Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L
This article summarizes for the practicing endocrinologist the current literature on the psychobiology of the development of gender identity and its variants in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) or with non-DSD transgenderism. Gender reassignment remains the treatment of choice for strong and persistent gender dysphoria in both categories, but more research is needed on the short-term and long-term effects of puberty-suppressing medications and cross-sex hormones on brain and behavior.
This paper aims to contribute to understanding of emergent gender/sexual identities in Thailand. Thailand has become a popular destination for sex change operations by providing the medical technology for a complete transformation, with relatively few procedures and satisfactory results at a reasonable price. Data were gathered from 24 transsexual male-to-female sex workers working in Pattaya and Patpong, well-known sex-tourism hot spots in Thailand. Findings suggest the emergence of new understandings of gender/sexual identity. Sex-tourism/sex work significantly illuminates the process through which gender is contested and re-imagined. The coming together of cultures in Thailand's sex industry, coupled with advances in medical technology, has resulted in the emergence of new concepts of gender.
Levy, Gary D.; Sadovsky, Adrienne L.; Troseth, Georgene L.
Investigated young children's perceived competencies of men and women in gender-typed occupations, perceptions about how much money they earn in gender-typed occupations, and affective reactions regarding growing up to have gender-typed occupations. Children perceived differential competencies of men and women regarding gender-typed occupations…
This article is a first-person account of a father's journey to lovingly accept his young gender-variant son, who began to show traits and preferences more common to girls almost from birth. The dad's efforts to discover constructive parenting strategies for raising his boy are also detailed. Experiences described begin with guilt and awareness of his own difficulty in coming to terms with his son's behavior, progress toward seeking and finding support and guidance, and eventually learning to embrace his son as he is, perhaps with questions about his own liberality and apprehensions about his boy's future.
Henault, Francois; Spang, Alain
We describe a variant of the classical Young's double slit experiment that can be easily realized in any classroom, in order to evidence the wave nature of light. The proposed apparatus and its simplified theory are described and pictures of fringes, readily obtained using only cheap and off-the-shelf optical components, are reproduced. The…
Dalton, Kevin P; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A; Rosell, Joan M; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L; Parra, Francisco
Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen.
Slesaransky-Poe, Graciela; Garcia, Ana Maria
This article reflects our experiences of raising boys with gender-variant behaviors and interests. After a long personal and professional journey, living in a society that views children with gender-variant behavior and interests as aberrations that need to be examined, intervened with, or repackaged, we are moved to redirect our attention as…
Hill, Darryl B; Menvielle, Edgardo; Sica, Kristin M; Johnson, Alisa
This is a report on parents who have children who exhibit gender variant behaviors and who contacted an affirmative program in the United States for assistance. All parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Gender Identity Questionnaire, and the Genderism and Transphobia Scale, as well as telephone interviews. The parents reported comparatively low levels of genderism and transphobia. When compared to children at other gender identity clinics in Canada and The Netherlands, parents rated their children's gender variance as no less extreme, but their children were overall less pathological. Indeed, none of the measures in this study could predict parents' ratings of their child's pathology. These findings support the contention that this affirmative program served children who were no less gender variant than in other programs, but they were overall less distressed.
Eidson, R. Cole; Coley, John D.
We examined young adults' essentialist reasoning about gender categories. Previous developmental results suggest that until age 9 or 10, children show marked essentialist reasoning about gender, but this disappears by early adulthood. In contrast, results from social cognition suggest that essentialist thinking about social categories persists…
Phoenix, Ann; Pattman, Rob; Croghan, Rosaleen; Griffin, Christine
Gender inequalities in schools have implications for life chances, emotional well-being and educational policies and practices, but are apparently resistant to change. This paper employs Judith Butler's conceptualisation of performativity in a study of young people and consumption to provide insights into gendered inequities. It argues that how…
Arnot, Madeleine; Chege, Fatuma N.; Wawire, Violet
This paper contributes to the study of citizenship by interrogating how young people in Nairobi (Chege and Arnot 2012) perceive their rights of citizenship. It builds on previous analyses of the connections between gender, education and poverty's poor urban settlements by focusing on the political dimensions of the young people's lives. The…
Bhana, D.; Jewnarain, D.
Responses to AIDS have often neglected children. Drawing on a qualitative study of young children aged 7-9 years, this paper draws attention to their understandings of HIV and AIDS. It is argued that young children are able to give meaning to the disease in ways that link to their social contexts, where gender inequalities and sexual violence are…
The present article maps out understandings about embodied distress among gender-nonconforming youth. Feminist bioethics and queer-inflected clinical perspectives are used to inform thinking about ethical, nonpathologizing health care in the case of gender-related distress. Specific attention is directed at self-harming among gender variant and trans youth. This is contextualized in relation to the role that self-harm plays for some LGBT youth, where it may be seen as a rite of passage or as reasonable and inevitable way of coping. The particular complexities of self-harm among trans youth seeking clinical intervention are examined. Queer bioethics is proposed as potentially facilitating productive uncertainty with regard to the diverse imagined futures of gender variant and trans youth.
Lawson, Katie M.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.
Gendered occupational segregation remains prevalent across the world. Although research has examined factors contributing to the low number of women in male-typed occupations – namely science, technology, engineering, and math – little longitudinal research has examined the role of childhood experiences in both young women’s and men’s later gendered occupational attainment. This study addressed this gap in the literature by examining family gender socialization experiences in middle childhood – namely parents’ attitudes and work and family life – as contributors to the gender typicality of occupational attainment in young adulthood. Using data collected from mothers, fathers, and children over approximately 15 years, the results revealed that the associations between childhood socialization experiences (∼10 years old) and occupational attainment (∼26 years old) depended on the sex of the child. For sons but not daughters, mothers’ more traditional attitudes towards women’s roles predicted attaining more gender-typed occupations. In addition, spending more time with fathers in childhood predicted daughters attaining less and sons acquiring more gender-typed occupations in young adulthood. Overall, evidence supports the idea that childhood socialization experiences help to shape individuals’ career attainment and thus contribute to gender segregation in the labor market. PMID:26977112
Hald, Gert Martin
The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption.
Ma, Lili; Woolley, Jacqueline D.
This research explores whether young children are sensitive to speaker gender when learning novel information from others. Four- and 6-year-olds ("N" = 144) chose between conflicting statements from a male versus a female speaker (Studies 1 and 3) or decided which speaker (male or female) they would ask (Study 2) when learning about the functions…
Riley, Elizabeth Anne; Clemson, Lindy; Sitharthan, Gomathi; Diamond, Milton
Adults with gender-variant childhoods have often lived traumatic lives because of the attitudes and limited understanding that people in their environment had of the concept of gender variance. This study explores the childhoods of transgender adults with the aim to understand their gender-related difficulties as children, in order to identify their needs and the needs of their parents at that time. The authors conducted a semi-structured survey with 110 transgender adults in order to explore their retrospective childhood experiences. Responses were analyzed through content and thematic coding. Their needs most commonly identified as children were for educated authority figures; acceptance and support to discuss their gender variance; freedom of identity expression; validation; and recognition. The needs most commonly allocated to their parents were access to information, education to increase other's awareness, peer support, and access to educated professionals.
Levy, G D
Young children's attributions of gender-typed activities to figures/models differing in height and/or sex were examined over three experiments. The influence of gender constancy understanding on children's gender-typed attributions was also examined. In Experiment 1, young children attributed significantly more masculine activities to male than female figures and significantly more feminine activities to female than male figures. Experiment 2 confirmed the results demonstrated in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, additional line-drawn stimuli and figure comparisons were incorporated; participants attributed significantly more masculine activities to taller than shorter male figures and taller than shorter female figures. In addition, children attributed significantly more feminine activities to taller than shorter female figures. In Experiment 3, participants viewed pictures of taller and shorter male and female models. Results confirmed those of Experiment 1, as well as most of those of Experiment 2. No consistent patterns of children's gender-typed attributions as a function of gender constancy understanding emerged in the three experiments. Results are discussed as they apply to unexplored tenets from Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental model, as well as those of gender schema models, of early gender role development.
Situating the contemporary medical treatment of transgender young people--children and adolescents--in the longer history of engagement between transgender activists and the medical community, this article analyzes the World Professional Association for Transgender Health's (WPATH) Standards of Care (SOC) concerning the medical treatment of transgender young people. It traces how the SOC both achieves medical treatment for children and adolescents and reinforces a normative gender system by cleaving to a developmental approach. Without rejecting the value of developmentally-based medical treatment for now, it offers some preliminary thoughts on queer theory's valuation of developmental failure as a potential future alternative to an emergent medico-technological transgender normativity.
Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia
In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.
Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia
In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs. PMID:26733913
Parker, Bruce; Bach, Jacqueline
The idea for a professional development book group emerged from the authors ongoing conversations with colleagues about how teachers can gain the understanding necessary not only to foster and support gender variant and transgender students, but also incorporate these experiences into their curriculum in a meaningful way. In this article, the…
Forcier, Michelle M; Haddad, Emily
Most children explore various aspects of gender and sexuality as children. Youth with consistent, persistent, and insistent gender non-conformity or gender dysphoria are important to identify in the pre- and early-pubertal years as early intervention and support may be lifesaving. Those whose gender non-conformity persists into puberty and adolescence are most likely to identify as transgender. Blocking pubertal development at Tanner stage 2 for pre-pubertal, gender non-conforming children is a relatively new but reversible and highly beneficial strategy to delay puberty, giving patients and families time to come up with a transition plan. Early identification, collaborative support from healthcare providers and mental health clinicians, and supportive interventions for both children and families grappling with gender variance may improve social and mental health outcomes for what has traditionally been considered a high-risk, vulnerable population.
Dargis, Natasha; Lamontagne, Maxime; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Sbarra, Laura; Henry, Cyndi; Pibarot, Philippe; Mathieu, Patrick; Bossé, Yohan
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most frequent congenital heart defect and has a male predominance of 3 to 1. A large proportion of patients develop valvular and aortic complications. Despite the high prevalence of BAV, its cause and genetic origins remain elusive. The goal of this study was to identify genetic variants associated with BAV. Nine genes previously associated with BAV (NOTCH1, AXIN1, EGFR, ENG, GATA5, NKX2-5, NOS3, PDIA2, and TGFBR2) were sequenced in 48 patients with BAV using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Pathogenicity of genetic variants was evaluated with the Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion framework. A selection of 89 variants identified by sequencing or in previous BAV genetic studies was genotyped, and allele frequencies were compared in 323 patients with BAV confirmed at surgery and 584 controls. Analyses were also performed by gender. Nine novel and 19 potentially pathogenic variants were identified by next-generation sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing, but they were not associated with BAV in the case-control population. A significant association was observed between an in silico-predicted benign EGFR intronic variant (rs17290301) and BAV. Analyses performed by gender revealed different variants associated with BAV in men (EGFR rs533525993 and TEX26 rs12857479) and women (NOTCH1 rs61751489, TGFBR2 rs1155705, and NKX2-5 rs2277923). In conclusion, these results constitute the first association between EGFR genetic variants and BAV in humans and support a possible role of gender-specific polymorphisms in the development of BAV.
Lewis, Ruth; Marston, Cicely
Young people in many countries report gender differences in giving and receiving oral sex, yet examination of young people's own perspectives on gender dynamics in oral heterosex are relatively rare. We explored the constructs and discourses 16- to 18-year-old men and women in England used in their accounts of oral sex during in-depth interviews. Two contrasting constructs were in circulation in the accounts: on one hand, oral sex on men and women was narrated as equivalent, while on the other, oral sex on women was seen as "a bigger deal" than oral sex on men. Young men and women used a "give and take" discourse, which constructed the mutual exchange of oral sex as "fair." Appeals to an ethic of reciprocity in oral sex enabled women to present themselves as demanding equality in their sexual interactions, and men as supporting mutuality. However, we show how these ostensibly positive discourses about equality also worked in narratives to obscure women's constrained agency and work with respect to giving oral sex.
Lewis, Ruth; Marston, Cicely
Young people in many countries report gender differences in giving and receiving oral sex, yet examination of young people’s own perspectives on gender dynamics in oral heterosex are relatively rare. We explored the constructs and discourses 16- to 18-year-old men and women in England used in their accounts of oral sex during in-depth interviews. Two contrasting constructs were in circulation in the accounts: on one hand, oral sex on men and women was narrated as equivalent, while on the other, oral sex on women was seen as “a bigger deal” than oral sex on men. Young men and women used a “give and take” discourse, which constructed the mutual exchange of oral sex as “fair.” Appeals to an ethic of reciprocity in oral sex enabled women to present themselves as demanding equality in their sexual interactions, and men as supporting mutuality. However, we show how these ostensibly positive discourses about equality also worked in narratives to obscure women’s constrained agency and work with respect to giving oral sex. PMID:26849152
Hale, C Jabob
The World Professional Association for Transgender Health's "Standards of Care: The Hormonal and Surgical Sex Reassignment of Gender Dysphoric Persons" (SOC) set forth standards clinicians must meet to ensure ethical care of adequate quality. The SOC also set requirements gender variant prospective patients must meet to receive medical interventions to change their sexual characteristics to those more typical for the sex to which they were not assigned at birth. One such requirement is that mental health professionals must ascertain that prospective patients have met the SOC's eligibility and readiness criteria. This article raises two objections to this requirement: ethically obligatory considerations of the overall balance of potential harms and benefits tell against it, and it violates the principle of respect for autonomy. This requirement treats gender variant prospective patients who request medical intervention as different in kind, not merely degree, from other patient populations, as it constructs the very request as a phenomenon of incapacity. This is ethically indefensible in and of itself, but it is especially pernicious in a sociocultural and political context that already denies gender variant people full moral status.
This article describes a clinical program designed to address broadly defined mental health needs of children who experience stress related to not fitting into normative gender types and argues for the need for integrated services that address the spectrum of gender variance. An array of services useful to children and their families is proposed. The article describes the clinical population served, common clinical and social problems, and a rationale for the interventions provided.
Many studies have examined representations of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in the U.S. media. Yet they have centered on portrayals of adults or teenagers. This investigation considered a potential LGBT population that has been neglected in media research, namely gender-variant, preadolescent children. Surveying the U.S. media at large but with an emphasis on television, the article reveals that gender-creative youth are nearly invisible. When depictions of gender-variant kids do appear, they often focus on either children who express extreme gender dysphoria or in some way signify the "tragic queer" motif (or both). The implications of these findings are discussed.
das Dores Guerreiro, Maria; Caetano, Ana; Rodrigues, Eduardo
This article examines gender representations of family and parental roles among young people aged 11 to 14 years. It is based on the qualitative analysis of 792 essays written by Portuguese girls and boys attending compulsory education. The adolescents' texts express normative images and cultural representations about gender that are plural and…
Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Peralta, Robert L.
We utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth young adult sample (N = 1,488) to investigate whether gender role attitudes and the occupation of and transition to three adult roles (i.e., employment, marriage, and parenthood) contribute to the maintenance of the gender gap in the frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Our results…
This article reports on a recent study of HIV/AIDS which investigated the role of gender in the experiences of young children in one region of Namibia. The findings reveal that while gender is reported to shape school-age girls and boys' experiences of being infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in many African nations, gender was not an influential…
This article evaluates the young's perception of the values with consideration of the gender factor. The study covered a total of 240 young, consisting of 100 girls and 140 boys continuing high school education in Ankara. The values of young were assessed with scales such as "terminal values", "instrumental values" and…
Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H
Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area.
Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H. Harrington
Most research examining gender differences in developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior does not consider subtypes of antisocial behavior and is difficult to generalize due to small non-representative samples. The current study investigated gender difference in developmental trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood while addressing…
Verma, Ravi K; Pulerwitz, Julie; Mahendra, Vaishali; Khandekar, Sujata; Barker, Gary; Fulpagare, P; Singh, S K
This article presents findings from a pilot intervention in 2005-6 to promote gender equity among young men from low-income communities in Mumbai, India. The project involved formative work on gender, sexuality and masculinity, and educational activities with 126 young men, aged 18-29, over a six-month period. The programme of activities was called Yari-dosti, which is Hindi for friendship or bonding among men, and was adapted from a Brazilian intervention. Pre- and post-intervention surveys, including measures of attitudes towards gender norms using the Gender Equitable Men (GEM) Scale and other key outcomes, qualitative interviews with 31 participants, monitoring and observations were used as evaluation tools. Almost all the young men actively participated in the activities and appreciated the intervention. It was often the first time they had had the opportunity to discuss and reflect on these issues. The interviews showed that attitudes towards gender and sexuality, as reported behaviour in relationships, had often changed. A survey two months later also showed a significant decrease in support for inequitable gender norms and sexual harassment of girls and women. The results suggest that the pilot was successful in reaching and engaging young men to critically discuss gender dynamics and health risk, and in shifting key gender-related attitudes.
Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi
Prior work demonstrates the importance of introducing young children to programming and engineering content before gender stereotypes are fully developed and ingrained in later years. However, very little research on gender and early childhood technology interventions exist. This pilot study looks at N = 45 children in kindergarten through second…
Toomey, Russell B.; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M.; Card, Noel A.; Russell, Stephen T.
Past research documents that both adolescent gender nonconformity and the experience of school victimization are associated with high rates of negative psychosocial adjustment. Using data from the Family Acceptance Project's young adult survey, we examined associations among retrospective reports of adolescent gender nonconformity and adolescent…
Begoray, Deborah L.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Wilmot, Robin
This article presents qualitative research on young adolescents' abilities in communicating and evaluating health messages in advertising especially how they understand and create gendered identities. A group of grade 6-8 students learned about media techniques and movie making. In groups divided by gender, they created iMovie advertisements for…
Freathy, R. J. K.
This article discusses the outcomes of a questionnaire survey which sought to ascertain the attitudes of young people towards the Bible. One thousand and sixty-six pupils from Years 6, 9 and 12 in nine English schools participated. The young people's attitudes are discussed in relation to gender, age and attendance at a place of worship. The…
Di Ceglie, Domenico
Gender identity disorders (GID) in young people are complex and often distressing conditions. The paper starts by examining the experience of the professional worker resulting from the interaction with this group of young people and their families. This is frequently characterised by a sense of being under pressure and in danger. The view put…
Jeffrey, Craig; Jeffery, Roger; Jeffery, Patricia
This paper explores the cultural and economic strategies of educated but un/under-employed young Muslim men aged between 20 and 34 in a village in western Uttar Pradesh, north India. Drawing on Connell's gender theory, the paper demonstrates how economic and political forces shape Muslim young men's strategies. The paper distinguishes between…
Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali; Davis, Marcia H.; Kalyanpur, Maya
Computers have become an important part of young children's lives, both as a source of entertainment and education. The National Association for the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) position statement on Technology and Young Children (2006) supports the need for equal access to technology for all children with attention to eliminating gender…
Gray, Sarah A O; Sweeney, Kristen K; Randazzo, Renee; Levitt, Heidi M
Gender variant (GV) children have a subjective sense of gender identity and/or preferences regarding clothing, activities, and/or playmates that are different from what is culturally normative for their biological sex. Despite increases in rates of GV children and their families presenting at clinics, there is little research on how raising a GV child affects the family as a whole or how families make decisions regarding their care. This study took an ecological-transactional framework to explore the question, "what is the experience of parents who raise a GV or transgender child?" Eight mothers and three fathers of GV male and female children (ages 5-13) referred through a GV support group participated in interviews. Transcripts were analyzed using an adaptation of grounded theory analysis. These parents attempted to pave the way to a nonstigmatized childhood for their GV child, typically through two pathways: rescuing the child from fear of stigma and hurt or accepting GV and advocating for a more tolerant world. Many participants used both pathways to different degrees or shifted paths over time, and the paths selected were related to parents' own understanding of GV and their experiences and backgrounds as well as characteristics of the children they were parenting and the communities they inhabited. Limitations, clinical implications, and future directions are discussed.
Chege, Fatuma N.; Arnot, Madeleine
This article argues that the role of education within the gender-poverty debate needs to be reconceptualised. It stresses the importance of conceptualising the gender-education-poverty nexus as a cluster of complex interactive combinations and bonds in which education outcomes are shaped by, and shape, both poverty and gender. The aim of the paper…
Dinella, Lisa M; Fulcher, Megan; Weisgram, Erica S
Gender segregation of careers is still prominent in the U.S. workforce. The current study was designed to investigate the role of sex-typed personality traits and gender identity in predicting emerging adults' interests in sex-typed careers. Participants included 586 university students (185 males, 401 females). Participants reported their sex-typed personality traits (masculine and feminine traits), gender identities (gender typicality, contentment, felt pressure to conform, and intergroup bias), and interests in sex-typed careers. Results indicated both sex-typed personality traits and gender identity were important predictors of young adults' career interests, but in varying degrees and differentially for men and women. Men's sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their masculine career interests even more so when the interaction of their masculine traits and gender typicality were considered. When gender typicality and sex-typed personality traits were considered simultaneously, gender typicality was negatively related to men's feminine career interests and gender typicality was the only significant predictor of men's feminine career interests. For women, sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their sex-typed career interests. The level of pressure they felt to conform to their gender also positively predicted interest in feminine careers. The interaction of sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality did not predict women's career interests more than when these variables were considered as main effects. Results of the multidimensional assessment of gender identity confirmed that various dimensions of gender identity played different roles in predicting career interests and gender typicality was the strongest predictor of career interests.
Muhanguzi, Florence Kyoheirwe
Sexuality is part and parcel of students' experiences of schooling manifested in personal friendships, relations and social interaction. These encounters constitute sites within which sexual identities are developed, practiced and actively produced through processes of negotiation. Drawing on qualitative research conducted in 14 selected secondary schools in Central and Western Uganda, the study illuminates gendered sexual vulnerability within patterns of social interaction and young girls gendered experiences and negotiation of their sexuality. The study reveals that through social and discursive practices, students construct complex gendered relations of domination and subordination that position boys and girls differently, often creating gender inequalities and sexual vulnerability for those gendered as girls. Girls' vulnerability is characterised by confusing and traumatic experiences fraught with double standards and silences. Typical of these experiences are complex tensions and contradictions surrounding constructions of sexuality that are predicated upon unequal power and gender relations characterised by homophobia, misogyny, control of female sexuality and sexual abuse and exploitation, all which work against girls' expression of sexuality. Gender sensitive sexuality education is identified as a valuable site of intervention to address such vulnerabilities and promote gender equality and equity in society.
Cowdery, Randi S; Scarborough, Norma; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Seshadri, Gita; Lewis, Monique E; Mahoney, Anne Rankin
When race and gender intersect, understanding gendered power may be complicated. The authors first describe the historical context that serves as important background for understanding gender and power in heterosexual African American relationships. Then they show how family solidarity in the face of social injustices often overrides gender equality as a goal for middle class African American couples with young children. The findings illustrate pragmatic equality within couple relationships and the willful suspension of gender roles for the well-being of the family as a whole. However, gendered power impacts couples in a variety of ways. Sometimes a woman's fear that the man might leave, for example, diminished her power in the relationship. Often a woman accommodated a man's greater power in the family because of her perception that he was often denied power in the larger society. Societal discrimination of women was less visible to couples. Implications for practice are provided.
In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the research…
Allen, Kim; Mendick, Heather
In this article, we explore the question of how celebrity operates in young people's everyday lives, thus contributing to the urgent need to address celebrity's social function. Drawing on data from three studies in England on young people's perspectives on their educational and work futures, we show how celebrity operates as a classed and…
The American Civil War has been a popular topic for young-adult writers for years, with new books now being written from young women's perspectives. In this paper, I will examine the gender ideologies that infiltrate contemporary Civil War books for young adults. I will examine four recent young-adult Civil-War novels: G. Clifton Wisler's "Mr.…
Bokhan, N A; Blagov, L N; Kurgak, D I
A study included 115 male patients with opioid addiction, aged from 17 to 27 years. Comorbidity of opioid addiction and alcoholism in patients of young age was represented by two main variants distinguishing between primary dependence on opioid or alcohol. In the first variant, additional variants of vicarious alcoholization and replacement of addiction form were singled out. In the second case, alcoholism preceded opioid addiction that developed as a form of polyaddiction and the formation of preliminary (primary) alcoholism was considered as a protracted stage of searching narcotism with the transition from alcoholism to opioid addiction. Stages and differential criteria of the variants of double disorders are described.
Chen, Peter Y.; Cigularov, Konstantin P.; Tomazic, Rocco G.
Gender-variant-based victimization is victimization based on the way others perceive an individual to convey masculine, feminine, and androgynous characteristics through their appearance, mannerisms, and behaviors. Previous work identifies gender-variant-based victimization as a risk factor for health-risking outcomes among same-sex attracted youths. The current study seeks to examine this relationship among other-sex attracted youths and same-sex attracted youth, and determine if gender-variant-based victimization is similarly or differentially associated with poor outcomes between these two groups. Anonymous data from a school-based survey of 2,438 racially diverse middle and high school students in the Eastern U.S. was examined. For other-sex attracted adolescents, gender-variant-based victimization was associated with a higher odds of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, regular use of cigarettes, and drug use. When compared to same-sex attracted adolescents, the harmful relationship between gender-variant-based victimization and each of these outcomes was similar in nature. These findings suggest that gender-variant-based victimization has potentially serious implications for the psychological wellbeing and substance use of other-sex attracted adolescents, not just same-sex attracted adolescents, supporting the need to address gender expression as a basis for victimization separate from sexuality- or gender-minority status. The impact that gender-variant-based victimization has on all adolescents should not be overlooked in research and interventions aimed at addressing sexual orientation-based and gender-variant-based victimization, substance use, and suicide prevention. PMID:26068796
Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.
The categorization of gender identity variants (GIVs) as “mental disorders” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) is highly controversial among professionals as well as among persons with GIV. After providing a brief history of GIV categorizations in the DSM, this paper presents some of the major issues of the ongoing debate: GIV as psychopathology versus natural variation; definition of “impairment” and “distress” for GID; associated psychopathology and its relation to stigma; the stigma impact of the mental-disorder label itself; the unusual character of “sex reassignment surgery” as a psychiatric treatment; and the consequences for health and mental-health services if the disorder label is removed. Finally, several categorization options are examined: Retaining the GID category, but possibly modifying its grouping with other syndromes; narrowing the definition to dysphoria and taking “disorder” out of the label; categorizing GID as a neurological or medical rather than a psychiatric disorder; removing GID from both the DSM and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD); and creating a special category for GIV in the DSM. I conclude that--as also evident in other DSM categories--the decision on the categorization of GIVs cannot be achieved on a purely scientific basis, and that a consensus for a pragmatic compromise needs to be arrived at that accommodates both scientific considerations and the service needs of persons with GIVs. PMID:19851856
Seng, Alice Seok Hoon; Tan, Lee Choo
This study reports on cultural and gender differences in the spatial abilities of children based on the Water Level Task. The Piagetian theory of age-related developmental differences in performance on the Water Level Task was explored with Chinese and Malay children living in Singapore. Results indicate that children in this study did not perform…
Fuller, Alison; Beck, Vanessa; Unwin, Lorna
Purpose -- Gender segregation has been a persistent feature of apprenticeship programmes in countries around the world. In the UK, the Modern Apprenticeship was launched ten years ago as the governments flagship initiative for training new entrants in a range of occupational sectors. One of its priorities was to increase male and female…
Smith, Ruth S.
Describes a text and some children's readings of a fictional animal story in which a bossy rooster is "tamed" by a female sheep dog. The article's analysis of the children's discussions of the story focuses on modality to trace their acceptance of "credibility" in the text with respect to the construction of gender and the story's resolution. (23…
Aina, Olaiya E.; Cameron, Petronella A.
The early gender bias experiences that children encounter can shape their attitudes and beliefs related to their development of interpersonal and intrapersonal relationships, access to education equality, participation in the corporate work world, as well as stifling their physical and psychological well being. For early childhood educators, being…
French Polynesia is an overseas collectivity of France whose kinship practices accommodate transgender parenting through the involvement of gender-variant (mahu) people in childrearing, including as adoptive parents in customary (faamu) adoption. While the existence and visibility of gender-variant people in French Polynesia is well documented, there is no literature on their involvement in parenting, reflecting a more general dearth of research on LGBT parenting in non-Western contexts. Drawing on the author's fieldwork in French Polynesia, this article fills this gap. The article also discusses the negative implications of France's ambivalence towards LGBT parenting for French Polynesian gender-variant parents and the children they raise.
Robinson, Deanne Mraz; Meagher, Cecilia C; Orlowski, Craig C; Lagoe, Erin Caine; Fong, Chin-To
The Young-Simpson syndrome (YSS) and 1p36 deletion syndrome are both characterized by facial and heart abnormalities, congenital hypothyroidism, and severe growth and developmental retardation. However, the YSS is characterized by the presence of blepharophimosis and epicanthus inversus, findings not described in monosomy 1p36 patients. We describe a girl with YSS, who presented with the typical facial findings, global retardation, congenital hypothyroidism, and congenital dilated cardiomyopathy. Comparative genomic hybridization chromosomal microarray analysis showed a 1p36.3 deletion, a finding not previously reported in other YSS cases. We propose that YSS is a variant of the 1p36 deletion syndrome.
Gilchrist, Heidi; Sullivan, Gerard
The suicide rate among young people in Australia has caused considerable concern and been the focus of research and intervention. Issues related to sexuality and gender can be the source of conflict for young people within their communities, and have been implicated in suicide attempts. This paper examines the cultural context of youth suicide, and asks how youth suicide may be related to emerging sexual identity, which all young people must negotiate through the customs, discourse and taboos of their society. In particular, it focuses on the situation of young heterosexual women. The findings are based on interviews with 41 young people, parents and youth service providers regarding youth suicide. Interviews were semi-structured and open-ended, and conducted in a suburban community. They included the use of scenarios or vignettes. Finding, suggest that traditional constructions of gender remain widespread, and that these are often disadvantageous to both young women and young men. Parents may be unaware that they have little control over, or even knowledge about, their teenagers' behaviour. Young people are more inclined to confide in their friends, who may not be equipped to deal with crises.
Whilst public awareness campaigns, interventions and legal reforms have done much to challenge gendered interpersonal violence, the incidence and prevalence of this violence is not decreasing. Furthermore, research with young people reveals significant acceptance and tolerance of interpersonal violence if perpetrated by men within the parameters…
Meier, Ann; Hull, Kathleen E.; Ortyl, Timothy A.
Recent decades have brought significant social changes in the industrialized West that may influence young adults' attitudes about intimate relationships, including changes in gender expectations and behaviors and changes in sexual attitudes and practices. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 14,121) to…
Dawis, Rene V.; Sung, Yong H.
The Ball Aptitude Battery (BAB) is a multiple ability test battery of specific work skills for use in career counseling. This study reports on ability changes by gender, race, and socioeconomic status in a BAB retest of 112 young adults four years after their initial testing. The sample consisted of 68 females and 44 males; 15 Blacks, 21…
Newton, Fiona J.; Newton, Joshua D.; Windisch, Lydia; Ewing, Michael T.
Objective: To investigate gender differences in beliefs about condom use among young, sexually active, heterosexual Australian adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 1,113 adults aged 18-26 years. Setting: Higher education institutions across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Method: Participants were recruited during higher-education…
Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.
Social schemas can influence the perception and recollection of others' behavior and may create biases in the reporting of social events. This study investigated young adolescents' (N = 317) gender-, ethnicity-, and popularity-based social schemas of overtly and relationally aggressive behavior. Results indicated that participants associated overt…
Olson, Julie Skalamera; Hummer, Robert A.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan
U.S. trends in population health suggest alarming disparities among young adults who are less healthy across most measureable domains than their counterparts in other high-income countries; these international comparisons are particularly troubling for women. To deepen our understanding of gender disparities in health and underlying behavioral contributions, we document gender-specific clusters of health behavior among U.S. young adults using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We find high levels of poor health behavior, but especially among men; 40 percent of men clustered into a group characterized by unhealthy behavior (e.g., poor diet, no exercise, substance use), compared to only 22 percent of women. Additionally, women tend to age out of unhealthy behaviors in young adulthood more than men. Further, we uncover gender differences in the extent to which sociodemographic position and adolescent contexts inform health behavior clustering. For example, college education was more protective for men, whereas marital status was equally protective across gender. Parental drinking mattered for health behavior clustering among men, whereas peer drinking mattered for clustering among women. We discuss these results in the context of declining female advantage in U.S. health and changing young adult social and health contexts. PMID:28287308
Forrest, Linda A.
Examines gender bias in young adult literature collections and advocates selecting and promoting materials that help youth develop positive views of females and an awareness of the obstacles women face in overcoming sexual stereotypes. A sampling of 9 titles is described, and an annotated bibliography of 19 additional titles is included. (Contains…
Eriksson, Mats Anders; Westerlund, Joakim; Anderlid, Britt Marie; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth
Prenatal risk factors, with special focus on gender distribution of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions were analysed in first-degree relatives in a population-based group of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Multiple information sources were combined. This group was contrasted with the general population regarding…
A study investigated the impact of popular culture on young children's conception of gender, as revealed through the stories they write and tell. The research was conducted at Grosse Ile High School on the remote Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Quebec, Canada, from 1991-1994 with 46 students ages 6-7 years old. The concept of the…
Snow, Rachel C; Winter, Rebecca A; Harlow, Siobán D
The relationship between women's attitudes toward gender equality and their fertility aspirations has been researched extensively, but few studies have explored the same associations among men. Using recent Demographic and Health Survey data from five high fertility East African countries, we examine the association between young men's gender attitudes and their ideal family size. Whereas several DHS gender attitude responses were associated with fertility aspirations in select countries, men's greater tolerance of wife beating was consistently associated with higher fertility aspirations across all countries, independent of education, income, or religion. Our findings highlight the overlapping values of male authority within marriage and aspirations for large families among young adult males in East Africa. Total lifetime fertility in East Africa remains among the highest worldwide: thus, governments in the region seeking to reduce fertility may need to explicitly scrutinize and address the reproduction of prevailing masculine values.
Gerard, F Jeane; Browne, Kevin D; Whitfield, Kate C
This study investigated gender differences regarding young people charged with murder in England and Wales. A sample of 318 cases was collected from the Home Office's Homicide Index and analysed. Of these cases, 93% of the offenders were male and 7% female. The analyses explored gender differences in terms of the offender's race, offender's age, victim's age, victim's gender, weapon used, offender-victim relationship, and circumstances of the offence. The study found that a female offender was significantly more likely to murder a family member than a male offender, and a male offender was significantly more likely to murder a stranger than a female offender. In addition, a female offender was significantly more likely to murder a victim below the age of 5 than a male offender. Implications for interventions with young people who are charged with murder are discussed.
Hull, Kathleen E.; Ortyl, Timothy A.
Recent decades have brought significant social changes in the industrialized West that may influence young adults’ attitudes about intimate relationships, including changes in gender expectations and behaviors and changes in sexual attitudes and practices. We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (N=14,121) to compare men to women, and sexual minorities to heterosexuals, on ratings of the importance of love, faithfulness, commitment, financial security, and racial homogamy for successful relationships. We found that nearly all young adults adhere to dominant relationship values inherent in the romantic love ideology; however, we found modest but significant differences by gender and sexual identity in relationship values. Significant interactions demonstrated that gender and sexual identity intersect to uniquely influence relationship views. PMID:23710079
Wilson, Ian; Griffin, Christine; Wren, Bernadette
This exploratory study involved the qualitative analysis of the responses of eight children with atypical gender identity organization to open-ended questions about their experiences of secondary school. The aim was to develop an understanding of these young people's interaction with their peers. It became apparent that all but one of the participants had been bullied. In this context, participants reported difficulties in developing friendships, although each participant received support from at least one of their peers. Given the hostile school environment participants did not necessarily talk to these individuals about their experiences in relation to their gender identity. The clinical implications for working with young people on a developing gender identity, and the impact on their mental health, are considered.
Kim, Bora; Gillham, David
The Internet has increasing relevance and practical use as a tool to support cancer care. For example, health support Web sites are now widely used to connect specific groups of patients who may otherwise have remained isolated, and understanding their health-related online behaviors will help in the development of more effective health support Web sites. This article examined blogs written by young adults affected by cancer and in particular examined the gender differences in these blog entries through content analysis. The results showed there is little difference in blog content between genders. This suggests that the blog environment could lessen the gender-typical behaviors often expected by society and may provide an outlet for young adult cancer patients to more freely share their cancer-related experiences, at the same time providing an opportunity for social connection. This is particularly significant for male patients who are known to inhibit their emotions as well as the expression of their health concerns.
Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Kane, Roslyn; Wellings, Kaye
Concern about the sexual and reproductive health of young people has been mounting recently in Thailand. Unequal gender relations have a considerable influence on the lives of young people, especially young women, yet few studies have explored the ways in which they have impacted on provision of sexual health care. Drawing upon data from a qualitative study in Northern Thailand, this paper explores the views and experiences of young people in seeking health care, highlighting the kinds of gender double standards and power imbalances that may pose obstacles to their use of sexual and reproductive health services. Findings reveal the vulnerability of sexually active young women in seeking support and care from partners, parents, and service providers. Those who experience adverse outcomes of sexual activity, such as unwanted pregnancy or infection, report facing indifference, victim blaming, or the threat of abandonment by their partners. Because of their fear of disclosure to their parents and communities, of their sexual activity, they opt for clandestine and unsafe abortion and seek the counsel of peers and drugstores rather than parents and providers. At the service provider level, young women report facing threatening and judgemental attitudes, indifferent counselling, and possible violation of confidentiality. This is in marked contrast to the treatment of young men, who generally meet with a more sympathetic and accepting response.
Seelman, Kristie L.
For years, transgender activists and their allies have spoken out about the oppression that transgender and gender non-conforming people experience in relation to societal systems and institutions, due to policies and practices that do not acknowledge non-binary experiences of gender, that do not recognize that one's gender may change over time or…
Methner, D Nicole R; Scherer, Steven E; Welch, Katherine; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Eng, Christine M; Belmont, John W; Powell, Mark C; Korchina, Viktoriya; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Wolf, Dwayne A; Sanchez, Luis A; Kahn, Roger
Each year in the United States, thousands of cases of sudden and unexpected deaths of infants, children, and young adults are assigned an undetermined cause of death after postmortem investigation and autopsy. Heritable genetic variants have been suggested as the cause of up to a third of sudden death (SD) cases. Elucidation of the genetic variants involved in SD cases is important to not only help establish cause and manner of death of these individuals, but to also aid in determining whether familial genetic testing should be considered. Previously, these types of postmortem screenings have not been a feasible option for most county medical examiners' and coroners' offices. We sequenced full exons of 64 genes associated with SD in the largest known cohort (351) of infant and young SD decedents using massively parallel sequencing at <$600 per sample. Genetic variants were assessed through literature review and clinical evaluation by a multidisciplinary consortium of experts. Thirteen individuals (3.7%), eight infants (2.8% of those <1 yr of age) and five children/young adults (7.0% of those >1 yr of age), were found to have a reportable genetic variant contributing to SD. These percentages represent an estimate lower than those previously reported. Overall yields and results likely vary between studies due to differences in evaluation techniques and reporting. Additionally, we recommend ongoing assessment of data, including nonreported novel variants, as technology and literature continually advance. This study demonstrates a strategy to implement molecular autopsies in medicolegal investigations of young SD decedents.
Holt, Vicky; Skagerberg, Elin; Dunsford, Michael
This article presents the findings from a cross-sectional study on demographic variables and associated difficulties in 218 children and adolescents (Mean age = 14 years, SD = 3.08, range = 5-17 years), with features of gender dysphoria, referred to the Gender Identity Development Service (GIDS) in London during a 1-year period (1 January 2012-31 December 2012). Data were extracted from patient files (i.e. referral letters, clinical notes and clinician reports). The most commonly reported associated difficulties were bullying, low mood/depression and self-harming. There was a gender difference on some of the associated difficulties with reports of self-harm being significantly more common in the natal females and autism spectrum conditions being significantly more common in the natal males. The findings also showed that many of the difficulties increased with age. Findings regarding demographic variables, gender dysphoria, sexual orientation and family features are reported, and limitations and implications of the cross-sectional study are discussed. In conclusion, young people with gender dysphoria often present with a wide range of associated difficulties which clinicians need to take into account, and our article highlights the often complex presentations of these young people.
Meeussen, Loes; Veldman, Jenny; Van Laar, Colette
The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (in)compatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women's family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults (N = 445) perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to 'have it all': mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men's family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults' gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way.
Meeussen, Loes; Veldman, Jenny; Van Laar, Colette
The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (in)compatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women’s family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults (N = 445) perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to ‘have it all’: mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men’s family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults’ gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way. PMID:27909416
Marschik, Peter B.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Einspieler, Christa; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Wolin, Thomas; Pini, Giorgio; Budimirovic, Dejan B.; Zappella, Michele; Sigafoos, Jeff
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a developmental disorder characterized by regression of purposeful hand skills and spoken language, although some affected children retain some ability to speech. We assessed the communicative abilities of five young girls, who were later diagnosed with the preserved speech variant of RTT, during the pre-regression period…
Drescher, Jack; Pula, Jack
Transgender issues and transgender rights have become increasingly a matter of media attention and public policy debates. Reflecting changes in psychiatric perspectives, the diagnosis of "trans-sexualism" first appeared in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems in 1975 and shortly thereafter, in 1980, in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Since that time, international standards of care have been developed, and today those standards are followed by clinicians across diverse cultures. In many instances, treatment of older adolescents and adults is covered by national health care systems and, in some cases, by private health insurance. Most recently, the Medicare ban on coverage for gender reassignment surgery was lifted in 2014. In contrast to the relative lack of controversy about treating adolescents and adults, there is no expert clinical consensus regarding the treatment of prepubescent children who meet diagnostic criteria for what was referred to in both DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 as gender identity disorder in children and now in DSM-5 as gender dysphoria. One reason for the differing attitudes has to do with the pervasive nature of gender dysphoria in older adolescents and adults: it rarely desists, and so the treatment of choice is gender or sex reassignment. On the subject of treating children, however, as the World Professional Association for Transgender Health notes in their latest Standards of Care, gender dysphoria in childhood does not inevitably continue into adulthood, and only 6 to 23 percent of boys and 12 to 27 percent of girls treated in gender clinics showed persistence of their gender dysphoria into adulthood. Further, most of the boys' gender dysphoria desisted, and in adulthood, they identified as gay rather than as transgender. In an effort to clarify best treatment practices for transgender individuals, a recent American Psychiatric Association Task Force on the Treatment of
Li, Gu; Pollitt, Amanda M; Russell, Stephen T
Sexual minority individuals are at an elevated risk for depression compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet less is known about how depression status varies across sexual minority subgroups (i.e., mostly heterosexuals, bisexuals, and lesbians and gay men). Moreover, studies on the role of young adult gender nonconformity in the relation between sexual orientation and depression are scarce and have yielded mixed findings. The current study examined the disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexuals during young adulthood in concurrent depression near the beginning of young adulthood and prospective depression 6 years later, paying attention to the diversity within sexual minority subgroups and the role of gender nonconformity. Drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 9421), we found that after accounting for demographics, sampling weight, and sampling design, self-identified mostly heterosexual and bisexual young adults, but not lesbians and gay men, reported significantly higher concurrent depression compared to heterosexuals; moreover, only mostly heterosexual young adults were more depressed than heterosexuals 6 years later. Furthermore, while young adult gender nonconforming behavior was associated with more concurrent depression regardless of sexual orientation, its negative impact on mental health decreased over time. Surprisingly, previous gender nonconformity predicted decreased prospective depression among lesbians and gay men whereas, among heterosexual individuals, increased gender nonconformity was not associated with prospective depression. Together, the results suggested the importance of investigating diversity and the influence of young adult gender nonconformity in future research on the mental health of sexual minorities.
Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth
Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in
Chng, Samuel C W; Fassnacht, Daniel B
The present study explored the relationships between different categories of parental comments (negative, positive, and importance and comparison), body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating concerns in 383 young adults (69% female) in Singapore. Self-report measures of parental comments, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating were completed with results indicating that females, compared to males, reported significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and negative maternal and positive paternal comments. Although the relationships found between the different categories of parental comments, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating differed by gender, negative maternal comments emerged as a consistent predictor of disordered eating for both genders. This relationship was partially mediated by body dissatisfaction. The findings highlight the role of parental influence through weight-related comments on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, and the need for further exploration of gender-specific pathways of parental influence.
Riley, Elizabeth A.; Sitharthan, Gomathi; Clemson, Lindy; Diamond, Milton
Gender variance confronts widely held assumptions that children born as males will act like "boys" and children born as females will act like "girls". This imposed binary has the effect of perpetuating negativity towards people who express themselves with gendered variations in attire, behaviour or preferences. Despite the…
Cordellieri, Pierluigi; Baralla, Francesca; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Sgalla, Roberto; Piccardi, Laura; Giannini, Anna Maria
In the present study, we investigated gender-related effects on road safety attitudes in 2681 young drivers (1458 males, 54.4%; aged 18–22) who filled out several scales assessing attitudes toward road safety issues, driving behavior in specific hypothetical situations, accident risk perception, and concerns about such a risk. We focused only on young drivers to better understand the role of gender in road safety attitudes in a period of life in which risky behaviors are widespread for males and females. Indeed, there is still no agreement as to the nature of these gender differences. According to some authors, the effects of gender on being involved in a crash due to driving skills are either non-existent or largely explained by differences in alcohol consumption. In our study, we found gender differences in road safety attitudes (i.e., “negative attitude toward traffic rules and risky driving”; “negative attitude toward drugs and alcohol” and “tolerance toward speeding”) and in driver behavior (i.e., “errors in inattentive driving” and “driving violations”). This result is consistent in all drivers coming from nine different European countries. Our analyses yielded an important finding concerning risk perception. The results indicate that the level of risk perception during driving is the same for males and females. However, these two groups differ in the level of concern about this risk, with males being less concerned about the risk of a road accident. This suggests that the main difference between these two groups is not strictly related to judgment of the perceived risk probability but rather to the level of concern experienced about the consequences of the risk. This difference between risk perception and worry could explain differences in the frequency of car accidents in the two groups. The present findings may provide new insights for the development of gender-based prevention programs. PMID:27729877
Bassetti, Benedetta A L
It is generally assumed that speakers of grammatical gender languages consider grammatical gender arbitrary, but this assumption has never been tested. Research shows that the grammatical gender of nouns can affect perceptions of the masculinity or femininity of the noun's referent in speakers of languages with masculine and feminine noun classes. However, bilingualism facilitates the development of lexical arbitrariness awareness, and could therefore affect awareness of grammatical gender arbitrariness. This study then compared three groups of young adult speakers of a grammatical gender language: monolinguals, early bilinguals, and instructed second language learners. Participants evaluated the gender assignments of 25 nouns of entities (animals, abstract concepts, natural kinds, and artefacts), and answered open and closed questions about grammatical gender. Participants considered grammatical gender as semantically motivated and mostly related gender assignments to perceived masculine or feminine connotations of referents. Knowledge of an additional grammatical gender language was linked to increased awareness of the arbitrariness of first language gender assignments in both early bilinguals and later instructed learners. It is argued that grammatical gender awareness deserves further investigation. Knowing more than one grammatical gender language can increase awareness of grammatical gender arbitrariness. Implications are discussed for language teaching and language reform.
Boyce, Sabrina; Zeledón, Perla; Tellez, Ever; Barrington, Clare
Gender inequity negatively affects health in Central America. In 2011, we conducted 60 semistructured interviews and 12 photovoice focus groups with young coupled men and women in León, Nicaragua, to explore the ways in which social norms around marriage and gender affect sexual health and gender-based violence. Participants' depictions of their experiences revealed gendered norms around infidelity that provided a narrative to justify male expressions of jealousy, which included limiting partner autonomy, sexual coercion, and physical violence against women, and resulted in increased women's risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. By understanding and taking account of these different narratives and normalized beliefs in developing health- and gender-based violence interventions, such programs might be more effective in promoting gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors among young men and women in Nicaragua.
Bourguiba-Hachemi, Sonia; Ashkanani, Tebah K.; Kadhem, Fatema J.; Almawi, Wassim Y.; Alroughani, Raed; Fathallah, M. Dahmani
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful genetic markers to investigate the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS). A genome wide association study identified 7 SNPs associated with interferon-β therapy response, however, not with MS risk in a Spanish population. To investigate these findings in a different cohort, the 7 SNPs were investigated in an Arabian Gulf population. The SNPs were analyzed in 268 subjects (156 patients and 112 healthy volunteers) from the Arabian Gulf region using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and KBioscience Competitive Allele Specific PCR genotyping methods. Associations between the SNPs and MS were investigated using logistic regression. The present study observed, for the first time, that in an Arabian Gulf population, the ZFAT rs733254 polymorphism (T>G) is a gender-specific risk marker for MS. ZFAT was associated with MS in women but not in men. The G variant was highly associated with the risk of MS [odds ratio (OR)=2.38 and 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45–3.91); P=0.0014]. Whereas variant T was a significantly protective factor [OR=0.420 (95% CI, 0.25–0.69); P=0.0014, recessive model]. The findings of the present study provide a genetic basis for the gender-associated susceptibility to MS. In addition, this MS-associated rs733254 SNP may predict MS onset in females from the Arabian Gulf population. PMID:27572828
Yuxin, Pei; Ho Sik Ying, Petula
This study examines views and experiences of young Shanghai women with respect to masturbation. Through in-depth interviews with forty young women in Shanghai aged 22 to 39 from May 2004 to July 2007, the study explores women's understandings of masturbation, their desires and their lives as modern Chinese women. The focus of the analysis is on how women talk about their masturbation experiences and make sense of their experiences in the context of their sexual relationships and lifestyle choices. By analysing women's narratives about masturbation, the paper suggests that women's self-articulation is actually an engagement in self-image construction. The strategies they use to position themselves in relation to different social discourses on masturbation, how they describe and perform the acts and how they articulate their experiences of masturbation are examined to illustrate how young women in Shanghai perform gender and sexual intimacies in a fast changing city.
Ward, Kenneth D.; Vander Weg, Mark W.; Kovach, Kristen Wood; Klesges, Robert C.; DeBon, Margaret W.; Haddock, C. Keith; Talcott, G. Wayne; Lando, Harry A.
Investigated gender and ethnic differences in smoking and smoking cessation among young adult military recruits. Surveys administered at the start of basic training indicated that whites (especially white females) and Native Americans were more likely to smoke than other ethnic groups. Gender differences were not observed in cessation rates, which…
Fortin, Nicole M.
Using two single-cohort longitudinal surveys, the NLS72 and the NELS88, I investigate the impact of four noncognitive traits--self-esteem, external locus of control, the importance of money/work and the importance of people/family--on wages and on the gender wage gap among these young workers. I find that gender differences in these noncognitive…
Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) of opiate users has been studied in treatment settings, where assistance for drug use was sought. In this study we ascertain factors related to HRQL of young opiate users recruited outside treatment facilities, considering both genders separately. Methods Current opiate users (18-30 y) were recruited in outdoor settings in three Spanish cities (Barcelona, Madrid, Sevilla). Standardised laptop interviews included socio-demographic data, drug use patterns, health related issues, the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Results A total of 991 subjects (73% males), mean age = 25.7 years were interviewed. The mean global NHP score differed by gender (women: 41.2 (sd:23.8); men:34.1(sd:23.6);p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis was implemented separately by gender, variables independently related with global NHP score, both for males and females, were heroin and cocaine SDS scores. For women, only other drug related variables (alcohol intake and length of cocaine use) were independently associated with their HRQL. HIV+ males who suffered an opiate overdose or had psychiatric care in the last 12 months perceived their health as poorer, while those who had ever been in methadone treatment in the last 12 months perceived it as better. The model with both genders showed all factors for males plus quantity of alcohol and an interaction between gender and HIV status. Conclusions Heroin users were found to be at a considerable risk of impaired HRQL, even in these young ages. A score approaching severity of dependence was the factor with the strongest relation with it. PMID:21122134
Methner, D. Nicole R.; Scherer, Steven E.; Welch, Katherine; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Eng, Christine M.; Belmont, John W.; Powell, Mark C.; Korchina, Viktoriya; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wolf, Dwayne A.; Sanchez, Luis A.; Kahn, Roger
Each year in the United States, thousands of cases of sudden and unexpected deaths of infants, children, and young adults are assigned an undetermined cause of death after postmortem investigation and autopsy. Heritable genetic variants have been suggested as the cause of up to a third of sudden death (SD) cases. Elucidation of the genetic variants involved in SD cases is important to not only help establish cause and manner of death of these individuals, but to also aid in determining whether familial genetic testing should be considered. Previously, these types of postmortem screenings have not been a feasible option for most county medical examiners’ and coroners’ offices. We sequenced full exons of 64 genes associated with SD in the largest known cohort (351) of infant and young SD decedents using massively parallel sequencing at <$600 per sample. Genetic variants were assessed through literature review and clinical evaluation by a multidisciplinary consortium of experts. Thirteen individuals (3.7%), eight infants (2.8% of those <1 yr of age) and five children/young adults (7.0% of those >1 yr of age), were found to have a reportable genetic variant contributing to SD. These percentages represent an estimate lower than those previously reported. Overall yields and results likely vary between studies due to differences in evaluation techniques and reporting. Additionally, we recommend ongoing assessment of data, including nonreported novel variants, as technology and literature continually advance. This study demonstrates a strategy to implement molecular autopsies in medicolegal investigations of young SD decedents. PMID:27435932
Lichtman, Judith H.; Lorenze, Nancy P.; D’Onofrio, Gail; Spertus, John A.; Lindau, Stacy T.; Morgan, Thomas M.; Herrin, Jeph; Bueno, Héctor; Mattera, Jennifer A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Krumholz, Harlan M.
Background Among individuals with ischemic heart disease, young women with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) represent an extreme phenotype associated with an excess mortality risk. While women younger than 55 years of age account for less than 5% of hospitalized AMI events, almost 16,000 deaths are reported annually in this group, making heart disease a leading killer of young women. Despite a higher risk of mortality compared with similarly aged men, young women have been the subject of few studies. Methods Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients (VIRGO) is a large, observational study of the presentation, treatment and outcomes of young women and men with AMI. VIRGO will enroll 2,000 women, 18–55 years of age, with AMI and a comparison cohort of 1,000 men with AMI from more than 100 participating hospitals. The aims of the study are: to determine sex differences in the distribution and prognostic importance of biological, demographic, clinical, and psychosocial risk factors; determine whether there are sex differences in the quality of care received by young AMI patients; and determine how these factors contribute to sex differences in outcomes (including mortality, hospitalization and health status). Blood serum and DNA for consenting participants will be stored for future studies. Conclusions VIRGO will seek to identify novel and prognostic factors that contribute to outcomes in this young AMI population. Results from the study will be used to develop clinically useful risk-stratification models for young AMI patients, explain sex differences in outcomes and identify targets for intervention. PMID:21081748
This paper discusses the gendering of self of a young boy who has two males as parents, from the view point of his female psychotherapist. During the 2 years of psychotherapy, the young boy was preoccupied with the need to create a kind of mother. He referred to his female caretaker as "Real Mommy" whom he loved and to his…
Gonzalez, Jodi M.; Alegria, Margarita; Prihoda, Thomas J.
This article investigates attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment in a national epidemiological sample. Young adults reported the most negative attitudes, as compared to older adults. Males reported more negative attitudes, as compared to females, a consistent finding in young adults. The gender difference was not consistent in Latinos…
Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Grandelski, Valen; Hansen, Nathan; Kershaw, Trace
The need for parenting and relationship strengthening programs is important among low-income minority parents where the burden of relational and parental stressors contributes to relationship dissolution. We examine these stressors among young parents. Data were collected from four focus groups (N = 35) with young parents. Data were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive coding was used to generate themes and codes, and analysis was completed using NVivo. Relationship and parenting challenges, values, and areas of need were the three major themes that emerged. Women's relationship challenges were family interference and unbalanced parenting, and men reported feeling disrespected and having limited finances. Common relationship challenges for women and men were family interference and unbalanced parenting. Both genders valued trust, communication, and honesty in relationships. Areas of need for women and men included: improving communication and understanding the impact of negative relationships on current relationships. Parenting challenges for women were unbalanced parenting, child safety, and feeling unprepared to parent; men reported limited finances. Both genders valued quality time with child to instill family morals. Areas of need for women and men included learning child discipline techniques and increasing knowledge about child development. Finally, women and men have relationship and parenting similarities and differences. Young parents are interested in learning how to improve relationships and co-parent to reduce relationship distress, which could reduce risk behaviors and improve child outcomes. PMID:24980026
Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Grandelski, Valen; Hansen, Nathan; Kershaw, Trace
The need for parenting and relationship strengthening programs is important among low-income minority parents where the burden of relational and parental stressors contributes to relationship dissolution. We examine these stressors among young parents. Data were collected from four focus groups (N = 35) with young parents. Data were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive coding was used to generate themes and codes, and analysis was completed using NVivo. Relationship and parenting challenges, values, and areas of need were the three major themes that emerged. Women's relationship challenges were family interference and unbalanced parenting, and men reported feeling disrespected and having limited finances. Common relationship challenges for women and men were family interference and unbalanced parenting. Both genders valued trust, communication, and honesty in relationships. Areas of need for women and men included: improving communication and understanding the impact of negative relationships on current relationships. Parenting challenges for women were unbalanced parenting, child safety, and feeling unprepared to parent; men reported limited finances. Both genders valued quality time with child to instill family morals. Areas of need for women and men included learning child discipline techniques and increasing knowledge about child development. Finally, women and men have relationship and parenting similarities and differences. Young parents are interested in learning how to improve relationships and co-parent to reduce relationship distress, which could reduce risk behaviors and improve child outcomes.
This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…
Hameed, M; Toft, A D; Pedersen, B K; Harridge, S D R; Goldspink, G
Recovery from micro damage resulting from intensive exercise has been shown to take longer in older muscles. To investigate the factors that may contribute to muscle repair, we have studied the expression of two splice variants of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene. IGF-IEa and mechano growth factor (MGF) were studied in response to 1 h of eccentric cycling exercise in young and old individuals. Subjects (nine young, aged 20-27 years and eight elderly, aged 67-75 years) completed an eccentric exercise protocol that consisted of 60 min of reverse pedal cycling. Workloads were chosen to give the same relative increases in oxygen uptake (VO2max) and heart rate in young and old subjects. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the quadriceps muscle before and 2 1/4 h after completion of the exercise bout and were analyzed for IGF-IEa and MGF mRNA levels using real-time quantitative PCR. No difference was observed between the baseline levels of the two splice variants between the two subject groups. Eccentric cycling exercise resulted in a significant increase in the mean MGF mRNA in both young and old subjects but did not alter IGF-IEa mRNA levels in either age group. As reported previously (Toft et al., 2002), the levels of serum creatine kinase and myoglobin, markers of muscle damage, were increased significantly from baseline and to 5 days after exercise in both young and old subjects. This supports previous research in suggesting that the MGF splice variant is sensitive to muscle damage-inducing exercise and is differentially regulated compared with IGF-IEa.
Braskie, Meredith N; Jahanshad, Neda; Stein, Jason L; Barysheva, Marina; Johnson, Kori; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Ringman, John M; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M
The NTRK1 gene (also known as TRKA) encodes a high affinity receptor for NGF, a neurotrophin involved in nervous system development and myelination. NTRK1 has been implicated in neurological function via links between the T allele at rs6336 (NTRK1-T) and schizophrenia risk. A variant in the neurotrophin gene, BDNF, was previously associated with white matter integrity in young adults, highlighting the importance of neurotrophins to white matter development. We hypothesized that NTRK1-T would relate to lower FA in healthy adults. We scanned 391 healthy adult human twins and their siblings (mean age: 23.6 ± 2.2 years; 31 NTRK1-T carriers, 360 non-carriers) using 105-gradient diffusion tensor imaging at 4 Tesla. We evaluated in brain white matter how NTRK1-T and NTRK1 rs4661063 allele A (rs4661063-A, which is in moderate linkage disequilibrium with rs6336) related to voxelwise fractional anisotropy – a common diffusion tensor imaging measure of white matter microstructure. We used mixed-model regression to control for family relatedness, age, and sex. The sample was split in half to test results reproducibility. The false discovery rate method corrected for voxelwise multiple comparisons. NTRK1-T and rs4661063-A correlated with lower white matter fractional anisotropy, independent of age and sex (multiple comparisons corrected: false discovery rate critical p = 0.038 for NTRK1-T and 0.013 for rs4661063-A). In each half-sample, the NTRK1-T effect was replicated in the cingulum, corpus callosum, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior corona radiata, and uncinate fasciculus. Our results suggest that NTRK1-T is important for developing white matter microstructure. PMID:22539856
This study examines gender and class differences in young people's beliefs about sexuality and HIV/AIDS risk-taking behaviours in Thailand. Sixty young people aged 15-19, divided equally by gender and socioeconomic background, participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews. Four topics were explored: the differences between 'good' and 'bad' girls/boys; young people's perceptions of sexuality; social class variations in young people's knowledge of HIV/AIDS and perceptions of risk; and the most influential institutions shaping young people's sexual attitudes. Results showed that young people screened potential sexual partners utilizing an image of 'good girls/boys' as potential HIV/AIDS-free partners; young people defined sexuality in terms of love/sexual relationships, premarital sex, promiscuity, and virginity; and HIV/AIDS awareness varied according to class. Young people of all classes failed to demonstrate an in-depth understanding of how they can contract AIDS. They neither viewed themselves as being in an at-risk group, nor considered their sexual behaviours to be at-risk behaviours. Finally, family, friends, and mass media were reported to be among the most influential institutions shaping young people's sexual attitudes. In the struggle against HIV/AIDS, these institutions together with health education not only protect but also can empower young people in Thailand.
Sterling, Kymberle L.; Fryer, Craig S.; Majeed, Ban; Duong, Melissa M.
The objective of our study was to identify waterpipe tobacco smoking advertisements and those that promoted a range of products and accessories used to smoke waterpipe tobacco. The content of these advertisements was analyzed to understand the messages portrayed about waterpipe tobacco smoking in young adult (aged 18–30) newspapers. The study methods include monitoring of six newspapers targeting young adults from four major cities in the Southeastern United States over a 6-month period. A total of 87 advertisements were found; 73.5% (64) were distinct and content analyzed. The study results showed that of the advertisements analyzed, 25% advertised waterpipe tobacco smoking, 54.7% featured waterpipe tobacco smoking and other tobacco use, 14.1% featured non-tobacco waterpipe variants (i.e. vaporizers), and 6.3% featured waterpipe apparatus accessories (e.g. charcoal, hoses). The sociability (34%) and sensuality (29.7%) of waterpipe smoking were promoted themes. Alternative to cigarette use messages (3.1%), and harm-reduction messages (17.1%) emphasized that smoking waterpipe tobacco using the featured accessory or waterpipe variant was a healthier experience than cigarette smoking. The study concluded that the messages that promoted waterpipe tobacco smoking to young adults are parallel to those used to promote cigarette use. Tobacco control professionals should continue to monitor young adult newspapers as a source of waterpipe-related advertising. PMID:24957675
Sterling, Kymberle L; Fryer, Craig S; Majeed, Ban; Duong, Melissa M
The objective of our study was to identify waterpipe tobacco smoking advertisements and those that promoted a range of products and accessories used to smoke waterpipe tobacco. The content of these advertisements was analyzed to understand the messages portrayed about waterpipe tobacco smoking in young adult (aged 18-30) newspapers. The study methods include monitoring of six newspapers targeting young adults from four major cities in the Southeastern United States over a 6-month period. A total of 87 advertisements were found; 73.5% (64) were distinct and content analyzed. The study results showed that of the advertisements analyzed, 25% advertised waterpipe tobacco smoking, 54.7% featured waterpipe tobacco smoking and other tobacco use, 14.1% featured non-tobacco waterpipe variants (i.e. vaporizers), and 6.3% featured waterpipe apparatus accessories (e.g. charcoal, hoses). The sociability (34%) and sensuality (29.7%) of waterpipe smoking were promoted themes. Alternative to cigarette use messages (3.1%), and harm-reduction messages (17.1%) emphasized that smoking waterpipe tobacco using the featured accessory or waterpipe variant was a healthier experience than cigarette smoking. The study concluded that the messages that promoted waterpipe tobacco smoking to young adults are parallel to those used to promote cigarette use. Tobacco control professionals should continue to monitor young adult newspapers as a source of waterpipe-related advertising.
Chorlian, David B.; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Edenberg, Howard; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice
The developmental trajectories of theta band (4-7 Hz) event-related oscillations (EROs), a key neurophysiological constituent of the P3 response, were assessed in 2170 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. The theta EROs occurring in the P3 response, important indicators of neurocognitive function, were elicited during the evaluation of task-relevant target stimuli in visual and auditory oddball tasks. These tasks call upon attentional and working memory resources. Large differences in developmental rates between males and females were found; scalp location and task modality (visual or auditory) differences within males and females were small compared to gender differences. Trajectories of interregional and intermodal correlations between ERO power values exhibited increases with age in both genders, but showed a divergence in development between auditory and visual systems during ages 16 to 21. These results are consistent with previous electrophysiological and imaging studies and provide additional temporal detail about the development of neurophysiological indices of cognitive activity. Since measures of the P3 response has been found to be a useful endophenotypes for the study of a number of clinical and behavioral disorders, studies of its development in adolescents and young adults may illuminate neurophysiological factors contributing to the onset of these conditions. PMID:26102560
Perry, Nicole B.; Cavanaugh, Alyson; Dunbar, Angel; Leerkes, Esther M.
The current study tested whether young adult’s recollected reports of their mother’s punitive reactions to their negative emotions in childhood predicted anger expression in young adulthood and whether emotional closeness weakens this association. Further, a three-way interaction was tested to examine whether emotional closeness is a stronger protective factor for young women than for young men. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction (gender X emotional closeness X maternal punitive reactions). For young men, maternal punitive reactions to negative emotions were directly associated with increased anger expressions. Maternal punitive reactions to young women’s negative emotions in childhood were associated with increased anger in adulthood only when they reported low maternal emotional closeness. Findings suggest that maternal emotional closeness may serve as a buffer against the negative effects of maternal punitive reactions for women’s anger expression in young adulthood. PMID:26568644
Danielsson, Ulla E; Bengs, Carita; Samuelsson, Eva; Johansson, Eva E
Depression is common among young people. Gender differences in diagnosing depression appear during adolescence. The study aim was to explore the impact of gender on depression in young Swedish men and women. Grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 23 young people aged 17 to 25 years who had been diagnosed with depression. Their narratives were marked by a striving to be normal and disclosed strong gender stereotypes, constructed in interaction with parents, friends, and the media. Gender norms were upheld by feelings of shame, and restricted the acting space of our informants. However, we also found transgressions of these gender norms. Primary health care workers could encourage young men to open up emotionally and communicate their personal distress, and young women to be daring and assertive of their own strengths, so that both genders might gain access to the positive coping strategies practiced respectively by each.
Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen
We examine gender and meanings of risk in interviews (2007–2010) with gang-involved young men and women (n = 253) engaged in illicit drug sales in San Francisco, California. The in-depth interviews from this NIDA-funded study were coded using the software NVivo to identify patterns and themes. We examine their interpretations of the risks of drug-selling and their narratives about gender differences in these risks. We find distinct discourses regarding the role of femininities and masculinities and male and female bodies in shaping risk as well as the nexus between gender, family, and risk for female drug sellers. PMID:25774919
Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen
We examine gender and meanings of risk in interviews (2007-2010) with gang-involved young men and women (n = 253) engaged in illicit drug sales in San Francisco, California. The in-depth interviews from this NIDA-funded study were coded using the software NVivo to identify patterns and themes. We examine their interpretations of the risks of drug-selling and their narratives about gender differences in these risks. We find distinct discourses regarding the role of femininities and masculinities and male and female bodies in shaping risk as well as the nexus between gender, family, and risk for female drug sellers.
Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina
Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group - young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside "headmaster") or feminine roles (badante "social care worker"), followed by a male (padre "father") or female kinship term (madre "mother"). The task was to decide if the two words - the role noun and the kinship term - could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press 'yes,' when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries.
Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina
Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group – young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside “headmaster”) or feminine roles (badante “social care worker”), followed by a male (padre “father”) or female kinship term (madre “mother”). The task was to decide if the two words – the role noun and the kinship term – could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press ‘yes,’ when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763
Avsar, Gulay; Ham, Roger; Tannous, W. Kathy
In Australia, as in many other developed economies, the prevalence of obesity has risen significantly in all age groups and especially in young males and females over the past decade. Using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, this paper investigates the influence of economic, personality and social factor demographics on the incidence of obesity in Australian youths. The study uses two random parameters logit models, including one that allows for gender-specific differences in the conditioning variables. The models reveal notable differences between the most important variables affecting the incidence of obesity amongst females compared to males. These differences are notable to consider for policy and intervention programs aimed at reducing the problem of obesity. PMID:28273825
Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jinyi
This study was performed to identify the factors influencing gender differences in sleep quality between men and women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a convenience sample of 300 young adults from three Korean universities. Participants were 20-40 years of age, used smartphones, and took no sleep medication. Participants completed questionnaires on sleep quality, exercise, stress, depression, and smart phone addiction. The predictors of sleep quality in men were coffee consumption, napping, depression, failure to engage in light exercise at least three times per week, being overweight, being in the potential smart phone addiction group, and being employed, which explained 30.2% of the variance. The predictors of sleep quality in women were education to college level or higher, smoking, and stress, which explained 30.5% of the variance. To improve sleep quality in this population, future intervention should contain life style modification strategies containing smartphone addiction prevention.
Zirk-Sadowski, Jan; Lamptey, Charlotte; Devine, Amy; Haggard, Mark; Szűcs, Dénes
We studied whether the origins of math anxiety can be related to a biologically supported framework of stress induction: (un)controllability perception, here indicated by self-reported independent efforts in mathematics. Math anxiety was tested in 182 children (8- to 11-year-olds). Latent factor modeling was used to test hypotheses on plausible causal processes and mediations within competing models in quasi-experimental contrasts. Uncontrollability perception in mathematics, or (in)dependence of efforts, best fit the data as an antecedent of math anxiety. In addition, the relationship of math anxiety with gender was fully mediated by adaptive perception of control (i.e. controllability). That is, young boys differ from girls in terms of their experience of control in mathematics learning. These differences influence math anxiety. Our findings are consistent with recent suggestions in clinical literature according to which uncontrollability makes women more susceptible to fear and anxiety disorders.
Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J
This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population.
Guo, Guang; Tong, Yuying; Xie, Cui-Wei; Lange, Leslie A
The dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) codes for a dopamine transporter protein, which limits the level and duration of dopamine receptor activation. The DAT1 gene is a strong candidate gene for reward-seeking behavior. This article reports compelling evidence for the association between the 40 bp variable number of tandem repeats in the DAT1 gene and the self-reported number of sexual partners among young adults in the United States using the sibling subsample of more than 2500 individuals who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We performed tests of genotype-gender interaction as well as analyses stratified by gender. Among the males, possessing one or two alleles of the 10 repeat is associated with an 80-100% increase (P<0.0001, 2df) in the number of sexual partners as compared with the homozygotes for the 9 repeat. The association holds in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, in Allison's procedure that tests population stratification, and in within-family fixed-effects models. Covariate adjustment for a standard set of socioeconomic factors including religiosity, family structure, parental education, marital and cohabitation history, and neighborhood poverty did not attenuate these associations. Discussion is provided why this finding is absent among females.
Fatima, Yaqoot; Doi, Suhail A.R.; Najman, Jake M.; Mamun, Abdullah Al
Objectives To explore if gender difference in sleep quality is due to higher prevalence of depression in females, and whether socio-demographic and lifestyle factors have a differential effect on sleep quality in males and females. Methods Youth self-reports and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to assess sleep quality and associated risk factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association between various risk factors and poor sleep quality. Results Reports from 3,778 young adults (20.6±0.86 years) indicate a higher prevalence of poor sleep quality in females than males (65.1% vs. 49.8%). It seems that gender difference in poor sleep is independent of depression, socio-demographics, and lifestyle factors, since the higher odds of poor sleep quality in females was robust to adjust for depression, socio-demographics, and lifestyle factors (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.23–1.90). Lifestyle factors (eg, smoking) (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.05–3.46) were associated with sleep quality in only males. Conclusion Our findings indicate that female vulnerability to poor sleep quality should be explored beyond psycho-social disparities. Perhaps, exploring if the female predisposition to poor sleep quality originates at the biological level could lead to the answer. PMID:28188139
Lipps, David B.; Eckner, James T.; Richardson, James K.; Ashton-Miller, James A.
