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Sample records for gender-specific proteomic profiling

  1. Stage- and Gender-Specific Proteomic Analysis of Brugia malayi Excretory-Secretory Products

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Yovany; Geary, Timothy G.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction While we lack a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which parasites establish and achieve protection from host immune responses, it is accepted that many of these processes are mediated by products, primarily proteins, released from the parasite. Parasitic nematodes occur in different life stages and anatomical compartments within the host. Little is known about the composition and variability of products released at different developmental stages and their contribution to parasite survival and progression of the infection. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain a deeper understanding on these aspects, we collected and analyzed through 1D-SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS the Excretory-Secretory Products (ESP) of adult female, adult male and microfilariae of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, one of the etiological agents of human lymphatic filariasis. This proteomic analysis led to the identification of 228 proteins. The list includes 76 proteins with unknown function as well as also proteins with potential immunoregulatory properties, such as protease inhibitors, cytokine homologues and carbohydrate-binding proteins. Larval and adult ESP differed in composition. Only 32 proteins were shared between all three stages/genders. Consistent with this observation, different gene ontology profiles were associated with the different ESP. Conclusions/Significance A comparative analysis of the proteins released in vitro by different forms of a parasitic nematode dwelling in the same host is presented. The catalog of secreted proteins reflects different stage- and gender-specific related processes and different strategies of immune evasion, providing valuable insights on the contribution of each form of the parasite for establishing the host–parasite interaction. PMID:18958170

  2. Proteome-wide alterations on adipose tissue from obese patients as age-, diabetes- and gender-specific hallmarks

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Serrano, María; Camafeita, Emilio; García-Santos, Eva; López, Juan A.; Rubio, Miguel A.; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio; Vázquez, Jesús; Peral, Belén

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a main global health issue and an outstanding cause of morbidity and mortality predisposing to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Huge research efforts focused on gene expression, cellular signalling and metabolism in obesity have improved our understanding of these disorders; nevertheless, to bridge the gap between the regulation of gene expression and changes in signalling/metabolism, protein levels must be assessed. We have extensively analysed visceral adipose tissue from age-, T2DM- and gender-matched obese patients using high-throughput proteomics and systems biology methods to identify new biomarkers for the onset of T2DM in obesity, as well as to gain insight into the influence of aging and gender in these disorders. About 250 proteins showed significant abundance differences in the age, T2DM and gender comparisons. In diabetic patients, remarkable gender-specific hallmarks were discovered regarding redox status, immune response and adipose tissue accumulation. Both aging and T2DM processes were associated with mitochondrial remodelling, albeit through well-differentiated proteome changes. Systems biology analysis highlighted mitochondrial proteins that could play a key role in the age-dependent pathophysiology of T2DM. Our findings could serve as a framework for future research in Translational Medicine directed at improving the quality of life of obese patients. PMID:27160966

  3. An integrated proteomic and metabolomic study on the gender-specific responses of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis to tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA).

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Li, Fei; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jianmin; Sun, Zuodeng; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-02-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), accounting for the largest production of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) along the Laizhou Bay in China, is of great concern due to its diverse toxicities. In this study, we focused on the gender-specific responses of TBBPA in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis using an integrated proteomic and metabolomic approach. After exposure of TBBPA (10 µg L(-1)) for one month, a total of 9 metabolites and 67 proteins were altered in mussel gills from exposed group. The significant changes of metabolites in female mussel gills from exposed group exhibited the disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation, while in male samples only be found the variation of metabolites related to osmotic regulation. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis showed biological differences between male and female mussel gills from solvent control group. The higher levels of proteins related to primary and energy metabolism and defense mechanisms in male mussel gills meant a greater anti-stress capability of male mussels. Further analysis revealed that TBBPA exposure affected multiple biological processes consisting of production and development, material and energy metabolism, signal transduction, gene expression, defense mechanisms and apoptosis in both male and female mussels with different mechanisms. Specially, the responsive proteins of TBBPA in male mussels signified higher tolerance limits than those in female individuals, which was consistent with the biological differences between male and female mussel gills from solvent control group. This work suggested that the gender differences should be considered in ecotoxicology.

  4. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analyses on the gender-specific responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to tetrabromobisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Wu, Huifeng; Wei, Lei; Zhao, Jianmin

    2014-12-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) accounts for the largest production of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) along the Laizhou Bay in China and is the most widely used BFR in industrial products. It can induce diverse toxicities including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and endocrine disrupting effects in mammalian and fish models. In this work, we applied iTRAQ-based proteomics to investigate the gender-specific responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to TBBPA. Thirty-one proteins were differentially expressed in hepatopancreas between male and female mussels, which clearly indicated the biological differences between male and female mussels at the protein level. After exposure of TBBPA (18.4 nmol/L) for one month, a total of 60 proteins were differentially expressed in response to the TBBPA treatment in mussel hepatopancreas, among which 33 and 29 proteins were significantly altered in TBBPA-treated male and female mussel samples, respectively. Only two of the 60 proteins were commonly altered in both male and female mussel samples exposed to TBBPA. Based on KEGG analysis, these differentially expressed proteins of TBBPA-induced effects were assigned to several groups, including cytoskeleton, reproduction and development, metabolism, signal transduction, gene expression, stress response and apoptosis. Overall, results indicated that TBBPA exposure could induce apoptosis, oxidative and immune stresses and disruption in energy, protein and lipid metabolisms in both male and female mussels with different mechanisms. This work suggested that the gender differences should be considered in ecotoxicoproteomics.

  5. Proteomic profiling of cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Shau, Hungyi; Chandler, G Scott; Whitelegge, Julian P; Gornbein, Jeffrey A; Faull, Kym F; Chang, Helena R

    2003-07-01

    Early detection and correct diagnosis are essential for effective treatment of cancer and patient survival. Complete sequencing of the human genome, and the genomes of other species, provides valuable tools for discerning the genetic abnormalities in cancer. However, differences between cancerous and normal cells reflect more than variations in genetic sequences and abundance of transcribed RNA. Many cancer biomarkers are manifestation of differences in post-transcriptional splicing and/or post-translational modifications. Thus, proteomic tools are being increasingly utilised in the post-genomic era for discovery of new cancer biomarkers. In this paper we will provide an overview of the biomarker discovery process from the proteomic profiling point of view, with emphasis given to the principles that are involved in the process, including the protein identification strategies, and how surface enhanced laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry fits into the picture. The aim is to provide a resource for the experimental practitioner seeking awareness of the analytical tools that are now available in contemporary cancer research.

  6. Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Chen, Sharon S

    2005-05-01

    Quantitative proteomics involves the identification and quantitation of protein components in various biological systems. Stable isotope labelling technology, by both metabolic and chemical methods, has been the most commonly used approach for global proteome-wide profiling. Recently, its capability has been extended from labelled pairs to multiple labels, allowing for the simultaneous quantification of multiplex samples. The ion intensity-based quantitative approach has progressively gained more popularity as mass spectrometry performance has improved significantly. Although some success has been reported, it remains difficult comprehensively to characterise the global proteome, due to its enormous complexity and dynamic range. The use of sub-proteome fractionation techniques permits a simplification of the proteome and provides a practical step towards the ultimate dissection of the entire proteome. Further development of the technology for targeting sub-proteomes on a functional basis - such as selecting proteins with differential expression profiles from mass spectrometric analyses, for further mass spectrometric sequencing in an intelligent manner--is expected in the near future.

  7. Plasma proteomic profiling of pediatric osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiting; Dang, Tu Anh; Man, Tsz-Kwong

    2012-01-01

    The development of a sensitive, specific, and non-invasive approach for cancer detection will facilitate early detection and, hence, improve the outcome of individuals with known cancer predispositions. Proteomic profiling of blood emerges to be a logical choice of such non-invasive or minimal invasive detection. However, plasma biomarker discovery of pediatric cancers lags behind that of adult cancers, suggesting more efforts are needed in this area. In this study, we used surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to profile plasma proteome in osteosarcoma patients. Osteosarcoma is a bone cancer that affects many children and young adults. We have shown that the plasma proteome contains a unique cancer signature that can distinguish patients with osteosarcoma from those with a benign bone disease. To improve cancer biomarker discovery in plasma, we have also shown that depletion of two highly abundant plasma proteins increases the detection sensitivity of lower-abundance proteins. The combination of depletion and proteomic profiling may increase the chance of identifying tumor-derived proteins within the plasma of pediatric cancer patients.

  8. Proteomic profiling of skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2011-10-01

    One of the most striking physiological features of skeletal muscle tissues are their enormous capacity to adapt to changed functional demands. Muscle plasticity has been extensively studied by histological, biochemical, physiological and genetic methods over the last few decades. With the recent emergence of high-throughput and large-scale proteomic techniques, mass spectrometry-based surveys have also been applied to the global analysis of the skeletal muscle protein complement during physiological modifications and pathophysiological alterations. This review outlines and discusses the impact of recent proteomic profiling studies of skeletal muscle transitions, including the effects of chronic electro-stimulation, physical exercise, denervation, disuse atrophy, hypoxia, myotonia, motor neuron disease and age-related fibre type shifting. This includes studies on the human skeletal muscle proteome, animal models of muscle plasticity and major neuromuscular pathologies. The biomedical importance of establishing reliable biomarker signatures for the various molecular and cellular transition phases involved in muscle transformation is critically examined.

  9. Shotgun proteome profile of Populus developing xylem

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Lankford, Patricia K; Ranjan, Priya; Pelletier, Dale A

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the molecular pathways of plant cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling is central to interpreting biological mechanisms underlying plant growth and adaptation as well as leveraging that knowledge towards development of improved bioenergy feedstocks. Here we report the application of shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling to the proteome of Populus developing xylem. Additionally, we mined public databases to obtain information in support of subcellular localization, transcript-level expression, and functional categorization of these proteins. Nearly 6000 different proteins were identified from the xylem proteome, with over 4400 proteins identified from one or more unique peptides. In addition to finding protein-level evidence of candidate wall biosynthesis genes from xylem (wood) tissue such as cellulose synthase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, several other potentially new candidate genes in the pathway were discovered. In order to identify low-abundance DNA-regulatory proteins from the developing xylem, a selective nuclear proteome profiling method was developed. Several putative transcription factor and chromatin remodeling proteins were identified using this method, such as LIM and NAC domain transcription factors and CHB3-SWI/SNF-related proteins. Further application of these proteomics methods will enhance understanding not only of cell wall biosynthesis in system biology modeling, but also other plant developmental and physiological pathways.

  10. Shotgun proteome profile of Populus developing xylem.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, Udaya C; Hurst, Gregory B; Lankford, Patricia K; Ranjan, Priya; Pelletier, Dale A

    2009-11-01

    Understanding the molecular pathways of plant cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling is central to interpreting biological mechanisms underlying plant growth and adaptation as well as leveraging that knowledge towards development of improved bioenergy feedstocks. Here, we report the application of shotgun MS/MS profiling to the proteome of Populus developing xylem. Nearly 6000 different proteins were identified from the xylem proteome. To identify low-abundance DNA-regulatory proteins from the developing xylem, a selective nuclear proteome profiling method was developed. Several putative transcription factors and chromatin remodeling proteins were identified using this method, such as NAC domain, CtCP-like and CHB3-SWI/SNF-related proteins. Public databases were mined to obtain information in support of subcellular localization, transcript-level expression and functional categorization of identified proteins. In addition to finding protein-level evidence of candidate cell wall biosynthesis genes from xylem (wood) tissue such as cellulose synthase, sucrose synthase and polygalacturonase, several other potentially new candidate genes in the cell wall biosynthesis pathway were discovered. Further application of such proteomics methods will aid in plant systems biology modeling efforts by enhancing the understanding not only of cell wall biosynthesis but also of other plant developmental and physiological pathways.

  11. Proteomic profiling of hempseed proteins from Cheungsam.

    PubMed

    Park, Seul-Ki; Seo, Jong-Bok; Lee, Mi-Young

    2012-02-01

    Proteomic profiling of hempseed proteins from a non-drug type of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), Cheungsam, was conducted using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A total of 1102 protein spots were resolved on pH 3-10 immobilized pH gradient strips, and 168 unique protein spots were identified. The proteins were categorized based on function, including involvement in energy regulation (23%), metabolism (18%), stress response (16%), unclassified (12%), cytoskeleton (11%), binding function (5%), and protein synthesis (3%). These proteins might have important biological functions in hempseed, such as germination, storage, or development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Distinctive proteomic profiles among different regions of human carotid plaques in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenzhao; Ward, Liam J.; Karlsson, Helen; Ljunggren, Stefan A.; Li, Wei; Lindahl, Mats; Yuan, Xi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity of atherosclerotic tissue has limited comprehension in proteomic and metabolomic analyses. To elucidate the functional implications, and differences between genders, of atherosclerotic lesion formation we investigated protein profiles from different regions of human carotid atherosclerotic arteries; internal control, fatty streak, plaque shoulder, plaque centre, and fibrous cap. Proteomic analysis was performed using 2-DE with MALDI-TOF, with validation using nLC-MS/MS. Protein mapping of 2-DE identified 52 unique proteins, including 15 previously unmapped proteins, of which 41 proteins were confirmed by nLC-MS/MS analysis. Expression levels of 18 proteins were significantly altered in plaque regions compared to the internal control region. Nine proteins showed site-specific alterations, irrespective of gender, with clear associations to extracellular matrix remodelling. Five proteins display gender-specific alterations with 2-DE, with two alterations validated by nLC-MS/MS. Gender differences in ferritin light chain and transthyretin were validated using both techniques. Validation of immunohistochemistry confirmed significantly higher levels of ferritin in plaques from male patients. Proteomic analysis of different plaque regions has reduced the effects of plaque heterogeneity, and significant differences in protein expression are determined in specific regions and between genders. These proteomes have functional implications in plaque progression and are of importance in understanding gender differences in atherosclerosis. PMID:27198765

  13. Proteomic profiling of lymphocytes in autoimmunity, inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiebai; Zhu, Zhitu; Bai, Chunxue; Sun, Hongzhi; Wang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-07

    Lymphocytes play important roles in the balance between body defense and noxious agents involved in a number of diseases, e.g. autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer. The proteomic analyses have been applied to identify and validate disease-associated and disease-specific biomarkers for therapeutic strategies of diseases. The proteomic profiles of lymphocytes may provide more information to understand their functions and roles in the development of diseases, although proteomic approaches in lymphocytes are still limited. The present review overviewed the proteomics-based studies on lymphocytes to headlight the proteomic profiles of lymphocytes in diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer, with a special focus on lung diseases. We will explore the potential significance of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets from the current status in proteomic studies of lymphocytes and discuss the value of the currently available proteomic methodologies in the lymphocytes research.

  14. Proteomic profiling of lymphocytes in autoimmunity, inflammation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocytes play important roles in the balance between body defense and noxious agents involved in a number of diseases, e.g. autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer. The proteomic analyses have been applied to identify and validate disease-associated and disease-specific biomarkers for therapeutic strategies of diseases. The proteomic profiles of lymphocytes may provide more information to understand their functions and roles in the development of diseases, although proteomic approaches in lymphocytes are still limited. The present review overviewed the proteomics-based studies on lymphocytes to headlight the proteomic profiles of lymphocytes in diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer, with a special focus on lung diseases. We will explore the potential significance of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets from the current status in proteomic studies of lymphocytes and discuss the value of the currently available proteomic methodologies in the lymphocytes research. PMID:24397796

  15. Proteomic profiling of Pachyonychia congenita plantar callus.

    PubMed

    Rice, Robert H; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Salemi, Michelle; Schwartz, Mary E; Rocke, David M; Phinney, Brett S

    2017-08-08

    Callus samples from the ball and the arch of the foot, collected on tape circles, were compared by shotgun proteomic profiling. Pachyonychia congenita subjects were sampled who exhibited a mutation in KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT6C, KRT16 or KRT17, and the proteins were digested and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. In comparison with samples from unaffected control subjects, those from subjects with KRT6A or KRT16 mutations displayed the most differences in profile from normal, while those from subjects with KRT6C or KRT17 mutations showed few differences from normal. The profiles from subjects with KRT6B mutations were intermediate in protein profile differences. Degree of departure from the normal profile could be estimated by expression of numerous proteins in callus from the ball of the foot that were consistently different. By contrast, the protein profile from the arch of the foot was hardly affected. The results provide a foundation for noninvasive monitoring of the efficacy of treatments with quantitative assessment of departure from the normal phenotype. Pachyonychia congenita is an orphan disease in which the connection between the basic defect (keratin mutation) and debilitating symptoms (severe plantar pain) is poorly understood. Present work addresses the degree to which the protein profile is altered in the epidermis where the severe pain originates. The results indicate that the mutated keratins differ greatly in the degree to which they elicit perturbations in protein profile. In those cases with markedly altered protein levels, monitoring the callus profile may provide an objective measure of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteomic profiling of the rat hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The hypothalamus plays a pivotal role in numerous mechanisms highly relevant to the maintenance of body homeostasis, such as the control of food intake and energy expenditure. Impairment of these mechanisms has been associated with the metabolic disturbances involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Since rodent species constitute important models for metabolism studies and the rat hypothalamus is poorly characterized by proteomic strategies, we performed experiments aimed at constructing a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) profile of rat hypothalamus proteins. Results As a first step, we established the best conditions for tissue collection and protein extraction, quantification and separation. The extraction buffer composition selected for proteome characterization of rat hypothalamus was urea 7 M, thiourea 2 M, CHAPS 4%, Triton X-100 0.5%, followed by a precipitation step with chloroform/methanol. Two-dimensional (2-D) gels of hypothalamic extracts from four-month-old rats were analyzed; the protein spots were digested and identified by using tandem mass spectrometry and database query using the protein search engine MASCOT. Eighty-six hypothalamic proteins were identified, the majority of which were classified as participating in metabolic processes, consistent with the finding of a large number of proteins with catalytic activity. Genes encoding proteins identified in this study have been related to obesity development. Conclusion The present results indicate that the 2-DE technique will be useful for nutritional studies focusing on hypothalamic proteins. The data presented herein will serve as a reference database for studies testing the effects of dietary manipulations on hypothalamic proteome. We trust that these experiments will lead to important knowledge on protein targets of nutritional variables potentially able to affect the complex central nervous system control of energy homeostasis. PMID:22519962

  17. Proteomic profile of edible bird's nest proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Lai, Xintian; Zhang, Shiwei; Huang, Xiuli; Lan, Quanxue; Li, Yun; Li, Bifang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Qinlei; Hong, Dezhi; Yang, Guowu

    2012-12-26

    Edible bird's nest (EBN) is made of the swiftlets' saliva, which has attracted rather more attention owing to its nutritious and medical properties. Although protein constitutes the main composition and plays an important role in EBN, few studies have focused on the proteomic profile of EBN. The purpose of this study was to produce a proteomic map and clarify common EBN proteins. Liquid-phase isoelectric focusing (LIEF) was combined with two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) for comprehensive analysis of EBN proteins. From 20 to 100 protein spots were detected on 2-DE maps of EBN samples from 15 different sources. The proteins were mainly distributed in four taxa (A, B, C, and D) according to their molecular mass. Taxa A and D both contained common proteins and proteins that may be considered another characteristic of EBN. Taxon A was identified using MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS and found to be homologous to acidic mammalian chitinase-like ( Meleagris gallopavo ), which is in glycosyl hydrolase family 18.

  18. Gender-specific profiles of adverse childhood experiences, past year mental and substance use disorders, and their associations among a national sample of adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Petras, Hanno; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-08-01

    This study examined profiles of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and mental and substance use disorders (MSUDs), and associations between distinct profiles of ACEs and MSUDs. Participants were adults (N = 34, 652) involved in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Latent class analysis was used to examine both profiles of ten ACEs and ten past year MSUDs. Dual latent class analysis regression was used to examine associations between profiles of ACEs and MSUDs. Given gender differences in ACEs and MSUDs, analyses were conducted separately for females and males. Four profiles of ACEs and three profiles of MSUDs were selected for both genders. The four profiles of ACEs were characterized by the following probabilities: high multiple ACEs, high parental substance abuse, high childhood physical abuse, and low ACEs. The three profiles of MSUDs were characterized by the following probabilities: high multiple MSUDs for females and low MSUDs except alcohol use disorders for males, moderate-to-high major depressive episode, and low MSUDs. When compared to the low ACEs and MSUDs profiles, members in the higher ACEs profiles had 3.71-89.75 times greater odds of also being members in the higher MSUDs profiles. However, more than one-third of members in the high multiple ACEs profiles were also in the low MSUDs profiles. Study findings suggest four profiles of the ACEs widely studied as part of the Adverse Childhood Experiences study and risk and resilience for recent MSUDs among men and women nationally affected by ACEs.

  19. Proteomic profiling predicts drug response to novel targeted anticancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fan; Li, Zilin; Hua, Yunfen; Lim, Yoon Pin

    2016-01-01

    Most recently approved anti-cancer drugs by the US FDA are targeted therapeutic agents and this represents an important trend for future anticancer therapy. Unlike conventional chemotherapy that rarely considers individual differences, it is crucial for targeted therapies to identify the beneficial subgroup of patients for the treatment. Currently, genomics and transcriptomics are the major 'omic' analytics used in studies of drug response prediction. However, proteomic profiling excels both in its advantages of directly detecting an instantaneous dynamic of the whole proteome, which contains most current diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Moreover, proteomic profiling improves understanding of the mechanism for drug resistance and helps finding optimal combination therapy. This article reviews the recent success of applications of proteomic analytics in predicting the response to targeted anticancer therapeutics, and discusses the potential avenues and pitfalls of proteomic platforms and techniques used most in the field.

