Kalin, Ned H; Essex, Marilyn J; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus is believed to underlie the development of much psychopathology. However, to date only limited longitudinal data relate early behavior with neural structure later in life. Our objective was to examine the relationship of early life externalizing behavior with adolescent brain structure. We report here the first longitudinal study linking externalizing behavior during preschool to brain structure during adolescence. We examined the relationship of preschool externalizing behavior with amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex volumes at age 15 years in a community sample of 76 adolescents followed longitudinally since their mothers' pregnancy. A significant gender by externalizing behavior interaction revealed that males-but not females-with greater early childhood externalizing behavior had smaller amygdala volumes at adolescence (t = 2.33, p = .023). No significant results were found for the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex. Greater early externalizing behavior also related to smaller volume of a cluster including the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction across genders. Results were not attributable to the impact of preschool anxiety, preschool maternal stress, school-age internalizing or externalizing behaviors, or adolescent substance use. These findings demonstrate a novel, gender-specific relationship between early-childhood externalizing behavior and adolescent amygdala volume, as well as a cross-gender result for the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction.

  18. Knee and hip joint biomechanics are gender-specific in runners with high running mileage.

    PubMed

    Gehring, D; Mornieux, G; Fleischmann, J; Gollhofer, A

    2014-02-01

    Female runners are reported to be more prone to develop specific knee joint injuries than males. It has been suggested that increased frontal plane joint loading might be related to the incidence of these knee injuries in running. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if frontal plane knee and hip joint kinematics and kinetics are gender-specific in runners with high mileage. 3D-kinematics and kinetics were recorded from 16 female and 16 male runners at a speed of 3 m/s, 4 m/s, and 5 m/s. Frontal plane joint angles and joint moments were ascertained and compared between genders among speed conditions. Across all speed conditions, females showed increased hip adduction and reduced knee adduction angles compared to males (p < 0.003). The initial peak in the hip adduction moment was enhanced in females (p = 0.003). Additionally, the hip adduction impulse showed a trend towards an increase in females at slow running speed (p = 0.07). Hip and knee frontal plane joint kinematics are gender-specific. In addition, there are indications that frontal plane joint loading is increased in female runners. Future research should focus on the relationship of these observations regarding overuse running injuries.

  19. Gender-specific normative perceptions of alcohol-related protective behavioral strategies.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Melissa A; Rees, Michiko; Lee, Christine M

    2009-09-01

    The present research aimed (a) to determine whether students underestimate gender-specific descriptive normative perceptions for protective behavioral strategies; (b) to evaluate the relationships among perceived gender-specific descriptive and injunctive drinking norms and perceived gender-specific descriptive norms for protective behavioral strategies; and (c) to examine whether normative perceptions for protective behavioral strategies relate to use of these strategies when controlling for relevant drinking behavior factors (i.e., alcohol consumption, negative consequences, and attitude toward drinking behavior) and social norms factors (i.e., perceived descriptive and injunctive norms). Students (N = 666; 56.6% men) completed measures assessing drinking behavior and attitudes toward drinking, perceived descriptive and injunctive norms, perceived protective behavioral strategies, and protective behavioral strategies. Findings demonstrated that students consistently underestimated the use of strategies for the typical male student, whereas results were less consistent for the typical female student. In addition, results indicated that same-sex normative perceptions for protective behavioral strategies were associated with personal use of these strategies, even when controlling for relevant drinking behavior and social norms factors. Results stress the importance of evaluating factors that are associated with use of protective behavioral strategies. Implications for social norms preventative interventions are discussed.

  20. Gender-specific factors associated with shorter sleep duration at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Plancoulaine, Sabine; Lioret, Sandrine; Regnault, Nolwenn; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-12-01

    Total sleep duration has been decreasing among children in the last decades. Short sleep duration (SSD) has been associated with deleterious health consequences, such as excess weight/obesity. Risk factors for SSD have already been studied among school-aged children and adolescents, but inconsistent results have been reported regarding possible gender differences. Studies reporting such relationships are scarce in preschoolers, despite the importance of this period for adopting healthy behaviour. We aimed to investigate factors associated with SSD in 3-year-old boys (n = 546) and girls (n = 482) in a French Mother-Child Cohort (EDEN Study). Children were born between 2003 and 2006 in two French university hospitals. Clinical examinations and parent self-reported questionnaires allowed us to collect sociodemographic (e.g. income, education, family situation, child-minding system), maternal [e.g. body mass index (BMI), parity, depression, breastfeeding duration] and child's characteristics (e.g. gender, birth weight, term, physical activity and TV viewing duration, food consumption, usual sleep time). Sleep duration/24-h period was calculated and SSD was defined as <12 h. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. The mean sleep duration was 12 h 35 ± 56 min, with 91% of the children napping. Patterns of risk factors associated with SSD differed according to gender. In addition to parental presence when falling asleep, short sleep duration was associated strongly positively with high BMI Z-score and TV viewing duration among boys and with familial home child-minding and lower scores on the 'fruits and vegetables' dietary pattern among girls. These results suggest either a patterning of parental behaviours that differs according to gender, or a gender-specific sleep physiology, or both.

  1. Gender-specific trends in the value of education and the emerging gender gap in college completion.

    PubMed

    Diprete, Thomas A; Buchmann, Claudia

    2006-02-01

    Analysis of March Current Population Survey data from 1964 through 2002 shows that white women overtook white men in their rates of college completion and that this phenomenon occurred during a period in which women's standard-of-living gains from college completion grew at a faster rate than those for men. We assess whether these trends are related to changes in the value of education for men and women in terms of earnings returns to higher education, the probability of getting and staying married, education-related differences in family standard of living, and insurance against living in poverty. Although returns to a college education in the form of earnings remained higher for women than for men over the entire period, trends in these returns do not provide a plausible explanation for gender-specific trends in college completion. But when broader measures of material well-being are taken into account, women's returns to higher education appear to have risen faster than those of men.

  2. Gender-specific role of mitochondria in the vulnerability of 6-hydroxydopamine-treated mesencephalic neurons.

    PubMed

    Misiak, Magdalena; Beyer, Cordian; Arnold, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Morbus Parkinson, exhibit a gender-dependency showing a higher incidence in men than women. Most of the neurodegenerative disorders involve either causally or consequently a dysfunction of mitochondria. Therefore, neuronal mitochondria may demonstrate a gender-specificity with respect to structural and functional characteristics of these organelles during toxic and degenerative processes. The application of 6-OHDA (6-hydroxydopamine) in vitro and in vivo represents a well-accepted experimental model of Parkinson's disease causing Parkinsonian symptoms. Besides the known effects of 6-OHDA on mitochondria and neuronal survivability, we aimed to demonstrate that the mitochondrial neurotoxin affects the morphology and survival of primary dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons in the mesencephalon in a gender-specific manner by influencing the transcription of mitochondrial genes, ATP and reactive oxygen species production. Our data suggest that cell death in response to 6-OHDA is primarily caused due to increased oxidative stress which is more pronounced in male than in female mesencephalic neurons.

  3. Gender-associated differential expression of cytokines in specific areas of the brain during helminth infection.

    PubMed

    López-Griego, Lorena; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Tiempos Guzmán, Nelly; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Besedovsky, Hugo O; Pavón, Lenin; Becerril Villanueva, Luis Enrique; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    Intraperitoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice alters several behaviors, including sexual, aggressive, and cognitive function. Cytokines and their receptors are produced in the central nervous system (CNS) by specific neural cell lineages under physiological and pathological conditions, regulating such processes as neurotransmission. This study is aimed to determine the expression patterns of cytokines in various areas of the brain in normal and T. crassiceps-infected mice in both genders and correlate them with the pathology of the CNS and parasite counts. IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb increased significantly in infected male mice, but IL-6 was downregulated in these regions in female mice. IL-1β expression in the hippocampus was unaffected by infection in either gender. Our novel findings demonstrate a clear gender-associated pattern of cytokine expression in specific areas of the brain in mammals that parasitic infection can alter. Thus, we hypothesize that intraperitoneal infection is sensed by the CNS of the host, wherein cytokines are important messengers in the host-parasite neuroimmunoendocrine network.

  4. Gender-Associated Differential Expression of Cytokines in Specific Areas of the Brain During Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    López-Griego, Lorena; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Tiempos Guzmán, Nelly; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Besedovsky, Hugo O.; Pavón, Lenin; Becerril Villanueva, Luis Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice alters several behaviors, including sexual, aggressive, and cognitive function. Cytokines and their receptors are produced in the central nervous system (CNS) by specific neural cell lineages under physiological and pathological conditions, regulating such processes as neurotransmission. This study is aimed to determine the expression patterns of cytokines in various areas of the brain in normal and T. crassiceps-infected mice in both genders and correlate them with the pathology of the CNS and parasite counts. IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb increased significantly in infected male mice, but IL-6 was downregulated in these regions in female mice. IL-1β expression in the hippocampus was unaffected by infection in either gender. Our novel findings demonstrate a clear gender-associated pattern of cytokine expression in specific areas of the brain in mammals that parasitic infection can alter. Thus, we hypothesize that intraperitoneal infection is sensed by the CNS of the host, wherein cytokines are important messengers in the host–parasite neuroimmunoendocrine network. PMID:25495255

  5. Gender-Specific Characteristics of Individuals with Depressive Symptoms and Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Lynn V.; McKinley, Sharon; Riegel, Barbara; Moser, Debra K.; Meischke, Hendrika; Pelter, Michele M.; Dracup, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Objective In individuals suffering from depressive symptoms and coronary heart disease (CHD), little is known about gender-specific characteristics that may inform treatments and outcomes. This study sought to identify characteristics that distinguish men from women with both conditions Methods By cross-sectional design, 1951 adults with CHD and elevated depressive symptoms completed questionnaires to measure anxiety, hostility, perceived control, and knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about CHD. Gender differences were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression. Results Women were more likely to be single (OR 3.61, p < .001), unemployed (OR 2.52, p < .001), poorly educated (OR 2.52, p < .001), anxious (OR 1.14, p < .01), and to perceive lower control over health (OR 1.34, p < .01) than males. Conclusions Women with CHD and depressive symptoms have fewer resources, greater anxiety, and lower perceived control than men. In women, targeting of modifiable factors, like anxiety and perceived control, is warranted. PMID:20561880

  6. Infertility Specific Quality of Life and Gender Role Attitudes in German and Hungarian Involuntary Childless Couples

    PubMed Central

    Cserepes, R. E.; Bugán, A.; Korösi, T.; Toth, B.; Rösner, S.; Strowitzki, T.; Wischmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: As gender role attitudes and the evaluation of parenthood and childlessness have subtle variations in each society, cross-country studies focusing on infertility are needed to draw a complex picture in the psychosocial context of infertility. This study investigates similarities and differences between German and Hungarian infertile couples regarding infertility specific quality of life and personal gender role attitudes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with data of 540 participants (270 couples) attending the first fertility consultation in one fertility clinic in Germany and in five fertility clinics in Hungary. Data were collected between February 2012 and March 2013. Two psychological questionnaires were applied: The FertiQoL to measure infertility specific quality of life and the PAQ to measure gender role attitudes like “instrumental” acting (as a traditional “masculine” attitude) and “expressive” communicating (as a traditional “femine” attitude) and their combinations “combined” attitude (as both “instrumental” and “expressive”) and “neutral” attitude (neither “instrumental” nor “expressive”). Results: German couples seeking assisted reproduction treatment are older aged and have longer lasting relationships than Hungarian couples. Hungarian couples scored higher on all quality of life scales than did German couples. In the Hungarian group, “combined” attitudes (use of both “expressive” and “instrumental” attitudes) is associated with higher levels of quality of life compared with other gender role attitudes. In the German group, individuals with “combined” attitudes seem to show better quality of life than those in “expressive” and “neutral” clusters. Conclusions: The strategy of using combined “expressive” and “instrumental” attitudes proved to act as a buffer against infertility-related stress for both members of the couple in two European countries and

  7. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    PubMed

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S

    2004-01-01

    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae.

  8. Variation in brood behavior of Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, James S.; Eichholz, Michael W.; Flint, Paul L.

    1995-01-01

    We studied behavior of broods of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) during five summers between 1987 and 1993, a period in which the local breeding population increased >3-fold. Goslings spent more time foraging than adults of either sex, while adult males spent more time alert and less time foraging than adult females. Percentage of time spent alert was positively correlated with brood size for adult males but not adult females. Foraging time for all age and sex classes increased with date following hatch within years. Foraging time increased and time spent alert decreased between 1987 and 1993 for both adult males and adult females. The trend in foraging behavior for adults is consistent with an hypothesis of declining food availability at higher brood densities and declining alert behavior by adults has implications for prefledging survival of young.

  9. Factors limiting mallard brood survival in prairie pothole landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, Gary L.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Brandt, David A.; Cox, Robert R.

    2000-01-01

    In order to estimate mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) production from managed and unmanaged lands, waterfowl biologists need measurable predictors of brood survival. We evaluated effects of percent of seasonal basins holding water (WETSEAS), percent of upland landscape in perennial cover (PERNCOVER), rainfall (RAIN), daily minimum ambient temperature (TMIN), hatch date (HATCHDATE), brood age (BA; 0-7 or 8-30 days), age of brood females, and brood size on mallard brood survival in prairie pothole landscapes, and developed a predictive model using factors found to have significant effects. Sixteen of 56 radiomarked broods experienced total loss during 1,250 exposure days. Our final fitted model of brood survival contained only main effects of WETSEAS, HATCHDATE, and RAIN. Total brood loss during the first 30 days of exposure was 11.2 times more likely for broods hatched on areas with 59% WETSEAS. Total brood loss was 5.2 times more likely during rainy conditions than during dry periods, and the hazard of total brood loss increased by 5% for each 1-day delay in hatching between 17 May and 12 August. High survival of mallard broods in landscapes where most seasonal basins contain water underscores the importance of maintaining seasonal wetlands as a major component of wetland complexes managed for mallard production. Because early hatched broods have higher survival, we also suggest that waterfowl managers focus their efforts on enhancing nest success of early laid clutches, especially in wet years.

  10. A new gender-specific model for skin autofluorescence risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad S; Damanhouri, Zoheir A; Kimhofer, Torben; Mosli, Hala H; Holmes, Elaine

    2015-05-14

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are believed to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Non-invasive skin autofluorescence (SAF) measurement serves as a proxy for tissue accumulation of AGEs. We assessed reference SAF and skin reflectance (SR) values in a Saudi population (n = 1,999) and evaluated the existing risk stratification scale. The mean SAF of the study cohort was 2.06 (SD = 0.57) arbitrary units (AU), which is considerably higher than the values reported for other populations. We show a previously unreported and significant difference in SAF values between men and women, with median (range) values of 1.77 AU (0.79-4.84 AU) and 2.20 AU (0.75-4.59 AU) respectively (p-value « 0.01). Age, presence of diabetes and BMI were the most influential variables in determining SAF values in men, whilst in female participants, SR was also highly correlated with SAF. Diabetes, hypertension and obesity all showed strong association with SAF, particularly when gender differences were taken into account. We propose an adjusted, gender-specific disease risk stratification scheme for Middle Eastern populations. SAF is a potentially valuable clinical screening tool for cardiovascular risk assessment but risk scores should take gender and ethnicity into consideration for accurate diagnosis.

  11. Gender specific changes in cortical activation patterns during exposure to artificial gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Stefan; Robinson, Ryan; Smith, Craig; von der Wiesche, Melanie; Goswami, Nandu

    2014-11-01

    Keeping astronauts healthy during long duration spaceflight remains a challenge. Artificial gravity (AG) generated by a short arm human centrifuges (SAHC) is proposed as the next generation of integrated countermeasure devices that will allow human beings to safely spend extended durations in space, although comparatively little is known about any psychological side effects of AG on brain function. 16 participants (8 male and 8 female, GENDER) were exposed to 10 min at a baseline gravitational load (G-Load) of +.03 Gz, then 10 min at +.6 Gz for females and +.8 Gz for males, before being exposed to increasing levels of AG in a stepped manner by increasing the acceleration by +.1 Gz every 3 min until showing signs of pre-syncope. EEG recordings were taken of brain activity during 2 min time periods at each AG level. Analysing the results of the mixed total population of participants by two way ANOVA, a significant effect of centrifugation on alpha and beta activity was found (p<.01). Furthermore results revealed a significant interaction between G-LOAD and GENDER alpha-activity (p<.01), but not for beta-activity. Although the increase in alpha and beta activity with G-LOAD does not reflect a general model of cortical arousal and therefore cannot support previous findings reporting that AG may be a cognitively arousing environment, the gender specific responses identified in this study may have wider implications for EEG and AG research.

  12. Identification of Gender-Specific Candidate Genes That Influence Bone Microarchitecture in Chromosome 1

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Subburaman; Hu, Yan; Edderkaoui, Bouchra

    2016-01-01

    The studies on the identification of the genetic basis for sexual dimorphism in peak bone mass are obviously important toward providing novel therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat metabolic bone diseases. Our goal in this study is to identify the bone microstructure that could lead to differences in volumetric (v) bone mineral density (BMD) and identify new candidate genes that regulate the gender effect on bone. Therefore, we used a congenic line of mice that carry the BMD1-4 locus from CAST/EiJ (CAST) mice in a C57BL/6J (B6) background and show greater vBMD in female but not male congenics compared to age and gender matched B6 mice. To assess the vBMD variations between the two lines of mice, we performed micro-CT measurements and found no difference in cortical bone volume by tissue volume (BV/TV) between congenics and B6 mice. However, trabecular BV/TV was significantly greater in female but not male congenics compared to corresponding B6 mice which was due to increased trabecular thickness but not reduced trabecular separation suggesting that a bone formation but not a bone resorption is responsible for the trabecular bone phenotype observed in the female but not male congenics. To identify the gender candidate genes, we have determined the polymorphisms between B6 and CAST within the BMD1-4 locus and performed gene expression profiling. We have identified ef-hand calcium binding domain (Efcab2), consortin, connexin sorting protein (Cnst) and presenilin 2 (Psen2) as potential candidate genes that regulate bone mass by influencing trabecular thickness in a gender specific manner. PMID:23263656

  13. Gender-specific metabolic responses in hepatopancreas of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis challenged by Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Ma, Mengwen; Zhang, Yuemei

    2014-10-01

    Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a marine aquaculture shellfish and frequently studied in shellfish immunology. In this work, the gender-specific metabolic responses induced by Vibrio harveyi in hepatopancreas from M. galloprovincialis were characterized using NMR-based metabolomics. In details, V. harveyi challenge increased the levels of amino acids including (valine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, alanine, arginine and tyrosine) and ATP, and decreased the level of glucose in male mussel hepatopancreas. In V. harveyi-challenged female mussel hepatopancreas, both threonine and AMP were significantly elevated, and choline, phoshphocholine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, taurine, betaine and ATP were depleted. Obviously, only threonine was similarly altered to that in V. harveyi-challenged male mussel hepatopancreas. These findings confirmed the gender-specific metabolic responses in mussels challenged by V. harveyi. Overall, V. harveyi induced an enhanced energy demand through activated glycolysis and immune response indicated by increased BCAAs in male mussel hepatopancreas. In female mussel hepatopancreas, V. harveyi basically caused disturbances in both osmotic regulation and energy metabolism through the metabolic pathways of conversions of phosphocholine and ADP to choline and ATP, and sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and H2O into choline and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (Cu/Zn-SOD, HSP90, lysozyme and defensin) suggested that V. harveyi induced obvious oxidative and immune stresses in both male and female mussel hepatopancreas. This work demonstrated that V. harveyi could induce gender-specific metabolic responses in mussel M. galloprovincialis hepatopancreas using NMR-based metabolomics.

  14. Gender, aging and longevity in humans: an update of an intriguing/neglected scenario paving the way to a gender-specific medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ostan, Rita; Monti, Daniela; Gueresi, Paola; Bussolotto, Mauro; Franceschi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Data showing a remarkable gender difference in life expectancy and mortality, including survival to extreme age, are reviewed starting from clinical and demographic data and stressing the importance of a comprehensive historical perspective and a gene–environment/lifestyle interaction. Gender difference regarding prevalence and incidence of the most important age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, Type 2 diabetes, disability, autoimmunity and infections, are reviewed and updated with particular attention to the role of the immune system and immunosenescence. On the whole, gender differences appear to be pervasive and still poorly considered and investigated despite their biomedical relevance. The basic biological mechanisms responsible for gender differences in aging and longevity are quite complex and still poorly understood. The present review focuses on centenarians and their offspring as a model of healthy aging and summarizes available knowledge on three basic biological phenomena, i.e. age-related X chromosome inactivation skewing, gut microbiome changes and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA genetic variants. In conclusion, an appropriate gender-specific medicine approach is urgently needed and should be systematically pursued in studies on healthy aging, longevity and age-related diseases, in a globalized world characterized by great gender differences which have a high impact on health and diseases. PMID:27555614

  15. Acute Injuries in Student Circus Artists with Regard to Gender Specific Differences

    PubMed Central

    Wanke, Eileen M.; McCormack, Moira; Koch, Franziska; Wanke, Alice; Groneberg, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Student circus artists train as both artists and athletes with their bodies holding the key to professional success. The daily training load of student circus artists is often associated with maximum physical and psychological stress with injuries posing a threat to a potential professional career. The purpose of this study is the differentiated analysis and evaluation of work accidents in order to initiate the development of injury preventive programs. Methods The 17 years of data were obtained from standardized anonymous work accident records of the Berlin State Accident Insurance (UKB) as well as a State Artist Educational School (n = 169, Male: 70; Female: 99) from student artists. Evaluation and descriptive statistics were conducted with Excel 2007 and PASW Statistics 18. Results The injury risk seems to be relatively low (0.3 injuries/1000h). There are gender specific differences as to the location of injuries. Only 7% of the accidents demand a break of more than 3 days. Injury patterns vary depending on the activity and the employment of props/equipment. 75.2% of work accidents have multifactorial and 24.8% exogenous causes. Conclusions Because physical fitness is all important in the circus arts there are numerous options for injury prevention programs that should be realized subject to gender-specific differences. Follow-ups on chronic complaints and a more individual approach are indispensable due to the very specific activities in the circus arts. PMID:23012634

  16. Gender-Specific Correlates of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shibing; Eaton, Charles B.; McAlindon, Timothy; Lapane, Kate L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) increases healthcare use and cost. Women have higher pain and lower quality of life measures compared to men even after accounting for differences in age, body mass index (BMI), and radiographic OA severity. Our objective was to describe gender-specific correlates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among persons with radiographically confirmed knee OA. Methods Using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, 2,679 women and men with radiographic tibiofemoral OA in at least one knee were identified. Treatment approaches were classified as current CAM therapy (alternative medical systems, mind-body interventions, manipulation and body-based methods, energy therapies, and three types of biologically based therapies) or conventional medication use (over-the-counter or prescription). Gender-specific multivariable logistic regression models identified sociodemographic and clinical/functional correlates of CAM use. Results CAM use, either alone (23.9% women, 21.9% men) or with conventional medications (27.3% women, 19.0% men), was common. Glucosamine use (27.2% women, 28.2% men) and chondroitin sulfate use (24.8% women; 25.7% men) did not differ by gender. Compared to men, women were more likely to report use of mind-body interventions (14.1% vs. 5.7%), topical agents (16.1% vs. 9.5%), and concurrent CAM strategies (18.0% vs. 9.9%). Higher quality of life measures and physical function indices in women were inversely associated with any therapy, and higher pain scores were positively associated with conventional medication use. History of hip replacement was a strong correlate of conventional medication use in women but not in men. Conclusions Women were more likely than men to use CAM alone or concomitantly with conventional medications. PMID:22946630

  17. Angle- and gender-specific quadriceps femoris muscle recruitment and knee extensor torque.

    PubMed

    Pincivero, Danny M; Salfetnikov, Yuliya; Campy, Robert M; Coelho, Alan J

    2004-11-01

    The objectives were to examine knee angle-, and gender-specific knee extensor torque output and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle recruitment during maximal effort, voluntary contractions. Fourteen young adult men and 15 young adult women performed three isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), in a random order, with the knee at 0 degrees (terminal extension), 10 degrees, 30 degrees, 50 degrees, 70 degrees, and 90 degrees flexion. Knee extensor peak torque (PT), and average torque (AT) were expressed in absolute (N m), relative (N m kg(-1)) and allometric-modeled (N m kg(-n)) units. Vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris (RF) muscle EMG signals were full-wave rectified and integrated over the middle 3 s of each contraction, averaged over the three trials at each knee angle, and normalized to the activity recorded at 0 degrees. Muscle recruitment efficiency was calculated as the ratio of the normalized EMG of each muscle to the allometric-modeled average torque (normalized to the values at 0 degrees flexion), and expressed as a percent. Men generated significantly greater knee extensor PT and AT than women in absolute, relative and allometric-modeled units. Absolute and relative PT and AT were significantly highest at 70 degrees, while allometric-modeled values were observed to increase significantly across knee joint angles 10-90 degrees. VM EMG was significantly greater than the VL and RF muscles across all angles, and followed a similar pattern to absolute knee extensor torque. Recruitment efficiency improved across knee joint angles 10-90 degrees and was highest for the VL muscle. VM recruitment efficiency improved more than the VL and RF muscles across 70-90 degrees flexion. The findings demonstrate angle-, and gender-specific responses of knee extensor torque to maximal-effort contractions, while superficial QF muscle recruitment was most efficient at 90 degrees, and less dependent on gender.

  18. Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Samantha J.; Chivers, Meredith L.

    2016-01-01

    Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women’s gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men’s attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men’s initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women’s were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems. PMID:27088358

  19. Gender- and stressor-specific microRNA expression in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Freitak, Dalial; Knorr, Eileen; Vogel, Heiko; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2012-10-23

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs mediating post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Addressing their role in regulation of physiological adaptations to environmental stress in insects, we selected the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum as a model. Beetles were fed with the bacterial entomopathogen Pseudomonas entomophila (to mimic natural infection), injected with peptidoglycan (experimental setting of strong immune responses) or subjected to either mild heat shock or starvation. Differential expression of selected immunity- and stress-related genes was quantified using real-time PCR, and expression and induction of 455 mature arthropod miRNAs were determined using proprietary microarrays. We found that Tribolium exhibits both gender- and stressor-specific adjustment of immune gene and miRNA expression. Strikingly, we discovered that the number of stressor-induced miRNAs in females is remarkably higher than in males. This observation could support the hypothesis called Bateman's principle in immunity that predicts gender-specific immune responses because females gain fitness through increased longevity, whereas males gain fitness by increasing mating rates. Our results suggest that Tribolium males and females display differential regulatory elements, both pre- and post-transcriptional, likely resulting from different investment strategies in life-history traits.

  20. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. tha...

  1. From Child Maltreatment to Violent Offending: An Examination of Mixed-Gender and Gender-Specific Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topitzes, James; Mersky, Joshua P.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that child maltreatment predicts juvenile violence, but it is uncertain whether the effects of victimization persist into adulthood or differ across gender. Furthermore, we know little about the mechanisms underlying the victim-perpetrator cycle for males and females. Consequently, this study analyzed associations between child…

  2. [Nutrition in overweight and obesity with a specific focus on gender aspects].

    PubMed

    Dämon, Sabine; Schindler, Karin; Rittmannsberger, Barbara; Schätzer, Manuel; Hoppichler, Friedrich

    2016-03-01

    Efforts to optimize the diet in terms of prevention and treatment of obesity aim at long-term adaptation and reduction of energy intake according to age and physiological requirements while preserving the nutrient density with consideration of individual food preferences.As the nutritional habits of the average Austrian people are unfavorable for obesity prevention there is a clear need for action. Women are "disadvantaged" in weight control compared to men in terms of physiological conditions-and are confronted with specific needs during life course (e.g. pregnancy), whereas the average man or male adolescents present "unhealthier" behaviors and attitudes and are (still) less interested on nutrition or weight control.To achieve better nutrition a target-group specific, gender-sensitive guidance of the individual is needed, starting with pregnant women, but also habitat-oriented interventions for improved nutrition offers, which have to be sustainably assured through the support of a relevant legal and social framework.

  3. Gender-Specific Molecular and Clinical Features underlie Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Rienzo, Assunta De; Archer, Michael A.; Yeap, Beow Y.; Dao, Nhien; Sciaranghella, Daniele; Sideris, Antonios C.; Zheng, Yifan; Holman, Alexander G.; Wang, Yaoyu E.; Dal Cin, Paola S.; Fletcher, Jonathan A.; Rubio, Renee; Croft, Larry; Quackenbush, John; Sugarbaker, Peter E.; Munir, Kiara J.; Battilana, Jesse R.; Gustafson, Corinne E.; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Ching, Soo Meng; Wong, James; Tay, Liang Chung; Rudd, Stephen; Hercus, Robert; Sugarbaker, David J.; Richards, William G.; Bueno, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer that occurs more frequently in men, but is associated with longer survival in women. Insight into the survival advantage of female patients may advance the molecular understanding of MPM and identify therapeutic interventions that will improve the prognosis for all MPM patients. In this study, we performed whole-genome sequencing of tumor specimens from 10 MPM patients and matched control samples to identify potential driver mutations underlying MPM. We identified molecular differences associated with gender and histology. Specifically, single-nucleotide variants of BAP1 were observed in 21% of cases, with lower mutation rates observed in sarcomatoid MPM (p<0.001). Chromosome 22q loss was more frequently associated with the epithelioid than that non-epitheliod histology (p=0.037), whereas CDKN2A deletions occurred more frequently in non-epithelioid subtypes among men (p=0.021) and were correlated with shorter overall survival for the entire cohort (p=0.002) and for men (p=0.012). Furthermore, women were more likely to harbor TP53 mutations (p=0.004). Novel mutations were found in genes associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway, including MYH9 and RHOA. Moreover, expression levels of BAP1, MYH9, and RHOA were significantly higher in non-epithelioid tumors, and were associated with significant reduction in survival of the entire cohort and across gender subgroups. Collectively, our findings indicate that diverse mechanisms highly related to gender and histology appear to drive MPM. PMID:26554828

  4. Identification of Gender-Specific Genetic Variants in Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Dargis, Natasha; Lamontagne, Maxime; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Sbarra, Laura; Henry, Cyndi; Pibarot, Philippe; Mathieu, Patrick; Bossé, Yohan

    2016-02-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most frequent congenital heart defect and has a male predominance of 3 to 1. A large proportion of patients develop valvular and aortic complications. Despite the high prevalence of BAV, its cause and genetic origins remain elusive. The goal of this study was to identify genetic variants associated with BAV. Nine genes previously associated with BAV (NOTCH1, AXIN1, EGFR, ENG, GATA5, NKX2-5, NOS3, PDIA2, and TGFBR2) were sequenced in 48 patients with BAV using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Pathogenicity of genetic variants was evaluated with the Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion framework. A selection of 89 variants identified by sequencing or in previous BAV genetic studies was genotyped, and allele frequencies were compared in 323 patients with BAV confirmed at surgery and 584 controls. Analyses were also performed by gender. Nine novel and 19 potentially pathogenic variants were identified by next-generation sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing, but they were not associated with BAV in the case-control population. A significant association was observed between an in silico-predicted benign EGFR intronic variant (rs17290301) and BAV. Analyses performed by gender revealed different variants associated with BAV in men (EGFR rs533525993 and TEX26 rs12857479) and women (NOTCH1 rs61751489, TGFBR2 rs1155705, and NKX2-5 rs2277923). In conclusion, these results constitute the first association between EGFR genetic variants and BAV in humans and support a possible role of gender-specific polymorphisms in the development of BAV.

  5. Coevolution is linked with phenotypic diversification but not speciation in avian brood parasites

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2015-01-01

    Coevolution is often invoked as an engine of biological diversity. Avian brood parasites and their hosts provide one of the best-known examples of coevolution. Brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other species, selecting for host defences and reciprocal counteradaptations in parasites. In theory, this arms race should promote increased rates of speciation and phenotypic evolution. Here, we use recently developed methods to test whether the three largest avian brood parasitic lineages show changes in rates of phenotypic diversity and speciation relative to non-parasitic lineages. Our results challenge the accepted paradigm, and show that there is little consistent evidence that lineages of brood parasites have higher speciation or extinction rates than non-parasitic species. However, we provide the first evidence that the evolution of brood parasitic behaviour may affect rates of evolution in morphological traits associated with parasitism. Specifically, egg size and the colour and pattern of plumage have evolved up to nine times faster in parasitic than in non-parasitic cuckoos. Moreover, cuckoo clades of parasitic species that are sympatric (and share similar host genera) exhibit higher rates of phenotypic evolution. This supports the idea that competition for hosts may be linked to the high phenotypic diversity found in parasitic cuckoos. PMID:26702044

  6. Psychotic Alzheimer's disease is associated with gender-specific tau phosphorylation abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Jeremy; Acker, Chris; Davies, Peter; Lopez, Oscar L; Jimenez, Heidy; Azose, Miriam; Greenwald, Blaine S; Murray, Patrick S; Kirkwood, Caitlin M; Kofler, Julia; Sweet, Robert A

    2014-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests that psychotic Alzheimer's disease (AD + P) is associated with an acceleration of frontal degeneration, with tau pathology playing a primary role. Previous histopathologic and biomarker studies have specifically implicated tau pathology in this condition. To precisely quantify tau abnormalities in the frontal cortex in AD + P, we used a sensitive biochemical assay of total tau and 4 epitopes of phospho-tau relevant in AD pathology in a postmortem sample of AD + P and AD - P. Samples of superior frontal gyrus from 26 AD subjects without psychosis and 45 AD + P subjects with psychosis were analyzed. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrate that AD + P females, but not males, had significantly higher levels of phosphorylated tau in the frontal cortex. In males, but not females, AD + P was associated with the presence of α-synuclein pathology. These results support a gender dissociation of pathology in AD + P. The design of future studies aimed at the elucidation of cognitive and/or functional outcomes; regional brain metabolic deficits; or genetic correlates of AD + P should take gender into consideration.

  7. A new training algorithm using artificial neural networks to classify gender-specific dynamic gait patterns.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Andre; Costa, Marcelo; Paolucci, Leopoldo; Braga, Antônio; Pires, Flavio; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Menzel, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a new training algorithm using artificial neural networks called multi-objective least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (MOBJ-LASSO) applied to the classification of dynamic gait patterns. The movement pattern is identified by 20 characteristics from the three components of the ground reaction force which are used as input information for the neural networks in gender-specific gait classification. The classification performance between MOBJ-LASSO (97.4%) and multi-objective algorithm (MOBJ) (97.1%) is similar, but the MOBJ-LASSO algorithm achieved more improved results than the MOBJ because it is able to eliminate the inputs and automatically select the parameters of the neural network. Thus, it is an effective tool for data mining using neural networks. From 20 inputs used for training, MOBJ-LASSO selected the first and second peaks of the vertical force and the force peak in the antero-posterior direction as the variables that classify the gait patterns of the different genders.

  8. Thyroid Hormones Regulate Zebrafish Melanogenesis in a Gender-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Guillot, Raúl; Muriach, Borja; Rocha, Ana; Rotllant, Josep; Kelsh, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos are treated with anti-thyroidal compounds, such as phenylthiourea, to inhibit melanogenesis. However, the mechanism whereby the thyroidal system controls melanin synthesis has not been assessed in detail. In this work, we tested the effect of the administration of diets supplemented with T3 (500μg/g food) on the pigment pattern of adult zebrafish. Oral T3 induced a pronounced skin paling in both adult female and male zebrafish that was reversible upon cessation of treatment. The number of visible melanophores was significantly reduced in treated fish. Accordingly, treatment down-regulated expression of tyrosinase-related protein 1 in both sexes. We also found sexually dimorphic regulation of some melanogenic genes, such as Dct/Tyrp2 that was dramatically up-regulated in females after T3 treatment. Thus, we demonstrated that melanogenesis is reversibly inhibited by thyroid hormones in adult zebrafish and make the discovery of gender-specific differences in the response of melanogenic gene expression. Thus, fish gender is now shown to be an important variable that should be controlled in future studies of fish melanogenesis. PMID:27832141

  9. Thyroid Hormones Regulate Zebrafish Melanogenesis in a Gender-Specific Manner.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Raúl; Muriach, Borja; Rocha, Ana; Rotllant, Josep; Kelsh, Robert N; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos are treated with anti-thyroidal compounds, such as phenylthiourea, to inhibit melanogenesis. However, the mechanism whereby the thyroidal system controls melanin synthesis has not been assessed in detail. In this work, we tested the effect of the administration of diets supplemented with T3 (500μg/g food) on the pigment pattern of adult zebrafish. Oral T3 induced a pronounced skin paling in both adult female and male zebrafish that was reversible upon cessation of treatment. The number of visible melanophores was significantly reduced in treated fish. Accordingly, treatment down-regulated expression of tyrosinase-related protein 1 in both sexes. We also found sexually dimorphic regulation of some melanogenic genes, such as Dct/Tyrp2 that was dramatically up-regulated in females after T3 treatment. Thus, we demonstrated that melanogenesis is reversibly inhibited by thyroid hormones in adult zebrafish and make the discovery of gender-specific differences in the response of melanogenic gene expression. Thus, fish gender is now shown to be an important variable that should be controlled in future studies of fish melanogenesis.

  10. Gender-specific modulation of neural mechanisms underlying social reward processing by Autism Quotient.

    PubMed

    Barman, Adriana; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Deibele, Anna; Richter, Anni; Assmann, Anne; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Walter, Henrik; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Schott, Björn H

    2015-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder refers to a neurodevelopmental condition primarily characterized by deficits in social cognition and behavior. Subclinically, autistic features are supposed to be present in healthy humans and can be quantified using the Autism Quotient (AQ). Here, we investigated a potential relationship between AQ and neural correlates of social and monetary reward processing, using functional magnetic resonance imaging in young, healthy participants. In an incentive delay task with either monetary or social reward, reward anticipation elicited increased ventral striatal activation, which was more pronounced during monetary reward anticipation. Anticipation of social reward elicited activation in the default mode network (DMN), a network previously implicated in social processing. Social reward feedback was associated with bilateral amygdala and fusiform face area activation. The relationship between AQ and neural correlates of social reward processing varied in a gender-dependent manner. In women and, to a lesser extent in men, higher AQ was associated with increased posterior DMN activation during social reward anticipation. During feedback, we observed a negative correlation of AQ and right amygdala activation in men only. Our results suggest that social reward processing might constitute an endophenotype for autism-related traits in healthy humans that manifests in a gender-specific way.

  11. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  12. Self-organized criticality in ant brood tending.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, D V; Robinson, P A; Myerscough, M R

    2003-03-07

    A new stochastic lattice gas model of ant brood tending is formulated to examine the role played by repulsive ant-ant interactions in the even distribution of care among brood members. The deterministic limit of the model is known to be self-organized critical. Numerical simulations of the model show that the ant-ant repulsion facilitates an even distribution of brood care in the middle of the brood. This provides a possible explanation for the fact that ants sort their brood so that the youngest brood (which are most in need of care) are placed in the middle. Simulations show that the uniformity of brood care distribution is optimal when ants operate in a regime intermediate between completely random and completely deterministic. A certain degree of randomness helps ants to avoid becoming trapped in suboptimal configurations but does not destroy the long-range correlations that are inherent to self-organized critical systems.

  13. Personality Traits and Gender-Specific Income Expectations in Dutch Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Need, Ariana; de Jong, Uulkje

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine gender differences in income expectations of students in higher education. We found quite large gender differences. Men and women differ significantly in the income they expect to earn at the top of their career. We examined how much personality traits contribute to explain gender differences in income expectations, and…

  14. Species richness and distributions of boreal waterbirds in relation to nesting and brood-rearing habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Tyler L.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Bertram, Mark R.; Dubour, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    distributions are largely driven by the presence of quality brood-rearing lakes, not nesting habitats. Our findings are relevant to generating conservation plans or management goals; specifically, boreal lakes with abundant amphipods and surface areas >25 ha are important habitat for waterbird broods and merit conservation, especially given the patchy distribution of amphipods. Moreover, these high quality brood-rearing lakes are much rarer, and thus more constraining, than are quality nesting habitats, which are likely abundant in the boreal.

  15. [Symptomatic Black Queen Cell Virus infection of drone brood in Hessian apiaries].

    PubMed

    Siede, Reinhold; Büchler, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    The Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV) can affect brood of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). In general queen cells are endangered showing dark coloured cell walls as typical symptoms. Worker- and dronebrood can be infected by BQCV but normally without clinical symptoms. This paper describes for the first time a symptomatic BQCV-infection of diseased drone brood found on two bee yards in Hessen/Germany in 2001. The drone larvae were seriously damaged and some of them were dead. Samples of the affected brood were tested for BQCV by the PCR detection method. A BQCV specific nucleic acid fragment was found. The PCR product were sequenced and aligned with the relevant GenBank entry. At the nucleic acid level as well as at the deduced protein level the isolate showed a high similarity with the south african isolate noted in GenBank.

  16. Disease and gender-specific dysregulation of NGAL and MMP-9 in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Thrailkill, Kathryn M; Moreau, Cynthia S; Cockrell, Gael E; Jo, Chan-Hee; Bunn, Robert C; Morales-Pozzo, Alba E; Lumpkin, Charles K; Fowlkes, John L

    2010-04-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a biomarker of renal injury, can bind matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and inhibit its degradation, thereby sustaining MMP-9 proteolytic activity. MMP-9 is produced by renal podocytes, and podocyte MMP production can be modified by high ambient glucose levels. Moreover, dysregulation of MMP-9 activity, gene expression, or urine concentrations has been demonstrated in T2DM-associated nephropathy and in non-diabetic proteinuric renal diseases. Our objective was to determine whether NGAL/MMP-9 dysregulation might contribute to or serve as a biomarker of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 DM (T1DM). Plasma MMP-9, and urine NGAL and MMP-9 concentrations were measured in 121 T1DM and 55 control subjects and examined relative to indicators of glycemia, renal function, and degree of albuminuria. T1DM was associated with a significant increase in urinary excretion of both NGAL and MMP-9, and urine NGAL:Cr (NGAL corrected to urine creatinine) and urine MMP-9:Cr concentrations were highly correlated with each other. Both were also positively correlated with measurements of glycemic control and with albuminuria. Plasma MMP-9, urine MMP-9, and urine NGAL concentrations were significantly higher in females compared to males, and urine MMP-9:Cr concentrations displayed a menstrual cycle specific pattern. Increased urinary excretion of NGAL and MMP-9 supports a role for NGAL/MMP-9 dysregulation in renal dysfunction; moreover, gender-specific differences could support a gender contribution to pathological mechanisms or susceptibility for the development of renal complications in diabetes mellitus.

  17. Testing Measurement Invariance and Latent Mean Differences across Gender Groups in College Students' Internet-Specific Epistemic Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Yen-Lin; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the measurement invariance and gender differences in the Internet-specific epistemic beliefs between male and female undergraduates. A total of 735 university students in Taiwan were surveyed using the Internet-specific epistemic beliefs questionnaire (ISEQ). By conducting structural equation modeling…

  18. Brood size constrains the development of endothermy in blue tits.

    PubMed

    Andreasson, Fredrik; Nord, Andreas; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-07-15

    Altricial birds are unable to maintain body temperature when exposed to low ambient temperatures during the first days after hatching. Thermoregulatory capacity begins to form as postnatal development progresses, and eventually nestlings become homeothermic. Several factors may influence this development at both the level of the individual and the level of the whole brood, but to our knowledge no studies have focused on the effect of brood size per se on the development of endothermy in individual nestlings. We performed cooling experiments on blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) nestlings in the field, to study how different experimental brood sizes affected the development of endothermy in individual nestlings and the thermal environment experienced by the whole brood in the nest. Nestlings from all experimental brood sizes showed a decrease in cooling rate as they grew older, but birds from reduced broods showed an earlier onset of endothermy compared with nestlings from enlarged and control broods. This difference manifested during early development and gradually disappeared as nestlings grew older. The thermal environment in the nests differed between treatments during nestling development, such that nest temperature in reduced broods was lower than that in enlarged broods during all days and during nights at the end of the experimental period. We suggest that the development of endothermy in blue tit nestlings is not ontogenetically fixed, but instead may vary according to differences in developmental, nutritional and thermal conditions as determined by brood size.

  19. Does brood reduction provide nestling survivors with a food bonus?

    PubMed

    Ploger

    1997-11-01

    Siblicide is common in many asynchronously hatching birds, including brown pelicans, Pelecanus occidentalisMost adaptive models of siblicide, and of brood reduction in general, tacitly assume that parental deliveries of food remain fixed, and therefore that supplies to seniors remain unchanged or increase after a junior's death. If parents match deliveries to brood size, however, then seniors may get less food following brood reduction. To test the assumption that parental deliveries remain constant, and to determine how brood reduction affected seniors, food deliveries to control (three-chick) and experimentally reduced (two-chick) broods of brown pelicans were compared. Parents brought less food to reduced than to control broods. Similarly, a literature review revealed that avian parents generally delivered less food to smaller than to larger broods of experimentally altered sizes. In brown pelicans, when food deliveries decreased following brood reduction, second-hatched ('B') chicks received less food, but first-hatched ('A') chicks' supplies remained unchanged. B-chicks may have gained more in control broods by appropriating the extra food that last-hatched ('C') chicks otherwise would have gained. If brood reduction decreases fighting, nestlings may gain more net energy even if they receive less food. Fighting did not decrease significantly in reduced broods, perhaps because fledging averaged one chick/brood, so A and B-chicks still competed intensely. Alternatively, small sample sizes may have prevented detection of differences in fighting. Seniors did not concentrate their attacks on C-chicks, perhaps because seniors may benefit by delaying the decreases in parental food deliveries that follow brood reduction.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

  20. Gender-specific and intraspecific responses of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianzhong

    I studied gender-specific and intraspecific variations in the physiological responses of Populus tremuloides to elevated CO2 as affected by soil N availability. I also synthesized leaf dark respiration data from independent studies using meta-analysis. Net CO2 assimilation rate (A) of male P. tremuloides was 17.8 and 26.2 μmol m-2 s-1 at ambient and elevated CO2, significantly higher than A of females of 15.6 and 21.0 μmol m-2 s-1 . Male trembling aspen had a higher maximum rate of CO2 fixation by Rubisco and area-based leaf dark respiration (Rda). Mass-based leaf Rd (Rdm), however, was unaffected by gender and CO2 concentration, although the results of meta-analysis on 44 independent observations showed that Rdm was reduced 18.4% by elevated CO2. We found a positive correlation between Rd a and leaf starch content, which was higher at elevated CO2, but no correlation between Rda and leaf N content was observed, suggesting the importance of starch content in determining the magnitude of respiration. Total biomass accumulation of female P. tremuloides was higher than that of males in low-N soil and at ambient CO2, but not in other treatments. Elevated CO2, on the other hand, significantly increased total biomass of both male and female trees in low- and high-N soil, with the increase ranging from 22-70% for female and 58-66% for male trees. There was a significant CO2 x genotype interaction in photosynthetic responses to CO2 enrichment, wherein A was significantly enhanced by elevated CO2 for five genotypes in high-N soil and for four genotypes in low-N soil. Enhancement of A by elevated CO2 ranged from 14% to 68%. We found a correlation between the degree of A enhancement to elevated CO2 and stomatal sensitivity to CO2. Stomatal conductance and A of different genotypes also responded differentially to drought stress. Our results suggest that P. tremuloides genotypes and genders respond differentially in A and Rd to rising atmospheric CO2 , with the degree of

  1. Gender-specific influences of balance, speed, and power on agility performance.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Damir; Spasic, Miodrag; Mirkov, Dragan; Cavar, Mile; Sattler, Tine

    2013-03-01

    The quick change of direction (i.e., agility) is an important athletic ability in numerous sports. Because of the diverse and therefore hardly predictable manifestations of agility in sports, studies noted that the improvement in speed, power, and balance should result in an improvement of agility. However, there is evident lack of data regarding the influence of potential predictors on different agility manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the gender-specific influence of speed, power, and balance on different agility tests. A total of 32 college-aged male athletes and 31 college-aged female athletes (age 20.02 ± 1.89 years) participated in this study. The subjects were mostly involved in team sports (soccer, team handball, basketball, and volleyball; 80% of men, and 75% of women), martial arts, gymnastics, and dance. Anthropometric variables consisted of body height, body weight, and the body mass index. Five agility tests were used: a t-test (T-TEST), zig-zag test, 20-yard shuttle test, agility test with a 180-degree turn, and forward-backward running agility test (FWDBWD). Other tests included 1 jumping ability power test (squat jump, SQJ), 2 balance tests to determine the overall stability index and an overall limit of stability score (both measured by Biodex Balance System), and 2 running speed tests using a straight sprint for 10 and 20 m (S10 and S20, respectively). A reliability analysis showed that all the agility tests were reliable. Multiple regression and correlation analysis found speed and power (among women), and balance (among men), as most significant predictors of agility. The highest Pearson's correlation in both genders is found between the results of the FWDBWD and S10M tests (0.77 and 0.81 for men and women, respectively; p < 0.05). Power, measured using the SQJ, is significantly (p < 0.05) related to FWDBWD and T-TEST results but only for women (-0.44; -0.41). The balance measures were significantly related to the agility

  2. Stage- and Gender-Specific Proteomic Analysis of Brugia malayi Excretory-Secretory Products

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Yovany; Geary, Timothy G.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction While we lack a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which parasites establish and achieve protection from host immune responses, it is accepted that many of these processes are mediated by products, primarily proteins, released from the parasite. Parasitic nematodes occur in different life stages and anatomical compartments within the host. Little is known about the composition and variability of products released at different developmental stages and their contribution to parasite survival and progression of the infection. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain a deeper understanding on these aspects, we collected and analyzed through 1D-SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS the Excretory-Secretory Products (ESP) of adult female, adult male and microfilariae of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, one of the etiological agents of human lymphatic filariasis. This proteomic analysis led to the identification of 228 proteins. The list includes 76 proteins with unknown function as well as also proteins with potential immunoregulatory properties, such as protease inhibitors, cytokine homologues and carbohydrate-binding proteins. Larval and adult ESP differed in composition. Only 32 proteins were shared between all three stages/genders. Consistent with this observation, different gene ontology profiles were associated with the different ESP. Conclusions/Significance A comparative analysis of the proteins released in vitro by different forms of a parasitic nematode dwelling in the same host is presented. The catalog of secreted proteins reflects different stage- and gender-specific related processes and different strategies of immune evasion, providing valuable insights on the contribution of each form of the parasite for establishing the host–parasite interaction. PMID:18958170

  3. Movements and wetland selection by brood-rearing black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Movements and wetland selection by brood-rearing black ducks (Anas rubripes) were studied in Maine during 1977-80. Eight radio-marked hens moved their broods an average of 1.2 km from the nest to rearing pond, but only 1 hen initiated secondary brood movements. Half of the 85 broods reared in the study area used only 3 wetlands, and most rearing ponds contained active beaver (Castor canadensis) colonies. Brood-rearing hens preferred Emergent ponds over lakes and Evergreen Scrub-Shrub wetlands, and did not occupy Dead Scrub-Shrub, Unconsolidated Bottom, or Aquatic Bed wetlands. Rearing ponds were large and possessed extensive areas of flooded mountain alder (Alnus incana), willow (Salix spp.), and herbaceous vegetation. Wetlands avoided by brood-rearing hens were those with large areas of open water, submergent aquatics, or ericaceous shrub vegetation.

  4. Movements and habitat use of mallard broods in northeastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauser, D.M.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    To increase recruitment of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wildlife managers must understand the habitat and space needs of mallard broods. During 1989-90, we examined the movements, home range, and habitat use of 27 radio-marked mallard broods on Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, California. Twelve of the 27 broods made 22 relocation movements (>1,000 m in 24 hr) in the first week (n = 6) and after the fourth (n = 16) week of life. Mean home range size was 0.93 km2 (SE = 0.25) and did not differ between years (P = 0.26). Brood-rearing females selected seasonally flooded wetlands with a cover component and avoided open or permanently flooded habitats. In 1989, broods hatched in permanent wetlands were less successful in fledging (P = 0.006) radio-marked ducklings than broods from seasonal wetlands, suggesting habitat availability or movement to preferred habitats may affect duckling survival.

  5. Injury due to mechanical falls: future directions in gender-specific surveillance, screening, and interventions in emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Marna R; Kane, Bryan G; Totten, Vicken Y; Raukar, Neha P; Moore, Elizabeth C; Sanson, Tracy; Barraco, Robert D; Nguyen, Michael C; Vaca, Federico E

    2014-12-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that among older adults (≥65 years), falls are the leading cause of injury-related death. Fall-related fractures among older women are more than twice as frequent as those for men. Gender-specific evidence-based fall prevention strategy and intervention studies show that improved patient-centered outcomes are elusive. There is a paucity of emergency medicine literature on the topic. As part of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference on "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," a breakout group convened to generate a research agenda on priority questions to be answered on this topic. The consensus-based priority research agenda is presented in this article.

  6. Investigation of the in vitro gender-specific partitioning of mefloquine in malarial infected red blood cells and plasma.

    PubMed

    Seethorn, Nongluk; Wernsdorfer, Walther H; Noedl, Harald; Karbwang, Juntra; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-10-01

    The investigation of gender-specific partitioning of the antimalarial drug mefloquine to cellular and fluid blood compartments was performed using blood collected from a female and male healthy subject that were infected with Plasmodium falciparum PCM2 clone and spiked with mefloquine (0.25, 1, and 5 μM). Mefloquine concentrations in red cells of both female and male subjects were significantly higher than plasma, which suggests an intensive uptake by red cells. This was supported by a high ratio of mefloquine concentrations in the parasitized and non-parasitized red cells of about 4-fold. Gender-specific partitioning of mefloquine in parasitized blood was seen only in plasma where significantly higher concentrations were observed in female compared with male plasma. Down-adjusting the therapeutic dose of mefloquine in female patients with malaria is not advisable because mefloquine concentrations in the target cellular compartment are similar in both genders.

  7. Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in micronutrient intakes of US adults with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Joan A; Huffman, Fatma G

    2013-03-01

    Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US adults ≥  21 years were assessed from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. The participants included Black non-Hispanics, Mexican-American and White non-Hispanics who signed an informed consent form for the interview and who completed the in-person 24-h recall. Micronutrient intakes were based on the Institute of Medicines' classifications of recommended dietary allowances specific for age and gender. Likelihood of many micronutrient insufficiencies was associated with being female, over 65 years, having diabetes and minority status. Younger and female adults had a greater likelihood of iron insufficiency than male and older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the intersection of age, gender and race in setting policies for micronutrient deficiency screening, particularly in young female adults and minorities.