We tested the hypotheses that gender and task difficulty affect the reaction, movement, and total response times associated with performing a head protective response. Twenty-four healthy young adults (13 females) performed a protective response of raising their hands from waist level to block a foam ball fired at their head from an air cannon. Participants initially stood 8.25 m away from the cannon (‘low difficulty’), and were moved successively closer in 60 cm increments until they failed to block at least 5 of 8 balls (‘high difficulty’). Limb motion was quantified using optoelectronic markers on the participants’ left wrist. Males had significantly faster total response times (p = 0.042), a trend towards faster movement times (p = 0.054), and faster peak wrist velocity (p < .001) and acceleration (p = 0.032) than females. Reaction time, movement time, and total response time were significantly faster under high difficulty conditions for both genders (p < .001). This study suggests that baseball and softball pitchers and fielders should have sufficient time to protect their head from a batted ball under optimal conditions if they are adequately prepared for the task. PMID:23234296
Hidalgo, Marco A; Kuhns, Lisa M; Kwon, Soyang; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert
Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are a risk group highly vulnerable to HIV infection and psychiatric symptoms are direct predictors of sexual risk behavior in MSM. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with psychiatric symptomology in adolescence, and MSM are disproportionately impacted by CSA compared to heterosexuals. Some evidence suggests that childhood gender nonconformity, a natural variation of human gender expression, is more common in MSM than heterosexual males and places MSM at greater risk for CSA. This study examined whether or not childhood gender expression moderated the association between incidents of unwanted, early sexual experiences occurring before age 13 (ESE) and current psychiatric symptomology in a community-based sample of 449 young MSM aged 16-20. Analyses revealed significant bivariate associations between ESE and psychological symptoms, and significant multivariable associations between ESE, gender nonconformity and psychiatric outcomes. Young MSM with childhood gender nonconformity may be disproportionately victimized by CSA thereby increasing their likelihood of developing psychiatric symptoms in adolescence. Early intervention addressing these factors may help reduce lifetime negative sequelae.
Hidalgo, Marco A.; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Kwon, Soyang; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert
Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are a risk group highly vulnerable to HIV infection and psychiatric symptoms are direct predictors of sexual risk behavior in MSM. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with psychiatric symptomology in adolescence, and MSM are disproportionately impacted by CSA compared to heterosexuals. Some evidence suggests that childhood gender nonconformity, a natural variation of human gender expression, is more common in MSM than heterosexual males and places MSM at greater risk for CSA. This study examined whether or not childhood gender expression moderated the association between incidents of unwanted, early sexual experiences occurring before age 13 (ESE) and current psychiatric symptomology in a community-based sample of 449 young MSM aged 16–20. Analyses revealed significant bivariate associations between ESE and psychological symptoms, and significant multivariable associations between ESE, gender nonconformity and psychiatric outcomes. Young MSM with childhood gender nonconformity may be disproportionately victimized by CSA thereby increasing their likelihood of developing psychiatric symptoms in adolescence. Early intervention addressing these factors may help reduce lifetime negative sequelae. PMID:26002599
Oduro, Georgina Yaa; Swartz, Sharlene; Arnot, Madeleine
Using a social ecological approach (Bronfenbrenner) to violence and including Hobsbawm's historical analysis of the collective uses of violence, this article shows how gender-based violence is experienced and used. Drawing on three distinct studies in Ghana, Kenya and South Africa, it shows the commonalities and divergence of young people's…
Kuyper, Lisette; de Wit, John; Smolenski, Derek; Adam, Philippe; Woertman, Liesbeth; van Berlo, Willy
The development of effective policies and programs to prevent sexual coercion among young people requires thorough understanding of the diversity of coercive sexual experiences, patterns in such types of experiences, and similarities and differences between subgroups, especially by gender, in patterns of coercive sexual experiences and…
Vinaja, Sean Stephen
Many Christian students graduate from secondary schools and enter Christian colleges with worldviews that are unbiblical or contain unbiblical components, many of which stem from their beliefs regarding origins. Little research has been done to study the effect of gender on the role of a young-earth creationist (YEC) origins course in shaping…
This paper investigates the ways in which young women come to view gender as being an influence upon their future lives--their aspirations and expectations for the future. In doing so, it draws upon 327 surveys completed by year 12 female students, typically 17 years of age, in a range of schools across the State of Queensland, Australia. The…
Wilksch, Simon M.; Wade, Tracey D.
Thin-ideal (or media) internalization is an important eating disorder risk factor that has become a central target of many prevention programs. However, evidence for its valid assessment in young, mixed-gender, adolescent samples is limited, and the current study is the first to explore the psychometric properties of the 30-item Sociocultural…
Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.
This study examined young students' perceptions of gender-appropriate science courses. The sample consisted of 427 students in grades 4, 5, and 6, between the ages of 9 and 13. Students completed the Course Selection Sheet (CSS) to choose courses for themselves and members of the opposite gender. A psychosocial framework was offered to explain the differential course selection patterns between young boys and girls. The study reveals a strong gender effect pointing toward stereotypical perceptions of selected science courses for oneself (p 0.01). When students selected science courses for the opposite gender, the evidence of gender-role stereotypes was even greater (p < 0.000). Course selection profiles imply that a reciprocal relationship exists in the number and kind of courses selected by girls and boys. A detailed analysis suggests that both boys and girls perceive physical science and technology-related courses as appropriate subjects for boys to study and life sciences as appropriate subjects for girls to study. Surprisingly, students' future science course selections resemble current enrollment data of master's and doctoral candidates. The students' perceptions of science are seen years prior to the actual encounter with the science courses listed on the course selection menu. These findings question the auspiciousness of programs designed to ameliorate gender differences in science during junior or senior high school years. Suggestions for school curriculum development and the importance of informal science experiences were examined.
Meagley, Kathryn; Schriver, Brittany; Geary, Rebecca S.; Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Stein, Aryeh D.; Dunkle, Kristin L.; Norris, Shane A.
Background Young people constitute a major proportion of the general population and are influenced by a variety of factors, especially in regards to seeking help. An understanding of help-seeking behaviors among young people is important for designing and implementing effective targeted health services. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 23 young adults aged 21–22 years in Soweto, South Africa, to explore the gender dimensions of social networks and help-seeking behaviors. Results We found that young men had larger peer social networks than young women and that young women's social networks centered on their households. For general health, both young men and young women often sought help from an older, maternal figure. However, for sexual health, young men consulted their group of peers, whereas young women were more likely to seek information from one individual, such as an older female friend or family member. Conclusion These differences in help-seeking behaviors have important implications for the delivery of health information in South Africa and how health promotion is packaged to young men and women, especially for sexual and reproductive health issues. Peer educators might be very effective at conveying health messages for young men, whereas women might respond better to health information presented in a more confidential setting either through community health workers or mHealth technologies. Provision of or linkage to health services that is consistent with young people's health-seeking behavior, such as using peer educators and community health care workers, may increase the reach and utilization of these services among young people. PMID:27265147
Meagley, Kathryn; Schriver, Brittany; Geary, Rebecca S; Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Stein, Aryeh D; Dunkle, Kristin L; Norris, Shane A
Background Young people constitute a major proportion of the general population and are influenced by a variety of factors, especially in regards to seeking help. An understanding of help-seeking behaviors among young people is important for designing and implementing effective targeted health services. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 23 young adults aged 21-22 years in Soweto, South Africa, to explore the gender dimensions of social networks and help-seeking behaviors. Results We found that young men had larger peer social networks than young women and that young women's social networks centered on their households. For general health, both young men and young women often sought help from an older, maternal figure. However, for sexual health, young men consulted their group of peers, whereas young women were more likely to seek information from one individual, such as an older female friend or family member. Conclusion These differences in help-seeking behaviors have important implications for the delivery of health information in South Africa and how health promotion is packaged to young men and women, especially for sexual and reproductive health issues. Peer educators might be very effective at conveying health messages for young men, whereas women might respond better to health information presented in a more confidential setting either through community health workers or mHealth technologies. Provision of or linkage to health services that is consistent with young people's health-seeking behavior, such as using peer educators and community health care workers, may increase the reach and utilization of these services among young people.
Harbaugh, Evan; Lindsey, Eric W
Individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality have been linked to numerous personality and demographic variables. This study investigated the influence that gender role identity, involvement in gender-typed activities, and religiosity plays in this relationship. The sample included 194 undergraduate students from a Northeastern university. Analyses revealed that both males and females who held a more masculine gender role identity and individual commitment to religion scored higher on measures of homophobia and heteronormativity, whereas there was no association between spiritual meaning in life and attitudes toward homosexuality. Among males, but not females, more masculine gender identity and less spiritual meaning in life was associated with greater homophobia. The importance of the findings for research on the origins of attitudes toward individuals with a homosexual orientation are discussed, as well as the potential directions for future research on connections between gender role identity, religious affiliation, and attitudes toward gays and lesbians.
Baams, Laura; Beek, Titia; Hille, Helene; Zevenbergen, Felice C; Bos, Henny M W
Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults (106 females and 86 males, 16-24 years old) were assessed to establish whether there was a relation between gender nonconformity and psychological well-being and whether this relation was mediated by perceived experiences of stigmatization due to perceived or actual sexual orientation and moderated by biological sex. The participants were recruited via announcements on Dutch LGBTQ-oriented community websites and then linked to a protected online questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to measure gender nonconformity, perceived experiences of stigmatization, and psychological well-being. Gender nonconformity was found to predict lower levels of psychological well-being and the mediation analysis confirmed that lower levels of psychological well-being were related to the perceived experiences of stigmatization. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. These findings show that both research and interventions should pay more attention to gender nonconformity among young people in order to create a more positive climate for young sexual minority members.
Conry-Murray, Clare; Turiel, Elliot
To assess the flexibility of reasoning about gender, children ages 4, 6, and 8 years (N = 72) were interviewed about gender norms when different domains were highlighted. The majority of participants at all ages judged a reversal of gender norms in a different cultural context to be acceptable. They also judged gender norms as a matter of personal…
Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Hyde, Janet S
Little research has examined whether experiencing sexual fluidity--changes over time in attractions and sexual orientation identity--is related to specific cognitions. This study explored attitudes and beliefs among sexually fluid and non-sexually fluid individuals and developed two new measures of sexuality beliefs based on Diamond's sexual fluidity research and Dweck's psychological theory of intelligence beliefs. Participants were 188 female and male young adults in the United States with a same-gender orientation, ages 18-26 years. Participants completed an online questionnaire which assessed sexual fluidity in attractions and sexual orientation identity, attitudes toward bisexuality, sexuality beliefs, and demographics. Sexual fluidity in attractions was reported by 63 % of females and 50 % of males, with 48 % of those females and 34 % of those males reporting fluidity in sexual orientation identity. No significant gender differences in frequency of sexual fluidity were observed. Sexually fluid females had more positive attitudes toward bisexuality than non-sexually fluid females; however, no significant difference was observed for males. Females were more likely than males to endorse sexual fluidity beliefs and to believe that sexuality is changeable; and sexually fluid persons were more likely than non-sexually fluid persons to hold those two beliefs. Among males, non-sexually fluid individuals were more likely than sexually fluid individuals to believe that sexuality is something an individual is born with. Females were more likely than males to endorse the belief that sexuality is influenced by the environment. Findings from this research link sexual fluidity with specific cognitions.
Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; Achtzehn, Silvia; Hildebrand, Ursula; Predel, Hans-Georg; Mester, Joachim; Schänzer, Wilhelm
Iron depletion seems to occur more frequently among athletes than in the general population and may affect performance capacity. Only little information is available about the prevalence of iron status abnormalities in young elite athletes and whether iron depletion is associated with gender, sport, age or nutrition- and exercise-related factors in this group. Hence, diet, exercise and haematological data from 193 elite athletes (96 males, 97 females; 16.2 ± 2.7 years) from 24 different sports were analyzed retrospectively. Most female athletes failed to meet the recommended daily allowance for iron, even though dietary iron density was higher than in males (5.75 ± 0.78 vs. 6.17 ± 0.98 mg/1,000 kcal; P = 0.001). Iron depletion (serum ferritin < 35 μg/L) occurred in 31% of male and 57% of female athletes (P < 0.001). Low haemoglobin (males: <13 g/dL; females: <12 g/dL) and haematocrit (males: <40%; females: <36%) values were equally prevalent in both genders [haemoglobin: 7.3% (males), 6.2% (females); haematocrit: 13.5% (males); 15.5% (females)]. In females, reduced ferritin levels were associated with a lower dietary iron density (5.9 ± 0.8 vs. 6.6 ± 1.1 mg/1,000 kcal; P = 0.002). Males with iron depletion had a significantly higher estimated energy expenditure (48.7 ± 7.0 vs. 44.4 ± 7.6 kcal/kg/day; P = 0.009).
Bajuri, Mohd Yazid; Johan, Rudy Reza; Shukur, Hassan
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a continuum of fat emboli. Variants of FES: acute fulminant form and classic FES are postulated to represent two different pathomechanisms. Acute fulminant FES occurs during the first 24 h. It is attributed to massive mechanical blockage pulmonary vasculature by the fat emboli. The classic FES typically has a latency period of 24–36 h manifestation of respiratory failure and other signs of fat embolism. Progression of asymptomatic fat embolism with FES frequently represents inadequate treatment of hypovolaemic shock. We present a rare case of two variants of FES evolving in a patient with multiple fractures to emphasis the importance of adequate and appropriate treatment of shock in preventing the development of FES. Since supportive therapy which is a ventilatory support remains as the treatment of FES, it is appropriate to treat FES in the intensive care unit setting. PMID:23576653
Francis, Becky; Archer, Louise; Moote, Julie; DeWitt, Jen; MacLeod, Emily; Yeomans, Lucy
The present article investigates explanations for gendered trends in Physics and Engineering access, reporting findings from a large-scale study funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council and drawing primarily on data from interviews with 132 15-16 year-old adolescents and their parents. Survey results in our study and elsewhere show strong gender disparities in anticipated pursuit of Physics after completion of compulsory education. In order to explore the constructions of gender and Physics underlying these trends, we focus on qualitative interview data, applying Foucaultian analysis of discourse to investigate gendered narratives underpinning adolescents' and their parents' articulations. This analysis reveals three key discourses at work on the topic of women's access to Physics: (a) equality of opportunity, (b) continued gender discrimination in and around Physics, and (c) Physics as quintessentially masculine. We additionally identify five distinct narratives supporting the discourse of physics as masculine. These various discourses and narratives are interrogated, and their implications explored. We conclude that it is only by disrupting prevalent constructions of the Physical sciences as a masculine and "hard" domain will we increase the presence of women in the sector. Working with young people to analyse and deconstruct the discursive assumptions made in relation to gender and Physics, as well as further work to increase accessibility and broaden representation in Physics, may be fruitful ways to challenge these longstanding associations between Physics and masculinity.
Perrin, Andrew J.; Smolek, Sondra J.
First proposed by Mueller, the theory of the “rally effect” predicts that public support for government officials will increase when an event occurs that (1) is international; (2) involves the United States; and (3) is specific, dramatic, and sharply focused (Mueller 1973, p. 209). Using the natural experiment of a large (N=15,127) survey of young adults ages 18-27 that was in the field during the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, we confirm the existence of a rally effect on trust in government as well as its subsequent decay. We then use a predictive modeling approach to investigate individual-level dynamics of rallying around the flag and anti-rallying in the face of the national threat. By disaggregating predictors of rallying, we demonstrate remarkably different patterns of response to the attacks based on sex and, particularly, race. The results confirm expectations of national threat inciting a rally effect, but indicate that the dynamics of this rally effect are complex and race and gender-dependent. The article offers previously-unavailable insights into the dynamics of rallying and trust in government. PMID:19569296
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A
We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.
Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women’s intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population. PMID:21259042
Mathur, Smita; Parameswaran, Gowri
The authors explore gender differences in the play of children of migrant farm workers from Mexico. They review the literature that indicates children exhibit gender differences in their play as early as three years old, but the authors claim their findings do not corroborate the existing research on gender differences in play. The twenty-one…
Pardhan, Almina; Pelletier, Janette
A key area of interest is the way in which early years educators' perceptions about the concept of gender may influence their practice in relation to how children's ideas about gender might be supported and reinforced. However, this area has received little attention in the highly gender-segregated context of Pakistan. Understanding evidence-based…
Brown, Qiana; Milam, Adam J; Bowie, Janice V; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Furr-Holden, Debra
Tobacco outlet exposure is a correlate of tobacco use with potential differences by gender that warrant attention. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating role of gender in the relationship between tobacco outlet exposure and past month tobacco use among African American young adults 21 to 24 years old. This cross-sectional study (n = 283) used geospatial methods to determine the number of tobacco outlets within walking distance (i.e., a quarter mile) of participants' homes and distance to the nearest outlet. Logistic regression models were used to test interactions between gender and tobacco outlet exposure (i.e., density and proximity). Tobacco outlets were classified based on whether or not they were licensed to sell tobacco only (TO outlets) or tobacco and alcohol (TA outlets). Neither density nor proximity was associated with past month tobacco use in the pooled models. However, gender modified the relationship between TO outlet density and tobacco use, and this relationship was significant only among women (OR = 1.02; p < 0.01; adjusted OR = 1.01; p < 0.05). This study underscores the importance of reducing tobacco outlet density in residential neighborhoods, especially TO outlets, as well as highlights potential gender differences in the relationship between tobacco outlet density and tobacco use.
This article explores young women's orientation to work and motherhood in the post-communist context of radical socio-economic transformation in Europe. Based on a qualitative-explorative study into meanings of work and unemployment among young people in post-Soviet Lithuania, the paper introduces an empirically grounded classification of imagined gender-work arrangements. The single patterns of the classification are based on the three configurations of work and motherhood, work and partnership, and work and provision. The findings inform the reconstruction of the 'landscape' of imagined gendered adulthoods in Europe as well as the analysis of emerging gender relations under conditions of rapid social change.
Harris, C; Straker, L; Pollock, C
Young people are exposed to a range of information technologies (IT) in different environments, including home and school, however the factors influencing IT use at home and school are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate young people's computer exposure patterns at home and school, and related factors such as age, gender and the types of IT used. 1351 children in Years 1, 6, 9 and 11 from 10 schools in metropolitan Western Australia were surveyed. Most children had access to computers at home and school, with computer exposures comparable to TV, reading and writing. Total computer exposure was greater at home than school, and increased with age. Computer activities varied with age and gender and became more social with increased age, at the same time parental involvement reduced. Bedroom computer use was found to result in higher exposure patterns. High use of home and school computers were associated with each other. Associations varied depending on the type of IT exposure measure (frequency, mean weekly hours, usual and longest duration). The frequency and duration of children's computer exposure were associated with a complex interplay of the environment of use, the participant's age and gender and other IT activities.
Much American popular culture has often been criticized for its negative portrayals of females and its potentially harmful influence on young children. However, there are insufficient studies about American young girls' actual understanding of these female representations. Specifically, the perspectives of young immigrant girls have hardly been…
Lindong, Ian; Edwards, Lorece; Dennis, Sabriya; Fajobi, Olaoluwa
Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) disproportionately burdens African American youth and young adults. In studies conducted in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) settings, African American youth generally perceive themselves as having a low risk of contracting HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) despite having higher rates of unprotected sexual encounters, multiple sex partners, and particularly low rates of HIV testing and awareness of HIV status. These findings position HBCUs in a pivotal role for theory-based research and practice to modify behaviors in order to decrease HIV acquisition risk. Get Students Mobilized and Retooled to Transform (SMART) is an interventional research project in an urban HBCU in a northeastern metropolitan area in the US. The project is designed to assess and then address irresponsible behavior among students on college campuses that leads to illicit drug use, excessive alcohol consumption and underage drinking, and risky sexual behaviors that increase the likelihood of acquiring HIV and STDs. As gender plays a critical role in interventions, this article explores gender similarities and differences to inform the planning and implementation of Get SMART and any subsequent projects that address substance and alcohol use and HIV in an HBCU setting. Survey research was conducted to find similar and different factors that may be valuable in implementing and tailoring evidence-based interventions in a predominantly African American campus setting. Survey results revealed that more young adult women consume alcohol and use marijuana than young adult men. Young adult men were also more likely to be tested for HIV when compared to young adult women. PMID:28146047
Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Ojanen, Timo T; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Iamsilpa, Rachawadee; Topananan, Soifa; Cholratana, Mudjalin; Guadamuz, Thomas E
This paper focuses on the experiences of women 15-24 years old living in one suburban district in Bangkok. Its objectives are to analyse processes of building and negotiating social identity and femininity in online spaces by young women; the ways in which young women express their sexuality using online technologies; connections between the 'online' and 'offline' worlds in terms of emotions as well as social and sexual networks; and traditional values regarding female sexuality reproduced through online media and how young women negotiate and resist these. Content and narrative analyses were conducted using qualitative data from 9 focus-group discussions and 14 narrative interviews. Findings indicated that the online media serve as tools that help young women develop and express their gender identities. Mobile phones and the Internet facilitate communication in order to express love, responsibility, intimacy and sexual desires. Discourse on women's chastity, which puts pressure on women to maintain their virginity, still influences online and mobile contents, messages and images among young women. However, women also exerted agency in negotiating and expressing their sexuality, both online and offline.
Katch, Hannah; Katch, Jane
In this Voices Inside Schools essay, Hannah Katch and Jane Katch reflect on gender roles and how they are enacted in the classroom. When Timothy, a student in Jane's kindergarten class, refuses to count himself as one of the boys during a math lesson, Jane begins a conversation about social constructions of gender with her daughter, Hannah.…
Bergman, Manfred Max; Scott, Jacqueline
Youth Surveys of the British Household Panel Study were used to examine the well being of adolescents. Well being is conceptualized as a multi-dimensional construct and models of gender and age differences were developed and tested. Confirmatory factor analysis found clear gender differences in self esteem, unhappiness, and worries. Many…
Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.
This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…
Vinaja, Sean Stephen
Many Christian students graduate from secondary schools and enter Christian colleges with worldviews that are unbiblical or contain unbiblical components, many of which stem from their beliefs regarding origins. Little research has been done to study the effect of gender on the role of a young-earth creationist (YEC) origins course in shaping students' worldview. Research has shown that males and females respond differently to science and religion instruction; because the origins discussion is an intersection of science and religion, the study of gender's effect in developing a Bible-based worldview is important so that Christian colleges might more effectively guide their students in developing that biblical worldview. The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to determine whether students' gender affected their YEC worldview components after enrollment in a YEC origins course while controlling for their pre-course worldviews. A sample of 315 residential students enrolled in a YEC origins course at a conservative Christian college in the Southeast completed the Creationist Worldview Scale before and after taking the course; the survey also contained a demographic questionnaire that collected information regarding students' gender, major, classification, ethnicity, and secondary schooling. The data were analyzed using a one way ANCOVA. There were no statistically significant differences between male and female students' posttest age scores or posttest science scores, but there was a significant difference between their posttest theology scores. Suggestions for further research are also included.
Praveen, E P; Desai, Ankush K; Khurana, M L; Philip, Jim; Eunice, Marumudi; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Kucheria, Kiran; Gupta, Devendra K; Seith, Ashu; Ammini, Ariachery C
Male pseudohermaphroditism (46,XY DSD) due to 5alpha-reductase deficiency has been recognized for the last few decades. There is scant literature on this entity in India. We compiled data on five patients with this disorder. Four of our five patients were reared as females. Our assessment of these children reveals that they had male gender identity from childhood. Three of the four reared as females chose to change gender role at adolescence, while the fourth is still prepubertal. We conclude that all these patients had male gender identity from early childhood. The parents took note of this only after the appearance of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty, thereby giving an impression of change in gender identity and gender role.
Harrison, Abigail; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Hoffman, Susie; Dolezal, Curtis; Morrell, Robert
In the global literature on HIV/AIDS, much attention has been paid to the role of gender inequalities in facilitating the transmission of HIV. For women, gender inequality may be manifested in sexual coercion, reduced negotiating power and partnering with older men, all practices that heighten risk for HIV. Less attention, however, has been paid to how men's relationship behaviors may place them at risk for HIV. Using six culturally specific psychometric scales developed in South Africa, this study examined men's and women's gender role and relationship norms, attitudes and beliefs in the context of ongoing partnerships. These measures were then examined in relation to four sexual risk behaviors: frequency of condom use (with primary or secondary partners) and number of partners (last 3 months and lifetime). Participants were 101 male and 199 female young adults aged, 18-24, recruited from a secondary school in northern KwaZulu/Natal province. Associations between gender and relationship scale scores and sexual risk outcomes yielded both expected and contradictory findings. For men, more frequent condom use was associated with higher levels of partner attachment (hyper-romanticism) but also with stronger approval of relationship violence and dominant behavior. In contrast, for women, more frequent condom use was correlated with a lower endorsement of relationship violence. Men with lower relationship power scores had fewer sexual partners in the preceding 3 months, while women with more egalitarian sexual scripts reported more sexual partners, as did those with higher hyper-romanticism scores. In logistic regression analysis, more egalitarian relationship norms among men were predictive of less consistent condom use, as were higher relationship power scores for women. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research on gender, heterosexual interactions and masculinity in this area, as well as the implications for HIV prevention programs.
Monnard, Cathríona R.; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Grasser, Erik K.
Background and Purpose: Energy drinks (EDs) are suspected to induce potential adverse cardiovascular effects and have recently been shown to reduce cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in young, healthy subjects. Gender differences in CBFV in response to EDs have not previously been investigated, despite the fact that women are more prone to cardiovascular disturbances such as neurocardiogenic syncope than men. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore gender differences in cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses to EDs. Methods: We included 45 subjects in a retrospective analysis of pooled data from two previous randomized trials carried out in our laboratory with similar protocols. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, impedance cardiography, transcranial Doppler, and end-tidal carbon dioxide (etCO2) measurements were made for at least 20 min baseline and for 80 min following the ingestion of 355 mL of a sugar-sweetened ED. Gender and time differences in cerebrovascular and cardiovascular parameters were investigated. Results: CBFV was significantly reduced in response to ED, with the greatest reduction observed in women compared with men (−12.3 ± 0.8 vs. −9.7 ± 0.8%, P < 0.05). Analysis of variance indicated significant time (P < 0.01) and gender × time (P < 0.01) effects. The percentage change in CBFV in response to ED was independent of body weight and etCO2. No significant gender difference in major cardiovascular parameters in response to ED was observed. Conclusions: ED ingestion reduced CBFV over time, with a greater reduction observed in women compared with men. Our results have potential implications for women ED consumers, as well as high-risk individuals. PMID:27559316
Funk, J B; Buchman, D D; Germann, J N
Electronic game-playing has been linked to adjustment problems in player subgroups. This study examined relationships among time commitment, gender, preference for violent games, and self-concept in 364 fourth and fifth graders. Main effects were identified for game preference and gender, with stronger preference for violent games being associated with lower self-perceived behavioral conduct. Implications for future research are discussed.
Tarrés, Marta Bertran; Ponferrada-Arteaga, Maribel; Rovira, Jordi Pàmies
This article examines the lives of pioneering young women from Morocco, the first to enjoy educational and social success in Catalonia, by analyzing the family negotiations entered into during this process. The study is based on the life stories of these young Moroccan women and on ideas that emerge from discussion groups involving the women…
Dreyer, Rachel P; Smolderen, Kim G; Strait, Kelly M; Beltrame, John F; Lichtman, Judith H; Lorenze, Nancy P; D’Onofrio, Gail; Bueno, Héctor; Krumholz, Harlan M; Spertus, John A
Aims We assessed gender differences in pre-event health status (symptoms, functioning, quality of life) in young patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and whether or not this association persists following sequential adjustment for important covariates. We also evaluated the interaction between gender and prior coronary artery disease (CAD), given that aggressive symptom control is a cornerstone of care in those with known coronary disease. Methods and Results A total of 3,501 AMI patients (2,349 women) aged 18–55 years were enrolled from 103 United States/24 Spanish hospitals (2008–2012). Clinical/health status information was obtained by medical record abstraction and patient interviews. Pre-event health status was measured by generic [Short Form-12 (SF-12), EuroQoL [EQ-5D)] and disease-specific [Seattle angina questionnaire (SAQ)] measures. T-test/chi-square and multivariable linear/logistic regression analysis was utilized, sequentially adjusting for covariates. Women had more co-morbidities and significantly lower generic mean health scores than men [SF-12 physical health =43±12 vs. 46±11 and mental health= 44±13 vs. 48±11]; EQ-5D utility index=0.7±0.2 vs. 0.8±0.2, and visual analog scale=63±22 vs. 67±20, P<0.0001 for all. Their disease-specific health status was also worse, with more angina [SAQ angina frequency=83±22 vs. 87±18], worse physical function [physical limitation=78±27 vs. 87±21] and poorer quality of life [55±25 vs. 60±22, P<0.0001 for all]. In multivariable analysis, the association between female gender and worse generic physical/mental health persisted, as well as worse disease-specific physical limitation and quality of life. The interaction between gender and prior CAD was not significant in any of the health status outcomes. Conclusion Young women have worse pre-event health status as compared with men, regardless of their CAD history. While future studies of gender differences should adjust for baseline health
Santana, M Christina; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; La Marche, Ana; Silverman, Jay G
This study sought to assess the association between traditional masculine gender role ideologies and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration behaviors in young men's heterosexual relationships. Sexually active men age 18-35 years attending an urban community health center in Boston were invited to join a study on men's sexual risk; participants (N=307) completed a brief self-administered survey on sexual risk (unprotected sex, forced unprotected sex, multiple sex partners) and IPV perpetration (physical, sexual and injury from/need for medical services due to IPV) behaviors, as well as demographics. Current analyses included men reporting sex with a main female partner in the past 3 months (n=283). Logistic regression analyses adjusted for demographics were used to assess significant associations between male gender role ideologies and the sexual risk and IPV perpetration behaviors. Participants were predominantly Hispanic (74.9%) and Black (21.9%); 55.5% were not born in the continental U.S.; 65% had been in the relationship for more than 1 year. Men reporting more traditional ideologies were significantly more likely to report unprotected vaginal sex in the past 3 months (OR(adj) = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2-4.6) and IPV perpetration in the past year (OR(adj) = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.6). Findings indicate that masculine gender role ideologies are linked with young men's unprotected vaginal sex and IPV perpetration in relationships, suggesting that such ideologies may be a useful point of sexual risk reduction and IPV prevention intervention with this population.
Foster, Katherine T.; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Background Gender differences in the prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have motivated the separate study of its risk factors and consequences in men and women. However, leveraging gender as a third variable to help account for the association between risk factors and consequences for AUD could elucidate etiological mechanisms and clinical outcomes. Method Using data from a large, community sample followed longitudinally from ages 17 to 29, we tested for gender differences in psychosocial risk factors and consequences in adolescence and adulthood after controlling for gender differences in the base rates of AUD and the psychosocial factor. Psychosocial factors included alcohol use, other drug use, externalizing and internalizing symptoms, deviant peer affiliation, family adversity, academic problems, attitudes and use of substances by a romantic partner, and adult socio-economic status. Results At both ages 17 and 29, mean-levels of psychosocial risks and consequences were higher in men and those with AUD. However, the amount of risk exposure in adolescence was more predictive of AUD in women than men. By adulthood, AUD consequences were larger in women than men and internalizing risk had a stronger relationship with AUD in women at both ages. Conclusion Despite higher mean-levels of risk exposure in men overall, AUD appears to be a more severe disorder in women characterized by higher levels of adolescent risk factors and a greater magnitude of the AUD consequences among women than men. Furthermore, internalizing symptoms appear to be a gender specific risk factor for AUD in women. PMID:26118496
Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia
Sexual communication is an important strategy in promoting safer sex behavior, but few investigators have explored sexual communication among young adult Latinos. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the role of traditional gender norms, relationship factors (relationship characteristics and relationship power), intrapersonal factors (attitudes and subjective norms), and acculturation as statistical predictors of three different types of sexual communication (sexual health, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication) in Latino women and men. The sample was 220 Latinos (111 women and 109 men) ages 18-30 years who were sexually active in heterosexual relationships. In multiple regression, after controlling for relationship power, intrapersonal factors, and acculturation, traditional gender norms did not predict sexual communication for either women or men. For both women and men, pleasure-focused communication (pleasure discussions and physical sexual communication) increased with acculturation. For women, the strongest predictor of all types of sexual communication was their attitudes toward sexual communication. Greater relationship power and lower acculturation were associated with women's sexual health communication. For men, no variables explained sexual health communication or physical sexual communication, and acculturation and attitude toward pleasure discussions predicted pleasure communication. Women who believed they had power in their relationships and had positive attitudes toward pleasure discussions and a high level of acculturation reported more physical sexual communication. Findings suggest the importance of relationship power, attitudes, and acculturation in young adult Latinos' sexual communication. Sexual risk prevention strategies among young adult Latinos should include encouraging sexual communication by supporting positive attitudes toward pleasure-focused communication. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gibbs, Andrew; Willan, Samantha; Misselhorn, Alison; Mangoma, Jaqualine
Background Young people in southern and eastern Africa remain disproportionately vulnerable to HIV with gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities being key drivers of this. Behavioural HIV prevention interventions have had weak outcomes and a new generation of structural interventions have emerged seeking to challenge the wider drivers of the HIV epidemic, including gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities. Methods We searched key academic data bases to identify interventions that simultaneously sought to strengthen people's livelihoods and transform gender relationships that had been evaluated in southern and eastern Africa. Our initial search identified 468 articles. We manually reviewed these and identified nine interventions that met our criteria for inclusion. Results We clustered the nine interventions into three groups: microfinance and gender empowerment interventions; supporting greater participation of women and girls in primary and secondary education; and gender empowerment and financial literacy interventions. We summarise the strengths and limitations of these interventions, with a particular focus on what lessons may be learnt for young people (18–24). Conclusions Our review identified three major lessons for structural interventions that sought to transform gender relationships and strengthen livelihoods: 1) interventions have a narrow conceptualisation of livelihoods, 2) there is limited involvement of men and boys in such interventions, 3) studies have typically been done in stable populations. We discuss what this means for future interventions that target young people through these methods. PMID:22713350
Press, Oliver A.; Zhang, Wu; Gordon, Michael A.; Yang, Dongyun; Haiman, Christopher A.; Azuma, Mizutomo; Iqbal, Syma; Lenz, Heinz-Josef
Estrogen replacement therapy in women has demonstrated a protective effect in the development of colonic carcinomas. Gender-related differences in the development of colonic carcinomas have also been reported. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is expressed in colon carcinomas and has demonstrated prognostic value in colon cancer patients. This study investigated an ERβ 3’ non-coding polymorphism associated with transcriptional activity to determine clinical outcome in patients with metastatic colon cancer. Genomic DNA from 318 metastatic colon cancer patients, 177 males and 141 females, were collected from 1992 to 2003. These patients were analyzed for CA repeat polymorphism of the ERβ gene. Gender-related survival differences were associated with an ERβ (CA)n repeat polymorphism (P for interaction=0.003, the likelihood ratio test). Female patients with any short <22 (CA)n repeat alleles had shorter overall survival compared to female patients that had both long ≥22 (CA)n repeat alleles. In the male patients the opposite overall survival difference was found. This study supports the role of an ERβ (CA)n repeat polymorphism as a prognostic marker in metastatic colon cancer; however, this prognostic factor had opposite implications based on gender. PMID:20548329
Polonikov, Alexey V.; Ivanov, Vladimir P.; Bogomazov, Alexey D.; Freidin, Maxim B.; Illig, Thomas; Solodilova, Maria A.
Oxidative stress resulting from an increased amount of reactive oxygen species and an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The present study tested the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic variants of asthma is determined by complex interactions between genes encoding antioxidant defense enzymes (ADE). We carried out a comprehensive analysis of the associations between adult asthma and 46 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 34 ADE genes and 12 other candidate genes of asthma in Russian population using set association analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction approaches. We found for the first time epistatic interactions between ADE genes underlying asthma susceptibility and the genetic heterogeneity between allergic and nonallergic variants of the disease. We identified GSR (glutathione reductase) and PON2 (paraoxonase 2) as novel candidate genes for asthma susceptibility. We observed gender-specific effects of ADE genes on the risk of asthma. The results of the study demonstrate complexity and diversity of interactions between genes involved in oxidative stress underlying susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic asthma. PMID:24895604
Shade, Daniel D.
Videotaped four- to eight-year olds as they interacted with computer software at different levels of developmental appropriateness. Facial expressions and other affective behaviors were analyzed as a function of age, presence of a peer, and appropriateness of software. Found that responses were mediated more by age, gender, and social condition…
Tinklin, Teresa; Croxford, Linda; Ducklin, Alan; Frame, Barbara
The last century, in particular the latter half, saw radical shifts in the roles and expectations of women in society. This article investigates the views of 14- to 16-year-olds in the year 2000 on work and family roles, exploring both their general views on gender roles and their own personal aspirations for the future. In general the young…
Fischer, Ann R.