  20. Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Till; Kaserer, Klaus; Chung, Joon-Yong; Bilke, Sven; Krizman, David; Knezevic, Vladimir; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2007-03-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm with multiple histologic subtypes, each associated with different treatments and outcomes. Differentiating benign neoplasms such as follicular adenomas from malignant entities such as follicular carcinomas and papillary carcinoma can be challenging. To define the proteomic profile of different thyroid tumors, we screened an antibody array of 330 features against five thyroid neoplasms: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma as well as normal thyroid epithelium. Eight candidate biomarkers; c-erbB-2, Stat5a, Annexin IV, IL-11, RARα, FGF7, Caspase 9, and phospho-c-myc were identified as differentially expressed on the antibody array, and validated with immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, with a total of 144 samples of the same variety of thyroid neoplasms. Analysis revealed c-erbB-2, Annexin IV, and Stat5a have potential clinical utility to differentiate follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma from each other. By using an antibody array as a discovery platform and a tissue microarray as a first step in validation on a large number of specimens, we have identified new markers that have potential utility in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms. Copyright © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Proteomic profiling of the epileptic dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aiqing; Choi, Yun-Sik; Dziema, Heather; Cao, Ruifeng; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Jung, Yeon Joo; Obrietan, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The development of epilepsy is often associated with marked changes in central nervous system cell structure and function. Along these lines, reactive gliosis and granule cell axonal sprouting within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are commonly observed in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy. Here we used the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice to screen the proteome and phosphoproteome of the dentate gyrus to identify molecular events that are altered as part of the pathogenic process. Using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based approach, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, 24 differentially expressed proteins, including 9 phosphoproteins, were identified. Functionally, these proteins were organized into several classes, including synaptic physiology, cell structure, cell stress, metabolism and energetics. The altered expression of three proteins involved in synaptic physiology, actin, profilin 1 and α-synuclein, was validated by secondary methods. Interestingly, marked changes in protein expression were detected in the supragranular cell region, an area where robust mossy fibers sprouting occurs. Together, these data provide new molecular insights into the altered protein profile of the epileptogenic dentate gyrus and point to potential pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis. PMID:20608933

  2. Early life lead exposure causes gender-specific changes in the DNA methylation profile of DNA extracted from dried blood spots

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Arko; Heredia, Nicole; Senut, Marie-Claude; Hess, Matthew; Land, Susan; Qu, Wen; Hollacher, Kurt; Dereski, Mary O; Ruden, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Aims In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that early life lead (Pb) exposure associated DNA methylation (5mC) changes are dependent on the sex of the child and can serve as biomarkers for Pb exposure. Methods In this pilot study, we measured the 5mC profiles of DNA extracted from dried blood spots (DBS) in a cohort of 43 children (25 males and 18 females; ages from 3 months to 5 years) from Detroit. Result & Discussion We found that the effect of Pb-exposure on the 5-mC profiles can be separated into three subtypes: affected methylation loci which are conserved irrespective of the sex of the child (conserved); affected methylation loci unique to males (male-specific); and affected methylation loci unique to females (female-specific). PMID:26077427

  3. Derivative component analysis for mass spectral serum proteomic profiles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As a promising way to transform medicine, mass spectrometry based proteomics technologies have seen a great progress in identifying disease biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and prognosis. However, there is a lack of effective feature selection methods that are able to capture essential data behaviors to achieve clinical level disease diagnosis. Moreover, it faces a challenge from data reproducibility, which means that no two independent studies have been found to produce same proteomic patterns. Such reproducibility issue causes the identified biomarker patterns to lose repeatability and prevents it from real clinical usage. Methods In this work, we propose a novel machine-learning algorithm: derivative component analysis (DCA) for high-dimensional mass spectral proteomic profiles. As an implicit feature selection algorithm, derivative component analysis examines input proteomics data in a multi-resolution approach by seeking its derivatives to capture latent data characteristics and conduct de-noising. We further demonstrate DCA's advantages in disease diagnosis by viewing input proteomics data as a profile biomarker via integrating it with support vector machines to tackle the reproducibility issue, besides comparing it with state-of-the-art peers. Results Our results show that high-dimensional proteomics data are actually linearly separable under proposed derivative component analysis (DCA). As a novel multi-resolution feature selection algorithm, DCA not only overcomes the weakness of the traditional methods in subtle data behavior discovery, but also suggests an effective resolution to overcoming proteomics data's reproducibility problem and provides new techniques and insights in translational bioinformatics and machine learning. The DCA-based profile biomarker diagnosis makes clinical level diagnostic performances reproducible across different proteomic data, which is more robust and systematic than the existing biomarker discovery based

  4. Temporal profiles of plasma proteome during childhood development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Wei; Bramer, Lisa; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Waugh, Kathleen; Rewers, Marian J; Zhang, Qibin

    2017-01-30

    Human blood plasma proteome reflects physiological changes associated with a child's development as well as development of disease states. While age-specific normative values are available for proteins routinely measured in clinical practice, there is paucity of comprehensive longitudinal data regarding changes in human plasma proteome during childhood. We applied TMT-10plex isobaric labeling-based quantitative proteomics to longitudinally profile the plasma proteome in 10 healthy children during their development, each with 9 serial time points from 9months to 15years of age. In total, 1828 protein groups were identified at peptide and protein level false discovery rate of 1% and with at least two razor and unique peptides. The longitudinal expression profiles of 1747 protein groups were statistically modeled and their temporal changes were categorized into 7 different patterns. The patterns and relative abundance of proteins obtained by LC-MS were also verified with ELISA. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive longitudinal profiling of human plasma proteome to date. The temporal profiles of plasma proteome obtained in this study provide a comprehensive resource and reference for biomarker studies in childhood diseases. Biological significance: A pediatric plasma proteome database with longitudinal expression patterns of 1747 proteins from neonate to adolescence was provided to the research community. 970 plasma proteins had age-dependent expression trends, which demonstrated the importance of longitudinal profiling study to identify the potential biomarkers specific to childhood diseases, and the requirement of strictly age-matched clinical samples in a cross-sectional study in pediatric population.

  5. Proteomic profile of dormant Trichophyton Rubrum conidia

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Wenchuan; Liu, Tao; Li, Rui; Yang, Jian; Wei, Candong; Zhang, Wenliang; Jin, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Background Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte causing fungal skin infections in humans. Asexual sporulation is an important means of propagation for T. rubrum, and conidia produced by this way are thought to be the primary cause of human infections. Despite their importance in pathogenesis, the conidia of T. rubrum remain understudied. We intend to intensively investigate the proteome of dormant T. rubrum conidia to characterize its molecular and cellular features and to enhance the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Results The proteome of T. rubrum conidia was analyzed by combining shotgun proteomics with sample prefractionation and multiple enzyme digestion. In total, 1026 proteins were identified. All identified proteins were compared to those in the NCBI non-redundant protein database, the eukaryotic orthologous groups database, and the gene ontology database to obtain functional annotation information. Functional classification revealed that the identified proteins covered nearly all major biological processes. Some proteins were spore specific and related to the survival and dispersal of T. rubrum conidia, and many proteins were important to conidial germination and response to environmental conditions. Conclusion Our results suggest that the proteome of T. rubrum conidia is considerably complex, and that the maintenance of conidial dormancy is an intricate and elaborate process. This data set provides the first global framework for the dormant T. rubrum conidia proteome and is a stepping stone on the way to further study of the molecular mechanisms of T. rubrum conidial germination and the maintenance of conidial dormancy. PMID:18578874

  6. Comparative profiling of the sperm proteome.

    PubMed

    Holland, Ashling; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2015-02-01

    The highly complex and species-selective mechanism of fertilization is a central theme of developmental biology. Gametogenesis, sperm activation, and egg-sperm recognition are fundamental biological processes, warranting detailed studies into the molecular composition of gametes. Biological MS has been instrumental for the comprehensive itemizing of gamete proteomes. The protein constellation of sperm cells and its subcellular structures has been established for a variety of animal species. Spermatogenesis and the crucial activation of sperm cells as a prerequisite of successful fertilization and physiological adaptations to external stressors was investigated using proteomics, as well as the underlying mechanisms of male infertility with respect to proteome-wide alterations. This review outlines recent achievements of sperm proteomics and exemplifies the usefulness of gel-based surveys by outlining the comparative analysis of abnormal spermatozoa in globozoospermia. Besides label-free MS techniques and cell-based labeling methodology, high-resolution fluorescence 2DE has been shown to be highly suitable as a proteomic biomarker discovery tool in sperm protein research. The appropriateness of novel protein markers for improving our understanding of normal spermatogenesis and sperm activation versus the molecular pathogenesis of male infertility will be discussed. New biomarker candidates might be useful to improve diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects of infertility.

  7. Proteomic Profiling of Rat Thyroarytenoid Muscle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welham, Nathan V.; Marriott, Gerard; Bless, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Proteomic methodologies offer promise in elucidating the systemwide cellular and molecular processes that characterize normal and diseased thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. This study examined methodological issues central to the application of 2-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE) to the study of…

  8. Proteomic Profiling of Rat Thyroarytenoid Muscle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welham, Nathan V.; Marriott, Gerard; Bless, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Proteomic methodologies offer promise in elucidating the systemwide cellular and molecular processes that characterize normal and diseased thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. This study examined methodological issues central to the application of 2-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE) to the study of…

  9. Gender specific profiles of white coat and masked hypertension impacts on arterial structure and function in the SardiNIA study

    PubMed Central

    Scuteri, Angelo; Morrell, Christopher H.; Orru’, Marco; AlGhatrif, Majid; Saba, Pier Sergio; Terracciano, Antonio; Pina Ferreli, Liana Anna; Loi, Francesco; Marongiu, Michele; Pilia, Maria Grazia; Delitala, Alessandro; Tarasov, Kirill V.; Schlessinger, David; Ganau, Antonello; Cucca, Francesco; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no definite consensus on the CV burden associated to Masked hypertension (MH) or White Coat Hypertension (WCH) — conditions that can be detected by out-of-office blood pressure measurements (24 hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring, 24 h ABPM). Methods We investigated the association of WCH and MH with arterial aging, indexed by a range of parameters of large artery structure and function in 2962 subjects, taking no antihypertensive medications, who are participating in a large community-based population of both men and women over a broad age range (14–102 years). Results The overall prevalence of WCH was 9.5% and was 5.0% for MH, with 54.9% of subjects classified as true normotensive and 30.6% as true hypertensive. Both WCH and MH were associated with a stiffer aorta, a less distensible and thicker common carotid artery, and greater central BP than true normotensive subjects. Notably, the profile of arterial alterations in WCH and MH did not significantly differ from what was observed in true hypertensive subjects. The arterial changes accompanying WCH and MH differed in men and women, with women showing a greater tendency towards concentric remodeling, greater parietal wall stress, and PWV than men. Conclusion Both WCH, and MH are associated with early arterial aging, and therefore, neither can be regarded as innocent conditions. Future studies are required to establish whether measurement of arterial aging parameters in subjects with WCH or MH will identify subjects at higher risk of CV events and cognitive impairment, who may require more clinical attention and pharmacological intervention. PMID:27179214

  10. Proteomic profiling in schizophrenia: enabling stratification for more effective treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder characterized by an array of clinical manifestations. Although the best known manifestations include serious effects on mood and behavior, patients can also display co-morbidities, including immune system or metabolic abnormalities. Thorough characterization of these conditions using proteomic profiling methods has increased our knowledge of these molecular differences and has helped to unravel the complexity and heterogeneity of this debilitating condition. This could lead to patient stratification through characterization of biochemically different subtypes of the disease. In addition, proteomic methods have recently been used for molecular characterization of the mechanism of action of antipsychotic medications in both preclinical models and patients. This has resulted in identification of molecular panels that show some promise for prediction of response or for monitoring treatment outcome. This review describes how proteomic profiling methods can impact the future of schizophrenia diagnosis and therapeutics, and facilitate personalized medicine approaches for more effective treatment management of schizophrenia patients. PMID:23531373

  11. The proteomic profile of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Flagler, M J; Jones, L; Rufaut, N; Davis, M G

    2012-06-01

    Monilethrix is a congenital hair shaft disorder with associated fragility. Many of the changes seen in monilethrix hair on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are also seen in hair weathering and cosmetic damage to hair. We used monilethrix as a model to investigate the relationship between hair protein structure and hair strength and resistance to cosmetic insult. We applied proteomic techniques to identify novel peptide damage markers for chemical oxidative damage to hair. The findings suggest that specific sites in the protein structure of hair are targeted during oxidative damage from bleaching, a unique insight into how chemical damage compromises the structural integrity of the hair shaft at the molecular level. Applying proteomics to the study of congenital and acquired hair shaft disorders can deliver new insights into hair damage and novel strategies to strengthen hair. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. In-Depth Profiling of the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Proteome for Clinical Blood Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Končarević, Saša; Lößner, Christopher; Pike, Ian; Zucht, Hans-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are an easy accessible cellular part of the blood organ and, along with platelets, represent the only site of active gene expression in blood. These cells undergo immunophenotypic changes in various diseases and represent a peripheral source of monitoring gene expression and posttranslational modifications relevant to many diseases. Little is known about the source of many blood proteins and we hypothesise that release from PBMCs through active and passive mechanisms may account for a substantial part of the plasma proteome. The use of state-of-the-art proteomic profiling methods in PBMCs will enable minimally invasive monitoring of disease progression or response to treatment and discovery of biomarkers. To achieve this goal, detailed mapping of the PBMC proteome using a sensitive, robust, and quantitative methodological setup is required. We have applied an indepth gel-free proteomics approach using tandem mass tags (TMT), unfractionated and SCX fractionated PBMC samples, and LC-MS/MS with various modulations. This study represents a benchmark in deciphering the PBMC proteome as we provide a deep insight by identifying 4129 proteins and 25503 peptides. The identified proteome defines the scope that enables PBMCs to be characterised as cellular major biomarker pool within the blood organ. PMID:24724028

  13. In-depth profiling of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells proteome for clinical blood proteomics.

    PubMed

    Končarević, Saša; Lößner, Christopher; Kuhn, Karsten; Prinz, Thorsten; Pike, Ian; Zucht, Hans-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are an easy accessible cellular part of the blood organ and, along with platelets, represent the only site of active gene expression in blood. These cells undergo immunophenotypic changes in various diseases and represent a peripheral source of monitoring gene expression and posttranslational modifications relevant to many diseases. Little is known about the source of many blood proteins and we hypothesise that release from PBMCs through active and passive mechanisms may account for a substantial part of the plasma proteome. The use of state-of-the-art proteomic profiling methods in PBMCs will enable minimally invasive monitoring of disease progression or response to treatment and discovery of biomarkers. To achieve this goal, detailed mapping of the PBMC proteome using a sensitive, robust, and quantitative methodological setup is required. We have applied an indepth gel-free proteomics approach using tandem mass tags (TMT), unfractionated and SCX fractionated PBMC samples, and LC-MS/MS with various modulations. This study represents a benchmark in deciphering the PBMC proteome as we provide a deep insight by identifying 4129 proteins and 25503 peptides. The identified proteome defines the scope that enables PBMCs to be characterised as cellular major biomarker pool within the blood organ.

  14. Proteomic profiling of human plasma for cancer biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhao; Ma, Linguang; Huang, Canhua; Li, Qifu; Nice, Edouard C

    2017-03-01

    Over the past decades, substantial advances have been made in both the early diagnosis and accurate prognosis of many cancers because of the impressive development of novel proteomic strategies. However, it remains difficult to standardize proteomic approaches. In addition, the heterogeneity of proteins in distinct tissues results in incomplete population of the whole proteome, which inevitably limits its clinical practice. As one of the most complex proteomes in the human body, the plasma proteome contains secreted proteins originating from multiple organs and tissues, making it a favorable matrix for comprehensive biomarker discovery. Here, we will discuss the roles of plasma proteome profiling in cancer biomarker discovery and validation, and highlight both the inherent advantages and disadvantages. Although several hurdles lay ahead, further advances in this technology will greatly increase our understanding of cancer biology, reveal new biomarkers and biomarker panels, and open a new avenue for more efficient early diagnosis and surveillance of cancer, leading toward personalized medicine. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Proteomic profile of Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Cotinguiba, F; López, S N; Budzinski, I G F; Labate, C A; Kato, M J; Furlan, M

    2017-07-10

    Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae) is a species that accumulates especially amides as secondary metabolites and several biological activities was previously reported. In this article, we report a proteomic study of P. tuberculatum. Bidimensional electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF) were used in this study. Over a hundred spots and various peptides were identified in this species and the putative functions of these peptides related to defense mechanism as biotic and abiotic stress were assigned. The information presented extend the range of molecular information of P. tuberculatum.

  16. Proteomic profiling of Tectona grandis L. leaf.

    PubMed

    Quiala, Elisa; Cañal, María Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto; Yagüe, Norma; Chávez, Maité; Barbón, Raúl; Valledor, Luis

    2012-04-01

    Tectona grandis L. (teak) is one of the premier hardwood timbers in the world, ranking at present in the top five tropical hardwood species in terms of worldwide plantation area. Characterization of the proteins present in teak leaves will provide a basis for the development of new tools aimed at assisting tree selection, the monitoring of plant propagation, and the certification of clonal and phenotypic identities. In this paper, we describe the extraction, separation, and identification of leaf proteins from T. grandis using a TCA/acetone protocol, 2DE, and MALDI-TOF. After TCA/acetone protein extraction of leaves, 998 well-resolved spots were detected in Coomassie-stained gels within the 10-114 kDa relative molecular mass (Mr) range at a pH ranging from 3 to 11. A total of 120 spots were digested and subjected to MS. Of these, 100 nonredundant protein species were successfully identified. Functional classification of the identified proteins revealed that proteins involved in photosynthesis, protein translation, and energy production were the most abundant. This work is the first high-throughput attempt to study the T. grandis leaf proteome and represents a stepping stone for further differential expression proteomic studies related to growth, development, biomass production, and culture-associated physiological responses. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The proteome of sickle cell disease: insights from exploratory proteomic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Yuditskaya, Susan; Suffredini, Anthony F; J Kato, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The expanding realm of exploratory proteomics has added a unique dimension to the study of the complex pathophysiology involved in sickle cell disease. A review of proteomic studies published on sickle cell erythrocytes and plasma shows trends of upregulation of antioxidant proteins, an increase in cytoskeletal defects, an increase in protein repair and turnover components, a decrease in lipid raft proteins and apolipoprotein dysregulation. Many of these findings are consistent with the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease, including high oxidant burden, resulting in damage to cytoskeletal and other proteins, and erythrocyte rigidity. More unexpected findings, such as a decrease in lipid raft components and apolipoprotein dysregulation, offer previously unexplored targets for future investigation and potential therapeutic intervention. Exploratory proteomic profiling is a valuable source of hypothesis generation for the cellular and molecular pathophysiology of sickle cell disease. PMID:21142886

  18. Leaf proteome profiling of transgenic mint infected with Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ragini; Bhattacharyya, Dipto; Majumdar, Aparupa Bose; Datta, Riddhi; Hazra, Saptarshi; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2013-11-20

    The genus Mentha has been widely used in food, flavor, culinary, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Substantial damage to this crop happened regularly due to environmental stresses like metal toxicity and pathogen attack. Here, an approach has been taken to raise transgenic mint over-expressing γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (γ-ECS), the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH biosynthesis, resulted enhanced GSH content and its in planta expression confers significant tolerance towards abiotic/biotic stresses viz. metal toxicity - Cd, Zn as well as against infection of Alternaria alternata and Rhizoctonia solani. A differential proteomic analysis through 2-DE and MALDI TOF-TOF MSMS was performed to focus on the altered abundance of functionally important protein species in control and infected transgenic mint. Results showed a significant variation in the protein profile of the infected transgenic plant as compared to the wild/control transgenic counterpart. In addition to protein species related to stress and defense, redox regulation, transcription factors and energy & metabolism, protein species related to signaling and gene regulation as well as cell division also showed differential accumulation in infected transgenic. Hence, proteomics can be used as a tool to decipher the mechanism of action of GSH in providing tolerance against a necrotrophic fungus, A. alternata in transgenic mint. The reported work describes a comparative proteomics of non-model unsequenced plants like Mentha. There is a comparative protein profile between transgenic and its wild counterparts under control and infected condition. The work has an impact in crop proteomics and also tries to explain the application of proteomic approach to decipher the mechanism by which a foreign metabolite mediates stress tolerance in plant under control and infected condition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Proteome Profiling of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesion

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Santos, Claire; Attarha, Sanaz; Saini, Ravi Kanth; Boaventura, Viviane; Costa, Jackson; Khouri, Ricardo; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia Ida; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used proteomics and biological network analysis to evaluate the potential biological processes and components present in the identified proteins of biopsies from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis in comparison with normal skin. We identified 59 proteins differently expressed in samples from infected and normal skin. Biological network analysis employing identified proteins showed the presence of networks that may be involved in the cell death mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. After immunohistochemical analyses, the expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and granzyme B was validated in the tissue and positively correlated with the lesion size in CL patients. In conclusion, this work identified differentially expressed proteins in the inflammatory site of CL, revealed enhanced expression of caspase-9, and highlighted mechanisms associated with the progression of tissue damage observed in lesions. PMID:25207817

  20. Proteome Profiling Outperforms Transcriptome Profiling for Coexpression Based Gene Function Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Zihao; Carr, Steven A.; Mertins, Philipp; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Chan, Daniel W.; Ellis, Matthew J. C.; Townsend, R. Reid; Smith, Richard D.; McDermott, Jason E.; Chen, Xian; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Boja, Emily S.; Mesri, Mehdi; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Zhang, Bing

    2016-11-11

    Coexpression of mRNAs under multiple conditions is commonly used to infer cofunctionality of their gene products despite well-known limitations of this “guilt-by-association” (GBA) approach. Recent advancements in mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies have enabled global expression profiling at the protein level; however, whether proteome profiling data can outperform transcriptome profiling data for coexpression based gene function prediction has not been systematically investigated. Here, we address this question by constructing and analyzing mRNA and protein coexpression networks for three cancer types with matched mRNA and protein profiling data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC). Our analyses revealed a marked difference in wiring between the mRNA and protein coexpression networks. Whereas protein coexpression was driven primarily by functional similarity between coexpressed genes, mRNA coexpression was driven by both cofunction and chromosomal colocalization of the genes. Functionally coherent mRNA modules were more likely to have their edges preserved in corresponding protein networks than functionally incoherent mRNA modules. Proteomic data strengthened the link between gene expression and function for at least 75% of Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and 90% of KEGG pathways. A web application Gene2Net (http://cptac.gene2net.org) developed based on the three protein coexpression networks revealed novel gene-function relationships, such as linking ERBB2 (HER2) to lipid biosynthetic process in breast cancer, identifying PLG as a new gene involved in complement activation, and identifying AEBP1 as a new epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker. Our results demonstrate that proteome profiling outperforms transcriptome profiling for coexpression based gene function prediction. Proteomics should be integrated if not preferred in gene function and human disease studies

  1. High-resolution proteomic profiling of spider venom: expanding the toxin diversity of Phoneutria nigriventer venom.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Tarcísio; Troncone, Lanfranco Ranieri Paolo; Yamashiro, Edson T; Serrano, Solange M T; Zelanis, André

    2016-03-01

    Here we present a proteomic characterization of Phoneutria nigriventer venom. A shotgun proteomic approach allowed the identification, for the first time, of O-glycosyl hydrolases (chitinases) in P. nigriventer venom. The electrophoretic profiles under nonreducing and reducing conditions, and protein identification by mass spectrometry, indicated the presence of oligomeric toxin structures in the venom. Complementary proteomic approaches allowed for a qualitative and semi-quantitative profiling of P. nigriventer venom complexity, expanding its known venom proteome diversity.

  2. High throughput profile-profile based fold recognition for the entire human proteome.

    PubMed

    McGuffin, Liam J; Smith, Richard T; Bryson, Kevin; Sørensen, Søren-Aksel; Jones, David T

    2006-06-07

    In order to maintain the most comprehensive structural annotation databases we must carry out regular updates for each proteome using the latest profile-profile fold recognition methods. The ability to carry out these updates on demand is necessary to keep pace with the regular updates of sequence and structure databases. Providing the highest quality structural models requires the most intensive profile-profile fold recognition methods running with the very latest available sequence databases and fold libraries. However, running these methods on such a regular basis for every sequenced proteome requires large amounts of processing power. In this paper we describe and benchmark the JYDE (Job Yield Distribution Environment) system, which is a meta-scheduler designed to work above cluster schedulers, such as Sun Grid Engine (SGE) or Condor. We demonstrate the ability of JYDE to distribute the load of genomic-scale fold recognition across multiple independent Grid domains. We use the most recent profile-profile version of our mGenTHREADER software in order to annotate the latest version of the Human proteome against the latest sequence and structure databases in as short a time as possible. We show that our JYDE system is able to scale to large numbers of intensive fold recognition jobs running across several independent computer clusters. Using our JYDE system we have been able to annotate 99.9% of the protein sequences within the Human proteome in less than 24 hours, by harnessing over 500 CPUs from 3 independent Grid domains. This study clearly demonstrates the feasibility of carrying out on demand high quality structural annotations for the proteomes of major eukaryotic organisms. Specifically, we have shown that it is now possible to provide complete regular updates of profile-profile based fold recognition models for entire eukaryotic proteomes, through the use of Grid middleware such as JYDE.

  3. Fertility-related proteomic profiling bull spermatozoa separated by percoll.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo-Jin; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Oh, Shin-Ae; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2012-08-03

    Infertility or subfertility of bovine spermatozoa may lead to disintegration of the breeding system and large economic losses. Recently, proteomics have identified candidates for the sperm fertility biomarkers, but no definite studies have clearly identified the relationship between the proteome and sperm fertility after proteomic study. Therefore, to determine the clinical value of the protein markers identified by proteomic study, we first compared the protein expression profiles of spermatozoa from high and low fertility bulls using 2-dimensional electrophoresis. We then investigated the relationship between protein expression and the fertility of individual bulls as assessed by Western blot analysis. Five proteins, enolase 1 (ENO1), ATP synthase H+ transporting mitochondrial F1 complex beta subunit, apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxide, were more highly represented in high fertility bulls, whereas three proteins, voltage dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2), ropporin-1, and ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase complex core protein 2 (UQCRC2), were more highly represented in low fertility bulls. Among those proteins, ENO1, VDAC2, and UQCRC2 were significantly correlated with individual fertility. Therefore, these results suggest that concurrent comparisons between protein expression and other fertility assays may represent a good in vitro assay to determine sperm fertility.