  8. Gender-Specific Transfusion Affects Tumor-Associated Neutrophil: Macrophage Ratios in Murine Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Douglas D.; Kelher, Marguerite R.; Meng, Xianzhong; Fullerton, David A.; Lee, Joon H.; Silliman, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Perioperative blood transfusion has been linked to decreased survival for pancreas cancer. Noting clinical data associating female blood products with increased morbidity, our lab has demonstrated that transfusion of female blood augments metastatic events compared to male blood in an immunocompetent murine pancreatic cancer model. It has been suggested that tumor-associated macrophages correlate with tumor progression by promoting angiogenesis. More recently, tumor-associated neutrophils have been implicated in aggressive tumor behavior. We hypothesize that differences in gender-specific transfusion-mediated pancreatic cancer progression are due to microenvironmental changes within the tumor. To test this hypothesis, we examined tumor-associated neutrophils and macrophage ratios in male and female mice with pancreatic cancer receiving blood transfusion from male or female donors. Methods C57/BL6 mice, age 7–9 weeks, underwent splenic inoculation with 2.5×105 PanO2 murine pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Mice were transfused on post-op day 7 with 1 ml/kg supernatant from day 42 male or female packed red cells. Necropsy was performed at 5 weeks or earlier for clinical deterioration, and tumors harvested. Frozen sections (5 μm) were stained for neutrophils and macrophages by immunofluorescence. Data were analyzed using ANOVA; p≤0.05 was used to determine significance; N≥3 per group. Results Clinically, male mice had greater morbidity and mortality than female mice when receiving female blood products, with roughened hair coat, development of ascites and death due to bowel obstruction. In evaluating the tumor microenvironment from mice receiving female blood products, male mice were noted to have a greater neutrophil to macrophage ratio than female mice, 0.176±0.028 vs. 0.073±0.012, p=0.03. When examining neutrophil to macrophage ratio in mice receiving male blood products, no difference was noted (p=0.48). Conclusions Male mice with pancreas

  9. Gender-specific secondary prevention? Differential psychosocial risk factors for major cardiovascular events

    PubMed Central

    Kure, Christina E; Chan, Yih-Kai; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Carrington, Melinda J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the psychosocial determinants and interhospital variability on a major acute cardiovascular event (MACE), during follow-up of a multicenter cohort of patients hospitalised with heart disease, participating in a nurse-led secondary prevention programme. Methods Outcome data were retrospectively analysed from 602 cardiac inpatients randomised to postdischarge standard care (n=296), or home-based intervention (n=306), with prolonged follow-up of individualised multidisciplinary support. Baseline psychosocial profiling comprised depressive status, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), social isolation and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Multivariate analyses examined the independent correlates of a composite 2-year MACE rate of all-cause mortality and unplanned cardiovascular-related hospitalisation, according to gender. Results Participants were aged 70±10 years, 431 (72%) were men and 377 (63%) had coronary artery disease. During 2-year follow-up, 165 (27%) participants (114 men, 51 women; p=0.431) experienced a MACE. Independent correlates of a MACE in men were depressive status (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.58; p=0.032), low physical HRQoL (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.00; p=0.027) and increasing comorbidity (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.25; p=0.004). In women, age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.12; p=0.008), MCI (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.09 to 5.18; p=0.029) and hospital site predicted a MACE (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.93; p=0.029). Conclusions Psychological determinants, cognitive impairment and responses to secondary prevention are different for men and women with heart disease and appear to modulate cardiovascular-specific outcomes. Early detection of psychosocial factors through routine screening and gender-specific secondary prevention is encouraged. Trial registration number 12608000014358. PMID:27099759

  10. Identifying Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories of Nonviolent and Violent Delinquency from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H. Harrington

    2013-01-01

    Most research examining gender differences in developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior does not consider subtypes of antisocial behavior and is difficult to generalize due to small non-representative samples. The current study investigated gender difference in developmental trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood while addressing…

  11. Exploring Gender Differences on General and Specific Computer Self-Efficacy in Mobile Learning Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Yukun; Xiong, Tao; Hu, Zhongyi; Kibelloh, Mboni

    2013-01-01

    Reasons for contradictory findings regarding the gender moderate effect on computer self-efficacy in the adoption of e-learning/mobile learning are limited. Recognizing the multilevel nature of the computer self-efficacy (CSE), this study attempts to explore gender differences in the adoption of mobile learning, by extending the Technology…

  12. The Relationship between Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use among Adolescents in the Community: Specificity and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13-17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance…

  13. Domain-General and Domain-Specific Creative-Thinking Tests: Effects of Gender and Item Content on Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Peng, Yun; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; Wu, Junbin

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effects of gender and item content of domain-general and domain-specific creative-thinking tests on four subscale scores of creative-thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration). Chinese tenth-grade students (234 males and 244 females) participated in the study. Domain-general creative thinking was measured…

  14. A Study of the Gender-Specific Mortality Rates in Korea and Japan for the Formation of Health Promotion Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Eun-Woo; Song, Yea-Li-A

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study attempts to provide fundamental information to help with the development of health policy and health services by looking at the trends of the gender-specific mortality rates in Korea and Japan. Design: The death statistics of Korea and Japan over the 21-year period from 1983 to 2003 are analyzed. Setting: We used the death…

  15. Brooding Is Related to Neural Alterations during Autobiographical Memory Retrieval in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Sophia; Brassen, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Brooding rumination is considered a central aspect of depression in midlife. As older people tend to review their past, rumination tendency might be particularly crucial in late life since it might hinder older adults to adequately evaluate previous events. We scanned 22 non-depressed older adults with varying degrees of brooding tendency with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while they performed the construction and elaboration of autobiographical memories. Behavioral findings demonstrate that brooders reported lower mood states, needed more time for memory construction and rated their memories as less detailed and less positive. On the neural level, brooding tendency was related to increased amygdala activation during the search for specific memories and reduced engagement of cortical networks during elaboration. Moreover, coupling patterns of the subgenual cingulate cortex with the hippocampus (HC) and the amygdala predicted details and less positive valence of memories in brooders. Our findings support the hypothesis that ruminative thinking interferes with the search for specific memories while facilitating the uncontrolled retrieval of negatively biased self-schemes. The observed neurobehavioral dysfunctions might put older people with brooding tendency at high risk for becoming depressed when reviewing their past. Training of autobiographical memory ability might therefore be a promising approach to increase resilience against depression in late-life. PMID:27695414

  16. A password for species recognition in a brood-parasitic bird.

    PubMed

    Hauber, M E; Russo, S A; Sherman, P W

    2001-05-22

    Recognition of conspecifics is an essential precursor of sexual reproduction. Most mammals and birds learn salient features of their parents or siblings early in ontogeny and later recognize individuals whose phenotypes match the mental image (template) of relatives closely enough as conspecifics. However, the young of brood parasites are reared among heterospecifics, so social learning will yield inappropriate species recognition templates. Initially, it was inferred that conspecific recognition in brood parasites depended on genetically determined templates. More recently it was demonstrated that learning plays a critical role in the development of parasites' social preferences. Here we propose a mechanism that accommodates the interaction of learned and genetic components of recognition. We suggest that conspecific recognition is initiated when a young parasite encounters some unique species-specific signal or "password" (e.g. a vocalization, behaviour or other characteristic) that triggers learning of additional aspects of the password-giver's phenotype. We examined the possibility that nestlings of the obligately brood-parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) could use a species-specific vocalization, the "chatter", as a password. We found that six-day-old nestlings responded (begged) significantly more frequently to playbacks of chatters than to other avian sounds and that two-month-old fledglings approached playbacks of chatters more quickly than vocalizations of heterospecifics. Free-living cowbird fledglings and adults also approached playbacks of chatters more often than control sounds. Passwords may be involved in the ontogeny of species recognition in brood parasites generally.

  17. Brood care by male bumble bees

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Sydney A.

    1985-01-01

    Male Bombus griseocollis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) share in the brood care of nestmates by incubating pupae (usually during the first few days after they emerge as adults). Male posture during incubation of a pupa is identical to that observed for females. Pupae incubated by males were 4°C-6°C above the temperature of unincubated pupae. Although this increase was not as great as that caused by workers or queens, it was an important factor in warming pupae. Incubating males may benefit nestmates incidentally without lowering their own individual fitness. Images PMID:16593608

  18. Observations on the removal of brood inoculated with Tropilaelaps mercedesae (Acari: Laelapidae) and the mite's reproductive success in Apis mellifera colonies.

    PubMed

    Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; de Guzman, Lilia I; Buawangpong, Ninat; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the response of Apis mellifera to brood deliberately infested with Tropilaelaps mercedesae. The reproductive success of T. mercedesae in mite-inoculated and naturally infested brood was also compared. The presence of T. mercedesae inside brood cells significantly affected brood removal. Thai A. mellifera removed 52.6 ± 8.2 % of the brood inoculated with T. mercedesae as compared to 17.2 ± 1.8 and 5.7 ± 1.1 % removal rates for the groups of brood with their cell cappings opened and closed without mite inoculation and the control brood (undisturbed, no mite inoculation), respectively. Brood removal peaked during the second and third days post inoculation when test brood was at the prepupal stage. Overall, non-reproduction (NR) of foundress T. mercedesae was high. However, when NR was measured based on the criteria used for Varroa, the naturally infested pupae (NIP) supported the highest NR (92.8 %). Newly sealed larvae inoculated with Tropilaelaps collected from newly sealed larvae (NSL) had 78.2 % NR and those inoculated with Tropilaelaps collected from tan-bodied pupae (TBP) had 76.8 % NR. Since Tropilaelaps is known to have a short development period and nearly all progeny reach adulthood by the time of host emergence, we also used two Tropilaelaps-specific criteria to determine NR. Foundresses that did not produce progeny and those that produced only one progeny were considered NR. Using these two criteria, NR decreased tremendously but showed similar trends with means of 65, 40 and 33 % for NIP, NSL and TBP, respectively. High NR in the NIP group may indicate increased hygienic behavior in Thai A. mellifera colonies. The removal of infested prepupae or tan-bodied pupae will likely decrease the reproductive potential of Tropilaelaps. Our study suggests that brood removal may be one of the resistance mechanisms towards T. mercedesae by naturally adapted Thai A. mellifera.

  19. Gender-specific metabolic responses in gonad of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as a class of brominated flame-retardants. As a congener of PBDEs, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (BDE 47) is the most toxic congener to animals. In this study, we applied metabolomics to characterize the gender-specific metabolic responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to BDE 47 for 30 days. Results indicated the apparent gender-specific responses in M. galloprovincialis with BDE 47 exposures (1 and 10 μg/L) at metabolite level. Basically, BDE 47 induced disruption in osmotic regulation and altered energy metabolism in mussels, via differential metabolic pathways. In addition, the hormesis phenomenon was observed in both male and female mussel samples exposed the two concentrations of BDE 47, indicated by the contrarily altered metabolites from two BDE 47 treatments (1 and 10 μg/L), respectively. Overall, this study confirmed the gender-specific responses to BDE 47 exposures in mussels and suggested the gender differences should be considered in marine ecotoxicology.

  20. Interaction effect of brooding rumination and interoceptive awareness on depression and anxiety symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Ryan J.; Fresco, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of the body (i.e., interoceptive awareness) and self-referential thought represent two distinct, yet habitually integrated aspects of self. A recent neuroanatomical and processing model for depression and anxiety incorporates the connections between increased but low fidelity afferent interoceptive input with self-referential and belief-based states. A deeper understanding of how self-referential processes are integrated with interoceptive processes may ultimately aid in our understanding of altered, maladaptive views of the self – a shared experience of individuals with mood and anxiety disorders. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine how negative self-referential processing (i.e., brooding rumination) relates to interoception in the context of affective psychopathology. Undergraduate students (N = 82) completed an interoception task (heartbeat counting) in addition to self-reported measures of rumination and depression and anxiety symptoms. Results indicated an interaction effect of brooding rumination and interoceptive awareness on depression and anxiety-related distress. Specifically, high levels of brooding rumination coupled with low levels of interoceptive awareness were associated with the highest levels of depression and anxiety-related distress, whereas low levels of brooding rumination coupled with high levels of interoceptive awareness were associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety-related distress. The findings provide further support for the conceptualization of anxiety and depression as conditions involving the integration of interoceptive processes and negative self-referential processes. PMID:27567108

  1. Interaction effect of brooding rumination and interoceptive awareness on depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Ryan J; Fresco, David M

    2016-10-01

    Awareness of the body (i.e., interoceptive awareness) and self-referential thought represent two distinct, yet habitually integrated aspects of self. A recent neuroanatomical and processing model for depression and anxiety incorporates the connections between increased but low fidelity afferent interoceptive input with self-referential and belief-based states. A deeper understanding of how self-referential processes are integrated with interoceptive processes may ultimately aid in our understanding of altered, maladaptive views of the self - a shared experience of individuals with mood and anxiety disorders. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine how negative self-referential processing (i.e., brooding rumination) relates to interoception in the context of affective psychopathology. Undergraduate students (N = 82) completed an interoception task (heartbeat counting) in addition to self-reported measures of rumination and depression and anxiety symptoms. Results indicated an interaction effect of brooding rumination and interoceptive awareness on depression and anxiety-related distress. Specifically, high levels of brooding rumination coupled with low levels of interoceptive awareness were associated with the highest levels of depression and anxiety-related distress, whereas low levels of brooding rumination coupled with high levels of interoceptive awareness were associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety-related distress. The findings provide further support for the conceptualization of anxiety and depression as conditions involving the integration of interoceptive processes and negative self-referential processes.

  2. Gender and Facebook motives as predictors of specific types of Facebook use: A latent growth curve analysis in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Despite increasing evidence that specific types of Facebook use (i.e., active private, active public, and passive Facebook use) are differently related to adolescents' well-being, little is known how these types function over the course of adolescence and whether gender and Facebook motives may predict the initial level and changes in these types over time. To address these gaps, Flemish adolescents (ages 12-19) were questioned at three different time points, with six months in between (NTime1 = 1866). Latent growth curve models revealed that active private Facebook use increased over the course of adolescence, whereas public Facebook use decreased. Passive Facebook use, however, remained stable. In addition, gender and Facebook motives were related to initial levels of specific types of Facebook use, and predictive of dynamic change in specific types of Facebook use over time. The discussion focuses on the understanding and implications of these findings.

  3. Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  4. Brooding fathers, not siblings, take up nutrients from embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Mobley, Kenyon B.; Gonçalves, Inês Braga; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that many animals with placenta-like structures provide their embryos with nutrients and oxygen. However, we demonstrate here that nutrients can pass the other way, from embryos to the parent. The study was done on a pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, in which males brood fertilized eggs in a brood pouch for several weeks. Earlier research has found a reduction of embryo numbers during the brooding period, but the fate of the nutrients from these ‘reduced’ embryos has been unknown. In this study, we considered whether (i) the brooding male absorbs the nutrients, (ii) siblings absorb them, or (iii) a combination of both. Males were mated to two sets of females, one of which had radioactively labelled eggs (using 14C-labelled amino acids), such that approximately half the eggs in the brood pouch were labelled. This allowed us to trace nutrient uptake from these embryos. We detected that 14C-labelled amino acids were transferred to the male brood pouch, liver and muscle tissue. However, we did not detect any significant 14C-labelled amino-acid absorption by the non-labelled half-siblings in the brood pouch. Thus, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time, that males absorb nutrients derived from embryos through their paternal brood pouch. PMID:19939847

  5. Brood parasitism: a good strategy in our changing world?

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The original life-history strategy of brood-parasitic birds has been the focus of a large number of studies in ecology and evolution. Whether species adopting such a strategy differ in their response to global changes remains, however, unknown. Both the absence of investment in parental care and the capacity to spread nesting failure by laying eggs in several nests might help brood parasites in dealing with environmental changes. Alternatively, brood parasites might cumulate the negative effects of environmental changes on their own environment and on their hosts’ environment. Here, I tested whether brood parasites’ extinction risk and population trend differed from those of species with parental care. Focusing on the five bird families containing brood parasite species, I show that brood parasites are less at risk of extinction, and have a more stable population trend than species with parental care. In addition, I found that brood parasites with a higher host diversity were more likely to be increasing than those with fewer hosts. The bet-hedging strategy of brood parasites, by allowing them to spread nesting failure risks associated with environmental changes, is likely to help them resist current global changes. PMID:24552836

  6. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  7. CYP450 polymorphisms as risk factors for early-onset lung cancer: gender-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Maria N; Kropp, Silke; Sauter, Wiebke; Beckmann, Lars; Rosenberger, Albert; Illig, Thomas; Jäger, Birgit; Mittelstrass, Kirstin; Dienemann, Hendrik; Bartsch, Helmut; Bickeböller, Heike; Chang-Claude, Jenny C; Risch, Angela; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich

    2009-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, involved in metabolism of tobacco carcinogens, are also involved in estrogen metabolism and many are regulated by estrogens. These genes may thus be of relevance to gender-specific differences in lung cancer risk, particularly in early-onset lung cancer, where a high proportion of women is observed. We conducted a case-control study to investigate genetic polymorphisms in cytochromes that might modify the risk of developing early-onset lung cancer. In total, 638 Caucasian patients under the age of 51 with primary lung cancer and 1300 cancer-free control individuals, matched by age and sex, were included in this analysis. Thirteen polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A13, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes were analyzed. No significant association was found for any of the analyzed polymorphisms and lung cancer risk overall. However, among women, a significantly increased risk of early-onset lung cancer was observed for carriers of the minor allele of CYP1B1 SNP rs1056836 [odds ratio (OR) 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.94; P < 0.001]. Also, a non-significant increase in lung cancer risk was observed in the group of women carriers of the minor allele of CYP2A13 SNP rs1709084 (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.00-2.70; P = 0.05). The effect of these two polymorphisms was shown to be modified by smoking. Haplotype analysis was performed for CYP1B1 and CYP2A13. No differences between cases and controls were observed for both genes (P = 0.63 and P = 0.42 for CYP1B1 and CYP2A13, respectively). Our results suggest that the CYP1B1 and the CYP2A13 genotypes may contribute to individual susceptibility to early-onset lung cancer in women.

  8. Brood parasitism and the evolution of cooperative breeding in birds.

    PubMed

    Feeney, W E; Medina, I; Somveille, M; Heinsohn, R; Hall, M L; Mulder, R A; Stein, J A; Kilner, R M; Langmore, N E

    2013-12-20

    The global distribution of cooperatively breeding birds is highly uneven, with hotspots in Australasia and sub-Saharan Africa. The ecological drivers of this distribution remain enigmatic yet could yield insights into the evolution and persistence of cooperative breeding. We report that the global distributions of avian obligate brood parasites and cooperatively breeding passerines are tightly correlated and that the uneven phylogenetic distribution of cooperative breeding is associated with the uneven targeting of hosts by brood parasites. With a long-term field study, we show that brood parasites can acquire superior care for their young by targeting cooperative breeders. Conversely, host defenses against brood parasites are strengthened by helpers at the nest. Reciprocally selected interactions between brood parasites and cooperative breeders may therefore explain the close association between these two breeding systems.

  9. Further evidence for population specific differences in the effect of DNA markers and gender on eye colour prediction in forensics.

    PubMed

    Pośpiech, Ewelina; Karłowska-Pik, Joanna; Ziemkiewicz, Bartosz; Kukla, Magdalena; Skowron, Małgorzata; Wojas-Pelc, Anna; Branicki, Wojciech

    2016-07-01

    The genetics of eye colour has been extensively studied over the past few years, and the identified polymorphisms have been applied with marked success in the field of Forensic DNA Phenotyping. A picture that arises from evaluation of the currently available eye colour prediction markers shows that only the analysis of HERC2-OCA2 complex has similar effectiveness in different populations, while the predictive potential of other loci may vary significantly. Moreover, the role of gender in the explanation of human eye colour variation should not be neglected in some populations. In the present study, we re-investigated the data for 1020 Polish individuals and using neural networks and logistic regression methods explored predictive capacity of IrisPlex SNPs and gender in this population sample. In general, neural networks provided higher prediction accuracy comparing to logistic regression (AUC increase by 0.02-0.06). Four out of six IrisPlex SNPs were associated with eye colour in the studied population. HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407 and SLC24A4 rs12896399 were found to be the most important eye colour predictors (p < 0.007) while the effect of rs16891982 in SLC45A2 was less significant. Gender was found to be significantly associated with eye colour with males having ~1.5 higher odds for blue eye colour comparing to females (p = 0.002) and was ranked as the third most important factor in blue/non-blue eye colour determination. However, the implementation of gender into the developed prediction models had marginal and ambiguous impact on the overall accuracy of prediction confirming that the effect of gender on eye colour in this population is small. Our study indicated the advantage of neural networks in prediction modeling in forensics and provided additional evidence for population specific differences in the predictive importance of the IrisPlex SNPs and gender.

  10. Development of a PubMed Based Search Tool for Identifying Sex and Gender Specific Health Literature

    PubMed Central

    Song, Michael M.; Simonsen, Cheryl K.; Wilson, Joanna D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: An effective literature search strategy is critical to achieving the aims of Sex and Gender Specific Health (SGSH): to understand sex and gender differences through research and to effectively incorporate the new knowledge into the clinical decision making process to benefit both male and female patients. The goal of this project was to develop and validate an SGSH literature search tool that is readily and freely available to clinical researchers and practitioners. Methods: PubMed, a freely available search engine for the Medline database, was selected as the platform to build the SGSH literature search tool. Combinations of Medical Subject Heading terms, text words, and title words were evaluated for optimal specificity and sensitivity. The search tool was then validated against reference bases compiled for two disease states, diabetes and stroke. Results: Key sex and gender terms and limits were bundled to create a search tool to facilitate PubMed SGSH literature searches. During validation, the search tool retrieved 50 of 94 (53.2%) stroke and 62 of 95 (65.3%) diabetes reference articles selected for validation. A general keyword search of stroke or diabetes combined with sex difference retrieved 33 of 94 (35.1%) stroke and 22 of 95 (23.2%) diabetes reference base articles, with lower sensitivity and specificity for SGSH content. Conclusions: The Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center SGSH PubMed Search Tool provides higher sensitivity and specificity to sex and gender specific health literature. The tool will facilitate research, clinical decision-making, and guideline development relevant to SGSH. PMID:26555409

  11. Gender-specific research on mental illness in the emergency department: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ranney, Megan L; Locci, Natalie; Adams, Erica J; Betz, Marian; Burmeister, David B; Corbin, Ted; Dalawari, Preeti; Jacoby, Jeanne L; Linden, Judith; Purtle, Jonathan; North, Carol; Houry, Debra E

    2014-12-01

    Mental illness is a growing, and largely unaddressed, problem for the population and for emergency department (ED) patients in particular. Extensive literature outlines sex and gender differences in mental illness' epidemiology and risk and protective factors. Few studies, however, examined sex and gender differences in screening, diagnosis, and management of mental illness in the ED setting. Our consensus group used the nominal group technique to outline major gaps in knowledge and research priorities for these areas, including the influence of violence and other risk factors on the course of mental illness for ED patients. Our consensus group urges the pursuit of this research in general and conscious use of a gender lens when conducting, analyzing, and authoring future ED-based investigations of mental illness.

  12. Gender-Specific Research on Mental Illness in the Emergency Department: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Megan L.; Locci, Natalie; Adams, Erica J.; Betz, Marian; Burmeister, David B.; Corbin, Ted; Dalawari, Preeti; Jacoby, Jeanne L.; Linden, Judith; Purtle, Jonathan; North, Carol; Houry, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Mental illness is a growing, and largely unaddressed, problem for the population and for emergency department (ED) patients in particular. Extensive literature outlines sex and gender differences in mental illness’ epidemiology and risk and protective factors. Few studies, however, examined sex and gender differences in screening, diagnosis, and management of mental illness in the ED setting. Our consensus group used the nominal group technique to outline major gaps in knowledge and research priorities for these areas, including the influence of violence and other risk factors on the course of mental illness for ED patients. Our consensus group urges the pursuit of this research in general, and conscious use of a gender lens when conducting, analyzing, and authoring future ED-based investigations of mental illness. PMID:25413369

  13. Gender-specific differences in biomarkers responses to acute coronary syndromes and revascularization procedures.

    PubMed

    Sbarouni, Eftihia; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Voudris, Vassilis

    2011-09-01

    A growing body of gender-related research in coronary artery disease is beginning to gradually elucidate differences between women and men. In patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), these sex differences include varying risk factor profiles, accuracy of diagnostic testing, clinical presentations, treatment practices and outcomes. There is also a differential expression of cardiac biomarkers by sex, which remains unexplained. This paper reviews all the available information on the effect of gender on cardiac biomarkers by search of MEDLINE using the terms gender differences, biomarkers, ACS and revascularization procedures. A better understanding of the sex disparities in biomarkers along with all other clinical information is essential to optimal management and patient care in the future.

  14. Common fate, different experience: gender-specific aspects of the Armenian Genocide, 1915-1917.

    PubMed

    Derderian, Katharine

    2005-01-01

    Violence against women was a central feature of the Armenian Genocide. Even before the mass killings, sexual humiliation was used to intimidate the Armenian community. After the murder of the Armenian leadership and men of military age, Ottoman authorities and Ittihadist supporters deported surviving Armenians from Anatolia into the Syrian desert. During this ethnic cleansing, rape, kidnapping, sex slavery, and forced re-marriage became de facto instruments of genocide. Eyewitness accounts and diplomatic reports shed light on the place of gender during genocidal persecution. Although scholarship has only recently begun to explore the issue, the Armenian Genocide offers opportunities for comparative gender studies.

  15. Age- and gender-specific norms for the German version of the Three-Factor Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ).

    PubMed

    Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Luppa, Melanie; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-08-01

    The 'Fragebogen zum Essverhalten' (FEV) is the German version of the Three-factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ). This questionnaire covers three domains of eating behaviour ('cognitive restraint', 'disinhibition' and 'hunger') as well as common problems (e.g. craving for sweets). So far, there is a lack of normative data of the FEV especially for the middle-aged and older population. Aim of this study therefore was to provide age- and gender-specific norms of the FEV for the general population aged 40-79 years. We studied 3144 participants of the ongoing large community-based Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Health Care Study. We provided age- (four age groups: 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years) and gender-specific percentile ranks and T-scores for the three domains of the FEV as well as age- and gender-specific frequencies of the common problems in eating behaviour. Females scored significantly higher than males in all three domains of the FEV (p < 0.001). Older individuals showed significantly higher mean scores than the younger ones in the domain of cognitive restraint, but lower mean scores in disinhibition and hunger (p < 0.001). 45.1% of the males and 69.9% of the females reported specific problems in eating. The main problem in both genders was craving for sweets (38.6%). Eating in response to stress was mostly reported in younger individuals. The present study offers current normative data for the FEV in the middle-aged and older general population that can be applied in clinical and non-clinical settings. Information on eating behaviour can be helpful in understanding body weight modulation, and thus, may help to improve interventive and preventive programmes for overweight, obesity, and eating disorders.

  16. Proteome-wide alterations on adipose tissue from obese patients as age-, diabetes- and gender-specific hallmarks

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Serrano, María; Camafeita, Emilio; García-Santos, Eva; López, Juan A.; Rubio, Miguel A.; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio; Vázquez, Jesús; Peral, Belén

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a main global health issue and an outstanding cause of morbidity and mortality predisposing to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Huge research efforts focused on gene expression, cellular signalling and metabolism in obesity have improved our understanding of these disorders; nevertheless, to bridge the gap between the regulation of gene expression and changes in signalling/metabolism, protein levels must be assessed. We have extensively analysed visceral adipose tissue from age-, T2DM- and gender-matched obese patients using high-throughput proteomics and systems biology methods to identify new biomarkers for the onset of T2DM in obesity, as well as to gain insight into the influence of aging and gender in these disorders. About 250 proteins showed significant abundance differences in the age, T2DM and gender comparisons. In diabetic patients, remarkable gender-specific hallmarks were discovered regarding redox status, immune response and adipose tissue accumulation. Both aging and T2DM processes were associated with mitochondrial remodelling, albeit through well-differentiated proteome changes. Systems biology analysis highlighted mitochondrial proteins that could play a key role in the age-dependent pathophysiology of T2DM. Our findings could serve as a framework for future research in Translational Medicine directed at improving the quality of life of obese patients. PMID:27160966

  17. The gender-specific association between age at first drink and later alcohol drinking patterns in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minsun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the association between the age at first drink and later alcohol drinking patterns, and analyzed whether differences in the association exist among Korean adults according to gender. The subjects included 10,649 adults (5,405 men and 5,244 women) from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2009, which extracted the standard survey household by using the proportional systematic sampling method. Baseline individual characteristics, the age at first drink, and individual alcohol drinking patterns were obtained by specially trained interviewers or examiners. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol drinking patterns was summarized with odds ratios and their confidence intervals obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis with sampling weights of KNHANES complex sample survey design. The results of this study show that age, co-habitation, occupation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significantly related to the drinking patterns for men, whereas education, co-habitation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significant factors for the drinking patterns of women. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol consumption was significant for both genders and, interestingly, the alcohol drinking patterns were significantly differed by gender even after controlling for the individual characteristics. These results imply a need for gender-specific strategies to prevent hazardous alcohol consumption at a later time for Korean.

  18. Gender-Specific Metabolomic Profiling of Obesity in Leptin-Deficient ob/ob Mice by 1H NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Jung, Youngae; Bae, Hyun-Whee; Lee, Daeyoup; Park, Sung Goo; Lee, Chul-Ho; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Chi, Seung-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Despite the numerous metabolic studies on obesity, gender bias in obesity has rarely been investigated. Here, we report the metabolomic analysis of obesity by using leptin-deficient ob/ob mice based on the gender. Metabolomic analyses of urine and serum from ob/ob mice compared with those from C57BL/6J lean mice, based on the 1H NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical analysis, revealed clear metabolic differences between obese and lean mice. We also identified 48 urine and 22 serum metabolites that were statistically significantly altered in obese mice compared to lean controls. These metabolites are involved in amino acid metabolism (leucine, alanine, ariginine, lysine, and methionine), tricarbocylic acid cycle and glucose metabolism (pyruvate, citrate, glycolate, acetoacetate, and acetone), lipid metabolism (cholesterol and carnitine), creatine metabolism (creatine and creatinine), and gut-microbiome-derived metabolism (choline, TMAO, hippurate, p-cresol, isobutyrate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, methylamine, and trigonelline). Notably, our metabolomic studies showed distinct gender variations. The obese male mice metabolism was specifically associated with insulin signaling, whereas the obese female mice metabolism was associated with lipid metabolism. Taken together, our study identifies the biomarker signature for obesity in ob/ob mice and provides biochemical insights into the metabolic alteration in obesity based on gender. PMID:24098417

  19. The Role of Gender, Embedded Questions, and Domain Specific Readings with Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Callender, Aimee; McDaniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilizes readings taken from texts in social psychology to examine the effects by gender of embedded "what" questions and elaborative "why" questions on reading comprehension. During regular class time, 97 advanced second language (L2) learners of Spanish read two different vignettes, either with or without…

  20. Would Boys and Girls Benefit from Gender-Specific Educational Software?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luik, Piret

    2011-01-01

    Most boys and girls interact differently with educational software and have different preferences for the design of educational software. The question is whether the usage of educational software has the same consequences for both genders. This paper investigates the characteristics of drill-and-practice programmes or drills that are efficient for…

  1. Gender Specific Re-organization of Resting-State Networks in Older Age

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Aimée; Mayhew, Stephen D.; Przezdzik, Izabela; Wilson, Rebecca S.; Hale, Joanne R.; Bagshaw, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Advancing age is commonly associated with changes in both brain structure and function. Recently, the suggestion that alterations in brain connectivity may drive disruption in cognitive abilities with age has been investigated. However, the interaction between the effects of age and gender on the re-organization of resting-state networks is not fully understood. This study sought to investigate the effect of both age and gender on intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) and the extent to which resting-state network (RSN) node definition may alter with older age. We obtained resting-state functional magnetic resonance images from younger (n = 20) and older (n = 20) adults and assessed the FC of three main cortical networks: default mode (DMN), dorsal attention (DAN), and saliency (SN). Older adults exhibited reduced DMN intra-network FC and increased inter-network FC between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and nodes of the DAN, in comparison to younger participants. Furthermore, this increase in ACC-DAN inter-network FC with age was driven largely by male participants. However, further analyses suggested that the spatial location of ACC, bilateral anterior insula and orbitofrontal cortex RSN nodes changed with older age and that age-related gender differences in FC may reflect spatial re-organization rather than increases or decreases in FC strength alone. These differences in both the FC and spatial distribution of RSNs between younger and older adults provide evidence of re-organization of fundamental brain networks with age, which is modulated by gender. These results highlight the need to further investigate changes in both intra- and inter-network FC with age, whilst also exploring the modifying effect of gender. They also emphasize the difficulties in directly comparing the FC of RSN nodes between groups and suggest that caution should be taken when using the same RSN node definitions for different age or patient groups to investigate FC

  2. Sampling honeybee colonies for brood production: a double sampling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L.E.; Gilbert, R.O.; Burgett, M.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure is described for estimating numbers of capped brood cells by double sampling combined with linear regression. A complete census of capped brood cells is better than an estimate, provided it is possible to count all brood cells directly or from photographs of brood frames. The double sampling technique, however, has the advantage of enabling data to be collected more quickly and at a lower cost than for a complete count. It also provides an estimate of the approximate variability associated with brood estimates and a mechanism for correcting biases associated with different investigators or with estimates by the same individual at different times or under different conditions. The technique is easy to apply in the field and involves minimal disturbance to the colony. A disadvantage is that the calculations associated with estimates of brood area are more arduous, estimates of variability are approximate, and brood estimates may be biased if the data are too few. All calculations can be easily adapted to a programmable calculator or small computer. Linear calibration, an alternative to the use of double sampling, is briefly discussed.

  3. Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety.

    PubMed

    de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R

    2010-05-01

    Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning.

  4. Gender-Specific Effect of Mthfr Genotype and Neonatal Vigabatrin Interaction on Synaptic Proteins in Mouse Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Blumkin, Elinor; Levav-Rabkin, Tamar; Melamed, Osnat; Galron, Dalia; Golan, Hava M

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a part of the homocysteine and folate metabolic pathways, affecting the methylations of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Mthfr deficiency was reported as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Neonatal disruption of the GABAergic system is also associated with behavioral outcomes. The interaction between the epigenetic influence of Mthfr deficiency and neonatal exposure to the GABA potentiating drug vigabatrin (GVG) in mice has been shown to have gender-dependent effects on mice anxiety and to have memory impairment effects in a gender-independent manner. Here we show that Mthfr deficiency interacts with neonatal GABA potentiation to alter social behavior in female, but not male, mice. This impairment was associated with a gender-dependent enhancement of proteins implicated in excitatory synapse plasticity in the female cortex. Reelin and fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP) levels and membrane GluR1/GluR2 ratios were elevated in wild-type mice treated neonatally with GVG and in Mthfr+/− mice treated with saline, but not in Mthfr+/− mice treated with GVG, compared with control groups (wild type treated with saline). A minor influence on the levels of these proteins was observed in male mice cortices, possibly due to high basal protein levels. Interaction between gender, genotype, and treatment was also observed in the GABA pathway. In female mice, GABA Aα2/gephyrin ratios were suppressed in all test groups; in male mice, a genotype-specific enhancement of GABA Aα2/gephyrin was observed. The lack of an effect on either reln or Fmr1 transcription suggests post-transcriptional regulation of these genes. Taken together, these findings suggest that Mthfr deficiency may interact with neonatal GABA potentiation in a gender-dependent manner to interrupt synaptic function. This may illustrate a possible mechanism for the epigenetic involvement of Mthfr

  5. Gender-specific effect of Mthfr genotype and neonatal vigabatrin interaction on synaptic proteins in mouse cortex.

    PubMed

    Blumkin, Elinor; Levav-Rabkin, Tamar; Melamed, Osnat; Galron, Dalia; Golan, Hava M

    2011-07-01

    The enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a part of the homocysteine and folate metabolic pathways, affecting the methylations of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Mthfr deficiency was reported as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Neonatal disruption of the GABAergic system is also associated with behavioral outcomes. The interaction between the epigenetic influence of Mthfr deficiency and neonatal exposure to the GABA potentiating drug vigabatrin (GVG) in mice has been shown to have gender-dependent effects on mice anxiety and to have memory impairment effects in a gender-independent manner. Here we show that Mthfr deficiency interacts with neonatal GABA potentiation to alter social behavior in female, but not male, mice. This impairment was associated with a gender-dependent enhancement of proteins implicated in excitatory synapse plasticity in the female cortex. Reelin and fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP) levels and membrane GluR1/GluR2 ratios were elevated in wild-type mice treated neonatally with GVG and in Mthfr+/- mice treated with saline, but not in Mthfr+/- mice treated with GVG, compared with control groups (wild type treated with saline). A minor influence on the levels of these proteins was observed in male mice cortices, possibly due to high basal protein levels. Interaction between gender, genotype, and treatment was also observed in the GABA pathway. In female mice, GABA Aα2/gephyrin ratios were suppressed in all test groups; in male mice, a genotype-specific enhancement of GABA Aα2/gephyrin was observed. The lack of an effect on either reln or Fmr1 transcription suggests post-transcriptional regulation of these genes. Taken together, these findings suggest that Mthfr deficiency may interact with neonatal GABA potentiation in a gender-dependent manner to interrupt synaptic function. This may illustrate a possible mechanism for the epigenetic involvement of Mthfr

  6. Organization, execution and evaluation of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care - an executive summary.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Basmah; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    With the goal of reducing inequalities in patient care, the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," convened a diverse group of researchers, clinicians, health care providers, patients, and representatives of federal agencies and policy-makers in Dallas, Texas, in May 2014. The executive and steering committees identified seven clinical domains as key to gender-specific emergency care: cardiovascular, neurological, trauma/injury, substance abuse, pain, mental health, and diagnostic imaging. The main aims of the conference were to: 1) summarize and consolidate current data related to sex- and gender-specific research for acute care and identify critical gender-related gaps in knowledge to inform an EM research agenda; 2) create a consensus-driven research agenda that advances sex- and gender-specific research in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of acute diseases and identify strategies to investigate them; and 3) build a multinational interdisciplinary consortium to disseminate and study the sex and gender medicine of acute conditions. Over a 2-year period, this collaborative network of stakeholders identified key areas where sex- and gender-specific research is most likely to improve clinical care and ultimately patient outcomes. The iterative consensus process culminated in a daylong conference on May 13, 2014, with a total of 133 registrants, with the majority being between ages 31 and 50 years (57%), females (71%), and whites (79%). Content experts led the consensus-building workshops at the conference and used the nominal group technique to consolidate consensus recommendations for priority research. In addition, panel sessions addressed funding mechanisms for gender-specific research as well as gender-specific regulatory challenges to product development and approval. This special issue of AEM reports the

  7. Healthy me: A gender-specific program to address body image concerns and risk factors among preadolescents.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Connaughton, Catherine; Tatangelo, Gemma; Mellor, David; Busija, Lucy

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated a gender-specific, school-based program to promote positive body image and address risk factors for body dissatisfaction. In total, 652 children aged 8-10 years participated (335 intervention, 317 wait-list control). Children participated in four 60min sessions and a recap session at three months post-intervention. The broad content areas were body image, peer relationships, media awareness, healthy diet, and exercise. The activities and examples for each session were gender specific. The recap session was an overview of the four sessions. Assessment measures were completed at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and after the recap. Boys and girls in the intervention demonstrated higher muscle esteem and vegetable intake at post-intervention, compared to children in the control condition. Boys and girls demonstrated higher body esteem, muscle esteem and fruit and vegetable intake at the recap. Boys in the intervention demonstrated less investment in masculine gender norms at post-intervention and at recap.

  8. Sexual epigenetics: gender-specific methylation of a gene in the sex determining region of Populus balsamifera

    PubMed Central

    Bräutigam, Katharina; Soolanayakanahally, Raju; Champigny, Marc; Mansfield, Shawn; Douglas, Carl; Campbell, Malcolm M.; Cronk, Quentin

    2017-01-01

    Methylation has frequently been implicated in gender determination in plants. The recent discovery of the sex determining region (SDR) of balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera, pinpointed 13 genes with differentiated X and Y copies. We tested these genes for differential methylation using whole methylome sequencing of xylem tissue of multiple individuals grown under field conditions in two common gardens. The only SDR gene to show a marked pattern of gender-specific methylation is PbRR9, a member of the two component response regulator (type-A) gene family, involved in cytokinin signalling. It is an ortholog of Arabidopsis genes ARR16 and ARR17. The strongest patterns of differential methylation (mostly male-biased) are found in the putative promoter and the first intron. The 4th intron is strongly methylated in both sexes and the 5th intron is unmethylated in both sexes. Using a statistical learning algorithm we find that it is possible accurately to assign trees to gender using genome-wide methylation patterns alone. The strongest predictor is the region coincident with PbRR9, showing that this gene stands out against all genes in the genome in having the strongest sex-specific methylation pattern. We propose the hypothesis that PbRR9 has a direct, epigenetically mediated, role in poplar sex determination. PMID:28345647

  9. Impact of Gender-Specific Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Recommendations on Uptake of Other Adolescent Vaccines: Analysis of the NIS-Teen (2008-2012).

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, Robert A; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B

    In the United States, human papillomavirus vaccination was routinely recommended for adolescent females in 2006 and provisionally recommended for adolescent males in 2009. We evaluated the hypothesis that gender-specific human papillomavirus vaccination recommendations would impact gender-specific uptake of other vaccines using National Immunization Survey-Teen public use data sets (2008-2012). Female adolescents had higher coverage than males of at least 1 other adolescent vaccine in 2008 (3.0% higher) and 2009 (4.3% higher). Gender differences abated in 2010, 2011, and 2012 (0.2%, 0.9%, and 0.4%, respectively). To evaluate unintended consequences of gender-based recommendations, countries with female-only human papillomavirus vaccination recommendations should evaluate gender-specific uptake of other adolescent vaccines.

  10. The relationship between incarceration and premature adult mortality: gender specific evidence.

    PubMed

    Massoglia, Michael; Pare, Paul-Philippe; Schnittker, Jason; Gagnon, Alain

    2014-07-01

    We examine the relationship between incarceration and premature mortality for men and women. Analyses using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) reveal strong gender differences. Using two different analytic procedures the results show that women with a history of incarceration are more likely to die than women without such a history, even after controlling for health status and criminal behavior prior to incarceration, the availability of health insurance, and other socio-demographic factors. In contrast, there is no relationship between incarceration and mortality for men after accounting for these factors. The results point to the importance of examining gender differences in the collateral consequences of incarceration. The results also contribute to a rapidly emerging literature linking incarceration to various health hazards. Although men constitute the bulk of inmates, future research should not neglect the special circumstances of female former inmates and their rapidly growing numbers.

  11. [Gender identity disorder: challenges and specificity in the treatment of requests for sexual reassignment].

    PubMed

    Pécoud, P; Pralong, F; Bauquis, O; Stiefel, F

    2011-02-16

    Gender identity disorder is defined as a permanent desire to relieve one's own sexual features to acquire the sexual features and line to life of the opposite sex. The diagnosis is based on the psychiatric evaluation and treatment on an interdisciplinary approach by endocrinologists, surgeons and psychiatrists, and can be conceptualized into distinct phases: diagnostic evaluation, real life experience, hormonal treatment and surgery. Multiples challenges have to be faced, especially by the psychiatrist who follows the patient during the whole process.

  12. Relating Child Care during Infancy to Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in Toddlerhood: How Specific Features of Child Care Quality Matter Depending on a Child's Gender and Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether the relationships between specific features of child care quality and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month-old children are moderated by gender and temperament. Questionnaires were used to record children's gender and measure their temperament. Child care quality was observed with the "Échelles…

  13. Gender Specific Effect of Psychological Stress and Cortisol Reactivity on Adolescent Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Daughters, Stacey B.; Gorka, Stephanie M.; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Anderson, Katelyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how psychological stress, gender and cortisol response to stress relate to risk behavior among 132 14–18 year old adolescents. Participants completed a laboratory based risk task prior to and immediately after a computerized psychological stress task, and salivary cortisol was collected from pre-stress to 60 minutes following initial stress exposure. Results indicate that adolescent boys (n = 59) and girls (n = 73) demonstrate different patterns of risk taking (RT) in response to stress, such that boys evidenced an increase in RT following stress exposure, whereas girls evidenced a decrease in RT. In addition, a gender by cortisol interaction demonstrated that for boys, both a smaller total cortisol output (AUCg) and peak cortisol response to stress (PC) was associated with greater stress-induced RT. Both cortisol measures were unrelated to stress-induced RT among girls. Taken together, data suggest that among boys, a blunted cortisol response to stress underlies an increase in risk taking in the context of psychological stress. Further research with an additional behavioral stress task is needed prior to drawing conclusions regarding the relation between female gender, cortisol response to stress, and risk taking in the context of psychological stress. PMID:23338478

  14. Gender specific effect of psychological stress and cortisol reactivity on adolescent risk taking.

    PubMed

    Daughters, Stacey B; Gorka, Stephanie M; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Anderson, Katelyn

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how psychological stress, gender and cortisol response to stress relate to risk behavior among 132 14-18 year old adolescents. Participants completed a laboratory based risk task prior to and immediately after a computerized psychological stress task, and salivary cortisol was collected from pre-stress to 60 min following initial stress exposure. Results indicate that adolescent boys (n = 59) and girls (n = 73) demonstrate different patterns of risk taking (RT) in response to stress, such that boys evidenced an increase in RT following stress exposure, whereas girls evidenced a decrease in RT. In addition, a gender by cortisol interaction demonstrated that for boys, both a smaller total cortisol output (AUCg) and peak cortisol response to stress (PC) was associated with greater stress-induced RT. Both cortisol measures were unrelated to stress-induced RT among girls. Taken together, data suggest that among boys, a blunted cortisol response to stress underlies an increase in risk taking in the context of psychological stress. Further research with an additional behavioral stress task is needed prior to drawing conclusions regarding the relation between female gender, cortisol response to stress, and risk taking in the context of psychological stress.

  15. Gender-Specific Incidence and Predictors of Cognitive Impairment among Older Koreans: Findings from a 6-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Jiyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated gender-specific incidence and predictors of cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea. Methods Using data from the 2006 and 2012 Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA), 925 females and 834 males aged 65 and over without cognitive impairment at 2006 were analyzed separately. Cognitive impairment was measured based on the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Exam (K-MMSE) normative score. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) was conducted to examine the predictors of cognitive impairment at 6-year follow up. Results Incidence of cognitive impairment at 2012 was significantly higher for women (30.5%) than men (26.1%). GEE result showed that depression was significantly associated with cognitive impairment for both genders (female: OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.63–3.12; male: OR=3.26, 95% CI=2.19–4.83). Having IADL limitations (OR=1.15, 95% CI=1.03–1.28), high blood pressure (OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.27–2.34), poor hearing (OR=1.94, 95% CI=1.29–2.92), regular exercise (OR=0.67, 95% CI=0.45–0.99), and normal weight (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.03–1.86) were significant predictors of cognitive impairment only among women. In contrast, age (OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01–1.07) and ADL limitations (OR=1.48, 95% CI=1.21–1.82) were significant predictors of cognitive impairment at follow-up only among men. Conclusion Findings of this study show gender-specific predictors of cognitive impairment among older Koreans. This study can provide information for clinicians and policy makers to develop different intervention strategies considering gender differences in the progress of cognitive impairment. PMID:27757124

  16. Brood rearing ecology of king eiders on the north slope of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Laura M.; Powell, Abby N.

    2009-01-01

    We examined King Eider (Somateria spectabilis) brood survival in the Kuparak oil field in northern Alaska in 2002 and 2003 by monitoring hens with broods using radiotelemetry. We observed complete brood loss in eight of 10 broods. Broods survived less than 2 weeks on average, and most mortality occurred within 10 days of hatch. Distance hens traveled overland did not affect brood survival. Apparent King Eider brood survival in our study area was lower than reported for eider species in other areas. We recommend future studies examine if higher densities of predators in oil fields reduces King Eider duckling survival.

  17. Brooding in a gonatid squid off northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Bower, John R; Seki, Katsunori; Kubodera, Tsunemi; Yamamoto, Jun; Nobetsu, Takahiro

    2012-12-01

    Brooding of egg masses by a squid in Japan is described. Brooding females were photographed in situ, and the females, their eggs, and their hatchlings were collected. The squid had all undergone gelatinous degeneration and swam slowly and continuously by undulating the fins and expelling water sporadically through the funnel. Eggs were held together by a dark, viscous material that formed a single-layer, sheet-like mass, from which hatchlings were seen to emerge. The annual appearance of brooding females in surface waters during spring suggests that they transport their egg masses from deep water to the surface before the eggs hatch. Genetic analyses identified the squid as Gonatus madokai (family Gonatidae), now the second gonatid and third squid known to brood.

  18. Perspectives on gender-specific medicine, course and learning style preferences in medical education: a study among students at the Medical University of Vienna.

    PubMed

    Harreiter, Jürgen; Wiener, Hubert; Plass, Herbert; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2011-03-01

    In the study for the thesis Web Based Training with Moodle: Gender-differences in Action of Drugs, a survey among students of the Medical University of Vienna (MUV) concerning the implementation of gender-specific medicine in the curriculum and students' learning styles was performed. Data analysis (given as mean±sem) showed that students (n = 642) rated (Likert scale, 1-6) the importance of gender-specific medicine fairly high (4.02±0.06), and rated the importance of knowing about gender-specific medicine as a medical doctor even higher (4.49±0.05). Further implementation of gender-relevant topics into the curriculum appeared less important (3.64±0.06). Students rated their own knowledge on gender-specific medicine neutrally (3.40±0.05). For some items significant differences between males and females as well as the old and new curriculum were found. Students considered gender-specific medicine as important but sufficiently covered in their medical education at the MUV.

  19. Gender- and Sport-Specific Associations Between Religiousness and Doping Behavior in High-Level Team Sports.

    PubMed

    Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Cubela, Mladen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-05-11

    Religiousness is known to be specifically associated with substance abuse, but there is an evident lack of studies investigating the association between religiousness and doping behavior as a specific type of substance abuse in athletes. This study aimed to provide evidence for possible gender- and sport-specific associations between religiousness and doping behavior among team-sport athletes of both genders. The participants were 886 athletes (21.9 ± 3.8 years of age; 352 females) involved in four sports: volleyball (n = 154; 78 females), handball (n = 206; 68 females), soccer (n = 316; 110 females) and basketball (n = 230; 96 females) from Croatia and Slovenia (all traditionally Roman Catholics). The data were collected using a previously validated structured questionnaire that examined sociodemographic, sport- and doping-related factors. In addition, religiousness was captured by the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith questionnaire (SCSRF). Gender-stratified simple logistic regressions were applied to determine associations between covariates and doping behavior (criterion). There was no significant difference in potential doping behavior between males and females (OR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.76-1.46), while females reported higher religiousness (SCSRF: 23.11 ± 3.23 and 25.46 ± 7.2 for males and females, respectively; t test = 1.82, p < 0.05). Younger female athletes and those with higher SCSRF score are found to be less prone to doping behavior. When models were adjusted for personal opinion about doping presence in sport and age, the SCSRF remained a significant predictor of potential doping behavior (OR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.91-0.99). For males, the belief that doping was present in sport was strongly associated with a higher likelihood of doping. Our results suggest that highly religious females involved in three of the studies sports (i.e., volleyball, handball and basketball) show a weaker tendency toward doping. Meanwhile, there is no

  20. Evidence for gender-specific endophenotypes in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder during empathy.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Karla; Regenbogen, Christina; Pauly, Katharina D; Gossen, Anna; Schneider, Daniel A; Mevissen, Lea; Michel, Tanja M; Gur, Ruben C; Habel, Ute; Schneider, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Despite remarkable behavioral gender differences in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and growing evidence for a diminished male : female ratio for the putative "male disorder" ASD, aspects of gender are not addressed accordingly in ASD research. Our study aims at filling this gap by exploring empathy abilities in a group of 28 patients with high-functioning ASD and 28 gender-, age- and education-matched non-autistic subjects, for the first time by means of functional neuroimaging (fMRI). In an event-related fMRI paradigm, emotional ("E") and neutral ("N") video clips presented actors telling self-related short stories. After each clip, participants were asked to indicate their own emotion and its intensity as well as the emotion and intensity perceived for the actor. Behaviorally, we found significantly less empathic responses in the overall ASD group compared with non-autistic subjects, and inadequate emotion recognition for the neutral clips in the female ASD group compared with healthy women. Neurally, increased activation of the bilateral medial frontal gyrus was found in male patients compared with female patients, a pattern which was not present in the non-autistic group. Additionally, autistic women exhibited decreased activation of midbrain and limbic regions compared with non-autistic women, whereas there was no significant difference within the male group. While we did not find a fundamental empathic deficit in autistic patients, our data propose different ways of processing empathy in autistic men and women, suggesting stronger impairments in cognitive aspects of empathy/theory of mind for men, and alterations of social reciprocity for women.

  1. Gender-Specific Degeneration of Dementia-Related Subcortical Structures Throughout the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Viola Luca; Must, Anita; Horvath, Szatmar; Király, Andras; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamas; Vécsei, László

    2017-01-01

    Age-related changes in brain structure are a question of interest to a broad field of research. Structural decline has been consistently, but not unambiguously, linked to functional consequences, including cognitive impairment and dementia. One of the areas considered of crucial importance throughout this process is the medial temporal lobe, and primarily the hippocampal region. Gender also has a considerable effect on volume deterioration of subcortical grey matter (GM) structures, such as the hippocampus. The influence of age×gender interaction on disproportionate GM volume changes might be mediated by hormonal effects on the brain. Hippocampal volume loss appears to become accelerated in the postmenopausal period. This decline might have significant influences on neuroplasticity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus highly vulnerable to pathological influences. Additionally, menopause has been associated with critical pathobiochemical changes involved in neurodegeneration. The micro- and macrostructural alterations and consequent functional deterioration of critical hippocampal regions might result in clinical cognitive impairment-especially if there already is a decline in the cognitive reserve capacity. Several lines of potential vulnerability factors appear to interact in the menopausal period eventually leading to cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, or Alzheimer's disease. This focused review aims to delineate the influence of unmodifiable risk factors of neurodegenerative processes, i.e., age and gender, on critical subcortical GM structures in the light of brain derived estrogen effects. The menopausal period appears to be of key importance for the risk of cognitive decline representing a time of special vulnerability for molecular, structural, and functional influences and offering only a narrow window for potential protective effects.