Research has demonstrated that experiences with attachment to and psychological separation from parents predict men's reports of masculine gender-role stress and conflict. This article extends the literature by examining possible variations in these links that may be accounted for by men's core personality characteristics. The author hypothesizes…
Matyi, Cindy L.; Drevenstedt, Jean
College students (N=375) listened to taped segments of a counseling interview concerning a spouse's drinking problem with tapes varying client's age, gender, and cognitive behaviors. Found no main or interaction effects of age on subjects' ratings of client behaviors; female clients were perceived as having better memory and greater alertness than…
Pillow, Bradford H.; Pearson, RaeAnne M.; Allen, Cara
Two experiments investigated 3- to 5-year-olds' inductive generalizations about social categories. In Experiment 1, participants were shown pictures of children contrasting in appearance and either gender or classmate status, and were asked to generalize either biological properties or behaviors. Contrary to expectations, performance did not…
Banwart, Mary Christine; Winfrey, Kelly
The political arena, where historically women in the United States have been under-represented, provides an important laboratory for examining leadership and gender via the candidacy of now Secretary of State Hilary Rodham Clinton, who in 2008 was the first woman to run competitively for the Democratic presidential nomination. This study sought to…
Zweig, Janine M.; Barber, Bonnie L.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
Examines the associations between sexual coercion and well-being based on gender and college enrollment (N=1399). Results indicate that women were more likely than men to report having experienced sexual coercion. In addition, noncollege women were more likely than college women to report having experienced rape and sexual abuse. (RJM)
This paper examines the Japanese word "kawaii" "cute". Teachers frequently use "kawaii" to show positive feelings toward objects in the classroom. Female children also are primary users of the word, which suggests that they are acquiring "kawaii" as an index of female gender identity. From a linguistic…
Xu, Jin; Qian, Hai-xia; Hu, Su-pei; Liu, Li-ya; Zhou, Mi; Feng, Mei; Su, Jia; Ji, Lin-dan
Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) found that several ATP2B1 variants are associated with essential hypertension (EHT). But the "genome-wide significant" ATP2B1 SNPs (rs2681472, rs2681492, rs17249754, and rs1105378) are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) and are located in the same LD block in Chinese populations. We asked whether there are other SNPs within the ATP2B1 gene associated with susceptibility to EHT in the Han Chinese population. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to investigate the association of seven tagSNPs within the ATP2B1 gene and EHT in the Han Chinese population, and we then analyzed the interaction among different SNPs and nongenetic risk factors for EHT. A total of 902 essential hypertensive cases and 902 normotensive controls were involved in the study. All 7 tagSNPs within the ATP2B1 gene were retrieved from HapMap, and genotyping was performed using the Tm-shift genotyping method. Chi-squared test, logistic regression, and propensity score analysis showed that rs17249754 was associated with EHT, particularly in females. The MDR analysis demonstrated that the interaction of rs2070759, rs17249754, TC, TG, and BMI increased the susceptibility to hypertension. Crossover analysis and stratified analysis indicated that BMI has a major effect on the development of hypertension, while ATP2B1 variants have a minor effect.
Theimer, C E; Killen, M; Stangor, C
This study investigated how 50 preschool children (25 girls, 25 boys) evaluated the appropriateness of excluding boys and girls from two types of activities (doll play, truck play) and two types of future roles (playing a teacher, playing a firefighter) across different exclusion contexts. Children judged straight-forward exclusion from activities on the basis of gender as wrong, even if the child's gender was stereotypical of the activity. Furthermore, they justified these decisions on the basis of moral reasons, such as equality and unfairness. Children used a mixture of moral and social conventional reasoning (including stereotypes), however, to evaluate multifaceted situations that called for judgments about both inclusion and exclusion and that included information about the children's past experience with the activity.
Fabes, R A; Shepard, S A; Guthrie, I K; Martin, C L
The hypothesis that gender differences in children's adjustment is partially influenced by differences in temperament and interactions with same-sex peers was examined. Fifty-seven predominantly White, middle-class preschoolers (29 boys and 28 girls, M age = 54.5 months) participated. Measures were taken of children's arousability, problem behaviors, and tendencies to play with same-sex peers. A semester later, children's peer status was assessed. Analyses revealed that arousability and same-sex peer play interacted to predict problem behaviors. For boys high in arousability, play with same-sex peers increased problem behaviors. In contrast, arousable girls who played with other girls were relatively unlikely to show problem behaviors. Moreover, the interaction of arousability and same-sex peer play predicted boys' (but not girls') peer status, and this relation was partially mediated by problem behaviors. The role of gender-related processes is discussed.
Roussotte, Florence F; Jahanshad, Neda; Hibar, Derrek P; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Kohannim, Omid; Barysheva, Marina; Hansell, Narelle K; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M
Delta opioid receptors are implicated in a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. These receptors play a key role in the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, and polymorphisms in OPRD1 (the gene encoding delta opioid receptors) are associated with drug addiction. Delta opioid receptors are also involved in protecting neurons against hypoxic and ischemic stress. Here, we first examined a large sample of 738 elderly participants with neuroimaging and genetic data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We hypothesized that common variants in OPRD1 would be associated with differences in brain structure, particularly in regions relevant to addictive and neurodegenerative disorders. One very common variant (rs678849) predicted differences in regional brain volumes. We replicated the association of this single-nucleotide polymorphism with regional tissue volumes in a large sample of young participants in the Queensland Twin Imaging study. Although the same allele was associated with reduced volumes in both cohorts, the brain regions affected differed between the two samples. In healthy elderly, exploratory analyses suggested that the genotype associated with reduced brain volumes in both cohorts may also predict cerebrospinal fluid levels of neurodegenerative biomarkers, but this requires confirmation. If opiate receptor genetic variants are related to individual differences in brain structure, genotyping of these variants may be helpful when designing clinical trials targeting delta opioid receptors to treat neurological disorders.
Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.; Ajuwon, Ademola J.; Osungbade, Kayode O.
Purpose: This intervention project targeted one vulnerable group, female apprentices in Ibadan, Nigeria, to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple interventions aimed at preventing violence against women (VAW). Design/methodology/approach: A baseline survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews with 350 young women recruited from…
Combining feminist and narratological perspectives, this paper examines the construction of subjectivity in two young adult novels with a range of narratorial positions. The investigation is grounded in Robyn McCallum's work on intersubjectivity, in which interrelationships affecting subjectivity are only possible when the narrative permits a…
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…
Merten, Michael J.; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Williams, Amanda L.
Using a sample of 7,881 African American (915 males and 1,073 females) and White (2,864 males and 3,029 females) adolescents from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the psychosocial consequences that obese adolescents encounter as they reach young adulthood. Results indicate that obesity…
Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel
The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…
Peake, Amy; Harris, Karen L.
For 66 young adult couples, marriage plans were positively related to knowledge and certainty about multiple role planning. Men with more nontraditional career partners had more commitment to and involvement in multiple role planning. Women with marriage plans and nontraditional career expectations had substantially higher commitment and…
Samudzi, Zoe; Mannell, Jenevieve
Sex workers are often perceived as possessing 'deviant' identities, contributing to their exclusion from health services. The literature on sex worker identities in relation to health has focused primarily on cisgender female sex workers as the 'carriers of disease', obscuring the experiences of cisgender male and transgender sex workers and the complexities their gender identities bring to understandings of stigma and exclusion. To address this gap, this study draws on 21 interviews with cisgender male and transgender female sex workers receiving services from the Sex Workers Education and Advocacy Taskforce in Cape Town, South Africa. Our findings suggest that the social identities imposed upon sex workers contribute to their exclusion from public, private, discursive and geographic spaces. While many transgender female sex workers described their identities using positive and empowered language, cisgender male sex workers frequently expressed shame and internalised stigma related to identities, which could be described as 'less than masculine'. While many of those interviewed felt empowered by positive identities as transgender women, sex workers and sex worker-advocates, disempowerment and vulnerability were also linked to inappropriately masculinised and feminised identities. Understanding the links between gender identities and social exclusion is crucial to creating effective health interventions for both cisgender men and transgender women in sex work.
Mojola, Sanyu A.; Everett, Bethany
CONTEXT STDs, including HIV, disproportionately affect individuals who have multiple minority identities. Understanding differences in STD risk factors across racial, ethnic and sexual minority groups, as well as genders, is important for tailoring public health interventions. METHODS Data from Waves 3 (2001–2002) and 4 (2007–2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to develop population-based estimates of STD and HIV risk factors among 11,045 young adults (mean age, 29 at Wave 4), by gender, race and ethnicity, and sexual orientation (heterosexual, mixed-oriented, gay). Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between risk factors and young adults’ characteristics. RESULTS Overall, sexual-minority women in each racial or ethnic group had a higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviors—including a history of multiple partners, forced sex and incarceration—than their heterosexual counterparts. Mixed-oriented women in each racial or ethnic group were more likely than heterosexual white women to have received an STD diagnosis (odds ratios, 1.8–6.4). Black men and sexual-minority men also appeared to be at heightened risk. Gay men in all racial and ethnic groups were significantly more likely than heterosexual white men to report having received an STD diagnosis (2.3–8.3); compared with heterosexual white men, mixed-oriented black men had the highest odds of having received such a diagnosis (15.2). CONCLUSIONS Taking account of multiple minority identities should be an important part of future research and intervention efforts for STD and HIV prevention. PMID:22681428
Wilksch, Simon M; Wade, Tracey D
Thin-ideal (or media) internalization is an important eating disorder risk factor that has become a central target of many prevention programs. However, evidence for its valid assessment in young, mixed-gender, adolescent samples is limited, and the current study is the first to explore the psychometric properties of the 30-item Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3; J. Thompson, P. van den Berg, M. Roehrig, A. S. Guarda, & L. J. Heinberg, 2004) in a nonadult community sample. Two samples of Grade 8 students (M age = 13.68 years), totaling 680 girls (N = 332) and boys (N = 348) completed the SATAQ-3 and other measures, whereas a smaller sample (N = 123) of Grade 10 girls (M age = 15.01 years) served as a comparison group for supplementary analyses. Principal component analyses (PCA) with data from Sample 1 (N = 201) revealed 4 factors with eigenvalues > 1.0, similar to the original authors' structure but with some cross-loading occurring between the Pressures and Internalization-General scales. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted with data from Sample 2 (N = 479) on the factor solution found in the PCA. The model did not fit well, leading to further revisions based on removal of cross-loading items and CFA modification indices, resulting in a 19-item, 4-factor solution with acceptable fit. Examinations of validity and reliability were generally acceptable. The overall findings suggest that an abbreviated version of the SATAQ-3 might be more appropriate than the original version with young-adolescent, mixed-gender audiences. Further examinations of the psychometric properties of the SATAQ-3 with this demographic are indicated.
Guclu-Geyik, Filiz; Onat, Altan; Yuzbasıogulları, Ayse Berna; Coban, Neslihan; Can, Gunay; Lehtimäki, Terho; Erginel-Unaltuna, Nihan
Gene variations in the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) have shown controversial associations with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in several populations. We explored the association of FTO gene with obesity, MetS, and insulin-related parameters separately in men and women. Two SNPs in the FTO, gene rs9939609 and rs1421085, were genotyped by the Taqman System in 1967 adults (mean age of the whole group 50.1 ± 12.0; 48.4 % male). A random sample of the Turkish Adult Risk Factor cohort was cross-sectionally analyzed. Both SNPs exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.85) and minor alleles were associated with risk of obesity in women and of MetS in men. Carriers of the rs1421085 C-allele exhibited higher body mass index (BMI) in each gender. Adjusted fasting insulin and HOMA index were significantly higher in C-allele carriers in men alone. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated significantly increased likelihood for obesity in female C-risk allele carriers (OR 1.61; 95 % CI 1.19-2.18), after adjustment for age, smoking status, alcohol usage, physical activity grade and presence of diabetes mellitus. Male C-allele carriers were at increased risk for MetS (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.07-1.95), adjusted for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Further adjustment for BMI attenuated the MetS risk, indicating interaction between C-allele, gender and BMI. The FTO gene in Turkish adults contributes independently to obesity in women and-by interacting with BMI-to MetS and insulin resistance in men.
Background High undernutrition is a grave concern in India. Marginalized populations like Indian tribes have been under the serious stress of such nutritional extreme. Women, in particular, are the worst sufferers. Gender-related comprehensive studies regarding the prevalence and risks of undernutrition among the tribes have not been properly pursued in India; the vulnerability of the young females has least been examined. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study during January 2011 to December 2013 among 1066 males and 1090 females (n = 2156) in the 20–60 years age group belonging to the nine major tribes; Santals, Oraons and Koras (West Bengal): Santals, Bhumijs and Bathudis (Odisha): Dhodias, Kuknas and Chaudharis (Gujarat). The undernutrition burden was estimated and such risks were analyzed for the women in comparison to the men. The overall undernutrition among the females was found to be 47.4% (95% CI 44.4–50.4) against 32.1% (95% CI 29.3–34.9) among males, indicating about a half of the female population undernourished. The odds of risks for underweight status among females were observed to be high in comparison to males with an odds of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.6–2.2; p≤0.001) for the overall undernutrition category, 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3–2.3; p≤0.001) for the mild undernutrition category, 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1–1.6; p≤0.01) for combined moderate and mild undernutrition category and 3.3 (95% CI at 2.3–4.6; p≤0.001) for severe undernutrition category. The young females were observed with a high prevalence of undernutrition along with increased risk. The 30-year mean BMI trend of the Indian population in comparison to the males, females, and overall tribal population places the tribal females at the highest risk. Conclusion Indian tribes are suffering from the higher prevalence of undernutrition by further highlighting a high gender bias. The health and empowerment of adolescent and young tribal girls needs additional focus. Overall, no
Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Cuğ, Mutlu; Dülgeroğlu, Deniz; Brech, Guilherme Carlos; Alonso, Angelica Castilho
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the anthropometric factors of height, body mass, body mass index and postural balance and to compare the balance indices between genders in the upright standing position, in healthy adult subjects under conditions of instability. Forty individuals were subjected to functional tests of body stability using the Biodex Balance System, and the resulting indices were correlated with body mass, height, and body mass index, and also compared between genders. Body mass was the main anthropometric factor that influenced variations in postural balance, with a high correlation between groups and with all variables. A linear regression analysis showed that body mass associated with BMI explained 66% of the overall stability, and body mass explained 59% of the anteroposterior stability index and 65% of the mediolateral stability index. In the female group, body mass explained 72% of the overall balance, 66% of the anteroposterior, and 76% of the medio-lateral stability index. Increased body mass requires greater movements to maintain postural balance. Height and BMI presented moderate correlations with balance. Women showed less movement than men on the Biodex Balance System. PMID:23509788
Sun, Bo; Ge, Haitao; Tang, Yuchun; Hou, Zhongyu; Xu, Junhai; Lin, Xiangtao; Liu, Shuwei
In this study, we clarified the gender and age-related asymmetries of the central sulcus (CS) in early adulthood using a parametric ribbon method. The CS was reconstructed and parameterized automatically from 3D MR images of 112 healthy right-handed subjects. The 3D anatomic morphology of the CS was presented using 5 sulcal parameters, including sulcal depth position-based profile (DPP), average depth (AD), average width (AW), top length (TL) and bottom length (BL). Asymmetry differences in DPPs were found in the medial and lateral part of the CS. In addition, significant gender differences were observed in the medial and middle parts of the right CS DPPs but scattered in the left side. We found leftward asymmetries of TL in males, but rightward asymmetries of AW in females. Males had a greater AW than females in the right hemisphere. Moreover, the females had bilateral longer TL and a longer left BL than did males. We also found significant age-related reductions in bilateral TL and increases in bilateral AW, with males presenting more obvious age-related change than females. There were sexual differences of the CS patterns, in which Type b was the most dominant sulcal pattern in males, whereas Type a was dominant in females. Three-way ANOVA revealed sexual and asymmetry changes of TL and BL among different CS patterns. Our findings indicate that the lateralization performances of the CS manifest as sexually and regionally different. In addition, it is suggested that males may undergo a faster progress of aging compared to females.
Rao, H-Y; Sun, D-G; Jiang, D; Yang, R-F; Guo, F; Wang, J-H; Liu, F; Zhang, H-Y; Zhang, H-H; Du, S-C; Jin, Q; Qin, H; Lok, A-S-F; Wei, L
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the IL28B gene have been shown to be associated with response to treatment for chronic hepatitis C and also with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We analysed the association between IL28B genetic variants and spontaneous clearance of HCV infection in 376 HCV-infected Chinese paid plasma donors. Genotyping of eight SNPs near the IL28B region was performed by the iPLEX system (MassARRAY(®) SNP Genotyping; Sequenom) in all donors, and sequencing was performed on all 80 donors who cleared HCV and on 160 of 296 donors who did not clear HCV to validate the genotypes. Eighty (21.3%) donors spontaneously cleared HCV. Four SNPs were significantly associated with spontaneous HCV clearance: rs8099917 TT (vs GT), rs8105790 TT (vs CT), rs12980275 AA (vs AG) and rs10853728 CC (vs CG or GG) with OR (95% CI) 15.27 (2.07-112.50), 14.88 (2.02-109.72), 7.92 (1.88-33.32) and 2.32 (1.22-4.42) respectively. No association between the other four IL28B SNPs including rs12979860 and spontaneous HCV clearance was found. Women had a higher rate of spontaneous HCV clearance than men [56/213 (26.3%) vs 24/163 (14.6%), P = 0.007], and this was true even after stratification for IL28B genotypes with OR of 1.9-2.2 among those with favourable genotypes. Our results confirmed that IL28B polymorphism is associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in Chinese subjects, but the SNPs that predict HCV clearance in Chinese subjects were different from those reported in Caucasians. Women were more likely to clear HCV infection regardless of IL28B genotypes.
Molina-Guzman, Gabriel; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Hernández Díaz, Yazmín; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Guzmán-Priego, Crystell Guadalupe; Genis, Alma; Pool García, Sherezada; López-Narvaez, María Lilia; Rodriguez-Perez, José Manuel
Background The aim of this case–control study was to explore the association by gender between the HTR2C gene variants and suicidal behavior in a Mexican population. Subjects and methods A total of 183 suicide attempters and 208 healthy volunteers were included in this study. We genotyped five polymorphisms of HTR2C (rs547536, rs2192372, rs4272555, rs6318, and rs2428707), then measured the association by genotype, allele, and haplotype. Results In the female group, we found an association between two polymorphisms of the HTR2C (rs4272555 and rs2428707) and suicide attempts. The C allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4272555 was associated with a decreased risk of suicide attempt (P=0.01, odds ratio =0.26, 95% confidence interval: 0.09–0.79), whereas the G allele of the SNP rs2428707 was associated with an increased risk of suicide attempt (P=0.01, odds ratio =3.68, 95% confidence interval: 1.24–10.90). No significant association was observed between the other polymorphisms studied (rs547536, rs2192372, rs6318) or haplotypes with suicide attempts. Conclusion These findings suggest a possible risk factor of the HTR2C gene in the pathology of suicidal behavior in Mexican population. More studies are necessary to confirm this association. PMID:28260903
Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna; Santana, Matthew Leslie; Bauermeister, José
Gender and power are theoretical constructs linked to discussions of sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among heterosexual couples. Despite the fact that HIV rates are rising among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in the United States, work examining the role of gender in sexual decision-making of YMSM remains in its infancy. Through qualitative interviews with 34 young gay men (YGM), we seek to contribute to the literature in this area by focusing on the ways that YGM understand and enact sexual positions during anal sex. Our results highlight the diversity of YGM’s sexual preferences, as well as the high degree of sexual fluidity. Ideas of gender appear to inform part of this process; however, YGM critiqued conventional gender norms and emphasized the centrality of relationships (i.e., casual v. romantic) in their sexual decision-making. We discuss the importance of considering gender and interpersonal factors when designing HIV/AIDS prevention messages for YGM. PMID:22843811
Introduction: Smoking initiation usually begins in adolescence, but how and for whom nicotine dependence emerges during this period is unclear. The cue-reactivity paradigm is well suited to examine one marker of dependence: craving-related stimulus control, i.e., the ability of environmental cues to elicit craving to smoke. This study examined the effects of both level of smoking involvement (daily vs. occasional smoking) and gender on reactivity to both smoking and alcohol cues. Methods: Young (age range 16–20; 42% female) daily (n = 55) and occasional (n = 52) smokers were exposed to each of three counterbalanced cues: (a) in vivo smoking (e.g., sight, smell, lighting of cigarette), (b) alcohol (e.g., opening, pouring, and smell of preferred beverage), and (c) neutral cue. Results: Daily smokers exhibited higher levels of tonic (i.e., noncue-elicited) craving than did occasional smokers. Both groups showed significant increases in craving in response to cues (i.e., cue-elicited craving), with little evidence that cue-elicited craving differed between groups. Females were more cue reactive to both the alcohol and smoking cues than males, particularly for the positively reinforced aspects of smoking (i.e., hedonic craving). There were no gender × group interaction effects in response to either the alcohol or the smoking cue. Conclusions: Findings show the presence of cue-elicited craving even among occasional smokers and are consistent with literature demonstrating heightened sensitivity to environmental cues among females. Cue-elicited craving may be one mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of smoking behavior and perhaps to the development of nicotine dependence within early stage smokers. PMID:24042699
Greco, Camila C.; Pelarigo, Jailton G.; Figueira, Tiago R.; Denadai, Benedito S.
Our objective was to analyze the effect of gender on the relationship between stroke rates corresponding to critical speed (SRCS) and maximal speed of 30 min (SRS30) in young swimmers. Twenty two males (GM1) (Age = 15.4 ± 2.1 yr., Body mass = 63.7 ± 12.9 kg, Stature = 1.73 ± 0.09 m) and fourteen female (GF) swimmers (Age = 15.1 ± 1.6 yr., Body mass = 58.3 ± 8.8 kg, Stature = 1.65 ± 0.06 m) were studied. A subset of males (GM2) was matched to the GF by their velocity for a 30 min swim (S30). The critical speed (CS) was determined through the slope of the linear regression line between the distances (200 and 400 m) and participant’s respective times. CS was significantly higher than S30 in males (GM1 - 1.25 and 1.16 and GM2 - 1.21 and 1.12 m·s-1) and females (GF - 1.15 and 1.11 m·s-1). There was no significant difference between SRCS and SRS30 in males (GM1 - 34.16 and 32.32 and GM2 - 34.67 and 32.46 cycle·s-1, respectively) and females (GF - 34.18 and 33.67 cycle·s-1, respectively). There was a significant correlation between CS and S30 (GM1 - r = 0.89, GF - r = 0.94 and GM2 - r = 0.90) and between SRCS and SRS30 (GM1 - r = 0.89, GF - r = 0.80 and GM2 - r = 0.88). Thus, the relationship between SRCS and SRS30 is not influenced by gender, in swimmers with similar and different aerobic capacity levels. Key pointsThe main finding of this study was that the relationship between SRCS and SRS30, which is not dependent on gender, in swimmers with similar and different aerobic capacity levels.In swimmers who had different S30 values, CS was higher than S30 in boys and girls, and CS and S30 were higher in boys than girls, but SRCS and SRS30 were similar between genders.In swimmers who had similar S30 values, CS was higher than S30 in boys and girls. However, boys still presented higher values of CS than girls. SRCS was higher than SRS30 in boys, but these variables were similar in girls. SRCS and SRS30 were similar between genders.Girls presented lower submaximal
Peterson, Andrew C.; Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Chao, Herta H.; Li, Chiang-shan R.
Dysfunction of the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is implicated in psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, schizophrenia and movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although the prevalence of these disorders varies by age and sex, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. The objective of this study was to delineate the distinct resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the VTA and SNc and examine the effects of age, from young to middle-adulthood, and sex on the rsFC of these two dopaminergic structures in a data set of 250 healthy adults (18–49 years of age, 104 men). Using blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals, we correlated the time course of the VTA and SNc to the time courses of all other brain voxels. At a corrected threshold, paired t-test showed stronger VTA connectivity to bilateral angular gyrus and superior/middle and orbital frontal regions and stronger SNc connectivity to the insula, thalamus, parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and amygdala. Compared to women, men showed a stronger VTA/SNc connectivity to the left posterior orbital gyrus. In linear regressions, men but not women showed age-related changes in VTA/SNc connectivity to a number of cortical and cerebellar regions. Supporting shared but also distinct cerebral rsFC of the VTA and SNc and gender differences in age-related changes from young and middle adulthood in VTA/SNc connectivity, these new findings help advance our understanding of the neural bases of many neuropsychiatric illnesses that implicate the dopaminergic systems. PMID:28223929
Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Lum, Paula J; Stein, Ellen S; Davidson, Peter J; Moss, Andrew R
Female injection drug users (IDUs) represent a large proportion of persons infected with HIV in the United States, and women who inject drugs have a high incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of gender in injection risk behavior and the transmission of blood-borne virus. In 2000-2002, 844 young (<30 years old) IDUs were surveyed in San Francisco. We compared self-reported risk behavior between 584 males and 260 female participants from cross-sectional baseline data. We used logistic regression to determine whether demographic, structural, and relationship variables explained increased needle borrowing, drug preparation equipment sharing, and being injected by another IDU among females compared to males. Females were significantly younger than males and were more likely to engage in needle borrowing, ancillary equipment sharing, and being injected by someone else. Females were more likely than males to report recent sexual intercourse and to have IDU sex partners. Females and males were not different with respect to education, race/ethnicity, or housing status. In logistic regression models for borrowing a used needle and sharing drug preparation equipment, increased risk in females was explained by having an injection partner who was also a sexual partner. Injecting risk was greater in the young female compared to male IDUs despite equivalent frequency of injecting. Overlapping sexual and injection partnerships were a key factor in explaining increased injection risk in females. Females were more likely to be injected by another IDU even after adjusting for years injecting, being in a relationship with another IDU, and other potential confounders. Interventions to reduce sexual and injection practices that put women at risk of contracting hepatitis and HIV are needed.
Steenbeek, Henderien; van der Aalsvoort, Diny; van Geert, Paul
This study was focused on the role of gender-related differences in collaborative play, by examining properties of play as a complex system, and by using micro-genetic analysis techniques. A complex dynamic systems model of dyadic play was used to make predictions with regard to duration and number of contact-episodes during play of same-sex dyads, both on the micro- (i.e., per individual session), meso- (i.e., in smoothed data), and macro time scale (i.e., the change over six consecutive play sessions). The empirical data came from a study that examined the collaborative play skills of children who experienced six twenty minute play sessions within a three week period of time. Monte Carlo permutation analyses were used to compare model predictions and empirical data. The findings point to strongly asymmetric distributions in the duration and number of contact episodes in all dyads over the six sessions, as a direct consequence of the underlying dynamics of the play system. The model prediction that girls-dyads would show longer contact episodes than boys-dyads was confirmed, but the prediction regarding the difference in number of peaks was not confirmed. In addition, the majority of the model predictions regarding changes over the course of six sessions were consistent with the data. That is, the average duration and the maximum duration of contact-episodes increases both in boys-dyads and girls-dyads, but differences occur in the strength of the increase. Contrary to expectation, the number of contact-episodes decreases both in boys-dyads and in girls-dyads.
Introduction Although gender difference in aerobic capacity is known, the contributing factors have been researched seldom. Aim To investigate the gender gap and the contribution by percentage Body Fat (BF), Body Mass Index (BMI) and haemoglobin concentration Hb. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 30 (17 males, 13 females) training status matched young hockey players. Healthy players who were playing upto national level competition were included. BW (Body Weight), BF, BMI, LBM (Lean Body Mass), rHR (restring Heart Rate), HRR (Heart Rate Recovery), Hb, a/rVO2max (absolute/relative), a/rPWC (Physical Work Capacity) and RMR (Resting Metabolic Rate) were measured and analysed. Results There was significant gender difference in the measured parameters. Difference in a/rVO2max remained significant even after controlling for BF, BMI and Hb. Multiple regression and correlation analysis revealed gender difference in VO2max/LBM was due to: BMI(31.91%)>BF(27.60%)>Hb(9.91%). BMI also significantly contributed 3.66% of VO2max/LBM variance, independent of that by gender. Difference in RMR was mainly related to LBM, BF and BMI. Conclusion The study provided an understanding for gender gap in aerobic capacity. Differences in BMI & BF were one of the main reasons. PMID:28050360
Wedow, Robbee; Briley, Daniel A; Short, Susan E; Boardman, Jason D
In this paper, we investigate the possibility that genetic variation contributes to self-perceived weight status among adolescents and young adults in the U.S. Using samples of identical and fraternal twins across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) study, we calculate heritability estimates for objective body mass index (BMI) that are in line with previous estimates. We also show that perceived weight status is heritable (h(2) ∼ 0.47) and most importantly that this trait continues to be heritable above and beyond objective BMI (h(2) ∼ 0.25). We then demonstrate significant sex differences in the heritability of weight identity across the four waves of the study, where h(2)women = 0.39, 0.35, 0.40, and 0.50 for each wave, respectively, and h(2)men = 0.10, 0.10, 0.23, and 0.03. These results call for a deeper consideration of both identity and gender in genetics research.
Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F
Theory and research emphasize differences in men's and women's sexual and romantic attitudes, concluding that men have stronger preferences for sexual than romantic stimuli as compared to women. However, most of the research on gender differences have relied on self-reports, which are plagued by problems of social desirability bias. The current study assessed young men's and women's implicit attitudes toward sexual and romantic stimuli to test whether, in fact, men have a stronger preference for sexual over romantic stimuli compared to women. We also assessed associations between implicit and explicit attitudes, as well as sex role ideology and personality. College students (68 men and 114 women) completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) that assessed strengths of associations of sexual and romantic stimuli to both pleasant and unpleasant conditions. Results revealed that both men and women more strongly associated romantic images to the pleasant condition than they associated the sexual images to the pleasant condition. However, as predicted, women had a stronger preference toward romantic versus sexual stimuli compared to men. Our study challenges a common assumption that men prefer sexual over romantic stimuli. The findings indicate that measures of implicit attitudes may tap preferences that are not apparent in studies relying on self-reported (explicit) attitudes.
Pettifor, Audrey; Macphail, Catherine; Anderson, Althea D; Maman, Suzanne
Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women's decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24-year-old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women's expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power and how this influences HIV risk. We found that the majority of young women reported expectations of power in relationships that conform to a model of femininity marked by financial independence, freedom to make decisions, including over sexuality, and equality (resistant femininity). The majority of young women, however, were in relationships marked by intimate partner violence, infidelity or lack of condom use. In spite of this, more young women who subscribed to a resistant model of femininity were in less risky relationships than young women who subscribed to acquiescent models, in which power was vested in their male partners. Further, young women who subscribed to resistant femininity had more education than women who subscribed to an acquiescent model. The disconnect between expectations of relationships and young women's lived realities emphasises the need for structural changes that afford women greater economic and thus decision making power.
Decreased secretion of pituitary gonadotropins, by decreasing gonadal function, may possibly protect against the sterilizing effects of chemotherapy. Although previous claims that primordial germ cells fare better than germ cells that are part of an active cell cycle have been made, this hypothesis has not been seriously tested clinically until recently. The only prospective randomized study performed to date found that gonadotropin releasing hormone agonistic analogue (GnRH-a) protected the ovary against cyclophosphamide-induced damage in Rhesus monkeys by significantly decreasing the number of follicles lost during the chemotherapeutic insult. We have administered a monthly depot i.m. injection of GnRH-a to more than 125 young patients exposed to gonadotoxic chemotherapy for malignant or nonmalignant diseases, after informed consent, starting before chemotherapy for up to 6 months, in parallel and until the end of chemotherapeutic treatment. Less than 7% developed irreversible hypergonadotropic amenorrhea. The remainder (>93%) resumed cyclic ovarian function, of which 32 patients spontaneously conceived 46 times. These patients were compared to a control group of over 125 patients of comparable age (15-40 years), who were similarly treated with chemotherapy but without the GnRH-a adjuvant. The 2 groups were similar in age, diagnosis, and the ratio of HD to non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. The 2 groups also received similar doses of radiotherapy exposure and the proportion of radio-plus chemotherapy-treated patients was similar. The cumulative doses of each chemotherapeutic agent and the mean or median radiotherapy exposure did not differ between the groups. Our and others' results support the effectiveness of GnRH-a administration also to patients receiving cyclophosphamide pulses for systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases. Possible explanations for the beneficial effect of the GnRH-a on minimizing the gonadotoxic effect of chemotherapy are
Criado, José R; Gizer, Ian R; Edenberg, Howard J; Ehlers, Cindy L
A lifetime history of alcohol dependence has been associated with elevations in neuroticism in Mexican American young adults. The identification of genetic markers associated with neuroticism and their influence on the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) may contribute to our understanding of the relationship between personality traits and the increased risk of AUD in Mexican Americans. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between neuroticism and 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) α5-subunit (CHRNA5) and α3-subunit (CHRNA3) genes in young adult Mexican American men and women. Participants were 465 young adult Mexican American men and women who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview. Neuroticism was assessed using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. The minor alleles of four CHRNA5 polymorphisms (rs588765, rs601079, rs680244 and rs555018) and three CHRNA3 polymorphisms (rs578776, rs6495307 and rs3743078) showed associations with neuroticism. Several of these SNPs also displayed nominal associations with DSM-IV alcohol and nicotine dependence, but tests of mediation suggested that these relations could be partially explained by the presence of co-occurring neuroticism. These findings suggest that genetic variations in nicotinic receptor genes may influence the development of neuroticism, which in turn is involved in the development of AUDs and nicotine dependence in Mexican American young adults.
Sterling, Kymberle L.; Fryer, Craig S.; Majeed, Ban; Duong, Melissa M.
The objective of our study was to identify waterpipe tobacco smoking advertisements and those that promoted a range of products and accessories used to smoke waterpipe tobacco. The content of these advertisements was analyzed to understand the messages portrayed about waterpipe tobacco smoking in young adult (aged 18-30) newspapers. The study…
Bhana, Deevia; Brixen, Farhana Farook
Studies point to the existence of a global HIV/AIDS emergency among young people. An estimated 6,000 youths a day become infected, an average of one new infection every 14 seconds. The most socially and economically disadvantaged young people appear to be especially at risk of infection, and young women in developing contexts are at the greatest…
Lange, Leslie A; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lange, Ethan M; Young, Kristin L; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; North, Kari E; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to classify glycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of HbA1c levels and T2D. We tested 43 established BMI and obesity loci for association with HbA1c in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [Add Health: age 24-34 years; n = 5641 European Americans (EA); 1740 African Americans (AA); 1444 Hispanic Americans (HA)] without T2D, using two levels of covariate adjustment (Model 1: age, sex, smoking, and geographic region; Model 2: Model 1 covariates plus BMI). Bonferroni adjustment was made for 43 SNPs and we considered P < 0.0011 statistically significant. Means (SD) for HbA1c were 5.4% (0.3) in EA, 5.7% (0.4) in AA, and 5.5% (0.3) in HA. We observed significant evidence for association with HbA1c for two variants near SH2B1 in EA (rs4788102, P = 2.2 × 10(-4) ; rs7359397, P = 9.8 × 10(-4) ) for Model 1. Both results were attenuated after adjustment for BMI (rs4788102, P = 1.7 × 10(-3) ; rs7359397, P = 4.6 × 10(-3) ). No variant reached Bonferroni-corrected significance in AA or HA. These results suggest that SH2B1 polymorphisms are associated with HbA1c, largely independent of BMI, in EA young adults.
Jin, Minchao; Iannotti, Lora L
Animal source foods (ASF) provide critical micronutrients in highly bioavailable forms, with the potential to efficiently address undernutrition among young children living in developing countries. There is limited evidence for how livestock ownership might increase ASF intake in poor households either through own-consumption or income generation. Along with lack of nutrition knowledge, gender dimensions may affect the pathways leading from livestock ownership to child ASF intake and ultimately to young child growth. Using data from a large-scale impact evaluation conducted in Kenya, this study tested the hypothesis that co-owned/female-owned livestock would be associated with improved child growth, mediated by increases in ASF consumption. Data were collected from September 2010 to January 2011 from households in six provinces in Kenya on a broad range of agricultural, economic, social, health and nutrition factors. Children ages 6-60 months were included in this analysis (n = 183). In this sample, co-owned/female-owned livestock was valued at 18,861 Kenyan shillings in contrast with male-owned livestock valued at 66,343 Kenyan shillings. Multivariate linear regression models showed a positive association between co-owned/female-owned livestock with child weight-for-age z score (WAZ) after adjusting for caregiver education level, income, child age, and child sex. A mediating effect by child ASF intake was evident, explaining 25% of the relationship of livestock ownership with child WAZ, by Sobel-Goodman test (p < .05). A trend towards significance was demonstrated for co-owned/female-owned livestock and height-for-age z score (HAZ), and no effect was apparent for weight-for-height z score (WHZ). The partial mediating effect may be indicative of other factors inherent in co-owned/female-owned livestock such as higher status of females in these households with greater influence over other child care practices promoting growth. Nonetheless, our study suggests
Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, jumps up from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.