  4. Activity-based probes for the proteomic profiling of metalloproteases

    PubMed Central

    Saghatelian, Alan; Jessani, Nadim; Joseph, Arul; Humphrey, Mark; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Metalloproteases (MPs) are a large and diverse class of enzymes implicated in numerous physiological and pathological processes, including tissue remodeling, peptide hormone processing, and cancer. MPs are tightly regulated by multiple posttranslational mechanisms in vivo, hindering their functional analysis by conventional genomic and proteomic methods. Here we describe a general strategy for creating activity-based proteomic probes for MPs by coupling a zinc-chelating hydroxamate to a benzophenone photocrosslinker, which promote selective binding and modification of MP active sites, respectively. These probes labeled active MPs but not their zymogen or inhibitor-bound counterparts and were used to identify members of this enzyme class up-regulated in invasive cancer cells and to evaluate the selectivity of MP inhibitors in whole proteomes. Interestingly, the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 (ilomastat), which is currently in clinical development, was found to also target the neprilysin, aminopeptidase, and dipeptidylpeptidase clans of MPs. These results demonstrate that MPs can display overlapping inhibitor sensitivities despite lacking sequence homology and stress the need to evaluate MP inhibitors broadly across this enzyme class to develop agents with suitable target selectivities in vivo. Activity-based profiling offers a powerful means for conducting such screens, as this approach can be carried out directly in whole proteomes, thereby facilitating the discovery of disease-associated MPs concurrently with inhibitors that selectively target these proteins. PMID:15220480

  5. Proteome Profiling Outperforms Transcriptome Profiling for Coexpression Based Gene Function Prediction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Zihao; Carr, Steven A; Mertins, Philipp; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Chan, Daniel W; Ellis, Matthew J C; Townsend, R Reid; Smith, Richard D; McDermott, Jason E; Chen, Xian; Paulovich, Amanda G; Boja, Emily S; Mesri, Mehdi; Kinsinger, Christopher R; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D; Liebler, Daniel C; Zhang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Coexpression of mRNAs under multiple conditions is commonly used to infer cofunctionality of their gene products despite well-known limitations of this "guilt-by-association" (GBA) approach. Recent advancements in mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies have enabled global expression profiling at the protein level; however, whether proteome profiling data can outperform transcriptome profiling data for coexpression based gene function prediction has not been systematically investigated. Here, we address this question by constructing and analyzing mRNA and protein coexpression networks for three cancer types with matched mRNA and protein profiling data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC). Our analyses revealed a marked difference in wiring between the mRNA and protein coexpression networks. Whereas protein coexpression was driven primarily by functional similarity between coexpressed genes, mRNA coexpression was driven by both cofunction and chromosomal colocalization of the genes. Functionally coherent mRNA modules were more likely to have their edges preserved in corresponding protein networks than functionally incoherent mRNA modules. Proteomic data strengthened the link between gene expression and function for at least 75% of Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and 90% of KEGG pathways. A web application Gene2Net (http://cptac.gene2net.org) developed based on the three protein coexpression networks revealed novel gene-function relationships, such as linking ERBB2 (HER2) to lipid biosynthetic process in breast cancer, identifying PLG as a new gene involved in complement activation, and identifying AEBP1 as a new epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker. Our results demonstrate that proteome profiling outperforms transcriptome profiling for coexpression based gene function prediction. Proteomics should be integrated if not preferred in gene function and human disease studies. © 2017 by

  6. Proteome Profiling Outperforms Transcriptome Profiling for Coexpression Based Gene Function Prediction*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Zihao; Carr, Steven A.; Mertins, Philipp; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Chan, Daniel W.; Ellis, Matthew J. C.; Townsend, R. Reid; Smith, Richard D.; McDermott, Jason E.; Chen, Xian; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Boja, Emily S.; Mesri, Mehdi; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Zhang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Coexpression of mRNAs under multiple conditions is commonly used to infer cofunctionality of their gene products despite well-known limitations of this “guilt-by-association” (GBA) approach. Recent advancements in mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies have enabled global expression profiling at the protein level; however, whether proteome profiling data can outperform transcriptome profiling data for coexpression based gene function prediction has not been systematically investigated. Here, we address this question by constructing and analyzing mRNA and protein coexpression networks for three cancer types with matched mRNA and protein profiling data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC). Our analyses revealed a marked difference in wiring between the mRNA and protein coexpression networks. Whereas protein coexpression was driven primarily by functional similarity between coexpressed genes, mRNA coexpression was driven by both cofunction and chromosomal colocalization of the genes. Functionally coherent mRNA modules were more likely to have their edges preserved in corresponding protein networks than functionally incoherent mRNA modules. Proteomic data strengthened the link between gene expression and function for at least 75% of Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and 90% of KEGG pathways. A web application Gene2Net (http://cptac.gene2net.org) developed based on the three protein coexpression networks revealed novel gene-function relationships, such as linking ERBB2 (HER2) to lipid biosynthetic process in breast cancer, identifying PLG as a new gene involved in complement activation, and identifying AEBP1 as a new epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker. Our results demonstrate that proteome profiling outperforms transcriptome profiling for coexpression based gene function prediction. Proteomics should be integrated if not preferred in gene function and human disease studies. PMID

  7. The proteomic profile of a mouse model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Márkus, Bernadett; Pató, Zsuzsanna; Sarang, Zsolt; Albert, Réka; Tőzsér, József; Petrovski, Goran; Csősz, Éva

    2017-08-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) develops as a complication of retinal detachment surgery and represents a devastating condition leading to serious vision loss. A good animal model that permits extensive functional studies and drug testing is crucial in finding better therapeutic modalities for PVR. A previously established mouse model, using dispase injection, was analyzed from the proteomic point of view, examining global protein profile changes by 2D electrophoresis, image analysis and HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry-based protein identification. The easy applicability of the mouse model was used to study the role of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in PVR formation by proteomic examination of dispase-induced TG2 knockout vitreous samples. Our data demonstrate that, despite the altered appearance of crystallin proteins, the lack of TG2 did not prevent the development of PVR.

  8. DeepPep: Deep proteome inference from peptide profiles

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Protein inference, the identification of the protein set that is the origin of a given peptide profile, is a fundamental challenge in proteomics. We present DeepPep, a deep-convolutional neural network framework that predicts the protein set from a proteomics mixture, given the sequence universe of possible proteins and a target peptide profile. In its core, DeepPep quantifies the change in probabilistic score of peptide-spectrum matches in the presence or absence of a specific protein, hence selecting as candidate proteins with the largest impact to the peptide profile. Application of the method across datasets argues for its competitive predictive ability (AUC of 0.80±0.18, AUPR of 0.84±0.28) in inferring proteins without need of peptide detectability on which the most competitive methods rely. We find that the convolutional neural network architecture outperforms the traditional artificial neural network architectures without convolution layers in protein inference. We expect that similar deep learning architectures that allow learning nonlinear patterns can be further extended to problems in metagenome profiling and cell type inference. The source code of DeepPep and the benchmark datasets used in this study are available at https://deeppep.github.io/DeepPep/. PMID:28873403

  9. Serum proteomic profiling of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bot, M; Chan, M K; Jansen, R; Lamers, F; Vogelzangs, N; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; Rothermundt, M; Cooper, J; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-07-14

    Much has still to be learned about the molecular mechanisms of depression. This study aims to gain insight into contributing mechanisms by identifying serum proteins related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large psychiatric cohort study. Our sample consisted of 1589 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, comprising 687 individuals with current MDD (cMDD), 482 individuals with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 420 controls. We studied the relationship between MDD status and the levels of 171 serum proteins detected on a multi-analyte profiling platform using adjusted linear regression models. Pooled analyses of two independent validation cohorts (totaling 78 MDD cases and 156 controls) was carried out to validate our top markers. Twenty-eight analytes differed significantly between cMDD cases and controls (P < 0.05), whereas 10 partly overlapping markers differed significantly between rMDD cases and controls. Antidepressant medication use and comorbid anxiety status did not substantially impact on these findings. Sixteen of the cMDD-related markers had been assayed in the pooled validation cohorts, of which seven were associated with MDD. The analytes prominently associated with cMDD related to diverse cell communication and signal transduction processes (pancreatic polypeptide, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, ENRAGE, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tenascin-C), immune response (growth-regulated alpha protein) and protein metabolism (von Willebrand factor). Several proteins were implicated in depression. Changes were more prominent in cMDD, suggesting that molecular alterations in serum are associated with acute depression symptomatology. These findings may help to establish serum-based biomarkers of depression and could improve our understanding of its pathophysiology.

  10. Chemical proteomics: terra incognita for novel drug target profiling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fuqiang; Zhang, Boya; Zhou, Shengtao; Zhao, Xia; Bian, Ce; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-01-01

    The growing demand for new therapeutic strategies in the medical and pharmaceutic fields has resulted in a pressing need for novel druggable targets. Paradoxically, however, the targets of certain drugs that are already widely used in clinical practice have largely not been annotated. Because the pharmacologic effects of a drug can only be appreciated when its interactions with cellular components are clearly delineated, an integrated deconvolution of drug-target interactions for each drug is necessary. The emerging field of chemical proteomics represents a powerful mass spectrometry (MS)-based affinity chromatography approach for identifying proteome-wide small molecule-protein interactions and mapping these interactions to signaling and metabolic pathways. This technique could comprehensively characterize drug targets, profile the toxicity of known drugs, and identify possible off-target activities. With the use of this technique, candidate drug molecules could be optimized, and predictable side effects might consequently be avoided. Herein, we provide a holistic overview of the major chemical proteomic approaches and highlight recent advances in this area as well as its potential applications in drug discovery. PMID:22640626

  11. Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer using serum proteomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Siegel, Eric R; Petersen, Gloria M; Chari, Suresh T; Suva, Larry J; Haun, Randy S

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, mortality rates from pancreatic cancer (PCa) have not changed significantly over the past 50 years. This is due, in part, to the lack of early detection methods for this particularly aggressive form of cancer. The objective of this study was to use high-throughput protein profiling technology to identify biomarkers in the serum proteome for the early detection of resectable PCa. Using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, protein profiles were generated from sera of 49 PCa patients and 54 unaffected individuals after fractionation on an anion exchange resin. The samples were randomly divided into a training set (69 samples) and test set (34 samples), and two multivariate analysis procedures, classification and regression tree and logistic regression, were used to develop classification models from these spectral data that could distinguish PCa from control serum samples. In the test set, both models correctly classified all of the PCa patient serum samples (100% sensitivity). Using the decision tree algorithm, a specificity of 93.5% was obtained, whereas the logistic regression model produced a specificity of 100%. These results suggest that high-throughput proteomics profiling has the capacity to provide new biomarkers for the early detection and diagnosis of PCa.

  12. Proteomic profiling change during the early development of silicosis disease

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Rongming; Ding, Bangmei; Zhang, Yingyi; Xia, Qian; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Silicosis is one of several severe occupational diseases for which effective diagnostic tools during early development are currently unavailable. In this study we focused on proteomic profiling during the early stages of silicosis to investigate the pathophysiology and identify the proteins involved. Methods Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS were used to assess the proteomic differences between healthy individuals (HI), dust-exposed workers without silicosis (DEW) and silicosis patients (SP). Proteins abundances that differed by a factor of two-fold or greater were subjected to more detailed analysis, and enzyme linked to immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to correlate with protein expression data. Results Compared with HI, 42 proteins were more abundant and 8 were less abundant in DEW, and these were also differentially accumulated in SP. Closer inspection revealed that serine protease granzyme A, alpha-1-B-glycoprotein (A1BG) and the T4 surface glycoprotein precursor (TSGP) were among the up-regulated proteins in DEW and SP. Significant changes in serine proteases, glycoproteins and proto-oncogenes may be associated with the response to cytotoxicity and infectious pathogens by activation of T cells, positive regulation of extracellular matrix structural constituents and immune response, and fibroblast proliferation. Up-regulation of cytokines included TNFs, interferon beta precursor, interleukin 6, atypical chemokine receptor 2, TNFR13BV, and mutant IL-17F may be involved in the increased and persistent immune response and fibrosis that occurred during silicosis development. Conclusions Granzymes, glycoproteins, cytokines and immune factors were dramatically involved in the immune response, metabolism, signal regulation and fibrosis during the early development of silicosis. Proteomic profiling has expanded our understanding of the pathogenesis of silicosis, and identified a number of targets that may be potential

  13. Proteomic profiling change during the early development of silicosis disease.

    PubMed

    Miao, Rongming; Ding, Bangmei; Zhang, Yingyi; Xia, Qian; Li, Yong; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-03-01

    Silicosis is one of several severe occupational diseases for which effective diagnostic tools during early development are currently unavailable. In this study we focused on proteomic profiling during the early stages of silicosis to investigate the pathophysiology and identify the proteins involved. Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS were used to assess the proteomic differences between healthy individuals (HI), dust-exposed workers without silicosis (DEW) and silicosis patients (SP). Proteins abundances that differed by a factor of two-fold or greater were subjected to more detailed analysis, and enzyme linked to immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to correlate with protein expression data. Compared with HI, 42 proteins were more abundant and 8 were less abundant in DEW, and these were also differentially accumulated in SP. Closer inspection revealed that serine protease granzyme A, alpha-1-B-glycoprotein (A1BG) and the T4 surface glycoprotein precursor (TSGP) were among the up-regulated proteins in DEW and SP. Significant changes in serine proteases, glycoproteins and proto-oncogenes may be associated with the response to cytotoxicity and infectious pathogens by activation of T cells, positive regulation of extracellular matrix structural constituents and immune response, and fibroblast proliferation. Up-regulation of cytokines included TNFs, interferon beta precursor, interleukin 6, atypical chemokine receptor 2, TNFR13BV, and mutant IL-17F may be involved in the increased and persistent immune response and fibrosis that occurred during silicosis development. Granzymes, glycoproteins, cytokines and immune factors were dramatically involved in the immune response, metabolism, signal regulation and fibrosis during the early development of silicosis. Proteomic profiling has expanded our understanding of the pathogenesis of silicosis, and identified a number of targets that may be potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of this

  14. Quantitative reactivity profiling predicts functional cysteines in proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Weerapana, Eranthie; Wang, Chu; Simon, Gabriel M.; Richter, Florian; Khare, Sagar; Dillon, Myles B.D.; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Mowen, Kerri; Baker, David; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Cysteine is the most intrinsically nucleophilic amino acid in proteins, where its reactivity is tuned to perform diverse biochemical functions. The absence of a consensus sequence that defines functional cysteines in proteins has hindered their discovery and characterization. Here, we describe a proteomics method to quantitatively profile the intrinsic reactivity of cysteine residues en masse directly in native biological systems. Hyperreactivity was a rare feature among cysteines and found to specify a wide range of activities, including nucleophilic and reductive catalysis and sites of oxidative modification. Hyperreactive cysteines were identified in several proteins of uncharacterized function, including a residue conserved across eukaryotic phylogeny that we show is required for yeast viability and involved in iron-sulfur protein biogenesis. Finally, we demonstrate that quantitative reactivity profiling can also form the basis for screening and functional assignment of cysteines in computationally designed proteins, where it discriminated catalytically active from inactive cysteine hydrolase designs. PMID:21085121

  15. Serotonin and gender-specific psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Steiner, M; Lepage, P; Dunn, E J

    1997-01-01

    The serotonergic system has been linked to the etiology of several, albeit disparate, psychiatric disorders. The accumulation of many lines of evidence support the view that there are gender differences in the serotonergic system in humans. It is further proposed that a gender differentiated serotonergic system acts as the nidus for the development of gender-specific psychiatric disorders. Depression, anxiety and eating disorders are largely seen in females, whereas alcoholism, aggressivity and suicide predominate in males. Evidence from both animal and human studies suggesting that the serotonergic system mediates between social-environmental experience and biological states is presented and reviewed. A reconceptualization of the serotonergic system as a gender-specific psychobiological interface is proposed. (Int J Psych Clin Prac 1997; 1: 3-13).

  16. Emergency Medicine Gender-specific Education.

    PubMed

    Ashurst, John V; McGregor, Alyson J; Safdar, Basmah; Weaver, Kevin R; Quinn, Shawn M; Rosenau, Alex M; Goyke, Terrence E; Roth, Kevin R; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference has taken the first step in identifying gender-specific care as an area of importance to both emergency medicine (EM) and research. To improve patient care, we need to address educational gaps in this area concurrent with research gaps. In this article, the authors highlight the need for sex- and gender-specific education in EM and propose guidelines for medical student, resident, and faculty education. Specific examples of incorporating this content into grand rounds, simulation, bedside teaching, and journal club sessions are reviewed. Future challenges and strategies to fill the gaps in the current education model are also described. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  17. Proteomic profile response of Paracoccidioides lutzii to the antifungal argentilactone.

    PubMed

    Prado, Renata S; Bailão, Alexandre M; Silva, Lívia C; de Oliveira, Cecília M A; Marques, Monique F; Silva, Luciano P; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela P; Lima, Aliny P; Soares, Célia M; Pereira, Maristela

    2015-01-01

    The dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides spp. are the etiological agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a mycosis of high incidence in Brazil. The toxicity of drug treatment and the emergence of resistant organisms have led to research for new candidates for drugs. In this study, we demonstrate that the natural product argentilactone was not cytotoxic or genotoxic to MRC5 cells at the IC50 concentration to the fungus. We also verified the proteomic profile of Paracoccidioides lutzii after incubation with argentilactone using a label free quantitative proteome nanoUPLC-MS(E). The results of this study indicated that the fungus has a global metabolic adaptation in the presence of argentilactone. Enzymes of important pathways, such as glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the glyoxylate cycle, were repressed, which drove the metabolism to the methylcytrate cycle and beta-oxidation. Proteins involved in cell rescue, defense and stress response were induced. In this study, alternative metabolic pathways adopted by the fungi were elucidated, helping to elucidate the course of action of the compound studied.

  18. Proteomic profile response of Paracoccidioides lutzii to the antifungal argentilactone

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Renata S.; Bailão, Alexandre M.; Silva, Lívia C.; de Oliveira, Cecília M. A.; Marques, Monique F.; Silva, Luciano P.; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela P.; Lima, Aliny P.; Soares, Célia M.; Pereira, Maristela

    2015-01-01

    The dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides spp. are the etiological agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a mycosis of high incidence in Brazil. The toxicity of drug treatment and the emergence of resistant organisms have led to research for new candidates for drugs. In this study, we demonstrate that the natural product argentilactone was not cytotoxic or genotoxic to MRC5 cells at the IC50 concentration to the fungus. We also verified the proteomic profile of Paracoccidioides lutzii after incubation with argentilactone using a label free quantitative proteome nanoUPLC-MSE. The results of this study indicated that the fungus has a global metabolic adaptation in the presence of argentilactone. Enzymes of important pathways, such as glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the glyoxylate cycle, were repressed, which drove the metabolism to the methylcytrate cycle and beta-oxidation. Proteins involved in cell rescue, defense and stress response were induced. In this study, alternative metabolic pathways adopted by the fungi were elucidated, helping to elucidate the course of action of the compound studied. PMID:26150808

  19. Proteomic profiling reveals that collismycin A is an iron chelator

    PubMed Central

    Kawatani, Makoto; Muroi, Makoto; Wada, Akira; Inoue, Gyo; Futamura, Yushi; Aono, Harumi; Shimizu, Kenshirou; Shimizu, Takeshi; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi-Ando, Naoko; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Collismycin A (CMA), a microbial product, has anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells, but the mechanism of its action remains unknown. Here, we report the identification of the molecular target of CMA by ChemProteoBase, a proteome-based approach for drug target identification. ChemProteoBase profiling showed that CMA is closely clustered with di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone, an iron chelator. CMA bound to both Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions and formed a 2:1 chelator-iron complex with a redox-inactive center. CMA-induced cell growth inhibition was completely canceled by Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions, but not by other metal ions such as Zn(II) or Cu(II). Proteomic and transcriptomic analyses showed that CMA affects the glycolytic pathway due to the accumulation of HIF-1α. These results suggest that CMA acts as a specific iron chelator, leading to the inhibition of cancer cell growth. PMID:27922079

  20. Proteomic profile of mouse fibroblasts exposed to pure magnesium extract.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zhen; Luthringer, Bérengère; Yang, Li; Xi, Tingfei; Zheng, Yufeng; Feyerabend, Frank; Willumeit, Regine; Lai, Chen; Ge, Zigang

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium and its alloys gain wide attention as degradable biomaterials. In order to reveal the molecular mechanism of the influence of biodegradable magnesium on cells, proteomics analysis was performed in this work. After mouse fibroblasts (L929) were cultured with or without Mg degradation products (Mg-extract) for 8, 24, and 48h, changes in protein expression profiles were obtained using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled two dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC MS/MS). A total of 867 proteins were identified (relying on at least two peptides). Compared to the control group, 205, 282, and 217 regulated proteins were identified at 8, 24, and 48h, respectively. 65 common proteins were up or down- regulated within all the three time points, which were involved in various physiological and metabolic activities. Consistent with viability, proliferation, and cell cycle analysis, stimulated energy metabolism as well as protein synthesis pathways were discussed, indicating a possible effect of Mg-extract on L929 proliferation. Furthermore, endocytosis and focal adhesion processes were also discussed. This proteomics study uncovers early cellular mechanisms triggered by Mg degradation products and highlights the cytocompatibility of biodegradable metallic materials for biomedical applications such as stents or orthopaedic implants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Systems-wide temporal proteomic profiling in glucose-starved Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Andreas; Bernhardt, Jörg; Meyer, Hanna; Schaffer, Marc; Herbst, Florian-A.; Siebourg, Juliane; Mäder, Ulrike; Lalk, Michael; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte

    2010-01-01

    Functional genomics of the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis reveals valuable insights into basic concepts of cell physiology. In this study, we monitor temporal changes in the proteome, transcriptome and extracellular metabolome of B. subtilis caused by glucose starvation. For proteomic profiling, a combination of in vivo metabolic labelling and shotgun mass spectrometric analysis was carried out for five different proteomic subfractions (cytosolic, integral membrane, membrane, surface and extracellular proteome fraction), leading to the identification of ∼52% of the predicted proteome of B. subtilis. Quantitative proteomic and corresponding transcriptomic data were analysed with Voronoi treemaps linking functional classification and relative expression changes of gene products according to their fate in the stationary phase. The obtained data comprise the first comprehensive profiling of changes in the membrane subfraction and allow in-depth analysis of major physiological processes, including monitoring of protein degradation. PMID:21266987

  2. Current clinical application of genomic and proteomic profiling in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tanvetyanon, Tawee; Creelan, Benjamin C; Chiappori, Alberto A

    2014-01-01

    Genomic or proteomic profiling of cancer can be broadly defined as a systematic grouping of cancer based on its genetic or protein makeup. In the management of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), genomic and proteomic profiling applications have become useful in early disease detection, diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication. We reviewed the recent literature on the applications of genomic and proteomic profiling in NSCLC. Important applications were summarized into those already adopted as standard care and those still under investigation. For genomic profiling, testing for EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement has become routine for adenocarcinoma. Multiplex assay and malignancy-risk gene signature are both important applications in development. A test to predict outcome after treatment with an epidermal growth factor rector/tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a screening blood test for lung cancer are being investigated for use in proteomic profiling. Genomic profiling is routine in patients with NSCLC, and proteomic profiling shows promise. Additional genomic and proteomic profiling applications may also prove to be useful contributions in the care of these patients.

  3. A unique proteomic profile on surface IgM ligation in unmutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Aurore; Pionneau, Cédric; Nadaud, Sophie; Davi, Frédéric; Leblond, Véronique; Jacob, Frédéric; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Herbrecht, Raoul; Béné, Marie-Christine; Gribben, John G.; Vallat, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by a highly variable clinical course with 2 extreme subsets: indolent, ZAP70− and mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (M-CLL); and aggressive, ZAP70+ and unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain (UM-CLL). Given the long-term suspicion of antigenic stimulation as a primum movens in the disease, the role of the B-cell receptor has been extensively studied in various experimental settings; albeit scarcely in a comparative dynamic proteomic approach. Here we use a quantitative 2-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis technology to compare 48 proteomic profiles of the 2 CLL subsets before and after anti-IgM ligation. Differentially expressed proteins were subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. We show that unstimulated M- and UM-CLL cells display distinct proteomic profiles. Furthermore, anti-IgM stimulation induces a specific proteomic response, more pronounced in the more aggressive CLL. Statistical analyses demonstrate several significant protein variations according to stimulation conditions. Finally, we identify an intermediate form of M-CLL cells, with an indolent profile (ZAP70−) but sharing aggressive proteomic profiles alike UM-CLL cells. Collectively, this first quantitative and dynamic proteome analysis of CLL further dissects the complex molecular pathway after B-cell receptor stimulation and depicts distinct proteomic profiles, which could lead to novel molecular stratification of the disease. PMID:21602524

  4. Integrative Proteomics and Phosphoproteomics Profiling Reveals Dynamic Signaling Networks and Bioenergetics Pathways Underlying T Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Haiyan; Yang, Kai; Li, Yuxin; Shaw, Timothy I; Wang, Yanyan; Blanco, Daniel Bastardo; Wang, Xusheng; Cho, Ji-Hoon; Wang, Hong; Rankin, Sherri; Guy, Cliff; Peng, Junmin; Chi, Hongbo

    2017-03-21

    The molecular circuits by which antigens activate quiescent T cells remain poorly understood. We combined temporal profiling of the whole proteome and phosphoproteome via multiplexed isobaric labeling proteomics technology, computational pipelines for integrating multi-omics datasets, and functional perturbation to systemically reconstruct regulatory networks underlying T cell activation. T cell receptors activated the T cell proteome and phosphoproteome with discrete kinetics, marked by early dynamics of phosphorylation and delayed ribosome biogenesis and mitochondrial activation. Systems biology analyses identified multiple functional modules, active kinases, transcription factors and connectivity between them, and mitochondrial pathways including mitoribosomes and complex IV. Genetic perturbation revealed physiological roles for mitochondrial enzyme COX10-mediated oxidative phosphorylation in T cell quiescence exit. Our multi-layer proteomics profiling, integrative network analysis, and functional studies define landscapes of the T cell proteome and phosphoproteome and reveal signaling and bioenergetics pathways that mediate lymphocyte exit from quiescence.