  2. Gender-specific protection from microvessel rarefaction in female hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Papanek, P E; Rieder, M J; Lombard, J H; Greene, A S

    1998-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies reveal that women have a significantly lower age-adjusted morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease than men, suggesting that gender is a cardiovascular disease risk factor. The mechanism of the "gender protection" is unknown. In this study, we investigated the microvascular remodeling in reduced renal mass plus a high salt (4.0% NaCl) diet model of hypertension (RRM + HS). We hypothesized that women would be protected from the increase in blood pressure and from the microvascular rarefaction associated with RRM + HS hypertension. Studies were designed to determine whether female rats were less susceptible to changes in microvessel density during RRM + HS. Microvessel density was measured in male and female low salt (0.4% LS) sham-operated controls (Sham + LS) and after 3 days or 4 weeks of RRM + HS hypertension. The microcirculation of hind limb (medial and lateral gastrocnemius, plantaris, soleus) muscles was visualized using rhodamine-labeled Griffonia simplicifolia I lectin. Tissue sections were examined by videomicroscopy and microvessel density was determined by quantitative stereology. As shown previously, mean arterial pressure increased to 160 +/- 8 mm Hg and microvessel density decreased (>30% decrease in all beds) in male RRM + HS. In contrast, mean arterial pressure of female RRM + HS rats was modestly increased from 101 +/- 2 to 118 +/- 4 mm Hg. Despite previous results showing a reduction in microvessel density of both normotensive and hypertensive male rats on a high salt diet, microvessel density of female RRM + HS rats was not reduced at either time. These results suggest that gender protection in the RRM rat extends beyond an attenuation of the increase in pressure to an immunity from microvascular rarefaction.

  3. Perceived parent-adolescent relationship, perceived parental online behaviors and pathological internet use among adolescents: gender-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents' perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People's Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents' age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention.

  4. Perceived Parent-Adolescent Relationship, Perceived Parental Online Behaviors and Pathological Internet Use among Adolescents: Gender-Specific Differences

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents’ perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People’s Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents’ age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:24098710

  5. Differential patterns of amygdala and ventral striatum activation predict gender-specific changes in sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Victor, Elizabeth C; Sansosti, Alexandra A; Bowman, Hilary C; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-06-10

    Although the initiation of sexual behavior is common among adolescents and young adults, some individuals express this behavior in a manner that significantly increases their risk for negative outcomes including sexually transmitted infections. Based on accumulating evidence, we have hypothesized that increased sexual risk behavior reflects, in part, an imbalance between neural circuits mediating approach and avoidance in particular as manifest by relatively increased ventral striatum (VS) activity and relatively decreased amygdala activity. Here, we test our hypothesis using data from seventy 18- to 22-year-old university students participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We found a significant three-way interaction between amygdala activation, VS activation, and gender predicting changes in the number of sexual partners over time. Although relatively increased VS activation predicted greater increases in sexual partners for both men and women, the effect in men was contingent on the presence of relatively decreased amygdala activation and the effect in women was contingent on the presence of relatively increased amygdala activation. These findings suggest unique gender differences in how complex interactions between neural circuit function contributing to approach and avoidance may be expressed as sexual risk behavior in young adults. As such, our findings have the potential to inform the development of novel, gender-specific strategies that may be more effective at curtailing sexual risk behavior.

  6. Evaluating exposure and potential effects on honeybee brood (Apis mellifera) development using glyphosate as an example.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen M; Levine, Steven L; Doering, Janine; Norman, Steve; Manson, Philip; Sutton, Peter; von Mérey, Georg

    2014-07-01

    appropriate dose rates to be determined, based on realistic worst-case residues in pollen and nectar and estimated intake by the colony, as shown by the residue analysis. Previous studies have used the standard methodology developed primarily to identify pesticides with insect-growth disrupting properties of pesticide formulations, which are less reliant on identifying realistic exposure scenarios. However, this adaptation of the method can be used to determine dose-response effects of colony level exposure to pesticides with a wide range of properties. This approach would limit the number of replicated tunnel or field-scale studies that need to be undertaken to assess effects on honeybee brood and may be of particular benefit where residues in pollen and nectar are crop- and/or formulation-specific, such as systemic seed treatments and granular applications.

  7. A gender-specific analysis of adolescent dietary caffeine, alcohol consumption, anger, and violent behavior.

    PubMed

    James, Jack E; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported dietary caffeine and alcohol consumption were examined in relation to anger and violent behavior in Icelandic tenth-graders. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate direct and indirect effects of measured and latent variables in the population sample of 3,670, controlling for parental financial standing, family structure, ADHD, and peer delinquency. Gender differences were observed that have not been reported previously, especially in relation to anger as a possible mediator of violent behavior against a background of caffeine and alcohol consumption. Study findings suggest the need to take account of caffeine consumption in relation to adolescent anger and violence.

  8. Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinsted, Lena; Agnarsson, Ingi; Bilde, Trine

    2012-12-01

    Cooperation and group living often evolves through kin selection. However, associations between unrelated organisms, such as different species, can evolve if both parties benefit from the interaction. Group living is rare in spiders, but occurs in cooperative, permanently social spiders, as well as in territorial, colonial spiders. Mixed species spider colonies, involving closely related species, have rarely been documented. We examined social interactions in newly discovered mixed-species colonies of theridiid spiders on Bali, Indonesia. Our aim was to test the degree of intra- and interspecific tolerance, aggression and cooperation through behavioural experiments and examine the potential for adoption of foreign brood. Morphological and genetic analyses confirmed that colonies consisted of two related species Chikunia nigra (O.P. Cambridge, 1880) new combination (previously Chrysso nigra) and a yet undescribed Chikunia sp. Females defended territories and did not engage in cooperative prey capture, but interestingly, both species seemed to provide extended maternal care of young and indiscriminate care for foreign brood. Future studies may reveal whether these species adopt only intra-specific young, or also inter-specifically. We classify both Chikunia species subsocial and intra- and interspecifically colonial, and discuss the evolutionary significance of a system where one or both species may potentially benefit from mutual tolerance and brood adoption.

  9. Maternal androgens in avian brood parasites and their hosts: responses to parasitism and competition?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, Caldwell; Wingfield, John C.; Fox, David M.; Walker, Brian G.; Thomley, Jill E

    2017-01-01

    In the coevolutionary dynamic of avian brood parasites and their hosts, maternal (or transgenerational) effects have rarely been investigated. We examined the potential role of elevated yolk testosterone in eggs of the principal brood parasite in North America, the brown-headed cowbird, and three of its frequent host species. Elevated maternal androgens in eggs are a common maternal effect observed in many avian species when breeding conditions are unfavorable. These steroids accelerate embryo development, shorten incubation period, increase nestling growth rate, and enhance begging vigor, all traits that can increase the survival of offspring. We hypothesized that elevated maternal androgens in host eggs are a defense against brood parasitism. Our second hypothesis was that elevated maternal androgens in cowbird eggs are a defense against intra-specific competition. For host species, we found that elevated yolk testosterone was correlated with parasitized nests of small species, those whose nest success is most reduced by cowbird parasitism. For cowbirds, we found that elevated yolk testosterone was correlated with eggs in multiply-parasitized nests, which indicate intra-specific competition for nests due to high cowbird density. We propose experimental work to further examine the use of maternal effects by cowbirds and their hosts.

  10. Sibling competition in a brood-tending leech

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Martin; Govedich, Fredric R; Bateson, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Conflict among siblings over parental investment, particularly over parental feeding, is a feature of family life in many kinds of animals. In some bird species, the size of prey items provided to juveniles has been implicated as a cause of aggressive competition among sibling chicks, because prey size determines whether dominance allows monopolization of parental offerings. Our experiment was meant to test the generality of this factor in creating intrafamilial conflict. We investigated sibling competition in relation to prey size using the carnivorous, brood-tending leech Helobdella papillornata. We equalized the total amount of food available to H. papillornata broods, but varied the size of individual prey items. Competition, measured by disparity in body size at independence, was more intense in broods provisioned with small items than in broods receiving large items, but similar between broods receiving large items and broods fed ad libitum. These patterns suggest that the intensity of conflict did not depend only on the total food amount, but was enhanced by small prey size. Our results indicate that conflict over the provision of parental resources to offspring can have a similar basis across very dissimilar organisms. PMID:16959636

  11. Parental care and adaptive brood sex ratio manipulation in birds.

    PubMed Central

    Hasselquist, Dennis; Kempenaers, Bart

    2002-01-01

    Under many circumstances, it might be adaptive for parents to bias the investment in offspring in relation to sex. Recently developed molecular techniques that allow sex determination of newly hatched offspring have caused a surge in studies of avian sex allocation. Whether females bias the primary brood sex ratio in relation to factors such as environmental and parental quality is debated. Progress is hampered because the mechanisms for primary sex ratio manipulation are unknown. Moreover, publication bias against non-significant results may distort our view of adaptive sex ratio manipulation. Despite this, there is recent experimental evidence for adaptive brood sex ratio manipulation in birds. Parental care is a particularly likely candidate to affect the brood sex ratio because it can have strong direct effects on the fitness of both parents and their offspring. We investigate and make predictions of factors that can be important for adaptive brood sex ratio manipulation under different patterns of parental care. We encourage correlational studies based on sufficiently large datasets to ensure high statistical power, studies identifying and experimentally altering factors with sex-differential fitness effects that may cause brood sex ratio skew, and studies that experimentally manipulate brood sex ratio and investigate fitness effects. PMID:11958704

  12. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Flores, José Manuel; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Palacio, María Alejandra; Spivak, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. that are rarely observed, so the impact on colony health is not very well understood. A major concern with the presence of Aspergillus in honey bees is the production of airborne conidia, which can lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary aspergilloma, or even invasive aspergillosis in lung tissues upon inhalation by humans. In the current chapter we describe the honey bee disease symptoms of these fungal pathogens. In addition, we provide research methodologies and protocols for isolating and culturing, in vivo and in vitro assays that are commonly used to study these host pathogen interactions. We give guidelines on the preferred methods used in current research and the application of molecular techniques. We have added photographs, drawings and illustrations to assist bee-extension personnel and bee scientists in the control of these two diseases. PMID:24198438

  13. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Flores, José Manuel; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Palacio, María Alejandra; Spivak, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. that are rarely observed, so the impact on colony health is not very well understood. A major concern with the presence of Aspergillus in honey bees is the production of airborne conidia, which can lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary aspergilloma, or even invasive aspergillosis in lung tissues upon inhalation by humans. In the current chapter we describe the honey bee disease symptoms of these fungal pathogens. In addition, we provide research methodologies and protocols for isolating and culturing, in vivo and in vitro assays that are commonly used to study these host pathogen interactions. We give guidelines on the preferred methods used in current research and the application of molecular techniques. We have added photographs, drawings and illustrations to assist bee-extension personnel and bee scientists in the control of these two diseases.

  14. Patient self-reported concerns in inflammatory bowel diseases: A gender-specific subjective quality-of-life indicator

    PubMed Central

    Vaucher, Carla; Froehlich, Florian; Burnand, Bernard; Michetti, Pierre; Maillard, Michel H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient-reported disease perceptions are important components to be considered within a holistic model of quality of care. Gender may have an influence on these perceptions. We aimed to explore gender-specific concerns of patients included in a national bilingual inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Methods Following a qualitative study, we built a questionnaire comprising 37 items of concern. Answers were collected on a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 100. Principal axis factor analysis was used to explore concern domains. Linear multiple regressions were conducted to assess associations with patient characteristics. Results Of 1102 patients who replied to the survey, 54% were female and 54% had Crohn’s disease. We identified six domains of concern: socialization and stigmatization, disease-related constraints and uncertainty, symptoms and their impact on body and mind, loss of body control (including sexuality), disease transmission, and long-term impact of the disease. Cancer concerns were among the highest scored by all patients (median 61.8). Severity of symptoms was the only factor associated with concerns, unrelated to dimension and gender (p<0.015). In women, being >40 years decreased disease-related constraints and uncertainty concerns, and being at home or unemployed increased them. Treatments were associated with increased socialization and stigmatization and with increased disease-related constraints and uncertainty concerns in men. Overall, psychosomatic characteristics were highly associated with concerns for both men and women. Depending on the concern dimensions, increased levels of concern were associated with the highest signs of anxiety in women or depression in men, as well as lower health-related quality of life in men. Conclusions Patients have numerous concerns related to their illness that need to be reassessed regularly. Concerns differ between men and women, suggesting that information and communication about the disease

  15. Violence among young men: the importance of a gender-specific developmental approach to adolescent male suicide and homicide.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R

    2015-05-01

    Suicide and homicide are much more commonly committed by adolescent males than females. Herein, a proposal in favor of gender-specific understanding and approach to these violent behaviors is presented. Social and healthcare service system factors, including issues of male adolescents' access to care and help-seeking behaviors, are reviewed alongside the epidemiology of adolescent suicide and homicide as a transition into a detailed discussion of the putative biological factors at play. An emphasis upon the male androgen testosterone organizes the discussion. Behavioral manifestations of this brain-based organizational model are presented with a focus on impulsivity, aggression, and externalizing dysregulated emotionality. Treatment considerations and implications are developed.

  16. Life satisfaction and problematic Internet use: Evidence for gender specific effects.

    PubMed

    Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna; Kannen, Christopher; Cooper, Andrew; Montag, Christian

    2016-04-30

    The present study investigates, using a large sample (N=4852 participants; 51.71% males), how problematic Internet use (PIU) relates to general life satisfaction and distinct facets of everyday life such as job, leisure, and health. Data on Internet usage was gathered using a short form of the Young Internet Addiction Test. Life satisfaction was measured with standardized items taken from the socioeconomic panel (Germany). Highly significant associations were observed between PIU and the facets of life satisfaction, health and leisure. Of note, these associations between the mentioned facets of life satisfaction and PIU were significantly higher for females compared to males, although the reported total level of PIU was significantly lower for females. This suggests the presence of different thresholds for males and females with respect to negative effects on well-being due to PIU. The current study underlines the importance of including gender as a critical variable when investigating the association between life satisfaction and PIU.

  17. Heavy episodic drinking in early adolescence: gender-specific risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Romelsjö, Anders; Tengström, Anders

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined possible gender differences regarding risk and protective factors for heavy episodic drinking among 1,222 seventh-grade students (aged 13) in the City of Stockholm, Sweden, with follow-up 2 years later. Logistic regression analyses showed that several factors predicted heavy episodic drinking. The strongest predictors for boys' heavy episodic drinking in the ninth grade were heavy episodic drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 5.30) and smoking in the seventh grade (OR = 5.80). Drinking peers (OR = 2.47) and smoking (OR = 2.44) in the seventh grade showed the strongest association for girls. Furthermore, high parental monitoring and having a secure attachment to parents may have a protective effect when risk factors are present. Our results lend support to prevention initiatives to strengthen the parent-child relation and focus on adolescents' ability to resist peer pressure and of limiting parental provision of alcohol. The study's limitations are noted.

  18. Gender-specific relationships between depressive symptoms, marijuana use, parental communication and risky sexual behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Laurie

    2013-08-01

    A large body of research has identified correlates of risky sexual behavior, with depressive symptoms and marijuana use among the most consistent psychosocial predictors of sexual risk. However, substantially less research has examined the relationship between these risk variables and adolescent risky sexual behavior over time as well as the interaction of these individual-level predictors with family-level variables such as parenting factors. Additionally, most studies have been restricted to one index of risky sexual behavior, have not taken into account the complex role of gender, and have not controlled for several of the factors that independently confer risk for risky sexual behavior. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between depressive symptoms and parameters of parenting on marijuana use, number of sexual partners and condom usage measured 9 months later for both boys and girls. Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 1,145; 57.7% female). We found that depressive symptoms may be a gender-specific risk factor for certain indices of risky sexual behavior. For boys only, marijuana use at Time 2 accounted for the variance in the relationship between depressive symptoms at Time 1 and number of partners at Time 2. Additionally, strictness of family rules at Time 1 was associated with the number of partners with whom girls engaged in sex at Time 2, but only among those with lower levels of depressive symptoms at Time 1. Results from the current investigation speak to the utility of examining the complex, gender-specific pathways to sexual risk in adolescents. Findings suggest that treatment of mental health and substance use problems may have important implications in rates of risky sexual behavior and, conceivably, controlling the high rates of serious individual and public health repercussions.

  19. Brood Ball-Mediated Transmission of Microbiome Members in the Dung Beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Anne M.; Hearn, David J.; Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Feindler, Michele; Feeser, Karla; Abebe, Tselotie

    2013-01-01

    Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood chamber. The

  20. Brood ball-mediated transmission of microbiome members in the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Feindler, Michele; Feeser, Karla; Abebe, Tselotie; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Moczek, Armin P

    2013-01-01

    Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3(rd) instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood chamber. The

  1. Costs and Benefits to Pregnant Male Pipefish Caring for Broods of Different Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs between brood size and offspring size, offspring survival, parental condition or parental survival are classic assumptions in life history biology. A reduction in brood size may lessen these costs of care, but offspring mortality can also result in an energetic gain, if parents are able to utilize the nutrients from the demised young. Males of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) care for the offspring by brooding embryos in a brood pouch. Brooding males can absorb nutrients that emanate from embryos, and there is often a reduction in offspring number over the brooding period. In this study, using two experimentally determined brood sizes (partially and fully filled brood pouches), we found that full broods resulted in larger number of developing offspring, despite significantly higher absolute and relative embryo mortality, compared to partial broods. Male survival was also affected by brood size, with males caring for full broods having poorer survival, an effect that together with the reduced embryo survival was found to negate the benefit of large broods. We found that embryo mortality was lower when the brooding males were in good initial condition, that embryos in broods with low embryo mortality weighed more, and surprisingly, that males in higher initial condition had embryos of lower weight. Brood size, however, did not affect embryo weight. Male final condition, but not initial condition, correlated with higher male survival. Taken together, our results show costs and benefits of caring for large brood sizes, where the numerical benefits come with costs in terms of both embryo survival and survival of the brooding father, effects that are often mediated via male condition. PMID:27243937

  2. Gender-specific induction of cytochrome P450s in nonylphenol-treated FVB/NJ mice.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Juan P; Chapman, Laura M; Kretschmer, Xiomara C; Baldwin, William S

    2006-10-15

    Nonylphenol (NP) is a breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylates, which are used in a variety of industrial, agricultural, household cleaning, and beauty products. NP is one of the most commonly found toxicants in the United States and Europe and is considered a toxicant of concern because of its long half-life. NP is an environmental estrogen that also activates the pregnane X-receptor (PXR) and in turn induces P450s. No study to date has examined the gender-specific effects of NP on hepatic P450 expression. We provided NP at 0, 50 or 75 mg/kg/day for 7 days to male and female FVB/NJ mice and compared their P450 expression profiles. Q-PCR was performed on hepatic cDNA using primers to several CYP isoforms regulated by PXR or its relative, the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). In female mice, NP induced Cyp2b10 and Cyp2b13, and downregulated the female-specific P450s, Cyp3a41 and Cyp3a44. In contrast, male mice treated with NP showed increased expression of Cyp2a4, Cyp2b9, and Cyp2b10. Western blots confirmed induction of Cyp2b subfamily members in both males and females. Consistent with the Q-PCR data, Western blots showed dose-dependent downregulation of Cyp3a only in females and induction of Cyp2a only in males. The overall increase in female-predominant P450s in males (Cyp2a4, 2b9) and the decrease in female-predominant P450s in females (Cyp3a41, 3a44) suggest that NP is in part feminizing the P450 profile in males and masculinizing the P450 profile in females. Testosterone hydroxylation was also altered in a gender-specific manner, as testosterone 16alpha-hydroxylase activity was only induced in NP-treated males. In contrast, NP-treated females demonstrated a greater propensity for metabolizing zoxazolamine probably due to greater Cyp2b induction in females. In conclusion, NP causes gender-specific P450 induction and therefore exposure to NP may cause distinct pharmacological and toxicological effects in males compared to females.

  3. Gender-specific induction of cytochrome P450s in nonylphenol-treated FVB/NJ mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Juan P.; Chapman, Laura M.; Kretschmer, Xiomara C.; Baldwin, William S. . E-mail: wbaldwin@utep.edu

    2006-10-15

    Nonylphenol (NP) is a breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylates, which are used in a variety of industrial, agricultural, household cleaning, and beauty products. NP is one of the most commonly found toxicants in the United States and Europe and is considered a toxicant of concern because of its long half-life. NP is an environmental estrogen that also activates the pregnane X-receptor (PXR) and in turn induces P450s. No study to date has examined the gender-specific effects of NP on hepatic P450 expression. We provided NP at 0, 50 or 75 mg/kg/day for 7 days to male and female FVB/NJ mice and compared their P450 expression profiles. Q-PCR was performed on hepatic cDNA using primers to several CYP isoforms regulated by PXR or its relative, the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). In female mice, NP induced Cyp2b10 and Cyp2b13, and downregulated the female-specific P450s, Cyp3a41 and Cyp3a44. In contrast, male mice treated with NP showed increased expression of Cyp2a4, Cyp2b9, and Cyp2b10. Western blots confirmed induction of Cyp2b subfamily members in both males and females. Consistent with the Q-PCR data, Western blots showed dose-dependent downregulation of Cyp3a only in females and induction of Cyp2a only in males. The overall increase in female-predominant P450s in males (Cyp2a4, 2b9) and the decrease in female-predominant P450s in females (Cyp3a41, 3a44) suggest that NP is in part feminizing the P450 profile in males and masculinizing the P450 profile in females. Testosterone hydroxylation was also altered in a gender-specific manner, as testosterone 16{alpha}-hydroxylase activity was only induced in NP-treated males. In contrast, NP-treated females demonstrated a greater propensity for metabolizing zoxazolamine probably due to greater Cyp2b induction in females. In conclusion, NP causes gender-specific P450 induction and therefore exposure to NP may cause distinct pharmacological and toxicological effects in males compared to females.

  4. Gender-specific differences in diabetic neuropathy in BTBR ob/ob mice

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Phillipe D.; Hur, Junguk; Robell, Nicholas J.; Hayes, John M.; Sakowski, Stacey A.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To identify a female mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), we characterized DPN in female BTBR ob/ob mice and compared their phenotype to non-diabetic and gender-matched controls. We also identified dysregulated genes and pathways in sciatic nerve (SCN) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of female BTBR ob/ob mice to determine potential DPN mechanisms. Methods Terminal neuropathy phenotyping consisted of examining latency to heat stimuli, sciatic motor and sural sensory nerve conduction velocities (NCV), and intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density. For gene expression profiling, DRG and SCN were dissected, RNA was isolated and processed using microarray technology and differentially expressed genes were identified. Results Similar motor and sensory NCV deficits were observed in male and female BTBR ob/ob mice at study termination; however, IENF density was greater in female ob/ob mice than their male counterparts. Male and female ob/ob mice exhibited similar weight gain, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia compared to non-diabetic controls, although triglycerides were elevated more so in males than in females. Transcriptional profiling of nerve tissue from female mice identified dysregulation of pathways related to inflammation. Conclusions Similar to males, female BTBR ob/ob mice display robust DPN, and pathways related to inflammation are dysregulated in peripheral nerve. PMID:26525588

  5. Gender-specific Correlates of Sex Trade among Homeless and Marginally Housed Individuals in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, Samantha E.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Cohen, Jennifer; Bangsberg, David R.; Riley, Elise D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Sex exchange is a well-established risk factor for HIV infection. Little is known about how correlates of sex trade differ by biologic sex and whether length of homelessness is associated with sex trade. We conducted a cross-sectional study among a sample of 1,148 homeless and marginally housed individuals in San Francisco to assess correlates of exchanging sex for money or drugs. Key independent variables included length of homelessness; use of crack, heroin or methamphetamine; HIV status; and sexual orientation. Analyses were restricted by biologic sex. In total, 39% of women and 30% of men reported a lifetime history of sex exchange. Methamphetamine use and greater length of homelessness were positively associated with a history of sex trade among women, while heroin use, recent mental health treatment, and homosexual or bisexual orientation were significantly associated with sex trade for men. Crack use was correlated with sex trade for both genders. Correlates of sex trade differ significantly according to biologic sex, and these differences should be considered in the design of effective HIV prevention programs. Our findings highlight the critical need to develop long-term services to improve housing status for homeless women, mental health services for homeless men, and drug treatment services for homeless adults involved in sex work. PMID:16845499

  6. Work stress, obesity and the risk of type 2 diabetes: gender-specific bidirectional effect in the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Heraclides, Alexandros M; Chandola, Tarani; Witte, Daniel R; Brunner, Eric J

    2012-02-01

    Psychosocial work stress has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), with the effect being consistently higher among women than men. Also, work stress has been linked to prospective weight gain among obese men but weight loss among lean men. Here, we aimed to examine the interaction between work stress and obesity in relation to T2DM risk in a gender-specific manner. We studied 5,568 white middle-aged men and women in the Whitehall II study, who were free from diabetes at analysis baseline (1993). After 1993, diabetes was ascertained at six consecutive phases by an oral glucose tolerance test supplemented by self-reports. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the association between job strain (high job demands/low job control) and 18-year incident T2DM stratifying by BMI (BMI <30 kg/m(2) vs. BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Overall, work stress was associated with incident T2DM among women (hazard ratio (HR) 1.41: 95% confidence intervals: 1.02; 1.95) but not among men (HR 0.87: 95% confidence interval 0.69; 1.11) (P(INTERACTION) = 0.017). Among men, work stress was associated with a lower risk of T2DM in nonobese (HR 0.70: 0.53; 0.93) but not in obese individuals (P(INTERACTION) = 0.17). Among women, work stress was associated with higher risk of T2DM in the obese (HR 2.01: 1.06; 3.92) but not in the nonobese (P(INTERACTION) = 0.005). Gender and body weight status play a critical role in determining the direction of the association between psychosocial stress and T2DM. The potential effect-modifying role of gender and obesity should not be ignored by future studies looking at stress-disease associations.

  7. Infidelity in Dating Relationships: Gender-Specific Correlates of Face-to-Face and Online Extradyadic Involvement.

    PubMed

    Martins, Alexandra; Pereira, Marco; Andrade, Rita; Dattilio, Frank M; Narciso, Isabel; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific correlates of face-to-face and online extradyadic involvement (EDI) in dating relationships. The sample consisted of 561 women (M age = 23.19 years) and 222 men (M age = 23.97 years), all of whom reported being in an exclusive dating relationship for an average of 35 months. Participants completed the following self-report measures: Extradyadic Behavior Inventory, Attitudes toward Infidelity Scale, and Investment Model Scale. During the current relationship, men were more likely than women to report engagement in face-to-face physical/sexual EDI (23.4 vs. 15.5 %) and online sexual EDI (15.3 vs. 4.6 %). Both men and women with a history of infidelity in a prior relationship were more likely to engage in EDI. More positive attitudes toward infidelity, lower relationship satisfaction, lower commitment, and higher quality of alternatives were significantly associated with EDI, regardless of gender. Women reporting infidelity of a partner in a prior relationship were more likely to engage in face-to-face and online emotional EDI; a longer relationship and a younger age at the first sexual encounter were significant correlates of the engagement in face-to-face emotional EDI. Women with higher education were approximately three times more likely to engage in online sexual EDI. Although men and women are converging in terms of overall EDI, men still report higher engagement in physical/sexual extradyadic behaviors, and the correlates of sexual and emotional EDI vary according to gender. This study contributes to a comprehensive approach of factors influencing the likelihood of EDI and encourages future research in this area.

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism affects sympathetic tone in a gender-specific way.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An; Chen, Tien-Yu; Fang, Wen-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    The Val/Val genotype of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism (Val66Met) has been reported to affect human anxiety-related phenotypes. Substantial research has demonstrated that anxiety is associated with sympathetic activation, while sex steroid hormones have been shown to exert differential actions in regulating BDNF expression. Thus, we examined whether the BDNF variant modulates autonomic function in a gender-dependent manner. From 708 adults initially screened for medical and psychiatric illnesses, a final cohort of 583 drug-free healthy Han Chinese (355 males, 228 females; age 34.43±8.42 years) was recruited for BDNF genotyping (Val/Val: 136, 23.3%, Val/Met: 294, 50.4%, and Met/Met: 153, 26.2%). Time- and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) were used to assess autonomic outflow to the heart. Significant genotype-by-gender interaction effects were found on HRV indices. Even after adjusting for possible confounders, male participants bearing the Val/Val genotype had significant increases in low frequency (LF), LF% and LF/high frequency (HF) ratio, indicating altered sympathovagal balance with increased sympathetic modulation, compared to male Met/Met homozygotes. Females, however, showed an opposite but non-significant pattern. These results suggest that the studied BDNF polymorphism is associated with sympathetic control in a gender-specific way. The findings here support the view that male subjects with the Val/Val genotype have increased risk of anxiety by association with sympathetic activation.

  9. Brooding chicks with or without supplemental heat and light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kese, A. G.; Donkoh, A.; Baafi, M. F.

    1984-03-01

    The need for supplemental heat in brooding chicks in a hot humid tropical area where prevalent mean environmental temperature and relative humidity are 33°C and 60%, respectively, was tested in an experiment using 320 broiler chickens. The chicks were divided into four quadruplicate lots of 20 birds each and were brooded with or without supplemental heat and light for periods varying between zero and 28 days. Each treatment group of 80 birds was subjected to one of four heat and light treatments, namely: supplementation with heat and light for the 28-day brooding period (control), supplementation with heat and light for the first 14-days only, supplementation for the last 14-days only and non-supplementation with heat and light for the entire 28-day period. Final body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency and mortality were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the treatments. However, chicks brooded with supplemental heat and light for 28 days consumed significantly more water than all others. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat and light for 28 days had significantly (P<0.05) higher haemoglobin and hematocrit values than all others.

  10. Ant brood function as life preservers during floods.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Jessica; Avril, Amaury; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Bates, Sarah; Chapuisat, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Social organisms can surmount many ecological challenges by working collectively. An impressive example of such collective behavior occurs when ants physically link together into floating 'rafts' to escape from flooded habitat. However, raft formation may represent a social dilemma, with some positions posing greater individual risks than others. Here, we investigate the position and function of different colony members, and the costs and benefits of this functional geometry in rafts of the floodplain-dwelling ant Formica selysi. By causing groups of ants to raft in the laboratory, we observe that workers are distributed throughout the raft, queens are always in the center, and 100% of brood items are placed on the base. Through a series of experiments, we show that workers and brood are extremely resistant to submersion. Both workers and brood exhibit high survival rates after they have rafted, suggesting that occupying the base of the raft is not as costly as expected. The placement of all brood on the base of one cohesive raft confers several benefits: it preserves colony integrity, takes advantage of brood buoyancy, and increases the proportion of workers that immediately recover after rafting.

  11. Egg size matching by an intraspecific brood parasite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by <2% of volume on average from host eggs, whereas randomly paired eggs in random nests differed by nearly 8%. The precision with which parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.

  12. Age-specific mortality among advanced-age Chinese citizens and its difference between the two genders.

    PubMed

    Gan, J; Zheng, Z; Li, G

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the patterns of age-specific mortality among the elderly in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 census. The age groups ending in zero were validated with the Weber Index and found to be of good quality among those aged under 97 years. Differences were found between censuses and genders. The data for the aged were adjusted with 2-year moving averages in order to smooth the data. The end age of interval mortality is used. Tables provide single years of age between 60 years and 104 years by sex for the actual number and the adjusted number of each census year: 1953, 1964, 1982, and 1990. The pattern of change in age specific mortality rates (ASMRs) was similar in all census years. Mortality rates were highest among infants aged under 1 year, declined with increased age, and were lowest among 10 year olds. Mortality rose gradually after 10 years and sharply after 40-50 years. ASMRs were "U" shaped. Age-specific interval mortality rates among the elderly show that mortality increased drastically as it approached 90 years of age and then grew more slowly or declined. The Gompers rule about exponential increases among the extremely old (over 90 years) does not apply. Male mortality was higher than female mortality until the very old ages, which showed lower male mortality. The ratio declined with rising age until the two genders were equal. Mortality rose to a point and then declined to a lesser extent. The peak was 93 years in 1953, with a sex ratio (SR) of 32.48; 90 years in 1964, with an SR of 35.22; 93 years in 1982, with an SR of 35.96; and 95 years in 1990, with an SR of 32.94.

  13. Gender differences in autism spectrum disorders: Divergence among specific core symptoms.

    PubMed

    Beggiato, Anita; Peyre, Hugo; Maruani, Anna; Scheid, Isabelle; Rastam, Maria; Amsellem, Frederique; Gillberg, Carina I; Leboyer, Marion; Bourgeron, Thomas; Gillberg, Christopher; Delorme, Richard

    2016-11-03

    Community-based studies have consistently shown a sex ratio heavily skewed towards males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The factors underlying this predominance of males are largely unknown, but the way girls score on standardized categorical diagnostic tools might account for the underrecognition of ASD in girls. Despite the existence of different norms for boys and girls with ASD on several major screening tests, the algorithm of the Autism Diagnosis Interview-Revised (ADI-R) has not been reformulated. The aim of our study was to investigate which ADI-R items discriminate between males and females, and to evaluate their weighting in the final diagnosis of autism. We then conducted discriminant analysis (DA) on a sample of 594 probands including 129 females with ASD, recruited by the Paris Autism Research International Sibpair (PARIS) Study. A replication analysis was run on an independent sample of 1716 probands including 338 females with ASD, recruited through the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange (AGRE) program. Entering the raw scores for all ADI-R items as independent variables, the DA correctly classified 78.9% of males and 72.9% of females (P < 0.001) in the PARIS cohort, and 72.2% of males and 68.3% of females (P < 0.0001) in the AGRE cohort. Among the items extracted by the stepwise DA, four belonged to the ADI-R algorithm used for the final diagnosis of ASD. In conclusion, several items of the ADI-R that are taken into account in the diagnosis of autism significantly differentiates between males and females. The potential gender bias thus induced may participate in the underestimation of the prevalence of ASD in females. Autism Res 2016,. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sexual Niche Segregation and Gender-Specific Individual Specialisation in a Highly Dimorphic Marine Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Cherel, Yves; Knox, Travis C.; Baylis, Alastair M. M.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    While sexual segregation is expected in highly dimorphic species, the local environment is a major factor driving the degree of resource partitioning within a population. Sexual and individual niche segregation was investigated in the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus), which is a benthic foraging species restricted to the shallow continental shelf region of south-eastern Australia. Tracking data and the isotopic values of plasma, red blood cells and whiskers were combined to document spatial and dietary niche segregation throughout the year. Tracking data indicated that, in winter, males and females overlapped in their foraging habitat. All individuals stayed within central Bass Strait, relatively close (< 220 km) to the breeding colony. Accordingly, both genders exhibited similar plasma and red cell δ13C values. However, males exhibited greater δ13C intra-individual variation along the length of their whisker than females. This suggests that males exploited a greater diversity of foraging habitats throughout the year than their female counterparts, which are restricted in their foraging grounds by the need to regularly return to the breeding colony to suckle their pup. The degree of dietary sexual segregation was also surprisingly low, both sexes exhibiting a great overlap in their δ15N values. Yet, males displayed higher δ15N values than females, suggesting they fed upon a higher proportion of higher trophic level prey. Given that males and females exploit different resources (mainly foraging habitats), the degree of individual specialisation might differ between the sexes. Higher degrees of individual specialisation would be expected in males which exploit a greater range of resources. However, comparable levels of inter-individual variation in δ15N whisker values were found in the sampled males and females, and, surprisingly, all males exhibited similar seasonal and inter-annual variation in their δ13C whisker values, suggesting they

  15. Gender-specific epidemiology of diabetes: a representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Janet F; Hicks, Neville; Taylor, Anne W; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Phillips, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    Background Diabetes and its associated complications are part of a chronic disease global epidemic that presents a public health challenge. Epidemiologists examining health differences between men and women are being challenged to recognise the biological and social constructions behind the terms 'sex' and/or 'gender', together with social epidemiology principles and the life course approach. This paper examines the epidemiology of a population with diabetes from the north-west metropolitan region of South Australia. Methods Data were used from a sub-population with diabetes (n = 263), from 4060 adults aged 18 years and over living in the north-west suburbs of Adelaide, South Australia. Eligible respondents were asked to participate in a telephone interview, a self-report questionnaire and a biomedical examination. Diabetes (undiagnosed and diagnosed) was determined using self-reported information and a fasting blood test administered to participants. Data were analysed using SPSS (Version 10.0) and EpiInfo (Version 6.0). Results Factors associated with diabetes for both men and women were being aged 40 years and over, and having a low gross annual household income, obesity and a family history of diabetes. In addition, being an ex-smoker and having low cholesterol levels were associated with diabetes among men. Among women, having a high waist-hip ratio, high blood pressure and reporting a previous cardiovascular event or mental health problem were associated with diabetes. Conclusion The results found that men and women with diabetes face different challenges in the management of their condition. Public health implications include a need for quality surveillance data, including epidemiological life course, social, behavioural, genetic and environmental factors. This will enrich the evidence base for health promotion professionals and allow policy makers to draw inferences and conclusions for interventions and planning purposes. PMID:19284598

  16. The gender-specific association of rs334558 in GSK3β with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sha; Wang, Le; Sun, Ning; Yang, Chunxia; Liu, Zhifen; Li, Xinrong; Cao, Xiaohua; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Kerang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric illnesses with a heritability ranging from 40% to 50%. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs334558 on the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) gene has been identified as a genetic risk loci associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, results from replication studies examining the association between rs334558 and MDD remain inconsistent. In the present study, first, we conducted a meta-analysis of the association between rs334558 and MDD by combining 5 available case-control samples totaling 2311 cases and 2535 controls. Second, genotyping data from patients with MDD at our institution, after further stratification by gender, were analyzed to determine the association between rs334558 and MDD. All studies retrieved and included in the meta-analysis were from Korea and China. The meta-analysis suggested that the functional polymorphism rs334558 within the GSK3β promoter region was associated with MDD risk (P < 0.05). The associations were observed both in the allelic and genetic models. Analysis of the genotyping data extracted from our hospital database revealed that rs334558 exhibited exclusive association with MDD in female patients (P=0.015). Our findings suggest that GSK3β rs334558 polymorphisms might be a potential risk for MDD, and females with GSK3β rs334558 polymorphisms might have higher penetrance of MDD. If validated in larger scale samples and in different ethnic populations, these findings might be of value as diagnostic references for MDD. PMID:28099358

  17. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analyses on the gender-specific responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to tetrabromobisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Wu, Huifeng; Wei, Lei; Zhao, Jianmin

    2014-12-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) accounts for the largest production of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) along the Laizhou Bay in China and is the most widely used BFR in industrial products. It can induce diverse toxicities including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and endocrine disrupting effects in mammalian and fish models. In this work, we applied iTRAQ-based proteomics to investigate the gender-specific responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to TBBPA. Thirty-one proteins were differentially expressed in hepatopancreas between male and female mussels, which clearly indicated the biological differences between male and female mussels at the protein level. After exposure of TBBPA (18.4 nmol/L) for one month, a total of 60 proteins were differentially expressed in response to the TBBPA treatment in mussel hepatopancreas, among which 33 and 29 proteins were significantly altered in TBBPA-treated male and female mussel samples, respectively. Only two of the 60 proteins were commonly altered in both male and female mussel samples exposed to TBBPA. Based on KEGG analysis, these differentially expressed proteins of TBBPA-induced effects were assigned to several groups, including cytoskeleton, reproduction and development, metabolism, signal transduction, gene expression, stress response and apoptosis. Overall, results indicated that TBBPA exposure could induce apoptosis, oxidative and immune stresses and disruption in energy, protein and lipid metabolisms in both male and female mussels with different mechanisms. This work suggested that the gender differences should be considered in ecotoxicoproteomics.

  18. An integrated proteomic and metabolomic study on the gender-specific responses of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis to tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA).

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Li, Fei; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jianmin; Sun, Zuodeng; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-02-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), accounting for the largest production of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) along the Laizhou Bay in China, is of great concern due to its diverse toxicities. In this study, we focused on the gender-specific responses of TBBPA in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis using an integrated proteomic and metabolomic approach. After exposure of TBBPA (10 µg L(-1)) for one month, a total of 9 metabolites and 67 proteins were altered in mussel gills from exposed group. The significant changes of metabolites in female mussel gills from exposed group exhibited the disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation, while in male samples only be found the variation of metabolites related to osmotic regulation. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis showed biological differences between male and female mussel gills from solvent control group. The higher levels of proteins related to primary and energy metabolism and defense mechanisms in male mussel gills meant a greater anti-stress capability of male mussels. Further analysis revealed that TBBPA exposure affected multiple biological processes consisting of production and development, material and energy metabolism, signal transduction, gene expression, defense mechanisms and apoptosis in both male and female mussels with different mechanisms. Specially, the responsive proteins of TBBPA in male mussels signified higher tolerance limits than those in female individuals, which was consistent with the biological differences between male and female mussel gills from solvent control group. This work suggested that the gender differences should be considered in ecotoxicology.

  19. Identifying social characteristics of health-related information seeker: a gender-specific approach for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    While health information-seeking behavior as an indicator of health communication of patients including cancer survivors has been researched, few studies have focused on how socioeconomic position and media use combine to influence health-related information seekers. This study examined social characteristics of health information-seeking behavior taking into account an individual's socioeconomic position and their media use in Korea, a developed country. The data for this study came from a survey of 1,010 respondents drawn from a nationally representative sample in the Republic of Korea. We conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses for gender-specific effects. We found that men who reported high household income were one and half times more likely to seek health information than those with low income status. We also found that women who performed Internet searches by computer at home were almost two times more likely to seek health information than those who did not. Similar results were found for men as well. Our analyses revealed that socioeconomic position and media use are associated with health information-seeking behavior by gender. Studies on information seekers may bring us more effective health promotion and relevant intervention for people with chronic conditions including cancer survivors.

  20. Gender-specific issues in cardiac rehabilitation: do women with ischaemic heart disease need specially tailored programmes?

    PubMed

    Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Grande, Gesine; Loewel, Hannelore; Völler, Heinz; Mittag, Oskar

    2007-04-01

    Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) has changed from a disease of middle-aged men in the late 1970s to a disease of elderly women in the 2000s. Most clinical studies during the past three decades have been conducted with men. Cardiac rehabilitation programmes were also developed with special regard to improving the rate of return to work in middle-aged men. The rehabilitation needs of older patients and women in particular have been largely neglected. The aim of this review is briefly to outline our present knowledge on gender issues in cardiac rehabilitation, and to specify barriers with regard to physical activities especially in (older) women. Coping with a cardiac event, women tend to minimize or play down the impact of their health situation and avoid burdening their social contacts. After a first cardiac event, women report greater psychological distress and lower self-efficacy and self-esteem. In addition, older age, lower exercise levels and reduced functional capacity or co-morbid conditions such as osteoporosis and urinary incontinence are barriers to physical activities in women with IHD. Recent studies on psychosocial intervention revealed less favourable results in women compared with men. These findings have not yet been well explained. This emphasizes our current lack of knowledge about the processes and determinants of successful psychosocial interventions in men and women with IHD. A large (European) trial on gender-specific coping styles, needs, and preferences of older women, and the effects of psychosocial intervention is proposed.

  1. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen.

    PubMed

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient +2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A+T and UV-B+T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B×temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone.

  2. Age- and gender-specific epistasis between ADA and TNF-α influences human life-expectancy.

    PubMed

    Napolioni, Valerio; Carpi, Francesco M; Giannì, Paola; Sacco, Roberto; Di Blasio, Luca; Mignini, Fiorenzo; Lucarini, Nazzareno; Persico, Antonio M

    2011-11-01

    Aging is a complex phenotype with multiple determinants but a strong genetic component significantly impacts on survival to extreme ages. The dysregulation of immune responses occurring with increasing age is believed to contribute to human morbidity and mortality. Conversely, some genetic determinants of successful aging might reside in those polymorphisms for the immune system genes regulating immune responses. Here we examined the main effects of single loci and multi-locus interactions to test the hypothesis that the adenosine deaminase (ADA) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genes may influence human life-expectancy. ADA (22G>A, rs73598374) and TNF-α (-308G>A, rs1800629; -238G>A, rs361525) functional SNPs have been determined for 1071 unrelated healthy individuals from Central Italy (18-106 years old) divided into three gender-specific age classes defined according to demographic information and accounting for the different survivals between sexes: for men (women), the first class consists of individuals<66 years old (<73 years old), the second class of individuals 66-88 years old (73-91 years old), and the third class of individuals>88 years old (>91 years old). Single-locus analysis showed that only ADA 22G>A is significantly associated with human life-expectancy in males (comparison 1 (age class 2 vs. age class 1), O.R. 1.943, P=0.036; comparison 2 (age class 3 vs. age class 2), O.R. 0.320, P=0.0056). Age- and gender-specific patterns of epistasis between ADA and TNF-α were found using Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR). In comparison 1, a significant two-loci interaction occurs in females between ADA 22G>A and TNF-α -238G>A (Sign Test P=0.011). In comparison 2, both two-loci and three-loci interaction are significant associated with increased life-expectancy over 88 years in males. In conclusion, we report that a combination of functional SNPs within ADA and TNF-α genes can influence life-expectancy in a gender-specific

  3. Social learning of a brood parasite by its host

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, William E.; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2013-01-01

    Arms races between brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for studying the evolutionary repercussions of species interactions. However, how naive hosts identify brood parasites as enemies remains poorly understood, despite its ecological and evolutionary significance. Here, we investigate whether young, cuckoo-naive superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize cuckoos as a threat through social transmission of information. Naive individuals were initially unresponsive to a cuckoo specimen, but after observing conspecifics mob a cuckoo, they made more whining and mobbing alarm calls, and spent more time physically mobbing the cuckoo. This is the first direct evidence that naive hosts can learn to identify brood parasites as enemies via social learning. PMID:23760171

  4. Brood size can influence maternal behaviour and chick's development in precocial birds.

    PubMed

    Aigueperse, Nadège; Pittet, Florent; de Margerie, Emmanuel; Nicolle, Céline; Houdelier, Cécilia; Lumineau, Sophie

    2017-02-22

    Mothers have a crucial influence on offspring development. Variations of maternal behaviour can be due to numerous parameters, for instance costs are related to the size of a brood/litter, which in turn can influence the level of mothers' investment in each offspring. Here we investigated the influence of brood size on the behaviour of Japanese quail mothers and chicks during the mothering period and on offspring development. We compared two types of broods: small broods of three chicks (N=9) and large broods of six chicks (N=9). Behavioural tests assessed chicks' social and emotional traits. Mothers of large broods emitted more maternal vocalisations at the beginning of the mothering period, but at the end they assumed more non-covering postures and trampled chicks more than mothers of small broods. Chicks in large broods huddled up more whereas chicks in small broods rested alone more frequently. Moreover, the social motivation of chicks in large broods was higher than that of chicks in small broods, although their emotional reactivity levels were similar. Our results evidence the importance of brood size for maintaining family cohesion and the influence of brood size on chicks' interactions with their siblings. We evaluated the influence of mothers and siblings on chicks' behavioural development.

  5. Self-Esteem of 8-14-Year-Old Children with Psychiatric Disorders: Disorder- and Gender-Specific Effects.

    PubMed

    Stadelmann, Stephanie; Grunewald, Madlen; Gibbels, Charlotte; Jaeger, Sonia; Matuschek, Tina; Weis, Steffi; Klein, Annette Maria; Hiemisch, Andreas; von Klitzing, Kai; Döhnert, Mirko

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the relation between global and domain-specific self-esteem and psychiatric disorders. A sample of 577 children aged 8-14 years was recruited via psychiatric hospitals and from the general population. Parents were given a diagnostic interview to assess children's psychiatric diagnoses (current/past). Parents and children completed questionnaires on child symptoms. Children completed a questionnaire on global and domain-specific self-esteem (scales: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic performance and physical appearance, global self-esteem). Self-esteem of children with current psychiatric disorders was lower than that of healthy controls (η p(2) between 0.01 and 0.08). Concerning scholastic competence, social acceptance and global self-esteem, children with past psychiatric disorders scored also lower than healthy controls. Different current psychiatric disorders showed specific but small effects on dimensions of self-esteem (β between -0.08 and 0.19). Moreover, we found a gender × group interaction, indicating that girls with depressive and adjustment disorders were specifically impaired in their global self-esteem and perception of their physical appearance. Findings might help clinicians to focus on particular domains of self-esteem during the diagnostic process and to define adequate treatment goals.

  6. Embryo oxygenation in pipefish brood pouches: novel insights.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Ines Braga; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-06-01

    The pipefish brood pouch presents a unique mode of parental care that enables males to protect, osmoregulate, nourish and oxygenate the developing young. Using a very fine O2 probe, we assessed the extent to which males of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) oxygenate the developing embryos and are able to maintain pouch fluid O2 levels when brooding in normoxia (100% O2 saturation) and hypoxia (40% O2 saturation) for 24 days. In both treatments, pouch fluid O2 saturation levels were lower compared with the surrounding water and decreased throughout the brooding period, reflecting greater offspring demand for O2 during development and/or decreasing paternal ability to provide O2 to the embryos. Male condition (hepatosomatic index) was negatively affected by hypoxia. Larger males had higher pouch fluid O2 saturation levels compared with smaller males, and levels were higher in the bottom section of the pouch compared with other sections. Embryo size was positively correlated with O2 availability, irrespective of their position in the pouch. Two important conclusions can be drawn from our findings. First, our results highlight a potential limitation to brooding within the pouch and dismiss the notion of closed brood pouches as well-oxygenated structures promoting the evolution of larger eggs in syngnathids. Second, we provide direct evidence that paternal care improves with male size in this species. This finding offers an explanation for the documented strong female preference for larger partners because, in terms of oxygenation, the brood pouch can restrict embryo growth.

  7. Nest and brood attentiveness in female black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.; Owen, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Incubation rhythms and brood attentiveness of radio-marked Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) were studied in southcentral Maine during 1977-1980. Recess duration and frequency differed between three females nesting near wetlands (x = 82 min, 2.3 recesses/day) and two nesting at upland sites(x = 183 min, I. I recesses/day), but incubation constancy was similar for all birds (x = 86.7%). A fourth wetland-nesting female apparently responded to the absence of down and concealing cover at the nest site by taking shorter and fewer recesses (x= 34 min, 1.0 recesses/day) than did other wetland-nesters with typical nests. Wetland-nesters took longer recesses with increasing air temperature and following long incubation sessions. After their ducklings were two weeks old, two brood-rearing females began leaving their broods to forage on nearby wetlands. Duration of rearing recess (x = 56 min) and total recess time (x = 94 min/day) were less during this mid-rearing stage than during the latter part of rearing (x = 265 min, 488 min/day). The two hen-brood bonds terminated at 43 and 48 days. We suggest that small endogenous nutrient reserves and the low density of invertebrate foods, typical of Black Duck breeding habitat, were critical factors affecting the evolution of Black Duck incubation behavior. Bouts of inattention during brood rearing may have also evolved in relation to food requirements; by foraging on wetlands away from their broods, females avoid competing with offspring for common food resources.

  8. High fat diet feeding results in gender specific steatohepatitis and inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Michal; Csak, Timea; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2014-01-01

    fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate gender differences in NASH. Male mice fed a long-term HFD display steatohepatitis and inflammasome activation, whereas female mice have steatosis without inflammation. PMID:25024607

  9. Interactions among Domain-Specific Expectancies, Values, and Gender: Predictors of Test Anxiety during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkirk, Laura C.; Bouchey, Heather A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on the interaction between students' domain-specific expectancies and values as a predictor of test anxiety. A subsample of adolescents from the MSALT dataset are used in the current study; students complete measures during the spring of sixth grade and again during the spring of seventh grade. Overall, findings provide…

  10. Adolescents' Domain-Specific Judgments about Different Forms of Civic Involvement: Variations by Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Ferris, Kaitlyn

    2013-01-01

    Domain-specific judgments about different forms of civic engagement were assessed in a sample 467 primarily White adolescents (M age = 15.26, range = 11-19). Adolescents reported on the obligatory nature and social praiseworthiness (respect) of different forms of civic involvement. Adolescents distinguished among four different categories of civic…

  11. Literature Review of Cosmetic Procedures in Men: Approaches and Techniques are Gender Specific.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Brandon E; Bashey, Sameer; Wysong, Ashley

    2017-02-01

    The proportion of men receiving non-surgical cosmetic procedures has risen substantially in recent years. Various physiologic, anatomic, and motivational considerations differentiate the treatments for male and female patients. Nevertheless, research regarding approaches to the male cosmetic patient is scarce. We sought to provide an overview and sex-specific discussion of the most popular cosmetic dermatologic procedures pursued by men by conducting a comprehensive literature review pertaining to non-surgical cosmetic procedures in male patients. The most common and rapidly expanding non-surgical interventions in men include botulinum toxin, filler injection, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, laser resurfacing, laser hair removal, hair transplantation, and minimally invasive techniques for adipose tissue reduction. Important sex-specific factors associated with each of these procedures should be considered to best serve the male cosmetic patient.