Hewitt-Stubbs, Gillian; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Mastro, Shawna; Boislard, Marie-Aude
Many scholars have called for an increased focus on positive aspects of sexual health and sexuality. Using a longitudinal design with two assessments, we investigated patterns of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure and self-efficacy to achieve sexual pleasure among 295 young men and women aged 17–25 years attending one Australian university. We also tested whether entitlement and efficacy differed by gender, and hypothesized that entitlement and efficacy would be higher in older participants and those with more sexual experience. A sense of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure increased significantly over the year of the study, whereas, on average, there was no change in self-efficacy over time. At Time 1 (T1), young women reported more entitlement than young men. Age was positively associated with T1 entitlement, and experience with a wider range of partnered sexual behaviors was concurrently associated with more entitlement and efficacy and was also associated with increased entitlement to partner pleasure and increased self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure at T2 relative to T1. A group with the least amount of sexual experience was particularly low in entitlement and efficacy when compared to groups with a history of coital experience. There was no evidence that any association differed between young men and young women. Limitations of the study include a sample of predominantly middle class, Caucasian students at one university and the possibility that students more interested in sex and relationships, and with more sexual experience, chose to participate. PMID:26797642
Curcio, S.; García-Espinosa, V.; Arana, M.; Farro, I.; Chiesa, P.; Giachetto, G.; Zócalo, Y.; Bia, D.
The aims of our work were to determine normal aging rates for structural and functional arterial parameters in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults and to identify gender-related differences in these aging rates. Methods. 161 subjects (mean: 15 years (range: 4–28 years), 69 females) were studied. Subjects included had no congenital or chronic diseases, nor had they been previously exposed to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Arterial parameters assessed were (1) central blood pressure (BP) and aortic pulse wave analysis, (2) arterial local (pressure-strain elastic modulus) and regional (pulse wave velocity, PWV) stiffness, and (3) arterial diameters and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Simple linear regression models (age as the independent variable) were obtained for all the parameters and the resulting rates of change were compared between genders. Results. No gender-related differences were found in mean values of arterial structural and functional parameters in prepubertal ages (4–8 years), but they started to appear at ~15 years. Boys showed a greater rate of change for central systolic BP, central pulse pressure, CIMT, and carotid-femoral PWV. Conclusion. Gender-related differences in arterial characteristics of adults can be explained on the basis of different growing-related patterns between boys and girls, with no existing differences in prepubertal ages. PMID:26989504
Bry, Laura Jane; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert; Burns, Michelle Nicole
Disclosure of a sexual or gender minority status has been associated with both positive and negative effects on wellbeing. Few studies have explored the disclosure and concealment process in young people. Interviews were conducted with 10 sexual and/or gender minority individuals, aged 18-22 years, of male birth sex. Data were analyzed qualitatively, yielding determinants and effects of disclosure and concealment. Determinants of disclosure included holding positive attitudes about one's identity and an implicit devaluation of acceptance by society. Coming out was shown to have both positive and negative effects on communication and social support and was associated with both increases and decreases in experiences of stigma. Determinants of concealment included lack of comfort with one's identity and various motivations to avoid discrimination. Concealment was also related to hypervigilance and unique strategies of accessing social support. Results are discussed in light of their clinical implications.
Mühle, Christiane; Kreczi, Jakob; Rhein, Cosima; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Lenz, Bernd; Kornhuber, Johannes
The disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) gene is known for its role in the development of mental disorders. It is also involved in neurodevelopment, cognition, and memory. To investigate the association between DISC1 variants and brain morphology, we analyzed the influence of the three common non-synonymous polymorphisms in DISC1 on specific brain structures in healthy young adults. The volumes of brain regions were determined in 145 subjects by magnetic resonance imaging and automated analysis using FreeSurfer. Genotyping was performed by high resolution melting of amplified products. In an additive genetic model, rs6675281 (Leu607Phe), rs3738401 (Arg264Gln), and rs821616 (Ser704Cys) significantly explained the volume variance of the amygdala (p = 0.007) and the pallidum (p = 0.004). A higher cumulative portion of minor alleles was associated with larger volumes of the amygdala (p = 0.005), the pallidum (p = 0.001), the caudate (p = 0.024), and the putamen (p = 0.007). Sex-stratified analysis revealed a strong genetic effect of rs6675281 on putamen and pallidum in females but not in males and an opposite influence of rs3738401 on the white cortical surface in females compared to males. The strongest single association was found for rs821616 and the amygdala volume in male subjects (p < 0.001). No effect was detected for the nucleus accumbens. We report-to our knowledge-for the first time a significant and sex-specific influence of common DISC1 variants on volumes of the basal ganglia, the amygdala and on the cortical surface area. Our results demonstrate that the additive model of all three polymorphisms outperforms their single analysis.
Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A
Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWE<0.05). Our study demonstrates that genetic variability of NTRK2, a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, is related to emotional arousal and—independently—to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals. PMID:26978740
Gong, Pingyuan; Zheng, Anyun; Zhang, Kejin; Lei, Xu; Li, Fengchao; Chen, Dongmei; Chi, Wanyu; Tong, Xueli; Zheng, Zijian; Gao, Xiaocai; Zhang, Fuchang
Some genes involved in neurotransmission synthesis and transmission have been hypothesized to affect personality traits. To investigate the possible roles of these genes in personality traits of 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire, we performed a population-based study in a young Chinese Han cohort. In the study, we selected some functional variations in ten candidate genes (COMT, DBH, DRD(2), DRD(3), DAT, MAOA, GRM(1), GRIN2B, 5-TH(2A), and 5-TH(6)) encoding components in dopamine, glutamate, and 5-hydroxytryptamine pathways. The results showed the T102C in 5-TH(2A) was associated with X3 (emotional and quiet alertness) and B (reasoning) (F = 4.71 and 6.23; p = 0.009 and 0.002), Val158Met in COMT with E (dominance) (F = 7.01; p = 0.0009), while the variations in DBH, DRD(2), DRD(3), MAOA, GRM(1), GRIN2B, and 5-TH(6) were not associated with any of the personality traits. This finding suggests that T102C in 5-TH(2A) and Val158Met in COMT play roles in some human personality traits.
Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay G.; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita
Objective Evidence has linked economic hardship with increased intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among males. However, less is known about how economic debt or gender norms related to men's roles in relationships or the household, which often underlie IPV perpetration, intersect in or may explain these associations. We assessed the intersection of economic debt, attitudes toward gender norms, and IPV perpetration among married men in India. Methods Data were from the evaluation of a family planning intervention among young married couples (n=1,081) in rural Maharashtra, India. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models for dichotomous outcome variables and linear regression models for continuous outcomes were used to examine debt in relation to husbands' attitudes toward gender-based norms (i.e., beliefs supporting IPV and beliefs regarding male dominance in relationships and the household), as well as sexual and physical IPV perpetration. Results Twenty percent of husbands reported debt. In adjusted linear regression models, debt was associated with husbands' attitudes supportive of IPV (b=0.015, p=0.004) and norms supporting male dominance in relationships and the household (b=0.006, p=0.003). In logistic regression models adjusted for relevant demographics, debt was associated with perpetration of physical IPV (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.9) and sexual IPV (AOR=1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.1) from husbands. These findings related to debt and relation to IPV were slightly attenuated when further adjusted for men's attitudes toward gender norms. Conclusion Findings suggest the need for combined gender equity and economic promotion interventions to address high levels of debt and related IPV reported among married couples in rural India. PMID:26556938
Howarth, Grace Z.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly
This study presents a novel task examining young children’s affective responses to evaluative feedback—specifically, social acceptance and rejection—from peers. We aimed to determine (1) whether young children report their affective responses to hypothetical peer evaluation predictably and consistently, and (2) whether young children’s responses to peer evaluation vary as a function of temperamental shyness and gender. Four- to seven-year-old children (N = 48) sorted pictures of unknown, similar-aged children into those with whom they wished or did not wish to play. Computerized peer evaluation later noted whether the pictured children were interested in a future playdate with participants. Participants then rated their affective responses to each acceptance or rejection event. Children were happy when accepted by children with whom they wanted to play, and disappointed when these children rejected them. Highly shy boys showed a wider range of responses to acceptance and rejection based on initial social interest, and may be particularly sensitive to both positive and negative evaluation. Overall, the playdate task captures individual differences in affective responses to evaluative peer feedback and is potentially amenable to future applications in research with young children, including pairings with psychophysiological measures. PMID:23997429
Dreyer, Rachel P.; Wang, Yongfei; Strait, Kelly M.; Lorenze, Nancy P.; D’Onofrio, Gail; Bueno, Héctor; Lichtman, Judith H.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.
Background Despite the excess risk of mortality in young women (≤55 years) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), little is known about young women’s health status (symptoms, functioning, quality of life) during the first year of recovery after an AMI. We examined gender differences in health status over time from baseline to 12-months post AMI. Methods and Results A total of 3,501 AMI patients (67% women) aged 18-55 years were enrolled from 103 United States/24 Spanish hospitals. Data were obtained by medical record abstraction/patient interviews at baseline hospitalization, 1- and 12-months post AMI. Health status was measured by generic [Short Form-12 (SF-12), and disease specific [Seattle angina questionnaire (SAQ)] measures. We compared health status scores at all three time points, and utilized longitudinal linear mixed effects analyses to examine the independent effect of gender, adjusting for time and selected covariates. Women had significantly lower health status scores than men at each assessment (all P-values <0.0001). Following adjustment for time and all covariates, women had SF-12 physical/mental summary scores that were −0.96 (95% CI: −1.59, −0.32) and −2.36 points lower (95% CI: −2.99, −1.72) than men, as well as worse SAQ physical limitations (−2.44 points lower; 95% CI: −3.53, −1.34), more angina (−1.03 points lower; 95% CI: −1.98, −0.07), and poorer quality of life (−3.51 points lower; 95% CI: −4.80, −2.22) than men. Conclusions Although both genders recover similarly following AMI, women have poorer scores than men on all health status measures; a difference that persisted throughout the entire year after discharge. PMID:25862743
Collier, Kate L; Bos, Henny M W; Sandfort, Theo G M
This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12-15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8 schools in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Preliminary analyses showed that contact with lesbian/gay persons outside of school was positively associated with attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Multilevel analyses showed that acceptance of gender non-conformity mediated rather than moderated the relationship between intergroup contact and sexual prejudice in males. The effect of intergroup contact on females' attitudes toward lesbian women was no longer significant in multilevel analyses. The findings suggest that attention to both intergroup contact and acceptance of gender non-conformity would enhance our understanding of attitudes toward homosexuality in adolescents.
Collier, Kate L.; Bos, Henny M.W.; Sandfort, Theo G.M.
This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8 schools in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Preliminary analyses showed that contact with lesbian/gay persons outside of school was positively associated with attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Multilevel analyses showed that acceptance of gender non-conformity mediated rather than moderated the relationship between intergroup contact and sexual prejudice in males. The effect of intergroup contact on females' attitudes toward lesbian women was no longer significant in multilevel analyses. The findings suggest that attention to both intergroup contact and acceptance of gender non-conformity would enhance our understanding of attitudes toward homosexuality in adolescents. PMID:22243627
Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Dyson, Margaret W.
Objective Evidence supporting the continuity between child temperament and adult personality traits is accumulating. One important indicator of continuity is the presence of reliable gender differences in traits across the lifespan. A substantial literature demonstrates gender differences on certain adult personality traits and recent meta-analytic work on child samples suggests similar gender differences for some broad and narrow domains of temperament. However, most existing studies of children rely only on parent-report measures. The present study investigated gender differences in temperament traits assessed by laboratory observation, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures. Methods Across three independent samples, behavioral observations, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures of temperament were collected on 463 boys and 402 girls. Results Across all three methods, girls demonstrated higher positive affect and fear and lower activity level than boys. For laboratory measures, girls demonstrated higher levels of sociability and lower levels of overall negative emotionality (NE), sadness, anger and impulsivity than boys. However, girls demonstrated higher levels of overall NE and sadness than boys when measured by maternal reports. Finally, girls demonstrated lower levels of sociability based on paternal reports. Conclusions Results are discussed in relation to past meta-analytic work and developmental implications of the findings. PMID:22924826
Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Lewin, Amy; Joseph, Jill G.
The prevalence of children's violence exposure, particularly among ethnic minorities living in urban areas, is troubling. Gender differences in the rates and effects of violence exposure on behavior have been found for older children, and the current study extends this research to preschool-age children. We draw on data collected from a sample of…
Collier, Kate L.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.
This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12-15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8…
Kyrgyzstan, like other countries of the former Soviet Union, traditionally occupied a relatively high position in the world from the standpoint of the average level of education of its population. Any gender inequality when it came to obtaining an education was insignificant by international standards. However, the conversion to market relations,…
Weiss, Felix; Scholten, Mirte M. M.
As with earlier social disparities in educational achievement, re-enrolment in college education can depend on parental social background. We link this finding with gender differences using data from the US National Longitudinal Study of Youth 79 and ask if the decision to re-enrol in college is influenced by parental social class in a…
Meduri, Federico; Beretta-Piccoli, Matteo; Calanni, Luca; Segreto, Valentina; Giovanetti, Giuseppe; Barbero, Marco; Cescon, Corrado; D’Antona, Giuseppe
Purpose The purpose of the present study was to evaluate inter-arm and inter-gender differences in fractal dimension (FD) and conduction velocity (CV) obtained from multichannel surface electromyographic (sEMG) recordings during sustained fatiguing contractions of the biceps brachii. Methods A total of 20 recreationally active males (24±6 years) and 18 recreationally active females (22±9 years) performed two isometric contractions at 120 degrees elbow joint angle: (1) at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 90 s, and (2) at 60% MVC until exhaustion the time to perform the task has been measured. Signals from sEMG were detected from the biceps brachii using bidimensional arrays of 64 electrodes and initial values and rate of change of CV and FD of the sEMG signal were calculated. Results No difference between left and right sides and no statistically significant interaction effect of sides with gender were found for all parameters measured. A significant inter-gender difference was found for MVC (p<0.0001). Initial values of CV were higher in females than in males at both force levels (20% MCV: p<0.0001; 60% MCV: p<0.05) whereas a lower initial estimate of FD was observed in females compared to males (20% MCV: p<0.05; 60% MCV: p<0.0001). No difference in CV and FD slopes was found at 20% MVC between genders. At 60% MVC significantly lower CV and FD slopes (CV and FD: p<0.05) and a more protracted time to exhaustion were found in females than in males (p<0.0001). When considering time to exhaustion at both levels of contraction no difference in percentage change (Δ%) of CV and FD slopes was found between genders (p>0.05). During the sustained 60% MVC no statistical correlation was found between MVC and CV or FD initial estimates nor between MVC and CV or FD slopes both in males and females whereas. A significant positive correlation between CV and FD slopes was found in both genders (males: r = 0,61; females: r = 0,55). Conclusions Fatigue determines
Wingood, G M; DiClemente, R J
We examined the partner influences and gender-related correlates of noncondom use among African American women. The prevalence of noncondom use was 45.3%. Women whose sexual partners were noncondom users were four times more likely to believe that asking their partner to use a condom implied he was unfaithful, three times as likely to have a partner who resisted using condoms, three times more likely to receive AFDC, twice as likely to be sexually nonassertive, three times more likely to believe that it was not difficult to find an "eligible" African American man, and three times as likely to have had one sexual partner. HIV prevention tailored towards African American women should address these partner influences and gender-related factors.
Boer, Diana; Fischer, Ronald; Tekman, Hasan Gürkan; Abubakar, Amina; Njenga, Jane; Zenger, Markus
How can we understand the uses of music in daily life? Music is a universal phenomenon but with significant interindividual and cultural variability. Listeners' gender and cultural background may influence how and why music is used in daily life. This paper reports the first investigation of a holistic framework and a new measure of music functions (RESPECT-music) across genders and six diverse cultural samples (students from Germany, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, and Turkey). Two dimensions underlie the mental representation of music functions. First, music can be used for contemplation or affective functions. Second, music can serve intrapersonal, social, and sociocultural functions. Results reveal that gender differences occur for affective functions, indicating that female listeners use music more for affective functions, i.e., emotional expression, dancing, and cultural identity. Country differences are moderate for social functions (values, social bonding, dancing) and strongest for sociocultural function (cultural identity, family bonding, political attitudes). Cultural values, such as individualism-collectivism and secularism-traditionalism, can help explain cross-cultural differences in the uses of music. Listeners from more collectivistic cultures use music more frequently for expressing values and cultural identity. Listeners from more secular and individualistic cultures like to dance more. Listeners from more traditional cultures use music more for expressing values and cultural identity, and they bond more frequently with their families over music. The two dimensions of musical functions seem systematically underpinned by listeners' gender and cultural background. We discuss the uses of music as behavioral expressions of affective and contemplative as well as personal, social, and sociocultural aspects in terms of affect proneness and cultural values.
van de Schoot, Rens; van der Velden, Floor; Boom, Jan; Brugman, Daniël
This study aimed to extend the understanding of anti-social behaviour and its association with popularity and sociometric status in a sample of at-risk adolescents from diverse ethnic backgrounds (n = 1491, average age 14.7 years). Both overt and covert types of anti-social behaviour were used to distinguish subgroups. These subgroups were created on the basis of anti-social behaviour profile scores, using Latent Class Analysis. Moderator effects of gender and ethnic background were investigated using a log-linear analysis. The main finding was that each sociometric status group consisted of subgroups that differed in terms of prevalence of self-reported anti-social behaviour. At-risk young adolescents who reported involvement in anti-social behaviour appeared in every status group, including the popular group. Implications for school prevention programmes for anti-social behaviour are discussed.
Spaderna, Heike; Sieverding, Monika
This study examined the contribution of gender role self-concept (expressiveness and instrumentality) on active interest in and use of Internet-delivered health information among young men and women. Four hundred and twenty university students reported health behaviours and perceived personal vulnerability regarding five diseases. We analysed active interest in receiving health-related information concerning these diseases (providing email address to receive a link to health-related websites) and actual use of provided websites two weeks afterwards. Usage of health-related information via the Internet was objectively assessed by recording log-ins on the website and obtaining individual click counts. In both sexes, higher expressiveness was independently associated with being more likely to show active interest in health-related information. Additionally, expressiveness was positively associated with website use in men independent of age, personal vulnerability and reported health behaviours. Thus, an expressive self-concept facilitates the use of health-related information, especially among men.
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly M.; Johnson, Laura; Liku, Jennifer; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Niang, Cheikh
To examine young people's reactions to and understanding of HIV prevention messages developed for MTV's global HIV prevention campaign Staying Alive, videotaped campaign materials were shown to focus group discussion (FGD) participants living in urban areas of Brazil, Kenya, Nepal, and Senegal. Responses related to "personal involvement"…
Wickens, Corrine M.
Since the publication of the first young adult novel to deal with issues of sexual identity, John Donovan's ("1969") "I'll Get There, It Better Be Worth the Trip", over 200 novels have been published centered around gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, queer and questioning (LGBTQ) characters and conflicts (Cart and Jenkins, "2006", "The Heart has…
Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Guo, How-Ran
Although developmental delays are not uncommon in children, the incidence is seldom assessed, and the reported prevalence varies widely. In Taiwan, the government mandates the reporting of suspected cases. Using the national registry data, we conducted a study to estimate the incidence and prevalence of developmental delays in young children in…
Maman, Suzanne; Kajula, Lusajo; Balvanz, Peter; Kilonzo, Mrema; Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina
Gender inequality is at the core of the HIV patterns that are evident in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender-based violence (GBV) and lack of economic opportunity are important structural determinants of HIV risk. We piloted a microfinance and health promotion intervention among social networks of primarily young men in Dar es Salaam. Twenty-two individuals participated in the microfinance component and 30 peer leaders were recruited and trained in the peer health leadership component. We collected and analysed observational data from trainings, monitoring data on loan repayment, and reports of peer conversations to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Eighteen of the loan recipients (82%) paid back their loans, and of these 15 (83%) received a second, larger loan. Among the loan defaulters, one died, one had chronic health problems, and two disappeared, one of whom was imprisoned for theft. The majority of conversations reported by peer health leaders focused on condoms, sexual partner selection, and HIV testing. Few peer leaders reported conversations about GBV. We demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of this innovative HIV and GBV prevention intervention. The lessons learned from this pilot have informed the implementation of a cluster-randomised trial of the microfinance and peer health leadership intervention.
Maman, Suzanne; Kajula, Lusajo; Balvanz, Peter; Kilonzo, Mrema Noel; Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina
Gender inequality is at the core of the HIV patterns that are evident in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender-based violence (GBV) and lack of economic opportunity are important structural determinants of HIV risk. We piloted a microfinance and health promotion intervention among social networks of primarily young men in Dar es Salaam. Twenty-two individuals participated in the microfinance component and 30 peer leaders were recruited and trained in the peer health leadership component. We collected and analyzed observational data from trainings, monitoring data on loan repayment, and reports of peer conversations to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Eighteen of the loan recipients (82%) paid back their loans, and of these 15 (83%) received a second, larger loan. Among the loan defaulters, one died, one had chronic health problems, and two disappeared, one of whom was imprisoned for theft. The majority of conversations reported by peer health leaders focused on condoms, sexual partner selection and HIV testing. Few peer leaders reported conversations about GBV. We demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of this innovative HIV and GBV prevention intervention. The lessons learned from this pilot have informed the implementation of a cluster-randomized trial of the microfinance and peer health leadership intervention. PMID:26588115
Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja
This study aimed to examine the pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual assault victimization and perpetration in adolescence and early adulthood, considering risky sexual behavior and lowered sexual self-esteem as mediator variables. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 2251 college students in Germany, male and female participants provided reports of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since age 14 (T1) and again a year later (T2), covering the last 12 months. In addition, child sexual abuse (CSA; before the age of 14), risky sexual behavior, and sexual self-esteem were assessed at T1, and risky sexual behavior and sexual-self-esteem were assessed again at T2. Experience of CSA was significantly associated with greater likelihood of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, lower sexual self-esteem, and more risky sexual behavior in both gender groups at T1 and was directly related to victimization at T2 among male participants. In both gender groups, CSA indirectly contributed to a higher probability of sexual victimization at T2 via its impact on victimization T1. In males, the indirect path from CSA to T2 perpetration via T1 perpetration was also significant. Through its negative impact on sexual self-esteem, CSA indirectly increased the probability of sexual victimization among women and the probability of sexual aggression perpetration among men. Risky sexual behavior mediated the pathway from CSA to sexual victimization at T2 for men and women and the pathway from CSA to sexual aggression perpetration for women. The findings contribute to the understanding of gendered effects of CSA on revictimization and the victim-to-perpetrator cycle.
Bogart, Laura M.; Smith, Katherine C.; Malebranche, David J.; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A.
Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental–family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention. PMID:24832150
Hill, Mandy; Granado, Misha; Stotts, Angela
HIV continues to be a major public health problem for African-American (AA) women, and the burden of new cases to our society is significant because each case is at risk of infecting others. Substance use worsens the risk of HIV transmission to AA women. We provide specific recommendations to move the concept of tailoring HIV prevention interventions for substance users forward by focusing on young, sexually active, substance-using AA women and applying a culturally relevant revision to existing theoretical frameworks to include the Sexual Script Theory and the Theory of Gender and Power. We encourage use of these theories to guide adaptation of interventions to demonstrate efficacy within this hard-to-reach population. Consistent use of theories designed to exploit powerlessness and sexual scripts as barriers to adoption of protective sexual behaviors has potential to permeate sexual and substance use networks among African-Americans. This recommendation is being made because this theoretical framework has not been used in HIV prevention interventions targeting young, sexually active, substance-using AA women.
Fields, Errol Lamont; Bogart, Laura M; Smith, Katherine C; Malebranche, David J; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A
Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental-family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention.
Rice, Timothy R
Suicide and homicide are much more commonly committed by adolescent males than females. Herein, a proposal in favor of gender-specific understanding and approach to these violent behaviors is presented. Social and healthcare service system factors, including issues of male adolescents' access to care and help-seeking behaviors, are reviewed alongside the epidemiology of adolescent suicide and homicide as a transition into a detailed discussion of the putative biological factors at play. An emphasis upon the male androgen testosterone organizes the discussion. Behavioral manifestations of this brain-based organizational model are presented with a focus on impulsivity, aggression, and externalizing dysregulated emotionality. Treatment considerations and implications are developed.
Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K; Howlin, Patricia
Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This cross-sectional study examined the association of gender, age, adaptive functioning and autism symptom severity with different caregiver-reported anxiety symptoms. Participants were caregivers of 241 children (6-18 years old) with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools in Singapore. Measures included the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and assessments of overall emotional, behavioural and adaptive functioning. Caregivers reported more anxiety symptoms in total, but fewer social anxiety symptoms, than Spence Children's Anxiety Scale Australian/Dutch norms. There were no gender differences. Variance in total anxiety scores was best explained by severity of repetitive speech/stereotyped behaviour symptoms, followed by adaptive functioning. Severity of repetitive speech/behaviour symptoms was a significant predictor of separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, panic/agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive subscale symptoms, but not of social phobia and physical injury fears. Adaptive functioning and chronological age predicted social phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms only. Severity of social/communication autism symptoms did not explain any anxiety symptoms, when the other variables were controlled for. Findings are discussed in relation to the existing literature. Limitations and possible implications for prevention, assessment and intervention are also discussed.
In this study, the author examined the relationship between theory-of-mind understanding and preschool-aged children's peer-related social competence. One hundred eleven 3- to 5-year-old children (48 boys, 63 girls) participated in 2 theory-of-mind tasks designed to assess their understanding of false belief. Teachers rated children's peer-related social behavior in terms of prosocial behavior, aggressive or disruptive behavior, and shy or withdrawn behavior. Results indicated that, after controlling for age, theory-of-mind understanding significantly predicted aggressive or disruptive behavior for boys and prosocial behavior for girls. Theory-of-mind understanding also was related to lower scores of shy or withdrawn behavior for boys. Results are discussed in terms of the gender differences in the factors contributing to early peer competence.
Yelland, Nicola, Ed.
The construction of gender is a systematic process that begins at birth and is continually shaped, molded, and reshaped throughout life. This book examines practices with young children with respect to the construction of gender and the expectations of society, schools, and families. The book is organized into two parts. The first part considers…
Tagliamonte, Micaela; Sestieri, Carlo; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallucci, Massimo; Caulo, Massimo
The mammillary bodies (MBs) are classically defined as a pair of small round structures located on the undersurface of the diencephalon. The systematic observation of MR brain images of patients with neurological diseases, but also of healthy subjects enrolled in research protocols, reveals, however, a greater anatomical variability. The aim of the present study was to define the spectrum of such variability using spatial normalized 3D TFE T1-weighted MR images in a group of 151 healthy right-handed young subjects (78 females, age range 16-39 years). The MBs were identified on reformatted coronal and axial images and classified according to morphological, positional and numerical criteria. On the basis of coronal images, MBs were first divided into symmetrical (86.1 %) and asymmetrical (13.9 %), depending on their respective height. Symmetrical MBs were further subdivided into three variants [type A (2.7 %), B (76.2 %), C (7.3 %)] according to the depth of the intermammillary sulcus. Two morphological variants were defined on axial images, depending on whether the MBs were circular (63.6 %) or elliptic (36.4 %). This latter group was further divided in two subgroups, depending on whether the MBs were parallel (21.9 %) or convergent (14.6 %). Finally, two subjects (1.3 %) presented a supernumeral MB. The transverse size of the third ventricle was greater in the type A compared to the type B and C groups. Gender did not significantly affect the frequency of MBs variants, except for the three symmetrical subgroups in which the variants A and C were more frequent in males than in females. These findings suggest the presence of an anatomical variability of the MBs, in contrast to their classical definition. Therefore, atypical presentation of MBs can be the expression of this variability rather than a marker of neurological disorders (i.e. cerebral malformation, mesial temporal sclerosis, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome).
Herbison, Carly E; Henley, David; Marsh, Julie; Atkinson, Helen; Newnham, John P; Matthews, Stephen G; Lye, Stephen J; Pennell, Craig E
Dysregulation of the biological stress response system has been implicated in the development of psychological, metabolic, and cardiovascular disease. Whilst changes in stress response are often quantified as an increase or decrease in cortisol levels, three different patterns of stress response have been reported in the literature for the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) (reactive-responders (RR), anticipatory-responders (AR) and non-responders (NR)). However, these have never been systematically analyzed in a large population-based cohort. The aims of this study were to examine factors that contribute to TSST variation (gender, oral contraceptive use, menstrual cycle phase, smoking, and BMI) using traditional methods and novel analyses of stress response patterns. We analyzed the acute stress response of 798, 18-year-old participants from a community-based cohort using the TSST. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone, plasma cortisol, and salivary cortisol levels were quantified. RR, AR, and NR patterns comprised 56.6%, 26.2%, and 17.2% of the cohort, respectively. Smokers were more likely to be NR than (RR or AR; adjusted, p < 0.05). Overweight and obese subjects were less likely to be NR than the other patterns (adjusted, p < 0.05). Males were more likely to be RR than NR (adjusted, p = 0.05). In addition, we present a novel AUC measure (AUCR), for use when the TSST baseline concentration is higher than later time points. These results show that in a young adult cohort, stress-response patterns, in addition to other parameters vary with gender, smoking, and BMI. The distribution of these patterns has the potential to vary with adult health and disease and may represent a biomarker for future investigation.
Morales, Santiago; Beekman, Charles; Blandon, Alysia Y; Stifter, Cynthia A; Buss, Kristin A
Temperament is an important predictor of socioemotional adjustment, such as externalizing and internalizing symptoms. However, there is not a one-to-one correspondence between temperamental predispositions and these outcomes, implying that other factors also contribute to the development of internalizing and externalizing problems. Self-regulation is believed to interact with temperament, and has been studied as a predictor for later socioemotional outcomes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a psychophysiological measure of self-regulation that has been studied as a moderator of risk. The primary aim of the present study was to test if RSA baseline and RSA reactivity would moderate the link between temperament and socioemotional outcomes. Mothers reported the temperament of their infants (20 months; N = 154), RSA was collected at 24- and 42-months, and mothers reported externalizing and internalizing behaviors at kindergarten entry. RSA baseline and RSA reactivity moderated the relation between exuberant temperament and externalizing behaviors. However, these results were only significant for girls, such that high RSA baseline and greater RSA suppression predicted more externalizing behaviors when exuberance was high. Fearful temperament predicted later internalizing behaviors, but no moderation was present. These results are discussed in light of recent evidence regarding gender differences in the role of RSA as a protective factor for risk.
Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie S.; Zhan, Min; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Lostutter, Ty W.; Tho, Le Huu; Van Luong, Vo; Minh, Truong Tan
A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted with 880 youth (16 to 24 years) in Nha Trang City to assess relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors. A timeline followback method was employed. Chi-square, generalized logit modeling and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the sample, 78.2% male and 56.1% female respondents ever consumed alcohol. Males reporting sexual behaviors (vaginal, anal, oral sex) had a significantly higher calculated peak BAC of 0.151 compared to 0.082 for males reporting no sexual intimacy (p < .0001). Females reporting sexual behaviors had a peak BAC of 0.072 compared to 0.027 for those reporting no sexual intimacy (p = .016). Fifty percent of (33/66) males and 30.4% (7/23) females report event specific drinking and engagement in sexual behaviors. Males reporting 11+ drinks in 30 days had more sexual partners than those reporting 1 to 10 drinks (p = .037). Data suggest different physical and psychosocial mediators between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors by gender. PMID:21373363
Sarafian, Delphine; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L.
The body's ability to rapidly and appropriately regulate blood pressure in response to changing physiological demand is a key feature of a healthy cardiovascular system. Passively tilting the body, thereby changing central blood volume, is a well-recognized and controlled method of evaluating this ability. However, such studies usually involve single tilt angles, or intermittent tilting separated by supine, resting periods; valuable information concerning the adaptive capacity of the regulatory systems involved is therefore currently lacking. Furthermore, despite increasing recognition that men and women differ in the magnitude of their haemodynamic response to such stimuli, little is known about the degree to which gender differences in body composition and anthropometry influence these regulatory pathways, or indeed if these differences are apparent in response to graded, incremental tilting. In the present study we measured, in 23 young, healthy adults (13 men, 10 women), the continuous beat-to-beat haemodynamic response to graded, incremental tilting (0°, 20°, 40°, 60°, and back to 40°) with each tilt angle lasting 16 min. On average, we observed increases in heart rate (+41%), blood pressure (+10%), and total peripheral resistance (+16%) in response to tilting. However, whilst men showed an immediate decrease in cardiac output upon tilting (−8.9%) cardiac output in women did not change significantly from supine values. Interestingly, the decrease in stroke volume observed in women was significantly less than that observed in men (−22 vs. −36%, p < 0.05); although the present study could not determine if this difference was due to gender per se or due to differences in body size (in particular height) between the two gender groups. Such disparities in the magnitude of autonomic response may indicate (in the case of our gradual incremental tilt procedure) a better buffering capacity to progressive changes in central blood volume in women; which
Blazej, Robert; Toriello, Nicholas; Emrich, Charles; Cohen, Richard N.; Koppel, Nitzan
This invention provides novel variant cellulolytic enzymes having improved activity and/or stability. In certain embodiments the variant cellulotyic enzymes comprise a glycoside hydrolase with or comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to one or more of residues F64, A226, and/or E246 in Thermobifida fusca Cel9A enzyme. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a family 9 glycoside hydrolase. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a theme B family 9 glycoside hydrolase.
Pettifor, Audrey; MacPhail, Catherine; Anderson, Althea D.; Maman, Suzanne
Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women’s decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24 year old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women’s expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power, and how this influences HIV risk. We found that the majority of young women reported expectations of power in relationships that conform to a model of femininity marked by financial independence, freedom to make decisions, including over sexuality, and equality (resistant femininity). The majority of young women, however, were in relationships marked by intimate partner violence, infidelity or lack of condom use. In spite of this, more young women who subscribed to a resistant model of femininity were in less risky relationships than young women who subscribed to acquiescent models, in which power was vested in their male partners. Further, young women who subscribed to resistant femininity had more education than women who subscribed to an acquiescent model. The disconnect between expectations of relationships and young women’s lived realities emphasises the need for structural changes that afford women greater economic and thus decision making power. PMID:22449022
Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity.
This article presents the author's thoughts on gender diagnosis controversies during his tenure at the DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders and the ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health. The work summarizes some of the published conclusions of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 revision processes regarding three particular controversies: (1) stigma versus access to care; (2) the retention of a child gender diagnosis; and (3) the treatment of prepubescent transgender children. Both the DSM and ICD work groups decided that despite the stigma associated with a diagnosis, retaining an adolescent and adult gender diagnosis is necessary to maintain access to care. As for the child gender diagnosis, given the heterogeneity of this clinical population and that gender dysphoria does not persist in most children, a child diagnosis of Gender Dysphoria (DSM) and Gender Incongruence (ICD) should be retained to facilitate ongoing evaluation and management in childhood while acknowledging the uncertainty of the outcome. The treatment of extremely gender variant prepubescent children remains a controversial subject since some underlying assumptions of the treating clinicians are a matter of opinion rather than of empirical data.
Martin, Carol Lynn; Kornienko, Olga; Schaefer, David R.; Hanish, Laura D.; Fabes, Richard A.; Goble, Priscilla
A stochastic actor-based model was used to investigate the origins of sex segregation by examining how similarity in sex and time spent in gender-typed activities affected affiliation network selection and how peers influenced children’s (N = 292; M age = 4.3 years) activity involvement. Gender had powerful effects on interactions through direct and indirect pathways. Children selected playmates of the same-sex and with similar levels of gender-typed activities. Selection based on gender-typed activities partially mediated selection based on sex. Children influenced one another’s engagement in gender-typed activities. When mechanisms producing sex segregation were compared, the largest contributor was selection based on sex; less was due to activity-based selection and peer influence. Implications for sex segregation and gender development are discussed. PMID:23252713
Martin, Carol Lynn; Kornienko, Olga; Schaefer, David R; Hanish, Laura D; Fabes, Richard A; Goble, Priscilla
A stochastic actor-based model was used to investigate the origins of sex segregation by examining how similarity in sex of peers and time spent in gender-typed activities affected affiliation network selection and how peers influenced children's (N = 292; Mage = 4.3 years) activity involvement. Gender had powerful effects on interactions through direct and indirect pathways. Children selected playmates of the same sex and with similar levels of gender-typed activities. Selection based on gender-typed activities partially mediated selection based on sex of peers. Children influenced one another's engagement in gender-typed activities. When mechanisms producing sex segregation were compared, the largest contributor was selection based on sex of peers; less was due to activity-based selection and peer influence. Implications for sex segregation and gender development are discussed.