  5. Toward Plasma Proteome Profiling with Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, Stephen J.; Plasencia, Manolo D.; Liu, Xiaoyun; Krishnan, Meera; Naylor, Stephen; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.; Clemmer, David E.

    2006-11-01

    Differential, functional, and mapping proteomic analyses of complex biological mixtures suffer from a lack of component resolution. Here we describe the application of ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMSMS) to this problem. With this approach, components that are separated by liquid chromatography are dispersed based on differences in their mobilities through a buffer gas prior to being analyzed by MS. The inclusion of the gas-phase dispersion provides more than an order of magnitude enhancement in component resolution at no cost to data acquisition time. Additionally, the mobility separation often removes high-abundance species from spectral regions containing low-abundance species, effectively increasing measurement sensitivity and dynamic range. Finally, collision-induced dissociation of all ions can be recorded in a single experimental sequence while conventional MS methods sequentially select precursors. The approach is demonstrated in a single, rapid (3.3 h) analysis of a plasma digest sample where abundant proteins have not been removed. Protein database searches have yielded 731 high confidence peptide assignments corresponding to 438 unique proteins. Results have been compiled into an initial analytical map to be used -after further augmentation and refinement- for comparative plasma profiling studies.

  6. Proteomic and peptidomic profiling of Brazilian artisanal 'Coalho' cheese.

    PubMed

    Silva, Roberto A; Bezerra, Vilma S; Pimentel, Maria do Carmo B; Porto, Ana Lúcia F; Cavalcanti, Maria Taciana H; Filho, José Luiz L

    2016-10-01

    Artisanal 'Coalho' cheese is a product typically popular in the Brazilian north-eastern region. Production of this cheese represents about 9.2% of the internal crude product of Pernambuco State. Several peptides are generated from hydrolysis of αS1 -, αS2 -, β-, and κ-caseins during manufacture of this cheese. The commercial importance of Brazilian artisanal 'Coalho' cheese justifies the examination of both the protein and peptide profiles of cheeses from six cities of the semi-arid region of Pernambuco State, Brazil. SDS-PAGE of the aqueous extracts of 'Coalho' cheeses (WSP) showed bands of lactoferrin, β-lactoglobulin, β-lactoglobulin (dimer), α-lactoalbumin, bovine serum albumin, α-casein, β-casein, κ-casein and para-κ-casein. A total of 57 to 72 peptides were confirmed by mass spectra in the different samples of 'Coalho' cheese which 32 known peptides (11 from αS1 -casein, three from αS2 -casein, 15 from β-casein and three from κ-casein), comprising seven caseinphosphopeptides. Among the unidentified peptides, three showed high intensity peaks in all 'Coalho' cheeses studied (with molecular weights of 1597, 1725/1726, 2778/2779 Da). The proteomic studies revealed peptides that may represent molecular markers or fingerprints for investigating the quality control and regional characterisation of these 'Coalho' cheeses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Detection of Bladder Cancer Using Proteomic Profiling of Urine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, Tadeusz; Spiess, Philippe E.; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Black, Peter; Clarke, Charlotte; Benedict, William; Dinney, Colin P.; Grossman, Herbert Barton; Tang, Kuang S.; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    We used protein expression profiles to develop a classification rule for the detection and prognostic assessment of bladder cancer in voided urine samples. Using the Ciphergen PBS II ProteinChip Reader, we analyzed the protein profiles of 18 pairs of samples of bladder tumor and adjacent urothelium tissue, a training set of 85 voided urine samples (32 controls and 53 bladder cancer), and a blinded testing set of 68 voided urine samples (33 controls and 35 bladder cancer). Using t-tests, we identified 473 peaks showing significant differential expression across different categories of paired bladder tumor and adjacent urothelial samples compared to normal urothelium. Then the intensities of those 473 peaks were examined in a training set of voided urine samples. Using this approach, we identified 41 protein peaks that were differentially expressed in both sets of samples. The expression pattern of the 41 protein peaks was used to classify the voided urine samples as malignant or benign. This approach yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 90%, respectively, on the training set and 80% and 100%, respectively, on the testing set. The proteomic classification rule performed with similar accuracy in low- and high-grade bladder carcinomas. In addition, we used hierarchical clustering with all 473 protein peaks on 65 benign voided urine samples, 88 samples from patients with clinically evident bladder cancer, and 127 samples from patients with a history of bladder cancer to classify the samples into Cluster A or B. The tumors in Cluster B were characterized by clinically aggressive behavior with significantly shorter metastasis-free and disease-specific survival. PMID:22879988

  8. Detection of bladder cancer using proteomic profiling of urine sediments.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Tadeusz; Spiess, Philippe E; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Black, Peter; Clarke, Charlotte; Benedict, William; Dinney, Colin P; Grossman, Herbert Barton; Tang, Kuang S; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    We used protein expression profiles to develop a classification rule for the detection and prognostic assessment of bladder cancer in voided urine samples. Using the Ciphergen PBS II ProteinChip Reader, we analyzed the protein profiles of 18 pairs of samples of bladder tumor and adjacent urothelium tissue, a training set of 85 voided urine samples (32 controls and 53 bladder cancer), and a blinded testing set of 68 voided urine samples (33 controls and 35 bladder cancer). Using t-tests, we identified 473 peaks showing significant differential expression across different categories of paired bladder tumor and adjacent urothelial samples compared to normal urothelium. Then the intensities of those 473 peaks were examined in a training set of voided urine samples. Using this approach, we identified 41 protein peaks that were differentially expressed in both sets of samples. The expression pattern of the 41 protein peaks was used to classify the voided urine samples as malignant or benign. This approach yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 90%, respectively, on the training set and 80% and 100%, respectively, on the testing set. The proteomic classification rule performed with similar accuracy in low- and high-grade bladder carcinomas. In addition, we used hierarchical clustering with all 473 protein peaks on 65 benign voided urine samples, 88 samples from patients with clinically evident bladder cancer, and 127 samples from patients with a history of bladder cancer to classify the samples into Cluster A or B. The tumors in Cluster B were characterized by clinically aggressive behavior with significantly shorter metastasis-free and disease-specific survival.

  9. Multimarker proteomic profiling for the prediction of cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lemesle, Gilles; Maury, Fleur; Beseme, Olivia; Ovart, Lionel; Amouyel, Philippe; Lamblin, Nicolas; de Groote, Pascal; Bauters, Christophe; Pinet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Risk stratification of patients with systolic chronic heart failure (HF) is critical to better identify those who may benefit from invasive therapeutic strategies such as cardiac transplantation. Proteomics has been used to provide prognostic information in various diseases. Our aim was to investigate the potential value of plasma proteomic profiling for risk stratification in HF. A proteomic profiling using surface enhanced laser desorption ionization - time of flight - mass spectrometry was performed in a case/control discovery population of 198 patients with systolic HF (left ventricular ejection fraction <45%): 99 patients who died from cardiovascular cause within 3 years and 99 patients alive at 3 years. Proteomic scores predicting cardiovascular death were developed using 3 regression methods: support vector machine, sparse partial least square discriminant analysis, and lasso logistic regression. Forty two ion m/z peaks were differentially intense between cases and controls in the discovery population and were used to develop proteomic scores. In the validation population, score levels were higher in patients who subsequently died within 3 years. Similar areas under the curves (0.66 - 0.68) were observed for the 3 methods. After adjustment on confounders, proteomic scores remained significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality. Use of the proteomic scores allowed a significant improvement in discrimination of HF patients as determined by integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement indexes. In conclusion, proteomic analysis of plasma proteins may help to improve risk prediction in HF patients.

  10. Platelets Proteomic Profiles of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baykal, Ahmet Tarik; Sener, Azize

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of stroke and antiplatelet agents exist for its treatment and prevention. Through the use of LC-MS based protein expression profiling, platelets from stroke patients were analyzed and then correlated with the proteomic analyses results in the context of this disease. This study was based on patients who post ischemic stroke were admitted to hospital and had venous blood drawn within 24 hrs of the incidence. Label-free protein expression analyses of the platelets’ tryptic digest was performed in triplicate on a UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS system and ProteinLynx Global Server (v2.5, Waters) was used for tandem mass data extraction. The peptide sequences were searched against the reviewed homo sapiens database (www.uniprot.org) and the quantitation of protein variation was achieved through Progenesis LC-MS software (V4.0, Nonlinear Dynamics). These Label-free differential proteomics analysis of platelets ensured that 500 proteins were identified and 83 of these proteins were found to be statistically significant. The differentially expressed proteins are involved in various processes such as inflammatory response, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, hematological system development and function and nucleic acid metabolism. The expressions of myeloperoxidase, arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase and histidine-rich glycoprotein are involved in cellular metabolic processes, crk-like protein and ras homolog gene family member A involved in cell signaling with vitronectin, thrombospondin 1, Integrin alpha 2b, and integrin beta 3 involved in cell adhesion. Apolipoprotein H, immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 1 and immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 are involved in structural, apolipoprotein A-I, and alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor is involved in transport, complement component 3 and clusterin is involved in immunity proteins as has been discussed. Our data provides an insight

  11. Pathway analysis of kidney cancer using proteomics and metabolic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Perroud, Bertrand; Lee, Jinoo; Valkova, Nelly; Dhirapong, Amy; Lin, Pei-Yin; Fiehn, Oliver; Kültz, Dietmar; Weiss, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the sixth leading cause of cancer death and is responsible for 11,000 deaths per year in the US. Approximately one-third of patients present with disease which is already metastatic and for which there is currently no adequate treatment, and no biofluid screening tests exist for RCC. In this study, we have undertaken a comprehensive proteomic analysis and subsequently a pathway and network approach to identify biological processes involved in clear cell RCC (ccRCC). We have used these data to investigate urinary markers of RCC which could be applied to high-risk patients, or to those being followed for recurrence, for early diagnosis and treatment, thereby substantially reducing mortality of this disease. Results Using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis, we identified 31 proteins which were differentially expressed with a high degree of significance in ccRCC as compared to adjacent non-malignant tissue, and we confirmed some of these by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and comparison to published transcriptomic data. When evaluated by several pathway and biological process analysis programs, these proteins are demonstrated to be involved with a high degree of confidence (p values < 2.0 E-05) in glycolysis, propanoate metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, urea cycle and arginine/proline metabolism, as well as in the non-metabolic p53 and FAS pathways. In a pilot study using random urine samples from both ccRCC and control patients, we performed metabolic profiling and found that only sorbitol, a component of an alternative glycolysis pathway, is significantly elevated at 5.4-fold in RCC patients as compared to controls. Conclusion Extensive pathway and network analysis allowed for the discovery of highly significant pathways from a set of clear cell RCC samples. Knowledge of activation of these processes will lead to novel assays identifying their proteomic and/or metabolomic signatures in biofluids

  12. Environmental proteomics: applications of proteome profiling in environmental microbiology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Carla M R; Reardon, Kenneth F

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we present the use of proteomics to advance knowledge in the field of environmental biotechnology, including studies of bacterial physiology, metabolism and ecology. Bacteria are widely applied in environmental biotechnology for their ability to catalyze dehalogenation, methanogenesis, denitrification and sulfate reduction, among others. Their tolerance to radiation and toxic compounds is also of importance. Proteomics has an important role in helping uncover the pathways behind these cellular processes. Environmental samples are often highly complex, which makes proteome studies in this field especially challenging. Some of these challenges are the lack of genome sequences for the vast majority of environmental bacteria, difficulties in isolating bacteria and proteins from certain environments, and the presence of complex microbial communities. Despite these challenges, proteomics offers a unique dynamic view into cellular function. We present examples of environmental proteomics of model organisms, and then discuss metaproteomics (microbial community proteomics), which has the potential to provide insights into the function of a community without isolating organisms. Finally, the environmental proteomics literature is summarized as it pertains to the specific application areas of wastewater treatment, metabolic engineering, microbial ecology and environmental stress responses.

  13. The Urine Proteome Profile Is Different in Neuromyelitis Optica Compared to Multiple Sclerosis: A Clinical Proteome Study

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Lars P.; Burton, Mark; Csepany, Tunde; Simo, Magdolna; Dioszeghy, Peter; Sejbaek, Tobias; Grebing, Manuela; Heegaard, Niels H. H.; Illes, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS comprise a broad spectrum of diseases like neuromyelitis optica (NMO), NMO spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite clear classification criteria, differentiation can be difficult. We hypothesized that the urine proteome may differentiate NMO from MS. Methods The proteins in urine samples from anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) seropositive NMO/NMO-SD patients (n = 32), patients with MS (n = 46) and healthy subjects (HS, n = 31) were examined by quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after trypsin digestion and iTRAQ labelling. Immunoglobulins (Ig) in the urine were validated by nephelometry in an independent cohort (n = 9–10 pr. groups). Results The analysis identified a total of 1112 different proteins of which 333 were shared by all 109 subjects. Cluster analysis revealed differences in the urine proteome of NMO/NMO-SD compared to HS and MS. Principal component analysis also suggested that the NMO/NMO-SD proteome profile was useful for classification. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a 3-protein profile for the NMO/NMO-SD versus HS discrimination, a 6-protein profile for NMO/NMO-SD versus MS discrimination and an 11-protein profile for MS versus HS discrimination. All protein panels yielded highly significant ROC curves (AUC in all cases >0.85, p≤0.0002). Nephelometry confirmed the presence of increased Ig-light chains in the urine of patients with NMO/NMO-SD. Conclusion The urine proteome profile of patients with NMO/NMO-SD is different from MS and HS. This may reflect differences in the pathogenesis of NMO/NMO-SD versus MS and suggests that urine may be a potential source of biomarkers differentiating NMO/NMO-SD from MS. PMID:26460890

  14. Functional classification of cellular proteome profiles support the identification of drug resistance signatures in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Paulitschke, Verena; Haudek-Prinz, Verena; Griss, Johannes; Berger, Walter; Mohr, Thomas; Pehamberger, Hubert; Kunstfeld, Rainer; Gerner, Christopher

    2013-07-05

    Drug resistance is a major obstacle in melanoma treatment. Recognition of specific resistance patterns, the understanding of the patho-physiology of drug resistance, and identification of remaining options for individual melanoma treatment would greatly improve therapeutic success. We performed mass spectrometry-based proteome profiling of A375 melanoma cells and HeLa cells characterized as sensitive to cisplatin in comparison to cisplatin resistant M24met and TMFI melanoma cells. Cells were fractionated into cytoplasm, nuclei and secretome and the proteome profiles classified according to Gene Ontology. The cisplatin resistant cells displayed increased expression of lysosomal as well as Ca²⁺ ion binding and cell adherence proteins. These findings were confirmed using Lysotracker Red staining and cell adhesion assays with a panel of extracellular matrix proteins. To discriminate specific survival proteins, we selected constitutively expressed proteins of resistant M24met cells which were found expressed upon challenging the sensitive A375 cells. Using the CPL/MUW proteome database, the selected lysosomal, cell adherence and survival proteins apparently specifying resistant cells were narrowed down to 47 proteins representing a potential resistance signature. These were tested against our proteomics database comprising more than 200 different cell types/cell states for its predictive power. We provide evidence that this signature enables the automated assignment of resistance features as readout from proteome profiles of any human cell type. Proteome profiling and bioinformatic processing may thus support the understanding of drug resistance mechanism, eventually guiding patient tailored therapy.

  15. Proteomic profile of Aspergillus flavus in response to water activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Zhong, Hong; Han, Xiaoyun; Guo, Zhenni; Yang, Weiqiang; Liu, Yongfeng; Yang, Kunlong; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2015-03-01

    Aspergillus flavus, a common contaminant of crops and stored grains, can produce aflatoxins that are harmful to humans and other animals. Water activity (aw) is one of the key factors influencing both fungal growth and mycotoxin production. In this study, we used the isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique to investigate the effect of aw on the proteomic profile of A. flavus. A total of 3566 proteins were identified, of which 837 were differentially expressed in response to variations in aw. Among these 837 proteins, 403 were over-expressed at 0.99 aw, whereas 434 proteins were over-expressed at 0.93 aw. According to Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, the secretion of extracellular hydrolases increased as aw was raised, suggesting that extracellular hydrolases may play a critical role in induction of aflatoxin biosynthesis. On the basis of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) categorizations, we identified an exportin protein, KapK, that may down-regulate aflatoxin biosynthesis by changing the location of NirA. Finally, we considered the role of two osmotic stress-related proteins (Sln1 and Glo1) in the Hog1 pathway and investigated the expression patterns of proteins related to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The data uncovered in this study are critical for understanding the effect of water stress on toxin production and for the development of strategies to control toxin contamination of agricultural products. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In-depth proteomic profiling of the uveal melanoma secretome

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Samuel; Simpson, Deborah; Hammond, Dean E.; Madigan, Michele C.; Beynon, Robert J.; Coupland, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM), the most common primary intraocular tumour in adults, is characterised by a high frequency of metastases to the liver, typically with a fatal outcome. Proteins secreted from cancer cells (‘secretome’) are biologically important molecules thought to contribute to tumour progression. We examined the UM secretome by applying a label-free nanoLCMS/MS proteomic approach to profile proteins secreted into culture media by primary UM tumours with a high− (HR; n = 11) or low− (LR; n = 4) metastatic risk, compared to normal choroidal melanocytes (NCM) from unaffected post-mortem eyes. Across the three groups, 1843 proteins were identified at a 1% false discovery rate; 758 of these by at least 3 unique peptides, and quantified. The majority (539/758, 71%) of proteins were classified as secreted either by classical (144, 19%), non-classical (43, 6%) or exosomal (352, 46%) mechanisms. Bioinformatic analyzes showed that the secretome composition reflects biological differences and similarities of the samples. Ingenuity® pathway analysis of the secreted protein dataset identified abundant proteins involved in cell proliferation-, growth- and movement. Hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation and the mTORC1-S6K signalling axis were among the most differentially regulated biological processes in UM as compared with NCM. Further analysis of proteins upregulated ≥ 2 in HR-UM only, identified exosomal proteins involved in extracellular matrix remodelling and cancer cell migration/invasion; as well as classically secreted proteins, possibly representing novel biomarkers of metastatic disease. In conclusion, UM secretome analysis identifies novel proteins and pathways that may contribute to metastatic development at distant sites, particularly in the liver. PMID:27391064

  17. Proteomic Profiling of Detergent Resistant Membranes (Lipid Rafts) of Prostasomes.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Louise; Ronquist, Karl K Göran; Ek, Bo; Ronquist, Gunnar; Larsson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Prostasomes are exosomes derived from prostate epithelial cells through exocytosis by multivesicular bodies. Prostasomes have a bilayered membrane and readily interact with sperm. The membrane lipid composition is unusual with a high contribution of sphingomyelin at the expense of phosphatidylcholine and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids are dominant. Lipid rafts are liquid-ordered domains that are more tightly packed than the surrounding nonraft phase of the bilayer. Lipid rafts are proposed to be highly dynamic, submicroscopic assemblies that float freely within the liquid disordered membrane bilayer and some proteins preferentially partition into the ordered raft domains. We asked the question whether lipid rafts do exist in prostasomes and, if so, which proteins might be associated with them. Prostasomes of density range 1.13-1.19g/ml were subjected to density gradient ultracentrifugation in sucrose fabricated by phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing 1% Triton X-100 with capacity for banding at 1.10 g/ml, i.e. the classical density of lipid rafts. Prepared prostasomal lipid rafts (by gradient ultracentrifugation) were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The clearly visible band on top of 1.10g/ml sucrose in the Triton X-100 containing gradient was subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem MS and more than 370 lipid raft associated proteins were identified. Several of them were involved in intraluminal vesicle formation, e.g. tetraspanins, ESCRTs, and Ras-related proteins. This is the first comprehensive liquid chromatography-tandem MS profiling of proteins in lipid rafts derived from exosomes. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002163.

  18. Proteomics and the Analysis of Proteomic Data: 2013 Overview of Current Protein-Profiling Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Can; Stone, Kathryn; Gulcicek, Erol; Williams, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a major tool in the study of proteomes. The analysis of proteolytic peptides and their fragment ions by this technique enables the identification and quantitation of the precursor proteins in a mixture. However, deducing chemical structures and then protein sequences from mass-to-charge ratios is a challenging computational task. Software tools incorporating powerful algorithms and statistical methods improved our ability to process the large quantities of proteomics data. Repositories of spectral data make both data analysis and experimental design more efficient. New approaches in quantitative and statistical proteomics make possible a greater coverage of the proteome, the identification of more post-translational modifications and a greater sensitivity in the quantitation of targeted proteins. PMID:23504934

  19. Emerging Affinity-Based Proteomic Technologies for Large-Scale Plasma Profiling in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, J Gustav; Gerszten, Robert E

    2017-04-25

    Plasma biomarkers that reflect molecular states of the cardiovascular system are central for clinical decision making. Routinely used plasma biomarkers include troponins, natriuretic peptides, and lipoprotein particles, yet interrogate only a modest subset of pathways relevant to cardiovascular disease. Systematic profiling of a larger portion of circulating plasma proteins (the plasma proteome) will provide opportunities for unbiased discovery of novel markers to improve diagnostic or predictive accuracy. In addition, proteomic profiling may inform pathophysiological understanding and point to novel therapeutic targets. Obstacles for comprehensive proteomic profiling include the immense size and structural heterogeneity of the proteome, and the broad range of abundance levels, as well. Proteome-wide, untargeted profiling can be performed in tissues and cells with tandem mass spectrometry. However, applications to plasma are limited by the need for complex preanalytical sample preparation stages limiting sample throughput. Multiplexing of targeted methods based on capture and detection of specific proteins are therefore receiving increasing attention in plasma proteomics. Immunoaffinity assays are the workhorse for measuring individual proteins but have been limited for proteomic applications by long development times, cross-reactivity preventing multiplexing, specificity issues, and incomplete sensitivity to detect proteins in the lower range of the abundance spectrum (below picograms per milliliter). Emerging technologies to address these issues include nucleotide-labeled immunoassays and aptamer reagents that can be automated for efficient multiplexing of thousands of proteins at high sample throughput, coupling of affinity capture methods to mass spectrometry for improved specificity, and ultrasensitive detection systems to measure low-abundance proteins. In addition, proteomics can now be integrated with modern genomics tools to comprehensively relate

  20. Quantitative Profiling of Single Formalin Fixed Tumour Sections: proteomics for translational research

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Christopher S.; McConechy, Melissa K.; Cochrane, Dawn R.; Nazeran, Tayyebeh; Karnezis, Anthony N.; Huntsman, David G.; Morin, Gregg B.