  12. Temporal silencing of an androgenic gland-specific insulin-like gene affecting phenotypical gender differences and spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Weil, Simy; Raviv, Shaul; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir

    2009-03-01

    Androgenic glands (AGs) of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were subjected to endocrine manipulation, causing them to hypertrophy. Transcripts from these glands were used in the construction of an AG cDNA subtractive library. Screening of the library revealed an AG-specific gene, termed the M. rosenbergii insulin-like AG (Mr-IAG) gene. The cDNA of this gene was then cloned and fully sequenced. The cysteine backbone of the predicted mature Mr-IAG peptide (B and A chains) showed high similarity to that of other crustacean AG-specific insulin-like peptides. In vivo silencing of the gene, by injecting the prawns with Mr-IAG double-stranded RNA, temporarily prevented the regeneration of male secondary sexual characteristics, accompanied by a lag in molt and a reduction in growth parameters, which are typically higher in males of the species. In terms of reproductive parameters, silencing of Mr-IAG led to the arrest of testicular spermatogenesis and of spermatophore development in the terminal ampullae of the sperm duct, accompanied by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the AGs. This study constitutes the first report of the silencing of a gene expressed specifically in the AG, which caused a transient adverse effect on male phenotypical gender differences and spermatogenesis.

  13. Extraordinary size and survival of American black duck, Anas rubripes, broods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    Two female American black duck, Anas rubripes, were initially observed during June 1982 with 20 Class Ib or 18-22 Class Ia-b ducklings in two wetlands in Hancock County, Cherryfield, Maine. Fifteen of 20 ducklings (75%) in one brood and 16 of 18-22 ducklings (72-89%) in the other brood survived to fledge. These large broods probably resulted from post-hatch brood amalgamation.

  14. Survival of Western Sandpiper broods on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, D.R.; McCaffery, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    The rate of chick growth in high-latitude breeding shorebirds is rapid, but little is known about the effect of chick mass, growth, and brood movements on subsequent brood survival. To address these topics, we monitored chick growth patterns, daily brood movements, and survival of Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. We assessed the effect of chick age, mass, and hatch date on brood survival using Program MARK. We mapped brood locations daily, and compared brood movement patterns between successful and unsuccessful broods. Younger chicks survived at lower rates and moved shorter distances than older chicks. The overall probability of one or more chicks from a brood surviving to 15 days of age was 0.73 ± 0.05 SE. Brood survival declined seasonally, and broods with heavier chicks survived at higher rates than those with lighter chicks. On average, successful broods fledged 1.7 ± 0.1 SE chicks. Rate of chick growth was intermediate between those of high arctic and temperate-breeding shorebirds, and chick mass at hatching declined seasonally. Western Sandpiper brood survival was lowest when chicks were young, spatially clumped, and unable to maintain homeothermy, probably because young chicks were more vulnerable to both complete depredation events and extreme weather. Our data suggest that larger, older chicks are able to avoid predators by being spatially dispersed and highly mobile; thermal independence, achieved after approximately day five, enables chicks to better endure prolonged periods of cold and low food availability.

  15. Specific caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh prevents neonatal stroke in P7 rat: a role for gender.

    PubMed

    Renolleau, Sylvain; Fau, Sébastien; Goyenvalle, Catherine; Joly, Luc-Marie; Chauvier, David; Jacotot, Etienne; Mariani, Jean; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane

    2007-02-01

    Hypoxia-ischaemia in the developing brain results in brain injury with prominent features of apoptosis. In the present study, a third generation dipeptidyl broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, quinoline-Val-Asp(Ome)-CH2-O-phenoxy (Q-VD-OPh), was tested in a model of unilateral focal ischaemia with reperfusion in 7-day-old rats. Q-VD-OPh (1 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced cell death, resulting in significant neuroprotection at 48 h of recovery (infarct volume of 12.6 +/- 2.8 vs. 24.3 +/- 2.2%, p = 0.006). The neuroprotective effects observed at 48 h post-ischaemia hold up at 21 days of survival time and attenuate neurological dysfunction. Analysis by gender revealed that females were strongly protected (6.7 +/- 3.3%, p = 0.006), in contrast to males in which there was no significant effect, when Q-VD-OPh was given after clip removal on the left common carotid artery. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that Q-VD-OPh inhibits caspase 3 cleavage into its p17 active form and caspase 1 up-regulation and cleavage in vivo. Following ischaemia in P7 rats, males and females displayed different time course and pattern of cytochrome c release and active p17 caspase 3 during the first 24 h of recovery. In contrast, no significant difference was observed for caspase 1 expression between genders. These results indicate that ischaemia activates caspases shortly after reperfusion and that the sex of the animal may strongly influences apoptotic pathways in the pathogenesis of neonatal brain injury. The specificity, effectiveness, and reduced toxicity of Q-VD-OPh may determine the potential use of peptide-derived irreversible caspase inhibitors as promising therapeutics.

  16. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Bo; Csanaky, Iván L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Patni, Meghan; Chen, Qi; Ma, Xiaochao; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Weir, Scott; Broward, Melinda; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Guo, Grace L.

    2012-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  17. Age- and gender-specific population attributable risks of metabolic disorders on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent of attributable risks of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components on mortality remains unclear, especially with respect to age and gender. We aimed to assess the age- and gender-specific population attributable risks (PARs) for cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality and all-cause mortality for public health planning. Methods A total of 2,092 men and 2,197 women 30 years of age and older, who were included in the 2002 Taiwan Survey of Hypertension, Hyperglycemia, and Hyperlipidemia (TwSHHH), were linked to national death certificates acquired through December 31, 2009. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios and PARs for mortality, with a median follow-up of 7.7 years. Results The respective PAR percentages of MetS for all-cause and CVD-related mortality were 11.6 and 39.2 in men, respectively, and 18.6 and 44.4 in women, respectively. Central obesity had the highest PAR for CVD mortality in women (57.5%), whereas arterial hypertension had the highest PAR in men (57.5%). For all-cause mortality, younger men and post-menopausal women had higher PARs related to Mets and its components; for CVD mortality, post-menopausal women had higher overall PARs than their pre-menopausal counterparts. Conclusions MetS has a limited application to the PAR for all-cause mortality, especially in men; its PAR for CVD mortality is more evident. For CVD mortality, MetS components have higher PARs than MetS itself, especially hypertension in men and waist circumference in post-menopausal women. In addition, PARs for diabetes mellitus and low HDL-cholesterol may exceed 20%. We suggest differential control of risk factors in different subpopulation as a strategy to prevent CVD-related mortality. PMID:22321049

  18. Age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-specific incidence of Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism in northeast Scotland: the PINE study.

    PubMed

    Caslake, Robert; Taylor, Kate; Scott, Neil; Gordon, Joanna; Harris, Clare; Wilde, Katie; Murray, Alison; Counsell, Carl

    2013-05-01

    There have been few high quality incidence studies of Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured age-, gender- and socioeconomic-specific incidence rates for parkinsonism and PD in north-east Scotland, and compared our results with those of previous high quality studies. Incident patients were identified prospectively over three years by several overlapping methods from primary care practices (total population 311,357). Parkinsonism was diagnosed if patients had two or more cardinal motor signs. Drug-induced parkinsonism was excluded. Patients had yearly follow-up to improve diagnostic accuracy. Incidence rates using clinical diagnosis at latest follow-up were calculated for all parkinsonism and for PD by age, gender and socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis with similar studies was performed. Of 377 patients identified at baseline with possible or probable parkinsonism, 363 were confirmed as incident patients after median follow-up of 26 months (mean age 74.8 years, SD 9.8; 61% men). The crude annual incidence of parkinsonism was 28.7 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 25.7-31.8) and PD 17.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 15.5-20.4). PD was more common in men (age-adjusted male to female ratio 1.87:1, 95% CI 1.55-2.23) but there was no difference by socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis of 12 studies showed an incidence of PD (adjusted to the 1990 Scottish population) of 14.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.2-17.3) with considerable heterogeneity (I(2) 95%), partially explained by population size and recruitment duration. The incidence of PD was similar to other high quality studies. The incidence of PD was not affected by socioeconomic status.

  19. Gender-specific behavioral and immunological alterations in an animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tomasz; Roman, Adam; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Schneider, Karolina; Przewłocki, Ryszard

    2008-07-01

    Autism is a severe behavioral disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in social interactions, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotyped behaviors, with a four times higher incidence in boys than in girls. The core symptoms are frequently accompanied by a spectrum of neurobehavioral and immunological derangements, including: aberrant sensitivity to sensory stimulation, anxiety, and decreased cellular immune capacity. Recently, a new potential rodent model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA rats) has been proposed. In order to determine if gender has an influence on alterations observed in VPA rats, male and female rats have been evaluated in a battery of behavioral, immunological, and endocrinological tests. A plethora of aberrations has been found in male VPA rats: lower sensitivity to pain, increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity, higher anxiety, decreased level of social interaction, increased basal level of corticosterone, decreased weight of the thymus, decreased splenocytes proliferative response to concanavaline A, lower IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio, and increased production of NO by peritoneal macrophages. Female VPA rats exhibited only increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and decreased IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio. Sexual dimorphism characteristics for measured parameters have been observed in both groups of animals, except social interaction in VPA rats. Our results confirm existence of similarities between the observed pattern of aberrations in VPA rats and features of disturbed behavior and immune function in autistic patients, and suggest that they are gender-specific, which is intriguing in light of disproportion in boys to girls ratio in autism.

  20. Pouch brooding marsupial frogs transfer nutrients to developing embryos.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    Marsupial frogs have a unique reproductive mode in which females carry eggs enclosed in a sealed dorsal brood pouch. While most anurans are considered to be oviparous with lecithotrophic eggs, the extensively vascularized membrane of the brood pouch in marsupial frogs suggests potential opportunities for nutrient transfer. We tested for matrotrophy in the live-bearing Gastrotheca excubitor (Hemiphractidae), through feeding insects labelled with a (13)C-fatty acid and a (15)N-amino acid to brooding marsupial frogs. We observed significant increases of δ(13)C and δ(15)N in both maternal pouch tissues and embryos, suggesting nutrient transfer. Embryo dry mass also increased with developmental stage, providing further direct evidence for matrotrophy. These results suggest that in addition to gas exchange, the vascularized brood pouch membrane of G. excubitor also enables maternal nutrient transfer. This finding revealed a suspected but untested trait in the evolution of parental care in marsupial frogs, in contrast to previous work on Gastrotheca species that release tadpoles, and suggests greater complexity in reproductive and provisioning modes than previously thought.

  1. Transcriptome of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica.

    PubMed

    Clark, Melody S; Thorne, Michael A S

    2015-12-01

    454 RNA-Seq transcriptome data were generated from foot tissue of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica. A total of 6195 contigs were assembled de novo, providing a useful resource for researchers with an interest in Antarctic marine species, phylogenetics and mollusc biology, especially shell production.

  2. Selection of habitats by Emperor Geese during brood rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Although forage quality strongly affects gosling growth and consequently juvenile survival, the relative use of different plant communities by brood rearing geese has been poorly studied. On the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, population growth and juvenile recruitment of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) are comparatively low, and it is unknown whether their selection of habitats during brood rearing differs from other goose species. Radio-telemetry was used to document the use of habitats by 56 families of Emperor Geese in a 70 km2 portion of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta during brood rearing in 1994-1996. When contrasted with available habitats (a set of six habitat classes), as estimated from 398 random sampling locations, Emperor Geese strongly selected Saline Ponds, Mudflat, and Ramenskii Meadow habitats and avoided Levee Meadow, Bog Meadow, and Sedge Meadow. These selected habitats were the most saline, comprised one-third of the study area, and 43% of all locations were in Ramenskii Meadow. I contrasted these Emperor Goose locations with habitats used by the composite goose community, as inferred from the presence of goose feces at random locations. The marked difference between groups in this comparison implied that Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons) collectively selected much different brood rearing habitats than Emperor Geese. Received 20 February 2001, accepted 18 April 2001.

  3. Behavior of Cackling Canada Geese during brood rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, Ada C.; Ely, Craig R.

    1997-01-01

    We studied behavior of Cackling Canada Goose (Branta canadensis minima, cacklers) broods between 1992 and 1996 on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge in western Alaska. An increase in time spent foraging by goslings during our study was weakly correlated with an increase in the size of the local breeding population. Amount of time spent feeding by adults and goslings increased throughout the brood rearing period. Overall, goslings spent more time feeding than either adult females or males, and adult males spent the most time alert. Time alert varied among brood rearing areas and increased with brood size, but there was no variation in time spent alert among years. Increases in feeding or alert behaviors were at a cost to time spent in all other behaviors. We suggest that there is not a simple trade-off between feeding and alert behavior in cacklers, but instead that time spent feeding and alert are optimized against all other behaviors. We suggest that forage quality and availability determines the amount of time spent feeding, whereas the threat of predation or disturbance determines the amount of time spent alert.

  4. Gender-Specific Jealousy and Infidelity Norms as Sources of Sexual Health Risk and Violence Among Young Coupled Nicaraguans.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Sabrina; Zeledón, Perla; Tellez, Ever; Barrington, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Gender inequity negatively affects health in Central America. In 2011, we conducted 60 semistructured interviews and 12 photovoice focus groups with young coupled men and women in León, Nicaragua, to explore the ways in which social norms around marriage and gender affect sexual health and gender-based violence. Participants' depictions of their experiences revealed gendered norms around infidelity that provided a narrative to justify male expressions of jealousy, which included limiting partner autonomy, sexual coercion, and physical violence against women, and resulted in increased women's risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. By understanding and taking account of these different narratives and normalized beliefs in developing health- and gender-based violence interventions, such programs might be more effective in promoting gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors among young men and women in Nicaragua.

  5. Chlorination byproducts induce gender specific autistic-like behaviors in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Guariglia, Sara Rose; Jenkins, Edmund C; Chadman, Kathryn K; Wen, Guang Y

    2011-10-01

    In 2000, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) released a report concerning elevated autism prevalence and the presence water chlorination byproducts in the municipal drinking water supply in Brick Township, New Jersey. The ATSDR concluded that it was unlikely that these chemicals, specifically chloroform, bromoform (Trihalomethanes; THMs) and tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene; PCE) had contributed to the prevalence of autism in this community based upon correlations between timing of exposure and/or concentration of exposure. The ATSDR conclusion may have been premature, as there is no conclusive data evidencing a correlation between a particular developmental time point that would render an individual most susceptible to toxicological insult with the development of autism. Therefore, it was our aim to determine if these chemicals could contribute to autistic like behaviors. We found that males treated with THMs and PCE have a significant reduction in the number of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted in response to maternal separation, which are not attributed to deficits in vocal ability to or to lesser maternal care. These same males also show significantly elevated anxiety, an increase in perseverance behavior and a significant reduction in sociability. The sum of our data suggests that male, but not female mice, develop autistic like behaviors after gestational and postnatal exposure to the aforementioned chemical triad via drinking water. We believe development of such aberrant behaviors likely involves GABAergic system development.

  6. Gender-specific association of ADA genetic polymorphism with human longevity.

    PubMed

    Napolioni, Valerio; Lucarini, Nazzareno

    2010-08-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate whether the polymorphic ADA (Adenosine Deaminase, EC 3.5.4.4) gene, which determines the cellular level of adenosine and plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune system and in the control of metabolic rates, is involved in longevity. 884 unrelated healthy individuals (age range 10-106 years, 400 males and 484 females) from central Italy were studied. ADA genotyping was performed by RFLP-PCR. Frequency distributions were compared using the chi-square test and a three-way contingency table analysis by a log linear model was applied to test independence between the variables. We found that ADA influences human life-span in a sex and age specific way. An increased frequency of ADA*2 carriers was found in males aged 80-85, and a decreased frequency in males over 85 (chi(2) = 13.93; df = 3; P = 0.003); significant differences among the age groups was not found in females. A strong interaction among age groups, ADA genotype and sex (G = 15.086; df = 3; P = 0.0017) was found. Males aged 80-85 could be protected from ischemic stroke by higher levels of adenosine (determined by the ADA*2 allele). The decrease of ADA*2 carriers in males over 85 may depend essentially on immunological factors; reduced levels of adenosine protect from asthma and other pulmonary diseases and lead to a reduced activation of inflammatory cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Moreover, the low level of adenosine may potentiate the activity of NK and other cellular effectors against tumor cells. The negligible effect of ADA genetic polymorphism in females suggest a marginal influence of genetic factors in determining longevity in this sex, confirming previous reports.

  7. Gender-Specific Effects on Gestational Length and Birth Weight by Early Pregnancy BPA Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Liao, Chunyang; Ye, Wen; Domino, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Context and Objective: Effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on gestational and birth outcomes are controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between prenatal exposure to BPA and birth and gestational outcomes. Design, Setting, Participants, and Outcome: Levels of unconjugated (uBPA) and BPA glucuronide in 80 matching samples of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and at delivery and matching term cord blood obtained from a prospective study conducted at the University of Michigan Hospitals were determined using a methodology validated in the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences funded Round Robin study and related to pregnancy outcomes. Results: Highest levels of uBPA were found in maternal term samples followed by first trimester maternal (M1) samples and cord blood. A 2-fold increase in M1 uBPA was associated with 55-g less birth weight when male and female pregnancies were combined and 183-g less birth weight with only female pregnancies. A 2-fold increase in maternal term uBPA was associated with an increased gestational length of 0.7 days for all pregnancies and 1.1 days for only female pregnancies. Conclusion: Higher uBPA exposure levels during first trimester and term are associated with sex-specific reduction in birth weight and increase in gestational length, respectively. Race, parity, and employment have an effect on BPA exposure. Because low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes, effect of early pregnancy BPA levels on reducing birth weight highlights the risk posed by developmental exposure to BPA. PMID:26406292

  8. Gender Specific Effects of Mood on Alcohol Seeking Behaviors: Preliminary Findings Using Intravenous Alcohol Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Cyders, Melissa A.; VanderVeen, J. Davis; Plawecki, Martin; Millward, James B.; Hays, James; Kareken, David A.; O’Connor, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background Although negative mood has long been implicated in differences in alcohol seeking by men and women, little research has used precise, well-controlled laboratory experiments to examine how negative mood affects alcohol seeking behaviors. Methods A total of 34 (19 Women) community-dwelling, alcohol using adults aged 21–32 (mean age=24.86, SD=3.40, 74.3% Caucasian; Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test [AUDIT]= 10.1, SD= 3.4) completed two counter-balanced intravenous alcohol self-administration sessions: one under negative mood and one under neutral mood. Fourteen individuals (9 women; mean age=25.00, SD=2.77) participated in an alcohol “liking” experiment (i.e., free access drinking) and 20 individuals (10 women; mean age=24.77, SD=3.73) participated in an alcohol “wanting” experiment, in which gaining access to alcohol required progressively effortful work. There was no significant difference between men and women on the AUDIT (t(34)=−0.38, p=.71). Results Priming with negative mood induction caused a significant decrease in self-reported mood (mean change=−1.90, t(39)=−6.81, p<.001), as intended. In free access, negative mood was associated with a significantly increased peak breath alcohol concentration (BrAC; F=9.41, p=.01), with a trend toward a greater effect in men than in women (F=2.67, p=.13). Negative mood also had a significant effect on peak BrAC achieved in the progressive work paradigm (F=5.28, p=.04), with a significantly stronger effect in men (F=5.35, p=.03) than women; men also trended toward more consistent work for alcohol across both neutral and negative sessions. Conclusions These preliminary findings demonstrate a gender-specific response on how mood affects alcohol seeking and suggest gender-specific interventions to prevent mood-based alcohol consumption. PMID:26842258

  9. Gender-specific differences in stroke knowledge, stroke risk perception and the effects of an educational multimedia campaign.

    PubMed

    Marx, Juergen J; Klawitter, Bianca; Faldum, Andreas; Eicke, Bernhard M; Haertle, Birgit; Dieterich, Marianne; Nedelmann, Max

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed at identifying gender-specific differences in stroke knowledge, stroke risk perception and the educational effects of a multimodal educational intervention. We performed computer-assisted telephone surveys among an average sample of 500 members of the general public (44.0% male, 56.0% female), before and immediately after an intense 3-month educational stroke campaign in a western German area of 400,000 inhabitants. The intervention was comprised of poster advertisements and various print media. Slogans and stroke interest stories appeared regularly in local newspapers, on television and radio and public events focussed on the subject. Even before the intervention, more women than men were able to name at least one stroke warning sign (71.3 vs. 57.8%, p < 0.01), to name the correct emergency call number (33.3 vs. 24.3%, p < 0.05) or to cite the correct action in acute stroke ("call emergency care", 87.2 vs. 70.1%, p < 0.001). In some aspects women showed a generally better improvement of knowledge after the campaign (e.g. correct emergency call number: +5.7 vs. +1.2%, p < 0.05). Fewer women than men considered themselves as being at risk of stroke (30.9 vs. 36.9%. p < 0.01) with a significant increase following the intervention in both sexes (38.9/46.0%, p < 0.01). The perception of different educational media varied between the sexes. For example, female sex was independently associated with a better recall of poster advertisements and flyers in pharmacies and at the doctor's office (OR 1.44). Our data indicate that educational programs do have gender-specific effects. Women show a better stroke knowledge and in some aspects a better chance to gain information from classical broad educational interventions. Future campaigns should be tailored economically, and should focus different media and educational messages on the two sexes accordingly.

  10. First confirmed report of a bacterial brood disease in stingless bees.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Jenny Lee; Haigh, Anthony Mark; Riegler, Markus; Spooner-Hart, Robert Neil

    2017-03-01

    Susceptibility to brood pathogens in eusocial stingless bees (Meliponini), alternative pollinators to honey bees, is unknown. Brood losses in managed colonies of the Australian stingless bee, Tetragonula carbonaria, were studied over 20months. We isolated a disease-causing bacterium, Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Firmicutes, Bacillaceae), from worker and queen larvae, brood cell provisions and honey stores. Pathogenicity experiments confirmed this bacterium as the causal organism. It took 22days from infection to first appearance of brood disease symptoms. This is the first confirmed record of a brood pathogen in stingless bees.

  11. Establishment of Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Ranges for 36 Routine and 57 Cell Population Data Items in a New Automated Blood Cell Analyzer, Sysmex XN-2000

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Han, Min-Young; Cho, Young-Uk; Jang, Seongsoo

    2016-01-01

    We established age- and gender-specific reference ranges for the 36 routine complete blood cell (CBC) and 57 cell population data (CPD) items in the Sysmex XN-2000 (Sysmex, Japan). In total, 280 peripheral blood samples were obtained from an equal number of healthy adults. Values for 36 routine items and 57 CPD items were obtained for each sample, and the results were categorized into six subgroups (N>39 in each subgroup) according to patient age (20-40, 41-60, and >60 yr) and gender (male and female), and compared with respect to age and gender differences. The majority of data items (22 of 36 routine CBC items and 44 of 57 CPD items) exhibited significant differences (P≤0.05) in their results with respect to age or gender, and several red cell-, lymphocyte-, and platelet-related data tended to decrease in women or older adults. These results provide a basis for establishing age- and gender-specific reference ranges for routine and CPD items in Sysmex XN-2000. Furthermore, these reference ranges could be used to determine clinical significance for new items of Sysmex XN-2000 in further studies. PMID:26915613

  12. Establishment of Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Ranges for 36 Routine and 57 Cell Population Data Items in a New Automated Blood Cell Analyzer, Sysmex XN-2000.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Park, Chan Jeoung; Lee, Bo Ra; Kim, Mi Jeong; Han, Min Young; Cho, Young Uk; Jang, Seongsoo

    2016-05-01

    We established age- and gender-specific reference ranges for the 36 routine complete blood cell (CBC) and 57 cell population data (CPD) items in the Sysmex XN-2000 (Sysmex, Japan). In total, 280 peripheral blood samples were obtained from an equal number of healthy adults. Values for 36 routine items and 57 CPD items were obtained for each sample, and the results were categorized into six subgroups (N>39 in each subgroup) according to patient age (20-40, 41-60, and >60 yr) and gender (male and female), and compared with respect to age and gender differences. The majority of data items (22 of 36 routine CBC items and 44 of 57 CPD items) exhibited significant differences (P≤0.05) in their results with respect to age or gender, and several red cell-, lymphocyte-, and platelet-related data tended to decrease in women or older adults. These results provide a basis for establishing age- and gender-specific reference ranges for routine and CPD items in Sysmex XN-2000. Furthermore, these reference ranges could be used to determine clinical significance for new items of Sysmex XN-2000 in further studies.

  13. Opportunistic brood theft in the context of colony relocation in an Indian queenless ant

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Bishwarup; Paul, Manabi; Annagiri, Sumana

    2016-01-01

    Brood is a very valuable part of an ant colony and behaviours increasing its number with minimum investment is expected to be favoured by natural selection. Brood theft has been well documented in ants belonging to the subfamilies Myrmicinae and Formicinae. In this study we report opportunistic brood theft in the context of nest relocation in Diacamma indicum, belonging to the primitively eusocial subfamily Ponerinae. Pupae was the preferred stolen item both in laboratory conditions and in natural habitat and a small percentage of the members of a colony acting as thieves stole about 12% of the brood of the victim colony. Stolen brood were not consumed but became slaves. We propose a new dimension to the risks of relocation in the form of brood theft by conspecific neighbours and speculate that examination of this phenomenon in other primitively eusocial species will help understand the origin of brood theft in ants. PMID:27796350

  14. Gender, Previous Knowledge, Personality Traits and Subject-Specific Motivation as Predictors of Students' Math Grade in Upper-Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peklaj, Cirila; Podlesek, Anja; Pecjak, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between gender, previous knowledge, different personality traits, subject-specific motivational dimensions and students' math grade in secondary school. A total of 386 first-year students (142 boys and 244 girls) from secondary schools in Slovenia (mean age was 15.7 years) participated in the…

  15. Schistosome sex matters: a deep view into gonad-specific and pairing-dependent transcriptomes reveals a complex gender interplay

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhigang; Sessler, Florian; Holroyd, Nancy; Hahnel, Steffen; Quack, Thomas; Berriman, Matthew; Grevelding, Christoph G.

    2016-01-01

    As a key event for maintaining life cycles, reproduction is a central part of platyhelminth biology. In case of parasitic platyhelminths, reproductive processes can also contribute to pathology. One representative example is the trematode Schistosoma, which causes schistosomiasis, an infectious disease, whose pathology is associated with egg production. Among the outstanding features of schistosomes is their dioecious lifestyle and the pairing-dependent differentiation of the female gonads which finally leads to egg synthesis. To analyze the reproductive biology of Schistosoma mansoni in-depth we isolated complete ovaries and testes from paired and unpaired schistosomes for comparative RNA-seq analyses. Of >7,000 transcripts found in the gonads, 243 (testes) and 3,600 (ovaries) occurred pairing-dependently. Besides the detection of genes transcribed preferentially or specifically in the gonads of both genders, we uncovered pairing-induced processes within the gonads including stem cell-associated and neural functions. Comparisons to work on neuropeptidergic signaling in planarian showed interesting parallels but also remarkable differences and highlights the importance of the nervous system for flatworm gonad differentiation. Finally, we postulated first functional hints for 235 hypothetical genes. Together, these results elucidate key aspects of flatworm reproductive biology and will be relevant for basic as well as applied, exploitable research aspects. PMID:27499125

  16. Haploinsufficiency in the PPAR{alpha} and LDL receptor genes leads to gender- and age-specific obesity and hyperinsulinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Eiko . E-mail: eikoyoko@nagano-kentan.ac.jp; Tanaka, Naoki; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijo, Yuji; Yokoyama, Shin; Li Yufeng; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2006-11-17

    When preparing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}:low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (-/-) double knockout mice, we unexpectedly found a unique gender- and age-specific obesity in the F1 generation, PPAR{alpha} (+/-):LDLR (+/-), even in mice fed standard chow. Body weights of the male heterozygous mice increased up to about 60 g at 75 weeks of age, then decreased by about 30 g at 100 weeks of age. More than 95% of the heterozygous mice between 35- and 75-week-olds were overweight. Of interest, the obese heterozygous mice also exhibited hyperinsulinemia correlating with moderate insulin resistance. Hepatic gene expression of LDLR was lower than expected in the heterozygous mice, particularly at 50 and 75 weeks of age. In contrast, the hepatic expression of PPAR{alpha} was higher than expected in obese heterozygous mice, but decreased in non-obese older heterozygous mice. Modulated expression of these genes may be partially associated with the onset of the hyperinsulinemia.

  17. Diurnal brooding behavior of long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus glaucogularis)

    PubMed Central

    YU, Jin; WANG, Peng-Cheng; LÜ, Lei; ZHANG, Zheng-Wang; WANG, Yong; XU, Ji-Liang; LI, Jian-Qiang; XI, Bo; ZHU, Jia-Gui; DU, Zhi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Brooding is a major breeding investment of parental birds during the early nestling stage, and has important effects on the development and survival of nestlings. Investigating brooding behavior can help to understand avian breeding investment strategies. From January to June in 2013 and 2014, we studied the brooding behaviors of long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus glaucogularis) in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Henan Province, China. We analyzed the relationships between parental diurnal brooding duration and nestling age, brood size, temperature, relative breeding season, time of day and nestling frequencies during brooding duration. Results showed that female and male long-tailed tit parents had different breeding investment strategies during the early nestling stage. Female parents bore most of the brooding investment, while male parents performed most of the nestling feedings. In addition, helpers were not found to brood nestlings at the two cooperative breeding nests. Parental brooding duration was significantly associated with the food delivered to nestlings (F=86.10, df=1, 193.94, P<0.001), and was longer when the nestlings received more food. We found that parental brooding duration declined significantly as nestlings aged (F=5.99, df=1, 50.13, P=0.018). When nestlings were six days old, daytime parental brooding almost ceased, implying that longtailed tit nestlings might be able to maintain their own body temperature by this age. In addition, brooding duration was affected by both brood size (F=12.74, df=1, 32.08, P=0.001) and temperature (F=5.83, df=1, 39.59, P=0.021), with it being shorter in larger broods and when ambient temperature was higher. PMID:27029865

  18. Diurnal brooding behavior of long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus glaucogularis).

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Lü, Lei; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Wang, Yong; Xu, Ji-Liang; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xi, Bo; Zhu, Jia-Gui; Du, Zhi-Yong

    2016-03-18

    Brooding is a major breeding investment of parental birds during the early nestling stage, and has important effects on the development and survival of nestlings. Investigating brooding behavior can help to understand avian breeding investment strategies. From January to June in 2013 and 2014, we studied the brooding behaviors of long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus glaucogularis) in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Henan Province, China. We analyzed the relationships between parental diurnal brooding duration and nestling age, brood size, temperature, relative breeding season, time of day and nestling frequencies during brooding duration. Results showed that female and male long-tailed tit parents had different breeding investment strategies during the early nestling stage. Female parents bore most of the brooding investment, while male parents performed most of the nestling feedings. In addition, helpers were not found to brood nestlings at the two cooperative breeding nests. Parental brooding duration was significantly associated with the food delivered to nestlings (F=86.10, df=1, 193.94, P<0.001), and was longer when the nestlings received more food. We found that parental brooding duration declined significantly as nestlings aged (F=5.99, df=1, 50.13, P=0.018). When nestlings were six days old, daytime parental brooding almost ceased, implying that longtailed tit nestlings might be able to maintain their own body temperature by this age. In addition, brooding duration was affected by both brood size (F=12.74, df=1, 32.08, P=0.001) and temperature (F=5.83, df=1, 39.59, P=0.021), with it being shorter in larger broods and when ambient temperature was higher.

  19. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sekulic, Damir; Tahiraj, Enver; Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-01-01

    successful in their junior age and those who consume dietary supplements. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in female team-sport athletes. While the associations between the studied factors and doping behaviour are different between males and females, the gender-specific approach to exploring the covariates of doping behaviour is warranted. PMID:27928206

  20. Differential reproductive success favours strong host preference in a highly specialized brood parasite

    PubMed Central

    De Mársico, María C; Reboreda, Juan C

    2008-01-01

    Obligate avian brood parasites show dramatic variation in the degree to which they are host specialists or host generalists. The screaming cowbird Molothrus rufoaxillaris is one of the most specialized brood parasites, using a single host, the bay-winged cowbird (Agelaioides badius) over most of its range. Coevolutionary theory predicts increasing host specificity the longer the parasite interacts with a particular avian community, as hosts evolve defences that the parasite cannot counteract. According to this view, host specificity can be maintained if screaming cowbirds avoid parasitizing potentially suitable hosts that have developed effective defences against parasitic females or eggs. Specialization may also be favoured, even in the absence of host defences, if the parasite's reproductive success in alternative hosts is lower than that in the main host. We experimentally tested these hypotheses using as alternative hosts two suitable but unparasitized species: house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus). We assessed host defences against parasitic females and eggs, and reproductive success of the parasite in current and alternative hosts. Alternative hosts did not discriminate against screaming cowbird females or eggs. Egg survival and hatching success were similarly high in current and alternative hosts, but the survival of parasitic chicks was significantly lower in alternative hosts. Our results indicate that screaming cowbirds have the potential to colonize novel hosts, but higher reproductive success in the current host may favour host fidelity. PMID:18647716

  1. Gender and age-specific seroprevalence of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 in general population in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Aghakhani, Arezoo; Mamishi, Setareh; Sabeti, Shahram; Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Banifazl, Mohammad; Bavand, Anahita; Ramezani, Amitis

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of the gender and age-specific seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) is essential for planning of HPV vaccine implementation into the preventive programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the age-specific seroprevalence of HPV-16 and 18 in both males and females in Tehran, Iran. Three hundred and seventy-eight women (10-35 years) and 162 men (10-25 years) from Tehran, Iran, were enrolled. Anti-HPV IgG antibodies against HPV-16 and HPV-18 were detected by ELISA using papillomavirus type 16 and 18 L1-capsids as antigen. HPV-16 antibody was detected in 15.6 and 13.6% of women and men, respectively. Antibody against HPV-18 was found positive in 12.7 and 8% of women and men, respectively. The highest seroprevalence of HPV-16 and 18 were seen in women aged 26-30 years (22.2 and 19.4%, respectively), and the lowest HPV-16 and 18 seropositivity rates were seen in males and females aged 10-15 years (9.3 and 1.9%, respectively). In our cohort of study, in males, both anti-HPV-16 and 18 increased after age 15 years, peaking in men aged 21-25 years. In women, both HPV-16 and 18 seropositivity increased after 15 years, declined at 21-25 years, peaked in women aged 26-30 years and again decreased after 30 years. Our data showed increasing exposure rate to high-risk HPV vaccine types in our studied population over 15 years of age. In order to prevent the HPV-related cancers, implementation of HPV vaccine into the national immunization program in Iran and vaccination of females and males less than 15 years of age are suggested.

  2. Evaluating exposure and potential effects on honeybee brood (Apis mellifera) development using glyphosate as an example

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Helen M; Levine, Steven L; Doering, Janine; Norman, Steve; Manson, Philip; Sutton, Peter; von Mérey, Georg

    2014-01-01

    appropriate dose rates to be determined, based on realistic worst-case residues in pollen and nectar and estimated intake by the colony, as shown by the residue analysis. Previous studies have used the standard methodology developed primarily to identify pesticides with insect-growth disrupting properties of pesticide formulations, which are less reliant on identifying realistic exposure scenarios. However, this adaptation of the method can be used to determine dose–response effects of colony level exposure to pesticides with a wide range of properties. This approach would limit the number of replicated tunnel or field-scale studies that need to be undertaken to assess effects on honeybee brood and may be of particular benefit where residues in pollen and nectar are crop- and/or formulation-specific, such as systemic seed treatments and granular applications. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:463–470. PMID:24616275

  3. Application of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Test to Detect Gender-Specific Effect of Chemicals: A Supplementary Tool for Embryotoxicity Prediction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhou, Ren; Liang, Fan; Wei, Hongying; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-09-19

    Gender effect is an inherent property of chemicals, characterized by variations caused by the chemical-biology interaction. It has widely existed, but the shortage of an appropriate model restricts the study on gender-specific effect. The embryonic stem cell test (EST) has been utilized as an alternative test for developmental toxicity. Despite its numerous improvements, mouse embryonic stem cells with an XX karyotype have not been used in the EST, which restricts the ability of the EST to identify gender-specific effects during high-throughput-screening (HTS) of chemicals to date. To address this, the embryonic stem cell (ESC) SP3 line with an XX karyotype was used to establish a "female" model as a complement to EST. Here, we proposed a "double-objects in unison" (DOU)-EST, which consisted of male ESC and female ESC; a seven-day EST protocol was utilized, and the gender-specific effect of chemicals was determined and discriminated; the replacement of myosin heavy chain (MHC) with myosin light chain (MLC) provided a suitable molecular biomarker in the DOU-EST. New linear discriminant functions were given in the purpose of distinguishing chemicals into three classes, namely, no gender-specific effect, male-susceptive, and female-susceptive. For 15 chemicals in the training set, the concordances of prediction result as no gender effect, male susceptive, and female susceptive were 86.67%, 86.67%, and 93.33%, respectively, the sensitivities were 66.67%, 83.33%, and 83.33%, respectively, and the specificities were 91.67%, 88.89%, and 100%, respectively; the total accuracy of DOU-EST was 86.67%. For three chemicals in the test set, one was incorrectively predicted. The possible reason for misclassification may due to the absence of hormone environment in vitro. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) indicated a mean error rate of 18.34%. Taken together, these data suggested a good performance of the proposed DOU-EST. Emerging chemicals with undiscovered gender-specific

  4. Virulence of mixed fungal infections in honey bee brood

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Honey bees, Apis mellifera, have a diverse community of pathogens. Previous research has mostly focused on bacterial brood diseases of high virulence, but milder diseases caused by fungal pathogens have recently attracted more attention. This interest has been triggered by partial evidence that co-infection with multiple pathogens has the potential to accelerate honey bee mortality. In the present study we tested whether co-infection with closely related fungal brood-pathogen species that are either specialists or non-specialist results in higher host mortality than infections with a single specialist. We used a specially designed laboratory assay to expose honey bee larvae to controlled infections with spores of three Ascosphaera species: A. apis, the specialist pathogen that causes chalkbrood disease in honey bees, A. proliperda, a specialist pathogen that causes chalkbrood disease in solitary bees, and A. atra, a saprophytic fungus growing typically on pollen brood-provision masses of solitary bees. Results We show for the first time that single infection with a pollen fungus A. atra may induce some mortality and that co-infection with A. atra and A. apis resulted in higher mortality of honey bees compared to single infections with A. apis. However, similar single and mixed infections with A. proliperda did not increase brood mortality. Conclusion Our results show that co-infection with a closely related fungal species can either increase or have no effect on host mortality, depending on the identity of the second species. Together with other studies suggesting that multiple interacting pathogens may be contributing to worldwide honey bee health declines, our results highlight the importance of studying effects of multiple infections, even when all interacting species are not known to be specialist pathogens. PMID:22444792

  5. Honeybee Colony Vibrational Measurements to Highlight the Brood Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Bencsik, Martin; Le Conte, Yves; Reyes, Maritza; Pioz, Maryline; Whittaker, David; Crauser, Didier; Simon Delso, Noa; Newton, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Insect pollination is of great importance to crop production worldwide and honey bees are amongst its chief facilitators. Because of the decline of managed colonies, the use of sensor technology is growing in popularity and it is of interest to develop new methods which can more accurately and less invasively assess honey bee colony status. Our approach is to use accelerometers to measure vibrations in order to provide information on colony activity and development. The accelerometers provide amplitude and frequency information which is recorded every three minutes and analysed for night time only. Vibrational data were validated by comparison to visual inspection data, particularly the brood development. We show a strong correlation between vibrational amplitude data and the brood cycle in the vicinity of the sensor. We have further explored the minimum data that is required, when frequency information is also included, to accurately predict the current point in the brood cycle. Such a technique should enable beekeepers to reduce the frequency with which visual inspections are required, reducing the stress this places on the colony and saving the beekeeper time. PMID:26580393

  6. Atlantic salmon brood stock management and breeding handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kincaid, Harold L.; Stanley, Jon G.

    1989-01-01

    Anadromus runs of Atlantic salmon have been restored to the Connecticut, Merrimack, Pawcatuck, Penobscot, and St. Croix rivers in New England by the stocking of more than 8 million smolts since 1948. Fish-breeding methods have been developed that minimize inbreeding and domestication and enhance natural selection. Methods are available to advance the maturation of brood stock, control the sex of production lots and store gametes. Current hatchery practices emphasize the use of sea-run brood stock trapped upon return to the rivers and a limited number of captive brood stock and rejuvenated kelts. Fish are allowed to mature naturally, after which they are spawned and incubated artificially. Generally, 1-year smolts are produced, and excess fish are stocked as fry in headwater streams. Smolts are stocked during periods of rising water in spring. Self-release pools are planned that enable smolts to choose the emigration time. Culturists keep good records that permit evaluation of the performance of strains and the effects of breeding practices. As Atlantic salmon populations expand, culturists must use sound breeding methods that enhance biotic potential while maintaining genetic diversity and protecting unique gene pools.

  7. Delayed insemination results in embryo mortality in a brooding ascidian.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Savage, J; Phillippi, A; Yund, P O

    2001-08-01

    We explored the effects of temporal variation in sperm availability on fertilization and subsequent larval development in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, a brooding hermaphrodite that has a sexual cycle linked to an asexual zooid replacement cycle. We developed a method to quantify the timing of events early in this cycle, and then isolated colonies before the start of the cycle and inseminated them at various times. Colony-wide fertilization levels (assayed by early cleavage) increased from zero to 100% during the period when the siphons of a new generation of zooids were first opening, and remained high for 24 h before slowly declining over the next 48 h. Because embryos are brooded until just before the zooids degenerate at the end of a cycle, delayed fertilization might also affect whether embryos can complete development within the cycle. Consequently, we also determined the effect of delayed insemination on successful embryo development through larval release and metamorphosis. When fertilization was delayed beyond the completion of siphon opening, there was an exponential decline in the percentage of eggs that ultimately produced a metamorphosed larva at the end of the cycle. Thus, even though the majority of oocytes can be fertilized when insemination is delayed for up to 48 h, the resulting embryos cannot complete development before the brooding zooids degenerate.

  8. Explaining postnatal growth plasticity in a generalist brood parasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remeš, Vladimír

    2010-03-01

    Selection of a particular host has clear consequences for the performance of avian brood parasites. Experimental studies showed that growth rate and fledging mass of brood parasites varied between host species independently of the original host species. Finding correlates of this phenotypic plasticity in growth is important for assessing adaptiveness and potential fitness consequences of host choice. Here, I analyzed the effects of several host characteristics on growth rate and fledging mass of the young of brown-headed cowbird ( Molothrus ater), a generalist, non-evicting brood parasite. Cowbird chicks grew better in fast-developing host species and reached higher fledging mass in large hosts with fast postnatal development. A potential proximate mechanism linking fast growth and high fledging mass of cowbird with fast host development is superior food supply in fast-developing foster species. So far, we know very little about the consequences of the great plasticity in cowbird growth for later performance of the adult parasite. Thus, cowbird species could become interesting model systems for investigating the role of plasticity and optimization in the evolution of growth rate in birds.

  9. Putative sex-specific human pheromones do not affect gender perception, attractiveness ratings or unfaithfulness judgements of opposite sex faces

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Robin M.; Schlatter, Sophie; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Debate continues over the existence of human sex pheromones. Two substances, androstadienone (AND) and estratetraenol (EST), were recently reported to signal male and female gender, respectively, potentially qualifying them as human sex pheromones. If AND and EST truly signal gender, then they should affect reproductively relevant behaviours such as mate perception. To test this hypothesis, heterosexual, Caucasian human participants completed two computer-based tasks twice, on two consecutive days, exposed to a control scent on one day and a putative pheromone (AND or EST) on the other. In the first task, 46 participants (24 male, 22 female) indicated the gender (male or female) of five gender-neutral facial morphs. Exposure to AND or EST had no effect on gender perception. In the second task, 94 participants (43 male, 51 female) rated photographs of opposite-sex faces for attractiveness and probable sexual unfaithfulness. Exposure to the putative pheromones had no effect on either attractiveness or unfaithfulness ratings. These results are consistent with those of other experimental studies and reviews that suggest AND and EST are unlikely to be human pheromones. The double-blind nature of the current study lends increased support to this conclusion. If human sex pheromones affect our judgements of gender, attractiveness or unfaithfulness from faces, they are unlikely to be AND or EST.

  10. Sex ratio and fledging success of supplementary-fed Tengmalm's owl broods.

    PubMed

    Hörnfeldt, B; Hipkiss, T; Fridolfsson, A K; Eklund, U; Ellegren, H

    2000-02-01

    A nest box population of Tengmalm's owls (Aegolius funereus) in northern Sweden was studied to investigate the effects of extra food on the sex ratio between hatching and fledging in this sexually size-dimorphic species. The brood size and brood sex ratio of supplementary-fed and control broods were compared. Newly hatched nestlings were blood sampled and sexed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the sex-linked CHD1Z and CHD1W genes. The brood sex ratio at hatching was strongly male biased (65%); this was also the case in broods where all eggs hatched (72%). There was no relationship between hatch order and sex ratio, and hatching sex ratio did not vary significantly with laying date. Brood size decreased between hatching and fledging, but did not differ between fed and control broods at either stage. Brood sex ratio did not differ between hatching and fledging, and fledging sex ratio did not differ between fed and control broods. It was concluded that, at least during the year in which the study was carried out, feeding had no effect on brood reduction, and that male and female nestlings did not show any differential mortality. The mechanisms behind the male-biased sex ratio at hatching, and any possible adaptive reasons for it, are not known.

  11. Gender-specific impact of personal health parameters on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Katja; Ristow, Michael; Gaser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function. Personal health markers and modifiable lifestyle factors are related to individual brain aging as well as to the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study used a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarker to assess the effects of 17 health markers on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE) score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for developing AD. Within this cross-sectional, multi-center study 228 cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects (118 males) completed an MRI at 1.5Tesla, physiological and blood parameter assessments. The multivariate regression model combining all measured parameters was capable of explaining 39% of BrainAGE variance in males (p < 0.001) and 32% in females (p < 0.01). Furthermore, markers of the metabolic syndrome as well as markers of liver and kidney functions were profoundly related to BrainAGE scores in males (p < 0.05). In females, markers of liver and kidney functions as well as supply of vitamin B12 were significantly related to BrainAGE (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects several clinical markers of poor health were associated with subtle structural changes in the brain that reflect accelerated aging, whereas protective effects on brain aging were observed for markers of good health. Additionally, the relations between individual brain aging and miscellaneous health markers show gender-specific patterns. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of subtly abnormal patterns of brain aging probably preceding cognitive decline and development of AD. PMID:24904408

  12. Gender differences in rumination: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel P; Whisman, Mark A

    2013-08-01

    Starting in adolescence and continuing through adulthood, women are twice as likely as men to experience depression. According to the response styles theory (RST), gender differences in depression result, in part, from women's tendency to ruminate more than men. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate gender differences in rumination in adults (k = 59; N = 14,321); additionally, an analysis of subtypes of rumination - brooding and reflection - was conducted (k = 23). Fixed effects analyses indicated that women scored higher than men in rumination (d = .24, p < .01, SEd = .02), brooding (d = .19, p < .01, SEd = .03) and reflection (d = .17, p < .01, SEd = .03); there was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias across studies for these effect sizes. Although statistically significant, the effect sizes for gender differences in rumination were small in magnitude. Results are discussed with respect to the RST and gender differences in depression.

  13. Inbreeding influences within-brood heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCS) in an isolated passerine population.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Sheena M; Jamieson, Ian G

    2013-08-01

    Molecular estimates of inbreeding may be made using genetic markers such as microsatellites, however the interpretation of resulting heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) with respect to inbreeding depression is not straightforward. We investigated the relationship between pedigree-determined inbreeding coefficients (f) and HFCs in a closely monitored, reintroduced population of Stewart Island robins (Petroica australis rakiura) on Ulva Island, New Zealand. Using a full sibling design, we focused on differences in juvenile survival associated specifically with individual sibling variation in standardized multilocus heterozygosity (SH) when expected f was identical. We found that within broods, siblings with higher SH at microsatellite loci experienced a higher probability of juvenile survival. This effect, however, was detected primarily within broods that experienced inbreeding or when inbreeding had occurred in their pedigree histories (i.e., at the parents' level). Thus we show, for the first time in a wild population, that the strength of an HFC is partially dependent on the presence of inbreeding events in the recent pedigree history. Our results illustrate the importance of realized effects of inbreeding on genetic variation and fitness and the value of full-sibling designs for the study of HFCs in the context of small, inbred populations.

  14. Introduced Predator Elicits Deficient Brood Defence Behaviour in a Crater Lake Fish

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Topi K.; McCrary, Jeffrey K.; Meyer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Introduced species represent one of the most serious global threats to biodiversity. In this field-based study, we assessed behavioural responses of brood tending cichlid fish to an invasive predator of their offspring. This was achieved by comparing parental defence responses of the endangered arrow cichlid (Amphilophus zaliosus), a fish species endemic to the crater lake Apoyo in Nicaragua, towards the bigmouth sleeper (Gobiomorus dormitor), a formidable predator of cichlid fry, and all other potential fish predators of offspring. The bigmouth sleeper was recently introduced into Apoyo but naturally co-exists with cichlids in a few other Nicaraguan lakes. Arrow cichlid parents allowed bigmouth sleepers to advance much closer to their fry than other predators before initiating aggressive brood defence behaviours. Interestingly, parents of a very closely related species, A. sagittae, which has coevolved with bigmouth sleepers in crater lake Xiloá, reacted to approaching bigmouth sleepers at comparable distances as to other predators of cichlid fry. These results provide a novel demonstration of the specific mechanism (i.e. naive parental behaviour) by which invasive predators may negatively affect species that lack the adequate behavioural repertoire. PMID:22253881

  15. Gender-Specific Hippocampal Dysrhythmia and Aberrant Hippocampal and Cortical Excitability in the APPswePS1dE9 Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Papazoglou, Anna; Soos, Julien; Lundt, Andreas; Wormuth, Carola; Ginde, Varun Raj; Müller, Ralf; Henseler, Christina; Broich, Karl; Xie, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disorder leading to progressive memory loss and eventually death. In this study an APPswePS1dE9 AD mouse model has been analyzed using implantable video-EEG radiotelemetry to perform long-term EEG recordings from the primary motor cortex M1 and the hippocampal CA1 region in both genders. Besides motor activity, EEG recordings were analyzed for electroencephalographic seizure activity and frequency characteristics using a Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) based approach. Automatic seizure detection revealed severe electroencephalographic seizure activity in both M1 and CA1 deflection in APPswePS1dE9 mice with gender-specific characteristics. Frequency analysis of both surface and deep EEG recordings elicited complex age, gender, and activity dependent alterations in the theta and gamma range. Females displayed an antithetic decrease in theta (θ) and increase in gamma (γ) power at 18-19 weeks of age whereas related changes in males occurred earlier at 14 weeks of age. In females, theta (θ) and gamma (γ) power alterations predominated in the inactive state suggesting a reduction in atropine-sensitive type II theta in APPswePS1dE9 animals. Gender-specific central dysrhythmia and network alterations in APPswePS1dE9 point to a functional role in behavioral and cognitive deficits and might serve as early biomarkers for AD in the future. PMID:27840743

  16. Behaviour patterns of Mallard Anas Platyrhynchos pairs and broods in Minnesota and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Buhl, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Few studies have quantitatively examined Mallard behaviour in North America during the breeding season. We estimated diurnal time budgets of unmarked Mallard males, females, and broods from over 1,200 hours of observations at two study areas in western Minnesota and south-central North Dakota during 1988-91. Paired males spent less time feeding and more time alert than did females. Both pair members were engaged in the same behaviour about 67% of the time; the male was always most likely to be doing the same thing as the female, but when the male was resting on water or alert, the female was most likely to be feeding. Females with broods spent less time feeding and more time alert and in locomotion than did females without broods. Behaviour of brood females did not differ with brood age or size. Females temporarily left their broods alone 45 times - about once for each 11 hours of observation. Female absences ranged from 2 to >80 minutes (x>27 min); length of absence was not related to brood age or size. Broods of all ages (a few days old to near fledging) and sizes (1-10 ducklings) were left alone on land and water; broods mostly rested and fed during female absences. Brood females spent less time feeding and more time alert than did broods. Females and their broods were engaged in the same behaviour 6267% of the time; the female was always most likely to be doing the same behaviour as her brood, but when the female was resting on water, the brood was most likely to be feeding, and when the female was alert, the brood was most likely to be feeding (North Dakota site) or resting on land (Minnesota site). Daily activity patterns varied between sites for both pairs and broods. Feeding and resting behaviour showed opposite daily patterns, suggesting that time allocated to feeding constrained time spent resting. Differences between sites and years in time spent feeding by pairs and broods probably reflected varying water conditions and food availability. In light of

  17. Brooding in Psolus patagonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from Argentina, SW Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez, Juliana; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.

    2010-03-01

    The mode, season, and time of brooding, egg diameter, egg number per brood, and the characteristics of newly released juveniles of Psolus patagonicus were investigated off Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina, between October 1999 and February 2001. Individuals were attached to the Patagonian scallop, Zygochlamys patagonica. Spawning occurs between February and March. The mean egg diameter, 887 ± 26 μm, is the highest reported for the family Psolidae. Eggs are brooded under the mother’s sole until they develop into crawling juveniles within 7 months. The largest embryos reached a length of 1,941 ± 228 μm in September. During the brooding period (February-September) the number of brooded embryos decreased while their size increased. Our study confirms brooding behaviour in female P. patagonicus.

  18. Planulae brooding and acquisition of zooxanthellae in Xenia macrospiculata (Cnidaria: Octocorallia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achituv, Y.; Benayahu, Y.; Hanania, J.

    1992-09-01

    Brooding in the octocoral Xenia macrospiculata is described. Young planulae of X. macrospiculata were found in brooding pouches located below the anthocodia among the polyps’ cavities. These cavities are connected by and lined with ectoderm. Detached zooxanthellae were present within the brooding pouches, and are most probably acquired later by the planulae. The zooxanthellae enter into ectodermal ameboid cells by phagocytosis, and are then transferred to the endoderm.