Howarth, Grace Z.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly
This study presents a novel task examining young children's affective responses to evaluative feedback--specifically, social acceptance and rejection--from peers. We aimed to determine (1) whether young children report their affective responses to hypothetical peer evaluation predictably and consistently, and (2) whether young children's responses…
Sidiropoulos, Christos; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Mitsias, Panayiotis; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Reichel, Martin; Lewczuk, Piotr; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes
Objective Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) are thought to be implicated in a variety of neuronal processes, including cell growth, resilience to noxious stimuli and synaptic plasticity. A Val to Met substitution at codon 66 in the BDNF protein has been associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions. The ApoE4 allele is considered a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, but its effects on young adults are less clear. We sought to investigate the effects of those two polymorphisms on hemispheric and lateral ventricular volumes of young healthy adults. Methods Hemispheric and lateral ventricular volumes of 144 healthy individuals, aged 19–35 years, were measured using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and data were correlated with BDNF and ApoE genotypes. Results There were no correlations between BDNF or ApoE genotype and hemispheric or lateral ventricular volumes. Conclusion These findings indicate that it is unlikely that either the BDNF Val66Met or ApoE polymorphisms exert any significant effect on hemispheric or lateral ventricular volume. However, confounding epistatic genetic effects as well as relative insensitivity of the volumetric methods used cannot be ruled out. Further imaging analyses are warranted to better define any genetic influence of the BDNF Val6Met and ApoE polymorphism on brain structure of young healthy adults. PMID:21701702
Chan, Anita Kit-wa
The feminisation of teaching is an important topic in education and gender studies. Discussions have been enriched by comparative and international studies as well as a gendering perspective in which a complicated view of the role of the state has emerged. In colonial Hong Kong, although the government was limited in its support of teacher…
Martin, Carol Lynn; Kornienko, Olga; Schaefer, David R.; Hanish, Laura D.; Fabes, Richard A.; Goble, Priscilla
A stochastic actor-based model was used to investigate the origins of sex segregation by examining how similarity in sex of peers and time spent in gender-typed activities affected affiliation network selection and how peers influenced children's ("N" = 292; "M"[subscript age] = 4.3 years) activity involvement. Gender had…
Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Punab, Anna Maria; Poolamets, Olev; Vihljajev, Vladimir; Žilaitienė, Birutė; Erenpreiss, Juris; Matulevičius, Valentinas; Laan, Maris
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) -29G/A polymorphism (rs1394205) was reported to modulate gene expression and reproductive parameters in women, but data in men is limited. We aimed to bring evidence to the effect of FSHR -29G/A variants in men. In Baltic young male cohort (n = 982; Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians; aged 20.2±2.0 years), the FSHR -29 A-allele was significantly associated with higher serum FSH (linear regression: effect 0.27 IU/L; P = 0.0019, resistant to Bonferroni correction for multiple testing) and showed a non-significant trend for association with higher LH (0.19 IU/L) and total testosterone (0.93 nmol/L), but reduced Inhibin B (−7.84 pg/mL) and total testes volume (effect −1.00 mL). Next, we extended the study and tested the effect of FSHR gene haplotypes determined by the allelic combination of FSHR -29G/A and a well-studied variant c.2039 A/G (Asn680Ser, exon 10). Among the FSHR -29A/2039G haplotype carriers (A-Ser; haplotype-based linear regression), this genetic effect was enhanced for FSH (effect 0.40 IU/L), Inhibin B (−16.57 pg/mL) and total testes volume (−2.34 mL). Finally, we estimated the total contribution of three known FSH-action modulating SNPs (FSHB -211G/T; FSHR -29G/A, c.2039 A/G) to phenotypic variance in reproductive parameters among young men. The major FSH-action modulating SNPs explained together 2.3%, 1.4%, 1.0 and 1.1% of the measured variance in serum FSH, Inhibin B, testosterone and total testes volume, respectively. In contrast to the young male cohort, neither FSHR -29G/A nor FSHR haplotypes appeared to systematically modulate the reproductive physiology of oligozoospermic idiopathic infertile patients (n = 641, Estonians; aged 31.5±6.0 years). In summary, this is the first study showing the significant effect of FSHR -29G/A on male serum FSH level. To account for the genetic effect of known common polymorphisms modulating FSH-action, we suggest haplotype-based analysis of FSHR SNPs
KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS
This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518
Gender inequalities in education are very apparent. Young women are overrepresented in educational training and in the school-based training and correspondingly underrepresented in the dual training courses. Gender segmentation in professional education continues to exist. Women are overrepresented in the service sector, while men are in…
This articles discusses some of the findings of a small-scale, localized, qualitative study involving children and young people identified and processed as young carers, that are providing 'substantial care' for an adult while in primary and/or secondary school. It explores their views on managing to 'care more' whilst at school and the role that…
Jacob, Marita; Kleinert, Corinna; Kuhhirt, Michael
This paper examines trends in school-to-work transitions of young men and women with lower and higher secondary education in West Germany between 1984 and 2005. This period was marked by an increase in young women's educational attainment and a continuous growth of the service sector. We assume that both developments have benefited women more than…
Robinson, Kerry H.
This paper explores heteronormativity and argues for the "queerying" of gender in early childhood education. The author argues, utilising Butler's theory of performativity and heterosexual matrix, that the construction of gender in young children's lives requires an analysis of the normalising practices in which gendered identities are…
Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Humphreys, Glyn W
The role of configural information in gender categorisation was studied by aligning the top half of one face with the bottom half of another. The two faces had the same or different genders. Experiment 1 shows that participants were slower and made more errors in categorising the gender in either half of these composite faces when the two faces had a different gender, relative to control conditions where the two faces were nonaligned or had the same gender. This result parallels the composite effect for face recognition (Young et al, 1987 Perception 16 747-759) and facial-expression recognition (Calder et al, 2000 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 26 527-551). Similarly to responses to face identity and expression, the composite effect on gender discrimination was disrupted by inverting the faces (experiment 2). Both experiments also show that the composite paradigm is sensitive to general contextual interference in gender categorisation.
Tam, Claudia Ha Ting; Ho, Janice Siu Ka; Zhao, Hai-Lu; Guan, Jing; Kong, Alice Pik Shan; Lau, Eric; Zhang, Guozhi; Luk, Andrea; Wang, Ying; Tsui, Stephen Kwok Wing; Chan, Ting Fung; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Wei Ping; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Furuta, Hiroto; Nanjo, Kishio; Tai, E. Shyong; Ng, Daniel Peng-Keat; Tang, Nelson Leung Sang; Woo, Jean; Leung, Ping Chung; Xue, Hong; Wong, Jeffrey; Leung, Po Sing; Lau, Terrence C. K.; Tong, Peter Chun Yip; Xu, Gang; Ng, Maggie Chor Yin; So, Wing Yee; Chan, Juliana Chung Ngor
In Asia, young-onset type 2 diabetes (YOD) is characterized by obesity and increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 99 Chinese obese subjects with familial YOD diagnosed before 40-year-old and 101 controls, the T allele of rs1408888 in intron 1 of DACH1(Dachshund homolog 1) was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.49(95% confidence intervals:1.57–3.96, P = 8.4×10−5). Amongst these subjects, we found reduced expression of DACH1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 63 cases compared to 65 controls (P = 0.02). In a random cohort of 1468 cases and 1485 controls, amongst top 19 SNPs from GWAS, rs1408888 was associated with type 2 diabetes with a global P value of 0.0176 and confirmation in a multiethnic Asian case-control cohort (7370/7802) with an OR of 1.07(1.02–1.12, Pmeta = 0.012). In 599 Chinese non-diabetic subjects, rs1408888 was linearly associated with systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance. In a case-control cohort (n = 953/953), rs1408888 was associated with an OR of 1.54(1.07–2.22, P = 0.019) for CVD in type 2 diabetes. In an autopsy series of 173 non-diabetic cases, TT genotype of rs1408888 was associated with an OR of 3.31(1.19–9.19, P = 0.0214) and 3.27(1.25–11.07, P = 0.0184) for coronary heart disease (CHD) and coronary arteriosclerosis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that rs1408888 lies within regulatory elements of DACH1 implicated in islet development and insulin secretion. The T allele of rs1408888 of DACH1 was associated with YOD, prediabetes and CVD in Chinese. PMID:24465431
Murphy, Robert L.
African American males consistently perform at significantly lower academic levels, than their peers, at every age level and on almost every national assessment (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Harvey, 2010; Tsoi-A-Fatt, 2010; Fergus & Noguera, 2010), and of all racial/ethnic and gender groups, African American males…
Marrocco, Frank A.
Assertions regarding the impact of the quality of the father-son relationship on sons' gender developmental experience have not been tested empirically in the literature. Such an examination is the focus of this study. As no relational account of the relationship exists, self-in-relation theory was used to ground these assertions theoretically.…
Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.
SUMMARY When individuals reason in an essentialist way about social categories, they assume that group differences reflect inherently different natures (Gelman, 2003; Rothbart & Taylor, 1992). This paper describes the psychological and social implications of essentialist beliefs, and examines the extent to which children exhibit psychological essentialism when reasoning about gender. The authors discuss reasons young children as well as older children show essentialist reasoning in some contexts, but not in others. Finally, the authors suggest directions for future research, and discuss a primary challenge to many working in this field: reduction of rigid gender beliefs. PMID:21528097
Voith, Laura A; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J
Significant associations between childhood victimization and later revictimization have materialized in previous literature; yet, the victimization cycle has been primarily explored with indicators of sexual assault, although insight into linkages between other forms of victimization remains limited. This study examined connections from family conflict exposure and physical abuse in childhood to violent crime victimization in adulthood, assessing also gender differences and neighborhood influences. Results from logistic regression and hierarchical linear modeling with data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel of 1,539 low-income, ethnic/racial minority children, unearthed a significant relation between family conflict exposure and later revictimization. Moderated by gender, these analyses showed girls exposed to frequent family conflict are particularly vulnerable to revictimization in adulthood. Exploratory analyses unveiled a potential linkage between childhood physical abuse and later revictimization for men. Neighborhood effects marginally influenced results in one instance. Public health implications are discussed.
Mason, W Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Haggerty, Kevin P; Hawkins, J David; Redmond, Cleve; Spoth, Richard L; Shin, Chungyeol
This study examined the long-term impact of Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY) on young adult alcohol abuse disorder, addressing theory-based questions about how, and for whom, the program had its effects on the outcomes. Participants were 429 families of 6th graders enrolled in 33 rural schools located in the Midwestern United States. Schools were randomly assigned to conditions. Target adolescents (52% female) were interviewed periodically from age 11 to age 22; throughout adolescence, information was collected also from the youths' parents. Moderation and mediation analyses were conducted using regression analysis and structural equation modeling with covariates measured at baseline (age 11), mediators measured at posttest (age 12), and the outcome measured at the young adult follow-up (age 22). Results showed that PDFY reduced the rate of alcohol abuse among target young women, with evidence that this effect was mediated by increased prosocial skills. The rate of alcohol abuse among PDFY group men was not significantly different from that of control group men. Findings have implications for reducing the public health burden of alcohol abuse among young women.
This study is a systematic investigation of female participation in mathematics and science classes in New York City schools. Six major findings reported include: (1) young women's low levels of participation in mathematics and science reflect the overall low levels of participation and reveal lack of attention to excellence in mathematics and…
Su, Xuan; Li, Zhaoqu; He, Caiyun; Chen, Weichao; Fu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Ankui
Background RET/PTC rearrangements have been identified as a specific genetic event in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We conducted this meta-analysis to identify an enriched population who were more likely to occur RET/PTC fusion genes. Methods All relevant studies in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases were searched up to June 2015. The studies found were screened according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria. All analyses were performed using STATA software. Results Eventually, 38 eligible studies comprising 2395 participants were included. Overall analysis indicated that radiation exposure contributed to increased RET/PTC risk (OR = 2.82; 95%CI: 1.38–5.78, P = 0.005). Stratified analysis according to RET/PTC subtype and geographical area showed that this association was restricted to the RET/PTC3 subtype (OR = 8.30, 95%CI: 4.32–15.96, P < 0.001) in the Western population. In addition, age < 18 years, i.e., young age, was associated with higher prevalence of RET/PTC3 (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.14–3.62, P = 0.017), especially in the radiation-exposure subpopulation (OR = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.01–5.49, P = 0.048). The association between female gender and RET/PTC1 risk was more significant in the PTC patients without radiation exposure (OR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.04–2.74, P = 0.034). Conclusion Both radiation exposure and young age are associated with increased risk of RET/PTC3 and that female gender is associated with higher prevalence of RET/PTC1 in the subpopulation without radiation exposure. The RET/PTC status in combination with radiation exposure, age, and sex should be considered in the differential diagnosis of suspicious PTC. PMID:26918339
Simons, Lisa K; Leibowitz, Scott F; Hidalgo, Marco A
Gender variance is an umbrella term used to describe gender identity, expression, or behavior that falls outside of culturally defined norms associated with a specific gender. In recent years, growing media coverage has heightened public awareness about gender variance in childhood and adolescence, and an increasing number of referrals to clinics specializing in care for gender-variant youth have been reported in the United States. Gender-variant expression, behavior, and identity may present in childhood and adolescence in a number of ways, and youth with gender variance have unique health needs. For those experiencing gender dysphoria, or distress encountered by the discordance between biological sex and gender identity, puberty is often an exceptionally challenging time. Pediatric primary care providers may be families' first resource for education and support, and they play a critical role in supporting the health of youth with gender variance by screening for psychosocial problems and health risks, referring for gender-specific mental health and medical care, and providing ongoing advocacy and support.
Salud, Margaret C; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Natto, Zuhair S; Montgomery, Susanne
While HIV rates are low for Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs), they have been increasing, especially for API women in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 299 young API women (18-24 years old) in the Inland Empire region of Southern California to better understand their intention for HIV testing and their perceptions about HIV/AIDS. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate exploration for model building and multivariate analyses to determine variables associated with HIV-testing intentions. Results suggest that more lifetime sexual partners, greater perceived gender susceptibility, higher HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexually active, more positive attitudes about HIV testing and higher self-perceptions/experiences related to risk contribute to stronger intentions for HIV testing in young API women. Findings from this study will contribute to the limited literature on HIV/AIDS in API women and provide information that can be used for developing and implementing culturally appropriate programs that encourage HIV prevention and testing in this population.
Pinchoff, Jessie; Boyer, Christopher B.; Mutombo, Namuunda; Chowdhuri, Rachna Nag; Ngo, Thoai D.
Background Zambia experiences high unmet need for family planning and high rates of HIV, particularly among youth. While male condoms are widely available and 95% of adults have heard of them, self-reported use in the past 12 months is low among young adults (45%). This study describes factors associated with non-use of male condoms among urban young adults in Zambia. Methods A household cross-sectional survey in four urban districts was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 among sexually active young adults ages 18–24 years. A random walk strategy was implemented in urban areas; eligible, enrolled participants were administered a survey on household characteristics, health access, and knowledge, attitudes and practices related to contraception. Relative risk regression models were built to determine factors associated with the decision to not use a male condom (non-use) at most recent sexual intercourse. Results A total of 2,388 individuals were interviewed; 69% were female, 35% were married, and average lifetime sex partners was 3.45 (SD±6.15). Non-use of male condoms was 59% at most recent sexual intercourse. In a multivariate model, women were more likely to report non-use of a male condom compared with men (aRR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.11, 1.38]), married individuals were more likely to report non-use compared with unmarried individuals (aRR = 1.59 [1.46, 1.73]), and those residing in the highest poverty wards were more likely to report non-use compared with those in the lowest poverty wards (aRR = 1.31 [1.16, 1.48]). Those with more negative perceptions of male condom use were 6% more likely to report non-use (aRR = 1.06 [1.03, 1.09]). Discussion regarding contraception with a partner decreased non-use 13% (aRR = 0.87 [0.80, 0.95]) and agreement regarding male condom use with a partner decreased non-use 16% (aRR = 0.84 [0.77, 0.91)]). Discussion Non-use of male condoms is high among young, married adults, particularly women, who may be interested in
Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil
Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted colour-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped colours (Experiment 1); (2) colour-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) colour-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) colour-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought.
Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne
Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education to explore the underlying gendered assumptions of a research project aiming to contribute to improving recruitment, retention and gender equity patterns in STEM educations and careers. Much research has been carried out to understand this gender gap phenomenon as well as to suggest measures to reduce its occurrence. A significant portion of this research has focused on detecting the typical "female" and "male" interest in science and has consequently suggested that adjustments be made to science education to cater for these interests. This article argues that adjusting science subjects to match perceived typical girls' and boys' interests risks being ineffective, as it contributes to the imposition of stereotyped gender identity formation thereby also imposing the gender differences that these adjustments were intended to overcome. This article also argues that different ways of addressing gender issues in science education themselves reflects different notions of gender and science. Thus in order to reduce gender inequities in science these implicit notions of gender and science have to be made explicit. The article begins with an overview of the current situation regarding gender equity in some so- called gender equal countries. We then present three perspectives from feminist critiques of science on how gender can be seen to impact on science and science education. Thereafter we analyze recommendations from a contemporary research project to explore which of these perspectives is most prevalent.
A recent meta-analysis showed a robust gender difference in nightmare frequency of medium effect size in adolescents and young adults: Women tend to report nightmares more frequently than men. The present study, carried out in an unselected student sample, indicates that 2 factors mediate the gender difference in nightmare frequency: neuroticism and overall dream recall frequency. The effect of neuroticism on the gender difference and the finding that the gender difference in nightmare frequency emerges at an age of about 10 years suggest that gender-specific socialization processes may play an important role in explaining the gender differences in nightmare frequency in adolescents and young to middle-aged adults. This idea is supported by the previous finding that nightmare frequency is related to sex role orientation. However, longitudinal studies are necessary to validate these hypotheses.
Analyzes conflict talk among three-year-old friends playing in same-sex triads at their day care center. Interprets the gendered aspects of two disputes in terms of an anthropological linguistic model and a psychological framework. Demonstrates the gendered nature of children's peer talk at as young as three years of age. (RS)
Wilson, James Q.
Explores differences between males and females and their manifestation in biology and culture. Cultures differ, not in whether they cope with the socialization of males to invest in child rearing, but in how they deal with this problem. Issues of gender and power and gender and child rearing are discussed. (SLD)
Reviews and compares "Gender and Mathematics" edited by Leone Burton and Valerie Walkerdine's book "Schoolgirl Fictions" on proposed truths related to gender issues in mathematics. Issues include (1) attention given to boys and girls in mathematics class; (2) the effects of noncompetitive classroom environments; and (3) sex differences in…
Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.
This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…
National Student Clearinghouse, 2013
In late 2007, the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC) expanded its Enrollment Reporting service to include several additional data elements (commonly referred to as the "A2" or "expanded" data elements). One of these expanded data elements is student gender. Although gender is potentially important to a number of research…
This paper focuses on gender equity. Gender equity is difficult to achieve when there is no economic, social, or political equity. The Gender Development Index evidenced this. There were a lot of instances where women are psychologically traumatized, whether it is through domestic rape, purchased sexual services in the red light area, and seduction or violation of neighbors, relatives, daughter or child. The economic changes linked with globalization and media's influence have worsened women's position. The policy for empowerment of women is an attempt toward ensuring equity. Furthermore, many women and women's organizations are trying to address these inequities; wherein they fight for strong acceptance of women's rights, social, economic, and political rights, as well as equities between gender and within gender.
The understanding of gender inequality for women entering work has not been subject to significant research or theorizing. This small study indicated that young women entering the workplace are subject to direct discrimination and by using an intersectionality approach this paper proposes that the intersection of gender and young age results in…
Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne
Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education…
Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Seeland, Ute
Sex and gender differences in frequent diseases are more widespread than one may assume. In addition, they have significant yet frequently underestimated consequences on the daily practice of medicine, on outcomes and effects of therapies. Gender medicine is a novel medical discipline that takes into account the effects of sex and gender on the health of women and men. The major goal is to improve health and health care for both, for women as well as for men. We give in this chapter an overview on sex and gender differences in a number of clinical areas, in cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, gastroenterology and hepatology, in nephrology, autoimmune diseases, endocrinology, hematology, neurology. We discuss the preferential use of male animals in drug development, the underrepresentation of women in early and cardiovascular clinical trials, sex and gender differences in pharmacology, in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, in management and drug use. Most guidelines do not include even well-known sex and gender differences. European guidelines for the management of cardiovascular diseases in pregnancy have only recently been published. Personalized medicine cannot replace gender-based medicine. Large databases reveal that gender remains an independent risk factor after ethnicity, age, comorbidities, and scored risk factors have been taken into account. Some genetic variants carry a different risk in women and men. The sociocultural dimension of gender integrating lifestyle, environment, stress, and other variables cannot be replaced by a sum of biological parameters. Because of this prominent role of gender, clinical care algorithms must include gender-based assessment.
Huang, Penelope M.; Smock, Pamela J.; Manning, Wendy D.; Bergstrom-Lynch, Cara A.
Cohabitation has become the modal path to marriage in the United States. However, little is known about what cohabitation means to young adults today. Drawing on data from 18 focus groups (N = 138) and 54 in-depth interviews with young adults, this exploratory study investigates motivations to cohabit and examines potential gender differences in…
Bonifacio, Herbert J; Rosenthal, Stephen M
Gender variant and transgender youth are seeking medical care at younger ages. Pediatricians and other primary care physicians are often the first professionals who encounter such youth and their families. The goals of this article are to provide information on the epidemiology and natural history of gender variant and transgender youth, current clinical practice guidelines regarding the use of puberty blockers and cross-sex hormones for transgender youth, and limitations and challenges to optimal care.
"New wave" gender theorists (those who ascribe to feminist post-structuralist theory) caution that nonsexist work with young children is likely to be unsuccessful in the long term because theories of gender and the approach to gender in the curriculum have, until now, ignored one key issue: the question of power. This booklet explores…
In this article the life history of a young Finnish woman, Salla, is explored along with reflections of her best friend and other peers. The analysis is conducted from the perspective of Finland as a country of "genderless gender", where mute or hidden gendering and sexualisation converge with the gender-neutral rhetoric about the…
This captivating book illuminates our understanding of how young children develop gender identities. A two year longitudinal research project on children's own understandings of gender casts new light on how 3 and 4 year old newcomers in early years classes learn rules for gendered behaviour from older children, in their imaginative and…
Moffatt, Lyndsay; Norton, Bonny
Recent research has documented the persistence of unequal gender relations and homophobia in young people's lives. Feminist post-structural theories of gender and socio-cultural theories of learning suggest educators need to understand students' constructions of gender relations, masculine/feminine desires, and sexuality if they hope to challenge…
... Psychiatry Committee on Quality Issues. Practice parameter on gay, lesbian, or bisexual sexual orientation, gender nonconformity, and ... update 08/15/2016. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Browse the Encyclopedia ...
Bhana, Deevia; Nzimakwe, Thokozani; Nzimakwe, Phumzile
Understanding the ways in which young boys and girls give meaning to gender and sexuality is vital, and is especially significant in the light of South Africa's commitment to gender equality. Yet the, gendered cultures of young children in the early years of South African primary schools remains a, marginal concern in debate, research and…
Levy, Gary D.; Dykes, Karen C.
Over the last decade or so, researchers have started to describe some of the ways young children begin to acquire and apply certain gender-relevant concepts, constructs, and behaviors. Researchers are beginning to build developmental models detailing young children's acquisition of certain gender-typed behaviors and gender schema factors. The…
Johnson, Steve Leonard, III
Studies of sound changes in sociolinguistics have shown a consistent trend that women tend to be linguistically innovative and lead most of the major sound changes. Additionally, women have been shown to use more standard variants than men in stable sociolinguistic variables, giving rise to the "gender paradox" where women are both…
This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and…
Henikoff, Steven; Smith, M. Mitchell
Histones package and compact DNA by assembling into nucleosome core particles. Most histones are synthesized at S phase for rapid deposition behind replication forks. In addition, the replacement of histones deposited during S phase by variants that can be deposited independently of replication provide the most fundamental level of chromatin differentiation. Alternative mechanisms for depositing different variants can potentially establish and maintain epigenetic states. Variants have also evolved crucial roles in chromosome segregation, transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, and other processes. Investigations into the evolution, structure, and metabolism of histone variants provide a foundation for understanding the participation of chromatin in important cellular processes and in epigenetic memory. PMID:25561719
Leibowitz, Scott; de Vries, Annelou L C
Adolescents presenting with gender-related concerns are increasingly seeking support from providers from a variety of disciplines within health care settings across the world. For those treating young people who meet the criteria for the DSM 5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria (GD), complex decisions in clinical care are common. Defining best practice with this population with respect to interventions that span mental health, physical, and surgical domains can be challenging, given a relative dearth of empirical data available; yet practice guidelines have emerged from different professional organizations which can aid with this. For this review paper, a broad literature search was performed to identify relevant studies pertaining to the care of adolescents with GD. In addition, an overview of trends in clinical practice, including shifts in conceptualization of how clinicians and patients define care that is considered affirming when working with this population, is described. This paper explores the characteristics of referral patterns to specialized clinics, provides a brief overview of gender identity development in adolescence, and then describes the phenomenology of known aetiological factors and co-occurring psychiatric issues in adolescents with GD. Additionally, clinical management considerations that detail assessment aims and common treatment interventions across disciplines will be explored.
Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn
In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…
Huang, Penelope M.; Smock, Pamela J.; Manning, Wendy D.; Bergstrom-Lynch, Cara A.
Cohabitation has become the modal path to marriage in the United States. However, little is known about what cohabitation means to young adults today. Drawing on data from 18 focus groups (N=138) and 54 in-depth interviews with young adults, this exploratory study investigates motivations to cohabit, and examines potential gender differences in those motivations and the meanings attached to them. We find that primary motives to cohabit include spending time together, sharing expenses, and evaluating compatibility. Strong gender differences emerge in how respondents discuss these themes and how they characterize the drawbacks of cohabitation, with men more concerned about loss of freedom and women with delays in marriage. Overall, our findings suggest that gendered cultural norms governing intimate relationships extend to cohabiting unions, and point to gender differences in the perceived role of cohabitation in union formation processes. PMID:21643456
Gender mainstreaming is one of the most important strategies in promoting global gender equality. The Taiwan government launched policies on gender mainstreaming and gender impact assessment in 2007 in response to strong public and academic advocacy work. With rising awareness of gender issues, nursing professionals in Taiwan should keep pace with global trends and become actively involved in advancing gender-mainstreaming policies. This article shows that nursing professionals should prepare themselves by cultivating gender competence, understanding gender-related regulations, recognizing the importance of gender impact assessment implementation, integrating gender issues into nursing education, conducting gender-related research and participating in decision-making processes that promote gender mainstreaming. Nursing professionals should enhance their knowledge and understanding of gender mainstreaming-related issues and get involved in the gender-related decision-making process in order to enhance gender awareness and women's health and further the professional development of nurses.
Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Panhard, Ségolène; Saint Léger, Didier; Mellul, Myriam; Piérard, Gérald E.
Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men) for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe). Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:24455724
Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin
The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…
Primrose, D. A.
Described is a possibly new variant of mucopolysaccharidosis characterized by progressive mental and motor deficiency, bone abnormalities, a generalized skin lesion, and abnormal mucopolysaccharides in the urine as seen in a 20-year-old female. (DB)
This paper suggests that gender role fluidity is a normal self state throughout development. It discusses the nonlinear progression of gender role identity that is constantly fluid and reactive to biological, environmental, and psychological changes. Given the normal fluidity of gender role identity, it argues that giving puberty blockers to young children is against the best interests of the child's development.
OECD Publishing, 2015
Over the past century, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have made significant progress in narrowing or closing long-standing gender gaps in many areas of education and employment, including educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. But new gender gaps in education are opening. Young men…
Bosacki, Sandra; Harwood, Debra; Sumaway, Corina
Recent research suggests that social cognition may play a role in the connections among gendered experiences of teasing within the grade school classroom. Within the framework of social-cognitive developmental theory, this qualitative research study investigates how gender may influence young children's experiences and perception of teasing within…
Elling, Agnes; Knoppers, Annelies
In this paper symbolic inclusion/exclusion processes in sport with respect to gender and ethnicity among adolescents (n = 1025) are analyzed from a social-critical perspective. It was found that sport participation preferences of young people are still influenced by dominant normative gendered and racial/ethnic images. Sport can serve not only as…
Levy, Gary G.; And Others
Young children acquire a knowledge of, and beliefs about, gender-roles at a rapid rate. A total of four studies were conducted to examine some of the factors thought to mediate the impact of examiner's sex on children's gender-typed activities and cognitions. The first two studies looked at children's ratings of videotaped male and female adults…
Reimer, Michele S.
Explores the relevance of gender to social work practice in the middle school by examining three domains of importance to young adolescents: academic achievement, puberty and sexuality, and mental health. Suggests that a systemic perspective on those difficulties that asks serious questions about puberty and gender is vitally important. (Contains…
Lappalainen, Sirpa; Mietola, Reetta; Lahelma, Elina
In this article our focus is on the persistent gendered divisions in educational routes of young people who choose a vocational path after compulsory education in Finland. We analyse how gendered subjectivities are constructed within the practices of educational and vocational guidance and within student cultures in the comprehensive school, as…
DiDonato, Matthew D; Martin, Carol L; Hessler, Eric E; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Hanish, Laura D; Fabes, Richard A
Controversy surrounds questions regarding the influence of being gender consistent (i.e., having and expressing gendered characteristics that are consistent with one's biological sex) versus being gender flexible (i.e., having and expressing gendered characteristics that vary from masculine to feminine as circumstances arise) on children's adjustment outcomes, such as self-esteem, positive emotion, or behavior problems. Whereas evidence supporting the consistency hypothesis is abundant, little support exists for the flexibility hypothesis. To shed new light on the flexibility hypothesis, we explored children's gendered behavior from a dynamical perspective that highlighted variability and flexibility in addition to employing a conventional approach that emphasized stability and consistency. Conventional mean-level analyses supported the consistency hypothesis by revealing that gender atypical behavior was related to greater maladjustment, and dynamical analyses supported the flexibility hypothesis by showing that flexibility of gendered behavior over time was related to positive adjustment. Integrated analyses showed that gender typical behavior was related to the adjustment of children who were behaviorally inflexible, but not for those who were flexible. These results provided a more comprehensive understanding of the relation between gendered behavior and adjustment in young children and illustrated for the first time the feasibility of applying dynamical analyses to the study of gendered behavior.
Hanson, Sandra L.
This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…
Couch, Carol A., Ed.
This booklet is intended to help counselors guide high school students in exploring nontraditional career options. It provides a brief historical perspective on the significance gender role stereotyping has had on U.S. society in the past, the impact it continues to have on the career decisions being made by current generations of young men and…
Russell, Rachel; Tyler, Melissa
The analysis presented here focuses on the relationship between femininity, transition and consumer culture. It explores the relationship between gender and consumer culture in the context of a discussion of the transition from childhood to teenage status for a group of young girls, and seeks to make a critical contribution to contemporary debates…
Background: In terms of high school graduation, college entry, and persistence to earning a college degree, young women now consistently outperform their male peers. Yet most research on gender inequalities in education continues to focus on aspects of education where women trail men, such as women's underrepresentation at top-tier institutions…
Marinak, Barbara A.; Gambrell, Linda B.
In an attempt to more clearly understand the erosion of motivation in some readers, a number of researchers (Mohr, 2006; Smith & Wilhelm, 2002) and organizations (The Education Alliance, 2007) have called for the investigation of gender differences in all readers, including young children. Consequently, this study focused on younger, average…
Arbeit, Miriam R.; Hershberg, Rachel M.; Johnson, Sara K.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Lerner, Richard M.
For young men, the transition to adulthood may be a time of heightened adherence to traditional gender roles and norms of masculinity. However, recent research with young men in gender-specific contexts has indicated that some contexts support a construction of masculinity that is more inclusive. Through a theoretical thematic analysis of…
Gender and socio-economic background are widely acknowledged factors influencing the educational choices of young people. Following their compulsory education, young people in Finland choose between academically oriented general upper secondary schools and vocational upper secondary schools. Gender and class intertwine in these choices in many…
Wiseman, Mel; Davidson, Sarah
Western society recognises male and female sex from physiological attributes, such as genitals and chromosomes. 'Gender' is the social and cultural expectation of how males and females should think, behave and how they should be treated by others (Diamond, 2002). Some children and adolescents experience distress, marginalization, and abuse associated with their gender identifications, preferences and behaviours, which are inconsistent with those expected of their biological sex. Often their families and society find gender non-conformity at best difficult, at worst offensive, distressing and intolerable. There is increasing focus on how mental health professionals work with difference in gender and sexual identity and recent publications highlight the shift from pathologizing transgender to a more 'identity-based' perspective, focussing more on the stigmatizing affects of the environment and the impact on the individual (Bockting, 2009). This article describes the challenges of binary gender discourse for young people and their wider contexts and considers how clinicians may more helpfully respond to avoid unhelpful binaries and so keep the young person in mind. The therapeutic aims of the UK Gender Identity Development Service (GIDS) for children and young people are considered and examples of our work provided.
Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Weinstein, Hannah; Parker, Richard
Hip-Hop culture is a key social medium through which many young men and women from communities of colour in the USA construct their gender. In this study, we focused on the Hip-Hop club scene in New York City with the intention of unpacking narratives of gender dynamics from the perspective of young men and women, and how these relate to their sexual experiences. We conducted a three-year ethnographic study that included ethnographic observations of Hip-Hop clubs and their social scene, and in-depth interviews with young men and young women aged 15-21. This paper describes how young people negotiate gender relations on the dance floor of Hip-Hop clubs. The Hip-Hop club scene represents a context or setting where young men's masculinities are contested by the social environment, where women challenge hypermasculine privilege and where young people can set the stage for what happens next in their sexual and emotional interactions. Hip-Hop culture therefore provides a window into the gender and sexual scripts of many urban minority youth. A fuller understanding of these patterns can offer key insights into the social construction of sexual risk, as well as the possibilities for sexual health promotion, among young people in urban minority populations.
Azzarito, Laura; Katzew, Adriana
This paper shows how a group of young people and researchers, through their reading of images, performed "identity work" within discourses of the body and gender in physical education. To explore young people's identity narratives and physicality, the researchers used an ethnographic method using photo-elicitation. Findings in this study showed…
Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Pardee, Dana J; Kuhns, Lisa; Garofalo, Rob; Mimiaga, Matthew J
Young adult transgender men who have sex with men (TMSM) engage in sexual behaviors that place them at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. To date, no HIV and STI prevention interventions have been developed specifically for young adult TMSM. To address this gap, the current study aimed to (1) adapt a small group-based behavioral HIV prevention intervention designed for young transgender women ("LifeSkills") to address the unique HIV and STI prevention needs of young TMSM ages 18-29 years and (2) conduct a pilot evaluation of the intervention ("LifeSkills for Men"; LS4M). LS4M was carried out in an iterative approach with community input along the way, which allowed for refinement of the intervention manual and enhanced participant acceptability. A LS4M Task Force was convened to guide intervention development/adaptation and study implementation. Initially, focus groups were conducted to examine the sexual health needs, concerns, and stressors facing young TMSM (n = 12; mean age = 23.8 years; 16.7% people of color). Next, LS4M was pilot tested (n = 17; mean age = 24.3 years; 23.5% people of color) to assess acceptability with the study population and feasibility of all study procedures. Overall attendance, participation rates, and positive feedback from participants demonstrate that LS4M is highly acceptable and feasible to carry out with young TMSM. Trends in outcome measures across 4 months of follow-up suggest that participation in the intervention may improve mental health, reduce internalized stigma, and reduce HIV- and STI-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention enrolling young TMSM with recent sexual risk behavior at baseline and with a control group is warranted. Lessons learned for future work with young TMSM are discussed.
Lipshits-Braziler, Yuliya; Tatar, Moshe
This study investigated gender and ethnic differences in the perception of different types of career barriers among young adults in relation to their views of themselves as individuals (Personal Career Barriers) and their views of their gender and ethnic group (Group Career Barriers). This study also explored gender and ethnic differences in the…
Becker, Inga; Gjergji-Lama, Voltisa; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit
Given the increasing demand for counselling in gender dysphoria in childhood in Germany, there is a definite need for empirical data on characteristics and developmental trajectories of this clinical group. This study aimed to provide a first overview by assessing demographic characteristics and developmental trajectories of a group of gender variant boys and girls referred to the specialised Gender Identity Clinic in Hamburg. Data were extracted from medical charts, transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis methods. Categories were set up by inductive-deductive reasoning based on the patients' parents' and clinicians' information in the files. Between 2006 and 2010, 45 gender variant children and adolescents were seen by clinicians; 88.9% (n = 40) of these were diagnosed with gender identity disorder (ICD-10). Within this group, the referral rates for girls were higher than for boys (1:1.5). Gender dysphoric girls were on average older than the boys and a higher percentage of girls was referred to the clinic at the beginning of adolescence (> 12 years of age). At the same time, more girls reported an early onset age. More girls made statements about their (same-sex) sexual orientation during adolescence and wishes for gender confirming medical interventions. More girls than boys revealed self-mutilation in the past or present as well as suicidal thoughts and/or attempts. Results indicate that the presentation of clinically referred gender dysphoric girls differs from the characteristics boys present in Germany; especially with respect to the most salient age differences. Therefore, these two groups require different awareness and individual treatment approaches.