    2016-01-01

    Although re-sequencing of gene panels and mRNA expression profiling are now firmly established in clinical laboratories, in-depth proteome analysis has remained a niche technology, better suited for studying model systems rather than challenging materials such as clinical trial samples. To address this limitation, we have developed a novel and optimized platform called SP3-Clinical Tissue Proteomics (SP3-CTP) for in-depth proteome profiling of practical quantities of tumour tissues, including formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE). Using single 10 μm scrolls of clinical tumour blocks, we performed in-depth quantitative analyses of individual sections from ovarian tumours covering the high-grade serous, clear cell, and endometrioid histotypes. This examination enabled the generation of a novel high-resolution proteome map of ovarian cancer histotypes from clinical tissues. Comparison of the obtained proteome data with large-scale genome and transcriptome analyses validated the observed proteome biology for previously validated hallmarks of this disease, and also identified novel protein features. A tissue microarray analysis validated cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH) as a novel clear cell carcinoma feature with potential clinical relevance. In addition to providing a milestone in the understanding of ovarian cancer biology, these results show that in-depth proteomic analysis of clinically annotated FFPE materials can be effectively used as a biomarker discovery tool and perhaps ultimately as a diagnostic approach. PMID:27713570

  1. Quantitative Profiling of Single Formalin Fixed Tumour Sections: proteomics for translational research.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Christopher S; McConechy, Melissa K; Cochrane, Dawn R; Nazeran, Tayyebeh; Karnezis, Anthony N; Huntsman, David G; Morin, Gregg B

    2016-10-07

    Although re-sequencing of gene panels and mRNA expression profiling are now firmly established in clinical laboratories, in-depth proteome analysis has remained a niche technology, better suited for studying model systems rather than challenging materials such as clinical trial samples. To address this limitation, we have developed a novel and optimized platform called SP3-Clinical Tissue Proteomics (SP3-CTP) for in-depth proteome profiling of practical quantities of tumour tissues, including formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE). Using single 10 μm scrolls of clinical tumour blocks, we performed in-depth quantitative analyses of individual sections from ovarian tumours covering the high-grade serous, clear cell, and endometrioid histotypes. This examination enabled the generation of a novel high-resolution proteome map of ovarian cancer histotypes from clinical tissues. Comparison of the obtained proteome data with large-scale genome and transcriptome analyses validated the observed proteome biology for previously validated hallmarks of this disease, and also identified novel protein features. A tissue microarray analysis validated cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH) as a novel clear cell carcinoma feature with potential clinical relevance. In addition to providing a milestone in the understanding of ovarian cancer biology, these results show that in-depth proteomic analysis of clinically annotated FFPE materials can be effectively used as a biomarker discovery tool and perhaps ultimately as a diagnostic approach.

  2. Proteome-Wide Analysis and Diel Proteomic Profiling of the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis PCC 8005

    PubMed Central

    Matallana-Surget, Sabine; Derock, Jérémy; Leroy, Baptiste; Badri, Hanène; Deschoenmaeker, Frédéric; Wattiez, Ruddy

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis has a long history of use as a food supply and it has been used by the European Space Agency in the MELiSSA project, an artificial microecosystem which supports life during long-term manned space missions. This study assesses progress in the field of cyanobacterial shotgun proteomics and light/dark diurnal cycles by focusing on Arthrospira platensis. Several fractionation workflows including gel-free and gel-based protein/peptide fractionation procedures were used and combined with LC-MS/MS analysis, enabling the overall identification of 1306 proteins, which represents 21% coverage of the theoretical proteome. A total of 30 proteins were found to be significantly differentially regulated under light/dark growth transition. Interestingly, most of the proteins showing differential abundance were related to photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle and translation processes. A novel aspect and major achievement of this work is the successful improvement of the cyanobacterial proteome coverage using a 3D LC-MS/MS approach, based on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography, a suitable tool that enabled us to eliminate the most abundant protein, the allophycocyanin. We also demonstrated that cell growth follows a light/dark cycle in A. platensis. This preliminary proteomic study has highlighted new characteristics of the Arthrospira platensis proteome in terms of diurnal regulation. PMID:24914774

  3. Proteome-wide analysis and diel proteomic profiling of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis PCC 8005.

    PubMed

    Matallana-Surget, Sabine; Derock, Jérémy; Leroy, Baptiste; Badri, Hanène; Deschoenmaeker, Frédéric; Wattiez, Ruddy

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis has a long history of use as a food supply and it has been used by the European Space Agency in the MELiSSA project, an artificial microecosystem which supports life during long-term manned space missions. This study assesses progress in the field of cyanobacterial shotgun proteomics and light/dark diurnal cycles by focusing on Arthrospira platensis. Several fractionation workflows including gel-free and gel-based protein/peptide fractionation procedures were used and combined with LC-MS/MS analysis, enabling the overall identification of 1306 proteins, which represents 21% coverage of the theoretical proteome. A total of 30 proteins were found to be significantly differentially regulated under light/dark growth transition. Interestingly, most of the proteins showing differential abundance were related to photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle and translation processes. A novel aspect and major achievement of this work is the successful improvement of the cyanobacterial proteome coverage using a 3D LC-MS/MS approach, based on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography, a suitable tool that enabled us to eliminate the most abundant protein, the allophycocyanin. We also demonstrated that cell growth follows a light/dark cycle in A. platensis. This preliminary proteomic study has highlighted new characteristics of the Arthrospira platensis proteome in terms of diurnal regulation.

  4. Quantitative Proteome Profiling of C. burnetii under Tetracycline Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vranakis, Iosif; De Bock, Pieter-Jan; Papadioti, Anastasia; Tselentis, Yannis; Gevaert, Kris; Tsiotis, Georgios; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The recommended antibiotic regimen against Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of Q fever, is based on a semi-synthetic, second-generation tetracycline, doxycycline. Here, we report on the comparison of the proteomes of a C. burnetii reference strain either cultured under control conditions or under tetracycline stress conditions. Using the MS-driven combined fractional diagonal chromatography proteomics technique, out of the 531 proteins identified, 5 and 19 proteins were found significantly up- and down-regulated respectively, under tetracycline stress. Although the predicted cellular functions of these regulated proteins did not point to known tetracycline resistance mechanisms, our data clearly reveal the plasticity of the proteome of C. burnetii to battle tetracycline stress. Finally, we raise several plausible hypotheses that could further lead to more focused experiments on studying tetracycline resistance in C. burnetii and thus reduced treatment failures of Q fever. PMID:22438959

  5. Proteomic profiling reveals insights into Triticeae stigma development and function.

    PubMed

    Nazemof, Nazila; Couroux, Philippe; Rampitsch, Christof; Xing, Tim; Robert, Laurian S

    2014-11-01

    To our knowledge, this study represents the first high-throughput characterization of a stigma proteome in the Triticeae. A total of 2184 triticale mature stigma proteins were identified using three different gel-based approaches combined with mass spectrometry. The great majority of these proteins are described in a Triticeae stigma for the first time. These results revealed many proteins likely to play important roles in stigma development and pollen-stigma interactions, as well as protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Quantitative comparison of the triticale stigma transcriptome and proteome showed poor correlation, highlighting the importance of having both types of analysis. This work makes a significant contribution towards the elucidation of the Triticeae stigma proteome and provides novel insights into its role in stigma development and function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Comparative bioinformatics analyses and profiling of lysosome-related organelle proteomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhang-Zhi; Valencia, Julio C.; Huang, Hongzhan; Chi, An; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hearing, Vincent J.; Appella, Ettore; Wu, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    Complete and accurate profiling of cellular organelle proteomes, while challenging, is important for the understanding of detailed cellular processes at the organelle level. Mass spectrometry technologies coupled with bioinformatics analysis provide an effective approach for protein identification and functional interpretation of organelle proteomes. In this study, we have compiled human organelle reference datasets from large-scale proteomic studies and protein databases for seven lysosome-related organelles (LROs), as well as the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, for comparative organelle proteome analysis. Heterogeneous sources of human organelle proteins and rodent homologs are mapped to human UniProtKB protein entries based on ID and/or peptide mappings, followed by functional annotation and categorization using the iProXpress proteomic expression analysis system. Cataloging organelle proteomes allows close examination of both shared and unique proteins among various LROs and reveals their functional relevance. The proteomic comparisons show that LROs are a closely related family of organelles. The shared proteins indicate the dynamic and hybrid nature of LROs, while the unique transmembrane proteins may represent additional candidate marker proteins for LROs. This comparative analysis, therefore, provides a basis for hypothesis formulation and experimental validation of organelle proteins and their functional roles.

  7. Proteome-Wide Profiling of Targets of Cysteine reactive Small Molecules by Using Ethynyl Benziodoxolone Reagents.

    PubMed

    Abegg, Daniel; Frei, Reto; Cerato, Luca; Prasad Hari, Durga; Wang, Chao; Waser, Jerome; Adibekian, Alexander

    2015-09-07

    In this study, we present a highly efficient method for proteomic profiling of cysteine residues in complex proteomes and in living cells. Our method is based on alkynylation of cysteines in complex proteomes using a "clickable" alkynyl benziodoxolone bearing an azide group. This reaction proceeds fast, under mild physiological conditions, and with a very high degree of chemoselectivity. The formed azide-capped alkynyl-cysteine adducts are readily detectable by LC-MS/MS, and can be further functionalized with TAMRA or biotin alkyne via CuAAC. We demonstrate the utility of alkynyl benziodoxolones for chemical proteomics applications by identifying the proteomic targets of curcumin, a diarylheptanoid natural product that was and still is part of multiple human clinical trials as anticancer agent. Our results demonstrate that curcumin covalently modifies several key players of cellular signaling and metabolism, most notably the enzyme casein kinase I gamma. We anticipate that this new method for cysteine profiling will find broad application in chemical proteomics and drug discovery.

  8. Fractionation profiling: a fast and versatile approach for mapping vesicle proteomes and protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Borner, Georg H. H.; Hein, Marco Y.; Hirst, Jennifer; Edgar, James R.; Mann, Matthias; Robinson, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    We developed “fractionation profiling,” a method for rapid proteomic analysis of membrane vesicles and protein particles. The approach combines quantitative proteomics with subcellular fractionation to generate signature protein abundance distribution profiles. Functionally associated groups of proteins are revealed through cluster analysis. To validate the method, we first profiled >3500 proteins from HeLa cells and identified known clathrin-coated vesicle proteins with >90% accuracy. We then profiled >2400 proteins from Drosophila S2 cells, and we report the first comprehensive insect clathrin-coated vesicle proteome. Of importance, the cluster analysis extends to all profiled proteins and thus identifies a diverse range of known and novel cytosolic and membrane-associated protein complexes. We show that it also allows the detailed compositional characterization of complexes, including the delineation of subcomplexes and subunit stoichiometry. Our predictions are presented in an interactive database. Fractionation profiling is a universal method for defining the clathrin-coated vesicle proteome and may be adapted for the analysis of other types of vesicles and particles. In addition, it provides a versatile tool for the rapid generation of large-scale protein interaction maps. PMID:25165137

  9. Extracellular Proteome Profiling of Bacillus pumilus SCU11 Producing Alkaline Protease for Dehairing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Shiqiang; Song, Ting; He, Tingting; Shao, Huanhuan; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-11-28

    Bacillus pumilus is one of the most characterized microorganisms that are used for high-level production of select industrial enzymes. A novel B. pumilus SCU11 strain possessing high alkaline protease activity was obtained in our previous work. The culture supernatant of this strain showed efficient dehairing capability with minimal collagen damage, indicating promising potential applications in the leather industry. In this study, the strain's extracellular proteome was identified by LC-MS/MS-based shotgun proteomic analysis, and their related secretory pathways were characterized by BLAST searches. A total of 513 proteins, including 100 actual secreted and 413 intracellular proteins, were detected in the extracellular proteome. The functions of these secreted proteins were elucidated and four complete secretory systems (Sec, Tat, Com, and ABC transporter) were proposed for B. pumilus. These data provide B. pumilus a comprehensive extracellular proteome profile, which is a valuable theoretical and applicative basis for future genetic modifications and development of industrial enzymes.

  10. Chemical proteomic probes for profiling cytochrome P450 activities and drug interactions in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2007-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (P450) superfamily metabolizes many endogenous signaling molecules and drugs. P450 enzymes are regulated by post-translational mechanisms in vivo, which hinders their functional characterization by conventional genomic or proteomic methods. Here, we describe a chemical proteomic strategy to profile P450 activities directly in living systems. Derivatization of a mechanism-based inhibitor with a “clickable” handle provided an activity-based probe that labels multiple P450s both in proteomic extracts and in vivo. This probe was used to record alterations in liver P450 activities triggered by chemical agents, including inducers of P450 expression and direct P450 inhibitors. The chemical proteomic strategy described herein thus offers a versatile method to monitor P450 activities and small molecule interactions in any biological system and, through doing so, should facilitate the functional characterization of this large and diverse enzyme class. PMID:17884636

  11. The proteome of Hypobaric Induced Hypoxic Lung: Insights from Temporal Proteomic Profiling for Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Yasmin; Sharma, Narendra K.; Ahmad, Mohammad Faiz; Sharma, Manish; Garg, Iti; Srivastava, Mousami; Bhargava, Kalpana

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high altitude induces physiological responses due to hypoxia. Lungs being at the first level to face the alterations in oxygen levels are critical to counter and balance these changes. Studies have been done analysing pulmonary proteome alterations in response to exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. However, such studies have reported the alterations at specific time points and do not reflect the gradual proteomic changes. These studies also identify the various biochemical pathways and responses induced after immediate exposure and the resolution of these effects in challenge to hypobaric hypoxia. In the present study, using 2-DE/MS approach, we attempt to resolve these shortcomings by analysing the proteome alterations in lungs in response to different durations of exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Our study thus highlights the gradual and dynamic changes in pulmonary proteome following hypobaric hypoxia. For the first time, we also report the possible consideration of SULT1A1, as a biomarker for the diagnosis of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Higher SULT1A1 levels were observed in rats as well as in humans exposed to high altitude, when compared to sea-level controls. This study can thus form the basis for identifying biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in responses to hypobaric hypoxia. PMID:26022216

  12. Bead Based Proteome Enrichment Enhances Features of the Protein Elution Plate (PEP) for Functional Proteomic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing; Davies, Michael; Roy, Swapan; Kuruc, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    A novel functional proteomics technology called PEP(Protein Elution Plate) was developed to separate complex proteomes from natural sources and analyze protein functions systematically. The technology takes advantage of the powerful resolution of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D Gels). The modification of electrophoretic conditions in combination with a high-resolution protein elution plate supports the recovery of functionally active proteins. As 2DE(2-Dimensional Electrophoresis) resolution can be limited by protein load, we investigated the use of bead based enrichment technologies, called AlbuVoid™ and KinaSorb™ to determine their effect on the proteomic features which can be generated from the PEP platform. Using a variety of substrates and enzyme activity assays, we report on the benefits of combining bead based enrichment to improve the signal report and the features generated for Hexokinase, Protein Kinase, Protease, and Alkaline Phosphatase activities. As a result, the PEP technology allows systematic analysis of large enzyme families and can build a comprehensive picture of protein function from a complex proteome, providing biological insights that could otherwise not be observed if only protein abundances were analyzed. PMID:28248280

  13. Proteomic Profiling of Bladders from Mice Exposed with Sodium Arsenite

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic, an environmental contaminant, has been linked with cancer of the bladder in humans. To study the mode of action of arsenic, female CH3 mice were exposed to 85 ppm sodium arsenite in their drinking water for 30 days. Following the exposure a comparative proteomic analysis...

  14. Proteome Profiling of Wheat Shoots from Different Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Lam Dai; Verstraeten, Inge; Stes, Elisabeth; Van Bel, Michiel; Coppens, Frederik; Gevaert, Kris; De Smet, Ive

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is a cereal grain and one of the world’s major food crops. Recent advances in wheat genome sequencing are by now facilitating its genomic and proteomic analyses. However, little is known about possible differences in total protein levels of hexaploid versus tetraploid wheat cultivars, and also knowledge of phosphorylated wheat proteins is still limited. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the proteome of seedling leaves from two hexaploid wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. Pavon 76 and USU-Apogee) and one tetraploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. durum cv. Senatore Cappelli). Our shotgun proteomics data revealed that, whereas we observed some significant differences, overall a high similarity between hexaploid and tetraploid varieties with respect to protein abundance was observed. In addition, already at the seedling stage, a small set of proteins was differential between the small (USU-Apogee) and larger hexaploid wheat cultivars (Pavon 76), which could potentially act as growth predictors. Finally, the phosphosites identified in this study can be retrieved from the in-house developed plant PTM-Viewer (bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/webtools/ptm_viewer/), making this the first searchable repository for phosphorylated wheat proteins. This paves the way for further in depth, quantitative (phospho)proteome-wide differential analyses upon a specific trigger or environmental change. PMID:28348574

  15. Proteomic profiling of high risk medulloblastoma reveals functional biology

    PubMed Central

    Staal, Jerome A.; Lau, Ling San; Zhang, Huizhen; Ingram, Wendy J.; Hallahan, Andrew R.; Northcott, Paul A.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Rusert, Jessica M.; Taylor, Michael D.; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Packer, Roger J.; Brown, Kristy J.; Rood, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic characterization of medulloblastoma has improved molecular risk classification but struggles to define functional biological processes, particularly for the most aggressive subgroups. We present here a novel proteomic approach to this problem using a reference library of stable isotope labeled medulloblastoma-specific proteins as a spike-in standard for accurate quantification of the tumor proteome. Utilizing high-resolution mass spectrometry, we quantified the tumor proteome of group 3 medulloblastoma cells and demonstrate that high-risk MYC amplified tumors can be segregated based on protein expression patterns. We cross-validated the differentially expressed protein candidates using an independent transcriptomic data set and further confirmed them in a separate cohort of medulloblastoma tissue samples to identify the most robust proteogenomic differences. Interestingly, highly expressed proteins associated with MYC-amplified tumors were significantly related to glycolytic metabolic pathways via alternative splicing of pyruvate kinase (PKM) by heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins (HNRNPs). Furthermore, when maintained under hypoxic conditions, these MYC-amplified tumors demonstrated increased viability compared to non-amplified tumors within the same subgroup. Taken together, these findings highlight the power of proteomics as an integrative platform to help prioritize genetic and molecular drivers of cancer biology and behavior. PMID:25970789

  16. Proteomic technology for biomarker profiling in cancer: an update*

    PubMed Central

    Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A.; Xu, Ying-jie

    2006-01-01

    The progress in the understanding of cancer progression and early detection has been slow and frustrating due to the complex multifactorial nature and heterogeneity of the cancer syndrome. To date, no effective treatment is available for advanced cancers, which remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Clearly, there is urgent need to unravel novel biomarkers for early detection. Most of the functional information of the cancer-associated genes resides in the proteome. The later is an exceptionally complex biological system involving several proteins that function through posttranslational modifications and dynamic intermolecular collisions with partners. These protein complexes can be regulated by signals emanating from cancer cells, their surrounding tissue microenvironment, and/or from the host. Some proteins are secreted and/or cleaved into the extracellular milieu and may represent valuable serum biomarkers for diagnosis purpose. It is estimated that the cancer proteome may include over 1.5 million proteins as a result of posttranslational processing and modifications. Such complexity clearly highlights the need for ultra-high resolution proteomic technology for robust quantitative protein measurements and data acquisition. This review is to update the current research efforts in high-resolution proteomic technology for discovery and monitoring cancer biomarkers. PMID:16625706

  17. Proteomic profiling of high risk medulloblastoma reveals functional biology.

    PubMed

    Staal, Jerome A; Lau, Ling San; Zhang, Huizhen; Ingram, Wendy J; Hallahan, Andrew R; Northcott, Paul A; Pfister, Stefan M; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Rusert, Jessica M; Taylor, Michael D; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Packer, Roger J; Brown, Kristy J; Rood, Brian R

    2015-06-10

    Genomic characterization of medulloblastoma has improved molecular risk classification but struggles to define functional biological processes, particularly for the most aggressive subgroups. We present here a novel proteomic approach to this problem using a reference library of stable isotope labeled medulloblastoma-specific proteins as a spike-in standard for accurate quantification of the tumor proteome. Utilizing high-resolution mass spectrometry, we quantified the tumor proteome of group 3 medulloblastoma cells and demonstrate that high-risk MYC amplified tumors can be segregated based on protein expression patterns. We cross-validated the differentially expressed protein candidates using an independent transcriptomic data set and further confirmed them in a separate cohort of medulloblastoma tissue samples to identify the most robust proteogenomic differences. Interestingly, highly expressed proteins associated with MYC-amplified tumors were significantly related to glycolytic metabolic pathways via alternative splicing of pyruvate kinase (PKM) by heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins (HNRNPs). Furthermore, when maintained under hypoxic conditions, these MYC-amplified tumors demonstrated increased viability compared to non-amplified tumors within the same subgroup. Taken together, these findings highlight the power of proteomics as an integrative platform to help prioritize genetic and molecular drivers of cancer biology and behavior.

  18. Proteomic Profiling of Bladders from Mice Exposed with Sodium Arsenite

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic, an environmental contaminant, has been linked with cancer of the bladder in humans. To study the mode of action of arsenic, female CH3 mice were exposed to 85 ppm sodium arsenite in their drinking water for 30 days. Following the exposure a comparative proteomic analysis...

  19. Proteome Profile and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) Follicular Fluid during Follicle Development.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Huang, Yulin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Fumei; Huang, Delun; Lu, Yangqing; Liang, Xianwei; Zhang, Ming

    2016-04-29

    Follicular fluid (FF) accumulates in the antrum of the ovarian follicle and provides the microenvironment for oocyte development. FF plays an important role in follicle growth and oocyte maturation. The FF provides a unique window to investigate the processes occurring during buffalo follicular development. The observed low quality of buffalo oocytes may arise from the poor follicular microenvironment. Investigating proteins found in buffalo FF (BFF) should provide insight into follicular development processes and provide further understanding of intra-follicular maturation and oocytes quality. Here, a proteomic-based approach was used to analyze the proteome of BFF. SDS-PAGE separation combined with mass spectrometry was used to generate the proteomic dataset. In total, 363 proteins were identified and classified by Gene Ontology terms. The proteins were assigned to 153 pathways, including signaling pathways. To evaluate difference in proteins expressed between BFF with different follicle size (small, <4 mm; and large, >8 mm), a quantitative proteomic analysis based on multi-dimensional liquid chromatography pre-fractionation tandem Orbitrap mass spectrometry identification was performed. Eleven differentially expressed proteins (six downregulated and five upregulated in large BFF) were identified and assigned to a variety of functional processes, including serine protease inhibition, oxidation protection and the complement cascade system. Three differentially expressed proteins, Vimentin, Peroxiredoxin-1 and SERPIND1, were verified by Western blotting, consistent with the quantitative proteomics results. Our datasets offers new information about proteins present in BFF and should facilitate the development of new biomarkers. These differentially expressed proteins illuminate the size-dependent protein changes in follicle microenvironment.

  20. Time-Resolved Proteomics Extends Ribosome Profiling-Based Measurements of Protein Synthesis Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tzu-Yu; Huang, Hector H; Wheeler, Diamond; Xu, Yichen; Wells, James A; Song, Yun S; Wiita, Arun P

    2017-06-28

    Ribosome profiling is a widespread tool for studying translational dynamics in human cells. Its central assumption is that ribosome footprint density on a transcript quantitatively reflects protein synthesis. Here, we test this assumption using pulsed-SILAC (pSILAC) high-accuracy targeted proteomics. We focus on multiple myeloma cells exposed to bortezomib, a first-line chemotherapy and proteasome inhibitor. In the absence of drug effects, we found that direct measurement of protein synthesis by pSILAC correlated well with indirect measurement of synthesis from ribosome footprint density. This correlation, however, broke down under bortezomib-induced stress. By developing a statistical model integrating longitudinal proteomic and mRNA-sequencing measurements, we found that proteomics could directly detect global alterations in translational rate caused by bortezomib; these changes are not detectable by ribosomal profiling alone. Further, by incorporating pSILAC data into a gene expression model, we predict cell-stress specific proteome remodeling events. These results demonstrate that pSILAC provides an important complement to ribosome profiling in measuring proteome dynamics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mass Spectrometry–based Proteomic Profiling of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ocak, Sebahat; Chaurand, Pierre; Massion, Pierre P.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to further our understanding of lung cancer biology and to identify new candidate biomarkers to be used in the management of lung cancer, we need to probe these tissues and biological fluids with tools that address the biology of lung cancer directly at the protein level. Proteins are responsible of the function and phenotype of cells. Cancer cells express proteins that distinguish them from normal cells. Proteomics is defined as the study of the proteome, the complete set of proteins produced by a species, using the technologies of large-scale protein separation and identification. As a result, new technologies are being developed to allow the rapid and systematic analysis of thousands of proteins. The analytical advantages of mass spectrometry (MS), including sensitivity and high-throughput, promise to make it a mainstay of novel biomarker discovery to differentiate cancer from normal cells and to predict individuals likely to develop or recur with lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the progress made in clinical proteomics as it applies to the management of lung cancer. We will focus our discussion on how MS approaches may advance the areas of early detection, response to therapy, and prognostic evaluation. PMID:19349484

  2. Proteome profiling of human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line TOV-112D.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Gagné, Pierre; Hunter, Joanna M; Bonicalzi, Marie-Eve; Lemay, Jean-François; Kelly, Isabelle; Le Page, Cécile; Provencher, Diane; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Droit, Amaud; Bourgais, David; Poirier, Guy G

    2005-07-01

    A proteome profiling of the epithelial ovarian cancer cell line TOV-112D was initiated as a protein expression reference in the study of ovarian cancer. Two complementary proteomic approaches were used in order to maximise protein identification: two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) protein separation coupled to matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE) coupled to liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS). One hundred and seventy-two proteins have been identified among 288 spots selected on two-dimensional gels and a total of 579 proteins were identified with the 1DE LC MS/MS approach. This proteome profiling covers a wide range of protein expression and identifies several proteins known for their oncogenic properties. Bioinformatics tools were used to mine databases in order to determine whether the identified proteins have previously been implicated in pathways associated with carcinogenesis or cell proliferation. Indeed, several of the proteins have been reported to be specific ovarian cancer markers while others are common to many tumorigenic tissues or proliferating cells. The diversity of proteins found and their association with known oncogenic pathways validate this proteomic approach. The proteome 2D map of the TOV-112D cell line will provide a valuable resource in studies on differential protein expression of human ovarian carcinomas while the 1DE LC MS/MS approach gives a picture of the actual protein profile of the TOV-112D cell line. This work represents one of the most complete ovarian protein expression analysis reports to date and the first comparative study of gene expression profiling and proteomic patterns in ovarian cancer.