  19. Brood sizes of sympatric American black ducks and mallards in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Clugston, D.A.; McAuley, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    The long-term decline of the American black duck (Anas rubripes) population has been attributed to lower productivity of black ducks that might have been excluded from fertile agricultural wetlands by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We monitored broods on 53 wetlands in 1993 and on 58 wetlands in 1994 to determine mean brood sizes of black ducks and mallards in forested and agricultural landscapes. Study wetlands were moderately to highly fertile. We monitored 94 black duck broods each year and 46 (1993) and 52 (1994) mallard broods until they reached Class IIc-III (near fledging). No differences existed (P = 0.71) in mean brood size between black ducks (1993, 3.95 ? 0.23; 1994, 4.59 ? 0.24) and mallards (1993, 3.96 ? 0.35; 1994, 5.00 ? 0.43) either year. Brood size for species; however, was different between years (P = 0.014) and among wetland sites (P = 0.001). Mean sizes of broods were larger (P < 0.05) on 2 large impoundment complexes (Lake Josephine and Lake Christina) compared with brood sizes on other wetlands in forested or agricultural landscapes. No differences (P 0.41) existed between mean Class IIc-III, brood sizes of black ducks and mallards whether species were alone or together on wetlands. Our data document that mallard productivity is similar to that of black ducks where they breed sympatrically in Maine.

  20. Wood duck brood movements and habitat use on prairie rivers in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granfors, D.A.; Flake, Lester D.

    1999-01-01

    Wood duck (Aix sponsa) populations have been increasing in the Central Flyway, but little is known about wood duck brood rearing in prairie ecosystems. We compared movements and habitat use of radiomarked female wood ducks with broods in South Dakota on 2 rivers with contrasting prairie landscapes. The perennial Big Sioux River had a broad floodplain and riparian forest, whereas the intermittent Maple River had emergent vegetation along the river channel. Movements between nest sites and brood-rearing areas were longer on the Maple River than on the Big Sioux River (P = 0.02) and were among the longest reported for wood duck broods. Movements on the Big Sioux River were longer in 1992 (P = 0.01), when the floodplain was dry, than in 1993 or 1994. Before flooding occurred on the Big Sioux River, broods used semipermanent wetlands and tributaries outside the floodplain; thereafter, females selected forested wetlands along the river. Broods on the Maple River used emergent vegetation along the river channel throughout the study. Because median length of travel to brood-rearing areas was 2-3 km we recommend maintenance of brood-rearing habitat every 3-5 km along prairie rivers. Wildlife managers should encourage landowners to retain riparian vegetation along perennial rivers and emergent vegetation along intermittent streams to provide brood-rearing habitat during wet and dry cycles.

  1. Prolactin stress response does not predict brood desertion in a polyandrous shorebird.

    PubMed

    Kosztolányi, András; Küpper, Clemens; Chastel, Olivier; Parenteau, Charline; Yılmaz, K Tuluhan; Miklósi, Adám; Székely, Tamás; Lendvai, Adám Z

    2012-05-01

    One of the fundamental principles of the life-history theory is that parents need to balance their resources between current and future offspring. Deserting the dependent young is a radical life-history decision that saves resources for future reproduction but that may cause the current brood to fail. Despite the importance of desertion for reproductive success, and thus fitness, the neuroendocrine mechanisms of brood desertion are largely unknown. We investigated two candidate hormones that may influence brood desertion in the Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus: prolactin ('parental hormone') and corticosterone ('stress hormone'). Kentish plovers exhibit an unusually diverse mating and parental care system: brood desertion occurs naturally since either parent (the male or the female) may desert the brood after the chicks hatch and mate with a new partner shortly after. We measured the hormone levels of parents at hatching using the standard capture and restraint protocol. We subsequently followed the broods to determine whether a parent deserted the chicks. We found no evidence that either baseline or stress-induced prolactin levels of male or female parents predicted brood desertion. Although stress-induced corticosterone levels were generally higher in females compared with males, individual corticosterone levels did not explain the probability of brood desertion. We suggest that, in this species, low prolactin levels do not trigger brood desertion. In general, we propose that the prolactin stress response does not reflect overall parental investment in a species where different parts of the breeding cycle are characterized by contrasting individual investment strategies.

  2. Maternal brooding in the children's python (Antaresia childreni) promotes egg water balance.

    PubMed

    Lourdais, Olivier; Hoffman, Ty C M; Denardo, Dale F

    2007-07-01

    Parental care provides considerable benefits to offspring and is widespread among animals, yet it is relatively uncommon among squamate reptiles (e.g., lizards and snakes). However, all pythonine snakes show extended maternal egg brooding with some species being facultatively endothermic. While facultative endothermy provides thermal benefits, the presence of brooding in non-endothermic species suggests other potential benefits of brooding. In this study we experimentally tested the functional significance of maternal brooding relative to water balance in the children's python, Antaresia childreni, a small species that does not exhibit facultative endothermy. Clutch evaporative water loss (EWL) was positively correlated with clutch mass and was much lower than expected values based on individual eggs. The conglomerate clutch behaved as a single unit with a decreasing surface area to volume ratio as clutch size increased. Maternal brooding had a dramatic impact on evaporation from eggs, reducing and possibly eliminating clutch EWL. In a separate experiment, we found that viability of unattended eggs is highly affected by humidity level, even in the narrow range from 75 to 100% relative humidity at 30.5 degrees C (20-33 mg m(-3 )absolute humidity). However, the presence of the brooding female ameliorated this sensitivity, as viability of brooded clutches at 75% relative humidity was higher than that of non-brooded eggs at either the same absolute humidity or at near-saturated conditions. Overall, these results demonstrate that brooding behavior strongly promotes egg water balance (and thus egg viability) in children's pythons.

  3. Inducers of chemical hypoxia act in a gender- and brain region-specific manner on primary astrocyte viability and cytochrome C oxidase.

    PubMed

    Roemgens, André; Singh, Shilpee; Beyer, Cordian; Arnold, Susanne

    2011-07-01

    Oxygen is the ultimate electron acceptor for mitochondrial respiration, a process catalyzed by cytochrome c oxidase (COX). In mammals, oxygen concentration regulates gene transcription of COX subunit IV isoforms. Here, we demonstrate that chemical hypoxia, i.e. inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by application of the COX inhibitors cobalt, cyanide, and azide, affects COX isoform IV-1 and IV-2 transcription in a gender- and brain region-specific way. After treatment with cyanide and cobalt, female cortical and mesencephalic astrocytes, respectively, revealed an up-regulation of COX IV-2 which was accompanied by increased ROS production and necrotic cell death. In male astrocytes, the ratio of COX IV-1/COX IV-2 was lowest after treatment with cobalt and paralleled by highest levels of ROS production and necrosis. These results support the view of a causal correlation of COX IV-2 transcription with cellular oxidative stress and cell death and highlight a gender specificity of these effects. By comparing three toxins, cobalt represented the most potent inducer of overall cell death and resembled most closely the previously observed effects of oxygen deprivation on decreasing the cox4i1/cox4i2 ratio. Overall, an increased sensitivity of male compared with female cell viability towards the toxins was detected. These regulatory responses might be causative for the known gender specificity of toxic and neurodegenerative processes in the brain.

  4. Beneficial Insect Borders Provide Northern Bobwhite Brood Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Christopher E.; Plush, Charles J.; Orr, David B.; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  5. Waptia and the Diversification of Brood Care in Early Arthropods.

    PubMed

    Caron, Jean-Bernard; Vannier, Jean

    2016-01-11

    Brood care, including the carrying of eggs or juveniles, is a form of parental care, which, like other parental traits [1], enhances offspring fitness with variable costs and benefits to the parents [2]. Attempts to understand why and how parental care evolved independently in numerous animal groups often emphasize the role of environmental pressures such as predation, ephemeral resources, and, more generally, the harshness of environment. The fossil record can, in principle, provide minimum age constraints on the evolution of life-history traits, including brood care and key information on the reproductive strategies of extinct organisms. New, exceptionally preserved specimens of the weakly sclerotized arthropod Waptia fieldensis from the middle Cambrian (ca. 508 million years ago) Burgess Shale, Canada, provide the oldest example of in situ eggs with preserved embryos in the fossil record. The relatively small clutch size, up to 24 eggs, and the relatively large diameter of individual eggs, some over 2 mm, contrast with the high number of small eggs-found without preserved embryos-in the bivalved bradoriid arthropod Kunmingella douvillei from the Chengjiang biota (ca. 515 million years ago). The presence of these two different parental strategies suggests a rapid evolution of a variety of modern-type life-history traits, including extended investment in offspring survivorship, soon after the Cambrian emergence of animals. Together with previously described brooded eggs in ostracods from the Upper Ordovician (ca. 450 million years ago), these new findings suggest that the presence of a bivalved carapace played a key role in the early evolution of parental care in arthropods.

  6. Brood amalgamation in the Bristle-thighed Curlew Numenius tahitiensis: process and function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanctot, Richard B.; Gill, R.E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Handel, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Alloparental care in birds generally involves nonbreeding adults that help at nests or breeding adults that help raise young in communal nests. A less often reported form involves the amalgamation of broods, where one or more adults care for young that are not their own. We observed this phenomenon among Bristle-thighed Curlew Numenius tahitiensis broods in western Alaska during 1990–1992. Amalgamation of broods generally involved the formation of temporary and extended associations. Temporary associations were formed by the incidental convergence of broods soon after they left their nests. During this period, parents defended distinct brood-rearing areas, were antagonistic to conspecifics and remained together for less than 3 days. Extended associations formed when chicks were 1–2 weeks old. Here, parents and their broods occupied distinct, but adjacent, brood-rearing areas and moved around as a unit. Whether a brood participated in either temporary or extended associations or remained solitary appeared to depend on brood density in the immediate area and on hatching date. When chicks were 3–4 weeks old, aggregations of up to ten broods formed wherein young mixed and parents defended a common brood-rearing area. All broods (n = 48) that survived to fledging joined such aggregations. Alloparental care involved only antipredator defence and was not associated with activities such as feeding and brooding. Most female parents abandoned their broods shortly after the young could fly and when aggregations were forming. The female parent of a pair always deserted its young before or on the same day as the male parent and, in every aggregation, one or two males continued to tend young for about 5 days longer than other male parents. In most cases, adults deserted the young 2–6 days before the young departed the area when about 38 days old. Bristle-thighed Curlews also formed temporary associations with American and Pacific Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica and

  7. Class and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mechthild

    2005-01-01

    Everyone is dependent on caring labor. Because women's labor is financially beneficial to global capitalism, gender is inseparable from class, regardless of the specific national or cultural contexts.

  8. Hygienic behavior in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): effects of brood, food, and time of the year.

    PubMed

    Bigio, Gianluigi; Schürch, Roger; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-12-01

    Hygienic behavior in honey bees is a heritable trait of individual workers that confers colony-level resistance against various brood diseases. Hygienic workers detect and remove dead or diseased brood from sealed cells. However, this behavior is quite rare, with only c.10% of unselected colonies showing high levels of hygiene. Beekeepers can potentially increase this by screening colonies for hygiene and breeding from the best. However, the level of hygiene expressed by a colony is variable, which poses a challenge to colony selection. In this study, we systematically varied two factors thought to be of importance in influencing hygiene levels, "nectar" availability, by feeding or not feeding sucrose syrup, and brood amount, by adding or removing brood, to determine what effect they had on hygienic behavior. We tested 19 colonies repeatedly over a 4-mo period using the freeze-killed brood assay, a standard technique to quantify hygienic behavior. Two days after freeze-killed brood treatment, our colonies showed a wide range of brood removal levels, with colony means ranging from 31.7 +/- 22.5 to 93 +/- 6.9 (mean % +/- SD). Neither the food nor the brood manipulation had an effect on hygiene levels. Colony size and time of year were also nonsignificant. The only significant effect was a three-way interaction between syrup availability, amount of brood, and time of the year, resulting in reduced hygienic behavior early in the season (spring), in colonies with added brood that were not fed sucrose syrup. Overall, these results suggest that hygienic behavior is not greatly affected by environmental conditions typical of a real-life beekeeping, and that screening of colonies can be done anytime without special regard to nectar conditions or brood levels.

  9. Linking micromorphism, brooding, and hermaphroditism in brachiopods: insights from Caribbean Argyrotheca (Brachiopoda).

    PubMed

    Kaulfuss, Anne; Seidel, Ronald; Lüter, Carsten

    2013-04-01

    In extant brachiopods, parental brooding of the larvae occurs exclusively within Rhynchonelliformea. Methods of larval protection range from simple retention of the larvae within the mantle cavity, to sophisticated brood care within highly specialized brood pouches found in Argyrotheca and Joania (Terebratulida, Megathyridoidea), Gwynia (Terebratulida, Gwynioidea), and all Thecideoidea (Thecideida). Previous studies on the reproductive biology of Argyrotheca yielded contrasting results on the epithelial origin of the brood pouches in this genus. Here, representatives of different species of Argyrotheca from the Belize Barrier Reef were examined using histological section series. Brood pouches of four species, A. cf. schrammi and Argyrotheca sp. 1-3, are of the same basic structure, formed by invaginations of the anterior body wall and connected to the visceral cavity via the metanephridia. The same four species are simultaneously hermaphroditic, suggesting that fertilization is achieved, at least partly, through selfing. One species, Argyrotheca rubrocostata, differs significantly from all others as it has no brood pouch and gonochoric gonads. Thus, the presence of brood pouches and simultaneous hermaphroditism are concluded to be correlated within Megathyridoidea and proposed to be homologous traits of Joania and several but not all species of Argyrotheca, questioning the monophyletic status of both genera. In contrast to the brood pouches of Thecideoidea, lophophoral epithelium is not involved in the formation of the pouches of Argyrotheca and Joania. Therefore, megathyridoid and thecideoid brood pouches are not homologous but evolved independently within rhynchonelliform brachiopods. All brachiopods with brood pouches share a micromorphic form and a short life span, limiting the space and time available for gamete and larval development. We suggest that the brood pouches and the hermaphroditic gonads of Argyrotheca spp. and Joania compensate these limitations by

  10. Civil conflict, gender-specific fetal loss, and selection: a new test of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Valente, Christine

    2015-01-01

    A sizeable economics literature explores the effect of prenatal shocks on later health or socioeconomic status. Work in other disciplines, following the seminal contribution of Trivers and Willard (1973), suggests that prenatal shocks may increase fetal loss and reduce the number of boys relative to girls at birth. This has been largely ignored in the economics literature and could affect the interpretation of estimates of the effect of prenatal shocks and that of gender in other applied economics contexts. This paper analyzes the effect of in utero exposure to a shock - civil conflict in Nepal - on (i) fetal loss, and (ii) gender and (iii) health at birth. Maternal fixed effects estimates show that exposed pregnancies are more likely to result in a miscarriage and in a female birth, but exposed newborns are neither smaller nor more subject to neonatal mortality.

  11. Gender-Specific Associations Between Trauma Cognitions, Alcohol Cravings and Alcohol-Related Consequences in Individuals with Comorbid PTSD and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Jayawickreme, Nuwan; Yasinski, Carly; Williams, Monnica; Foa, Edna B.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined gender-specific associations between trauma cognitions, alcohol cravings and alcohol-related consequences in individuals with dually diagnosed PTSD and alcohol dependence (AD). Participants (N = 167) had entered a treatment study for concurrent PTSD and AD; baseline information was collected from participants about PTSD-related cognitions in three areas: negative cognitions about self, negative cognitions about the world, and self-blame; and two aspects of AD, alcohol cravings and consequences of AD. Gender differences were examined while controlling for PTSD severity. The results indicate that negative cognitions about the self are significantly related to alcohol cravings in men but not women, and that interpersonal consequences of AD are significantly related to self-blame in women but not in men. These findings suggest that for individuals with comorbid PTSD and AD, psychotherapeutic interventions that focus on reducing trauma-related cognitions are likely to reduce alcohol cravings in men and relational problems in women. PMID:21480680

  12. Gender-specific risk factors for virologic failure in KwaZulu-Natal: automobile ownership and financial insecurity.

    PubMed

    Hare, Anna Q; Ordóñez, Claudia E; Johnson, Brent A; Del Rio, Carlos; Kearns, Rachel A; Wu, Baohua; Hampton, Jane; Wu, Peng; Sunpath, Henry; Marconi, Vincent C

    2014-11-01

    We sought to examine which socioeconomic indicators are risk factors for virologic failure among HIV-1 infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A case-control study of virologic failure was conducted among patients recruited from the outpatient clinic at McCord Hospital in Durban, South Africa between October 1, 2010 and June 30, 2012. Cases were those failing first-line ART, defined as viral load >1,000 copies/mL. Univariate logistic regression was performed on sociodemographic data for the outcome of virologic failure. Variables found significant (p < 0.05) were used in multivariate models and all models were stratified by gender. Of 158 cases and 300 controls, 35 % were male and median age was 40 years. Gender stratification of models revealed automobile ownership was a risk factor among males, while variables of financial insecurity (unemployment, non-spouse family paying for care, staying with family) were risk factors for women. In this cohort, financial insecurity among women and automobile ownership among men were risk factors for virologic failure. Risk factor differences between genders demonstrate limitations of generalized risk factor analysis.

  13. Ethnic and gender specific life expectancies of the Singapore population, 1965 to 2009 – converging, or diverging?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in life expectancy and the persistence of expectancy gaps between different social groups in the 20th century are well-described in Western developed countries, but less well documented in the newly industrialised countries of Asia. Singapore, a multiethnic island-state, has undergone a demographic and epidemiologic transition concomitant with economic development. We evaluate secular trends and differences in life expectancy by ethnicity and gender in Singapore, from independence to the present. Methods Period abridged life tables were constructed to derive the life expectancy of the Singapore population from 1965 to 2009 using data from the Department of Statistics and the Registry of Births and Deaths, Singapore. Results All 3 of Singapore’s main ethnic groups, and both genders, experienced an increase in life expectancy at birth and at 65 years from 1965 to 2009, though at substantially different rates. Although there has been a convergence in life expectancy between Indians and Chinese, the (substantial) gap between Malays and the other two ethnic groups has remained. Females continued to have a higher life expectancy at birth and at 65 years than males throughout this period, with no evidence of convergence. Conclusions Ethnic and gender differences in life expectancy persist in Singapore despite its rapid economic development. Targeted chronic disease prevention measures and health promotion activities focusing on people of Malay ethnicity and the male community may be needed to remedy this inequality. PMID:24160733

  14. Longitudinal Examination of Peer and Partner Influences on Gender-specific Pathways From Child Abuse to Adult Crime

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Skinner, Martie L.; Klika, J. Bart

    2015-01-01

    Research provides increasing evidence of the association of child abuse with adult antisocial behavior. However, less is known about the developmental pathways that underlie this association. Building on the life course model of antisocial behavior, the present study examined possible developmental pathways linking various forms of child abuse (physical, emotional, sexual) to adult antisocial behavior. These pathways include child and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as adulthood measures of partner risk taking, warmth, and antisocial peer influences. Data are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study examining long-term developmental outcomes subsequent to child maltreatment. Participant families in the Lehigh Longitudinal Study were followed from preschool age into adulthood. Analyses of gender differences addressed the consistency of path coefficients across genders. Results for 297 adult participants followed from early childhood showed that, for both genders, physical and emotional child abuse predicted adult crime indirectly through child and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as adult partner and antisocial peer influences. However, for females, having an antisocial partner predicted an affiliation with antisocial peers, and that in turn predicted adult crime. For males, having an antisocial partner was associated with less partner warmth, which in turn predicted an affiliation with antisocial peers, itself a proximal predictor of adult crime. Sexual abuse also predicted adolescent antisocial behavior, but only for males, supporting what some have called “a delayed-onset pathway” for females, whereby the exposure to early risks produce much later developmental outcomes. PMID:26271556

  15. Longitudinal examination of peer and partner influences on gender-specific pathways from child abuse to adult crime.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee; Skinner, Martie L; Klika, J Bart

    2015-09-01

    Research provides increasing evidence of the association of child abuse with adult antisocial behavior. However, less is known about the developmental pathways that underlie this association. Building on the life course model of antisocial behavior, the present study examined possible developmental pathways linking various forms of child abuse (physical, emotional, sexual) to adult antisocial behavior. These pathways include child and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as adulthood measures of partner risk taking, warmth, and antisocial peer influences. Data are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study examining long-term developmental outcomes subsequent to child maltreatment. Participant families in the Lehigh Longitudinal Study were followed from preschool age into adulthood. Analyses of gender differences addressed the consistency of path coefficients across genders. Results for 297 adult participants followed from early childhood showed that, for both genders, physical and emotional child abuse predicted adult crime indirectly through child and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as adult partner and antisocial peer influences. However, for females, having an antisocial partner predicted an affiliation with antisocial peers, and that in turn predicted adult crime. For males, having an antisocial partner was associated with less partner warmth, which in turn predicted an affiliation with antisocial peers, itself a proximal predictor of adult crime. Sexual abuse also predicted adolescent antisocial behavior, but only for males, supporting what some have called "a delayed-onset pathway" for females, whereby the exposure to early risks produce much later developmental outcomes.

  16. Gender-specific risk factors for virologic failure in KwaZulu-Natal: Automobile ownership and financial insecurity

    PubMed Central

    HARE, Anna Q.; ORDÓÑEZ, Claudia E.; JOHNSON, Brent A.; RIO, Carlos DEL; KEARNS, Rachel A.; WU, Baohua; HAMPTON, Jane; WU, Peng; SUNPATH, Henry; MARCONI, Vincent C.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to examine which socioeconomic indicators are risk factors for virologic failure among HIV-1 infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A case-control study of virologic failure was conducted among patients recruited from the outpatient clinic at McCord Hospital in Durban, South Africa between October 1, 2010 and June 30, 2012. Cases were those failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART), defined as viral load > 1000 copies/mL. Univariate logistic regression was performed on sociodemographic data for the outcome of virologic failure. Variables found significant (p<.05) were used in multivariate models and all models were stratified by gender. Of 158 cases and 300 controls, 35% were male and median age was 40 years. Gender stratification of models revealed automobile ownership was a risk factor among males, while variables of financial insecurity (unemployment, non-spouse family paying for care, staying with family) were risk factors for women. In this cohort, financial insecurity among women and automobile ownership among men were risk factors for virologic failure. Risk factor differences between genders demonstrate limitations of generalized risk factor analysis. PMID:25037488

  17. Gender-Specific Mechanisms Underlying the Amelioration of High-Fat Diet-Induced Glucose Intolerance in B-Cell-Activating Factor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bobae; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been found that B cell activating factor (BAFF) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We also have previously reported that BAFF deficiency reverses high-fat (HF) diet-induced glucose intolerance by potentiating adipose tissue function. In the present study, we found that BAFF deficient (BAFF-/-) mice exhibit gender-specific differences in protection against diet-induced glucose intolerance, and aimed to characterize the gender-dependent molecular alterations in energy metabolism. Under HF feeding conditions, serum BAFF level of female wild-type (WT) mice was considerably higher than that of male mice. Despite increased body weight gain, both male and female BAFF-/- mice showed significantly improved glucose tolerance compared to their WT counterparts. Expressions of genes involved in glucose transport, thermogenesis and lipid oxidation were up-regulated in brown adipose tissues of both male and female BAFF-/- mice. Interestingly, the expression of thermogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue was significantly enhanced in female BAFF-/- compared to WT mice, but the difference was not observed between male BAFF-/- and WT mice. The enhanced thermogenic program was confirmed by higher protein levels of UCP1 and irisin in female BAFF-/- than in WT mice. Additionally, adiponectin production in white adipose tissues and AMPK phosphorylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue were also significantly elevated in female BAFF-/- compared to WT mice, but not in male BAFF-/- mice. Our findings define a comprehensive scenario for the enhancing effect of BAFF depletion on glucose tolerance wherein the underlying mechanism is, at least in part, gender-specific, and suggest that gender difference should be considered as an important factor in the use of BAFF blockade as a therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27814392

  18. Brood comb as a humidity buffer in honeybee nests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Michael B.; Nicolson, Sue W.; Crewe, Robin M.; Dietemann, Vincent

    2010-04-01

    Adverse environmental conditions can be evaded, tolerated or modified in order for an organism to survive. During their development, some insect larvae spin cocoons which, in addition to protecting their occupants against predators, modify microclimatic conditions, thus facilitating thermoregulation or reducing evaporative water loss. Silk cocoons are spun by honeybee ( Apis mellifera) larvae and subsequently incorporated into the cell walls of the wax combs in which they develop. The accumulation of this hygroscopic silk in the thousands of cells used for brood rearing may significantly affect nest homeostasis by buffering humidity fluctuations. This study investigates the extent to which the comb may influence homeostasis by quantifying the hygroscopic capacity of the cocoons spun by honeybee larvae. When comb containing cocoons was placed at high humidity, it absorbed 11% of its own mass in water within 4 days. Newly drawn comb composed of hydrophobic wax and devoid of cocoons absorbed only 3% of its own mass. Therefore, the accumulation of cocoons in the comb may increase brood survivorship by maintaining a high and stable humidity in the cells.

  19. Sex allocation in relation to host races in the brood-parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus).

    PubMed

    Fossøy, Frode; Moksnes, Arne; Røskaft, Eivin; Antonov, Anton; Dyrcz, Andrzej; Moskat, Csaba; Ranke, Peter S; Rutila, Jarkko; Vikan, Johan R; Stokke, Bård G

    2012-01-01

    Sex allocation theory and empirical evidence both suggest that natural selection should favour maternal control of offspring sex ratio in relation to their ability to invest in the offspring. Generalist parasites constitute a particularly interesting group to test this theory as different females commonly utilize different host species showing large variation in provisioning ability. The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is a generalist brood parasite that lays its eggs in the nest of many different passerine birds, but each female tends to specialize on one particular host species giving rise to highly specialized host races. The different host species show large variation in their ability to invest in the parasitic offspring, presenting an opportunity for female cuckoos to bias offspring sex ratio in relation to host species quality. Here, we investigate host-race specific sex allocation controlling for maternal identity in the common cuckoo. We found no evidence of any significant relationship between host race and sex ratio in one sympatric population harbouring three different host races, or in a total of five geographically separated populations. There was also no significant association between host quality, as determined by species-specific female host body mass, and cuckoo sex ratio. Finally, we found no significant relationship between individual cuckoo maternal quality, as determined by her egg volume, and sex ratio within each host race. We conclude that the generalist brood-parasitic common cuckoo show no significant sex-ratio bias in relation to host race and discuss this finding in light of gene flow and host adaptations.

  20. Brood removal influences fall of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hygienic removal of brood infested with Varroa destructor by Apis mellifera disrupts the reproduction of the infesting mites and exposes the foundress mites to potential removal from the colony by grooming. Using brood deliberately infested with marked Varroa, we investigated the association bet...

  1. Non-random brood mixing suggests adoption in a colonial cichlid.

    PubMed

    Schaedelin, Franziska C; van Dongen, Wouter F D; Wagner, Richard H

    2013-03-01

    Parental care of unrelated offspring is widespread but not well understood. We used 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate the relatedness of fry and parentally caring adults in a 118-nest colony of the socially and genetically monogamous cichlid fish Neolamprologus caudopunctatus in Lake Tanganyika. There was a high proportion of brood mixing, with 59% of 32 broods containing fry unrelated to both parents, and 18% of all 291 sampled fry being unrelated to the breeding pair. There was no evidence of kin selection for adoption because the genetic and foster parents were not more related than expected by chance. Parentage was assigned to 12 adopted fry from 10 broods. Distances traversed by fry varied markedly, from less than one to over 40 meters. The larger distances suggest that at least some brood mixing was instigated by parents transporting portions of their broods in their mouths, as occurs in some cichlids. Further evidence of non-random brood mixing was that foreign fry did not differ in size from their foster siblings within broods, even though they were significantly larger than fry produced by the tending pairs within the colony. These findings suggest that at least some foreign fry had dispersed non-randomly and were adopted by their foster parents. Enlarged broods are known to provide reduced per capita predation, making it potentially adaptive for breeders to adopt unrelated offspring.

  2. Comparison of helicopter and ground surveys of waterfowl broods in southern Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabor, T.S.; Longcore, J.R.; Murkin, H.R.; Arnason, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    Managers often employ aerial survey information to manage waterfowl. Results of surveys by helicopter and from elevated platforms were compared to determine the accuracy of helicopters to detect waterfowl broods on beaver ponds in southern Ontario in 1996 and 1997. Fewer broods were detected from the helicopter than by observers in elevated platforms at wetland margins. When broods were detected by helicopter crews, >90% were correctly enumerated and >80% were correctly aged. A second helicopter survey, the day following the first survey, did not change the Visibility Correction Factor (VCF) substantially (1.79 vs. 1.53). Data from the 2 helicopter surveys combined (without ground counts) resulted in greater VCFs (2.17) than when a single helicopter survey and ground count was used (VCF = 1.79). In general, VCFs for most waterfowl broods were lower in forested or closed (emergent and scrub-shrub) wetland habitats than on open wetlands. When multiple broods were present on a wetland, sightability of the additional broods (second, third, etc.) was lower for the helicopter crew than ground crew. Surveys by helicopter are likely most useful to develop indices for waterfowl broods of diver species in large inaccessible areas. If accurate information is required on dabbler brood densities, age, and number of ducklings, quiet observation by crews in elevated platforms should be used.

  3. How Brooding Minds Inhibit Negative Material: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Baeken, Chris; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Luypaert, Rob; De Mey, Johan; De Raedt, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    Depressive brooding--a passive ruminative focus on one's problems, negative mood and their consequences--is a thinking style that places individuals at a greater risk to develop future psychopathology. In this study, we investigated whether inter-individual differences in depressive brooding are related to neural differences underlying the…

  4. Aggressive behavior of the male parent predicts brood sex ratio in a songbird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szász, Eszter; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Hegyi, Gergely; Szöllősi, Eszter; Markó, Gábor; Török, János; Rosivall, Balázs

    2014-08-01

    Brood sex ratio is often affected by parental or environmental quality, presumably in an adaptive manner that is the sex that confers higher fitness benefits to the mother is overproduced. So far, studies on the role of parental quality have focused on parental morphology and attractiveness. However, another aspect, the partner's behavioral characteristics, may also be expected to play a role in brood sex ratio adjustment. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether the proportion of sons in the brood is predicted by the level of territorial aggression displayed by the father, in the collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis). The proportion of sons in the brood was higher in early broods and increased with paternal tarsus length. When controlling for breeding date and body size, we found a higher proportion of sons in the brood of less aggressive fathers. Male nestlings are more sensitive to the rearing environment, and the behavior of courting males may often be used by females to assess their future parental activity. Therefore, adjusting brood sex ratio to the level of male aggression could be adaptive. Our results indicate that the behavior of the partner could indeed be a significant determinant in brood sex ratio adjustment, which should not be overlooked in future studies.

  5. Brooding Rumination and Risk for Depressive Disorders in Children of Depressed Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Grassia, Marie; Stone, Lindsey B.; Uhrlass, Dorothy J.; McGeary, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the role of brooding rumination in children at risk for depression. We found that children of mothers with a history of major depression exhibited higher levels of brooding rumination than did children of mothers with no depression history. Examining potential mechanisms of this risk, we found no…

  6. Brooding Rumination and Risk for Depressive Disorders in Children of Depressed Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Grassia, Marie; Stone, Lindsey B.; Uhrlass, Dorothy J.; McGeary, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the role of brooding rumination in children at risk for depression. We found that children of mothers with a history of major depression exhibited higher levels of brooding rumination than did children of mothers with no depression history. Examining potential mechanisms of this risk, we found no evidence for shared genetic influences (BDNF or 5-HTTLPR) or modeling of mothers’ rumination. However, we did find that children with a history of prior depressive disorders exhibited higher current levels of brooding rumination than children with no depression history. Importantly, children’s brooding predicted prospective onsets of new depressive episodes over a 20-month follow-up even when we statistically controlled for depressive symptom levels at the initial assessment, suggesting that the predictive effect of brooding rumination in children was not due simply to co-occurring depressive symptoms. PMID:21826445

  7. Gender-specific relationship between alcohol consumption and injury in the South Korean adults: A nationwide cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rha, Eun Young; Kim, Ho Jun; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol-related injuries have been concerned worldwide. However, there have been no large cross-sectional epidemiologic studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol and the prevalence of injury according to gender in a representative sample of the South Korean population. This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 15,249 Korean adults (7128 men and 8112 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Injury was defined as the incidence of an injury or intoxication within the year before completing the survey questionnaire. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of injury. Heavy alcohol consumption and high-risk drinking were associated with a higher prevalence of injury in women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] and corresponding 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48 [1.321, 4.656], 1.816 [1.136, 2.929], respectively), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores ≥20 were associated with a higher prevalence of injury in both men and women (aOR and 95% CI: 1.425 [1.004, 2.024] and 3.71 [2.067, 6.66], respectively). According to the AUDIT scores results, women who were injured reported significantly more high-risk drinking behaviors per month compared with those who were not injured. Gender disparities in the relationship between alcohol and the prevalence of injury were found. Indeed, future research using a prospective design should examine the causal relationship between alcohol consumption and the prevalence injury according to gender to confirm that alcohol is a risk factor for injury and to identify the possible mechanisms underlying this phenomenon.

  8. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Luo, Hanwen; Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu; Ma, Lu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts.

  9. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jing; Luo, Hanwen; Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu; Ma, Lu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  10. Gender-Specific Associations between Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Population: Findings from the 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyoung Im; Je, Hyung Gon; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the gender-specific associations between psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. We examined 4,689 Korean adults aged 20–79 years who participated in the 2013 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. With regard to SES, occupation status (none, manual, and nonmanual), marital status (single, married, divorced, and widowed), and psychological factors (detection of stress, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts) were determined via questionnaires. Compared with married men, single and divorced men exhibited ORs (95% confidence interval [CIs]) for MetS of 0.45 (0.31–0.65) and 1.61 (1.02–2.55), respectively, after adjusting for covariates. However, this association was not significant in women. Compared with those in the lowest household income group and least educated group in women, the ORs for MetS in the highest income group and the most educated group were 0.63 (CI 0.46–0.86) and 0.46 (CI 0.32–0.67), respectively. Suicidal thoughts in men (OR 1.64, CI 1.03–2.61) and perceived stress in women (OR 1.26, CI 1.01–1.59) were associated with MetS. In this study, MetS has gender-specific associations with lower SES and psychological factors. Thus, gender-specific public health interventions based on SES and psychological factors are needed to prevent and treat MetS and reduce additional cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:28050556

  11. Meta-analysis for deriving age- and gender-specific dose-response relationships between urinary cadmium concentration and {beta} {sub 2}-microglobulinuria under environmental exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gamo, Masashi . E-mail: masashi-gamo@aist.go.jp; Ono, Kyoko; Nakanishi, Junko

    2006-05-15

    A meta-analysis was conducted to derive age- and gender-specific dose-response relationships between urinary cadmium (Cd) concentration and {beta} {sub 2}-microglobulinuria ({beta}2MG-uria) under environmental exposure. {beta}2MG-uria was defined by a cutoff point of 1000 {mu}g {beta} {sub 2}-microglobulin/g creatinine. We proposed a model for describing the relationships among the interindividual variabilities in urinary Cd concentration, the ratio of Cd concentrations in the target organ and in urine, and the threshold Cd concentration in the target organ. The parameters in the model were determined so that good agreement might be achieved between the prevalence rates of {beta}2MG-uria reported in the literature and those estimated by the model. In this analysis, only the data from the literature on populations environmentally exposed to Cd were used. Using the model and estimated parameters, the prevalence rate of {beta}2MG-uria can be estimated for an age- and gender-specific subpopulation for which the distribution of urinary Cd concentrations is known. The maximum permissible level of urinary Cd concentration was defined as the maximum geometric mean of the urinary Cd concentration in an age- and gender-specific subpopulation that would not result in a statistically significant increase in the prevalence rate of {beta}2MG-uria. This was estimated to be approximately 3 {mu}g/g creatinine for a population in a small geographical area and approximately 2 {mu}g/g creatinine for a nationwide population.

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene: a gender-specific role in cognitive function during normal cognitive aging of the MEMO-Study?

    PubMed

    Laing, Katharine R; Mitchell, David; Wersching, Heike; Czira, Maria E; Berger, Klaus; Baune, Bernhard T

    2012-08-01

    Cognitive aging processes are underpinned by multiple processes including genetic factors. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in age-related cognitive decline in otherwise healthy individuals. The gender-specific role of the BDNF gene in cognitive aging remains unclear. The identification of genetic biomarkers might be a useful approach to identify individuals at risk of cognitive decline during healthy aging processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BDNF gene and domains of cognitive functioning in normal cognitive aging. The sample, comprising 369 participants (M = 72.7 years, SD = 4.45 years), completed an extensive neuropsychological test battery measuring memory, motor function, and perceptual speed. The relationships between the SNPs rs6265, rs7103411, and rs7124442 and cognitive domains were examined. While significant main effects of BDNF SNPs on cognitive function were found for the association between rs7103411 and memory performance, gender-specific analyses revealed for females significant main effects of rs7103411 for memory and of rs6265 for perceptual speed independent of the APOE*E4 status and education. The finding for the association between rs6265 and perceptual speed in females remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. None of the analyses showed significant results for males. This study is the first to implicate that the SNPs rs6265 and rs7103411 affect cognitive function in the elderly in a gender-specific way.

  13. Gender-Specific Associations between Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Population: Findings from the 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyoung Im; Kim, Bo Hyun; Je, Hyung Gon; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the gender-specific associations between psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. We examined 4,689 Korean adults aged 20-79 years who participated in the 2013 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. With regard to SES, occupation status (none, manual, and nonmanual), marital status (single, married, divorced, and widowed), and psychological factors (detection of stress, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts) were determined via questionnaires. Compared with married men, single and divorced men exhibited ORs (95% confidence interval [CIs]) for MetS of 0.45 (0.31-0.65) and 1.61 (1.02-2.55), respectively, after adjusting for covariates. However, this association was not significant in women. Compared with those in the lowest household income group and least educated group in women, the ORs for MetS in the highest income group and the most educated group were 0.63 (CI 0.46-0.86) and 0.46 (CI 0.32-0.67), respectively. Suicidal thoughts in men (OR 1.64, CI 1.03-2.61) and perceived stress in women (OR 1.26, CI 1.01-1.59) were associated with MetS. In this study, MetS has gender-specific associations with lower SES and psychological factors. Thus, gender-specific public health interventions based on SES and psychological factors are needed to prevent and treat MetS and reduce additional cardiovascular disease risk.

  14. An experimental test of the effect of brood size on glucocorticoid responses, parental investment, and offspring phenotype.

    PubMed

    Vitousek, Maren N; Jenkins, Brittany R; Hubbard, Joanna K; Kaiser, Sara A; Safran, Rebecca J

    2017-01-28

    Because elevated glucocorticoid levels can impair reproduction, populations or species that engage in particularly valuable reproductive attempts may down-regulate the glucocorticoid stress response during reproduction (the brood value hypothesis). It is not clear, however, whether individuals rapidly modulate glucocorticoid responses based on shifting cues about the likelihood of reproductive success. By manipulating brood size to create broods that differed in potential value, we tested whether female barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) rapidly modulated the glucocorticoid stress response to promote investment in high-value broods, and whether nestling phenotype was influenced by treatment. Within-individual changes in female corticosterone, body mass, and measures of oxidative stress were unrelated to brood size treatment. Standard offspring provisioning rate did not differ across treatments; however, in the presence of a model predator, females raising enlarged broods maintained higher offspring feeding rates relative to control broods. Brood size did influence nestling phenotype. Nestlings from enlarged broods had lower body mass and higher baseline corticosterone than those from reduced broods. Finally, in adult females both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone were individually repeatable. Thus, while under moderately challenging environmental conditions brood size manipulations had context-dependent effects on parental investment, and influenced nestling phenotype, maternal glucocorticoid levels were not modulated based on brood value but were individually consistent features of phenotype during breeding.

  15. Uncovering Dangerous Cheats: How Do Avian Hosts Recognize Adult Brood Parasites?

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Alfréd; Prokop, Pavol; Grim, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Background Co-evolutionary struggles between dangerous enemies (e.g., brood parasites) and their victims (hosts) lead to the emergence of sophisticated adaptations and counter-adaptations. Salient host tricks to reduce parasitism costs include, as front line defence, adult enemy discrimination. In contrast to the well studied egg stage, investigations addressing the specific cues for adult enemy recognition are rare. Previous studies have suggested barred underparts and yellow eyes may provide cues for the recognition of cuckoos Cuculus canorus by their hosts; however, no study to date has examined the role of the two cues simultaneously under a consistent experimental paradigm. Methodology/Principal Findings We modify and extend previous work using a novel experimental approach – custom-made dummies with various combinations of hypothesized recognition cues. The salient recognition cue turned out to be the yellow eye. Barred underparts, the only trait examined previously, had a statistically significant but small effect on host aggression highlighting the importance of effect size vs. statistical significance. Conclusion Relative importance of eye vs. underpart phenotypes may reflect ecological context of host-parasite interaction: yellow eyes are conspicuous from the typical direction of host arrival (from above), whereas barred underparts are poorly visible (being visually blocked by the upper part of the cuckoo's body). This visual constraint may reduce usefulness of barred underparts as a reliable recognition cue under a typical situation near host nests. We propose a novel hypothesis that recognition cues for enemy detection can vary in a context-dependent manner (e.g., depending on whether the enemy is approached from below or from above). Further we suggest a particular cue can trigger fear reactions (escape) in some hosts/populations whereas the same cue can trigger aggression (attack) in other hosts/populations depending on presence/absence of dangerous

  16. Experimental evidence for chick discrimination without recognition in a brood parasite host.

    PubMed

    Grim, Tomás

    2007-02-07

    Recognition is considered a critical basis for discriminatory behaviours in animals. Theoretically, recognition and discrimination of parasitic chicks are not predicted to evolve in hosts of brood parasitic birds that evict nest-mates. Yet, an earlier study showed that host reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) of an evicting parasite, the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), can avoid the costs of prolonged care for unrelated young by deserting the cuckoo chick before it fledges. Desertion was not based on specific recognition of the parasite because hosts accept any chick cross-fostered into their nests. Thus, the mechanism of this adaptive host response remains enigmatic. Here, I show experimentally that the cue triggering this 'discrimination without recognition' behaviour is the duration of parental care. Neither the intensity of brood care nor the presence of a single-chick in the nest could explain desertions. Hosts responded similarly to foreign chicks, whether heterospecific or experimental conspecifics. The proposed mechanism of discrimination strikingly differs from those found in other parasite-host systems because hosts do not need an internal recognition template of the parasite's appearance to effectively discriminate. Thus, host defences against parasitic chicks may be based upon mechanisms qualitatively different from those operating against parasitic eggs. I also demonstrate that this discriminatory mechanism is non-costly in terms of recognition errors. Comparative data strongly suggest that parasites cannot counter-evolve any adaptation to mitigate effects of this host defence. These findings have crucial implications for the process and end-result of host-parasite arms races and our understanding of the cognitive basis of discriminatory mechanisms in general.

  17. Obligate brood parasites show more functionally effective innate immune responses: an eco-immunological hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Immune adaptations of obligate brood parasites attracted interest when three New World cowbird species (Passeriformes, Icteridae, genus Molothrus) proved unusually resistant to West Nile virus. We have used cowbirds as models to investigate the eco-immunological hypothesis that species in parasite-rich environments characteristically have enhanced immunity as a life history adaptation. As part of an ongoing program to understand the cowbird immune system, in this study we measured degranulation and oxidative burst, two fundamental responses of the innate immune system. Innate immunity provides non-specific, fast-acting defenses against a variety of invading pathogens, and we hypothesized that innate immunity experiences particularly strong selection in cowbirds, because their life history strategy exposes them to diverse novel and unpredictable parasites. We compared the relative effectiveness of degranulation and oxidative burst responses in two cowbird species and one related, non-parasitic species. Both innate immune defenses were significantly more functionally efficient in the two parasitic cowbird species than in the non-parasitic red-winged blackbird (Icteridae, Agelaius phoeniceus). Additionally, both immune defenses were more functionally efficient in the brown-headed cowbird (M. ater), an extreme host-generalist brood parasite, than in the bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus), a moderate host-specialist with lower exposure to other species and their parasites. Thus the relative effectiveness of these two innate immune responses corresponds to the diversity of parasites in the niche of each species and to their relative resistance to WNV. This study is the first use of these two specialized assays in a comparative immunology study of wild avian species.

  18. Individual differences in positivity offset and negativity bias: Gender-specific associations with two serotonin receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Ashare, Rebecca L; Norris, Catherine J; Wileyto, E Paul; Cacioppo, John T; Strasser, Andrew A

    2013-09-01

    Individual differences in the evaluation of affective stimuli, such as the positivity offset and negativity bias may have a biological basis. We tested whether two SNPs (HTR2A; 102T>C and HTR1A; 1019C>G) related to serotonin receptor function, a biological pathway associated with affective regulation, were differentially related to positivity offset and negativity bias for males and females. Participants were 109 cigarette smokers who rated a series of affective stimuli to assess reactions to positive and negative pictures. Gender × genotype interactions were found for both SNPs. Males with the 102T allele showed a greater positivity offset than males with the 102C allele. For females, in contrast, the 1019C allele was associated with a greater positivity offset than the 1019G allele, whereas the 102T allele was associated with a greater negativity bias than the 102C allele. Identifying how gender differences may moderate the effect of serotonin receptor genes on affective information processing may provide insight into their role in guiding behavior and regulating affect.

  19. Gender specific patterns of carbon uptake and water use in a dominant riparian tree species exposed to a warming climate.

    PubMed

    Hultine, Kevin R; Burtch, Kelley G; Ehleringer, James R

    2013-11-01

    Air temperatures in the arid western United States are predicted to increase over the next century. These increases will likely impact the distribution of plant species, particularly dioecious species that show a spatial segregation of the sexes across broad resource gradients. On the basis of spatial segregation patterns, we hypothesized that temperature increases will have a greater negative impact on female plants compared with co-occurring male plants of dioecious species. This hypothesis was tested by examining the whole-plant carbon and water relations of 10-year-old female (n = 18) and male (n = 13) Acer negundo Sarg. trees grown in a common garden in Salt Lake City, UT. The trees were established from cuttings collected where the growing season temperature averaged about 6.5 °C cooler than at the common garden. During May and June, stem sap flux (Js ) was similar between genders, but averaged 25% higher in males during the warmer months of July and August. Daytime canopy stomatal conductance (gs ) per unit leaf area was 12% higher in females in May : June, but was 11% higher in males in July : August. We combined measurements of sap flux-scaled transpiration with measurements of tree allometry and δ(13) C of leaf soluble sugars to estimate whole-tree carbon assimilation (Atree ) and water use efficiency (WUE) (Atree  : Etree ). Atree was similar between genders until late August when Atree was 32% higher in male trees. Atree  : Etree was on average 7% higher in females than in males during the growing season. Patterns of Js , gs , Atree and Atree  : Etree in the present study were in contrast to those previously reported for A. negundo genders under native growing season temperatures. Results suggest that the spatial segregation of the sexes could shift under global warming such that female plants lose their dominance in high-resource habitats, and males increase their dominance in relatively lower-resource habitats.

  20. Positive selection on sperm ion channels in a brooding brittle star: consequence of life-history traits evolution.

    PubMed

    Weber, A A-T; Abi-Rached, L; Galtier, N; Bernard, A; Montoya-Burgos, J I; Chenuil, A

    2017-01-18

    Closely related species are key models to investigate mechanisms leading to reproductive isolation and early stages of diversification, also at the genomic level. The brittle star cryptic species complex Ophioderma longicauda encompasses the sympatric broadcast-spawning species C3 and the internal brooding species C5. Here, we used de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly in two closely related species displaying contrasting reproductive modes to compare their genetic diversity and to investigate the role of natural selection in reproductive isolation. We reconstructed 20 146 and 22 123 genes for C3 and C5, respectively, and characterized a set of 12 229 orthologs. Genetic diversity was 1.5-2 times higher in C3 compared to C5, confirming that species with low parental investment display higher levels of genetic diversity. Forty-eight genes were the targets of positive diversifying selection during the evolution of the two species. Notably, two genes (NHE and TetraKCNG) are sperm-specific ion channels involved in sperm motility. Ancestral sequence reconstructions show that natural selection targeted the two genes in the brooding species. This may result from an adaptation to the novel environmental conditions surrounding sperm in the brooding species, either directly affecting sperm or via an increase in male/female conflict. This phenomenon could have promoted prezygotic reproductive isolation between C3 and C5. Finally, the sperm receptors to egg chemoattractants differed between C3 and C5 in the ligand-binding region. We propose that mechanisms of species-specific gamete recognition in brittle stars occur during sperm chemotaxis (sperm attraction towards the eggs), contrary to other marine invertebrates where prezygotic barriers to interspecific hybridization typically occur before sperm-egg fusion.

  1. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  2. The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder. Part 5: How Essential Are Gender-Specific Forensic Psychiatric Services?

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Tonia L; Crocker, Anne G; Seto, Michael C; Wilson, Catherine M; Charette, Yanick; Côté, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To state the sociodemographic characteristics, mental health histories, index offence characteristics, and criminal histories of male and female forensic psychiatric patients. Clinicians and researchers advocate that mental health and criminal justice organizations implement gender-specific services; however, few studies have sampled forensic patients to evaluate the extent to which men’s and women’s treatment and management needs are different. Method: Data were collected from Review Board files from May 2000 to April 2005 in the 3 largest Canadian provinces. Using official criminal records, participants were followed for 3 to 8 years, until December 2008. The final sample comprised 1800 individuals: 15.6% were women and 84.4% were men. Results: There were few demographic differences, but women had higher psychosocial functioning than men. Both men and women had extensive mental health histories; women were more likely diagnosed with mood disorders and PDs and men were more likely diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and SUDs. The nature of the index offence did not differ by gender, except women were more likely to have perpetrated murders and attempted murders. For offences against a person, women were more likely to offend against offspring and partners and less likely to offend against strangers, compared with men. Women had significantly less extensive criminal histories than men. Conclusions: Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder–accused women have a distinct psychosocial, clinical, and criminological profile from their male counterparts, which may suggest gender-specific assessment, risk management, and treatment in forensic services could benefit patients. The findings are also consistent with traditional models (Risk-Need-Responsivity) and ultimately demonstrate the importance of individual assessment and client-centred services. PMID:25886689

  3. Context-Specific Outdoor Time and Physical Activity among School-Children Across Gender and Age: Using Accelerometers and GPS to Advance Methods

    PubMed Central

    Klinker, Charlotte Demant; Schipperijn, Jasper; Kerr, Jacqueline; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Troelsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Being outdoors has a positive influence on health among children. Evidence in this area is limited and many studies have used self-reported measures. Objective context-specific assessment of physical activity patterns and correlates, such as outdoor time, may progress this field. Aims: To employ novel objective measures to assess age and gender differences in context-specific outdoor weekday behavior patterns among school-children [outdoor time and outdoor moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and to investigate associations between context-specific outdoor time and MVPA. Methods: A total of 170 children had at least one weekday of 9 h combined accelerometer and global positioning system data and were included in the analyses. The data were processed using the personal activity and location measurement system (PALMS) and a purpose-built PostgreSQL database resulting in context-specific measures for outdoor time, outdoor MVPA, and overall daily MVPA. In addition, 4 domains (leisure, school, transport, and home) and 11 subdomains (e.g., urban green space and sports facilities) were created and assessed. Multilevel analyses provided results on age and gender differences and the association between outdoor time and MVPA. Results: Girls compared to boys had fewer outdoor minutes (p < 0.05), spent a smaller proportion of their overall daily time outdoors (p < 0.05), had fewer outdoor MVPA minutes during the day (p < 0.001) and in 11 contexts. Children compared to adolescents had more outdoor minutes (p < 0.05). During school and within recess, children compared to adolescents had more outdoor MVPA (p < 0.001) and outdoor time (p < 0.001). A 1-h increase in outdoor time was associated with 9.9 more minutes of MVPA (p < 0.001). Conclusion: A new methodology to assess the context-specific outdoor time and physical activity patterns has been developed and can be expanded to other populations. Different context-specific

  4. Gender-Specific Potential Inhibitory Role of Ca2+/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Phosphatase (CaMKP) in Pressure-Overloaded Mouse Heart

    PubMed Central

    Prévilon, Miresta; Pezet, Mylène; Vinet, Laurent; Mercadier, Jean-Jacques; Rouet-Benzineb, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (CaMKP) has been proposed as a potent regulator of multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (i.e., CaMKII). The CaMKII-dependent activation of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) disrupts interactions between MEF2-histone deacetylases (HDACs), thereby de-repressing downstream gene transcription. Whether CaMKP modulates the CaMKII- MEF2 pathway in the heart is unknown. Here, we investigated the molecular and functional consequences of left ventricular (LV) pressure overload in the mouse of both genders, and in particular we evaluated the expression levels and localization of CaMKP and its association with CaMKII-MEF2 signaling. Methodology and Principal Findings Five week-old B6D1/F1 mice of both genders underwent a sham-operation or thoracic aortic constriction (TAC). Thirty days later, TAC was associated with pathological LV hypertrophy characterized by systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Gene expression was assessed by real-time PCR. Fetal gene program re-expression comprised increased RNA levels of brain natriuretic peptide and alpha-skeletal actin. Mouse hearts of both genders expressed both CaMKP transcript and protein. Activation of signalling pathways was studied by Western blot in LV lysates or subcellular fractions (nuclear and cytoplasmic). TAC was associated with increased CaMKP expression in male LVs whereas it tended to be decreased in females. The DNA binding activity of MEF2 was determined by spectrophotometry. CaMKP compartmentalization differed according to gender. In male TAC mice, nuclear CaMKP was associated with inactive CaMKII resulting in less MEF2 activation. In female TAC mice, active CaMKII (phospho-CaMKII) detected in the nuclear fraction, was associated with a strong MEF2 transcription factor-binding activity. Conclusions/Significance Gender-specific CaMKP compartmentalization is associated with CaMKII-mediated MEF2 activation in pressure-overloaded hearts

  5. Expression of acetylcholinesterase 1 is associated with brood rearing status in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Kyungmun; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2017-01-03

    Acetylcholinesterase 1 (AmAChE1) of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been suggested to have non-neuronal functions. A systematic expression profiling of AmAChE1 over a year-long cycle on a monthly basis revealed that AmAChE1 was predominantly expressed in both head and abdomen during the winter months and was moderately expressed during the rainy summer months. Interestingly, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when bees were stimulated for brood rearing by placing overwintering beehives in strawberry greenhouses with a pollen diet, whereas it resumed when the beehives were moved back to the cold field, thereby suppressing brood rearing. In early spring, pollen diet supplementation accelerated the induction of brood-rearing activity and the inhibition of AmAChE1 expression. When active beehives were placed in a screen tent in late spring, thereby artificially suppressing brood-rearing activity, AmAChE1 was highly expressed. In contrast, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when beehives were allowed to restore brood rearing by removing the screen, supporting the hypothesis that brood rearing status is a main factor in the regulation of AmAChE1 expression. Since brood rearing status is influenced by various stress factors, including temperature and diet shortage, our finding discreetly suggests that AmAChE1 is likely involved in the stress response or stress management.