Numerous gender differences in health-related behaviour are relevant in the planning of health promotion and prevention. More men than women consume amounts of alcohol that are a risk to their health. Tobacco consumption has fallen slightly among men but has risen among women. Women eat more healthy food. Man behave risky in leisure time and traffic, thus their mortality rates due to accidents are much higher, especially in young age groups. The epidemiological data lead to the conclusion that gender sensitive health promotion and prevention is necessary. Gender mainstreaming is declared as the main strategy to enhance gender equity in health. The paper focuses on the public health action cycle and demonstrates that at each step gender mainstreaming improves the quality of intervention. To implement gender mainstreaming in health promotion and prevention, a process of sensitization has to be initialized. An instrument is presented that supports this process at the foundation "Health Promotion Switzerland". A short description of some examples of gender adequate interventions is given at the end of the paper.
Variants of Uncertainty Daniel Kahneman University of British Columbia Amos Tversky Stanford University DTI-C &%E-IECTE ~JUNO 1i 19 8 1j May 15, 1981... Dennett , 1979) in which different parts have ac- cess to different data, assign then different weights and hold different views of the situation...2robable and t..h1 provable. Oxford- Claredor Press, 1977. Dennett , D.C. Brainstorms. Hassocks: Harvester, 1979. Donchin, E., Ritter, W. & McCallum, W.C
Verma, Ritu; Paul, Paramita
Columnar cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is an uncommon variant with an aggressive course as compared to classic papillary carcinoma. Cytologic diagnosis of these tumors is difficult due to absence of characteristic nuclear features of classic pattern of papillary carcinoma. We present a case of columnar cell variant in a young female misdiagnosed on aspiration cytology. A 21-year-old female presented with solitary nodule in the left aspect of thyroid. A diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma was rendered. The resected thyoroidectomy specimen revealed a columnar cell variant of PTC which was further supported by immunohistochemical staining. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:816-819. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung
The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.
Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung
The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.
Haines, Rebecca J; Bottorff, Joan L; Barclay McKeown, Stephanie; Ptolemy, Erin; Carey, Joanne; Sullivan, Kelli
Evidence linking both active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure to premenopausal breast cancer makes the development of health messages specific to younger women a pressing priority. To determine how to communicate information about this modifiable breast cancer risk to young women, we analyzed a selection of 32 recent English-language breast cancer messages and campaigns that targeted young women. In addition, we obtained young women's responses to three breast cancer campaign images during focus group discussions. A visual analysis of messages points to an explicitly gendered discourse within contemporary campaigns, one that entails conflicting messages regarding breast cancer, health, feminine beauty, and risk. Although the intent might be to educate and empower young women to "fight" against breast cancer, paradoxically, the messages employ imagery that sexually objectifies young women's breasts and bodies. Recommendations are made for messaging about tobacco and breast cancer risk to avoid reproducing one-dimensional or stereotypical presentations of gender and femininity.
Kalachikova, O. N.
Research on reproductive preferences of young people in Russia shows that their attitudes regarding the number of children they may have differs by gender and by urban-rural origins. (Contains 4 tables, 1 figure, and 1 note.)
Sherr, Lorraine; Mueller, Joanne; Varrall, Rebecca
This review (under the International Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS)provides a detailed evidence analysis of gender, children and AIDS. Six systematic reviews provide the most up to date evidence base on research surrounding children and HIV on key topics of treatment resistance and adherence, schooling, nutrition, cognitive development and orphaning and bereavement. Traditional systematic review techniques were used to identify all published studies on four key topics, then studies were selected according to adequacy criteria (sufficient size, control group and adequate measures). A gender analysis was performed on included studies, detailing whether gender was measured, results were analysed by gender or any gender-based findings. For family studies, both the gender of the parents and gender of the child are needed. Secondary analysis by gender was performed on existing systematic reviews for treatment resistance and adherence. Of the 12 studies on treatment resistance, 11 did not look at gender. One found boys at a seven-fold risk compared to girls. For medication adherence, gender was not significant. Of the 15 studies on schooling, 12 analysed findings by gender with an overall female disadvantage. Of the 14 studies on nutrition, nine analysed by gender with mixed findings. Of the 54 studies on cognitive development, 17 provided gender data, but only four analysed by gender with few differences established. Of the 15 studies on bereavement, seven analysed data by gender again with mixed findings. Major policies fail to provide gender data for young children. WHO, UNAIDS and the international data sets are not gathered or coded by gender for young children (generally under 15 years of age)despite well-established gender challenges in later life. This review shows that the current evidence base is inadequate. Data on gender variation and outcome are urgently needed to inform policy and research on children and HIV. PMID:22380982
Hennessey, Eden; Kurup, Anitha; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Shastri, Prajval; Ghose, Shohini
Participants in the Gender Studies workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics discussed the gender question in science practice from a policy perspective, informed by investigations from the social science disciplines. The workshop's three sessions—"Equity and Education: Examining Gender Stigma in Science," "A Comparative Study of Women Scientists and Engineers: Experiences in India and the US," and "Toward Gender Equity Through Policy: Characterizing the Social Impact of Interventions—are summarized, and the resulting recommendations presented.
Rao, Polsani L; Bhoria, Mohaneesh
ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of various gingival biotypes and to corroborate gingival thickness and gingival biotypes across tooth type, site, and gender. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted across systemically healthy subjects. A systematic clinical evaluation for gingival biotypes and gingival thicknesses was recorded by modified Iwanson’s gauge, to the nearest 0.1 mm, probing the gingival sulcus at the midfacial aspect of maxillary and mandibular central incisors and first molars. All measurements were made across a total of 920 sites in 115 subjects (69 female and 46 male) based on gingival transparency and were statistically analyzed. Results: A significant agreement on the reproducibility of the measurements was noted. The median overall gingival thickness was recorded at 0.75 mm with interquantile difference of 0.39 mm. The thin biotype variant showed across the ranges of 0.3 to 0.6 mm of gingival thicknesses and thick biotype variant across the ranges of 1.0 to 1.2 mm, with more prevalence in anterior and posterior site respectively. Moreover, for gingi-val thickness of 0.7 mm, the probe visibility showed tendency toward both thin/thick biotype variant in both anterior and posterior segments. The disposition of male participants toward thick biotype and female participants toward the thin biotype variant has been noted. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, our data support the traditional hypothesis of two main gingival biotypes as distinguishable by gingival transparency. In addition, we provide evidence of existence of intermediate biotypes with respect to gingival thickness. These findings can be utilized as objective guidelines for determination of biotype and can be implicated in many dental operative procedures. How to cite this article: Rathee M, Rao PL, Bhoria M. Prevalence of Gingival Biotypes among Young Dentate North Indian Population: A Biometric Approach. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016
Assesses parental influences on young adults' attitudes toward gendered family roles, housework allocation, and housework enjoyment. Results show that children's ideal allocation of housework at age 18 is predicted by maternal gender role attitudes when the children are very young and by the parental division of housework when the children were…
Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.
This document reports on the implementation of two bills adopted by the Washington State legislature in 1989 to achieve gender equity in higher education. The gender equity statute prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender against any student, and, in particular, it forbids discrimination in student assistance and services, academic…
This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…
Copeland, Anne P.; Grossman, Frances K.
The literature on how parent gender influences responses to children has grown enormously in the past decade; mothers and fathers have been found to differ on many dimensions and to be similar on just as many. Conflicting evidence also exists on how a child's gender affects parenting style. This paper reports some important gender differences in…
Bank, Barbara J., Ed.
This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…
Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.
This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…
Gender differences in the prevalence, severity, and composition of coronary artery disease in the young: a study of 1635 individuals undergoing coronary CT angiography from the prospective, multinational confirm registry
Otaki, Yuka; Gransar, Heidi; Cheng, Victor Y.; Dey, Damini; Labounty, Troy; Lin, Fay Y.; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Delago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J.; Villines, Todd C.; Dunning, Allison; Cury, Ricardo C.; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Berman, Daniel S.; Min, James K.
Objective Prior studies examining coronary atherosclerosis in the young have been limited by retrospective analyses in small cohorts. We examined the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (RFs) and prevalence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in a large, prospective, multinational registry of consecutive young individuals undergoing coronary computerized tomographic angiography (CCTA). Method and results Of 27 125 patients undergoing CCTA, 1635 young (<45 years) individuals without known coronary artery disease (CAD) or coronary anomalies were identified. Coronary plaque was assessed for any CAD, obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis), and presence of calcified plaque (CP) and non-calcified plaque (NCP). Among 1635 subjects (70% men, age 38 ± 6 years), any CAD, obstructive CAD, CP, and NCP were observed in 19, 4, 5, and 8%, respectively. Compared with women, men demonstrated higher rates of any CAD (21 vs. 12%, P < 0.001), CP (6 vs. 3%, P = 0.01), and NCP (9 vs. 5%, P = 0.008), although no difference was observed for rates of obstructive CAD (5 vs. 4%, P = 0.46). Any CAD, obstructive CAD, and NCP were higher for young individuals with diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, current smoking, or family history of CAD; while only diabetes and dyslipidaemia were associated with CP. Increasing cardiovascular RFs was associated with a greater prevalence and extent and severity of CAD, with individuals with 0, 1, 2, ≥3 RFs manifesting a dose–response increase in any CAD (P < 0.001, for trend), obstructive CAD (P < 0.001, for trend), NCP (P < 0.001, for trend), and CP (P < 0.001, for trend). In multivariable analysis adjusting for sex and cardiovascular RFs, male sex was the strongest predictor for any CAD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.43–2.66, P < 0.001), CP (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.08–1.98, P = 0.01), and NCP (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.06–1.67, P = 0.01); family history of CAD was the strongest predictor for obstructive CAD
Harris, Daniel A.; Ciaramitaro, Vivian M.
While some models of how various attributes of a face are processed have posited that face features, invariant physical cues such as gender or ethnicity as well as variant social cues such as emotion, may be processed independently (e.g., Bruce and Young, 1986), other models suggest a more distributed representation and interdependent processing (e.g., Haxby et al., 2000). Here, we use a contingent adaptation paradigm to investigate if mechanisms for processing the gender and emotion of a face are interdependent and symmetric across the happy–angry emotional continuum and regardless of the gender of the face. We simultaneously adapted participants to angry female faces and happy male faces (Experiment 1) or to happy female faces and angry male faces (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, we found evidence for contingent adaptation, with simultaneous aftereffects in opposite directions: male faces were biased toward angry while female faces were biased toward happy. Interestingly, in the complementary Experiment 2, we did not find evidence for contingent adaptation, with both male and female faces biased toward angry. Our results highlight that evidence for contingent adaptation and the underlying interdependent face processing mechanisms that would allow for contingent adaptation may only be evident for certain combinations of face features. Such limits may be especially important in the case of social cues given how maladaptive it may be to stop responding to threatening information, with male angry faces considered to be the most threatening. The underlying neuronal mechanisms that could account for such asymmetric effects in contingent adaptation remain to be elucidated. PMID:27471482
Wiggins, Carla; Peterson, Teri
Does gender by itself, or does gender's interaction with career variables, better explain the difference between women and men's careers in healthcare management? US healthcare managers were surveyed regarding career and personal experiences. Gender was statistically interacted with explanatory variables. Multiple regression with backwards selection systematically removed non-significant variables. All gender interaction variables were non-significant. Much of the literature proposes that work and career factors impact working women differently than working men. We find that while gender alone is a significant predictor of income, it does not significantly interact with other career variables.
Barrett, Anne E; von Rohr, Carmen
Few studies examine how the gendered nature of aging impacts young adults--shaping their images of later life, attitudes toward elderly persons, aging anxieties, and conceptions of the start of "old age." We examine gender differences in young adults' views of elders and the aging process using a survey of college students and content analysis of student-drawn sketches of elders (N = 391). Results indicate that both genders hold more positive images of elderly women than men; however, they view "old age" as beginning at a younger age for women. In addition, we find that, compared with men, women report later starts of "old age" for both genders and more favorable attitudes toward elders, but also greater aging anxiety.
This paper is based on data generated from a qualitative study of gender and sexuality in a kindergarten classroom. Post-developmental perspectives of sex, gender, and sexuality are used to show how young children are constructing gender and heterosexual discourses in the early childhood classroom. Drawing from feminist post-structuralism and…
Euler, Felix; Jenkel, Nils; Stadler, Christina; Schmeck, Klaus; Fegert, Jörg M; Kölch, Michael; Schmid, Marc
Recent research suggests that among the group of aggressive and antisocial adolescents, there are distinct variants who exhibit different levels of anxiety symptoms and callous-unemotional traits (CU traits). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether such variants are also present in male and female adolescents diagnosed with conduct disorder (CD). We used model-based cluster analysis to disaggregate data of 158 adolescents with CD (109 boys, 49 girls; mean age =15.61 years) living in child welfare and juvenile justice institutions. Three variants were identified: (1) CD only, (2) CD with moderate CU traits and anxiety symptoms, and (3) CD with severe CU traits. Variants differed in external validation measures assessing anger and irritability, externalizing behavior, traumatic experiences, and substance use. The CD variant with moderate CU traits and anxiety symptoms had the most severe pattern of psychopathology. Our results also indicated distinct profiles of personality development for all three variants. Gender-specific comparisons revealed differences between girls and boys with CD on clustering and external validation measures and a gender-specific cluster affiliation. The present results extend previously published findings on variants among aggressive and antisocial adolescents to male and female adolescents diagnosed with CD.
Wood, Kristie A.; Beagle, Alexander J.; Hsu, Ming; Kayser, Andrew S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.
Many neuropsychiatric disorders are marked by abnormal behaviour and decision-making, but prevailing diagnostic criteria for such behaviours are typically qualitative and often ambiguous. Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (also called semantic dementia) are two clinical variants of frontotemporal dementia with overlapping but distinct anatomical substrates known to cause profound changes in decision-making. We investigated whether abnormal decision-making in these syndromes could be more precisely characterized in terms of dissociable abnormalities in patients’ subjective evaluations of valence (positive versus negative outcome) and of time (present versus future outcome). We presented 28 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, 14 patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, 25 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (as disease controls), and 61 healthy older control subjects with experimental tasks assaying loss aversion and delay discounting. In general linear models controlling for age, gender, education and Mini-Mental State Examination score, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia were less averse to losses than control subjects (P < 0.001), while patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia discounted delayed rewards more steeply than controls (P = 0.019). There was no relationship between loss aversion and delay discounting across the sample, nor in any of the subgroups. These findings suggest that abnormal behaviours in neurodegenerative disease may result from the disruption of either of two dissociable neural processes for evaluating the outcomes of action. More broadly, these findings suggest a role for computational methods to supplement traditional qualitative characterizations in the differential diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26667277
McLetchie, D.N.; Tuskan, G.A.
Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.
Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.
Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903
Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N
Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.
Pincus, S H; Cole, R L; Wessels, M R; Corwin, M D; Kamanga-Sollo, E; Hayes, S F; Cieplak, W; Swanson, J
Colony opacity variants were detected for type III group B streptococci (GBS). Transparent colonies predominate in the parent GBS, with occasional colonies having opaque portions. Two stable opaque variants (1.1 and 1.5) were compared with three transparent clones (1.2, 1.3, and 1.4). All grew well on blood agar and on GC medium, but variant 1.1 failed to grow on Todd-Hewitt medium. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that colony opacity correlated with bacterial aggregation status, with opaque variants forming longer and more organized chains. Opaque-transparent switches were observed in both directions for most variants, with transparent to opaque noted most frequently, but 1.5 did not switch at all. Switching of the opacity phenotype was observed both in vitro and in neonatal mice. Relationships between colony opacity and several cell surface phenomena were explored. (i) Opaque variant 1.1 had two surface proteins (46 and 75 kDa) that were either unique or greatly overexpressed. (ii) Variant 1.1 was deficient in type III polysaccharide, while 1.5 lacked group B antigen. Diminished capsular polysaccharide of variant 1.1 was reflected in reduced negative electrophoretic mobility and in increased buoyant density. (iii) Transparent variant colonies growing closest to a penicillin disk were opaque, but colonial variants did not differ in their sensitivity to penicillin. These data indicate that GBS can exist in both opaque and transparent forms, with opaque appearance occurring by multiple routes. Opaque variants grow poorly on Todd-Hewitt medium generally used for isolation of GBS, so any possible relationships between opacity variation and pathogenesis of GBS infection are unknown. Images PMID:1592825
Choi, Kwang-Dong; Shin, Hae Kyung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Sung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Zee, David S
Windmill nystagmus is characterized by a clock-like rotation of the beating direction of a jerk nystagmus suggesting separate horizontal and vertical oscillators, usually 90° out of phase. We report oculographic characteristics in three patients with variants of windmill nystagmus in whom the common denominator was profound visual loss due to retinal diseases. Two patients showed a clock-like pattern, while in the third, the nystagmus was largely diagonal (in phase or 180° out of phase) but also periodically changed direction by 180°. We hypothesize that windmill nystagmus is a unique manifestation of "eye movements of the blind." It emerges when the central structures, including the cerebellum, that normally keep eye movements calibrated and gaze steady can no longer perform their task, because they are deprived of the retinal image motion that signals a need for adaptive recalibration.
... the Difference Between Gender and Sex? Being a boy or a girl, for most children, is something ... themselves, they will declare themselves to be a boy or a girl (or sometimes something in between); ...
Cho, Raymond J; Collisson, Eric A
Genome sequencing studies increasingly identify variants of unknown significance in provocative genes. Kim and colleagues present a system with which to functionally annotate such variants in a high-throughput, biologically relevant series of assays. Cancer Discov; 6(7); 694-6. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Kim et al., p. 714.
Schredl, Michael; Reinhard, Iris
Many studies have reported gender differences in nightmare frequency. In order to study this difference systematically, data from 111 independent studies have been included in the meta-analysis reported here. Overall, estimated effect sizes regarding the gender difference in nightmare frequency differed significantly from zero in three age groups of healthy persons (adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults), whereas for children and older persons no substantial gender difference in nightmare frequency could be demonstrated. There are several candidate variables like dream recall frequency, depression, childhood trauma, and insomnia which might explain this gender difference because these variables are related to nightmare frequency and show stable gender differences themselves. Systematic research studying the effect of these variables on the gender difference in nightmare frequency, though, is still lacking. In the present study it was found that women tend to report nightmares more often than men but this gender difference was not found in children and older persons. Starting with adolescence, the gender difference narrowed with increasing age. In addition, studies with binary coded items showed a markedly smaller effect size for the gender difference in nightmare frequency compared to the studies using multiple categories in a rating scale. How nightmares were defined did not affect the gender difference. In the analyses of all studies and also in the analysis for the children alone the data source (children vs. parents) turned out to be the most influential variable on the gender difference (reporting, age). Other results are also presented. Investigating factors explaining the gender difference in nightmare frequency might be helpful in deepening the understanding regarding nightmare etiology and possibly gender differences in other mental disorders like depression or posttraumatic stress disorder.
Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin
Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767
Gender medicine is concerned with the question of why diseases are expressed differently in the genders. It takes differences between men and women into account, which are often neglected by traditional medicine. Sex differences can also be found in cardiovascular diseases; therefore, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases have a different significance depending on the sex. Diabetic diseases tend to promote the occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD) more strongly in women than in men. Myocardial infarctions affect women 10 years later than men and young women are often treated too late, possibly because myocardial infarction is consider to be a "male disease". The number of cases of coronary syndrome is significantly increasing, particularly in young women. Some of the diseases which predominantly occur in women are takotsubo cardiomyopathy, microcirculation disorders and spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Pharmacological treatment of CHD is principally the same in men and women but attention must be paid to differences in the pharmacokinetics of important drugs. Coronary dilatation has comparable effects in both men and women but more complications occur in women. Cardiac failure with impaired left ventricular systolic function affects more men than women in the Western world but the opposite is true for cardiac failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Hypertrophic and dilatative cardiomyopathies are more frequent in men. Many of the drugs used to treat cardiac failure have different actions in men and women. Too little attention is paid to the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in women when testing active agents; however, awareness of the differences that need to be considered is growing.
Derman-Sparks, Louise; And Others
Young children are aware that color, language, gender, and physical ability are connected to privilege and power. Racism and sexism have a profound influence on children's developing sense of self and others. This book on the creation of anti-bias curriculum can be used to help young children develop anti-bias attitudes, learn to think critically,…
Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N.
A comprehensive theory of gender development must describe and explain long-term developmental patterning and changes and how gender is experienced in the short term. This review considers multiple views on gender patterning, illustrated with contemporary research. First, because developmental research involves understanding normative patterns of change with age, several theoretically important topics illustrate gender development: how children come to recognize gender distinctions and understand stereotypes, and the emergence of prejudice and sexism. Second, developmental researchers study the stability of individual differences over time, which elucidates developmental processes. We review stability in two domains—sex segregation and activities/interests. Finally, a new approach advances understanding of developmental patterns, based on dynamic systems theory. Dynamic systems theory is a metatheoretical framework for studying stability and change, which developed from the study of complex and nonlinear systems in physics and mathematics. Some major features and examples show how dynamic approaches have been and could be applied in studying gender development. PMID:19575615
Williams, P G; Allard, A M; Sears, L
Persons with autism frequently exhibit circumscribed interests and unusual preoccupations. In this case study, two young males with autism are presented who have preoccupations with feminine gender-stereotyped activities and objects. These types of preoccupations in children with autism have not been reported in the literature, but may be more prevalent than realized due to parental underreporting given the negative stigma associated with feminine interests in young boys. The development of gender identity in young children with autism has rarely been addressed in the literature. It seems unlikely that these two cases can be categorized as gender identity disorders. Understanding these preoccupations in the context of autism rather than focusing on the gender identity issues has important implications for treatment. These cases point to the need for further study of the complex interplay of environmental and neurobiologic factors affecting gender identity roles and preoccupations in autism.
The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.
The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.
The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the cellobiohydrolase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the cellobiohydrolase variants.
Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.
Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…
Bates, Lyndel J.; Davey, Jeremy; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J.; Armstrong, Kerry
Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures. PMID:25097763
Wyss, Shannon E.
This paper explores the experiences of harassment and violence endured by seven gender non-conforming youth in US high schools. Based on a larger research project, it opens an inquiry into the school-based lives of gender-variant teens, a group heretofore ignored by most academics and educators. Breaking violence down into two main types (physical…
Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…
Grozeva, Detelina; Kirov, George; Ivanov, Dobril; Jones, Ian R.; Jones, Lisa; Green, Elaine K.; St Clair, David M.; Young, Allan H.; Ferrier, Nicol; Farmer, Anne E.; McGuffin, Peter; Holmans, Peter A.; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nick
Context Recent studies suggest that copy number variation in the human genome is extensive and may play an important role in susceptibility to disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The possible involvement of copy number variants (CNVs) in bipolar disorder has received little attention to date. Objectives To determine whether large (>100 000 base pairs) and rare (found in <1% of the population) CNVs are associated with susceptibility to bipolar disorder and to compare with findings in schizophrenia. Design A genome-wide survey of large, rare CNVs in a case-control sample using a high-density microarray. Setting The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Participants There were 1697 cases of bipolar disorder and 2806 nonpsychiatric controls. All participants were white UK residents. Main Outcome Measures Overall load of CNVs and presence of rare CNVs. Results The burden of CNVs in bipolar disorder was not increased compared with controls and was significantly less than in schizophrenia cases. The CNVs previously implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia were not more common in cases with bipolar disorder. Conclusions Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder differ with respect to CNV burden in general and association with specific CNVs in particular. Our data are consistent with the possibility that possession of large, rare deletions may modify the phenotype in those at risk of psychosis: those possessing such events are more likely to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia, and those without them are more likely to be diagnosed as having bipolar disorder. PMID:20368508
Everyone is dependent on caring labor. Because women's labor is financially beneficial to global capitalism, gender is inseparable from class, regardless of the specific national or cultural contexts.
Hyde, Janet Shibley
The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships.
Nye, Robert A
This article argues that "sex" which had been commonly assumed in the West to refer to a permanent set of biological and behavioural traits particular to men and women, is gradually being replaced in general usage by "gender." Though feminist theorists attempted to attach a constructivist meaning to gender, a generation of developmental theorists, clinicians and analysts has imbued the term with the determinism and biological qualities formerly ascribed to "sex." The triumph of this materialist conception of gender is not assured, but it threatens our ability to think about gender identity as a historically-constructed category.
Background Heterochromatic variants of pericentromere of chromosome 9 are reported and discussed since decades concerning their detailed structure and clinical meaning. However, detailed studies are scarce. Thus, here we provide the largest ever done molecular cytogenetic research based on >300 chromosome 9 heteromorphism carriers. Results In this study, 334 carriers of heterochromatic variants of chromosome 9 were included, being 192 patients from Western Europe and the remainder from Easter-European origin. A 3-color-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe-set directed against for 9p12 to 9q13~21.1 (9het-mix) and 8 different locus-specific probes were applied for their characterization. The 9het-mix enables the characterization of 21 of the yet known 24 chromosome 9 heteromorphic patterns. In this study, 17 different variants were detected including five yet unreported; the most frequent were pericentric inversions (49.4%) followed by 9qh-variants (23.9%), variants of 9ph (11.4%), cenh (8.2%), and dicentric- (3.8%) and duplication-variants (3.3%). For reasons of simplicity, a new short nomenclature for the yet reported 24 heteromorphic patterns of chromosome 9 is suggested. Six breakpoints involved in four of the 24 variants could be narrowed down using locus-specific probes. Conclusions Based on this largest study ever done in carriers of chromosome 9 heteromorphisms, three of the 24 detailed variants were more frequently observed in Western than in Eastern Europe. Besides, there is no clear evidence that infertility is linked to any of the 24 chromosome 9 heteromorphic variants. PMID:23547710
Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian
The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.
Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian
The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.
Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian
The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.
Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Clancy, Brian Gorre
Chiang, Yi-Lin; Hannum, Emily; Kao, Grace
Statistics suggest that young men and women in China migrate at almost equal numbers, but we know less about gender differences in the decision to migrate. We examine the factors associated with the decision to migrate and the rationales given by young migrants. Our results are consistent with previous figures and show no overall gender differences in susceptibility to migration. However, we find that sibship structure operates differently on the decisions of boys and girls. Young men were more likely to report that they had moved for purposes of starting a business or personal development than young women, while young women were more likely to report that they had moved to support the tuition of a family member. We argue that the simple gender parity with respect to the number of migrants masks important differences in the circumstances and personal motivations for migration for men and women.
Chiang, Yi-Lin; Hannum, Emily; Kao, Grace
Statistics suggest that young men and women in China migrate at almost equal numbers, but we know less about gender differences in the decision to migrate. We examine the factors associated with the decision to migrate and the rationales given by young migrants. Our results are consistent with previous figures and show no overall gender differences in susceptibility to migration. However, we find that sibship structure operates differently on the decisions of boys and girls. Young men were more likely to report that they had moved for purposes of starting a business or personal development than young women, while young women were more likely to report that they had moved to support the tuition of a family member. We argue that the simple gender parity with respect to the number of migrants masks important differences in the circumstances and personal motivations for migration for men and women. PMID:26973798
Alm, Susanne; Bäckman, Olof
The article analyses aspects of gender composition and social dominance in peer groups and school classes and their effects on the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations in young adolescents. The data set used contains information for some 13,000 girls and boys living in Stockholm in the early 1960s. Results from multi-level regressions…
Koepke, Margy Fox; Harkins, Debra A.
Research Findings: Current research regarding gender differences in educational settings at all socioeconomic levels suggests that young males are at high risk for developing academic, social, and emotional difficulties, resulting in increased disconnection from self and society. This study examined gender differences in the teacher-child…
Adams, David Francis; Behrens, Erica; Gann, Lianne; Schoen, Eva
Sororities have been identified as placing young women at risk for body image concerns due to a focus on traditional gender role norms and objectification of women. Objective: This study assessed the relationship between conformity to feminine gender role norms, self-objectification, and body image surveillance among undergraduate women.…
Koch, Janice, Ed.; Irby, Beverly, Ed.
In this volume, gender and schooling in the early years addresses a broad range of issues including, but not limited, to gender equity in education. We explore, for example, the complex world of play in Fromberg's chapter and are reminded that for young children, play involves issues of power and hierarchy in ways that parallel the role of gender…
IDRA Newsletter, 1994
This newsletter contains six articles on issues of gender equity for Chicanas and other women. "Recognizing Chicana Contributions: Cultural History & Gender Equity on the Line" (Mikki Symonds) discusses the invisibility of Mexican Americans in general and of Chicanas in particular in U.S. history books, school curricula, and pop…
King, Kelley; Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy
The authors, who have worked with more than 2,000 schools across the United States in efforts to close gender gaps, describe how gender-related issues consistently intersect and interfere with school improvement efforts. They present statistics showing that schools are now failing boys in more areas than girls, and describe how "the…
In spite of continuing patterning of curriculum subject preference and choice by gender, there has been little recent attention to the argument developed in the 1970s that children play with different toys according to their gender, and that these provide girls and boys with (different) curriculum-related skills. The article describes a…
Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.
These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…
Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.
We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…
This case study examines written peer response materials generated by small groups with varying gender compositions. Based on those observations, the author offers several pedagogical implications. She suggests that groups' gender make-up often does influence written feedback provided by group members during peer response sessions. By better…
Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.
Examined the relationship of gender-role orientation and specific behavioral coping responses of wives (N=82) experiencing a long-term separation from their military spouses. Results showed that an androgynous gender-role orientation was significantly associated with four of the five coping patterns identified as helpful to wives managing a…
Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas
In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…
Cook, Ellen Piel
Contends that, to understand role of gender in psychological problems, counselors need to be aware of gender-socialized individual characteristics, which may affect what psychological problems people develop, associated symptoms, and how people respond to problems. Claims it is important to recognize how broader sociological context presents men…
Fennema, Elizabeth; Hart, Laurie E.
Addresses two questions: (1) How has gender and mathematics been treated in the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" (JRME), and how does that record fit into the broader societal concern with gender and mathematics? (2) What kinds of studies should be published in the future to achieve equity for females in mathematics? (31…
Moya, Tatiana; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Goodman, Robert
A representative sample of 7-14-year-old young people in southeast Brazil (N=1251) was assessed using standardized parent and youth interviews, thereby identifying an "at-risk" group of young people who met one or more DSM-IV criteria for anorexia and/or bulimia nervosa. These young people were compared with an age and gender matched…
Nicholson, Chance; McGuinness, Teena M
The age at which gender dysphoria can be diagnosed with enough certainty to justify medical intervention is controversial. The aim of this article is to explore current literature as it relates to the gender reassignment process and diagnostic indicators supporting an appropriate age for intervention. The timing of diagnosis and treatment of gender dysphoria remains the center of debate between the long-term effects of early intervention versus delay of treatment. Limited research is available on gender dysphoria treatment protocols for children. However, preliminary studies suggest that early intervention improves the quality of life in individuals who are transgender. Ongoing research suggests that it may be possible to confirm gender dysphoria at an earlier age.
Fung, David C Y
Disease- and locus-specific variant databases have been a valuable resource to clinical and research geneticists. With the recent rapid developments in technologies, the number of DNA variants detected in a typical molecular genetics laboratory easily exceeds 1,000. To keep track of the growing inventory of DNA variants, many laboratories employ information technology to store the data as well as distributing the data and its associated information to clinicians and researchers via the Web. While it is a valuable resource, the hosting of a web-accessible database requires collaboration between bioinformaticians and biologists and careful planning to ensure its usability and availability. In this chapter, a series of tutorials on building a local DNA variant database out of a sample dataset will be provided. However, this tutorial will not include programming details on building a web interface and on constructing the web application necessary for web hosting. Instead, an introduction to the two commonly used methods for hosting web-accessible variant databases will be described. Apart from the tutorials, this chapter will also consider the resources and planning required for making a variant database project successful.
Bell, Stephen A
This paper offers an analysis of young people's sexual agency in rural Uganda. Drawing on definitions of agency from within the international development literature, it focuses on: decision-making processes leading to young people's involvement in relationships; actions undertaken to maintain 'secret' relationships in contexts where young people's sexual agency is generally prohibited; transactional and gendered negotiations between young people involved within a relationship; and a range of outcomes arising from young people's sexual activity. An understanding of the dynamics and temporal nature of young people's sexual agency, and the consequences that follow from it, challenges the widely held view that young people do not know what they are doing in relation to their sexual health. This should enable practitioners to identify avenues for developing HIV prevention and sexual health programmes that are more fully based in, and driven by, the realities of young people's sexual lives.
This paper is concerned with findings about gender which form part of a larger ethnographic study. The study was undertaken during the author's employment as a local authority (school district) Pupil Support Officer, where the author's work involved the support of young people who had been permanently excluded (expelled) from school for a variety…
Miller, Nancy B.; Falk, R. Frank; Huang, Yinmei
Traditional sex-based categories are giving way to more expanded notions of gender among young men and women today. Along with feminine and masculine personalities, some individuals combine both for a more androgynous persona, whereas others exhibit few distinctly feminine or masculine characteristics. In a study of 118 gifted college students,…
Herrmann, Mariesa A.; Rockoff, Jonah E.
Ichino and Moretti (2009) find that menstruation may contribute to gender gaps in absenteeism and earnings, based on evidence that absences of young female Italian bank employees follow a 28-day cycle. We find this evidence is not robust to the correction of coding errors or small changes in specification, and we find no evidence of increased…
The main purpose of the study was to characterize gender patterns regarding ways of thinking and learning among 242 fifth- and sixth-grade young gifted students in Israel. A written questionnaire was developed to assess ways of thinking as either connected (empathic) or separate (critical, detached). Findings showed that boys consistently rated…
Martinez-Roldan, Carmen M.
This article presents a case study of young bilingual students' discussions of literature in a second-grade Spanish/English bilingual classroom in the US. Sociocultural, critical, and Chicana feminist perspectives informed an analysis of the ways the children worked at understanding, marking, and resisting gender boundaries. This critical…
Lucidi, Alison Danielle
This document reviews literature on gender equity in U.S. schools. The paper reports that there is an unconscious ignorance on the growing achievement gap between male and female students. Young women in the United States today still are not participating equally in the education system. A 1992 report found that girls do not receive equitable…
Whitmire, Richard; Bailey, Susan McGee
Debates about gender and schooling have taken a surprising turn in the past decade. After years of concern that girls were being shortchanged in male-dominated schools, especially in math and science, there has grown a rising chorus of voices worrying about whether boys are the ones in peril. With young women making up close to 60 percent of…
Hopcroft, Rosemary L.
In this article I argue that evolutionary theorizing can help sociologists and feminists better understand gender inequality. Evolutionary theory explains why control of the sexuality of young women is a priority across most human societies both past and present. Evolutionary psychology has extended our understanding of male violence against…
Hyun, Eunsook; Tyler, Mike
Using the theoretical framework of hermeneutics and guided by the conceptual framework of Developmentally and Culturally Appropriate Practice, two studies examined how preschool teachers perceive young children's gender differences in relation to the pedagogical considerations. Participants in Study 1 were 121 early childhood educators attending…
This article attempts to locate approaches to understanding gender, education and notions of the international within debates on global social justice and cosmopolitanism. It looks at the work of three feminist scholars (Martha Nussbaum, Onora O'Neill and Iris Young) on this theme, draws out some ways in which they engage critiques of…
Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo
This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and…
Cooper, Emily A; Radonjic, Ana
Understanding the current status and historical trends of gender representation within a research field is an important component of fostering a diverse and inclusive scientific community. Here, we report on the gender representation of a large sample of the vision science research community--the attendees of the Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS). Our analysis shows that the majority of scientists at all career levels in our sample are male. This imbalance is most pronounced for the senior scientists, whereas predoctoral students are nearly balanced between the genders. Historically, the gender imbalance was larger than it is at present, and it has followed a slow-but-steady trend toward gender parity over the past decade. A longitudinal analysis based on tracking individual attendees shows a larger dropout rate for female than male predoctoral trainees. However, among the trainees who continue in the vision science field after graduate school, evidence suggests that career advancement is quite similar between the genders. In an additional analysis, we found that the VSS Young Investigator awardees and the abstract review committee members reflect substantial gender imbalances, suggesting that these recognitions have yet to catch up with the greater gender balance of the rising generation of junior vision scientists. We hope that this report will encourage awareness of issues of diversity in the scientific community and further promote the development of a research field in which all talented scientists are supported to succeed.