  3. Comparative proteomic and transcriptomic profile of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms grown in glucose-enriched medium.

    PubMed

    Carvalhais, Virginia; França, Angela; Pier, Gerald B; Vilanova, Manuel; Cerca, Nuno; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important nosocomial agent among carriers of indwelling medical devices, due to its strong ability to form biofilms on inert surfaces. Contrary to some advances made in the transcriptomic field, proteome characterization of S. epidermidis biofilms is less developed. To highlight the relation between transcripts and proteins of S. epidermidis biofilms, we analyzed the proteomic profile obtained by two mechanical lysis methods (sonication and bead beating), associated with two distinct detergent extraction buffers, namely SDS and CHAPS. Based on gel electrophoresis-LC-MS/MS, we identified a total of 453 proteins. While lysis with glass beads provided greater amounts of protein, CHAPS extraction buffer allowed identification of a higher number of proteins compared to SDS. Our data shows the impact of different protein isolation methods in the characterization of the S. epidermidis biofilm proteome. Furthermore, the correlation between proteomic and transcriptomic profiles was evaluated. The results confirmed that proteomic and transcriptomic data should be analyzed simultaneously in order to have a comprehensive understanding of a specific microbiological condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigating the Correspondence Between Transcriptomic and Proteomic Expression Profiles Using Coupled Cluster Models.

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Simon; Girolami, Mark; Kolch, Walter; Waters, Katrina M.; Liu, Tao; Thrall, Brian D.; Wiley, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    Modern transcriptomics and proteomics enable us to survey the expression of RNAs and proteins at large scales. While these data are usually generated and analysed separately, there is an increasing interest in comparing and co-analysing transcriptome and proteome expression data. A major open question is whether transcriptome and proteome expression is linked and how it is coordinated. Results: Here we have developed a probabilistic clustering model that permits analysis of the links between transcriptomic and proteomic profiles in a sensible and flexible manner. Our coupled mixture model defines a prior probability distribution over the component to which a protein profile should be assigned conditioned on which component the associated mRNA profile belongs to. By providing probabilistic assignments this approach sits between the two extremes of concatenating the data on the assumption that mRNA and protein clusters would have a one-to-one relationship, and independent clustering where the mRNA profile provides no information on the protein profile and vice-versa. We apply this approach to a large dataset of quantitative transcriptomic and proteomic expression data obtained from a human breast epithelial cell line (HMEC) stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) over a series of timepoints corresponding to one cell cycle. The results reveal a complex relationship between transcriptome and proteome with most mRNA clusters linked to at least two protein clusters, and vice versa. A more detailed analysis incorporating information on gene function from the gene ontology database shows that a high correlation of mRNA and protein expression is limited to the components of some molecular machines, such as the ribosome, cell adhesion complexes and the TCP-1 chaperonin involved in protein folding. Conclusions: The dynamic regulation of the transcriptome and proteome in mammalian cells in response to an acute mitogenic stimulus appears largely independent with very little

  5. Identification of a metabolizing enzyme in human kidney by proteomic correlation profiling.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidetaka; Kubota, Kazuishi; Inaba, Shin-Ichi; Takanaka, Kaoru; Shinagawa, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Molecular identification of endogenous enzymes and biologically active substances from complex biological sources remains a challenging task, and although traditional biochemical purification is sometimes regarded as outdated, it remains one of the most powerful methodologies for this purpose. While biochemical purification usually requires large amounts of starting material and many separation steps, we developed an advanced method named "proteomic correlation profiling" in our previous study. In proteomic correlation profiling, we first fractionated biological material by column chromatography, and then calculated each protein's correlation coefficient between the enzyme activity profile and protein abundance profile determined by proteomics technology toward fractions. Thereafter, we could choose possible candidates for the enzyme among proteins with a high correlation value by domain predictions using informatics tools. Ultimately, this streamlined procedure requires fewer purification steps and reduces starting materials dramatically due to low required purity compared with conventional approaches. To demonstrate the generality of this approach, we have now applied an improved workflow of proteomic correlation profiling to a drug metabolizing enzyme and successfully identified alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme (ALPL) as a phosphatase of CS-0777 phosphate (CS-0777-P), a selective sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulator with potential benefits in the treatment of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, from human kidney extract. We identified ALPL as a candidate protein only by the 200-fold purification and only from 1 g of human kidney. The identification of ALPL as CS-0777-P phosphatase was strongly supported by a recombinant protein, and contribution of the enzyme in human kidney extract was validated by immunodepletion and a specific inhibitor. This approach can be applied to any kind of enzyme class and biologically active

  6. Proteomic profiling of the infective trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    PubMed

    Caumo, Karin Silva; Monteiro, Karina Mariante; Ott, Thiely Rodrigues; Maschio, Vinicius José; Wagner, Glauber; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2014-12-01

    Acanthamoeba polyphaga is a free-living protozoan pathogen, whose infective trophozoite form is capable of causing a blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis in humans. The damage caused by A. polyphaga trophozoites in human corneal or brain infections is the result of several different pathogenic mechanisms that have not yet been elucidated at the molecular level. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the proteins expressed by A. polyphaga trophozoites, based on complementary 2-DE MS/MS and gel-free LC-MS/MS approaches. Overall, 202 non-redundant proteins were identified. An A. polyphaga proteomic map in the pH range 3-10 was produced, with protein identification for 184 of 370 resolved spots, corresponding to 142 proteins. Additionally, 94 proteins were identified by gel-free LC-MS/MS. Functional classification revealed several proteins with potential importance for pathogen survival and infection of mammalian hosts, including surface proteins and proteins related to defense mechanisms. Our study provided the first comprehensive proteomic survey of the trophozoite infective stage of an Acanthamoeba species, and established foundations for prospective, comparative and functional studies of proteins involved in mechanisms of survival, development, and pathogenicity in A. polyphaga and other pathogenic amoebae.

  7. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling of flatfish (Solea senegalensis) spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Forné, Ignasi; Castellana, Bárbara; Marín-Juez, Rubén; Cerdà, Joan; Abián, Joaquín; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    The Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a marine flatfish of high economic value and a target species for aquaculture. The efforts to reproduce this species in captivity have been hampered by the fact that farmed males (F1) often show lower sperm production and fertilization capacity than wild-type males (F0). Our knowledge on spermatogenesis is however limited to a few studies. In a previous work, we identified by 2-D DIGE several potential protein markers in testis for the poor reproductive performance of F1 males. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were, first, to investigate changes in genes and proteins expressed in the testis throughout spermatogenesis in F0 males by using a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic approaches and, second, to further compare the testis proteome between late spermatogenic stages of F0 and F1 fish to identify potential indicators of hampered reproductive performance in F1 fish. We identified approximately 400 genes and 49 proteins that are differentially expressed during the progression of spermatogenesis and that participate in processes such as transcriptional activation, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, sperm maturation and motility or cytoskeletal remodeling. Interestingly, a number of these proteins differed in abundance between F0 and F1 fish, pointing toward alterations in cytoskeleton, sperm motility, the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the redox state during spermiogenesis as possible causes for the decreased fertility of F1 fish.

  8. Future directions in sex- and Gender-specific Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Marna R; Safdar, Basmah; Choo, Esther K; McGregor, Alyson J; Becker, Lance B; Cone, David C

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Medicine: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes" convened a diverse group of stakeholders to target gaps in emergency medicine (EM) sex- and gender-specific research and identify research priorities. At the close of the conference, the executive committee sought feedback from group leaders and conference attendees about the next critical steps in EM sex- and gender-specific research, goals for their own future research, and anticipated barriers in pursuing this research. This article summarizes this feedback on the future directions in sex- and gender-specific research in emergency care and strategies to overcome barriers. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  9. Methods for Investigation of Targeted Kinase Inhibitor Therapy using Chemical Proteomics and Phosphorylation Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Bin; Haura, Eric B.; Smalley, Keiran S.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Koomen, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorylation acts as a molecular switch for many regulatory events in signaling pathways that drive cell division, proliferation, and apoptosis. Because of the critical nature of these protein post-translational modifications in cancer, drug development programs often focus on inhibitors for kinases and phosphatases, which control protein phosphorylation. Numerous kinase inhibitors have entered clinical use, but prediction of their efficacy and a molecular basis for patient response remain uncertain. Chemical proteomics, the combination of drug affinity chromatography with mass spectrometry, identifies potential target proteins that bind to the drugs. Phosphorylation profiling can complement chemical proteomics by cataloging modifications in the target kinases and their downstream substrates using phosphopeptide enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry. These experiments shed light on the mechanism of disease development and illuminate candidate biomarkers to guide personalized therapeutic strategies. In this review, commonly applied technologies and workflows are discussed to illustrate the role of proteomics in examining tumor biology and therapeutic intervention using kinase inhibitors. PMID:20361944

  10. Profiling the Aspergillus fumigatus proteome in response to caspofungin.

    PubMed

    Cagas, Steven E; Jain, Mohit Raja; Li, Hong; Perlin, David S

    2011-01-01

    The proteomic response of Aspergillus fumigatus to caspofungin was evaluated by gel-free isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) as a means to determine potential biomarkers of drug action. A cell fractionation approach yielding 4 subcellular compartment fractions was used to enhance the resolution of proteins for proteomic analysis. Using iTRAQ, a total of 471 unique proteins were identified in soluble and cell wall/plasma membrane fractions at 24 and 48 h of growth in rich media in a wild-type drug-susceptible strain. A total of 122 proteins showed at least a 2-fold change in relative abundance following exposure to caspofungin (CSF) at just below the minimum effective concentration (0.12 μg/ml). The largest changes were seen in the mitochondrial hypoxia response domain protein (AFUA_1G12250), the level of which decreased >16-fold in the secreted fraction, and ChiA1, the level of which decreased 12.1-fold in the cell wall/plasma membrane fraction. The level of the major allergen and cytotoxin AspF1 was also shown to decrease by 12.1-fold upon the addition of drug. A subsequent iTRAQ analysis of an echinocandin-resistant strain (fks1-S678P) was used to validate proteins specific to drug action. A total of 103 proteins in the 2 fractions tested by iTRAQ were differentially expressed in the wild-type susceptible strain but not significantly changed in the resistant strain. Of these potential biomarkers, 11 had levels that changed at least 12-fold. Microarray analysis of the susceptible strain was performed to evaluate the correlation between proteomics and genomics, with a total of 117 genes found to be changing at least 2-fold. Of these, a total of 22 proteins with significant changes identified by iTRAQ also showed significant gene expression level changes by microarray. Overall, these data have the potential to identify biomarkers that assess the relative efficacy of echinocandin drug therapy.

  11. Proteomic Profiling of Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 Cultivated Under In Vitro Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiao; Wang, Simiao; Zhao, Xiangna; Wang, Xuesong; Li, Huan; Lin, Weishi; Lu, Jing; Zhurina, Daria; Li, Boxing; Riedel, Christian U.; Sun, Yansong; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are frequently used in probiotic food and dairy products. Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 is a promising probiotic candidate strain that displays strong adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and elicits potent anti-inflammatory capacity both in vitro and in murine models of colitis. The recently sequenced genome of B. bifidum S17 has a size of about 2.2 Mb and encodes 1,782 predicted protein-coding genes. In the present study, a comprehensive proteomic profiling was carried out to identify and characterize proteins expressed by B. bifidum S17. A total of 1148 proteins entries were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), representing 64.4% of the predicted proteome. 719 proteins could be assigned to functional categories according to cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COGs). The COG distribution of the detected proteins highly correlates with that of the complete predicted proteome suggesting a good coverage and representation of the genomic content of B. bifidum S17 by the proteome. COGs that were highly present in the proteome of B. bifidum S17 were Translation, Amino Acid Transport and Metabolism, and Carbohydrate Transport and Metabolism. Complete sets of enzymes for both the bifidus shunt and the Embden-Meyerh of pathway were identified. Further bioinformatic analysis yielded 28 proteins with a predicted extracellular localization including 14 proteins with an LPxTG-motif for cell wall anchoring and two proteins (elongation factor Tu and enolase) with a potential moonlighting function in adhesion. Amongst the predicted extracellular proteins were five of six pilin proteins encoded in the B. bifidum S17 genome as well as several other proteins with a potential role in interaction with host structures. The presented results are the first compilation of a proteomic reference profile for a B. bifidum strain and will facilitate analysis of the molecular mechanisms of physiology, host-interactions and

  12. Construction of protein profile classification model and screening of proteomic signature of acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yun; Zhuo, Jiacai; Duan, Yonggang; Shi, Benhang; Chen, Xuhong; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xiao, Liang; Lou, Jin; Huang, Ruihong; Zhang, Qiongli; Du, Xin; Li, Ming; Wang, Daping; Shi, Dunyun

    2014-01-01

    The French-American-British (FAB) and WHO classifications provide important guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic prediction of acute leukemia, but are incapable of accurately differentiating all subtypes, and not well correlated with the clinical outcomes. In this study, we performed the protein profiling of the bone marrow mononuclear cells from the patients with acute leukemia and the health volunteers (control) by surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI_TOF_MS). The patients with acute leukemia were analyzed as unitary by the profiling that were grouped into acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), acute myeloid leukemia-granulocytic (AML-Gran), acute myeloid leukemia-monocytic (AML-Mon) acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and control. Based on 109 proteomic signatures, the classification models of acute leukemia were constructed to screen the predictors by the improvement of the proteomic signatures and to detect their expression characteristics. According to the improvement and the expression characteristics of the predictors, the proteomic signatures (M3829, M1593, M2121, M2536, M1016) characterized successively each group (CON, APL, AML-Gra, AML-Mon, ALL) were screened as target molecules for identification. Meanwhile, the proteomic-based class of determinant samples could be made by the classification models. The credibility of the proteomic-based classification passed the evaluation of Biomarker Patterns Software 5.0 (BPS 5.0) scoring and validated application in clinical practice. The results suggested that the proteomic signatures characterized by different blasts were potential for developing new treatment and monitoring approaches of leukemia blasts. Moreover, the classification model was potential in serving as new diagnose approach of leukemia. PMID:25337199

  13. The proteomic profile of whole and glandular saliva in healthy pain-free subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jasim, Hajer; Olausson, Patrik; Hedenberg-Magnusson, Britt; Ernberg, Malin; Ghafouri, Bijar

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the variability in the salivary proteome is a prerequisite for the development of saliva as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in particular physiological states. In this context, it is important that technical variability induced by sample collection and processing is kept at minimum to be able to reproducibly assess variability in states of health and disease. In the current study, the proteome profile in unstimulated and stimulated whole, parotid and sublingual saliva was investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Saliva samples were structurally collected from ten examined and characterized healthy individuals during the exactly same conditions. The results demonstrated that different collection methods provide clear differences in the snapshot of the salivary proteome and also in the relative amount of specific proteins. The variable nature of the salivary proteome suggests that different approaches may have to be adopted when studying its composition or its possible role as an indicator for particular physiological states. The results emphasize the importance of consistency when collecting saliva samples for proteomic analysis. PMID:27976689

  14. Proteomics profiling of ethylene-induced tomato flower pedicel abscission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-lin; Qi, Ming-fang; Xu, Tao; Lu, Xiu-jun; Li, Tian-lai

    2015-05-21

    The control of abscission is an important agricultural concern because of its substantial effect on crop yield and quality. Changes in gene expression are correlated with the ethylene-mediated execution of abscission. However, only few large-scale proteomic studies focused on tomato pedicel abscission. Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used to examine the protein and phosphoprotein changes in the tomato pedicel AZ (AZ) treated with ethylene or 1-methylcyclopropene. Among the 1429 quantified proteins, 383 unique peptides corresponding to 166 proteins showed higher than 1.5-fold change in abundance. A total of 450 phosphopeptides were detected, among which 85 phosphopeptides corresponding to 73 phosphoproteins were significantly regulated (>1.5-fold abundance change) in response to ethylene. Protein and phosphoprotein sets showed 26 similar proteins. Six phosphorylation motifs were extracted from the 138 phosphorylation sites. By analyzing translational and modification levels, we found that the modification level was not due to the translational changes. Comparison between the protein and phosphoprotein functions revealed that the proteins acted mainly in the metabolic process and showed catalytic activity, whereas most of the phosphoproteins showed signaling and transporting activities. Data revealed the unique features of the AZ phosphoproteomics, thereby suggesting the involvement of a complex network of kinase-substrate and phosphatase-substrate interactions in response to ethylene. Some phosphorylation sites from calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK5(S523)), CDPK5(S527), and SRL3(S329) were also found to perform protective functions for AZ and to be helpful in ethylene signal transduction. Organ abscission has both positive and negative roles. Abscission is conducive for the fall of ripe fruits and the release and dispersion of seeds, but abscission has been a major limiting factor for crop productivity. Hence, more details

  15. Three-dimensional electrophoresis for quantitative profiling of complex proteomes.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Sergio; Colignon, Bertrand; Dieu, Marc; Delaive, Edouard; Raes, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative 2D-gel-dependent proteomics became feasible with 2D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and this technique has gained wide acceptance because it has eliminated the gel to gel variations and greatly facilitated the quantitative comparisons across gels for many different experimental conditions. However, the co-migration of several proteins in the same spot is still a major limitation which detracts from the accuracy of comparative quantification and prevents unambiguous post-translational modifications (PTMs) detection.A protocol based on traditional polyacrylamide gel IEF sample fractionation, and followed by two consecutive SDS-PAGE electrophoreses alleviates co-migration limitations. The use of two different buffer systems for SDS-PAGE is central to the proposed approach.

  16. Unravelling the proteomic profile of rice meiocytes during early meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Romero, Melania; Alós, Enriqueta; Prieto, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Transfer of genetic traits from wild or related species into cultivated rice is nowadays an important aim in rice breeding. Breeders use genetic crosses to introduce desirable genes from exotic germplasms into cultivated rice varieties. However, in many hybrids there is only a low level of pairing (if existing) and recombination at early meiosis between cultivated rice and wild relative chromosomes. With the objective of getting deeper into the knowledge of the proteins involved in early meiosis, when chromosomes associate correctly in pairs and recombine, the proteome of isolated rice meiocytes has been characterized by nLC-MS/MS at every stage of early meiosis (prophase I). Up to 1316 different proteins have been identified in rice isolated meiocytes in early meiosis, being 422 exclusively identified in early prophase I (leptotene, zygotene, or pachytene). The classification of proteins in functional groups showed that 167 were related to chromatin structure and remodeling, nucleic acid binding, cell-cycle regulation, and cytoskeleton. Moreover, the putative roles of 16 proteins which have not been previously associated to meiosis or were not identified in rice before, are also discussed namely: seven proteins involved in chromosome structure and remodeling, five regulatory proteins [such as SKP1 (OSK), a putative CDK2 like effector], a protein with RNA recognition motifs, a neddylation-related protein, and two microtubule-related proteins. Revealing the proteins involved in early meiotic processes could provide a valuable tool kit to manipulate chromosome associations during meiosis in rice breeding programs. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with the PXD001058 identifier. PMID:25104955

  17. Proteome profiling of breast cancer biopsies reveals a wound healing signature of cancer-associated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Groessl, Michael; Slany, Astrid; Bileck, Andrea; Gloessmann, Kerstin; Kreutz, Dominique; Jaeger, Walter; Pfeiler, Georg; Gerner, Christopher

    2014-11-07

    Breast cancer is still the most common type of cancer in women; an important role in carcinogenesis is actually attributed to cancer-associated fibroblasts. In this study, we investigated whether it is possible to assess the functional state of cancer-associated fibroblasts through tumor tissue proteome profiling. Tissue proteomics was performed on tumor-central, tumor-near, and tumor-distant biopsy sections from breast adenocarcinoma patients, which allowed us to identify 2074 proteins. Data were interpreted referring to reference proteome profiles generated from primary human mammary fibroblasts comprising 4095 proteins. These cells were analyzed in quiescent cell state as well as after in vitro treatment with TGFβ or IL-1β, stimulating wound healing or inflammatory processes, respectively. Representative for cancer cells, we investigated the mammary carcinoma cell line ZR-75-1, identifying 5212 proteins. All mass analysis data have been made fully accessible via ProteomeXchange, DOI PXD001311 and PXD001323-8. Comparison of tissue proteomics data with all of those reference profiles revealed predominance of cancer cell-derived proteins within the tumor and fibroblast-derived proteins in the tumor-distant tissue sections. Remarkably, proteins characteristic for acute inflammation were hardly identified in the tissue samples. In contrast, several proteins found by us to be induced by TGFβ in mammary fibroblasts, including fibulin-5, SLC2A1, and MUC18, were positively identified in all tissue samples, with relatively higher abundance in tumor neighboring tissue sections. These findings indicate a predominance of cancer-associated fibroblasts with wound healing activities localized around tumors.

  18. Riboflavin deficiency induces a significant change in proteomic profiles in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhonghao; Pu, Lingling; Gao, Weina; Wang, Yawen; Wei, Jingyu; Shi, Tala; Yao, Zhanxin; Guo, Changjiang

    2017-01-01

    Riboflavin deficiency is widespread in many regions over the world, especially in underdeveloped countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of riboflavin deficiency on protein expression profiles in HepG2 cells in order to provide molecular information for the abnormalities induced by riboflavin deficiency. HepG2 cells were cultured in media containing different concentrations of riboflavin. Changes of cell viability and apoptosis were assessed. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed using a label-free shotgun method with LC–MS/MS to investigate the global changes of proteomic profiles in response to riboflavin deficiency. Immunoblotting test was used to validate the results of proteomic approach. The cell viability and apoptosis tests showed that riboflavin was vital in maintaining the cytoactivity of HepG2 cells. The label-free proteomic analysis revealed that a total of 37 proteins showing differential expression (±2 fold, p < 0.05) were identified after riboflavin deficiency. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the riboflavin deficiency caused an up-regulation of Parkinson’s disease pathway, steroid catabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptotic process, while the fatty acid metabolism, tricarboxylic citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation and iron metabolism were down-regulated. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the effects caused by riboflavin deficiency. PMID:28367977

  19. Riboflavin deficiency induces a significant change in proteomic profiles in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Xin, Zhonghao; Pu, Lingling; Gao, Weina; Wang, Yawen; Wei, Jingyu; Shi, Tala; Yao, Zhanxin; Guo, Changjiang

    2017-04-03

    Riboflavin deficiency is widespread in many regions over the world, especially in underdeveloped countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of riboflavin deficiency on protein expression profiles in HepG2 cells in order to provide molecular information for the abnormalities induced by riboflavin deficiency. HepG2 cells were cultured in media containing different concentrations of riboflavin. Changes of cell viability and apoptosis were assessed. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed using a label-free shotgun method with LC-MS/MS to investigate the global changes of proteomic profiles in response to riboflavin deficiency. Immunoblotting test was used to validate the results of proteomic approach. The cell viability and apoptosis tests showed that riboflavin was vital in maintaining the cytoactivity of HepG2 cells. The label-free proteomic analysis revealed that a total of 37 proteins showing differential expression (±2 fold, p < 0.05) were identified after riboflavin deficiency. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the riboflavin deficiency caused an up-regulation of Parkinson's disease pathway, steroid catabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptotic process, while the fatty acid metabolism, tricarboxylic citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation and iron metabolism were down-regulated. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the effects caused by riboflavin deficiency.