  6. Expression of acetylcholinesterase 1 is associated with brood rearing status in the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Kyungmun; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2017-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase 1 (AmAChE1) of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been suggested to have non-neuronal functions. A systematic expression profiling of AmAChE1 over a year-long cycle on a monthly basis revealed that AmAChE1 was predominantly expressed in both head and abdomen during the winter months and was moderately expressed during the rainy summer months. Interestingly, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when bees were stimulated for brood rearing by placing overwintering beehives in strawberry greenhouses with a pollen diet, whereas it resumed when the beehives were moved back to the cold field, thereby suppressing brood rearing. In early spring, pollen diet supplementation accelerated the induction of brood-rearing activity and the inhibition of AmAChE1 expression. When active beehives were placed in a screen tent in late spring, thereby artificially suppressing brood-rearing activity, AmAChE1 was highly expressed. In contrast, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when beehives were allowed to restore brood rearing by removing the screen, supporting the hypothesis that brood rearing status is a main factor in the regulation of AmAChE1 expression. Since brood rearing status is influenced by various stress factors, including temperature and diet shortage, our finding discreetly suggests that AmAChE1 is likely involved in the stress response or stress management. PMID:28045085

  7. A gender-specific retinoblastoma-related protein in Volvox carteri implies a role for the retinoblastoma protein family in sexual development.

    PubMed

    Kianianmomeni, Arash; Nematollahi, Ghazaleh; Hallmann, Armin

    2008-09-01

    Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED PROTEIN1 (RBR1) from the green alga Volvox carteri. RBR1 expression increases substantially during embryogenesis and in response to the sex-inducer glycoprotein, but it decreases significantly under heat stress. While RBR1 is expressed in gonidia (asexual reproductive cells) and embryos, the largest proportion of RBR1 mRNA is found in parental somatic cells. The presence of 4 splice variants and 15 potential cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation sites suggests that RBR1 is subject to control at the posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels. Surprisingly, RBR1 is a gender-specific gene, mapping exclusively to the female mating-type locus. A procedure for stable nuclear transformation of males was established to generate RBR1-expressing males. These transformants exhibit enlarged reproductive cells, altered growth characteristics, and a prolonged embryogenesis. The results suggest that a functionally related analog of RBR1 exists in males. The reason for the divergent evolution of RBRs in females and males appears to be based on sexual development: males and females respond to the same sex-inducer with different cleavage programs and substantial differences in cellular differentiation. Thus, the gender-specific presence of RBR1 provides evidence for an additional, novel role for retinoblastoma family proteins in sexual development.

  8. A Gender-Specific Retinoblastoma-Related Protein in Volvox carteri Implies a Role for the Retinoblastoma Protein Family in Sexual Development[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kianianmomeni, Arash; Nematollahi, Ghazaleh; Hallmann, Armin

    2008-01-01

    Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED PROTEIN1 (RBR1) from the green alga Volvox carteri. RBR1 expression increases substantially during embryogenesis and in response to the sex-inducer glycoprotein, but it decreases significantly under heat stress. While RBR1 is expressed in gonidia (asexual reproductive cells) and embryos, the largest proportion of RBR1 mRNA is found in parental somatic cells. The presence of 4 splice variants and 15 potential cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation sites suggests that RBR1 is subject to control at the posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels. Surprisingly, RBR1 is a gender-specific gene, mapping exclusively to the female mating-type locus. A procedure for stable nuclear transformation of males was established to generate RBR1-expressing males. These transformants exhibit enlarged reproductive cells, altered growth characteristics, and a prolonged embryogenesis. The results suggest that a functionally related analog of RBR1 exists in males. The reason for the divergent evolution of RBRs in females and males appears to be based on sexual development: males and females respond to the same sex-inducer with different cleavage programs and substantial differences in cellular differentiation. Thus, the gender-specific presence of RBR1 provides evidence for an additional, novel role for retinoblastoma family proteins in sexual development. PMID:18790828

  9. Africanized honey bees are efficient at detecting, uncapping and removing dead brood.

    PubMed

    Morais, M M; Francoy, T M; Pereira, R A; De Jong, D; Gonçalves, L S

    2009-01-01

    The hygienic behavior of honey bees is based on a two-step process, including uncapping and removing diseased, dead, damaged, or parasitized brood inside the cell. We evaluated during periods of 1 h the time that hygienic and non-hygienic colonies of Africanized honey bees spend to detect, uncap and remove pin-killed brood using comb inserts with transparent walls placed in observation hives. We observed that hygienic colonies are significantly faster in detecting, uncapping and removing dead brood in the cells (P < 0.001).

  10. Diversification and coevolution in brood pollination mutualisms: Windows into the role of biotic interactions in generating biological diversity.

    PubMed

    Hembry, David H; Althoff, David M

    2016-10-01

    Brood pollination mutualisms-interactions in which specialized insects are both the pollinators (as adults) and seed predators (as larvae) of their host plants-have been influential study systems for coevolutionary biology. These mutualisms include those between figs and fig wasps, yuccas and yucca moths, leafflowers and leafflower moths, globeflowers and globeflower flies, Silene plants and Hadena and Perizoma moths, saxifrages and Greya moths, and senita cacti and senita moths. The high reciprocal diversity and species-specificity of some of these mutualisms have been cited as evidence that coevolution between plants and pollinators drives their mutual diversification. However, the mechanisms by which these mutualisms diversify have received less attention. In this paper, we review key hypotheses about how these mutualisms diversify and what role coevolution between plants and pollinators may play in this process. We find that most species-rich brood pollination mutualisms show significant phylogenetic congruence at high taxonomic scales, but there is limited evidence for the processes of both cospeciation and duplication, and there are no unambiguous examples known of strict-sense contemporaneous cospeciation. Allopatric speciation appears important across multiple systems, particularly in the insects. Host-shifts appear to be common, and widespread host-shifts by pollinators may displace other pollinator lineages. There is relatively little evidence for a "coevolution through cospeciation" model or that coevolution promotes speciation in these systems. Although we have made great progress in understanding the mechanisms by which brood pollination mutualisms diversify, many opportunities remain to use these intriguing symbioses to understand the role of biotic interactions in generating biological diversity.

  11. Mainstreaming Gender into Schools in the Taiwan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Ching, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Gender mainstreaming and gender equity education are specific practices for creating a gender-equitable society. Gender mainstreaming tools can be used to help educational institutions engage in more thorough consideration when implementing gender equity education. This article addresses gender mainstreaming, gender equity education, and the…

  12. Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair in Surgical High-Risk Patients: Gender-Specific Acute and Long-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tigges, Eike; Kalbacher, Daniel; Thomas, Christina; Appelbaum, Sebastian; Deuschl, Florian; Schofer, Niklas; Schlüter, Michael; Conradi, Lenard; Schirmer, Johannes; Treede, Hendrik; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Blankenberg, Stefan; Schäfer, Ulrich; Lubos, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Background. Analyses emphasizing gender-related differences in acute and long-term outcomes following MitraClip therapy for significant mitral regurgitation (MR) are rare. Methods. 592 consecutive patients (75 ± 8.7 years, 362 men, 230 women) underwent clinical and echocardiographic follow-up for a median of 2.13 (0.99–4.02) years. Results. Significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, renal failure, and adverse echocardiographic parameters in men resulted in longer device time (p = 0.007) and higher numbers of implanted clips (p = 0.0075), with equal procedural success (p = 1.0). Rehospitalization for heart failure did not differ (p[logrank] = 0.288) while survival was higher in women (p[logrank] = 0.0317). Logarithmic increase of NT-proBNP was a common independent predictor of death. Hypercholesterolemia and peripheral artery disease were predictors of death only in men while ischemic and dilative cardiomyopathy (CM) and age were predictors in women. Independent predictors of rehospitalization for heart failure were severely reduced ejection fraction and success in men while both ischemic and dilative CM, logistic EuroSCORE, and MR severity were predictive in women. Conclusions. Higher numbers of implanted clips and longer device time are likely related to more comorbidities in men. Procedural success and acute and mid-term clinical outcomes were equal. Superior survival for women in long-term analysis is presumably attributable to a comparatively better preprocedural health. PMID:27042662

  13. The changing position of women in the medical marketplace: women's health morphs into gender-specific medicine.

    PubMed

    Legato, Marianne J

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, society--including the academic medical community--has concentrated on the male patient. Women were protected from clinical investigation on human subjects. However, World War II brought about far-reaching changes. The experience of Americans during the prolonged struggle gave them an enduring confidence in the power of science to prolong and improve human life that culminated in the expansion of the National Institutes of Health under the leadership of James A. Shannon. The other profound change in American society was in the attitude of women, who, as a result of their enormously increased options during the war to hold jobs and enter professions that had previously been the exclusive province of men, united in the feminist movement. By the end of the 1980s, the voices of women themselves galvanized the United States government to effect a series of maneuvers that have revolutionized our concept of the importance of biological sex in human biology. This paper reviews the changes in American medical research, and the delivery of medical care, to men and women over the past century, which laid the foundation for an in-depth exploration of the impact of gender on normal human function and the way human beings experience disease.

  14. Observations on the removal of brood inoculated with Tropilaelaps mercedesae (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) and the mite’s reproductive success in Apis mellifera colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the response of Apis mellifera to brood deliberately infested with Tropilaelaps mercedesae. The reproductive success of T. mercedesae in mite-inoculated and naturally infested brood was also compared. The presence of T. mercedesae inside brood cells significantly affected brood ...

  15. Gender-specific decrease in NUDR and 5-HT1A receptor proteins in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Albert, Paul R; Burns, Ariel M; Czesak, Margaret; Overholser, James C; Jurjus, George J; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Konick, Lisa C; Dieter, Lesa; Herbst, Nicole; May, Warren; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A; Austin, Mark C

    2009-03-01

    A variety of studies have documented alterations in 5-HT1A receptor binding sites in the brain of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). The recently identified transcription factor, nuclear deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor (NUDR/Deaf-1) has been shown to function as a transcriptional modulator of the human 5-HT1A receptor gene. The present study was undertaken to document the regional and cellular localization of NUDR in the human prefrontal cortex and to examine the levels of NUDR and 5-HT1A receptor protein in prefrontal cortex of female and male depressed and control subjects. NUDR immunoreactivity was present in neurons and glia across cortical layers and was co-localized with 5-HT1A receptor immunoreactive neurons. NUDR immunoreactivity as measured by Western blot was significantly decreased in the prefrontal cortex of female depressed subjects (42%, p=0.02) and unchanged in male depressed subjects relative to gender-matched control subjects. Similarly, 5-HT1A receptor protein level was significantly reduced in the prefrontal cortex of female depressed subjects (46%, p=0.03) and unchanged in male depressed subjects compared to gender-matched control subjects. Reduced protein expression of NUDR in the prefrontal cortex of female subjects with MDD may reflect a functional alteration in this transcription factor, which may contribute to the decrease in 5-HT1A receptors observed in the same female subjects with MDD. In addition, the gender-specific alterations in cortical NUDR and 5-HT1A receptor proteins could represent an underlying biological mechanism associated with the higher incidence of depression in women.

  16. Early-life exposure to high-fat diet may predispose rats to gender-specific hepatic fat accumulation by programming Pepck expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Wang, Huan; Cui, Hemiao; Chen, Hong; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-05-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) produces phosphoenolpyruvate during glyceroneogenesis. We previously demonstrated that a high-fat diet during pregnancy induced Pepck mRNA expression in neonatal rat pups, which is characterized by histone modifications in specific regions of the gene (Strakovsky RS, Zhang X, Zhou D, Pan YX. Gestational high fat diet programs hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression and histone modification in neonatal offspring rats. The Journal of Physiology 2011;589:2707-17). In the present study, we investigated whether these alterations persistent in adult offspring. Dams were fed either control or high-fat diet throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring were placed on control diet after weaning, generating C/C and HF/C groups. Liver was collected at 12 weeks of age. Hepatic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) (NADH) level was increased in both genders, but fat accumulation occurred only in liver of female offspring in HF/C group. This was accompanied by a significant increase of Pepck and fatty acid synthase (Fasn) mRNA expression in only female liver. The induction of Pepck gene expression in females was associated with increased dimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 level in multiple regions of the gene. Meanwhile, acetylated histone H3 and trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 were induced at a specific coding region in HF/C, accompanied by decreased trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 level at the promoter of female offspring. In conclusion, maternal high-fat diet programs Pepck expression through histone modifications in adult female offspring. Persistent Pepck induction in females may contribute to increased triglyceride synthesis, together with induced Fasn expression and NADH levels, which may lead to increased fat deposition in a gender-specific manner.

  17. Gender specific effect of major dietary patterns on the metabolic syndrome risk in Korean pre-pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives (KMSRI) in Seoul, Korea. Measures of anthropometry and blood pressure as well as fasting blood samples were used in the analysis. A three-day food records were collected. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the age-adjusted National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. An added metabolic risk score was calculated for each subject by summing the quintile values of the five individual risk factors. Among the 5 risk components of metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference (WC) was the major factor (P < 0.001). A significant increasing trend of the added metabolic syndrome risk score was observed with the increase of WC (P (trend) < 0.001) among both genders. The cutoff point for high WC for pre-pubertal children was 61.3 cm for boys and 59.9 cm for girls. The prevalence of high triglyceride (TG) values was significantly higher in girls than it was in boys (P < 0.01). Girls in the highest quintile of balanced dietary pattern scores had lower TG values (P (trend) = 0.032) than did those in the lowest quintile. Moreover, girls in the highest quintile of western dietary pattern scores showed increasing trend for the added metabolic risk score (P (trend) = 0.026) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Adverse associations exist between western dietary patterns and the accumulation of metabolic risks among girls, not in boys, even during pre-puberty. PMID:23610607

  18. Gender specific effect of major dietary patterns on the metabolic syndrome risk in Korean pre-pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee; Lee, Myoungsook

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives (KMSRI) in Seoul, Korea. Measures of anthropometry and blood pressure as well as fasting blood samples were used in the analysis. A three-day food records were collected. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the age-adjusted National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. An added metabolic risk score was calculated for each subject by summing the quintile values of the five individual risk factors. Among the 5 risk components of metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference (WC) was the major factor (P < 0.001). A significant increasing trend of the added metabolic syndrome risk score was observed with the increase of WC (P (trend) < 0.001) among both genders. The cutoff point for high WC for pre-pubertal children was 61.3 cm for boys and 59.9 cm for girls. The prevalence of high triglyceride (TG) values was significantly higher in girls than it was in boys (P < 0.01). Girls in the highest quintile of balanced dietary pattern scores had lower TG values (P (trend) = 0.032) than did those in the lowest quintile. Moreover, girls in the highest quintile of western dietary pattern scores showed increasing trend for the added metabolic risk score (P (trend) = 0.026) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Adverse associations exist between western dietary patterns and the accumulation of metabolic risks among girls, not in boys, even during pre-puberty.

  19. Gender specific effect of LIPC C-514T polymorphism on obesity and relationship with plasma lipid levels in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Dandan; Ling, Jie; Lu, Wenhui; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Yimin; Lai, Maode

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic lipase (LIPC) is a key rate-limiting enzyme in lipoprotein catabolism pathways involved in the development of obesity. The C-514T polymorphism in the promoter region is associated with decreased LIPC activity. We performed a case-controlled study (850 obese children and 2119 controls) and evaluated the association between LIPC C-514T polymorphism, obesity and plasma lipid profile in Chinese children and adolescents. Additionally, we conducted a meta-analysis of all results from published studies as well as our own data. A significant association between the polymorphism and obesity is observed in boys (P = 0.042), but not in girls. And we observed a significant relationship of the polymorphism with total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) independent of obesity in boys. The T allele carriers have higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in obese boys, and triglyceride (TG), TC and LDL-C in non-obese girls (all P < 0.05). In the meta-analysis, under dominant model the T allele increased body mass index (BMI) level in boys, while it decreased BMI in girls, and increased the levels of TC both in the overall and subgroups, TG and HDL-C in the overall and boys, and LDL-C in the overall (all P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the T allele might carry an increased risk of obesity in Chinese boys. The meta-analysis suggests that T allele acts as a risk allele for higher BMI levels in male childhood, while it is a protective allele in female childhood. And the polymorphism is associated with the levels of plasma lipids, which may be modulated by obesity and gender.

  20. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Damir; Tahiraj, Enver; Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-12-01

    Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females) involved in volleyball (n = 77), soccer (n = 163), basketball (n = 114) and handball (n = 103). Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports.

  1. Gender- and sex-specific sports-related injury research in emergency medicine: a consensus on future research direction and focused application.

    PubMed

    Raukar, Neha P; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Kane, Kathleen; Davenport, Moira; Espinoza, Tamara R; Weiland, Jessica; Franco, Vanessa; Vaca, Federico E

    2014-12-01

    Title IX, the commercialization of sports, the social change in sports participation, and the response to the obesity epidemic have contributed to the rapid proliferation of participation in both competitive organized sports and nontraditional athletic events. As a consequence, emergency physicians are regularly involved in the acute diagnosis, management, disposition, and counseling of a broad range of sports-related pathology. Three important and highly publicized mechanisms of injury in sports relevant to emergency medicine (EM) include concussion, heat illness, and sudden cardiac death. In conjunction with the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," a consensus group consisting of experts in EM, emergency neurology, sports medicine, and public health convened to deliberate and develop research questions that could ultimately advance the field of sports medicine and allow for meaningful application in the emergency department (ED) clinical setting. Sex differences in injury risk, diagnosis, ED treatment, and counseling are identified in each of these themes. This article presents the consensus-based priority research agenda.

  2. A quantitative trait locus for recognition of foreign eggs in the host of a brood parasite.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gálvez, D; Soler, J J; Martínez, J G; Krupa, A P; Richard, M; Soler, M; Møller, A P; Burke, T

    2006-03-01

    Avian brood parasites reduce the reproductive output of their hosts and thereby select for defence mechanisms such as ejection of parasitic eggs. Such defence mechanisms simultaneously select for counter-defences in brood parasites, causing a coevolutionary arms race. Although coevolutionary models assume that defences and counter-defences are genetically influenced, this has never been demonstrated for brood parasites. Here, we give strong evidence for genetic differences between ejector and nonejectors, which could allow the study of such host defence at the genetic level, as well as studies of maintenance of genetic variation in defences. Briefly, we found that magpies, that are the main host of the great spotted cuckoo in Europe, have alleles of one microsatellite locus (Ase64) that segregate between accepters and rejecters of experimental parasitic eggs. Furthermore, differences in ejection rate among host populations exploited by the brood parasite covaried significantly with the genetic distance for this locus.

  3. Ecological constraints on breeding system evolution: the influence of habitat on brood desertion in Kentish plover.

    PubMed

    Kosztolányi, András; Székely, Tamas; Cuthill, Innes C; Yilmaz, K Tuluhan; Berberoglu, Süha

    2006-01-01

    1. One of the fundamental insights of behavioural ecology is that resources influence breeding systems. For instance, when food resources are plenty, one parent is able to care for the young on its own, so that the other parent can desert and became polygamous. We investigated this hypothesis in the context of classical polyandry when females may have several mates within a single breeding season, and parental duties are carried out largely by the male. 2. We studied a precocial wader, the Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus, that exhibits variable brood care such that the chicks may be raised by both parents, only by the female or, more often, only by the male. The timing of female desertion varies: some females desert their brood at hatching of the eggs and lay a clutch for a new mate, whereas other females stay with their brood until the chicks fledge. Kentish plovers are excellent organisms with which to study breeding system evolution, as some of their close relatives exhibit classical polyandry (Eurasian dotterel Eudromias morinellus, mountain plover Charadrius montanus), whereas others are polygynous (northern lapwing Vanellus vanellus). 3. Kentish plovers raised their broods in two habitats in our study site in southern Turkey: saltmarsh and lakeshore. Food intake was higher on the lakeshore than in the saltmarsh as judged from feeding behaviour of chicks and adults. As the season proceeded and the saltmarsh dried out, the broods moved toward the lakeshore. 4. As the density of plovers increased on lakeshore, the parents spent more time defending their young, and female parents stayed with their brood longer on the lakeshore. 5. We conclude that the influence of food abundance on breeding systems is more complex than currently anticipated. Abundant food resources appear to have profound implications on spatial distribution of broods, and the social interactions between broods constrain female desertion and polyandry.

  4. Are Numbers Gendered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  5. Gender Roles and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship of gender-role orientation and specific behavioral coping responses of wives (N=82) experiencing a long-term separation from their military spouses. Results showed that an androgynous gender-role orientation was significantly associated with four of the five coping patterns identified as helpful to wives managing a…

  6. Waterfowl production estimates on forested wetlands from pair and brood counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Waterfowl pair and brood counts and estimates of total brood utilization were obtained from 10 beaver (Castor canadensis) flowages in north-central Minnesota and compared with rank correlation techniques. Summing the data for each species, correlation between pair and brood censuses was significant ( p = 0.8304, P < 0.025). Similarly, using the flowages as replicate samples of a habitat type, correlation between pair and brood censuses was again significant (p = 0.6076, P < 0.05). These data suggest that both pair and brood censuses are suitable for developing indices to waterfowl recruitment on small wetlands in forested areas. Neither method, however, correlates significantly with total brood use of the flowages, a phenomenon not related in a cause-and-effect way to indices of population recruitment. Evaluation of waterfowl populations on wooded impoundments and beaver flowages is difficult, but amenable to ground census techniques. The demands of resource management may soon justify application of such methods to areas that cannot be adequately assessed by aircraft.

  7. Baby Killers: Documentation and Evolution of Scuttle Fly (Diptera: Phoridae) Parasitism of Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Brood

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brian V.; Hash, John M.; Porras, Wendy; Amorim, Dalton de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. New information We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema humile (Mayr) species group while they are carrying brood, and ovipositing directly onto brood in the nest. In another remarkable example, footage from the Soltis Center, near Peñas Blancas in Costa Rica, shows adult females of an unidentified species of the Apocephalus grandipalpus Borgmeier group mounting Pheidole Westwood brood upside-down and ovipositing while the brood are being transported by workers. Analysis of evolutionary relationships (in preparation) among Apocephalus Coquillett species shows that this is a newly derived behavior within the genus, as the A. grandipalpus group arises within a group of adult ant parasitoids. In contrast, relationships of Ceratoconus Borgmeier have not been studied, and the lifestyles of the other species in the genus are largely unknown. PMID:28325980

  8. Trade-off between mating opportunities and parental care: brood desertion by female Kentish plovers.

    PubMed

    Székely, T; Cuthill, I C

    2000-10-22

    Why do some parents care for their young whereas others divorce from their mate and abandon their offspring? This decision is governed by the trade-off between the value of the current breeding event and future breeding prospects. In the precocial Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus females frequently, but not always, abandon their broods to be cared for by their mate, and seek new breeding partners within the same season. We have shown previously that females' remating opportunities decline with date in the season, so brood desertion should be particularly favourable for early breeding females. However, the benefits are tempered by the fact that single-parent families have lower survival expectancies than those where the female remains to help the male care for the young. We therefore tested the prediction that increasing the value of the current brood (by brood-size manipulation) should increase the duration of female care early in the season, but that in late breeders, with reduced remating opportunities, desertion and thus the duration of female care should be independent of current brood size. These predictions were fulfilled, indicating that seasonally modulated trade-offs between current brood value and remating opportunities can be important in the desertion decisions of species with flexible patterns of parental care.

  9. Drone and Worker Brood Microclimates Are Regulated Differentially in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyong; Huang, Zachary Y.; Sharma, Dhruv B.; Xue, Yunbo; Wang, Zhi; Ren, Bingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones and workers show differences in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Because the functions of drones are more related to colony reproduction, and those of workers relate to both survival and reproduction, we hypothesize that the microclimate for worker brood is more precisely regulated than that of drone brood. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed temperature and relative humidity (RH) inside honey bee colonies for both drone and worker brood throughout the three-stage development period, using digital HOBO® Data Loggers. The major findings of this study are that 1) both drone and worker castes show the highest temperature for eggs, followed by larvae and then pupae; 2) temperature in drones are maintained at higher precision (smaller variance) in drone eggs and larvae, but at a lower precision in pupae than the corresponding stages of workers; 3) RH regulation showed higher variance in drone than workers across all brood stages; and 4) RH regulation seems largely due to regulation by workers, as the contribution from empty honey combs are much smaller compared to that from adult workers. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that honey bee colonies maintain both temperature and humidity actively; that the microclimate for sealed drone brood is less precisely regulated than worker brood; and that combs with honey contribute very little to the increase of RH in honey bee colonies. These findings increase our understanding of microclimate regulation in honey bees and may have implications for beekeeping practices. PMID:26882104

  10. Mobbing and sitting tight at the nest as methods of avoiding brood parasitism.

    PubMed

    Rands, Sean A

    2012-04-06

    The arms race between brood parasites and their hosts has led to many different host behaviours for avoiding parasitism. Some of these behaviours are social, and require the presence of conspecifics to work effectively: in response to alarm calls, some species engage in mobbing behaviour where neighbours join nest tenants in attacking and repelling an invading brood parasite. There are risks involved for the neighbours, but it has been demonstrated that social mobbing allows individuals to learn about the presence of brood parasites in the environment, suggesting that social learning is occurring. Here, I consider whether using social signals to alert naive individuals to the presence of brood parasites is a suitable strategy, compared with sitting tight on the nest in response to the signal (which should reduce the chances of being parasitized). I also compare the efficiency of these strategies with the case where individuals fail to change behaviour in response a brood parasite. Using an individual-based simulation model, I demonstrate that both mobbing and sitting tight are effective strategies in response to a signal, and that mobbing is more effective when the chances of being parasitized increase. These results are discussed and compared with known host-brood parasite relationships.

  11. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches

    PubMed Central

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition. PMID:24258721

  12. Irregular brood patterns and worker reproduction in social wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Jennifer L.; Goodisman, Michael A. D.

    2007-12-01

    The potential for reproductive conflict among colony members exists in all social insect societies. For example, queens and workers may be in conflict over the production of males within colonies. Kin selection theory predicts that in a colony headed by a multiply-mated queen, worker reproduction is prevented by worker policing in the form of differential oophagy. However, few studies have demonstrated that workers actually lay eggs within queenright colonies. The purpose of this study was to determine if workers laid male eggs within unmanipulated queen-right colonies of the polyandrous social wasps Vespula maculifrons and V. squamosa. We focused our analysis on an unusual brood pattern within colonies, multiple egg cells. We were primarily interested in determining if individuals reared in these irregular circumstances were queen or worker offspring. To address this question, we genotyped 318 eggs from eight V. maculifrons and two V. squamosa colonies . No worker-reproduction was detected in any of the queenright colonies; all of the eggs found in multiple egg cells were consistent with being queen-produced. However, the frequency of multiple egg cells differed among colonies, suggesting that queens vary in the frequency of errors they make when laying eggs within cells. Finally, we suggest that workers may not be laying eggs within queenright colonies and that worker reproduction may be controlled through mechanisms other than differential oophagy in polyandrous Vespula wasps.

  13. A Gender-Specific Pathway to Serious, Violent, and Chronic Offending?: Exploring Howell's Risk Factors for Serious Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Pernilla; Kempf-Leonard, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    In "Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency," Howell proposes a female-specific pathway to serious, violent, and chronic offending. Incorporating ideas from feminist research about risk factors for female delinquency, he proposes five distinct and interrelated risk factors--child abuse victimization, mental health problems, running…

  14. Gender-Specific Reading Motivation: Considering Reading from the Perspective of Five Ethnically Diverse Fifth Grade Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manwell, Anita K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study used a triangulation of survey, conversational interviews, and observations in an authentic setting to explore the phenomenon of reading motivation from the perspectives of a specific group of individuals. Five participants, all African American fifth grade boys qualifying for meal subsidies, gathered in a local youth…

  15. Gender and Spatial Ability and the Use of Specific Labels and Diagrammatic Arrows in a Micro-Level Chemistry Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvo, David A.; Suits, Jerry P.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of using both specific labels and diagrammatic arrows in the animation of salt dissolution. Four different versions of the animation served as treatments that were developed based upon principles of educational technology and cognitive psychology. The researchers studied the effects of spatial ability (high or…

  16. Y-linked Mendelian inheritance of giant and dwarf male morphs in shell-brooding cichlids.

    PubMed

    Wirtz Ocana, Sabine; Meidl, Patrick; Bonfils, Danielle; Taborsky, Michael

    2014-11-07

    Behavioural variation among conspecifics is typically contingent on individual state or environmental conditions. Sex-specific genetic polymorphisms are enigmatic because they lack conditionality, and genes causing adaptive trait variation in one sex may reduce Darwinian fitness in the other. One way to avoid such genetic antagonism is to control sex-specific traits by inheritance via sex chromosomes. Here, controlled laboratory crossings suggest that in snail-brooding cichlid fish a single locus, two-allele polymorphism located on a sex-linked chromosome of heterogametic males generates an extreme reproductive dimorphism. Both natural and sexual selection are responsible for exceptionally large body size of bourgeois males, creating a niche for a miniature male phenotype to evolve. This extreme intrasexual dimorphism results from selection on opposite size thresholds caused by a single ecological factor, empty snail shells used as breeding substrate. Paternity analyses reveal that in the field parasitic dwarf males sire the majority of offspring in direct sperm competition with large nest owners exceeding their size more than 40 times. Apparently, use of empty snail shells as breeding substrate and single locus sex-linked inheritance of growth are the major ecological and genetic mechanisms responsible for the extreme intrasexual diversity observed in Lamprologus callipterus.

  17. Y-linked Mendelian inheritance of giant and dwarf male morphs in shell-brooding cichlids

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz Ocana, Sabine; Meidl, Patrick; Bonfils, Danielle; Taborsky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural variation among conspecifics is typically contingent on individual state or environmental conditions. Sex-specific genetic polymorphisms are enigmatic because they lack conditionality, and genes causing adaptive trait variation in one sex may reduce Darwinian fitness in the other. One way to avoid such genetic antagonism is to control sex-specific traits by inheritance via sex chromosomes. Here, controlled laboratory crossings suggest that in snail-brooding cichlid fish a single locus, two-allele polymorphism located on a sex-linked chromosome of heterogametic males generates an extreme reproductive dimorphism. Both natural and sexual selection are responsible for exceptionally large body size of bourgeois males, creating a niche for a miniature male phenotype to evolve. This extreme intrasexual dimorphism results from selection on opposite size thresholds caused by a single ecological factor, empty snail shells used as breeding substrate. Paternity analyses reveal that in the field parasitic dwarf males sire the majority of offspring in direct sperm competition with large nest owners exceeding their size more than 40 times. Apparently, use of empty snail shells as breeding substrate and single locus sex-linked inheritance of growth are the major ecological and genetic mechanisms responsible for the extreme intrasexual diversity observed in Lamprologus callipterus. PMID:25232141

  18. Comparison of side effects of pentagastrin test and calcium stimulation test in patients with increased basal calcitonin concentration: the gender-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Ubl, Philipp; Gincu, Tatiana; Keilani, Mohammad; Ponhold, Lothar; Crevenna, Richard; Niederle, Bruno; Hacker, Marcus; Li, Shuren

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side effects of the pentagastrin test and the calcium stimulation test in patients with increased basal calcitonin concentration, especially the gender-specific differences of side effects. A total of 256 patients (123 females and 133 males, mean age of 56 ± 27 years, range 21-83 years) had both pentagastrin and calcium stimulation tests. All patients filled in a questionnaire regarding the side effects within 30 min after completion of the stimulation tests. The differences of side effects between female and male patients as well as between the pentagastrin stimulation test and the calcium stimulation test were evaluated. Warmth feeling was the most frequent occurring side effect in all patients who had both pentagastrin and calcium stimulation tests, followed by nausea, altered gustatory sensation, and dizziness. The incidences of urgency to micturate (p < 0.05) and dizziness (p < 0.05) were significantly increased in the female patients as compared to male patients by calcium stimulation test. Significant higher incidences of urgency to micturate (p < 0.05) and warmth feeling (p < 0.05) were found by calcium stimulation test as compared with those by pentagastrin test in female patients. The incidences of nausea (p < 0.05) and abdominal cramping (p < 0.05) in male patients were significantly higher by pentagastrin stimulation test than by calcium stimulation test. There is a significant gender-specific difference in side effects induced by calcium stimulation test. Female patients have fewer side effects by pentagastrin test than by calcium stimulation test. Male patients may tolerate the calcium stimulation test better than the pentagastrin test.

  19. Do Gender-Specific and High-Resolution Three Dimensional Body Charts Facilitate the Communication of Pain for Women? A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is more prevalent among women; however, the majority of standardized pain drawings are often collected using male-like androgynous body representations. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess whether gender-specific and high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) body charts facilitate the communication of pain for women. Methods Using mixed-methods and a cross-over design, female patients with chronic pain were asked to provide detailed drawings of their current pain on masculine and feminine two-dimensional (2D) body schemas (N=41, Part I) or on female 2D and 3D high-resolution body schemas (N=41, Part II) on a computer tablet. The consistency of the drawings between body charts were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. Semistructured interviews and a preference questionnaire were then used to obtain qualitative and quantitative responses of the drawing experience. Results The consistency between body charts were high (Part I: ICC=0.980, Part II: ICC=0.994). The preference ratio for the masculine to feminine body schemas were 6:35 and 18:23 for the 2D to 3D female body charts. Patients reported that the 3D body chart enabled a more accurate expression of their pain due to the detailed contours of the musculature and bone structure, however, patients also reported the 3D body chart was too human and believed that skin-like appearance limited ‘deep pain’ expressions. Conclusions Providing gender-specific body charts may facilitate the communication of pain and the level of detail (2D vs 3D body charts) should be used according to patients’ needs. PMID:27440737

  20. Gender-specific research for emergency diagnosis and management of ischemic heart disease: proceedings from the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference Cardiovascular Research Workgroup.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Basmah; Nagurney, John T; Anise, Ayodola; DeVon, Holli A; D'Onofrio, Gail; Hess, Erik P; Hollander, Judd E; Legato, Mariane J; McGregor, Alyson J; Scott, Jane; Tewelde, Semhar; Diercks, Deborah B

    2014-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of death for both men and women. However, over the years, emergency physicians, cardiologists, and other health care practitioners have observed varying outcomes in men and women with symptomatic CAD. Women in general are 10 to 15 years older than men when they develop CAD, but suffer worse postinfarction outcomes compared to age-matched men. This article was developed by the cardiovascular workgroup at the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference to identify sex- and gender-specific gaps in the key themes and research questions related to emergency cardiac ischemia care. The workgroup had diverse stakeholder representation from emergency medicine, cardiology, critical care, nursing, emergency medical services, patients, and major policy-makers in government, academia, and patient care. We implemented the nominal group technique to identify and prioritize themes and research questions using electronic mail, monthly conference calls, in-person meetings, and Web-based surveys between June 2013 and May 2014. Through three rounds of nomination and refinement, followed by an in-person meeting on May 13, 2014, we achieved consensus on five priority themes and 30 research questions. The overarching themes were as follows: 1) the full spectrum of sex-specific risk as well as presentation of cardiac ischemia may not be captured by our standard definition of CAD and needs to incorporate other forms of ischemic heart disease (IHD); 2) diagnosis is further challenged by sex/gender differences in presentation and variable sensitivity of cardiac biomarkers, imaging, and risk scores; 3) sex-specific pathophysiology of cardiac ischemia extends beyond conventional obstructive CAD to include other causes such as microvascular dysfunction, takotsubo, and coronary artery dissection, better recognized as IHD; 4) treatment and prognosis are influenced by sex-specific variations in biology, as well as patient

  1. Learning and Gender Fair Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Judith H.

    This learning unit is designed to sensitize educators to gender differences in learning styles, to help identify specific needs and issues for women adult learners, to help educators to identify their own gender biases, and to help teachers to develop strategies for eliminating gender bias from their own classrooms. The unit is divided into three…

  2. Brood parasitism selects for no defence in a cuckoo host.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver

    2011-09-22

    In coevolutionary arms races, like between cuckoos and their hosts, it is easy to understand why the host is under selection favouring anti-parasitism behaviour, such as egg rejection, which can lead to parasites evolving remarkable adaptations to 'trick' their host, such as mimetic eggs. But what about cases where the cuckoo egg is not mimetic and where the host does not act against it? Classically, such apparently non-adaptive behaviour is put down to evolutionary lag: given enough time, egg mimicry and parasite avoidance strategies will evolve. An alternative is that absence of egg mimicry and of anti-parasite behaviour is stable. Such stability is at first sight highly paradoxical. I show, using both field and experimental data to parametrize a simulation model, that the absence of defence behaviour by Cape bulbuls (Pycnonotus capensis) against parasitic eggs of the Jacobin cuckoo (Clamator jacobinus) is optimal behaviour. The cuckoo has evolved massive eggs (double the size of bulbul eggs) with thick shells, making it very hard or impossible for the host to eject the cuckoo egg. The host could still avoid brood parasitism by nest desertion. However, higher predation and parasitism risks later in the season makes desertion more costly than accepting the cuckoo egg, a strategy aided by the fact that many cuckoo eggs are incorrectly timed, so do not hatch in time and hence do not reduce host fitness to zero. Selection will therefore prevent the continuation of any coevolutionary arms race. Non-mimetic eggs and absence of defence strategies against cuckoo eggs will be the stable, if at first sight paradoxical, result.

  3. Ecological factors regulating brood attendance patterns of the western sandpiper calidris mauri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, D.R.; Keller, J.N.; Rizzolo, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Parental brood attendance patterns vary greatly among shorebird species. For monogamous calidridine species, biparental care with female-first brood departure is most common. It is believed that adult sandpipers balance potential individual survival costs associated with extended parental care against the benefit gained by their brood of prolonged parental care. These costs and benefits are difficult to quantify and factors affecting the termination of parental brood attendance are unclear. We compared clutch size, nesting phenology, and parental attendance patterns of Western Sandpipers Calidris mauri at Nome and Kanaryarmiut, Alaska, sites separated by three degrees of latitude. The sites differed in breeding density and duration of breeding season, but the distribution of clutch sizes did not differ between sites or between nesting attempts. Parental attendance patterns were similar between sites, suggesting that parental attendance is a highly conserved life-history trait in Western Sandpipers. Male Western Sandpipers attended broods longer than females, and the duration of parental attendance decreased at a similar rate for both sexes as the season progressed. Male and female Western Sandpipers undertake differential migrations to their non-breeding grounds, with males typically settling at more northerly locations and females at more southerly sites, a migration pattern shared by certain other monogamous calidridine species. These same species exhibit similar parental brood attendance patterns, suggesting the strong role of overall migration distance in shaping the expression of parental attendance behaviours. A contrast of more geographically disjunct sites coupled with a better understanding of the migratory connectivity between Western Sandpiper breeding and non-breeding populations would elucidate the role of cross-seasonal effects on parental brood attendance decisions. ?? 2009 British Ornithologists' Union.

  4. Genetic and Biochemical Diversity of Paenibacillus larvae Isolated from Tunisian Infected Honey Bee Broods

    PubMed Central

    Hamdi, Chadlia; Essanaa, Jihène; Sansonno, Luigi; Crotti, Elena; Abdi, Khaoula; Barbouche, Naima; Balloi, Annalisa; Gonella, Elena; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur

    2013-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), a virulent disease of honeybee (Apis mellifera) larvae. In Tunisia, AFB has been detected in many beekeeping areas, where it causes important economic losses, but nothing is known about the diversity of the causing agent. Seventy-five isolates of P. larvae, identified by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were obtained from fifteen contaminated broods showing typical AFB symptoms, collected in different locations in the northern part of the country. Using BOX-PCR, a distinct profile of P. larvae with respect to related Paenibacillus species was detected which may be useful for its identification. Some P. larvae-specific bands represented novel potential molecular markers for the species. BOX-PCR fingerprints indicated a relatively high intraspecific diversity among the isolates not described previously with several molecular polymorphisms identifying six genotypes on polyacrylamide gel. Polymorphisms were also detected in several biochemical characters (indol production, nitrate reduction, and methyl red and oxidase tests). Contrary to the relatively high intraspecies molecular and phenotypic diversity, the in vivo virulence of three selected P. larvae genotypes did not differ significantly, suggesting that the genotypic/phenotypic differences are neutral or related to ecological aspects other than virulence. PMID:24073406

  5. Characterization of pollen and bacterial community composition in brood provisions of a small carpenter bee.

    PubMed

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Rehan, Sandra M

    2016-05-01

    Many insects obtain gut microbes from their diet, but how a mother's foraging patterns influence the microbes found in her offspring's food remains an open question. To address this gap, we studied a bee that forages for pollen from multiple species of plants and may therefore acquire diverse bacteria from different plants. We tested the hypothesis that pollen diversity correlates with bacterial diversity by simultaneously characterizing these two communities in bee brood provisions for the first time. We used deep sequencing of the plant RBCL gene and the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize pollen and bacterial diversity. We then tested for associations between pollen and bacterial species richness and community composition, as well as co-occurrence of specific bacteria and pollen types. We found that both pollen and bacterial communities were extremely diverse, indicating that mother bees visit a wide variety of flowers for pollen and nectar and subsequently bring a diversity of microbes back into their nests. Pollen and bacterial species richness and community composition, however, were not correlated. Certain pollen types significantly co-occurred with the most proportionally abundant bacteria, indicating that the plants these pollen types came from may serve as reservoirs for these bacteria. Even so, the overall diversity of these communities appears to mask these associations at a broader scale. Further study of these pollen and bacteria associations will be important for understanding the complicated relationship between bacteria and wild bees.

  6. Identifying and Prioritizing Greater Sage-Grouse Nesting and Brood-Rearing Habitat for Conservation in Human-Modified Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Dzialak, Matthew R.; Olson, Chad V.; Harju, Seth M.; Webb, Stephen L.; Mudd, James P.; Winstead, Jeffrey B.; Hayden-Wing, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Balancing animal conservation and human use of the landscape is an ongoing scientific and practical challenge throughout the world. We investigated reproductive success in female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) relative to seasonal patterns of resource selection, with the larger goal of developing a spatially-explicit framework for managing human activity and sage-grouse conservation at the landscape level. Methodology/Principal Findings We integrated field-observation, Global Positioning Systems telemetry, and statistical modeling to quantify the spatial pattern of occurrence and risk during nesting and brood-rearing. We linked occurrence and risk models to provide spatially-explicit indices of habitat-performance relationships. As part of the analysis, we offer novel biological information on resource selection during egg-laying, incubation, and night. The spatial pattern of occurrence during all reproductive phases was driven largely by selection or avoidance of terrain features and vegetation, with little variation explained by anthropogenic features. Specifically, sage-grouse consistently avoided rough terrain, selected for moderate shrub cover at the patch level (within 90 m2), and selected for mesic habitat in mid and late brood-rearing phases. In contrast, risk of nest and brood failure was structured by proximity to anthropogenic features including natural gas wells and human-created mesic areas, as well as vegetation features such as shrub cover. Conclusions/Significance Risk in this and perhaps other human-modified landscapes is a top-down (i.e., human-mediated) process that would most effectively be minimized by developing a better understanding of specific mechanisms (e.g., predator subsidization) driving observed patterns, and using habitat-performance indices such as those developed herein for spatially-explicit guidance of conservation intervention. Working under the hypothesis that industrial activity structures risk by

  7. Sexual imprinting misguides species recognition in a facultative interspecific brood parasite

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Michael D.; Hauber, Mark E.; Derrickson, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual reproduction relies on the recognition of conspecifics for breeding. Most experiments in birds have implicated a critical role for early social learning in directing subsequent courtship behaviours and mating decisions. This classical view of avian sexual imprinting is challenged, however, by studies of megapodes and obligate brood parasites, species in which reliable recognition is achieved despite the lack of early experience with conspecifics. By rearing males with either conspecific or heterospecific brood mates, we experimentally tested the effect of early social experience on the association preferences and courtship behaviours of two sympatrically breeding ducks. We predicted that redheads (Aythya americana), which are facultative interspecific brood parasites, would show a diminished effect of early social environment on subsequent courtship preferences when compared with their host and congener, the canvasback (Aythya valisineria). Contrary to expectations, cross-fostered males of both species courted heterospecific females and preferred them in spatial association tests, whereas control males courted and associated with conspecific females. These results imply that ontogenetic constraints on species recognition may be a general impediment to the initial evolution of interspecific brood parasitism in birds. Under more natural conditions, a variety of mechanisms may mitigate or counteract the effects of early imprinting for redheads reared in canvasback broods. PMID:20484239

  8. Brood size moderates associations between relative size, telomere length, and immune development in European starling nestlings.

    PubMed

    Nettle, Daniel; Andrews, Clare; Reichert, Sophie; Bedford, Tom; Gott, Annie; Parker, Craig; Kolenda, Claire; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Monaghan, Pat; Bateson, Melissa

    2016-11-01

    For young birds in a nest, body size may have implications for other aspects of development such as telomere length and immune function. However, it is possible to predict associations in either direction. On the one hand, there may be trade-offs between growth and telomere maintenance, and growth and investment in immune function, suggesting there will be negative correlations. On the other hand, relatively larger individuals might be advantaged in competition with their nest-mates, allowing them to garner more resources overall, leading to positive correlations. We studied development over the nestling period in 34 nests of wild European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris. Intrabrood competition is typically more intense in larger broods. Hence, we predicted that body size should become an increasingly positive predictor of telomere length and immune functioning as brood size increases. In partial support of our prediction, there were significant interactions between brood size and body size in predicting both erythrocyte telomere length change and plasma levels of the cytokine interleukin-6. The associations between body size and these outcomes went from negative in the smallest broods to positive in the largest. A further immune marker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, showed no systematic patterning with body size or brood size. Our results confirm that the size to which a nestling grows is important for telomere dynamics and the development of the immune system, but the phenotypic associations are moderated by the competitive context.

  9. Brood Parasitism Is Linked to Egg Pattern Diversity within and among Species of Australian Passerines.

    PubMed

    Medina, Iliana; Troscianko, Jolyon; Stevens, Martin; Langmore, Naomi E

    2016-03-01

    Bird eggs show striking diversity in color and pattern. One explanation for this is that interactions between avian brood parasites and their hosts drive egg phenotype evolution. Brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other species, their hosts. Many hosts defend their nests against parasitism by rejecting foreign eggs, which selects for parasite eggs that mimic those of the host. In theory, this may in turn select for changes in host egg phenotypes over time to facilitate discrimination of parasite eggs. Here, we test for the first time whether parasitism by brood parasites has led to increased divergence in egg phenotype among host species. Using Australian host and nonhost species and objective measures of egg color and pattern, we show that (i) hosts of brood parasites have higher within-species variation in egg pattern than nonhosts, supporting previous findings in other systems, and (ii) host species have diverged more in their egg patterns than nonhost species after controlling for divergence time. Overall, our results suggest that brood parasitism has played a significant role in the evolution of egg diversity and that these effects are evident, not only within species, but also among species.

  10. Physiological responses to increased brood size and ectoparasite infestation: Adult great tits favour self-maintenance.

    PubMed

    Wegmann, Michele; Voegeli, Beatrice; Richner, Heinz

    2015-03-15

    Different types of stressors trigger responses of different physiological systems, and these responses may contribute differentially to the maintenance of homeostasis, to trade-offs and the evolution of life-history traits. To manipulate two common stressors during reproduction, we infested half of the nests in a naturally breeding great tit population with ectoparasites and simultaneously manipulated brood size, using a 2×2 experimental design. Parents in this model species commonly compensate for ectoparasites by an increase in food provisioning. We assessed parental responses to these concurrent stressors by measuring several physiological stress parameters such as changes in metabolic rate, oxidative stress and expression of heat-shock proteins (Hsp), and explored how these stressors affect the trade-off between self-maintenance and reproduction. Neither flea infestation nor brood size manipulation affected adult metabolic rate, oxidative damage or Hsp levels. Furthermore, we found no interactive effect of the two treatments on adults. However, nestlings in infested nests had lower body mass and lower survival. Nestlings in enlarged broods were lighter and had lower survival, although parents of enlarged broods increased food provisioning rate. The findings suggest that adults favour maintenance of cellular homeostasis, and physiological equilibrium over current reproduction, and that the costs induced by both stressors, flea infestation and increased brood size, are carried by the offspring. It emphasizes the importance of self-maintenance over reproduction in life-history decisions, and more generally the need of including physiological traits for understanding the evolution of life-histories.

  11. Brood patches of American kestrels altered by experimental exposure to PCBs.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Sheri A; Bortolotti, Gary R; Fernie, Kim J; Bird, David M; Smits, Judit E

    2006-09-01

    Captive breeding (n = 25 pairs) and nonbreeding (n = 25) American kestrels were exposed to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1248:1254:1260) through their diet of day-old cockerels. Kestrels ingested approximately 7 mg/kg body weight each day of PCBs, and this dosage resulted in environmentally relevant total PCB residues in eggs (geometric mean of 34.1 microg/g). An equal number of unexposed birds served as controls. Bare areas of skin known as brood patches function during incubation to warm eggs; therefore, brood patch size could potentially influence hatching success, or patches may be a confounding factor in the relationship between poor incubation behavior and hatching failure observed in birds in toxicological studies. Exposure to PCBs altered the size of brood patches in American kestrels. PCB-exposed male and female nonbreeders had two of three brood patches that were larger than those of control nonbreeders. Breeding males exposed to PCBs had smaller patches than controls, whereas PCB-exposed female kestrels had one larger and one smaller patch than controls. Patch sizes were not related to total PCB residue levels in eggs of exposed birds. Brood patches were not related to various incubation behaviors or hatching success in either control or PCB-exposed kestrels.

  12. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter "Snow Geese") and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006. Printed in USA.

  13. If I only knew why: the relationship between brooding, beliefs about rumination, and perceptions of treatments.

    PubMed

    Ophir, Yaakov; Mor, Nilly

    2014-07-01

    People who tend to engage in brooding, the maladaptive subtype of rumination, are at risk to develop depression. Brooders often endorse metacognitive beliefs that self-focused ruminative thinking is beneficial. In the current study, we examined whether brooding and positive beliefs about rumination are associated with perceptions of and preferences for treatments for depression. Participants (N=118) read descriptions of two different clusters of treatments for depression, Insight-Oriented (IO) treatments and Activation-Oriented (AO) treatments. They then rated treatment efficacy and credibility and completed self-report measures of rumination (including brooding and reflection subscales), beliefs about rumination, and depression. Brooding and metacognitive positive beliefs about rumination were associated with positive perceptions of IO (but not AO) treatments. Positive beliefs about rumination contributed to the prediction of perceptions of IO treatments (but not AO treatments) beyond the effect of brooding. We discuss the implications of these findings for individuals' decision-making processes regarding which type of treatment to seek.

  14. "No Silly Girls' Films!" Analysis of Estonian Preschool Children's Gender Specific Tastes in Media Favourites and Their Possible Implications for Preschool Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siibak, Andra; Vinter, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Although children often look for guidance on what is gender-appropriate behaviour from the media, children's media favourites are still an underused learning resource in preschools, especially in the context of engaging in gender and values education. Focus-group interviews were conducted with 61 children aged from 5.5 to 7 years from three…

  15. Brood care in a 100-million-year-old scale insect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Fangyuan; Wappler, Torsten; Simon, Ewa; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Szwedo, Jacek

    2015-03-31

    Behavior of extinct organisms can be inferred only indirectly, but occasionally rare fossils document particular behaviors directly. Brood care, a remarkable behavior promoting the survival of the next generation, has evolved independently numerous times among animals including insects. However, fossil evidence of such a complex behavior is exceptionally scarce. Here, we report an ensign scale insect (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), Wathondara kotejai gen. et sp. nov., from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, which preserves eggs within a wax ovisac, and several freshly hatched nymphs. The new fossil is the only Mesozoic record of an adult female scale insect. More importantly, our finding represents the earliest unequivocal direct evidence of brood care in the insect fossil record and demonstrates a remarkably conserved egg-brooding reproductive strategy within scale insects in stasis for nearly 100 million years.

  16. Self-evaluative and emotion processes linked with brooding rumination among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Burwell, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Rumination has been linked with a number of deleterious outcomes, though relatively little is known about self-evaluative and emotion processes by which it develops. The current investigation uses a prospective, longitudinal design and self-report measures to examine the role of contingent self-worth, perfectionism, negative emotion beliefs, and suppression of negative emotion in predicting the development of brooding and reflective forms of rumination among 168 adolescents (98 girls, 79.6% European-American) undergoing the transition to high school (Mage = 13.58). Results of structural equation modeling indicate that self-evaluative vulnerability (i.e., self-worth contingencies, perfectionism) and negative emotion beliefs, but not the suppression of negative emotion, predict brooding (but not reflective) rumination. The current study demonstrates how brooding is intertwined with views of self and core assumptions about emotion. PMID:25900099

  17. Survival of spectacled eider adult females and ducklings during brood rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, James B.

    1997-01-01

    We studied survival of adult female and duckling spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) during brood rearing on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska from 1993 to 1995. Duckling survival to 30 days of age averaged 34% with a 95% confidence interval from 25 to 47%. Half (49%) of radiomarked adult females had lost all their ducklings by 30 days after hatch. Most (74%) duckling mortality occurred in the first 10 days. Adult female survival during the first 30 days of brood rearing was 93 ± 3% (SE). Females died from lead poisoning, as a result of ingesting lead shot, and predation. Mortality of adult females during brood rearing is probably higher than during other times of the year. Low adult female survival during the breeding season may be contributing to the overall population decline of spectacled eiders.

  18. Self-evaluative and emotion processes linked with brooding rumination among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Burwell, Rebecca A

    2015-06-01

    Rumination has been linked with a number of deleterious outcomes, though relatively little is known about self-evaluative and emotion processes by which it develops. The current investigation uses a prospective, longitudinal design and self-report measures to examine the role of contingent self-worth, perfectionism, negative emotion beliefs, and suppression of negative emotion in predicting the development of brooding and reflective forms of rumination among 168 adolescents (98 girls, 79.6% European-American) undergoing the transition to high school (Mage = 13.58). Results of structural equation modeling indicate that self-evaluative vulnerability (i.e., self-worth contingencies, perfectionism) and negative emotion beliefs, but not the suppression of negative emotion, predict brooding (but not reflective) rumination. The current study demonstrates how brooding is intertwined with views of self and core assumptions about emotion.