DeVoogd, Glenn, Ed.
This document contains the following papers focusing on contexts and activities in which teachers can use technology to promote learning with young children: (1) "Read, Write and Click: Using Digital Camera Technology in a Language Arts and Literacy K-5 Classroom" (Judith F. Robbins and Jacqueline Bedell); (2) "Technology for the…
Reflects on the moral world of children who have committed acts of lethal violence. Young killers do not see any positive alternatives at the moment of violence. When they kill, they are seeking justice--as they see it. Emphasizes the importance of adults stimulating the development of empathy and spirituality. (SLD)
Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A
This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-individual differences in gender role orientation were also considered). Results indicated that whereas traditional gender role orientation was positively related to earnings, gender significantly predicted the slope of this relationship: Traditional gender role orientation was strongly positively associated with earnings for men; it was slightly negatively associated with earnings for women. Occupational segregation partly explained these gender differences. Overall, the results suggest that although gender role attitudes are becoming less traditional for men and for women, traditional gender role orientation continues to exacerbate the gender wage gap.
Li, Yongna; Tse, Chi-Shing
People can process multiple dimensions of facial properties simultaneously. Facial processing models are based on the processing of facial properties. The current study examined the processing of facial emotion, face race, and face gender using categorization tasks. The same set of Chinese, White and Black faces, each posing a neutral, happy or angry expression, was used in three experiments. Facial emotion interacted with face race in all the tasks. The interaction of face race and face gender was found in the race and gender categorization tasks, whereas the interaction of facial emotion and face gender was significant in the emotion and gender categorization tasks. These results provided evidence for a symmetric interaction between variant facial properties (emotion) and invariant facial properties (race and gender). PMID:27840621
Li, Yongna; Tse, Chi-Shing
People can process multiple dimensions of facial properties simultaneously. Facial processing models are based on the processing of facial properties. The current study examined the processing of facial emotion, face race, and face gender using categorization tasks. The same set of Chinese, White and Black faces, each posing a neutral, happy or angry expression, was used in three experiments. Facial emotion interacted with face race in all the tasks. The interaction of face race and face gender was found in the race and gender categorization tasks, whereas the interaction of facial emotion and face gender was significant in the emotion and gender categorization tasks. These results provided evidence for a symmetric interaction between variant facial properties (emotion) and invariant facial properties (race and gender).
The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital.
Munson, Benjamin; Crocker, Laura; Pierrehumbert, Janet B; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study examined whether boys with gender identity disorder (GID) produced less prototypically male speech than control boys without GID, a possibility that has been suggested by clinical observations. Two groups of listeners participated in tasks where they rated the gender typicality of single words (group 1) or sentences (group 2) produced by 15 5-13 year old boys with GID and 15 age-matched boys without GID. Detailed acoustic analyses of the stimuli were also conducted. Boys with GID were rated as less boy-like than boys without GID. In the experiment using sentence stimuli, these group differences were larger than in the experiment using single-word stimuli. Listeners' ratings were predicted by a variety of acoustic parameters, including ones that differ between the two groups and ones that are stereotypically associated with adult men's and women's speech. Future research should examine how these variants are acquired.
Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Dolezal, Curtis; Baker, Susan W; Ehrhardt, Anke A; New, Maria I
Prenatal-onset classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in 46,XX individuals is associated with variable masculinization/defeminization of the genitalia and of behavior, presumably both due to excess prenatal androgen production. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to extend the gender-behavioral investigation to the mildest subtype of 46,XX CAH, the non-classical (NC) variant, (2) to replicate previous findings on moderate and severe variants of 46,XX CAH using a battery of diversely constructed assessment instruments, and (3) to evaluate the utility of the chosen assessment instruments for this area of work. We studied 63 women with classical CAH (42 with the salt wasting [SW] and 21 with the simple virilizing [SV] variant), 82 women with the NC variant, and 24 related non-CAH sisters and female cousins as controls (COS). NC women showed a few signs of gender shifts in the expected direction, SV women were intermediate, and SW women most severely affected. In terms of gender identity, two SW women were gender-dysphoric, and a third had changed to male in adulthood. All others identified as women. We conclude that behavioral masculinization/defeminization is pronounced in SW-CAH women, slight but still clearly demonstrable in SV women, and probable, but still in need of replication in NC women. There continues a need for improved instruments for gender assessment.
McDermott, Elizabeth; Roen, Katrina; Piela, Anna
This study investigates self-harm among young lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT) people. Using qualitative virtual methods, we examined online forums to explore young LGBT people's cybertalk about emotional distress and self-harming. We investigated how youth explained the relationship between self-harm and sexuality and gender. We found…
Couppie, Thomas; Epiphane, Dominique
Findings from the 1992 Generation survey carried out by Creq in 1997 among young people exiting the French school system indicates that work-related disparities encountered by young labor market entrants in France can be characterized according to the worker's gender. Obstacles facing women include the following: (1) risk of unemployment or…
Emilson, Anette; Folkesson, Anne-Mari; Lindberg, Ingeborg Moqvist
The aim of this study is to explore practitioners' gender beliefs and how gendered values are embedded in Swedish preschool practice. The research question is: What beliefs about gender and the associated values, can be identified in practitioners' talk when they discuss gender issues? The study is informed by Bronwyn Davies' theoretical ideas…
Boloh, Yves; Ibernon, Laure; Royer, Stephanie; Escudier, Frederique; Danillon, Aurelia
Previous studies on grammatical gender in French individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have led to conflicting findings and interpretations regarding keys abilities--gender attribution and gender agreement. New production data from a larger SW sample (N = 24) showed that gender attribution scores in SW participants exactly mirrored those of…
Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gadow, Kenneth D; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hwu, Hai-Gwo
There have been no published reports regarding the epidemiological and psychiatric features of gender dysphoria in non-clinical young adults. The current study aimed to investigate the demographics, co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, and perceived parenting style and family support in Taiwanese young adults with gender dysphoria. The sample consisted of 5010 university freshmen (male, 51.6%) with a mean age of 19.6 years (SD = 2.7) from a national university in Taiwan. The questionnaires used for this university-based survey included the Adult Self Report Inventory-4 for psychopathology (including gender dysphoria), the Parental Bonding Instrument for parenting style, and the Family APGAR for perceived family support. Results showed that gender dysphoria was more prevalent in females (7.3%) than males (1.9%). Young adults with gender dysphoria were more likely to meet a wide but specific range of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. The most significantly associated symptoms for males were agoraphobia, hypochondriasis, manic episode, and pathological gambling, and for females dissociative disorder, hypochondriasis, and body dysmorphic disorder. Both males and females with gender dysphoria perceived significantly less support from their families and less affection/care from both parents. Findings suggest that gender dysphoria, associated with a specific range of psychopathology and family/parenting dissatisfaction (with both similar and dissimilar patterns between sexes), is not uncommon in Taiwanese university students, particularly in females. This implies the importance of attention and specific measures to offset psychiatric conditions and to promote mental well-being of this population.
This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry out cleaning tasks generally viewed as "women's work". Observations, interviews, student diaries and surveys from this school and from government schools provide the basis for a comparison, indicating how the former strives to interrupt the transmission of gender inequalities as well as how students respond to these practices. The findings suggest that the pedagogical practices deployed by this school have generally succeeded in destabilising norms of gender subordination and gender-based violence, though the replicability of these practices is interrogated given broader questions about the country's public resources and political will.
Alswat, Khaled A.
Osteoporosis is a growing health concern worldwide and its complications are as prevalent as other common chronic disease complications such as hypertension and diabetes. In this review, we will discuss the role of gender in osteoporosis, especially related to peak bone mass and maturation, rate of annual bone loss, screening, prevalence of osteoporosis and its related fractures, mortality after osteoporosis-related fracture, fracture risk predication using different technologies and the impact of gender on osteoporosis management. PMID:28392857
Hussey, Karen A.; Katz, Albert N.; Leith, Scott A.
Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in "Language and social identity." Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp…
Rimashevskaia, N. M.
There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…
Ristori, Jiska; Steensma, Thomas D
Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood is a complex phenomenon characterized by clinically significant distress due to the incongruence between assigned gender at birth and experienced gender. The clinical presentation of children who present with gender identity issues can be highly variable; the psychosexual development and future psychosexual outcome can be unclear, and consensus about the best clinical practice is currently under debate. In this paper a clinical picture is provided of children who are referred to gender identity clinics. The clinical criteria are described including what is known about the prevalence of childhood GD. In addition, an overview is presented of the literature on the psychological functioning of children with GD, the current knowledge on the psychosexual development and factors associated with the persistence of GD, and explanatory models for psychopathology in children with GD together with other co-existing problems that are characteristic for children referred for their gender. In light of this, currently used treatment and counselling approaches are summarized and discussed, including the integration of the literature detailed above.
Richardson, Eugene T; Collins, Sean E; Kung, Tiffany; Jones, James H; Tram, Khai Hoan; Boggiano, Victoria L; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Zolopa, Andrew R
Introduction The HIV pandemic disproportionately impacts young women. Worldwide, young women aged 15–24 are infected with HIV at rates twice that of young men, and young women alone account for nearly a quarter of all new HIV infections. The incommensurate HIV incidence in young – often poor – women underscores how social and economic inequalities shape the HIV epidemic. Confluent social forces, including political and gender violence, poverty, racism, and sexism impede equal access to therapies and effective care, but most of all constrain the agency of women. Methods HIV prevalence data was compiled from the 2010 UNAIDS Global Report. Gender inequality was assessed using the 2011 United Nations Human Development Report Gender Inequality Index (GII). Logistic regression models were created with predominant mode of transmission (heterosexual vs. MSM/IDU) as the dependent variable and GII, Muslim vs. non-Muslim, Democracy Index, male circumcision rate, log gross national income (GNI) per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP), and region as independent variables. Results and discussion There is a significant correlation between having a predominantly heterosexual epidemic and high gender inequality across all models. There is not a significant association between whether a country is predominantly Muslim, has a high/low GNI at PPP, has a high/low circumcision rate, and its primary mode of transmission. In addition, there are only three countries that have had a generalized epidemic in the past but no longer have one: Cambodia, Honduras, and Eritrea. GII data are available only for Cambodia and Honduras, and these countries showed a 37 and 34% improvement, respectively, in their Gender Inequality Indices between 1995 and 2011. During the same period, both countries reduced their HIV prevalence below the 1% threshold of a generalized epidemic. This represents limited but compelling evidence that improvements in gender inequality can lead to the abatement of
Snyder, D K; Velasquez, J M; Clark, B L; Means-Christensen, A J
This study examined parental influence on specific attitudes toward marital and parental roles and nonspecific gender-role attitudes. Respondents included 173 young adults (127 women and 46 men) and their parents. Young adults' scores on the Role Orientation scale of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory and on masculinity and femininity scales from two self-report inventories (the MMPI-2 and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire) were correlated with their parents' scores on a subset of these same measures. Results indicated that (a) marital and parental role attitudes among young adults are strongly related to specific marital role attitudes of their parents but only modestly related (for women) or unrelated (for men) to nonspecific gender-role attitudes of their parents; (b) broader gender-role attitudes of young men are moderately correlated with their father's attitudes but generally uncorrelated with their mother's attitudes regarding gender roles; and (c) the relationship of young women's gender-role attitudes to both maternal and paternal attitudes is generally weaker and more complex than for young men. Clinical implications of these findings for assessment and intervention with distressed couples are discussed.
Claesdotter-Hybbinette, Emma; Safdarzadeh-Haghighi, Maryam; Råstam, Maria; Lindvall, Magnus
Studies have shown that the auditory brainstem response (ABR) is often affected in neurodevelopmental disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate possible differences in ABR between young females with ADHD compared to control subjects. This study focuses on young females, age 7-17 with ADHD, comparing the ABR of 43 young females with ADHD to 21 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Young females with ADHD have a significantly different ABR in a region between cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex as well as in the thalamic region compared to control subjects. These data indicate specific differences in ABR between girls with ADHD compared to female controls.
Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.
This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…
Espinosa, María Paz; Kovářík, Jaromír
This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in "neutral" baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i) the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context; and (ii) gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies.
Espinosa, María Paz; Kovářík, Jaromír
This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in “neutral” baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i) the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context; and (ii) gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies. PMID:25926783
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Zucker, Kenneth J; Lawrence, Anne A; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C
Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities.
Sagud, M; Hotujac, Lj; Mihaljević-Peles, A; Jakovljević, M
Depression is twice as common in women as in men, although some concern has been raised in terms of misdiagnosing depression in men. The incidence of depression in women varies during the life span. The peak incidence during childbearing years appears to be associated with cyclic hormonal changes. Women also present with reproductive -specific mood disorders: pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), depression in pregnancy, postpartal mood disorder (PDD) and perimenopausal depressive disorder. Gender differences were repeatedly observed in response to antidepressant medication. Premenopausal women appear to respond poorly and to show low tolerability to TCAs, but they tend to show greater responsiveness to the SSRIs. In contrast, men and postmenopausal women can respond equally to the TCAs and SSRIs. These differences are contributed to gender differences in pharmacokinetics of antidepressants and to the influence of menstrual cycle. These findings suggest the need for a gender-specific approach to the evaluation and management of depression.
Tateno, Masaru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Saito, Toshikazu
Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are characterized by two essential symptoms: impairment in social interaction, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. PDD include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These three disorders are sometimes termed autism spectrum disorders. A recent epidemiological survey demonstrated that the rate of PDD may be almost 1% and that many PDD cases might not be diagnosed properly in childhood. Erik Erikson described eight stages of psychosocial development through which a normally developing human should pass from infancy to adulthood. In the theory, an adolescent shows 'Identity vs. Role Confusion'. It has been reported that individuals with PDD often have identity crises which sometimes include gender dysphoria. This phenomenon might be related to the so-called identity diffusion in youth. When they reach their young youth, it has been said that subjects with PDD realize their uniqueness and differences compared to others, and, as a result, they may develop confusion of identity which could be exhibited as gender identity disorder. A recent study demonstrated that, amongst 204 children and adolescents who visited a GID clinic in the Netherlands, 7.8% were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders after a careful diagnostic procedure by a multi-disciplinary team. Taken together, PDD and GID seem closely related to each other. In this paper, we present four PDD cases with gender dysphoria and related symptoms: 1) a girl with PDD who repeatedly asserted gender identity disorder (GID) symptoms in response to social isolation at school, 2) a junior high school boy with PDD and transvestism, 3) a boy diagnosed with Asperger's disorder who developed a disturbance of sexual orientation, and 4) a boy with Asperger's disorder and comorbid childhood GID. Many of the clinical symptoms related to gender dysphoria might be explained by the
Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J
This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future.
DWYER, RACHEL E.; HODSON, RANDY; MCLOUD, LAURA
For many young Americans, access to credit has become critical to completing a college education and embarking on a successful career path. Young people increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or foregoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are gendered by differences in college preparation and support and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college degree and future difficulties they may face in repaying college debt. We examine these new realities by studying gender differences in the role of debt in the pivotal event of graduating from college using the 1997 cohort of the national longitudinal Survey of youth. In this article, we find that women and men both experience slowing and even diminishing probabilities of graduating when carrying high levels of debt, but that men drop out at lower levels of debt than do women. We conclude by theorizing that high levels of debt are one of the mechanisms that sort women and men into different positions in the social stratification system. PMID:23626403
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Mattila, Aino; Kärnä, Teemu; Joutsenneimi, Kaisla
Transsexualism and other variations of gender identity are based on a stable sense of identity. The aetiology of this phenomenon is not fully known. Suffering caused by gender dysphoria is alleviated with sex reassignment. The psychiatric assessment of both adolescents and adults has been centralized in Finland to two university hospitals, the Helsinki University Hospital and Tampere University Hospital. In both hospitals, multidisciplinary teams aim at differential diagnosis by using well-known psychiatric and psychological instruments. Wishes for sex reassignment that are caused by a mental health disorder are excluded. Assessment in adolescence is challenging because the identity in youth is still forming.
Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund
Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.
Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund
Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.
Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Gualfetti, Peter [San Francisco, CA; Mitchinson, Colin [Half Moon Bay, CA; Larenas, Edmund [Moss Beach, CA
Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.
Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund
Kelly, Kristen J.; Ye, Rick W.
Methods of screening for dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DHAD) variants that display increased DHAD activity are disclosed, along with DHAD variants identified by these methods. Such enzymes can result in increased production of compounds from DHAD requiring biosynthetic pathways. Also disclosed are isolated nucleic acids encoding the DHAD variants, recombinant host cells comprising the isolated nucleic acid molecules, and methods of producing butanol.
Focus on the way in which cultural variants affect other variants' probabilities of transmission in modeling and empirical work can enrich Kline's conceptualization of teaching. For example, the problem of communicating complex cumulative culture is an adaptive problem; teaching methods that manage transmission so that acquisition of some cultural variants increases the probability of acquiring others, provide a partial solution.
Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Edmund, Larenas
Goedegeburr, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund
Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund
This review article answers three questions relevant to the medical management and care of individuals born with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), or a micropenis: (1) Do any of these individuals reassign themselves from their initial gender assignment? (2) Do more reassign than the ones who do not? (3) Is there evidence of gender dysphoria in those who do not self-initiate reassignment? Reviewed were all articles on CAIS, PAIS, and micropenis cited in K. J. Zucker (1999) plus articles published through 2004. There were no documented cases of gender change in individuals with CAIS (N= 156 females) or micropenis (N= 89: 79 males, 10 females). Nine (9.1%) out of 99 individuals with PAIS changed gender. Thus, self-initiated gender reassignment was rare. Gender dysphoria also appears to be a rare occurrence. The best predictor of adult gender identity in CAIS, PAIS, and micropenis is initial gender assignment.
Zhao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin
Previous findings on gender differences in the behaviors of individuals, including trusting behaviors, are inconsistent. A criticism is that these studies neglect contextual factors. The present study aims to examine how the target's gender, as a primary context factor, influences the trusting behavior of individuals in one survey and two experimental situations. Results indicate that people tend to trust strangers of the opposite gender more than those of the same gender in mixed-gender situations. Furthermore, females trust females much more than males trust males. The results help people understand that when talking about gender differences in interpersonal situations, the gender identity of target persons should be considered. These findings are somewhat in conflict with those of previous studies conducted in Western cultures, and suggest that culture should also be explored in future studies on gender differences in interpersonal relationships.
Thompson, Sharon H.; Lougheed, Eric
Although a majority of young adults are members of at least one social networking site, peer reviewed research examining gender differences in social networking communication is sparse. This study examined gender differences in social networking, particularly for Facebook use, among undergraduates. A survey was distributed to 268 college students…
Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane N.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Lurye, Leah E.; Greulich, Faith K.
Many young children pass through a stage of gender appearance rigidity; girls insist on wearing dresses, often pink and frilly, whereas boys refuse to wear anything with a hint of femininity. In 2 studies, we investigated the prevalence of this apparent hallmark of early gender development and its relation to children's growing identification with…
Lamb, Lindsay; Bigler, Rebecca; Liben, Lynn; Green, Vanessa
In 2006, educators at St. Francis School in Austin, Texas, teamed up with researchers from the Gender and Racial Attitudes Lab at the University of Texas at Austin to examine ways to counteract gender bullying among young children. The project team tested a traditional multicultural technique--using literature to challenge gender…
Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna; Fournier, Bernard; Gavray, Claire; Born, Michel
Research examining youths' political development mostly focused on young people as a general group; comparatively less attention has been devoted to the examination of gender pathways toward citizenship. Two studies were conducted addressing (a) the role of parents' participation and the moderating role of adolescent gender and age group (n =…
This book examines research on young children's experiences with and understanding of gender, race, and power, highlighting interactions within first and second grade classrooms. The introduction explains gender, race, and power issues. Chapter 1, "Teacher Research: Texts and Subtexts," describes the research project. Chapter 2, "The Gender…
Examined the race-gender gap in education among second-generation Caribbean American young adults (Dominicans, Haitians, and anglophone West Indians), using life history interviews, focus groups, and participant observation to investigate how their cumulative race-gender experiences influenced their outlooks toward schooling. Overall, women…
Shapiro, Lauren R.
Eyewitness recall by 60 adolescents and 60 young adults in Experiment 1 and by 64 children and 63 preadolescents in Experiment 2 for a simulated theft in which gender-role characteristics and sex of criminal were manipulated (i.e., masculine male, feminine male, feminine female, masculine female) was investigated. Gender-role flexibility impacted…
Hussey, Karen A; Katz, Albert N; Leith, Scott A
Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in Language and social identity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 196-216, 1982) can be found in interactive language. Of the eight tokens examined only three were found to differ in the hypothesized direction, and these only in male-male dyads. In the second study, we trained a male and a female confederate to use either male or female gendered tokens found to be reliable in Study One in their chats with participants. Our design permits disentangling of effects due to knowledge of the gender of the interlocutors and use of specific language tokens. We find that use of language tokens by the confederate promoted use of the same token by their interlocutor, regardless of knowledge of the confederate's gender. Moreover use of tokens consistent or inconsistent with visible gender influenced how the interlocutor perceived the confederate. Taken together these data are inconsistent with either the notion that gendered language is context independent (as suggested in the gender-as-culture hypothesis) or the notion that gendered language only emerges when gender is made salient, as would, in these studies, occur in mixed-gendered groups.
Muñoz-González, H; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L
Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The clinical course of the disease is typically characterized by progression from a nonspecific phase of erythematous macules to the appearance of plaques and ultimately, in some patients, tumors. However, numerous clinical and histopathologic variants of MF with specific therapeutic and prognostic implications have been described in recent decades. Clarification of the differential diagnosis can be frustrated by the wide range of clinical manifestations and histopathologic patterns of cutaneous infiltration, particularly in the early phases of the disease. In this paper, we review the main clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics of the variants of MF described in the literature in order to facilitate early diagnosis of the disease.
Ramos, Alex H; Lichtenstein, Lee; Gupta, Manaswi; Lawrence, Michael S; Pugh, Trevor J; Saksena, Gordon; Meyerson, Matthew; Getz, Gad
Oncotator is a tool for annotating genomic point mutations and short nucleotide insertions/deletions (indels) with variant- and gene-centric information relevant to cancer researchers. This information is drawn from 14 different publicly available resources that have been pooled and indexed, and we provide an extensible framework to add additional data sources. Annotations linked to variants range from basic information, such as gene names and functional classification (e.g. missense), to cancer-specific data from resources such as the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), the Cancer Gene Census, and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). For local use, Oncotator is freely available as a python module hosted on Github (https://github.com/broadinstitute/oncotator). Furthermore, Oncotator is also available as a web service and web application at http://www.broadinstitute.org/oncotator/.
Switzer, Maryna Popp; Agunanne, Enoch; Abbas, Aamer
Brugada syndrome is an inherited disorder that can present with syncope, cardiac arrest, or sudden cardiac death. Multiple genetic mutations have been described that cause this disease. We present a 56-year-old man who sustained an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, was resuscitated, and was found to have typical features of the Brugada criteria on the electrocardiogram. Genetic testing was positive for a heterozygous mutation in the sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 (SCN5A) gene with a p. Leu227Pro (L227P) variant located on exon 6. To our knowledge, this is the first described case with this variant causing malignant arrhythmia with a cardiac arrest. PMID:28127136
Switzer, Maryna Popp; Teleb, Mohamed; Agunanne, Enoch; Abbas, Aamer
Brugada syndrome is an inherited disorder that can present with syncope, cardiac arrest, or sudden cardiac death. Multiple genetic mutations have been described that cause this disease. We present a 56-year-old man who sustained an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, was resuscitated, and was found to have typical features of the Brugada criteria on the electrocardiogram. Genetic testing was positive for a heterozygous mutation in the sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 (SCN5A) gene with a p. Leu227Pro (L227P) variant located on exon 6. To our knowledge, this is the first described case with this variant causing malignant arrhythmia with a cardiac arrest.
Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Vitali, Paolo; Santos, Miguel; Henry, Maya; Gola, Kelly; Rosenberg, Lynne; Dronkers, Nina; Miller, Bruce; Seeley, William W; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa
The non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) and the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are focal neurodegenerative disorders belonging to the FTD-spectrum clinical syndromes. NfvPPA is characterized by effortful speech and/or agrammatism and left frontal atrophy, while bvFTD is characterized by social-emotional dysfunction often accompanied by right-lateralized frontal damage. Despite their contrasting clinical presentations, both disorders show prominent left anterior insula atrophy. We investigated differential patterns of insular sub-region atrophy in nfvPPA and bvFTD. Based on knowledge of insular connectivity and physiology, we hypothesized that the left superior precentral region of the dorsal anterior insula (SPGI) would be more atrophic in nvfPPA due to its critical role in motor speech, whereas the ventral anterior region would be more atrophied in bvFTD reflecting its known role in social-emotional-autonomic functions. Early stage nfvPPA and bvFTD patients matched for disease severity, age, gender and education and healthy controls participated in the study. Detailed clinical history, neurological examination, neuropsychological screening evaluation, and high-resolution T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were collected. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was applied to perform group comparisons across the whole brain and in bilateral insula region of interest (ROI). Correlation analyses between insular sub-region atrophy and relevant clinical features were performed. Whole brain group comparisons between nfvPPA and bvFTD showed the expected predominantly left or right anterior insular atrophy pattern. ROI analysis of bilateral insula showed that the left SPGI was significantly more atrophied in nfvPPA compared to bvFTD, while the bilateral ventral anterior and right dorsal anterior insula sub-regions were more atrophied in bvFTD than nfvPPA. Only left SPGI volume correlated with speech production
Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Vitali, Paolo; Santos, Miguel; Henry, Maya; Gola, Kelly; Rosenberg, Lynne; Dronkers, Nina; Miller, Bruce; Seeley, William W.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa
The non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) and the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are focal neurodegenerative disorders belonging to the FTD-spectrum clinical syndromes. NfvPPA is characterized by effortful speech and/or agrammatism and left frontal atrophy, while bvFTD is characterized by social-emotional dysfunction often accompanied by right-lateralized frontal damage. Despite their contrasting clinical presentations, both disorders show prominent left anterior insula atrophy. We investigated differential patterns of insular subregion atrophy in nfvPPA and bvFTD. Based on knowledge of insular connectivity and physiology, we hypothesized that the left superior precentral region of the dorsal anterior insula (SPGI) would be more atrophic in nvfPPA due to its critical role in motor speech, whereas the ventral anterior region would be more atrophied in bvFTD reflecting its known role in social-emotional-autonomic functions. Early stage nfvPPA and bvFTD patients matched for disease severity, age, gender and education and healthy controls participated in the study. Detailed clinical history, neurological examination, neuropsychological screening evaluation, and high-resolution T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) were collected. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was applied to perform group comparisons across the whole brain and in bilateral insula region of interest (ROI). Correlation analyses between insular subregion atrophy and relevant clinical features were performed. Whole brain group comparisons between nfvPPA and bvFTD showed the expected predominantly left or right anterior insular atrophy pattern. ROI analysis of bilateral insula showed that the left SPGI was significantly more atrophied in nfvPPA compared to bvFTD, while the bilateral ventral anterior and right dorsal anterior insula subregions were more atrophied in bvFTD than nfvPPA. Only left SPGI volume correlated with speech production
Sani, Fabio; Bennett, Mark
Investigated stereotype variability among 6- and 7-year-olds. In the first condition, an outgroup was represented by adult men for boy participants, and adult women for girls; in the second, the outgroup was defined as opposite sex peers. Participants' descriptions showed that stereotypical traits attributed to the in-group change significantly…
Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen
The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…
Ruble, Diane N.; Taylor, Lisa J.; Cyphers, Lisa; Greulich, Faith K.; Lurye, Leah E.; Shrout, Patrick E.
Kohlberg's (1966) hypothesis that the attainment of gender constancy motivates children to attend to gender norms was reevaluated by examining these links in relation to age. Ninety-four 3- to 7-year-old children were interviewed to assess whether and how constancy mediates age-related changes in gender-related beliefs. As expected, results…
The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…
Leman, Patrick J.; Ahmed, Shahina; Ozarow, Louise
The authors investigated the effects of gender on the social dynamics and outcomes of conversations involving 120 children (mean age = 8 years 7 months). Children were taught particular values for different shaped counters and placed in same-gender or mixed-gender pairs with children who were taught different values. Pairs were asked to add the…
Shutts, Kristin; Banaji, Mahzarin R.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.
To whom do children look when deciding on their own preferences? To address this question, three-year-old children were asked to choose between objects or activities that were endorsed by unfamiliar people who differed in gender, race (White, Black), or age (child, adult). In Experiment 1, children demonstrated robust preferences for objects and activities endorsed by children of their own gender, but less consistent preferences for objects and activities endorsed by children of their own race. In Experiment 2, children selected objects and activities favored by people of their own gender and age. In neither study did most children acknowledge the influence of these social categories. These findings suggest that gender and age categories are encoded spontaneously and influence children's preferences and choices. For young children, gender and age may be more powerful guides to preferences than race. PMID:20590724
White, K M; Speisman, J C; Jackson, D; Bartis, S; Costos, D
Intimate relationships, like the individuals who participate in them, are conceived of as following developmental processes. Five dimensions of intimacy--that is, relationship orientation, caring-concern, commitment, sexuality, and communication--are identified, and an approach to assessing relationship maturity on each of these dimensions is described. In a study of 31 young married couples, scores on each dimension of intimacy maturity were analyzed in relation to gender, gender role (as assessed through an adaptation of the Bem Sex Role Inventory; Bem, 1974), and marital adjustment. There were no significant differences between husbands and wives on any of the intimacy or marital adjustment scales and only a marginal difference on one gender role scale (agency). Patterns of correlations among intimacy, marital adjustment, and gender role scores varied by gender. Not only do there appear to be two marriages (his and hers) in every marriage, but the correlates of these marriages also vary.
Sumi, V. S.
This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…
Bailey, Lucy E.; Graves, Karen
The authors describe broad patterns and key developments in gender and education scholarship to provide an overview of the state of the field. They incorporate historical developments shaping research patterns, broad tensions and shifts, and emerging trajectories in inquiry. Cognizant that reviews are inherently political endeavors in both…
This paper begins by discussing the difference between genre and gender, defining the former as the study of a systemic totality, and the latter as the split in the totality, reversal, upturning, and break-up of any systemic logic. Also discussed are (1) the difference between nature and culture, and the quarrel between essentialist and…
Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.
Under a legislative mandate from the state of Washington, this report provides updated information on gender equity at each of the public institutions of higher education in Washington and at the community and technical colleges, as applicable. A look at student support and services shows that pay scales in student employment are not…
A manual recently published by Mexico¿s National System for Integral Development of the Family, ¿The gender perspective: a tool for constructing equity between men and women¿, is intended to put into practice the Cairo accords. The gender perspective has been applied in recent years to interpretation of the situation of women in past and present societies. Gender is not sex; it is the manner in which societies have symbolized and understood relations between men and women. The manual concludes that the main difference between the sexes beyond the obvious genital differences is in the greater musculature and strength of males. In contemporary societies, these attributes are less needed than technical knowledge and skills, which may be obtained by either sex. Economic evolution has led increasing numbers of women to work outside their homes. The gender roles assigned for millennia, and accepted as the natural order, are no longer adequate. The power of men has been preserved by attributing the gigantic cultural differences resulting from specialization into male and female roles to the small physical differences between the sexes. Governments have slowly established legal equity, but discrimination against women has not disappeared in the workplace, public offices, or any other social sphere, and their incorporation into the work force has left them with the double workday as they continue to perform the great bulk of domestic work. It is therefore necessary to seek equity as well as equality, understood as the creation of equivalent opportunities for men and women.
Blackburn, Robert M; Browne, Jude; Brooks, Bradley; Jarman, Jennifer
Occupational gender segregation--the tendency for women and men to work in different occupations--is an important feature of all societies, and particularly the wealthy industrialized ones. To understand this segregation, and to explain its significance, we need to distinguish between vertical segregation entailing inequality and horizontal segregation representing difference without inequality, with overall segregation being the resultant of these components. Three major theoretical approaches to understanding occupational gender segregation are examined: human capital/rational choice, patriarchy, and preference theories. All are found to be inadequate; they tend to confuse overall segregation with its vertical component, and each entails a number of other faults. It is generally assumed or implied that greater empowerment of women would reduce gender segregation. This is the reverse of what actually happens; in countries where the degree of women's empowerment is greater, the level of gender segregation is also greater. An alternative theoretical approach based on processes of social reproduction is shown to be more useful.
Zalk, Sue Rosenberg; Katz, Phyllis A.
The present study investigated the gender biases of children judging the competencies and weaknesses of other children in a school setting as a function of their sex, age, and race as well as a geographical SES factor. It was found that these biases exist and diminish somewhat with age. (Author/AM)
David, Miriam E.
Discusses social justice in education, specifically gender issues. Explores how rightist governments in advanced industrialized societies have tried to implement an agenda of parental choice and standards, in contrast to earlier liberal administrations' efforts to reduce differences between families and involve mothers in children's education.…
Hyde, Janet Shibley
The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses…
Uses brief accounts by undergraduate students of their experiences with computers and word processing to investigate gender-related differences in attitudes toward computers and to explore why computers seem to reflect back to many women a learned sense of technical incompetence. Focuses on themes of power, caring, and self-esteem. (SR)
This article focuses on gender gap as a current trend in student population among schools. The author presents an honors course in statistics at Elon University--a class of 10 women and just one man--as an example. The imbalance is becoming more familiar at Elon and on many other campuses where women constitute a firm majority of undergraduates…
Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system.
IDRA Newsletter, 1996
This newsletter includes five articles on gender equity and related issues in education, with particular reference to the education of Hispanic girls. "IDRA's MIJA Program Expands" (Aurora Yanez-Perez) describes a program for sixth-grade Hispanic girls that promotes awareness of science- and math-related careers, provides training in…
Baer, John; Kaufman, James C.
Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a…
Olson, Kristina R; Key, Aidan C; Eaton, Nicholas R
A visible and growing cohort of transgender children in North America live according to their expressed gender rather than their natal sex, yet scientific research has largely ignored this population. In the current study, we adopted methodological advances from social-cognition research to investigate whether 5- to 12-year-old prepubescent transgender children (N = 32), who were presenting themselves according to their gender identity in everyday life, showed patterns of gender cognition more consistent with their expressed gender or their natal sex, or instead appeared to be confused about their gender identity. Using implicit and explicit measures, we found that transgender children showed a clear pattern: They viewed themselves in terms of their expressed gender and showed preferences for their expressed gender, with response patterns mirroring those of two cisgender (nontransgender) control groups. These results provide evidence that, early in development, transgender youth are statistically indistinguishable from cisgender children of the same gender identity.
Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige
Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.
Hansen, Nancy F
The use of next generation nucleotide sequencing to discover and genotype small sequence variants has led to numerous insights into the molecular causes of various diseases. This chapter describes the use of freely available software to align next generation sequencing reads to a reference and then to use the resulting alignments to call, annotate, view, and filter small sequence variants. The suggested variant calling workflow includes read alignment with novoalign, the removal of polymerase chain reaction duplicate sequences with samtools or bamUtils, and the detection of variants with Freebayes or bam2mpg software. ANNOVAR is then used to annotate the predicted variants using gene models, population frequencies, and predicted mutation severity, producing variant files which can be viewed and filtered with the variant display tool VarSifter.
Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn
This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…
Manning, Roger W.
A study examined the relationship among gender, moral orientation, and pay. Although the participants were about equal in terms of gender, 48 males and 53 females, males tended to hold higher degrees. The researcher hypothesized that salaries would be differentiated based on gender and moral orientation. Assumptions were that care-oriented males…
Duffy, Jim; Gunther, Georg; Walters, Lloyd
Studied the relationship between gender and mathematical problem solving in 83 male and 76 female high achieving Canadian 12-year-olds. Gender differences were found on the Canadian Test of Basic Skills but not on the GAUSS assessment. Implications for the discussion of the origin of gender differences in mathematics are discussed. (SLD)
Henderson, Emily F.
The principal questions raised in this article are: what does it mean to bring up the topic of gender in a space where it is not known, and how can this moment of bringing up gender--or not bringing it up--be conceptualised? The article departs from the thoughts and questions that were provoked by an interview conducted with a Gender Studies…
The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…
Rosenberg, Judith H.
This learning unit is designed to sensitize educators to gender differences in learning styles, to help identify specific needs and issues for women adult learners, to help educators to identify their own gender biases, and to help teachers to develop strategies for eliminating gender bias from their own classrooms. The unit is divided into three…
Cook, Ellen Piel
Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)
European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008
This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…