  20. Protease specificity profiling by tandem mass spectrometry using proteome-derived peptide libraries.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Oliver; auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Overall, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    Protease specificity profiling using proteome-derived, database-searchable peptide libraries is a novel approach to define the active site specificity of proteolytic enzymes we call PICS (Proteomic Identification of protease Cleavage Sites). Proteome-derived peptide libraries are generated by trypsin, GluC, or chymotrypsin digestion of biologically relevant proteomes, such as cytosolic lysates, to generate three separate libraries that each differ from the others in their C-terminal amino acid residues according to the protease specificity. Primary amines of all peptides are then chemically protected so that after incubation with a test protease, the neo-N-termini of the prime-side cleavage products with exposed α-amines can be specifically biotinylated, enriched, and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The corresponding nonprime-side sequences are derived bioinformatically. Suited for all protease classes except carboxyproteases and those aminoproteases and dipeptidases requiring a free α-amine for cleavage, PICS simultaneously profiles the specificity of prime and nonprime positions and directly determines scissile peptide bonds of up to hundreds of cleavage site sequences in a single experiment. This wealth of sequence specificity information also allows for the investigation of subsite cooperativity. Herein we describe a simplified procedure to produce PICS peptide libraries, the methods to perform a PICS assay, and a new method of data analysis.

  1. Alternative profiling platform based on MELDI and its applicability in clinical proteomics.

    PubMed

    Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Rainer, Matthias; Trojer, Lukas; Feuerstein, Isabel; Vallant, Rainer Markus; Huck, Christian W; Bakry, Rania; Bonn, Günther Karl

    2007-08-01

    The presence of numerous proteomics data and their results in literature reveal the importance and influence of proteins and peptides on human cell cycle. For instance, the proteomic profiling of biological samples, such as serum, plasma or cells, and their organelles, carried out by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, has led to the discovery of numerous key proteins involved in many biological disease processes. However, questions still remain regarding the reproducibility, bioinformatic artifacts and cross-validations of such experimental set-ups. The authors have developed a material-based approach, termed material-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MELDI-MS), to facilitate and improve the robustness of large-scale proteomic experiments. MELDI-MS includes a fully automated protein-profiling platform, from sample preparation and analysis to data processing involving state-of-the-art methods, which can be further improved. Multiplexed protein pattern analysis, based on material morphology, physical characteristics and chemical functionalities provides a multitude of protein patterns and allows prostate cancer samples to be distinguished from non-prostate cancer samples. Furthermore, MELDI-MS enables not only the analysis of protein signatures, but also the identification of potential discriminating peaks via capillary liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The optimized MELDI approach offers a complete proteomics platform with improved sensitivity, selectivity and short sample preparation times.

  2. Constructing the 'gender-specific body': A critical discourse analysis of publications in the field of gender-specific medicine.

    PubMed

    Annandale, Ellen; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-11-01

    Gender-specific medicine, a new and increasingly influential ethos within medical research and practice, has received little critical attention to date. The objective of this article is to critically examine the attributes of gender-specific medicine as imparted by its advocates. Through a critical discourse analysis of its two leading academic journals, we identify five interrelated discourses: of male/female difference; of hegemonic biology; of men's disadvantages; of biological and social reductionism; and of the fragmented body. Together these comprise a master discourse of the 'gender-specific body'. The discourse of the 'gender-specific body' is discussed in relation to the current neoliberal political agenda which frames healthcare as a market good and locates health and illness in individual bodies rather than in the wider social arrangements of society. We argue that the 'gender-specific body' threatens not only to turn back the clock to a vision of the biological body as fixed and determinate, but to extend this ever deeper into the social imagination. Lost in the process is any meaningful sense of the human body as a relatively open system which develops in interaction with its social world. We propose that, as it gains momentum, the 'gender-specific body' is likely progressively to circumscribe our thinking about the health of women and men in potentially problematic ways.

  3. Proteomic profiling of 16 cereal grains and the application of targeted proteomics to detect wheat contamination.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2015-06-05

    Global proteomic analysis utilizing SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS of total protein and gluten-enriched extracts derived from 16 economically important cereals was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of wheat contamination in foods. The number of proteins identified in each grain correlated with the number of entries in publicly available databases, highlighting the importance of continued advances in genome sequencing to facilitate accurate protein identification. Subsequently, candidate wheat-specific peptide markers were evaluated by multiple-reaction monitoring MS. The selected markers were unique to wheat, yet present in a wide range of wheat varieties that represent up to 80% of the bread wheat genome. The final analytical method was rapid (15 min) and robust (CV < 10%), showed linearity (R(2) > 0.98) spanning over 3 orders of magnitude, and was highly selective and sensitive with detection down to 15 mg/kg in intentionally contaminated soy flour. Furthermore, application of this technology revealed wheat contamination in commercially sourced flours, including rye, millet, oats, sorghum, buckwheat and three varieties of soy.

  4. Proteome Profiling of Paulownia Seedlings Infected with Phytoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xibing; Fan, Guoqiang; Dong, Yanpeng; Zhao, Zhenli; Deng, Minjie; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Wenshan

    2017-01-01

    Phytoplasma is an insect-transmitted pathogen that causes witches' broom disease in many plants. Paulownia witches' broom is one of the most destructive diseases threatening Paulownia production. The molecular mechanisms associated with this disease have been investigated by transcriptome sequencing, but changes in protein abundance have not been investigated with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation. Previous results have shown that methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) can help Paulownia seedlings recover from the symptoms of witches' broom and reinstate a healthy morphology. In this study, a transcriptomic-assisted proteomic technique was used to analyze the protein changes in phytoplasma-infected Paulownia tomentosa seedlings, phytoplasma-infected seedlings treated with 20 and 60 mg·L−1 MMS, and healthy seedlings. A total of 2,051 proteins were obtained, 879 of which were found to be differentially abundant in pairwise comparisons between the sample groups. Among the differentially abundant proteins, 43 were related to Paulownia witches' broom disease and many of them were annotated to be involved in photosynthesis, expression of dwarf symptom, energy production, and cell signal pathways. PMID:28344590

  5. Proteomic profiling of the cancer microenvironment by antibody arrays.

    PubMed

    Knezevic, V; Leethanakul, C; Bichsel, V E; Worth, J M; Prabhu, V V; Gutkind, J S; Liotta, L A; Munson, P J; Petricoin, E F; Krizman, D B

    2001-10-01

    Critical changes in protein expression that enable tumors to initiate and progress originate in the local tissue microenvironment, and there are increasing indications that these microenvironmental alterations in protein expression play critical roles in shaping and directing this process. As a model to better understand how patterns of protein expression shape the tissue microenvironment, we analyzed protein expression in tissue derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity through an antibody microarray approach for high-throughput proteomic analysis. Utilizing laser capture microdissection to procure total protein from specific microscopic cellular populations, we demonstrate that quantitative, and potentially qualitative, differences in expression patterns of multiple proteins within epithelial cells reproducibly correlate with oral cavity tumor progression. Furthermore, differential expression of multiple proteins was also found in stromal cells surrounding and adjacent to regions of diseased epithelium that directly correlated with tumor progression of the epithelium. Most of the proteins identified in both cell types are involved in signal transduction pathways, thus we hypothesize that extensive molecular communication involving complex cellular signaling between epithelium and stroma play a key role in driving oral cavity cancer progression.

  6. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling of maize embryos exposed to camptothecin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Camptothecin is a plant alkaloid that specifically binds topoisomerase I, inhibiting its activity and inducing double stranded breaks in DNA, activating the cell responses to DNA damage and, in response to severe treatments, triggering cell death. Results Comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of maize embryos that had been exposed to camptothecin were conducted. Under the conditions used in this study, camptothecin did not induce extensive degradation in the genomic DNA but induced the transcription of genes involved in DNA repair and repressed genes involved in cell division. Camptothecin also affected the accumulation of several proteins involved in the stress response and induced the activity of certain calcium-dependent nucleases. We also detected changes in the expression and accumulation of different genes and proteins involved in post-translational regulatory processes. Conclusions This study identified several genes and proteins that participate in DNA damage responses in plants. Some of them may be involved in general responses to stress, but others are candidate genes for specific involvement in DNA repair. Our results open a number of new avenues for researching and improving plant resistance to DNA injury. PMID:21595924

  7. Proteomic Profiling of Mouse Liver following Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Jun; Ma, Jun; Elsheikha, Hany M; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii remains a global public health problem. However, its pathophysiology is still not-completely understood particularly the impact of infection on host liver metabolism. We performed iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis to evaluate early liver protein responses in BALB/c mice following infection with T. gondii PYS strain (genotype ToxoDB#9) infection. Our data revealed modification of protein expression in key metabolic pathways, as indicated by the upregulation of immune response and downregulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain, and the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and xenobiotics. T. gondii seems to hijack host PPAR signaling pathway to downregulate the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and energy in the liver. The metabolism of over 400 substances was affected by the downregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. The top 10 transcription factors used by upregulated genes were Stat2, Stat1, Irf2, Irf1, Sp2, Egr1, Stat3, Klf4, Elf1 and Gabpa, while the top 10 transcription factors of downregulated genes were Hnf4A, Ewsr1, Fli1, Hnf4g, Nr2f1, Pparg, Rxra, Hnf1A, Foxa1 and Foxo1. These findings indicate global reprogramming of the metabolism of the mouse liver after acute T. gondii infection. Functional characterization of the altered proteins may enhance understanding of the host responses to T. gondii infection and lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets.

  8. Proteomic Profiling of Mouse Liver following Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun-Jun; Ma, Jun; Elsheikha, Hany M.; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii remains a global public health problem. However, its pathophysiology is still not-completely understood particularly the impact of infection on host liver metabolism. We performed iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis to evaluate early liver protein responses in BALB/c mice following infection with T. gondii PYS strain (genotype ToxoDB#9) infection. Our data revealed modification of protein expression in key metabolic pathways, as indicated by the upregulation of immune response and downregulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain, and the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and xenobiotics. T. gondii seems to hijack host PPAR signaling pathway to downregulate the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and energy in the liver. The metabolism of over 400 substances was affected by the downregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. The top 10 transcription factors used by upregulated genes were Stat2, Stat1, Irf2, Irf1, Sp2, Egr1, Stat3, Klf4, Elf1 and Gabpa, while the top 10 transcription factors of downregulated genes were Hnf4A, Ewsr1, Fli1, Hnf4g, Nr2f1, Pparg, Rxra, Hnf1A, Foxa1 and Foxo1. These findings indicate global reprogramming of the metabolism of the mouse liver after acute T. gondii infection. Functional characterization of the altered proteins may enhance understanding of the host responses to T. gondii infection and lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:27003162

  9. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yikwon; Han, Dohyun; Min, Hophil; Jin, Jonghwa; Yi, Eugene C.; Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal cancers and is associated with limited diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Currently, gemcitabine is the only effective drug and represents the preferred first-line treatment for chemotherapy. However, a high level of intrinsic or acquired resistance of pancreatic cancer to gemcitabine can contribute to the failure of gemcitabine treatment. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms for gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer, we performed label-free quantification of protein expression in intrinsic gemcitabine-resistant and - sensitive human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines using our improved proteomic strategy, combined with filter-aided sample preparation, single-shot liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, enhanced spectral counting, and a statistical method based on a power law global error model. We identified 1931 proteins and quantified 787 differentially expressed proteins in the BxPC3, PANC-1, and HPDE cell lines. Bioinformatics analysis identified 15 epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and 13 EMT-related proteins that were closely associated with drug resistance were differentially expressed. Interestingly, 8 of these proteins were involved in glutathione and cysteine/methionine metabolism. These results suggest that proteins related to the EMT and glutathione metabolism play important roles in the development of intrinsic gemcitabine resistance by pancreatic cancer cell lines. PMID:25518923

  10. Identification and proteomic profiling of exosomes in human urine.

    PubMed

    Pisitkun, Trairak; Shen, Rong-Fong; Knepper, Mark A

    2004-09-07

    Urine provides an alternative to blood plasma as a potential source of disease biomarkers. One urinary biomarker already exploited in clinical studies is aquaporin-2. However, it remains a mystery how aquaporin-2 (an integral membrane protein) and other apical transporters are delivered to the urine. Here we address the hypothesis that these proteins reach the urine through the secretion of exosomes [membrane vesicles that originate as internal vesicles of multivesicular bodies (MVBs)]. Low-density urinary membrane vesicles from normal human subjects were isolated by differential centrifugation. ImmunoGold electron microscopy using antibodies directed to cytoplasmic or anticytoplasmic epitopes revealed that the vesicles are oriented "cytoplasmic-side inward," consistent with the unique orientation of exosomes. The vesicles were small (<100 nm), consistent with studies of MVBs and exosomes from other tissues. Proteomic analysis of urinary vesicles through nanospray liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified numerous protein components of MVBs and of the endosomal pathway in general. Full liquid chromatography-tandem MS analysis revealed 295 proteins, including multiple protein products of genes already known to be responsible for renal and systemic diseases, including autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, Gitelman syndrome, Bartter syndrome, autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, and familial renal hypomagnesemia. The results indicate that exosome isolation may provide an efficient first step in biomarker discovery in urine.

  11. Sample size determination in clinical proteomic profiling experiments using mass spectrometry for class comparison.

    PubMed

    Cairns, David A; Barrett, Jennifer H; Billingham, Lucinda J; Stanley, Anthea J; Xinarianos, George; Field, John K; Johnson, Phillip J; Selby, Peter J; Banks, Rosamonde E

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometric profiling approaches such as MALDI-TOF and SELDI-TOF are increasingly being used in disease marker discovery, particularly in the lower molecular weight proteome. However, little consideration has been given to the issue of sample size in experimental design. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the use of sample size calculations in proteomic profiling studies using MS. These sample size calculations can be based on a simple linear mixed model which allows the inclusion of estimates of biological and technical variation inherent in the experiment. The use of a pilot experiment to estimate these components of variance is investigated and is shown to work well when compared with larger studies. Examination of data from a number of studies using different sample types and different chromatographic surfaces shows the need for sample- and preparation-specific sample size calculations.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of the Protein Expression Profile in the Mature Nigella sativa (Black Seed).

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Alfadda, Assim A; AlYahya, Sami A; Alghamdi, Waleed M; Aljohi, Hasan A; Almalik, Abdulaziz; Masood, Afshan

    2016-08-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed has been used as an important nutritional flavoring agent and in traditional medicine for treating many illnesses since ancient times. Understanding the proteomic component of the seed may lead to enhance the understanding of its structural and biological functional complexity. In this study, we have analyzed its proteome profile based on gel-based proteome mapping technique that includes one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry strategy. We have not come across any such studies that have been performed in N. sativa seeds up to date. A total of 277 proteins were identified, and their functional, metabolic, and location-wise annotations were carried out using the UniProt database. The majority of proteins identified in the proteome dataset based on their function were those involved in enzyme catalytic activity, nucleotide binding, and protein binding while the major cellular processes included regulation of biological process followed by regulation of secondary biological process, cell organization and biogenesis, protein metabolism, and transport. The identified proteome was localized mainly to the nucleus then to the cytoplasm, plasma membrane, mitochondria, plastid, and others. A majority of the proteins were involved in biochemical pathways involving carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid and shikimate pathway, lipid metabolism, nucleotide, cell organization and biogenesis, transport, and defense processes. The identified proteins in the dataset help to improve our understanding of the pathways involved in N. sativa seed metabolism and its biochemical features and detail out useful information that may help to utilize these proteins. This study could thus pave a way for future further high-throughput studies using a more targeted proteomic approach.

  13. Proteomic profiling of plasma in Huntington's disease reveals neuroinflammatory activation and biomarker candidates.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Annette; Wild, Edward J; Joubert, Richard; Sathasivam, Kirupa; Björkqvist, Maria; Petersén, Asa; Jackson, Graham S; Isaacs, Jeremy D; Kristiansen, Mark; Bates, Gillian P; Leavitt, Blair R; Keir, Geoff; Ward, Malcolm; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2007-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) causes widespread CNS changes and systemic abnormalities including endocrine and immune dysfunction. HD biomarkers are needed to power clinical trials of potential treatments. We used multiplatform proteomic profiling to reveal plasma changes with HD progression. Proteins of interest were evaluated using immunoblotting and ELISA in plasma from 2 populations, CSF and R6/2 mice. The identified proteins demonstrate neuroinflammation in HD and warrant further investigation as possible biomarkers.

  14. Multilineage potential and proteomic profiling of human dental stem cells derived from a single donor

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, Rajreddy; Kumar, B. Mohana; Lee, Won-Jae; Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon; Jang, Si-Jung; Lee, Yeon-Mi; Park, Bong-Wook; Byun, June-Ho; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jae-Won; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Dental tissues provide an alternative autologous source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine. In this study, we isolated human dental MSCs of follicle, pulp and papilla tissue from a single donor tooth after impacted third molar extraction by excluding the individual differences. We then compared the morphology, proliferation rate, expression of MSC-specific and pluripotency markers, and in vitro differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Finally, we analyzed the protein expression profiles of undifferentiated dental MSCs using 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS. Three types of dental MSCs largely shared similar morphology, proliferation potential, expression of surface markers and pluripotent transcription factors, and differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Upon hepatogenic induction, all MSCs were transdifferentiated into functional HLCs, and acquired hepatocyte functions by showing their ability for glycogen storage and urea production. Based on the proteome profiling results, we identified nineteen proteins either found commonly or differentially expressed among the three types of dental MSCs. In conclusion, three kinds of dental MSCs from a single donor tooth possessed largely similar cellular properties and multilineage potential. Further, these dental MSCs had similar proteomic profiles, suggesting their interchangeable applications for basic research and call therapy. - Highlights: • Isolated and characterized three types of human dental MSCs from a single donor. • MSCs of dental follicle, pulp and papilla had largely similar biological properties. • All MSCs were capable of transdifferentiating into functional hepatocyte-like cells. • 2DE proteomics with MALDI-TOF/MS identified 19 proteins in three types of MSCs. • Similar proteomic profiles suggest interchangeable applications of dental MSCs.

  15. Proteomic profiling of metalloprotease activities with cocktails of active-site probes

    PubMed Central

    Sieber, Stephan A; Niessen, Sherry; Hoover, Heather S; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2006-01-01

    Metalloproteases are a large, diverse class of enzymes involved in many physiological and disease processes. Metalloproteases are regulated by post-translational mechanisms that diminish the effectiveness of conventional genomic and proteomic methods for their functional characterization. Chemical probes directed at active sites offer a potential way to measure metalloprotease activities in biological systems; however, large variations in structure limit the scope of any single small-molecule probe aimed at profiling this enzyme class. Here, we address this problem by creating a library of metalloprotease-directed probes that show complementary target selectivity. These probes were applied as a ‘cocktail’ to proteomes and their labeling profiles were analyzed collectively using an advanced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform. More than 20 metalloproteases were identified, including members from nearly all of the major branches of this enzyme class. These findings suggest that chemical proteomic methods can serve as a universal strategy to profile the activity of the metalloprotease superfamily in complex biological systems. PMID:16565715

  16. Functional profiling of the Tritrichomonas foetus transcriptome and proteome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Yang; Shin, Jyh-Wei; Huang, Po-Jung; Ku, Fu-Man; Lin, Wei-Chen; Lin, Rose; Hsu, Wei-Min; Tang, Petrus

    2013-01-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a potent veterinary pathogen, causing bovine and feline trichomoniasis. The principal clinical manifestation of infection in cattle is inflammation of the genital tract and infertility. In feline, the parasite causes large-bowel disease resulting in chronic diarrhea. In contrast to other well-studied protozoan, genetic data regarding the molecular characterization and expression in T. foetus is far less understood. In this study, the first large-scale T. foetus expressed sequence tag (TfEST) project was conducted on 5064 randomly selected EST clones from a non-normalized unidirectional Tf30924 cDNA library. Assembling of 5064 single-pass sequences from the 5' end resulted in 713 contigs and 1961 singlets. BLAST search revealed that 53.52% of the unigenes showed significant similarity to known sequences or protein motifs/domains. Functional classifications indicated that most of the unigenes are involved in translation, ribosomal structure and ribosome biogenesis. The average GC content of the T. foetus transcriptome is 40.93%. Intriguingly, only 31.29% of the unigenes contain the classical AAUAAA polyadenylation signal sequence at the 3'-UTR region. Furthermore, a panel of potential chemotherapeutic targets was also identified for the first time in T. foetus. The protein expression levels were verified by using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 68 highly abundant protein spots were successfully identified in the reference 2-DE map based on our T. foetus-specific protein database. The EST dataset and the reference 2-DE map established in the present study will provide a foundation for future whole genome sequencing project and comparative transcriptomic/proteomic analyses to provide potential drug targets against T. foetus infection.

  17. Proteomic analysis of propiconazole responses in mouse liver: comparison of genomic and proteomic profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have performed for the first time a comprehensive profiling of changes in protein expression of soluble proteins in livers from mice treated with the mouse liver tumorigen, propiconazole, to uncover the pathways and networks altered by this fungicide. Utilizing twodimensional...

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Propiconazole Responses in Mouse Liver-Comparison of Genomic and Proteomic Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have performed for the first time a comprehensive profiling of changes in protein expression of soluble proteins in livers from mice treated with the mouse liver tumorigen, propiconazole, to uncover the pathways and networks altered by this commonly used fungicide. Utilizing t...

  19. Proteomic analysis of propiconazole responses in mouse liver: comparison of genomic and proteomic profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have performed for the first time a comprehensive profiling of changes in protein expression of soluble proteins in livers from mice treated with the mouse liver tumorigen, propiconazole, to uncover the pathways and networks altered by this fungicide. Utilizing twodimensional...

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Propiconazole Responses in Mouse Liver-Comparison of Genomic and Proteomic Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have performed for the first time a comprehensive profiling of changes in protein expression of soluble proteins in livers from mice treated with the mouse liver tumorigen, propiconazole, to uncover the pathways and networks altered by this commonly used fungicide. Utilizing t...

  1. Willems II. Non-gender-specific dental maturity scores.

    PubMed

    Willems, G; Thevissen, P W; Belmans, A; Liversidge, H M

    2010-09-10

    Demirjian's dental maturity scoring system has been adapted for a Belgian Caucasian population for males and females. The purpose of this study was to adapt Demirjian's dental maturity scoring system from a Belgian Caucasian population to provide non-gender-specific scores. We selected 2116 orthopantomograms of 1029 boys and 1087 girls aged 3-16 years. A weighted ANOVA was performed in order to adapt the scoring system for this Belgian population. A second test sample of 273 orthopantomograms of individuals with immature dentitions aged 3-16 years was used to evaluate the accuracy of the original method, gender-specific scores and non-gender-specific scores of the adapted method. Mean/median difference between dental age and real age was calculated as well as other measures of accuracy. The adapted scoring system resulted in new age scores expressed in years and in a higher accuracy compared to the original method in Belgian Caucasians.

  2. Proteome-wide reactivity profiling identifies diverse carbamate chemotypes tuned for serine hydrolase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae Won; Cognetta, Armand B; Niphakis, Micah J; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2013-07-19

    Serine hydrolases are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in Nature. Inhibitors of serine hydrolases are used to treat many diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cognitive dementia, and bacterial and viral infections. Nonetheless, the majority of the 200+ serine hydrolases in mammals still lack selective inhibitors for their functional characterization. We and others have shown that activated carbamates, through covalent reaction with the conserved serine nucleophile of serine hydrolases, can serve as useful inhibitors for members of this enzyme family. The extent to which carbamates, however, cross-react with other protein classes remains mostly unexplored. Here, we address this problem by investigating the proteome-wide reactivity of a diverse set of activated carbamates in vitro and in vivo, using a combination of competitive and click chemistry (CC)-activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). We identify multiple classes of carbamates, including O-aryl, O-hexafluoroisopropyl (HFIP), and O-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) carbamates that react selectively with serine hydrolases across entire mouse tissue proteomes in vivo. We exploit the proteome-wide specificity of HFIP carbamates to create in situ imaging probes for the endocannabinoid hydrolases monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and α-β hydrolase-6 (ABHD6). These findings, taken together, designate the carbamate as a privileged reactive group for serine hydrolases that can accommodate diverse structural modifications to produce inhibitors that display exceptional potency and selectivity across the mammalian proteome.