  19. Brooding Rumination and Cardiovascular Reactivity to a Laboratory-based Interpersonal Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Woody, Mary L.; Burkhouse, Katie L.; Birk, Samantha L.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2015-01-01

    There is a well-known link between stress and depression, but diathesis-stress models suggest that not all individuals are equally susceptible to stress. The current study examined if brooding rumination, a known risk factor for depression, influences cardiovascular reactivity to a laboratory-based interpersonal stressor. Sixty-five women watched a baseline video and were exposed to an interpersonal stressor while high frequency heart rate variability (HRV) was collected. We found that women who endorsed higher levels of brooding rumination exhibited greater HRV withdrawal from baseline to stressor, an effect that was maintained when we controlled for levels of depression. This physiological vulnerability, when combined with high levels of stress, may be one mechanism underlying how brooding rumination increases depression risk. PMID:25512247

  20. Brood care in a 100-million-year-old scale insect

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Fangyuan; Wappler, Torsten; Simon, Ewa; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Szwedo, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Behavior of extinct organisms can be inferred only indirectly, but occasionally rare fossils document particular behaviors directly. Brood care, a remarkable behavior promoting the survival of the next generation, has evolved independently numerous times among animals including insects. However, fossil evidence of such a complex behavior is exceptionally scarce. Here, we report an ensign scale insect (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), Wathondara kotejai gen. et sp. nov., from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, which preserves eggs within a wax ovisac, and several freshly hatched nymphs. The new fossil is the only Mesozoic record of an adult female scale insect. More importantly, our finding represents the earliest unequivocal direct evidence of brood care in the insect fossil record and demonstrates a remarkably conserved egg-brooding reproductive strategy within scale insects in stasis for nearly 100 million years. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05447.001 PMID:25824055

  1. Antioxidant Defense Enzyme Genes and Asthma Susceptibility: Gender-Specific Effects and Heterogeneity in Gene-Gene Interactions between Pathogenetic Variants of the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Polonikov, Alexey V.; Ivanov, Vladimir P.; Bogomazov, Alexey D.; Freidin, Maxim B.; Illig, Thomas; Solodilova, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from an increased amount of reactive oxygen species and an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The present study tested the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic variants of asthma is determined by complex interactions between genes encoding antioxidant defense enzymes (ADE). We carried out a comprehensive analysis of the associations between adult asthma and 46 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 34 ADE genes and 12 other candidate genes of asthma in Russian population using set association analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction approaches. We found for the first time epistatic interactions between ADE genes underlying asthma susceptibility and the genetic heterogeneity between allergic and nonallergic variants of the disease. We identified GSR (glutathione reductase) and PON2 (paraoxonase 2) as novel candidate genes for asthma susceptibility. We observed gender-specific effects of ADE genes on the risk of asthma. The results of the study demonstrate complexity and diversity of interactions between genes involved in oxidative stress underlying susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic asthma. PMID:24895604

  2. Gender-specific frequency of background somatic mutations at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase locus in cord blood T lymphocytes from preterm newborns

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Makoto; Vacek, Pamela M.; Poseno, Tina; Silver, Robert; Finette, Barry A.

    1999-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the frequency, spectrum, and clinical relevance of somatic mutations in the developing fetus. The goal of this study was to determine somatic mutant frequencies (Mfs) at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) reporter gene in cord blood T lymphocytes from preterm infants to gain insight into in utero mutational events. Mf determinations were made by using the HPRT T cell cloning assay on cord blood samples from 52 preterm infants. Natural logarithm Mfs (lnMfs) from preterm infants were compared with results from our database for full-term infants. Our analysis revealed higher lnMfs in cord blood T lymphocytes from preterm compared with full-term infants (P = 0.008). In addition, preterm females had significantly higher lnMfs compared with full-term females (P < 0.001), whereas preterm males were found to have significantly lower lnMfs than preterm females (P = 0.005). Regression analyses also demonstrate a significant relationship between lnMf and gestational age for preterm females that does not exist for preterm males. These results demonstrate the gender-specific association between Mf and age in humans. PMID:9892677

  3. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Karen A; Katz, Albert N; Leith, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in Language and social identity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 196-216, 1982) can be found in interactive language. Of the eight tokens examined only three were found to differ in the hypothesized direction, and these only in male-male dyads. In the second study, we trained a male and a female confederate to use either male or female gendered tokens found to be reliable in Study One in their chats with participants. Our design permits disentangling of effects due to knowledge of the gender of the interlocutors and use of specific language tokens. We find that use of language tokens by the confederate promoted use of the same token by their interlocutor, regardless of knowledge of the confederate's gender. Moreover use of tokens consistent or inconsistent with visible gender influenced how the interlocutor perceived the confederate. Taken together these data are inconsistent with either the notion that gendered language is context independent (as suggested in the gender-as-culture hypothesis) or the notion that gendered language only emerges when gender is made salient, as would, in these studies, occur in mixed-gendered groups.

  4. Using sightability-adjusted brood-pair ratios to estimate waterfowl productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pagano, Anthony M.; Amundson, Courtney; Pieron, Matthew R.; Arnold, Todd W.; Kimmel, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, biologists used brood-pair ratios (BPRs) as an index to waterfowl productivity to help guide management decisions and evaluate conservation practices. However, BPRs are biased by imperfect detection probabilities, especially for broods. We conducted roadside surveys for breeding waterfowl pairs on 7–8 study sites in the springs of 2006–2008 in northeastern North Dakota, USA. Later each year, we conducted replicate counts of broods on the same wetlands and used mark–recapture methods to estimate sightability-adjusted BPRs (SA-BPRs). Traditional roadside brood surveys detected only 30–45% of the available broods, depending on species. We explored the potential for using SA-BPRs to measure hen success (i.e., the probability a female hatches ≥1 egg across all nesting attempts) for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other upland-nesting dabbling ducks (Anas spp.). We found that SA-BPRs explained 40% of the variation in hen success over 5 species of dabbling ducks, and we were able to detect an effect of predator reduction on hen success in combined dabblers, but not in mallards alone. However, we found no relationship between SA-BPRs and mallard fledging rates (hen success × initial brood size × duckling survival). Our results suggest that SA-BPRs can provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional measures of productivity such as nesting success, but not to measures of duckling survival. Nevertheless, SA-BPRs may be useful in areas where traditional measures of waterfowl productivity are logistically or financially challenging.

  5. Indirect effects of red imported fire ants on Attwater's prairie‐chicken brood survival

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Rebecca E.; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Drees, Bastiaan M.; Toepfer, John E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The invasive red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) has negatively affected a host of taxonomic groups throughout its acquired North American range. Many studies have hypothesized indirect trophic impacts, but few documented those impacts. We evaluated invertebrate abundance as a factor limiting juvenile survival of the endangered Attwater's prairie‐chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri), and whether fire ants reduce invertebrate numbers and biomass. From 2009–2013, we monitored survival of Attwater's prairie‐chicken broods (n = 63) with radio telemetry during the first 2 weeks post‐hatch and collected daily invertebrate samples at brood sites. Broods located in areas with the highest median invertebrate count (338 invertebrates/25 sweeps) had a survival probability of 0.83 at 2 weeks post‐hatch compared to 0.07 for broods located in areas with the lowest median invertebrate count (18 invertebrates/25 sweeps). During 2011–2012, we evaluated the reduction of fire ants on invertebrate numbers and biomass by aerially treating areas with Extinguish Plus™ in an impact‐reference study design. Treated fields had 27% more individual invertebrates and 26% higher invertebrate biomass than reference fields. Our results clearly document that invertebrate abundance affects Attwater's prairie‐chicken brood survival and that fire ants may indirectly contribute to low brood survival by suppressing invertebrate abundance. We posit that within the fire ant's acquired North American range, fire ants are likely contributing to declines of other insectivorous species. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26900176

  6. Seasonal variations of all-cause and cause-specific mortality by age, gender, and socioeconomic condition in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality exhibits seasonal variations, which to a certain extent can be considered as mid-to long-term influences of meteorological conditions. In addition to atmospheric effects, the seasonal pattern of mortality is shaped by non-atmospheric determinants such as environmental conditions or socioeconomic status. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. The pressures of climate change make an understanding of the interdependencies between season, climate and health especially important. Methods This study investigated daily death counts collected within the Sample Vital Registration System (VSRS) established by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). The sample was stratified by location (urban vs. rural), gender and socioeconomic status. Furthermore, seasonality was analyzed for all-cause mortality, and several cause-specific mortalities. Daily deviation from average mortality was calculated and seasonal fluctuations were elaborated using non parametric spline smoothing. A seasonality index for each year of life was calculated in order to assess the age-dependency of seasonal effects. Results We found distinctive seasonal variations of mortality with generally higher levels during the cold season. To some extent, a rudimentary secondary summer maximum could be observed. The degree and shape of seasonality changed with the cause of death as well as with location, gender, and SES and was strongly age-dependent. Urban areas were seen to be facing an increased summer mortality peak, particularly in terms of cardiovascular mortality. Generally, children and the elderly faced stronger seasonal effects than youths and young adults. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrated the complex and dynamic nature of seasonal impacts on mortality. The modifying effect of spatial and population characteristics were highlighted. While tropical regions have been, and still are

  7. Maternal low protein diet restricted to the preimplantation period induces a gender-specific change on hepatic gene expression in rat fetuses.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Wing Yee; Miller, Daniel J; Wilkins, Adrian P; Dear, Mark S; Wright, J Neville; Osmond, Clive; Zhang, Junlong; Fleming, Tom P

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown previously that maternal low protein diet (LPD) throughout rat gestation altered hepatic gene expression and enzyme activities in offspring. Here, we investigate the effect of maternal LPD (9% casein vs. 18% control) exclusively during the preimplantation period (switched diet group) or provided throughout gestation on hepatic gene expression in day 20 fetuses. Using quantitative competitive PCR, we found that switched diet induced a two-fold increase (P = 0.008) in hepatic gene expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, a rate limiting enzyme for gluconeogenesis) in male fetuses and a 17% increase (P = 0.005) in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1, acts primarily as a reductase to produce active glucocorticoid) in female liver compared with control fetuses. Maternal LPD administered throughout gestation increased 11beta-HSD1 expression in male fetal liver by 27% (P = 0.042) compared with controls. However, maternal LPD fed for either period did not affect fetal hepatic insulin receptor (IR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), glycogen synthase (GS) nor placental glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) and 3 (Glut3) transcript levels. The alteration in fetal hepatic gene expression could not be attributed specifically to known regulators including insulin or glucose concentrations in fetal blood nor alteration in cAMP in fetal liver, although a combination of these regulatory factors may be responsible. Fetal hepatic glycogen level was unaffected by maternal diet. The present findings show that the long term potential of the preimplantation embryo is sensitive to maternal LPD such that basal levels of hepatic gene expression in day 20 fetuses are altered in a gender-specific manner.

  8. Genetic markers of a Munc13 protein family member, BAIAP3, are gender specifically associated with anxiety and benzodiazepine abuse in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Sonja M; Tantra, Martesa; Stepniak, Beata; Man, Kwun-Nok M; Müller-Ribbe, Katja; Begemann, Martin; Ju, Anes; Papiol, Sergi; Ronnenberg, Anja; Gurvich, Artem; Shin, Yong; Augustin, Iris; Brose, Nils; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2013-07-24

    Anxiety disorders and substance abuse, including benzodiazepine use disorder, frequently occur together. Unfortunately, treatment of anxiety disorders still includes benzodiazepines, and patients with an existing comorbid benzodiazepine use disorder or a genetic susceptibility for benzodiazepine use disorder may be at risk of adverse treatment outcomes. The identification of genetic predictors for anxiety disorders, and especially for benzodiazepine use disorder, could aid the selection of the best treatment option and improve clinical outcomes. The brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor I-associated protein 3 (Baiap3) is a member of the mammalian uncoordinated 13 (Munc13) protein family of synaptic regulators of neurotransmitter exocytosis, with a striking expression pattern in amygdalae, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray. Deletion of Baiap3 in mice leads to enhanced seizure propensity and increased anxiety, with the latter being more pronounced in female than in male animals. We hypothesized that genetic variation in human BAIAP3 may also be associated with anxiety. By using a phenotype-based genetic association study, we identified two human BAIAP3 single-nucleotide polymorphism risk genotypes (AA for rs2235632, TT for rs1132358) that show a significant association with anxiety in women and, surprisingly, with benzodiazepine abuse in men. Returning to mice, we found that male, but not female, Baiap3 knockout (KO) mice develop tolerance to diazepam more quickly than control animals. Analysis of cultured Baiap3 KO hypothalamus slices revealed an increase in basal network activity and an altered response to diazepam withdrawal. Thus, Baiap3/BAIAP3 is gender specifically associated with anxiety and benzodiazepine use disorder, and the analysis of Baiap3/BAIAP3-related functions may help elucidate mechanisms underlying the development of both disorders.

  9. Genetic Markers of a Munc13 Protein Family Member, BAIAP3, Are Gender Specifically Associated with Anxiety and Benzodiazepine Abuse in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, Sonja M; Tantra, Martesa; Stepniak, Beata; Man, Kwun-nok M; Müller-Ribbe, Katja; Begemann, Martin; Ju, Anes; Papiol, Sergi; Ronnenberg, Anja; Gurvich, Artem; Shin, Yong; Augustin, Iris; Brose, Nils; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders and substance abuse, including benzodiazepine use disorder, frequently occur together. Unfortunately, treatment of anxiety disorders still includes benzodiazepines, and patients with an existing comorbid benzodiazepine use disorder or a genetic susceptibility for benzodiazepine use disorder may be at risk of adverse treatment outcomes. The identification of genetic predictors for anxiety disorders, and especially for benzodiazepine use disorder, could aid the selection of the best treatment option and improve clinical outcomes. The brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor I–associated protein 3 (Baiap3) is a member of the mammalian uncoordinated 13 (Munc13) protein family of synaptic regulators of neurotransmitter exocytosis, with a striking expression pattern in amygdalae, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray. Deletion of Baiap3 in mice leads to enhanced seizure propensity and increased anxiety, with the latter being more pronounced in female than in male animals. We hypothesized that genetic variation in human BAIAP3 may also be associated with anxiety. By using a phenotype-based genetic association study, we identified two human BAIAP3 single-nucleotide polymorphism risk genotypes (AA for rs2235632, TT for rs1132358) that show a significant association with anxiety in women and, surprisingly, with benzodiazepine abuse in men. Returning to mice, we found that male, but not female, Baiap3 knockout (KO) mice develop tolerance to diazepam more quickly than control animals. Analysis of cultured Baiap3 KO hypothalamus slices revealed an increase in basal network activity and an altered response to diazepam withdrawal. Thus, Baiap3/BAIAP3 is gender specifically associated with anxiety and benzodiazepine use disorder, and the analysis of Baiap3/BAIAP3-related functions may help elucidate mechanisms underlying the development of both disorders. PMID:23698091

  10. First record of invasive Burmese Python oviposition and brooding inside an anthropogenic structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanslowe, Emma; Falk, Bryan; Collier, Michelle A. M.; Josimovich, Jillian; Rahill, Thomas; Reed, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We discovered an adult female Python bivittatus (Burmese Python) coiled around a clutch of 25 eggs in a cement culvert in Flamingo, FL, in Everglades National Park. To our knowledge, this is the first record of an invasive Burmese Python laying eggs and brooding inside an anthropogenic structure in Florida. A 92% hatch-success rate suggests that the cement culvert provided suitable conditions for oviposition, embryonic development, and hatching. Given the plenitude of such anthropogenic structures across the landscape, available sites for oviposition and brooding may not be limiting for the invasive Burmese Python population.

  11. Survival of wood duck ducklings and broods in Mississippi and Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.B.; Cox, R.R.; Kaminski, R.M.; Leopold, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    Although North American wood ducks (Aix sponsa) are well-studied throughout their range, researchers know little about demographic and environmental factors influencing survival of ducklings and broods, which is necessary information for population management. We studied radiomarked female and duckling wood ducks that used nest boxes and palustrine wetlands at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge (NNWR) in Mississippi, USA, in 1996-1999, and riverine wetlands of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Rivers and Waterway (TTRW) system in Alabama in 1998-1999. We estimated survival of ducklings and broods and evaluated potentially important predictors of duckling survival, including age and body mass of brood-rearing females, hatch date of ducklings, duckling mass, brood size at nest departure, inter-day travel distance by ducklings, site and habitat use, and daily minimum air temperature and precipitation. At NNWR, survival of 300 radiomarked ducklings ranged from 0.15 (95% CI = 0.04-0.27) to 0.24 (95% CI = 0.13-0.38) and was 0.21 (95% CI = 0.15-0.28) for 1996-1999. Our overall estimate of brood survival was 0.64 (n = 91; 95% CI = 0.54-0.73). At TTRW, survival of 129 radiomarked ducklings was 0.29 in 1998 (95% CI = 0.20-0.41) and 1999 (95% CI = 0.13-0.45) and was 0.29 (95% CI = 0.20-0.40) for 1998-1999. Our overall estimate of brood survival was 0.71 (n = 38; 95% CI = 0.56-0.85). At NNWR, models that included all predictor variables best explained variation in duckling survival. Akaike weight (wi) for the best model was 0.81, suggesting it was superior to other models (<0.01 ??? wi ???0.18). We detected 4 competing models for duckling survival at TTRW. Inter-day distance traveled by ducklings was important as this variable appeared in all 4 models; duckling survival was positively related to this variable. Patterns of habitat-related survival were similar at both study areas. Ducklings in broods that used scrub-shrub habitats disjunct from wetlands containing aggregations of nest

  12. Varying congruence of hygienic responses to Varroa destructor and freeze-killed brood among different types of honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., have been selectively bred for enhanced hygiene (i.e., removal of affected brood from sealed cells) to improve resistance to diseases and parasites. Bees selected for removal of freeze-killed brood (FKB) have protection from several microbial disease...

  13. Contrasting brood-sex ratio flexibility in two opiine (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids of tephritid (Diptera) fruit files

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass-rearing of fruit fly parasitoids for augmentative release would be more economical if production could be biased towards females. If sex ratios are ever to be manipulated under rearing conditions it is important to determine if, then understand why, sex ratio flexibility exists. Unequal brood-s...

  14. Stingless bees (Melipona subnitida) adjust brood production rather than foraging activity in response to changes in pollen stores.

    PubMed

    Maia-Silva, Camila; Hrncir, Michael; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P

    2016-10-01

    Highly eusocial bees (honey bees and stingless bees) sustain their colonies through periods of resource scarcity by food stored within the nest. The protein supply necessary for successful brood production is ensured through adjustments of the colonies' pollen foraging according to the availability of this resource in the environment. In honey bees Apis mellifera, in addition, pollen foraging is regulated through the broods' demand for this resource. Here, we investigated the influence of the colony's pollen store level on pollen foraging and brood production in stingless bees (Melipona subnitida). When pollen was added to the nests, colonies increased their brood production and reduced their pollen foraging within 24 h. On the other hand, when pollen reserves were removed, colonies significantly reduced their brood production. In strong contrast to A. mellifera; however, M. subnitida did not significantly increase its pollen foraging activity under poor pollen store conditions. This difference concerning the regulation of pollen foraging may be due to differences regarding the mechanism of brood provisioning. Honey bees progressively feed young larvae and, consequently, require a constant pollen supply. Stingless bees, by contrast, mass-provision their brood cells and temporary absence of pollen storage will not immediately result in substantial brood loss.

  15. Gender-specific differences in the process of coping in families with a parent affected by a chronic somatic disease (e.g. multiple sclerosis).

    PubMed

    Steck, B; Amsler, F; Kappos, L; Bürgin, D

    2001-01-01

    Based on the investigation of 52 families and their 87 offspring by means of semistructured interviews, we evaluated the coping abilities of the parent affected by multiple sclerosis (MS), the healthy parent and their children. The results show that the gender of the child significantly influences his or her coping behaviour. Daughters cope better than sons, independently of the gender of the MS-affected parent. Only the daughter's coping is positively affected by age and disease variables. The correlation between the coping behaviour of parents and children is significant between children and their healthy parents and even stronger between children and healthy parents of the same gender. Healthy mothers and daughters cope better with the increasing disability of the father. This is not the case for healthy fathers and sons. Gender seems to be an important moderating factor in chronic parental disease and it has complex effects on the coping capacity of children.

  16. Dietary soy and soy isoflavones have gender-specific effects on plasma lipids and isoflavones in golden Syrian f(1)b hybrid hamsters.

    PubMed

    Blair, Robert M; Appt, Susan E; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Clarkson, Thomas B; Anthony, Mary S; Lamothe, Valerie; Potter, Susan M

    2002-12-01

    The specific components of soy responsible for its beneficial effects on plasma lipids are unknown. Golden Syrian F(1)B Hybrid hamsters (75 male, 74 female) were evaluated for the effect of dietary soy and soy isoflavones on plasma lipids. They were fed the following diets for 16 wk: casein/lactalbumin (C/L), soy protein with isoflavones [Soy(+)], soy protein with isoflavones removed [Soy(-)], Soy(-) plus isoflavone extract (IF), and C/L + IF. At necropsy, plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol (HDLC), LDL + VLDL cholesterol (LDL + VLDLC), isoflavones, and uterine and accessory gland weights were measured. Male hamsters fed the three soy-containing diets had lower LDL + VLDLC concentrations than those fed the two C/L diets (P < 0.01), and those fed Soy(-) + IF did not differ from those fed Soy(+). In females, diet did not affect plasma LDL + VLDLC concentration. Females fed Soy(+) or Soy(-) had higher HDLC (P < 0.05) than those fed C/L. HDLC was not affected by diet in males. Due to higher equol production (P < 0.01), males had greater plasma isoflavone concentrations (P < 0.01) than females. There was a positive association between plasma total isoflavones and LDL + VLDLC (r = 0.65, P < 0.05) in females. These data suggest gender differences in plasma lipid and isoflavone responses to soy- based diets in Syrian F(1)B Hybrid hamsters, which offer an opportunity to explore effects of sex hormones on isoflavone metabolism and the effects of isoflavones on lipid metabolism.

  17. Gender-dependent and age-of-onset-specific association of the rs11675434 single-nucleotide polymorphism near TPO with susceptibility to Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Kuś, Aleksander; Szymański, Konrad; Jurecka-Lubieniecka, Beata; Pawlak-Adamska, Edyta; Kula, Dorota; Miśkiewicz, Piotr; Bolanowski, Marek; Płoski, Rafał; Bossowski, Artur; Daroszewski, Jacek; Jarząb, Barbara; Bednarczuk, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The role of TPO gene polymorphism in the susceptibility to Graves' disease (GD) remains unclear. However, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near TPO have been recently associated with serum levels of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody in two independent genome-wide association studies. Moreover, we have observed a strong association between the rs11675434 SNP located near TPO and the presence of clinically evident Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). The aim of the current study was to reevaluate and dissect this association in an extended group of 1231 well-characterized patients with GD (1043 adults and 188 children) and 1130 healthy controls from the Polish Caucasian population, considering possible gender-dependent and age-of-onset-specific effects of the studied SNP. We found that the T allele of rs11675434 was significantly more frequent in GD patients with than without GO (odds ratio (OR)=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.05-1.51, P=0.012), which was consistent with our previous findings. Further analyses performed in subgroups of patients showed that the association with GO was significant in adult patients with age of GD onset ⩾45 years (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.03-1.75, P=0.031), but not in children and adolescents or adult patients with earlier onset of the disease (OR=1.72, 95% CI=0.77-3.84, P=0.18 and OR=1.05, 95% CI=0.79-1.40, P=0.75, respectively). Moreover, a strong association with GO was present in males (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.40-3.02, P=0.0002), whereas it was absent in females (OR=1.10, 95% CI=0.90-1.35, P=0.35). The results of our study further suggest that rs11675434 SNP located near TPO is associated with the development of GO, especially in males and patients with later age of GD onset.

  18. Prime Time Sister Circles: evaluating a gender-specific, culturally relevant health intervention to decrease major risk factors in mid-life African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Marilyn Hughes; Porter, Gayle K.; Thomas, Veronica G.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Prime Time Sister Circles (PTSC), a curriculum-based, culture- and gender-specific health intervention, in assisting mid-life African-American women to decrease the major risk factors of physical inactivity, poor nutrition and stress. METHODS: One-hundred-thirty-four African-American women were involved in 11 sites across the country in PTSC and comparison groups. PTSC uses a cognitive behavioral modality based on three theoretical approaches to reduce risk factors and promote positive health changes. Pretest and posttest (10 weeks, and six and 12 months) data were collected on various indicators. RESULTS: t test analyses demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the women's involvement in physical activity at 10 weeks, and six and 12 months. A significant 10-week difference was found in the women's diet, with them reporting eating more nutritious foods, t(77) = 3.32, p < 0.001. The women also indicated from pretest to 10 weeks, and six and 12 months that they changed what they ate to prevent disease (40.4%, 62.8%, 97.5% and 100%, respectively). A majority of the women at 10 weeks (62.7%) and 12 months (65.9%) reported utilizing stress management strategies. There was also a 60% increase in yearly mammograms and a 54% increase in blood pressures checks. Finally, 83.7% of the women at 12 months felt that the positive changes could be maintained over their lifetime. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PTSC in modifying health-related knowledge, attitudes and certain high-risk behaviors in mid-life African-American women. PMID:17444433

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Thyroid-Related Traits Reveals Novel Loci and Gender-Specific Differences in the Regulation of Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Claudia B.; Wilson, Scott G.; Cappola, Anne R.; Bos, Steffan D.; Deelen, Joris; den Heijer, Martin; Freathy, Rachel M.; Lahti, Jari; Liu, Chunyu; Lopez, Lorna M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Trompet, Stella; Arnold, Alice; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beekman, Marian; Böhringer, Stefan; Brown, Suzanne J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Camaschella, Clara; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Davies, Gail; de Visser, Marieke C. H.; Ford, Ian; Forsen, Tom; Frayling, Timothy M.; Fugazzola, Laura; Gögele, Martin; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hermus, Ad R.; Hofman, Albert; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Jensen, Richard A.; Kajantie, Eero; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Lim, Ee M.; Masciullo, Corrado; Mariotti, Stefano; Minelli, Cosetta; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Netea-Maier, Romana T.; Palotie, Aarno; Persani, Luca; Piras, Maria G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Räikkönen, Katri; Richards, J. Brent; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sala, Cinzia; Sabra, Mona M.; Sattar, Naveed; Shields, Beverley M.; Soranzo, Nicole; Starr, John M.; Stott, David J.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Usala, Gianluca; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Heemst, Diana; van Mullem, Alies; H.Vermeulen, Sita; Visser, W. Edward; Walsh, John P.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Widen, Elisabeth; Zhai, Guangju; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fox, Caroline S.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Schlessinger, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Slagboom, Eline P.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaidya, Bijay; Visser, Theo J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Rotter, Jerome I.; Spector, Tim D.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Toniolo, Daniela; Sanna, Serena; Peeters, Robin P.; Naitza, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolism and development, and overt abnormalities in thyroid function lead to common endocrine disorders affecting approximately 10% of individuals over their life span. In addition, even mild alterations in thyroid function are associated with weight changes, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and psychiatric disorders. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid function, we performed a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum levels of the highly heritable thyroid function markers TSH and FT4, in up to 26,420 and 17,520 euthyroid subjects, respectively. Here we report 26 independent associations, including several novel loci for TSH (PDE10A, VEGFA, IGFBP5, NFIA, SOX9, PRDM11, FGF7, INSR, ABO, MIR1179, NRG1, MBIP, ITPK1, SASH1, GLIS3) and FT4 (LHX3, FOXE1, AADAT, NETO1/FBXO15, LPCAT2/CAPNS2). Notably, only limited overlap was detected between TSH and FT4 associated signals, in spite of the feedback regulation of their circulating levels by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Five of the reported loci (PDE8B, PDE10A, MAF/LOC440389, NETO1/FBXO15, and LPCAT2/CAPNS2) show strong gender-specific differences, which offer clues for the known sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and related pathologies. Importantly, the TSH-associated loci contribute not only to variation within the normal range, but also to TSH values outside the reference range, suggesting that they may be involved in thyroid dysfunction. Overall, our findings explain, respectively, 5.64% and 2.30% of total TSH and FT4 trait variance, and they improve the current knowledge of the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the consequences of genetic variation for hypo- or hyperthyroidism. PMID:23408906

  20. A meta-analysis of thyroid-related traits reveals novel loci and gender-specific differences in the regulation of thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Eleonora; Medici, Marco; Pistis, Giorgio; Volpato, Claudia B; Wilson, Scott G; Cappola, Anne R; Bos, Steffan D; Deelen, Joris; den Heijer, Martin; Freathy, Rachel M; Lahti, Jari; Liu, Chunyu; Lopez, Lorna M; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Tanaka, Toshiko; Trompet, Stella; Arnold, Alice; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beekman, Marian; Böhringer, Stefan; Brown, Suzanne J; Buckley, Brendan M; Camaschella, Clara; de Craen, Anton J M; Davies, Gail; de Visser, Marieke C H; Ford, Ian; Forsen, Tom; Frayling, Timothy M; Fugazzola, Laura; Gögele, Martin; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hermus, Ad R; Hofman, Albert; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Jensen, Richard A; Kajantie, Eero; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Lim, Ee M; Masciullo, Corrado; Mariotti, Stefano; Minelli, Cosetta; Mitchell, Braxton D; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Palotie, Aarno; Persani, Luca; Piras, Maria G; Psaty, Bruce M; Räikkönen, Katri; Richards, J Brent; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sala, Cinzia; Sabra, Mona M; Sattar, Naveed; Shields, Beverley M; Soranzo, Nicole; Starr, John M; Stott, David J; Sweep, Fred C G J; Usala, Gianluca; van der Klauw, Melanie M; van Heemst, Diana; van Mullem, Alies; Vermeulen, Sita H; Visser, W Edward; Walsh, John P; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zhai, Guangju; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fox, Caroline S; Jukema, J Wouter; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Pramstaller, Peter P; Schlessinger, David; Shuldiner, Alan R; Slagboom, Eline P; Uitterlinden, André G; Vaidya, Bijay; Visser, Theo J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Rotter, Jerome I; Spector, Tim D; Hicks, Andrew A; Toniolo, Daniela; Sanna, Serena; Peeters, Robin P; Naitza, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolism and development, and overt abnormalities in thyroid function lead to common endocrine disorders affecting approximately 10% of individuals over their life span. In addition, even mild alterations in thyroid function are associated with weight changes, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and psychiatric disorders. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid function, we performed a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum levels of the highly heritable thyroid function markers TSH and FT4, in up to 26,420 and 17,520 euthyroid subjects, respectively. Here we report 26 independent associations, including several novel loci for TSH (PDE10A, VEGFA, IGFBP5, NFIA, SOX9, PRDM11, FGF7, INSR, ABO, MIR1179, NRG1, MBIP, ITPK1, SASH1, GLIS3) and FT4 (LHX3, FOXE1, AADAT, NETO1/FBXO15, LPCAT2/CAPNS2). Notably, only limited overlap was detected between TSH and FT4 associated signals, in spite of the feedback regulation of their circulating levels by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Five of the reported loci (PDE8B, PDE10A, MAF/LOC440389, NETO1/FBXO15, and LPCAT2/CAPNS2) show strong gender-specific differences, which offer clues for the known sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and related pathologies. Importantly, the TSH-associated loci contribute not only to variation within the normal range, but also to TSH values outside the reference range, suggesting that they may be involved in thyroid dysfunction. Overall, our findings explain, respectively, 5.64% and 2.30% of total TSH and FT4 trait variance, and they improve the current knowledge of the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the consequences of genetic variation for hypo- or hyperthyroidism.

  1. Histochemistry and histoenzymology of the hydatid cyst (Echinococcus granulosus Batsch, 1786). II. Scolices and brood capsules.

    PubMed

    Reissenweber, N J; Vercelli-Retta, J; Siri, A M; Lozano, W

    1975-12-11

    Scolices and brood capsules of healthy hydatid cysts from lungs of human patients were studied with histochemical and histoenzymatic methods. The subtegumental and flame cells were sepcially rich in glycogen, RNA and some dehydrogenases such as SDH, MDH, NADH-reductase and G-6-PDH. The rostellar zone or invaginated pole, an area of marked contractile movements, showed intense activity in ATP'ase and simple esterase. The so-called excretory pole shows strong activity in simple esterases, lipase, beta-HBH, alpha-GDH and NADPH-reductase. Lipids are also abundant in this zone implying the important role of this metabolic path in the development of the parasite. Intense activity in alkaline phosphatase was observed in cells associated to the calcereous corpuscles. The largest corpuscles were devoid of enzymatic activity. The enzyme could play some role in the calcification of the corpuscles. Wide enzymatic variations are described according to morphology being orthoscolices the most rich in enzyme activity. Accumulations of small cells surrounded by specialized cells on the germinal membrane are interpreted as the origin or "embryo" of brood capsules. Some enzymes detected in the wall of mature brood capsules depicted alternating types of cells. Some of them are positive for ATP'ase that may be related to active transport of substances across the brood capsule wall. The intenst ATP'ase activity at the stalks of scolices may be similarly interpreted. However, a miosine-like activity is a more feasible explanation since this area showed striking contractile movements in vivo.

  2. Alternative Reproductive Tactics in the Shell-Brooding Lake Tanganyika Cichlid Neolamprologus brevis

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Kazutaka; Aibara, Mitsuto; Morita, Masaya; Awata, Satoshi; Hori, Michio; Kohda, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are found in several Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlids. Field studies were conducted in the Wonzye population to examine reproductive ecology and ARTs in the Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlid Neolamprologus brevis. We discovered that this fish occurred in both rocky- and sandy-bottom habitats, but in rocky habitats, brood-caring females exclusively occurred in shell-patches that another cichlid species created. All N. brevis of both sexes in the patches were sexually mature, whereas immature males and females with unripe eggs were found frequently in sandy-bottom habitats. Males in sandy-bottom habitats were smaller, but fed more frequently and were in better somatic condition than males in the patches. Similar tendency was found in females. This indicates that N. brevis uses different habitats depending on the stage of its life history, with migration from sandy-bottom habitats to the shell-patches for reproduction. Males in the patches exhibited different behavior patterns: floating above the patches and lying in the patches. The former was larger, more aggressive, and invested less in gonads (relative to body size) than the latter. These results accord with those of other shell-brooding Lake Tanganyika cichlids with ARTs, and they therefore suggest the presence of ARTs in N. brevis. PMID:22888463

  3. Ruffed grouse brood habitat on reclaimed surface mines in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, R.O.

    1982-01-01

    In West Virginia, land-use practices that break up large blocks of mature forests would potentially benefit ruffed grouse. Ruffed grouse were shown to use openings created by surface mining, particularly during the brood period. Human-imprinted ruffed grouse chicks were used to evaluate food and cover on reclaimed surface mines. Old and new reclamation techniques were studied in relation to ruffed grouse brood habitat. Reclaimed surface-mined areas did not provide the quality habitat for ruffed grouse chicks that unmined land provided. Grass-legume reclamation had the poorest food and cover. A 25-year-old reclaimed mine planted to autumn olive had the best food cover. The shrub canopy provided a more favorable microclimate for insects and establishment of herbaceous vegetation. Insects and, to a lesser extent, forbs were important foods for ruffed grouse during the early brood period. Planting rows of shrubs in addition to the current practice of planting grasses and legumes on surface-mined areas is suggested to create ruffed grouse brood habitat.

  4. Egg brooding by deep-sea octopuses in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Voight, J R; Grehan, A J

    2000-02-01

    Videotapes made from the submersible Alvin on Baby Bare, a 2600-m-deep North Pacific basalt outcrop, and at two other deep-sea localities document that octopuses of the genera Graneledone and Benthoctopus attach their eggs to hard substrate and apparently brood them through development. The behavior of brooding females was generally similar to that of shallow-water octopuses, but the genera showed apparent differences. In addition to the high density of brooding females observed at Baby Bare, which may relate to the increased availability of exposed hard substrates for egg attachment and of prey, females are suggested to increasingly associate with hard substrates as they mature. The biology of Baby Bare may seem unduly unique because the outcrop is isolated on a sedimented plain and is among the few exposures of hard substrate other than hydrothermal vents that have been explored by submersible. On the sediment-covered ocean floor, the availability of hard substrate may strongly affect the distribution of brooding octopuses. The size and shape of boreholes in 19 of over 400 thyasirid clam shells collected from Baby Bare support the hypothesis that octopuses had preyed upon the clams.

  5. Selecting honey bees for worker brood that reduces the reproduction of Varroa destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated an effect of Apis mellifera worker brood on the reproduction of Varroa destructor as a resistance trait by conducting seven generations of bidirectional selection. Initial tests showed two-fold differences in mite fecundity (progeny per foundress mites) between colonies of different...

  6. Post-fledging brood and care division in the roseate tern (Sterna dougallii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, M.J.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatch, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Extended post-fledging parental care is an important aspect of parental care in birds, although little studied due to logistic difficulties. Commonly, the brood is split physically (brood division) and/or preferential care is given to a subset of the brood by one parent or the other (care division). Among gulls and tern (Laridae), males and females generally share parental activities during the pre-fledging period, but the allocation of parental care after fledging is little documented. This study examined the behaviour of male and female roseate terns (Sterna dougallii) during the late chick-rearing and early post-fledging periods, and in particular the amount of feeds and the time spent in attendance given to individual chicks/fledglings. Pre-fledging parental care was biparental in all cases. Post-fledging parental care was dependent on the number of fledglings in the brood. Males and females continued biparental care in clutches with one surviving fledgling, while in two-fledgling clutches, males fed the A-fledgling while females fed the B-fledgling. Overall, there was no difference in attendance, only in feeds. This division of care may be influenced by the male only being certain of the paternity of the A-chick but not by chick sex. ?? 2011 Japan Ethological Society and Springer.

  7. Seahorse Brood Pouch Transcriptome Reveals Common Genes Associated with Vertebrate Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Camilla M; Griffith, Oliver W; Qi, Weihong; Thompson, Michael B; Wilson, Anthony B

    2015-12-01

    Viviparity (live birth) has evolved more than 150 times in vertebrates, and represents an excellent model system for studying the evolution of complex traits. There are at least 23 independent origins of viviparity in fishes, with syngnathid fishes (seahorses and pipefish) unique in exhibiting male pregnancy. Male seahorses and pipefish have evolved specialized brooding pouches that provide protection, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and limited nutrient provisioning to developing embryos. Pouch structures differ widely across the Syngnathidae, offering an ideal opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive complexity. However, the physiological and genetic changes facilitating male pregnancy are largely unknown. We used transcriptome profiling to examine pouch gene expression at successive gestational stages in a syngnathid with the most complex brood pouch morphology, the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Using a unique time-calibrated RNA-seq data set including brood pouch at key stages of embryonic development, we identified transcriptional changes associated with brood pouch remodeling, nutrient and waste transport, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and immunological protection of developing embryos at conception, development and parturition. Key seahorse transcripts share homology with genes of reproductive function in pregnant mammals, reptiles, and other live-bearing fish, suggesting a common toolkit of genes regulating pregnancy in divergent evolutionary lineages.

  8. Temperature dependent virulence of obligate and facultative fungal pathogens of honeybee brood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalkbrood (Ascosphaera apis) and stonebrood (Aspergillus flavus) are well known fungal brood diseases of honeybees (Apis mellifera), but they have hardly been systematically studied because the difficulty of rearing larvae in vitro has precluded controlled experimentation. Chalkbrood is a chronic h...

  9. Long-term coevolution between avian brood parasites and their hosts.

    PubMed

    Soler, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Coevolutionary theory predicts that the most common long-term outcome of the relationships between brood parasites and their hosts should be coevolutionary cycles based on a dynamic change selecting the currently least-defended host species, given that when well-defended hosts are abandoned, hosts will be selected to decrease their defences as these are usually assumed to be costly. This is assumed to be the case also in brood parasite-host systems. Here I examine the frequency of the three potential long-term outcomes of brood parasite-host coevolution (coevolutionary cycles, lack of rejection, and successful resistance) in 182 host species. The results of simple exploratory comparisons show that coevolutionary cycles are very scarce while the lack of rejection and successful resistance, which are considered evolutionary enigmas, are much more frequent. I discuss these results considering (i) the importance of different host defences at all stages of the breeding cycle, (ii) the role of phenotypic plasticity in long-term coevolution, and (iii) the evolutionary history of host selection. I suggest that in purely antagonistic coevolutionary interactions, such as those involving brood parasites and their hosts, that although cycles will exist during an intermediate phase of the interactions, the arms race will end with the extinction of the host or with the host acquiring successful resistance. As evolutionary time passes, this resistance will force brood parasites to use previously less suitable host species. Furthermore, I present a model that represents the long-term trajectories and outcomes of coevolutionary interactions between brood parasites and their hosts with respect to the evolution of egg-rejection defence. This model suggests that as an increasing number of species acquire successful resistance, other unparasitized host species become more profitable and their parasitism rate and the costs imposed by brood parasitism at the population level will

  10. Transgenic Over-expression of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Results in Age-dependent and Gender-specific Increases in Bone Strength and Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, S.M.; Carleton, S.M.; Carson, W.L.; Eren, M.; Phillips, C.L.; Vaughan, D.E.

    2014-01-01

    The plasminogen activation system (PAS) and its principal inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor- 1 (PAI-1), are recognized modulators of matrix. In addition, the PAS has previously been implicated in the regulation of bone homeostasis. Our objective was to study the influence of active PAI-1 on geometric, biomechanical, and mineral characteristics of bone using transgenic mice that over-expresses a variant of human PAI-1 that exhibits enhanced functional stability. Femora were isolated from male and female, wildtype (WT) and transgenic (PAI-1.stab) mice at 16 and 32 weeks of age (n=10). Femora were imaged via DEXA for BMD and µCT for cortical mid-slice geometry. Torsional testing was employed for biomechanical properties. Mineral composition was analyzed via instrumental neutron activation analysis. Female femora were further analyzed for trabecular bone histomorphometry (n=11). Whole animal DEXA scans were performed on PAI-1.stab females and additional transgenic lines in which the functional domains of the PAI-1 protein were specifically disrupted. Thirty-two week female PAI-1.stab femora exhibited decreased mid-slice diameters and reduced polar moment of area compared to WT, while maintaining similar cortical bone width. Greater biomechanical strength and stiffness was demonstrated by 32 week PAI-1.stab female femora in addition to a 52% increase in BMD. PAI-1.stab trabecular bone architecture was comparable to WT. Osteoid area was decreased in PAI-1.stab mice while mineral apposition rate increased by 78% over WT. Transgenic mice expressing a reactive-site mutant form of PAI-1 showed an increase in BMD similar to PAI-1.stab, whereas transgenic mice expressing a PAI-1 with reduced affinity for vitronectin were comparable to WT. Over-expression of PAI-1 resulted in increased mineralization and biomechanical properties of mouse femora in an age-dependent and gender-specific manner. Changes in mineral preceded increases in strength/stiffness and deterred

  11. Transgenic over-expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 results in age-dependent and gender-specific increases in bone strength and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, S M; Carleton, S M; Carson, W L; Eren, M; Phillips, C L; Vaughan, D E

    2007-12-01

    The plasminogen activation system (PAS) and its principal inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), are recognized modulators of matrix. In addition, the PAS has previously been implicated in the regulation of bone homeostasis. Our objective was to study the influence of active PAI-1 on geometric, biomechanical, and mineral characteristics of bone using transgenic mice that over-express a variant of human PAI-1 that exhibits enhanced functional stability. Femora were isolated from male and female, wildtype (WT) and transgenic (PAI-1.stab) mice at 16 and 32 weeks of age (n=10). Femora were imaged via DEXA for BMD and muCT for cortical mid-slice geometry. Torsional testing was employed for biomechanical properties. Mineral composition was analyzed via instrumental neutron activation analysis. Female femora were further analyzed for trabecular bone histomorphometry (n=11). Whole animal DEXA scans were performed on PAI-1.stab females and additional transgenic lines in which the functional domains of the PAI-1 protein were specifically disrupted. Thirty-two week female PAI-1.stab femora exhibited decreased mid-slice diameters and reduced polar moment of area compared to WT, while maintaining similar cortical bone width. Greater biomechanical strength and stiffness were demonstrated by 32 week PAI-1.stab female femora in addition to a 52% increase in BMD. PAI-1.stab trabecular bone architecture was comparable to WT. Osteoid area was decreased in PAI-1.stab mice while mineral apposition rate increased by 78% over WT. Transgenic mice expressing a reactive-site mutant form of PAI-1 showed an increase in BMD similar to PAI-1.stab, whereas transgenic mice expressing a PAI-1 with reduced affinity for vitronectin were comparable to WT. Over-expression of PAI-1 resulted in increased mineralization and biomechanical properties of mouse femora in an age-dependent and gender-specific manner. Changes in mineral preceded increases in strength/stiffness and deterred normal

  12. On Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James Q.

    1993-01-01

    Explores differences between males and females and their manifestation in biology and culture. Cultures differ, not in whether they cope with the socialization of males to invest in child rearing, but in how they deal with this problem. Issues of gender and power and gender and child rearing are discussed. (SLD)

  13. Gender Fictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lesley

    1992-01-01

    Reviews and compares "Gender and Mathematics" edited by Leone Burton and Valerie Walkerdine's book "Schoolgirl Fictions" on proposed truths related to gender issues in mathematics. Issues include (1) attention given to boys and girls in mathematics class; (2) the effects of noncompetitive classroom environments; and (3) sex differences in…

  14. Gender Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…

  15. Gender Imputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In late 2007, the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC) expanded its Enrollment Reporting service to include several additional data elements (commonly referred to as the "A2" or "expanded" data elements). One of these expanded data elements is student gender. Although gender is potentially important to a number of research…

  16. Parasitism in early life: environmental conditions shape within-brood variation in responses to infection

    PubMed Central

    Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M V; Burthe, Sarah J; Lewis, Sue; Reed, Thomas E; Herborn, Katherine A; Newell, Mark A; Takahashi, Emi A; Daunt, Francis; Cunningham, Emma J A

    2014-01-01

    Parasites play key ecological and evolutionary roles through the costs they impose on their host. In wild populations, the effect of parasitism is likely to vary considerably with environmental conditions, which may affect the availability of resources to hosts for defense. However, the interaction between parasitism and prevailing conditions is rarely quantified. In addition to environmental variation acting on hosts, individuals are likely to vary in their response to parasitism, and the combined effect of both may increase heterogeneity in host responses. Offspring hierarchies, established by parents in response to uncertain rearing conditions, may be an important source of variation between individuals. Here, we use experimental antiparasite treatment across 5 years of variable conditions to test how annual population productivity (a proxy for environmental conditions) and parasitism interact to affect growth and survival of different brood members in juvenile European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis). In control broods, last-hatched chicks had more plastic growth rates, growing faster in more productive years. Older siblings grew at a similar rate in all years. Treatment removed the effect of environment on last-hatched chicks, such that all siblings in treated broods grew at a similar rate across environmental conditions. There were no differences in nematode burden between years or siblings, suggesting that variation in responses arose from intrinsic differences between chicks. Whole-brood growth rate was not affected by treatment, indicating that within-brood differences were driven by a change in resource allocation between siblings rather than a change in overall parental provisioning. We show that gastrointestinal parasites can be a key component of offspring's developmental environment. Our results also demonstrate the value of considering prevailing conditions for our understanding of parasite effects on host life-history traits. Establishing how

  17. Tests of landscape influence: Nest predation and brood parasitism in fragmented ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewksbury, J.J.; Garner, L.; Garner, S.; Lloyd, J.D.; Saab, V.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of landscape fragmentation on nest predation and brood parasitism, the two primary causes of avian reproductive failure, have been difficult to generalize across landscapes, yet few studies have clearly considered the context and spatial scale of fragmentation. Working in two river systems fragmented by agricultural and rural-housing development, we tracked nesting success and brood parasitism in >2500 bird nests in 38 patches of deciduous riparian woodland. Patches on both river systems were embedded in one of two local contexts (buffered from agriculture by coniferous forest, or adjacent to agriculture), but the abundance of agriculture and human habitation within 1 km of each patch was highly variable. We examined evidence for three models of landscape effects on nest predation based on (1) the relative importance of generalist agricultural nest predators, (2) predators associated with the natural habitats typically removed by agricultural development, or (3) an additive combination of these two predator communities. We found strong support for an additive predation model in which landscape features affect nest predation differently at different spatial scales. Riparian habitat with forest buffers had higher nest predation rates than sites adjacent to agriculture, but nest predation also increased with increasing agriculture in the larger landscape surrounding each site. These results suggest that predators living in remnant woodland buffers, as well as generalist nest predators associated with agriculture, affect nest predation rates, but they appear to respond at different spatial scales. Brood parasitism, in contrast, was unrelated to agricultural abundance on the landscape, but showed a strong nonlinear relationship with farm and house density, indicating a critical point at which increased human habitat causes increased brood parasitism. Accurate predictions regarding landscape effects on nest predation and brood parasitism will require an

  18. Tests of landscape influence: nest predation and brood parasitism in fragmented ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tewksbury, Joshua J; Garner, Lindy; Garner, Shannon; Lloyd, John D; Saab, Victoria; Martin, Thomas E

    2006-03-01

    The effects of landscape fragmentation on nest predation and brood parasitism, the two primary causes of avian reproductive failure, have been difficult to generalize across landscapes, yet few studies have clearly considered the context and spatial scale of fragmentation. Working in two river systems fragmented by agricultural and rural-housing development, we tracked nesting success and brood parasitism in > 2500 bird nests in 38 patches of deciduous riparian woodland. Patches on both river systems were embedded in one of two local contexts (buffered from agriculture by coniferous forest, or adjacent to agriculture), but the abundance of agriculture and human habitation within 1 km of each patch was highly variable. We examined evidence for three models of landscape effects on nest predation based on (1) the relative importance of generalist agricultural nest predators, (2) predators associated with the natural habitats typically removed by agricultural development, or (3) an additive combination of these two predator communities. We found strong support for an additive predation model in which landscape features affect nest predation differently at different spatial scales. Riparian habitat with forest buffers had higher nest predation rates than sites adjacent to agriculture, but nest predation also increased with increasing agriculture in the larger landscape surrounding each site. These results suggest that predators living in remnant woodland buffers, as well as generalist nest predators associated with agriculture, affect nest predation rates, but they appear to respond at different spatial scales. Brood parasitism, in contrast, was unrelated to agricultural abundance on the landscape, but showed a strong nonlinear relationship with farm and house density, indicating a critical point at which increased human habitat causes increased brood parasitism. Accurate predictions regarding landscape effects on nest predation and brood parasitism will require an

  19. Gender equity.

    PubMed

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender equity. Gender equity is difficult to achieve when there is no economic, social, or political equity. The Gender Development Index evidenced this. There were a lot of instances where women are psychologically traumatized, whether it is through domestic rape, purchased sexual services in the red light area, and seduction or violation of neighbors, relatives, daughter or child. The economic changes linked with globalization and media's influence have worsened women's position. The policy for empowerment of women is an attempt toward ensuring equity. Furthermore, many women and women's organizations are trying to address these inequities; wherein they fight for strong acceptance of women's rights, social, economic, and political rights, as well as equities between gender and within gender.

  20. Comparative study of the hygienic behavior of Carniolan and Africanized honey bees directed towards grouped versus isolated dead brood cells.

    PubMed

    Gramacho, K P; Gonçalves, L S

    2009-06-30

    In Apis mellifera, hygienic behavior involves recognition and removal of sick, damaged or dead brood from capped cells. We investigated whether bees react in the same way to grouped versus isolated damaged capped brood cells. Three colonies of wild-type Africanized honey bees and three colonies of Carniolan honey bees were used for this investigation. Capped worker brood cells aged 12 to 14 days old were perforated with the pin-killing method. After making holes in the brood cells, the combs were placed back into the hives; 24 h later the number of cleaned cells was recorded in areas with pin-killed and control brood cells. Four repetitions were made in each colony. Isolated cells were more frequently cleaned than grouped cells, though variance analysis showed no significant difference (P = 0.1421). Carniolan bees also were somewhat, though not significantly more hygienic than Africanized honey bees (P = 0.0840). We conclude that honey bees can detect and remove both isolated and grouped dead brood. The tendency towards greater hygienic efficiency directed towards grouped pin-killed brood may be a consequence of a greater concentration of volatiles emanating from the wounds in the dead pupae.

  1. Caps and gaps: a computer model for studies on brood incubation strategies in honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehler, Manuel; Kleinhenz, Marco; Klügl, Franziska; Puppe, Frank; Tautz, Jürgen

    2007-08-01

    In addition to heat production on the comb surface, honeybee workers frequently visit open cells (“gaps”) that are scattered throughout the sealed brood area, and enter them to incubate adjacent brood cells. We examined the efficiency of this heating strategy under different environmental conditions and for gap proportions from 0 to 50%. For gap proportions from 4 to 10%, which are common to healthy colonies, we find a significant reduction in the incubation time per brood cell to maintain the correct temperature. The savings make up 18 to 37% of the time, which would be required for this task in completely sealed brood areas without any gaps. For unnatural high proportions of gaps (>20%), which may be the result of inbreeding or indicate a poor condition of the colony, brood nest thermoregulation becomes less efficient, and the incubation time per brood cell has to increase to maintain breeding temperature. Although the presence of gaps is not essential to maintain an optimal brood nest temperature, a small number of gaps make heating more economical by reducing the time and energy that must be spent on this vital task. As the benefit depends on the availability, spatial distribution and usage of gaps by the bees, further studies need to show the extent to which these results apply to real colonies.

  2. High frequency of multiple paternity in broods of a socially monogamous cichlid fish with biparental nest defence.

    PubMed

    Sefc, Kristina M; Mattersdorfer, Karin; Sturmbauer, Christian; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2008-05-01

    In several animal taxa, genetic analyses have demonstrated that social monogamy and biparental brood care do not preclude polygamous reproduction. Few studies have been conducted in fish, but in fish species without alternative reproductive phenotypes, social monogamy was largely congruent with genetic parentage. In contrast to these findings, we report an exceptionally high level of multiple paternity in a socially monogamous cichlid fish with biparental nest defence (Variabilichromis moorii), inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial data of 10 broods. Whereas all offspring in a nest shared a common mother, each brood was sired by 2 to > 10 males. None of the inferred sires was assigned a large proportion of the brood. Paternity was estimated as the minimum number of sires required to explain multilocus offspring genotypes, and as the maximum-likelihood number of sires given population allele frequencies. Analysis of simulated brood genotypes suggested that, although these two methods tend to under- and overestimate, respectively, the true number of sires, primary sires with many offspring in a brood would have been detected. Hence, the genetic data indicate that the nest tending males suffer substantial cuckoldry and provide alloparental care for a large number of unrelated fry. We have no data on the social status of the cuckolding males, but due to synchronous spawning of pairs and commitment to brood care of paired males, it is possible that most of the parasitic spawners are solitary males.

  3. Brood stock immunization: does maternal transfer of specific antibodies protect rainbow trout alevins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination of young fish may be a possible means of reducing the occurrence of disease. However, mortality due to disease can occur at a life stage when vaccination is not possible either because the animal is not fully immunocompetent or an efficient delivery method of the vaccine is unavailable. ...

  4. The role of gender in coronary surgery.

    PubMed

    Blasberg, Justin D; Schwartz, Gary S; Balaram, Sandhya K

    2011-09-01

    Gender-based outcome data in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery has been the focus of extensive research over the last two decades. Increased awareness in gender-specific health and advancements in scientific research have produced evidence that risk profiles vary between genders and alter operative mortality after CABG. Some of these data remain controversial, emphasizing the complexity of gender as an independent variable and questioning processes of care that are intimately associated with outcome. Although patient gender cannot be changed, understanding gender-specific risks and modifying surgical practice may be helpful in improving patient outcomes.

  5. Reflections on Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Adult Basic Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    This article is about mainstreaming gender equality in adult basic learning and education (ABLE). Gender equality is defined as equal rights of both women and men to influence, participate in and benefit from a programme. It is argued that specific gender analyses of emerging patterns of gender relations is helpful in formulating gender equality…

  6. Nightlife Violence: A Gender-Specific View on Risk Factors for Violence in Nightlife Settings--A Cross-Sectional Study in Nine European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A.; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged…

  7. Gender Differential Item Functioning on a National Field-Specific Test: The Case of PhD Entrance Exam of TEFL in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Bazvand, Ali Darabi

    2016-01-01

    Differential Item Functioning (DIF) exists when examinees of equal ability from different groups have different probabilities of successful performance in a certain item. This study examined gender differential item functioning across the PhD Entrance Exam of TEFL (PEET) in Iran, using both logistic regression (LR) and one-parameter item response…

  8. Flow currents and ventilation in Langstroth beehives due to brood thermoregulation efforts of honeybees.

    PubMed

    Sudarsan, Rangarajan; Thompson, Cody; Kevan, Peter G; Eberl, Hermann J

    2012-02-21

    Beekeepers universally agree that ensuring sufficient ventilation is vital for sustaining a thriving, healthy honeybee colony. Despite this fact, surprisingly little is known about the ventilation and flow patterns in bee hives. We take a first step towards developing a model-based approach that uses computational fluid dynamics to simulate natural ventilation flow inside a standard Langstroth beehive. A 3-D model of a Langstroth beehive with one brood chamber and one honey super was constructed and inside it the honeybee colony was distributed among different clusters each occupying the different bee-spaces between frames in the brood chamber. For the purpose of modeling, each honeybee cluster was treated as an air-saturated porous medium with constant porosity. Heat and mass transfer interactions of the honeybees with the air, the outcome of metabolism, were captured in the porous medium model as source and sink terms appearing in the governing equations of fluid dynamics. The temperature of the brood that results from the thermoregulation efforts of the colony is applied as a boundary condition for the governing equations. The governing equations for heat, mass transport and fluid flow were solved using Fluent(©), a commercially available CFD program. The results from the simulations indicate that (a) both heat and mass transfer resulting from honeybee metabolism play a vital role in determining the structure of the flow inside the beehive and mass transfer cannot be neglected, (b) at low ambient temperatures, the nonuniform temperature profile on comb surfaces that results from brood incubation enhances flow through the honeybee cluster which removes much of the carbon-dioxide produced by the cluster resulting in lower carbon-dioxide concentration next to the brood, (c) increasing ambient (outside) air temperature causes ventilation flow rate to drop resulting in weaker flow inside the beehive. Flow visualization indicates that at low ambient air temperatures

  9. Gender differences in depression.

    PubMed

    Sagud, M; Hotujac, Lj; Mihaljević-Peles, A; Jakovljević, M

    2002-06-01

    Depression is twice as common in women as in men, although some concern has been raised in terms of misdiagnosing depression in men. The incidence of depression in women varies during the life span. The peak incidence during childbearing years appears to be associated with cyclic hormonal changes. Women also present with reproductive -specific mood disorders: pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), depression in pregnancy, postpartal mood disorder (PDD) and perimenopausal depressive disorder. Gender differences were repeatedly observed in response to antidepressant medication. Premenopausal women appear to respond poorly and to show low tolerability to TCAs, but they tend to show greater responsiveness to the SSRIs. In contrast, men and postmenopausal women can respond equally to the TCAs and SSRIs. These differences are contributed to gender differences in pharmacokinetics of antidepressants and to the influence of menstrual cycle. These findings suggest the need for a gender-specific approach to the evaluation and management of depression.

  10. Gender dysphoria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatry Committee on Quality Issues. Practice parameter on gay, lesbian, or bisexual sexual orientation, gender nonconformity, and ... update 08/15/2016. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  11. Gender, Education, Extremism and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the complex relationships between gender, education, extremism and security. After defining extremism and fundamentalism, it looks first at the relationship of gender to violence generally, before looking specifically at how this plays out in more extremist violence and terrorism. Religious fundamentalism is also shown to have…

  12. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of acute myocardial infarction: a cohort study quantifying age- and gender-specific differences in relative and absolute terms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status has a profound effect on the risk of having a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Information on socioeconomic inequalities in AMI incidence across age- gender-groups is lacking. Our objective was to examine socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of AMI considering both relative and absolute measures of risk differences, with a particular focus on age and gender. Methods We identified all patients with a first AMI from 1997 to 2007 through linked hospital discharge and death records covering the Dutch population. Relative risks (RR) of AMI incidence were estimated by mean equivalent household income at neighbourhood-level for strata of age and gender using Poisson regression models. Socioeconomic inequalities were also shown within the stratified age-gender groups by calculating the total number of events attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Results Between 1997 and 2007, 317,564 people had a first AMI. When comparing the most deprived socioeconomic quintile with the most affluent quintile, the overall RR for AMI was 1.34 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.32 – 1.36) in men and 1.44 (95 % CI: 1.42 – 1.47) in women. The socioeconomic gradient decreased with age. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were most apparent in men under 35 years and in women under 65 years. The largest number of events attributable to socioeconomic inequalities was found in men aged 45–74 years and in women aged 65–84 years. The total proportion of AMIs that was attributable to socioeconomic inequalities in the Dutch population of 1997 to 2007 was 14 % in men and 18 % in women. Conclusions Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities were observed in AMI incidence in the Netherlands, but the magnitude across age-gender groups depended on whether inequality was expressed in relative or absolute terms. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were high in young persons and women, where the absolute burden of AMI was low. Absolute

  13. The relationship between hatching rate and number of embryos of the brood pouch in Littorina saxatilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde-Padín, P.; Carballo, M.; Caballero, A.; Rolán-Alvarez, E.

    2008-10-01

    Littorina saxatilis is an ovoviviparous organism in which shelled embryos can be directly observed in nearly all mature females captured in the wild. This characteristic has been used a number of times as an indirect estimate for fecundity of natural populations. However, there is no experimental corroboration that the number of embryos within a female brood pouch is actually related to the rate of hatching per unit of time, a more realistic estimate of female fecundity. In order to make this corroboration we estimated the correlation between the number of embryos in the brood pouch and the hatching rate of isolated females grown in the laboratory. We also compared the hatching rates of females from two sympatric ecotypes (RB and SU) of this species, which differ significantly in the number of embryos. We found a high agreement between hatching rate and number of embryos, concluding that the latter is a good proxy for fecundity.

  14. Brooding, Reflection, and Distraction: Relation to Non-Suicidal Self-Injury versus Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Jurska, Justyna; Quiñones, Victoria; Miranda, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between cognitive response styles (i.e., brooding, reflection, distraction) and cognitive inflexibility in differentially predicting history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) only, suicide attempt (SA) only, or both (NSSI + SA). College students (N = 352) completed self-report measures of rumination, distraction, and self-harm history, a diagnostic interview, and a computerized task measuring cognitive flexibility. Brooding uniquely predicted SA-only history, while reflection uniquely predicted history of NSSI-only and NSSI + SA. Distraction was associated with lower odds of NSSI-only and NSSI + SA. Cognitive inflexibility was not significantly associated with self-harm history. Cognitive vulnerabilities may help identify individuals who are at risk for self-harm and may differentiate between NSSI and SA.

  15. Brooding, reflection, and distraction: Relation to non-suicidal self-injury versus suicide attempts

    PubMed Central

    Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Jurska, Justyna; Quiñones, Victoria; Miranda, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined the relation between cognitive response styles (i.e., brooding, reflection, distraction) and cognitive inflexibility in differentially predicting history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) only, suicide attempt (SA) only, or both (NSSI+SA). Methods College students (N = 352) completed self-report measures of rumination, distraction, and self-harm history, a diagnostic interview, and a computerized task measuring cognitive flexibility. Results Brooding uniquely predicted SA-only history, while reflection uniquely predicted history of NSSI-only and NSSI+SA. Distraction was associated with lower odds of NSSI-only and NSSI+SA. Cognitive inflexibility was not significantly associated with self-harm history. Conclusion Cognitive vulnerabilities may help identify individuals who are at risk for self-harm and may differentiate between NSSI and SA. PMID:25517765

  16. Parents, Gender, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Miriam E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses social justice in education, specifically gender issues. Explores how rightist governments in advanced industrialized societies have tried to implement an agenda of parental choice and standards, in contrast to earlier liberal administrations' efforts to reduce differences between families and involve mothers in children's education.…

  17. Manipulating carer number versus brood size: complementary but not equivalent ways of quantifying carer effects on offspring

    PubMed Central

    Browning, L.E.; Russell, A.F.

    2016-01-01

    Experiments designed to quantify the effects of increasing numbers of carers on levels of offspring care are rare in cooperative breeding systems, where offspring are reared by individuals additional to the breeding pair. This paucity might stem from disagreement over the most appropriate manipulations necessary to elucidate these effects. Here, we perform both carer removal and brood enhancement experiments to test the effects of numbers of carers and carer:offspring ratios on provisioning rates in the cooperatively breeding chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps). Removing carers caused linear reductions in overall brood provisioning rates. Further analyses failed to provide evidence that this effect was influenced by territory quality or disruption of group dynamics stemming from the removals. Likewise, adding nestlings to broods caused linear increases in brood provisioning rates, suggesting carers are responsive to increasing offspring demand. However, the 2 experiments did not generate quantitatively equivalent results: Each nestling received more food following brood size manipulation than carer removal, despite comparable carer:offspring ratios in each. Following an at-hatching split-design cross-fostering manipulation to break any links between prehatching maternal effects and posthatching begging patterns, we found that begging intensity increased in larger broods after controlling for metrics of hunger. These findings suggest that manipulation of brood size can, in itself, influence nestling provisioning rates when begging intensity is affected by scramble competition. We highlight that carer number and brood size manipulations are complimentary but not equivalent; adopting both can yield greater overall insight into carer effects in cooperative breeding systems. PMID:27418754

  18. Effects of an insect growth regulator and a solvent on honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) brood development and queen viability.

    PubMed

    Milchreit, Kathrin; Ruhnke, Haike; Wegener, Jakob; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2016-04-01

    Honeybee toxicology is complex because effects on individual bees are modulated by social interactions between colony members. In the present study, we applied high doses of the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb to honeybee colonies to elucidate a possible interplay of individually- and colony-mediated effects regarding honey bee toxicology. Additionally, possible effects of the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were assessed. We conducted studies on egg hatching and brood development to assess brood care by nurse bees as well as queen viability. Egg hatching was determined by the eclosion rate of larvae from eggs originating from colonies (i) treated with sugar syrup only, (ii) treated with sugar syrup containing DMSO and (iii) treated with sugar syrup containing fenoxycarb (dissolved in DMSO). To evaluate brood development, combs with freshly laid eggs were reciprocally transferred between colonies, and development of brood was examined in the recipient hive. Brood reared inside DMSO- and fenoxycarb-treated colonies as well as brood from DMSO- and from fenoxycarb-exposed queens showed higher mortality than brood not exposed to the chemicals. No differences were found in egg hatching among the treatments, but there was a higher variability of eclosion rates after queens were exposed to fenoxycarb. We also observed queen loss and absconding of whole colonies. Based on our results we infer that fenoxycarb has queen- as well as nurse bee-mediated effects on brood quality and development which can lead to the queen's death. There also is an effect of DMSO on the nurse bees' performance that could disturb the colony's equilibrium, at least for a delimited timespan.

  19. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    PubMed

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  20. The internal-brooding apparatus in the bryozoan genus Cauloramphus (Cheilostomata: Calloporidae) and its inferred homology to ovicells.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Dick, Matthew H; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2007-12-01

    We studied by SEM the external morphology of the ooecium in eight bryozoans of the genus Cauloramphus (Cheilostomata, Calloporidae): C. spinifer, C. variegatus, C. magnus, C. multiavicularia, C. tortilis, C. cryptoarmatus, C. niger, and C. multispinosus, and by sectioning and light microscopy the anatomy of the brooding apparatus of C. spinifer, C. cryptoarmatus, and C. niger. These species all have a brood sac, formed by invagination of the non-calcified distal body wall of the maternal zooid, located in the distal half of the maternal (egg-producing) autozooid, and a vestigial, maternally budded kenozooidal ooecium. The brood sac comprises a main chamber and a long passage (neck) opening externally independently of the introvert. The non-calcified portion of the maternal distal wall between the neck and tip of the zooidal operculum is involved in closing and opening the brood sac, and contains both musculature and a reduced sclerite that suggest homology with the ooecial vesicle of a hyperstomial ovicell. We interpret the brooding apparatus in Cauloramphus as a highly modified form of cheilostome hyperstomial ovicell, as both types share 1) a brood chamber bounded by 2) the ooecium and 3) a component of the distal wall of the maternal zooid. We discuss Cauloramphus as a hypothetical penultimate stage in ovicell reduction in calloporid bryozoans. We suggest that the internal-brooding genus Gontarella, of uncertain taxonomic affinities, is actually a calloporid and represents the ultimate stage in which no trace of the ooecium remains. Internal brooding apparently evolved several times independently within the Calloporidae.

  1. Revision of the Palaearctic brood parasitic genus Nipponodipogon Ishikawa, 1965 of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae: Pepsinae).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Akira; Lelej, Arkady S; Loktionov, Valery M

    2015-04-22

    The systematics and bionomics of the Palaearctic brood parasitic genus Nipponodipogon Ishikawa, 1965 are revised. Seven species are listed. A new species N. sudai Shimizu, sp. nov. (Japan, Honshu) and the hitherto unknown males of N. iwatai (Ishikawa, 1965) and N. nagasei (Ishikawa, 1965) are described and illustrated. Six species from Japan and the Russian Far East are redescribed. A key to species is provided.

  2. Genetic evidence of extra-pair paternity and intraspecific brood parasitism in the monk parakeet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is a widespread invasive species native to southern South America that has become established in many regions of the world. Monk parakeets breed in a large, fully enclosed structure built from twigs, which consist of one to many individual brooding chambers. The species has been considered to be socially and genetically monogamous. However, genetic relatedness of adults to juveniles in the native area was found to be lower than expected for monogamy. To assess the significance of this discrepancy, we examined individual and population genetic patterns of microsatellite loci at two sites in Córdoba province, Argentina. Results We sampled 154 nestlings and 42 adults in Córdoba, Argentina. Mean value of pairwise relatedness of nestlings within chambers was about 0.40. Contrarily, relatedness of nestlings between chambers was close to zero. We found a considerable degree of variation in nestling pairwise relatedness and parentage within chambers, including chambers with combinations of unrelated, half-sib, and full-sib nestlings. The proportion of sibling relatedness indicated monogamy in 47% and extra pair-paternity in 40% of the chambers. We also found intra-brood parasitism in 3% of the chambers. Conclusions Our results indicate that the monk parakeet is sexually polygamous in its native range in Argentina, which is consistent with the observed mean value of relatedness of adults to juveniles of about 0.4. We also confirm the existence of intra-brood parasitism. High density of monk parakeets may favor occurrence of extra-pair paternity and intra-brood parasitism in the native sites. PMID:24209709

  3. Parental attendance and brood success in American Oystercatchers in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thibault, Janet M.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2010-01-01

    Research on breeding American Oystercatchers has focused on identifying factors that affect reproductive success but little attention has been paid to parent behavior during chick-rearing. Parental attendance of American Oystercatchers was measured in Bulls Bay and along the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Waterway) within the Cape Romain Region, South Carolina, USA, during 2006. Parental attendance rates averaged 90.9% in Bulls Bay and 81.4% along the Waterway. Daily survival of chicks was higher in Bulls Bay (0.989 ± 0.007) compared to the Waterway (0.966 ± 0.012). The extent of shellfish reefs (i.e. foraging areas) adjacent to nest sites was greater in Bulls Bay (5,633 ± 658 m2) compared to the Waterway (3,273 ± 850 m2). Mean parental attendance in Bulls Bay was higher for successful broods (90.5%) compared to failed broods (79.8%). In contrast, mean parental attendance along the Waterway was higher for failed broods (93.4%) compared to successful broods (67.5%). Less extensive shellfish reefs adjacent to nest sites along the Waterway appeared to require parents to depart more frequently to forage and the resultant reduction in attendance may have negatively affected chick survival. Bulls Bay may provide higher quality nesting habitat compared to the Waterway with respect to proximity to food resources and parental attendance. Management and conservation efforts for American Oystercatchers should consider the relationship between foraging and nesting habitat and variability in behavioral attributes, such as parental attendance, in relationship to environmental conditions which ultimately affect reproductive success.

  4. [CERAD-NP battery: Age-, gender- and education-specific reference values for selected subtests. Results of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe)].

    PubMed

    Luck, T; Riedel-Heller, S G; Wiese, B; Stein, J; Weyerer, S; Werle, J; Kaduszkiewicz, H; Wagner, M; Mösch, E; Zimmermann, T; Maier, W; Bickel, H; van den Bussche, H; Jessen, F; Fuchs, A; Pentzek, M

    2009-10-01

    The CERAD-NP battery represents well-established tests for the neuropsychological diagnosis of characteristic cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's dementia. However, the use of neuropsychological tests requires reliable standard values for the population under consideration, taking sociodemographic characteristics like age, education and gender into account. This report presents age-, education- and gender-specific reference values for the subtests verbal fluency, word list memory, word list recall and word list recognition as well as the word list savings score of the CERAD-NP battery. The study sample consists of 2891 general practitioners' patients from Germany aged 75 years and older. The study participants had a mean age of 80.2 years (SD=3.6); thus, this report provides reliable reference values for the neuropsychological diagnosis of dementia in older age groups.

  5. Effects of brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds may persist in the post fledging period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Sean M.; Streby, Henry M.; Andersen, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) typically decreases the number of host juveniles that fledge: however, little information exists regarding the effect of cowbird parasitism during the post-fledging period. We monitored 115 Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) nests in 2006–2008 in northcentral Minnesota, six of which were parasitized. We used radiotelemetry to monitor movements of 36 Ovenbird fledglings (nine additional fledglings depredated <24 hrs after fledging were excluded from the movement analysis) from non-parasitized nests and one fledgling from a parasitized nest. Clutch sizes and productivity were lower in parasitized Ovenbird nests than non-parasitized nests, similar to populations at other locations. The fledgling we tracked from a parasitized nest (in 2008) died after 26 days. It was the only fledgling in our study that died (n  =  20) with no sign of predation and an empty stomach. That fledgling took 12 days to travel >50 m from its nest and 25 days to travel >100 m from its nest. Fledglings from non-parasitized broods tracked for ≥25 days during 2008 (n  =  16) took 4.1 ± 0.71 and 9.5 ± 1.14 days to travel the same distances. Our observations suggest that negative effects of brood parasitism may persist into the post-fledging period, possibly confirming observations of cowbird-only survival compiled from the literature.

  6. Evidence for aggressive mimicry in an adult brood parasitic bird, and generalized defences in its host.

    PubMed

    Feeney, W E; Troscianko, J; Langmore, N E; Spottiswoode, C N

    2015-07-07

    Mimicry of a harmless model (aggressive mimicry) is used by egg, chick and fledgling brood parasites that resemble the host's own eggs, chicks and fledglings. However, aggressive mimicry may also evolve in adult brood parasites, to avoid attack from hosts and/or manipulate their perception of parasitism risk. We tested the hypothesis that female cuckoo finches (Anomalospiza imberbis) are aggressive mimics of female Euplectes weavers, such as the harmless, abundant and sympatric southern red bishop (Euplectes orix). We show that female cuckoo finch plumage colour and pattern more closely resembled those of Euplectes weavers (putative models) than Vidua finches (closest relatives); that their tawny-flanked prinia (Prinia subflava) hosts were equally aggressive towards female cuckoo finches and southern red bishops, and more aggressive to both than to their male counterparts; and that prinias were equally likely to reject an egg after seeing a female cuckoo finch or bishop, and more likely to do so than after seeing a male bishop near their nest. This is, to our knowledge, the first quantitative evidence for aggressive mimicry in an adult bird, and suggests that host-parasite coevolution can select for aggressive mimicry by avian brood parasites, and counter-defences by hosts, at all stages of the reproductive cycle.

  7. Rumination in migraine: Mediating effects of brooding and reflection between migraine and psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    Kokonyei, Gyongyi; Szabo, Edina; Kocsel, Natalia; Edes, Andrea; Eszlari, Nora; Pap, Dorottya; Magyar, Mate; Kovacs, David; Zsombok, Terezia; Elliott, Rebecca; Anderson, Ian Muir; William Deakin, John Francis; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between migraine and psychological distress has been consistently reported in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. We hypothesised that a stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as rumination would mediate the relationship between migraine and psychological distress. Design and Main Outcomes Measures: Self-report questionnaires measuring depressive rumination, current psychological distress and migraine symptoms in two independent European population cohorts, recruited from Budapest (N = 1139) and Manchester (N = 2004), were used. Structural regression analysis within structural equation modelling was applied to test the mediational role of brooding and reflection, the components of rumination, between migraine and psychological distress. Sex, age and lifetime depression were controlled for in the analysis. Results: Migraine predicted higher brooding and reflection scores, and brooding proved to be a mediator between migraine and psychological distress in both samples, while reflection mediated the relationship significantly only in the Budapest sample. Conclusions: Elevated psychological distress in migraine is partially attributed to ruminative response style. Further studies are needed to expand our findings to clinical samples and to examine how rumination links to the adjustment to migraine. PMID:27616579

  8. Evidence for aggressive mimicry in an adult brood parasitic bird, and generalized defences in its host

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, W. E.; Troscianko, J.; Langmore, N. E.; Spottiswoode, C. N.

    2015-01-01

    Mimicry of a harmless model (aggressive mimicry) is used by egg, chick and fledgling brood parasites that resemble the host's own eggs, chicks and fledglings. However, aggressive mimicry may also evolve in adult brood parasites, to avoid attack from hosts and/or manipulate their perception of parasitism risk. We tested the hypothesis that female cuckoo finches (Anomalospiza imberbis) are aggressive mimics of female Euplectes weavers, such as the harmless, abundant and sympatric southern red bishop (Euplectes orix). We show that female cuckoo finch plumage colour and pattern more closely resembled those of Euplectes weavers (putative models) than Vidua finches (closest relatives); that their tawny-flanked prinia (Prinia subflava) hosts were equally aggressive towards female cuckoo finches and southern red bishops, and more aggressive to both than to their male counterparts; and that prinias were equally likely to reject an egg after seeing a female cuckoo finch or bishop, and more likely to do so than after seeing a male bishop near their nest. This is, to our knowledge, the first quantitative evidence for aggressive mimicry in an adult bird, and suggests that host–parasite coevolution can select for aggressive mimicry by avian brood parasites, and counter-defences by hosts, at all stages of the reproductive cycle. PMID:26063850

  9. The costs of avian brood parasitism explain variation in egg rejection behaviour in hosts.

    PubMed

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E

    2015-07-01

    Many bird species can reject foreign eggs from their nests. This behaviour is thought to have evolved in response to brood parasites, birds that lay their eggs in the nest of other species. However, not all hosts of brood parasites evict parasitic eggs. In this study, we collate data from egg rejection experiments on 198 species, and perform comparative analyses to understand the conditions under which egg rejection evolves. We found evidence, we believe for the first time in a large-scale comparative analysis, that (i) non-current host species have rejection rates as high as current hosts, (ii) egg rejection is more likely to evolve when the parasite is relatively large compared with its host and (iii) egg rejection is more likely to evolve when the parasite chick evicts all the host eggs from the nest, such as in cuckoos. Our results suggest that the interactions between brood parasites and their hosts have driven the evolution of egg rejection and that variation in the costs inflicted by parasites is fundamental to explaining why only some host species evolve egg rejection.

  10. Nestling cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, exploit hosts with begging calls that mimic a brood

    PubMed Central

    Davies, N. B.; Kilner, R. M.; Noble, D. G.

    1998-01-01

    Nestling cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, eject host eggs or young from the nest and are then raised alone by the hosts. Using reed warblers, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, as hosts, we investigated how the single cuckoo chick can command the same provisioning rate as a whole brood of host young. Large size alone is not sufficient to stimulate adequate provisioning because single blackbird, Turdus merula, or song thrush, T. philomelos, chicks of the same mass as a cuckoo were fed at a lower rate. Our experiments show that the key stimulus is the cuckoo chick's rapid begging call ('si, si, si, si ...'), which sounds remarkably like a whole brood of host chicks, and which it matched in calling rate. When single blackbird or song thrush chicks were accompanied by loudspeakers that broadcast either cuckoo begging calls or calls of a brood of reed warblers, the hosts increased their provisioning rate to that for a cuckoo chick. We suggest that the cuckoo needs vocal trickery to stimulate adequate care to compensate for the fact that it presents a visual stimulus of just one gape.

  11. Heightened exposure to parasites favors the evolution of immunity in brood parasitic cowbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, Caldwell; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Immunologists and evolutionary biologists are interested in how the immune system evolves to fit an ecological niche. We studied the relationship between exposure to parasites and strength of immunity by investigating the response of two species of New World cowbirds (genus Molothrus, Icteridae), obligate brood parasites with contrasting life history strategies, to experimental arboviral infection. The South American shiny cowbird (M. bonariensis) is an extreme host-generalist that lays its eggs in the nests of >225 different avian species. The Central American bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus) is a relative host-specialist that lays its eggs preferentially in the nests of approximately 12 orioles in a single sister genus. West Nile virus provided a strong challenge and delineated immune differences between these species. The extreme host-generalist shiny cowbird, like the North American host-generalist, the brown-headed cowbird, showed significantly lower viremia to three arboviruses than related icterid species that were not brood parasites. The bronzed cowbird showed intermediate viremia. These findings support the interpretation that repeated exposure to a high diversity of parasites favors the evolution of enhanced immunity in brood parasitic cowbirds and makes them useful models for future studies of innate immunity.

  12. The Antarctic holothurian genus Echinopsolus Gutt, 1990 (Dendrochirotida, Cucumariidae): brood pouches, spermatozoa, spermatozeugmata and taxonomic implications.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Jens Michael; Heß, Martin

    2014-07-29

    An examination of seven Antarctic brooding cucumariid and psolid holothurian species revealed a variety of characters all of them have in common: (1) All are gonochoric. (2) A genital papilla is present on the oral disc (permanent and digitiform in males). (3) Females brood their offspring in five anterior interradial brood pouches that are situated at the transition of body to introvert. (4) Multiple spermatozoa are always bundled to bunch-like spermato-zeugmata. (5) The spermatozoa have a fusiform head and a hollow cylinder-like mid-piece encircling the anterior end of the flagellum. This combination of characters so far is unique, and indicates a close relationship based on common origin. As a consequence, we unite all species sharing this set of synapomorphies in the genus Echinopsolus Gutt, 1990. The herewith included species are: E. acanthocola Gutt, 1990, E. acutus (Massin, 1992) comb. nov., E. charcoti (Vaney, 1906) comb. nov., E. koehleri (Vaney, 1914) comb. nov., E. mollis (Ludwig & Heding, 1935) comb. nov., E. parvipes Massin, 1992 and E. splendidus (Gutt, 1990) comb. nov.. Because the current assignment of Echinopsolus to the family Psolidae can not be retained, the genus is tranferred to the family Cucumariidae, as relationships to taxa within this family are obvious. The peculiar spermatozoa and spermato-zeugmata of all Echinopsolus species are described using light- and electron-microscopical techniques and the results are evaluated and discussed concerning their taxonomy and phylogeny. 

  13. Avian brood parasitism: information use and variation in egg-rejection behavior.

    PubMed

    Svennungsen, Thomas Owens; Holen, Øistein Haugsten

    2010-05-01

    Hosts of avian brood parasites often vary in their response to parasitized clutches: they may eject one or several eggs, desert the nest, or accept all the eggs. Focusing on hosts exposed to single-egg parasitism by an evicting brood parasite, we construct an optimality model that includes all these behavioral options and use it to explore variation in rejection behavior. We particularly consider the influence of egg mimicry and external cues (observations of adult parasites near the nest) on optimal choice of rejection behavior. We find that several rejection responses will be present in a host population under a wide range of conditions. Ejection of multiple eggs tends to be adaptive when egg mimicry is fairly accurate, external cues provide reliable information of the risk of parasitism, and the expected success of renesting is low. If the perceived risk of parasitism is high, ejection of one or a few eggs may be the optimal rejection response even in cases in which hosts cannot discriminate between eggs. This may have consequences for the long-term outcome of the coevolutionary chase between hosts and parasites. We propose an alternative evolutionary pathway by which egg ejection may first arise as a defense against brood parasitism.

  14. Risky business: Site selection by Acadian Flycatchers under threat of nest predation and brood parasitism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    HazIer, K.R.; Cooper, R.J.; Twedt, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Habitat quality is determined not only by habitat structure and the availability of resources, but also by competitors, cooperators, predators, and parasites. We hypothesized that, for passerines, minimizing risk from avian nest predators and brood parasites is an important factor in selecting a breeding site. Through the early part of two breeding seasons, we spot-mapped locations of Acadian Flycatchers (Empidonax virescens, territory selectors), Red-bellied Woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus, nest predators) and Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater, brood parasites) in a 56-ha study area within an extensive bottomland hardwood forest. We were thereby able to determine the order of flycatcher territory settlement and nest initiation in relation to risk of predation and parasitism, while accounting for habitat structure. Male settlement was influenced by both habitat structure and risk avoidance. However, risk trom woodpeckers was relatively more important in the first season and risk from cowbirds in the second, evidently due to differences in the relative abundance of predator and brood-parasite in each year. For male flycatchers, settlement choices appear to be flexible in the face of changing 'risk landscapes.' For females, habitat structure was the most important predictor of nest site selection. Even so, there was evidence that females avoided cowbirds. Surprisingly, nest site selection was positively associated with woodpecker abundance in the first season when woodpeckers were present in greater numbers. Possible explanations for this contradictory result are discussed.

  15. Low-Temperature Stress during Capped Brood Stage Increases Pupal Mortality, Misorientation and Adult Mortality in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Xu, Xinjian; Zhu, Xiangjie; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Shujing; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zhou, Bingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are key pollinators, playing a vital role in ecosystem maintenance and stability of crop yields. Recently, reduced honey bee survival has attracted intensive attention. Among all other honey bee stresses, temperature is a fundamental ecological factor that has been shown to affect honey bee survival. Yet, the impact of low temperature stress during capped brood on brood mortality has not been systematically investigated. In addition, little was known about how low temperature exposure during capped brood affects subsequent adult longevity. In this study, capped worker broods at 12 different developmental stages were exposed to 20°C for 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours, followed by incubation at 35°C until emergence. We found that longer durations of low temperature during capped brood led to higher mortality, higher incidences of misorientation inside cells and shorter worker longevity. Capped brood as prepupae and near emergence were more sensitive to low-temperature exposure, while capped larvae and mid-pupal stages showed the highest resistance to low-temperature stress. Our results suggest that prepupae and pupae prior to eclosion are the most sensitive stages to low temperature stress, as they are to other stresses, presumably due to many physiological changes related to metamorphosis happening during these two stages. Understanding how low-temperature stress affects honey bee physiology and longevity can improve honey bee management strategies. PMID:27149383

  16. Response of chicks to two diets of differing energy levels under conditions of brooding with or without supplemental heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.; Kese, A. G.

    1987-12-01

    A 2×2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the performance and certain physiological parameters of 200 day-old chicks fed diets containing either 2600 or 3000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram for a period of 28 days under conditions of brooding with or without supplemental heat in a hot humid tropical area. The results indicated that within each dietary energy level, there was no significant difference in growth rates of chicks brooded with or without supplemental heat, however, the high energy diet significantly (P<0.01) promoted greater weight gains than the low energy diet. Brooding chicks with supplemental heat and with the high energy diet, decreased feed intake and improved feed conversion efficiency. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat consumed significantly (P<0.01) less water than those brooded with heat, irrespective of the dietary energy level. Mortality and blood glucose levels were not affected by the heat and dietary energy treatments. Thyroid weight expressed as percentage of body weight, haemoglobin and hematocrit values were significantly (P<0.01) higher for chicks brooded without supplemental heat. On the other hand, dietary energy levels did not exert any effect on these physiological parameters. No significant heat and dietary energy level interaction effects were noted on all the parameters considered under this trial.

  17. Comparative anatomical study of internal brooding in three anascan bryozoans (Cheilostomata) and its taxonomic and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Grischenko, Andrei V; Taylor, Paul D; Bock, Phil; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2006-06-01

    The anatomical structure of internal sacs for embryonic incubation was studied using SEM and light microscopy in three cheilostome bryozoans-Nematoflustra flagellata (Waters,1904), Gontarella sp., and Biflustra perfragilis MacGillivray, 1881. In all these species the brood sac is located in the distal half of the maternal (egg-producing) autozooid, being a conspicuous invagination of the body wall. It consists of the main chamber and a passage (neck) to the outside that opens independently of the introvert. There are several groups of muscles attached to the thin walls of the brood sac and possibly expanding it during oviposition and larval release. Polypide recycling begins after oviposition in Gontarella sp., and the new polypide bud is formed by the beginning of incubation. Similarly, polypides in brooding zooids degenerate in N. flagellata and, sometimes, in B. perfragilis. In the evolution of brood chambers in the Cheilostomata, such internal sacs for embryonic incubation are considered a final step, being the result of immersion of the brooding cavity into the maternal zooid and reduction of the protecting fold (ooecium). Possible reasons for this transformation are discussed, and the hypothesis of Santagata and Banta (Santagata and Banta1996) that internal brooding evolved prior to incubation in ovicells is rejected.

  18. Simultaneous spawning by female stream goby Rhinogobius sp. and the association with brood cannibalism by nesting males.

    PubMed

    Ito, S; Iwao, H; Sakata, J; Inoue, M; Omori, K; Yanagisawa, Y

    2016-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted by varying the undersurface area of nesting substratum and the number of females in an experimental tank to elucidate the determinants of the mating pattern in the stream goby, Rhinogobius sp. cross-band type. Males with larger nests tended to attract two or more females to their nest in a tank. Moreover, males spawned simultaneously with multiple females and entire brood cannibalism by males was rarely observed under a female-biased sex ratio. When males spawned with a single female with low fecundity, however, entire brood cannibalism occurred at a high frequency, suggesting that a male guarding a nest with fewer eggs consumes the brood. Therefore, spawning behaviour of females that leads to a large egg mass would decrease the risk of entire brood cannibalism. In this species, simultaneous spawning by multiple females in a nest serves as a female counter-measure against entire brood cannibalism. These results suggest that a conflict of interest between the sexes through brood cannibalism is a major determinant of simultaneous spawning.

  19. Adaptive and maladaptive components of rumination? Diagnostic specificity and relation to depressive biases.

    PubMed

    Joormann, Jutta; Dkane, Marco; Gotlib, Ian H

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigated the validity of the two-factor solution of items selected from the Rumination Scale of the Response Style Questionnaire proposed by Treynor, Gonzalez, and Nolen-Hoeksema (2003). In the first part of this study we used samples of currently depressed (MDD), formerly depressed (FD), socially anxious (SP), and healthy control participants to examine whether the brooding and reflective pondering components differentiate participants with an anxiety disorder from participants with depression. In the second part of this study we examined whether these components of rumination were differentially related to cognitive biases in depression. Overall, the MDD group exhibited higher brooding scores than did all other groups; SP and FD groups did not differ from each other but obtained higher brooding scores than did the control participants. Only the MDD and the control groups differed on the reflective pondering factor. Importantly, brooding and reflective pondering were differentially related to cognitive biases. Specifically, the correlation between brooding/reflective pondering and memory bias was not significant when depressive symptoms were partialed out. The correlation between brooding and attentional bias for sad faces, however, remained significant even when current depressive symptoms were taken into account. In sum, our results support the formulation that rumination is composed of an adaptive reflective pondering factor and a maladaptive brooding factor.

  20. Gender equality and violent behavior: how neighborhood gender equality influences the gender gap in violence.

    PubMed

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys' and girls' violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys' rates of violence decrease whereas girls' rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls' violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs.

  1. The prevalence of the honeybee brood pathogens Ascosphaera apis, Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius in Spanish apiaries determined with a new multiplex PCR assay

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Bailón, Encarna; Higes, Mariano; Martínez-Salvador, Amparo; Antúnez, Karina; Botías, Cristina; Meana, Aránzazu; Prieto, Lourdes; Martín-Hernández, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    The microorganisms Ascosphaera apis, Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius are the three most important pathogens that affect honeybee brood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of these pathogens in honeybee colonies and to elucidate their role in the honeybee colony losses in Spain. In order to get it, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to simultaneously amplify the16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene of P. larvae and M. plutonius, and the 5.8S rRNA gene of A. apis. The multiplex PCR assay provides a quick and specific tool that successfully detected the three infectious pathogens (P. larvae, M. plutonius and A. apis) in brood and adult honeybee samples without the need for microbiological culture. This technique was then used to evaluate the prevalence of these pathogens in Spanish honeybee colonies in 2006 and 2007, revealing our results a low prevalence of these pathogens in most of the geographic areas studied. PMID:23919248

  2. Mallard brood movements, wetland use, and duckling survival during and following a prairie drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Pietz, P.J.; Brandt, D.A.; Cox, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry to study mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) brood movements, wetland use, and duckling survival during a major drought (1988-1992) and during the first 2 years of the subsequent wet period (1993-1994) at 4 51-km2 sites in prairie pothole landscapes in eastern North Dakota, USA. About two-thirds of 69 radiomarked mallard broods initiated moves from the nest to water before noon, and all left the nest during daylight. On average, broods used fewer wetlands, but moved greater distances during the dry period than the wet period. Broods of all ages were more likely to make inter-wetland moves during the wet period and probabilities of inter-wetland moves decreased as duckling age increased, especially during the dry period. Brood use of seasonal wetlands nearly doubled from 22% to 43% and use of semi-permanent wetlands declined from 73% to 50% from the dry to the wet period. Eighty-one of 150 radiomarked ducklings died during 1,604 exposure days. We evaluated survival models containing variables related to water conditions, weather, duckling age, and hatch date. Model-averaged risk ratios indicated that, on any given date, radiomarked ducklings were 1.5 (95% CI = 0.8-2.8) times more likely to die when the percentage of seasonal basins containing water (WETSEAS) was ???18% than when WETSEAS was >40%. An interaction between duckling age and occurrence of rain on the current or 2 previous days indicated that rain effects were pronounced when ducklings were 0-7 days old but negligible when they were 8-30 days old. The TMIN (mean daily minimum temperature on the current and 2 previous days) effects generally were consistent between duckling age classes, and the risk of duckling death increased 9.3% for each 1??C decrease in TMIN across both age classes. Overall, the 30-day survival rate of ducklings equipped with radiotransmitters was about 0.23 lower than the survival rate of those without radiotransmitiers. Unmarked ducklings were 7.6 (95% CI = 2

  3. Prosocial behavior and gender.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, María Paz; Kovářík, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in "neutral" baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i) the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context; and (ii) gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies.

  4. Prosocial behavior and gender

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, María Paz; Kovářík, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in “neutral” baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i) the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context; and (ii) gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies. PMID:25926783

  5. Gender Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn

    In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…

  6. Exploring gender-specific trends in underage drinking across adolescent age groups and measures of drinking: is girls' drinking catching up with boys'?

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Schwartz, Jennifer

    2010-08-01

    Underage drinking is among the most serious of public health problems facing adolescents in the United States. Recent concerns have centered on young women, reflected in media reports and arrest statistics on their increasing problematic alcohol use. This study rigorously examined whether girls' alcohol use rose by applying time series methods to both arrest data, Uniform Crime Reports, and self-report data from Monitoring the Future, a nationally representative long-term survey gathered independently of crime control agents. All self-reported drinking behaviors across all age groups show declining or unchanged female rates and no significant change in the gender gap, while the official source displays a steady narrowing gender gap and some increase of female arrest rates for liquor law violations. Results indicate that social control measures applied to underage drinking have shifted to target young women's drinking patterns, but their drinking has not become more widespread/problematic. Girls' increased alcohol use and abuse is a socially constructed problem, rather than the result of normalization of drinking or more strain in girls' lives. Future underage drinking policies and practices that apply legal intervention strategies to less chronic adolescent drinking behaviors will increase the visibility of girls' drinking.

  7. [Gender differences in depression].

    PubMed

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system.

  8. Gender specific associations between types of childhood maltreatment and the onset, escalation and severity of substance use in cocaine dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Scott M; Garcia, Miguel; Sinha, Rajita

    2006-01-01

    We examined associations between types of childhood maltreatment and the onset, escalation, and severity of substance use in cocaine dependent adults. In men (n = 55), emotional abuse was associated with a younger age of first alcohol use and a greater severity of substance abuse. In women (n = 32), sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and overall maltreatment was associated with a younger age of first alcohol use, and emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and overall maltreatment was associated with a greater severity of substance abuse. There was no association between childhood maltreatment and age of nicotine or cocaine use. However, age of first alcohol use predicted age of first cocaine use in both genders. All associations were stronger in women. Findings suggest that early intervention for childhood victims, especially females, may delay or prevent the early onset of alcohol use and reduce the risk for a more severe course of addiction.

  9. Gender-specific early postnatal catch-up growth after intrauterine growth retardation by food restriction in swine with obesity/leptin resistance.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Ovilo, C; Lopez-Bote, C J; Astiz, S; Ayuso, M; Perez-Solana, M L; Sanchez-Sanchez, R; Torres-Rovira, L

    2012-08-01

    The effects of undernutrition during pregnancy on prenatal and postnatal development of the offspring were evaluated in sows with obesity/leptin resistance. Females were fed, from day 35 of pregnancy onwards, a diet fulfilling either 100% (group control, n=10) or 50% of the nutritional requirements (group underfed, n=10). In the control group, maternal body weight increased during pregnancy (P<0.05) while it decreased or remained steady in the underfed group. At days 75 and 100 of gestation, plasma triglycerides were lower but urea levels were higher in restricted than in control sows (P<0.05 for both). Assessment of the offspring indicated that the trunk diameter was always smaller in the restricted group (P<0.01 at day 50, P<0.005 at days 75 and 100 and P<0.0001 at birth) while head measurements were similar through pregnancy, although smaller in the restricted than in the control group at birth (P<0.05). Newborns from restricted sows were also lighter than offspring from control females (P<0.01) and had higher incidence of growth retardation (P<0.01). Afterwards, during lactation, early postnatal growth in restricted piglets was modulated by gender. At weaning, males from restricted sows were still lighter than their control counterparts (P<0.05), while females from control and underfed sows were similar. Thus, the current study indicates a gender-related differential effect in the growth patterns of the piglets, with females from restricted sows evidencing catch-up growth to neutralise prenatal retardation and reaching similar development than control counterparts.

  10. Mutations in DDX3X Are a Common Cause of Unexplained Intellectual Disability with Gender-Specific Effects on Wnt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Snijders Blok, Lot; Madsen, Erik; Juusola, Jane; Gilissen, Christian; Baralle, Diana; Reijnders, Margot R F; Venselaar, Hanka; Helsmoortel, Céline; Cho, Megan T; Hoischen, Alexander; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Koemans, Tom S; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn; Eichler, Evan E; Romano, Corrado; Van Esch, Hilde; Stumpel, Connie; Vreeburg, Maaike; Smeets, Eric; Oberndorff, Karin; van Bon, Bregje W M; Shaw, Marie; Gecz, Jozef; Haan, Eric; Bienek, Melanie; Jensen, Corinna; Loeys, Bart L; Van Dijck, Anke; Innes, A Micheil; Racher, Hilary; Vermeer, Sascha; Di Donato, Nataliya; Rump, Andreas; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Parker, Michael J; Henderson, Alex; Lynch, Sally A; Fryer, Alan; Ross, Alison; Vasudevan, Pradeep; Kini, Usha; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Chandler, Kate; Male, Alison; Dijkstra, Sybe; Schieving, Jolanda; Giltay, Jacques; van Gassen, Koen L I; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke; Tan, Perciliz L; Pediaditakis, Igor; Haas, Stefan A; Retterer, Kyle; Reed, Patrick; Monaghan, Kristin G; Haverfield, Eden; Natowicz, Marvin; Myers, Angela; Kruer, Michael C; Stein, Quinn; Strauss, Kevin A; Brigatti, Karlla W; Keating, Katherine; Burton, Barbara K; Kim, Katherine H; Charrow, Joel; Norman, Jennifer; Foster-Barber, Audrey; Kline, Antonie D; Kimball, Amy; Zackai, Elaine; Harr, Margaret; Fox, Joyce; McLaughlin, Julie; Lindstrom, Kristin; Haude, Katrina M; van Roozendaal, Kees; Brunner, Han; Chung, Wendy K; Kooy, R Frank; Pfundt, Rolph; Kalscheuer, Vera; Mehta, Sarju G; Katsanis, Nicholas; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2015-08-06

    Intellectual disability (ID) affects approximately 1%-3% of humans with a gender bias toward males. Previous studies have identified mutations in more than 100 genes on the X chromosome in males with ID, but there is less evidence for de novo mutations on the X chromosome causing ID in females. In this study we present 35 unique deleterious de novo mutations in DDX3X identified by whole exome sequencing in 38 females with ID and various other features including hypotonia, movement disorders, behavior problems, corpus callosum hypoplasia, and epilepsy. Based on our findings, mutations in DDX3X are one of the more common causes of ID, accounting for 1%-3% of unexplained ID in females. Although no de novo DDX3X mutations were identified in males, we present three families with segregating missense mutations in DDX3X, suggestive of an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern. In these families, all males with the DDX3X variant had ID, whereas carrier females were unaffected. To explore the pathogenic mechanisms accounting for the differences in disease transmission and phenotype between affected females and affected males with DDX3X missense variants, we used canonical Wnt defects in zebrafish as a surrogate measure of DDX3X function in vivo. We demonstrate a consistent loss-of-function effect of all tested de novo mutations on the Wnt pathway, and we further show a differential effect by gender. The differential activity possibly reflects a dose-dependent effect of DDX3X expression in the context of functional mosaic females versus one-copy males, which reflects the complex biological nature of DDX3X mutations.

  11. Mutations in DDX3X Are a Common Cause of Unexplained Intellectual Disability with Gender-Specific Effects on Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Snijders Blok, Lot; Madsen, Erik; Juusola, Jane; Gilissen, Christian; Baralle, Diana; Reijnders, Margot R.F.; Venselaar, Hanka; Helsmoortel, Céline; Cho, Megan T.; Hoischen, Alexander; Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; Koemans, Tom S.; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn; Eichler, Evan E.; Romano, Corrado; Van Esch, Hilde; Stumpel, Connie; Vreeburg, Maaike; Smeets, Eric; Oberndorff, Karin; van Bon, Bregje W.M.; Shaw, Marie; Gecz, Jozef; Haan, Eric; Bienek, Melanie; Jensen, Corinna; Loeys, Bart L.; Van Dijck, Anke; Innes, A. Micheil; Racher, Hilary; Vermeer, Sascha; Di Donato, Nataliya; Rump, Andreas; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Parker, Michael J.; Henderson, Alex; Lynch, Sally A.; Fryer, Alan; Ross, Alison; Vasudevan, Pradeep; Kini, Usha; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Chandler, Kate; Male, Alison; Dijkstra, Sybe; Schieving, Jolanda; Giltay, Jacques; van Gassen, Koen L.I.; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke; Tan, Perciliz L.; Pediaditakis, Igor; Haas, Stefan A.; Retterer, Kyle; Reed, Patrick; Monaghan, Kristin G.; Haverfield, Eden; Natowicz, Marvin; Myers, Angela; Kruer, Michael C.; Stein, Quinn; Strauss, Kevin A.; Brigatti, Karlla W.; Keating, Katherine; Burton, Barbara K.; Kim, Katherine H.; Charrow, Joel; Norman, Jennifer; Foster-Barber, Audrey; Kline, Antonie D.; Kimball, Amy; Zackai, Elaine; Harr, Margaret; Fox, Joyce; McLaughlin, Julie; Lindstrom, Kristin; Haude, Katrina M.; van Roozendaal, Kees; Brunner, Han; Chung, Wendy K.; Kooy, R. Frank; Pfundt, Rolph; Kalscheuer, Vera; Mehta, Sarju G.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) affects approximately 1%–3% of humans with a gender bias toward males. Previous studies have identified mutations in more than 100 genes on the X chromosome in males with ID, but there is less evidence for de novo mutations on the X chromosome causing ID in females. In this study we present 35 unique deleterious de novo mutations in DDX3X identified by whole exome sequencing in 38 females with ID and various other features including hypotonia, movement disorders, behavior problems, corpus callosum hypoplasia, and epilepsy. Based on our findings, mutations in DDX3X are one of the more common causes of ID, accounting for 1%–3% of unexplained ID in females. Although no de novo DDX3X mutations were identified in males, we present three families with segregating missense mutations in DDX3X, suggestive of an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern. In these families, all males with the DDX3X variant had ID, whereas carrier females were unaffected. To explore the pathogenic mechanisms accounting for the differences in disease transmission and phenotype between affected females and affected males with DDX3X missense variants, we used canonical Wnt defects in zebrafish as a surrogate measure of DDX3X function in vivo. We demonstrate a consistent loss-of-function effect of all tested de novo mutations on the Wnt pathway, and we further show a differential effect by gender. The differential activity possibly reflects a dose-dependent effect of DDX3X expression in the context of functional mosaic females versus one-copy males, which reflects the complex biological nature of DDX3X mutations. PMID:26235985

  12. Brood surveys and hunter observations used to predict gobbling activity wild turkeys in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palumbo, Matthew D.; Vilella, Francisco; Strickland, Bronson K.; Wang, Guiming; Godwin, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks utilize data from turkey hunter observations and brood surveys from across the state to manage wild turkey Meleagris gallopavo populations. Since 1995, hunters have collected gobbling and jake observation data, while the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks' personnel and cooperating wildlife managers of several natural resource agencies throughout the state have collected brood survey data. Both sources of data serve to forecast poult recruitment and gobbling activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate if these data can serve as a viable predictor of gobbling activity. We used three mixed models to investigate the relationship between the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior and the total number of poults per hens 2 y prior (model 1), number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting and the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior (model 2), the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting and the total number poults per total hens observed 2 y prior (model 3) using data from 1995 to 2008 among five wild turkey management regions encompassing the state. We incorporated region as a random effect to account for spatial variation. We found the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior correlated with the total number of poults per total hens observed 2 y prior. We also found the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting correlated with the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior. Additionally, we found that the total poults per total hens observed 2 y prior was correlated to the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting. Our results show promise for using indices of gobbling activity, jake observations, and brood surveys to estimate gobbling activity.

  13. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  14. Ecology, Virulence, and Phylogeny of Blastulidium paedophthorum, a Widespread Brood Parasite of Daphnia spp.

    PubMed Central

    James, Timothy Y.; Longworth, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Parasitism is now recognized as a major factor impacting the ecology and evolution of plankton, including Daphnia. Parasites that attack the developing embryos of daphniids, known as brood parasites, were first described in the early 1900s but have received relatively little study. Here, we link previous morphological descriptions of the oomycete brood parasite Blastulidium paedophthorum with information on its phylogenetic placement, ecology, and virulence. Based on the morphology and phylogenetic relationship with other members of the Leptomitales, we show that a brood parasite observed in daphniids in the Midwestern United States is B. paedophthorum. We used morphology, DNA sequences, and laboratory infection experiments to show that B. paedophthorum is a multihost parasite that can be transmitted between species and genera. A field survey of six hosts in 15 lakes revealed that B. paedophthorum is common in all six host taxa (present on 38.3% of our host species-lake-sampling date combinations; the maximum infection prevalences were 8.7% of the population and 20% of the asexual adult female population). Although B. paedophthorum was observed in all 15 lakes, presence and infection prevalence varied among lakes. Infection with B. paedophthorum did not reduce host life span but significantly impacted host fecundity. Theory predicts that parasites that affect host fecundity without affecting host life span should have the strongest impact on host population dynamics. Based on its virulence and commonness in natural populations and on the central role of daphniids in freshwater food webs, we predict that B. paedophthorum will influence daphniid ecology and evolution, as well as the larger food web. PMID:26048938

  15. [Gender mainstreaming and nursing].

    PubMed