  3. Proteome-wide reactivity profiling identifies diverse carbamate chemotypes tuned for serine hydrolase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Won; Cognetta, Armand B.; Niphakis, Micah J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2013-01-01

    Serine hydrolases are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in Nature. Inhibitors of serine hydrolases are used to treat many diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cognitive dementia, and bacterial and viral infections. Nonetheless, the majority of the 200+ serine hydrolases in mammals still lack selective inhibitors for their functional characterization. We and others have shown that activated carbamates, through covalent reaction with the conserved serine nucleophile of serine hydrolases, can serve as useful inhibitors for members of this enzyme family. The extent to which carbamates, however, cross-react with other protein classes remains mostly unexplored. Here, we address this problem by investigating the proteome-wide reactivity of a diverse set of activated carbamates in vitro and in vivo using a combination of competitive and click chemistry (CC)-activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). We identify multiple classes of carbamates, including O-aryl, O-hexafluoroisopropyl (HFIP), and O-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) carbamates that react selectively with serine hydrolases across entire mouse tissue proteomes in vivo. We exploit the proteome-wide specificity of HFIP carbamates to create in situ imaging probes for the endocannabinoid hydrolases monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and alpha-beta hydrolase-6 (ABHD6). These findings, taken together, designate the carbamate as a privileged reactive group for serine hydrolases that can accommodate diverse structural modifications to produce inhibitors that display exceptional potency and selectivity across the mammalian proteome. PMID:23701408

  4. High Resolution Quantitative Synaptic Proteome Profiling of Mouse Brain Regions After Auditory Discrimination Learning

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, Angela; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Richter, Sandra; Engler, Alexander; Pielot, Rainer; Dieterich, Daniela C.; Tischmeyer, Wolfgang; Naumann, Michael; Kähne, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    The molecular synaptic mechanisms underlying auditory learning and memory remain largely unknown. Here, the workflow of a proteomic study on auditory discrimination learning in mice is described. In this learning paradigm, mice are trained in a shuttle box Go/NoGo-task to discriminate between rising and falling frequency-modulated tones in order to avoid a mild electric foot-shock. The protocol involves the enrichment of synaptosomes from four brain areas, namely the auditory cortex, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, at different stages of training. Synaptic protein expression patterns obtained from trained mice are compared to naïve controls using a proteomic approach. To achieve sufficient analytical depth, samples are fractionated in three different ways prior to mass spectrometry, namely 1D SDS-PAGE/in-gel digestion, in-solution digestion and phospho-peptide enrichment. High-resolution proteomic analysis on a mass spectrometer and label-free quantification are used to examine synaptic protein profiles in phospho-peptide-depleted and phospho-peptide-enriched fractions of synaptosomal protein samples. A commercial software package is utilized to reveal proteins and phospho-peptides with significantly regulated relative synaptic abundance levels (trained/naïve controls). Common and differential regulation modes for the synaptic proteome in the investigated brain regions of mice after training were observed. Subsequently, meta-analyses utilizing several databases are employed to identify underlying cellular functions and biological pathways. PMID:28060347

  5. High Resolution Quantitative Synaptic Proteome Profiling of Mouse Brain Regions After Auditory Discrimination Learning.

    PubMed

    Kolodziej, Angela; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Richter, Sandra; Engler, Alexander; Pielot, Rainer; Dieterich, Daniela C; Tischmeyer, Wolfgang; Naumann, Michael; Kähne, Thilo

    2016-12-15

    The molecular synaptic mechanisms underlying auditory learning and memory remain largely unknown. Here, the workflow of a proteomic study on auditory discrimination learning in mice is described. In this learning paradigm, mice are trained in a shuttle box Go/NoGo-task to discriminate between rising and falling frequency-modulated tones in order to avoid a mild electric foot-shock. The protocol involves the enrichment of synaptosomes from four brain areas, namely the auditory cortex, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, at different stages of training. Synaptic protein expression patterns obtained from trained mice are compared to naïve controls using a proteomic approach. To achieve sufficient analytical depth, samples are fractionated in three different ways prior to mass spectrometry, namely 1D SDS-PAGE/in-gel digestion, in-solution digestion and phospho-peptide enrichment. High-resolution proteomic analysis on a mass spectrometer and label-free quantification are used to examine synaptic protein profiles in phospho-peptide-depleted and phospho-peptide-enriched fractions of synaptosomal protein samples. A commercial software package is utilized to reveal proteins and phospho-peptides with significantly regulated relative synaptic abundance levels (trained/naïve controls). Common and differential regulation modes for the synaptic proteome in the investigated brain regions of mice after training were observed. Subsequently, meta-analyses utilizing several databases are employed to identify underlying cellular functions and biological pathways.

  6. Proteomic profiling of salivary gland after nonviral gene transfer mediated by conventional plasmids and minicircles

    PubMed Central

    Geguchadze, Ramaz; Wang, Zhimin; Zourelias, Lee; Perez-Riveros, Paola; Edwards, Paul C; Machen, Laurie; Passineau, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared gene transfer efficiency and host response to ultrasound-assisted, nonviral gene transfer with a conventional plasmid and a minicircle vector in the submandibular salivary glands of mice. Initially, we looked at gene transfer efficiency with equimolar amounts of the plasmid and minicircle vectors, corroborating an earlier report showing that minicircle is more efficient in the context of a physical method of gene transfer. We then sought to characterize the physiological response of the salivary gland to exogenous gene transfer using global proteomic profiling. Somewhat surprisingly, we found that sonoporation alone, without a gene transfer vector present, had virtually no effect on the salivary gland proteome. However, when a plasmid vector was used, we observed profound perturbations of the salivary gland proteome that compared in magnitude to that seen in a previous report after high doses of adeno-associated virus. Finally, we found that gene transfer with a minicircle induces only minor proteomic alterations that were similar to sonoporation alone. Using mass spectrometry, we assigned protein IDs to 218 gel spots that differed between plasmid and minicircle. Bioinformatic analysis of these proteins demonstrated convergence on 68 known protein interaction pathways, most notably those associated with innate immunity, cellular stress, and morphogenesis. PMID:25414909

  7. Profiling thiol redox proteome using isotope tagging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jennifer; Zhu, Ning; Zhu, Mengmeng; Chen, Sixue

    2012-03-24

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 not only causes bacterial speck disease in Solanum lycopersicum but also on Brassica species, as well as on Arabidopsis thaliana, a genetically tractable host plant(1,2). The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cotyledons inoculated with DC3000 indicates a role of ROS in modulating necrotic cell death during bacterial speck disease of tomato(3). Hydrogen peroxide, a component of ROS, is produced after inoculation of tomato plants with Pseudomonas(3). Hydrogen peroxide can be detected using a histochemical stain 3'-3' diaminobenzidine (DAB)(4). DAB staining reacts with hydrogen peroxide to produce a brown stain on the leaf tissue(4). ROS has a regulatory role of the cellular redox environment, which can change the redox status of certain proteins(5). Cysteine is an important amino acid sensitive to redox changes. Under mild oxidation, reversible oxidation of cysteine sulfhydryl groups serves as redox sensors and signal transducers that regulate a variety of physiological processes(6,7). Tandem mass tag (TMT) reagents enable concurrent identification and multiplexed quantitation of proteins in different samples using tandem mass spectrometry(8,9). The cysteine-reactive TMT (cysTMT) reagents enable selective labeling and relative quantitation of cysteine-containing peptides from up to six biological samples. Each isobaric cysTMT tag has the same nominal parent mass and is composed of a sulfhydryl-reactive group, a MS-neutral spacer arm and an MS/MS reporter(10). After labeling, the samples were subject to protease digestion. The cysteine-labeled peptides were enriched using a resin containing anti-TMT antibody. During MS/MS analysis, a series of reporter ions (i.e., 126-131 Da) emerge in the low mass region, providing information on relative quantitation. The workflow is effective for reducing sample complexity, improving dynamic range and studying cysteine modifications. Here we present redox proteomic

  8. Genetic differences in the serum proteome of horses, donkeys and mules are detectable by protein profiling.

    PubMed

    Henze, Andrea; Aumer, Franziska; Grabner, Arthur; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J

    2011-10-01

    Although horses and donkeys belong to the same genus, their genetic characteristics probably result in specific proteomes and post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins. Since PTM can alter protein properties, specific PTM may contribute to species-specific characteristics. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyse differences in serum protein profiles of horses and donkeys as well as mules, which combine the genetic backgrounds of both species. Additionally, changes in PTM of the protein transthyretin (TTR) were analysed. Serum protein profiles of each species (five animals per species) were determined using strong anion exchanger ProteinChips® (Bio-Rad, Munich, Germany) in combination with surface-enhanced laser desorption ionisation-time of flight MS. The PTM of TTR were analysed subsequently by immunoprecipitation in combination with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight MS. Protein profiling revealed species-specific differences in the proteome, with some protein peaks present in all three species as well as protein peaks that were unique for donkeys and mules, horses and mules or for horses alone. The molecular weight of TTR of horses and donkeys differed by 30 Da, and both species revealed several modified forms of TTR besides the native form. The mass spectra of mules represented a merging of TTR spectra of horses and donkeys. In summary, the present study indicated that there are substantial differences in the proteome of horses and donkeys. Additionally, the results probably indicate that the proteome of mules reveal a higher similarity to donkeys than to horses.

  9. Elucidation of Xenobiotic Metabolism Pathways in Human Skin and Human Skin Models by Proteomic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    van Eijl, Sven; Zhu, Zheying; Cupitt, John; Gierula, Magdalena; Götz, Christine; Fritsche, Ellen; Edwards, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human skin has the capacity to metabolise foreign chemicals (xenobiotics), but knowledge of the various enzymes involved is incomplete. A broad-based unbiased proteomics approach was used to describe the profile of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes present in human skin and hence indicate principal routes of metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Several in vitro models of human skin have been developed for the purpose of safety assessment of chemicals. The suitability of these epidermal models for studies involving biotransformation was assessed by comparing their profiles of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes with those of human skin. Methodology/Principal Findings Label-free proteomic analysis of whole human skin (10 donors) was applied and analysed using custom-built PROTSIFT software. The results showed the presence of enzymes with a capacity for the metabolism of alcohols through dehydrogenation, aldehydes through dehydrogenation and oxidation, amines through oxidation, carbonyls through reduction, epoxides and carboxylesters through hydrolysis and, of many compounds, by conjugation to glutathione. Whereas protein levels of these enzymes in skin were mostly just 4–10 fold lower than those in liver and sufficient to support metabolism, the levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes were at least 300-fold lower indicating they play no significant role. Four epidermal models of human skin had profiles very similar to one another and these overlapped substantially with that of whole skin. Conclusions/Significance The proteomics profiling approach was successful in producing a comprehensive analysis of the biotransformation characteristics of whole human skin and various in vitro skin models. The results show that skin contains a range of defined enzymes capable of metabolising different classes of chemicals. The degree of similarity of the profiles of the in vitro models indicates their suitability for epidermal toxicity testing. Overall, these results provide a

  10. O-GlcNAc profiling: from proteins to proteomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    O-linked β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification (O-GlcNAcylation) onto serine and threonine residues of proteins is an important post-translational modification (PTM), which is involved in many crucial biological processes including transcription, translation, proteasomal degradation, and signal transduction. Aberrant protein O-GlcNAcylation is directly linked to the pathological progression of chronic diseases including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identification, site mapping, and quantification of O-GlcNAc proteins are a prerequisite to decipher their functions. In this review, we mainly focus on technological developments regarding O-GlcNAc protein profiling. Specifically, on one hand, we show how these techniques are being used for the comprehensive characterization of certain targeted proteins in which biologists are most interested. On the other hand, we present several newly developed approaches for O-GlcNAcomic profiling as well as how they provide us with a systems perspective to crosstalk amongst different PTMs and complicated biological events. Promising technical trends are also highlighted to evoke more efforts by diverse laboratories, which would further expand our understanding of the physiological and pathological roles of protein O-GlcNAcylation in chronic diseases. PMID:24593906

  11. Comparative proteomic profiles of Pinus monticola needles during early compatible and incompatible interactions with Cronartium ribicola.

    PubMed

    Zamany, Arezoo; Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

    2012-12-01

    The proteomic profiles of primary needles from Cr2-resistant and cr2-susceptible Pinus monticola seedlings were analysed post Cronartium ribicola inoculation by 2-DE. One hundred-and-five protein spots exhibiting significant differential expression were identified using LC-MS/MS. Functional classification showed that the most numerous proteins are involved in defence signalling, oxidative burst, metabolic pathways, and other physiological processes. Our results revealed that differential expression of proteins in response to C. ribicola inoculation was genotype- and infection-stage dependent. Responsive proteins in resistant seedlings with incompatible white pine blister rust (WPBR) interaction included such well-characterized proteins as heat shock proteins (HSPs), reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes, and intermediate factors functioning in the signal transduction pathways triggered by well-known plant R genes, as well as new candidates in plant defence like sugar epimerase, GTP-binding proteins, and chloroplastic ribonucleoproteins. Fewer proteins were regulated in susceptible seedlings; most of them were in common with resistant seedlings and related to photosynthesis among others. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed HSP- and ROS-related genes played an important role in host defence in response to C. ribicola infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative proteomics study on WPBR interactions at the early stages of host defence, which provides a reference proteomic profile for other five-needle pines as well as resistance candidates for further understanding of host resistance in the WPBR pathosystem.

  12. Dynamic proteomic profiling of a unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece ATCC51142 across light-dark diurnal cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Aryal, Uma K.; Stockel, Jana; Krovvidi, Ravi K.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Jacobs, Jon M.

    2011-12-01

    Unicellular cyanobacteria of the genus Cyanothece are recognized for their ability to execute nitrogen (N2)-fixation in the dark and photosynthesis in the light. Systems-wide dynamic proteomic profiling with mass spectrometry (MS) analysis reveals fundamental insights into the control and regulation of these functions. To expand upon the current knowledge of protein expression patterns in Cyanothece ATCC51142, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis using partial ("unsaturated") metabolic labeling and high mass accuracy LC-MS analysis. This dynamic proteomic profiling identified 721 actively synthesized proteins with significant temporal changes in expression throughout the light-dark cycles, of which 425 proteins matched with previously characterized cycling transcripts. The remaining 296 proteins contained a cluster of proteins uniquely involved in DNA replication and repair, protein degradation, tRNA synthesis and modification, transport and binding, and regulatory functions. Analysis of protein functions revealed that the expression of nitrogenase in the dark is mediated by higher respiration and glycogen metabolism. We have also shown that Cyanothece ATCC51142 utilizes alternative pathways for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) acquisition, particularly, aspartic acid and glutamate as substrates of C and N, respectively. Utilization of phosphoketolase (PHK) pathway for the conversion of xylulose-5P to pyruvate and acetyl-P likely constitutes an alternative strategy to compensate higher ATP and NADPH demand. In conclusion, this study provides a deeper insight into how Cyanothece ATCC51142 modulates cellular functions to accommodate photosynthesis and N2-fixation within the single cell.

  13. Proteomic profile of saliva and plasma from women with impalpable breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Delmonico, Lucas; Bravo, Maryah; Silvestre, Rafaele Tavares; Ornellas, Maria Helena Faria; De Azevedo, Carolina Maria; Alves, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the proteomic profile of saliva and plasma from women with impalpable breast lesions using nano-liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight (nLC-Q-TOF) technology. Plasma and saliva from patients with fibroadenoma (n=10), infiltrating ductal carcinoma (n=10) and healthy control groups (n=8) were assessed by combinations of inter/intra-group analyses, revealing significant quantitative and qualitative differences. The major differentially-expressed proteins in the saliva of patients compared with the controls were α2-macroglobulin and ceruloplasmin, but the proteins that met the minimum fold-change and P-value cut-offs were leukocyte elastase inhibitor and α-enolase, and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1. Concerning plasma, α-2-macroglobulin and ceruplasmin were upregulated, while other proteins such as haptoglobin, hemopexin and vitamin D-binding protein were downregulated compared with the control. The changes in immune, molecular transport and signaling pathways were the most representative in the proteomic profile of the saliva and plasma. This is the first study to describe the proteome of saliva and plasma from the same women with impalpable breast lesions. PMID:27602154

  14. Proteomic protease specificity profiling of clostridial collagenases reveals their intrinsic nature as dedicated degraders of collagen.

    PubMed

    Eckhard, Ulrich; Huesgen, Pitter F; Brandstetter, Hans; Overall, Christopher M

    2014-04-04

    Clostridial collagenases are among the most efficient degraders of collagen. Most clostridia are saprophytes and secrete proteases to utilize proteins in their environment as carbon sources; during anaerobic infections, collagenases play a crucial role in host colonization. Several medical and biotechnological applications have emerged utilizing their high collagenolytic efficiency. However, the contribution of the functionally most important peptidase domain to substrate specificity remains unresolved. We investigated the active site sequence specificity of the peptidase domains of collagenase G and H from Clostridium histolyticum and collagenase T from Clostridium tetani. Both prime and non-prime cleavage site specificity were simultaneously profiled using Proteomic Identification of protease Cleavage Sites (PICS), a mass spectrometry-based method utilizing database searchable proteome-derived peptide libraries. For each enzyme we identified >100 unique-cleaved peptides, resulting in robust cleavage logos revealing collagen-like specificity patterns: a strong preference for glycine in P3 and P1', proline at P2 and P2', and a slightly looser specificity at P1, which in collagen is typically occupied by hydroxyproline. This specificity for the classic collagen motifs Gly-Pro-X and Gly-X-Hyp represents a remarkable adaptation considering the complex requirements for substrate unfolding and presentation that need to be fulfilled before a single collagen strand becomes accessible for cleavage. We demonstrate the striking sequence specificity of a family of clostridial collagenases using proteome derived peptide libraries and PICS, Proteomic Identification of protease Cleavage Sites. In combination with the previously published crystal structures of these proteases, our results represent an important piece of the puzzle in understanding the complex mechanism underlying collagen hydrolysis, and pave the way for the rational design of specific test substrates and

  15. Proteomic Profiling of Human Liver Biopsies: Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Fibrosis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, Deborah L.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Paeper, Bryan; Proll, Sean; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Carithers, Jr., Robert L.; Larson , Anne M.; Yeh, Matthew M.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

    2007-09-01

    Liver biopsies from HCV-infected patients offer the unique opportunity to study human liver biology and disease in vivo. However, the low protein yields associated with these small samples present a significant challenge for proteomic analysis. In this study we describe the application of an ultra-sensitive proteomics platform for performing robust quantitative proteomic studies on microgram amounts of HCV-infected human liver tissue from 15 patients at different stages of fibrosis. A high quality liver protein data base containing 5,920 unique protein identifications supported high throughput quantitative studies using 16O:18O stable isotope labeling in combination with the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach. A total of 1,641 liver biopsy proteins were quantified and ANOVA identified 210 proteins exhibiting statistically significant differences associated with fibrosis stage. Hierarchical clustering revealed that biopsies representative of later fibrosis stages (e.g. Batts-Ludwig stages 3-4) exhibited a distinct protein expression profile indicating an apparent down-regulation of many proteins when compared to samples from earlier fibrosis stages (e.g. Batts-Ludwig stages 0-2). Functional analysis of these signature proteins suggests that impairment of key mitochondrial processes including fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, and response to oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species occurs during advanced stage 3-4 fibrosis. In conclusion, the results reported here represent a significant advancement in clinical proteomics providing to our knowledge, the first demonstration of global proteomic alterations accompanying liver disease progression in patients chronically infected with HCV. Our findings contribute to a generally emerging theme associating oxidative stress and hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction with HCV pathogenesis.

  16. Urinary proteomic profiling in severe obesity and obstructive sleep apnoea with CPAP treatment.

    PubMed

    Seetho, Ian W; Ramírez-Torres, Adela; Albalat, Amaya; Mullen, William; Mischak, Harald; Parker, Robert J; Craig, Sonya; Duffy, Nick; Hardy, Kevin J; Burniston, Jatin G; Wilding, John Ph

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is common in obesity and is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic complications. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in OSA may lead to physiological changes reflected in the urinary proteome. The aim of this study was to characterise the urinary proteome in severely obese adult subjects with OSA who were receiving CPAP compared with severely obese subjects without OSA. Severely obese subjects with and without OSA were recruited. Subjects with OSA were receiving CPAP. Body composition and blood pressure measurements were recorded. Urinary samples were analysed by Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry (CE-MS). Twenty-seven subjects with OSA-on-CPAP (age 49±7years, BMI 43±7 kg/m(2)) and 25 controls without OSA (age 52±9years, BMI 39±4 kg/m(2)) were studied. Age and BMI were not significantly different between groups. Mean CPAP use for OSA patients was 14.5±1.0 months. Metabolic syndrome was present in 14(52%) of those with OSA compared with 6(24%) of controls (p=0.039). A urinary proteome comprising 15 peptides was identified showing differential expression between the groups (p<0.01). Although correction for multiple testing did not reach significance, sequences were determined for 8 peptides demonstrating origins from collagens, fibrinogen beta chain and T-cadherin that may be associated with underlying cardiovascular disease mechanisms in OSA. The urinary proteome is compared in OSA with CPAP and without OSA in severe obesity. The effects of CPAP on OSA may lead to changes in the urinary peptides but further research work is needed to investigate the potential role for urinary proteomics in characterising urinary peptide profiles in OSA.

  17. Large-Scale and Deep Quantitative Proteome Profiling Using Isobaric Labeling Coupled with Two-Dimensional LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Gritsenko, Marina A; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, quantitative information on abundances of proteins and their posttranslational modifications (PTMs) can potentially provide novel biological insights into diseases pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Herein, we introduce a quantitative strategy utilizing isobaric stable isotope-labeling techniques combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) for large-scale, deep quantitative proteome profiling of biological samples or clinical specimens such as tumor tissues. The workflow includes isobaric labeling of tryptic peptides for multiplexed and accurate quantitative analysis, basic reversed-phase LC fractionation and concatenation for reduced sample complexity, and nano-LC coupled to high resolution and high mass accuracy MS analysis for high confidence identification and quantification of proteins. This proteomic analysis strategy has been successfully applied for in-depth quantitative proteomic analysis of tumor samples and can also be used for integrated proteome and PTM characterization, as well as comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis across samples from large clinical cohorts.

  18. Smoking among Dutch Elementary Schoolchildren: Gender-Specific Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausems, M.; Mesters, I.; van Breukelen, G.; De Vries, H.

    2009-01-01

    Higher rates of smoking initiation and continuation by female compared with male adolescents, as found in many developed countries, may call for gender-specific prevention programs. Risk factors of smoking initiation and continuation were examined prospectively (1997-2002) among 3205 Dutch elementary schoolchildren (mean age 11.64) in an…

  19. Smoking among Dutch Elementary Schoolchildren: Gender-Specific Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausems, M.; Mesters, I.; van Breukelen, G.; De Vries, H.

    2009-01-01

    Higher rates of smoking initiation and continuation by female compared with male adolescents, as found in many developed countries, may call for gender-specific prevention programs. Risk factors of smoking initiation and continuation were examined prospectively (1997-2002) among 3205 Dutch elementary schoolchildren (mean age 11.64) in an…

  20. Proteomic profile of Ortleppascaris sp.: A helminth parasite of Rhinella marina in the Amazonian region.

    PubMed

    E Silva, Jefferson Pereira; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2014-08-01

    Ortleppascaris sp. is a helminth that, in its larval stage, infects the liver parenchyma of the amphibian Rhinella marina, resulting in severe physiological and pathological changes. This study used a proteomic approach to determine the overall profile of proteins expressed in a somatic extract from the nematodes to investigate the relationship between the parasite and its host. A total of 60 abundant proteins were selected from the two-dimensional electrophoresis, identified by peptide mass fingerprinting, and grouped based on their Gene Ontology by the biological processes in which they are potentially involved. Important helminthic derivatives, such as the immunoreactive As37 antigen, guanylyl cyclases, proteolytic enzymes, and other proteins conserved among different parasites, were identified through homology. This study represents a new approach to helminth-related proteomic studies using an amphibian animal model. Furthermore, this study identified protein markers that are important to the host-parasite relationship and the viability, development, infectivity, and virulence of helminths.

  1. Proteomic profile of Ortleppascaris sp.: A helminth parasite of Rhinella marina in the Amazonian region

    PubMed Central

    e Silva, Jefferson Pereira; Furtado, Adriano Penha; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Ortleppascaris sp. is a helminth that, in its larval stage, infects the liver parenchyma of the amphibian Rhinella marina, resulting in severe physiological and pathological changes. This study used a proteomic approach to determine the overall profile of proteins expressed in a somatic extract from the nematodes to investigate the relationship between the parasite and its host. A total of 60 abundant proteins were selected from the two-dimensional electrophoresis, identified by peptide mass fingerprinting, and grouped based on their Gene Ontology by the biological processes in which they are potentially involved. Important helminthic derivatives, such as the immunoreactive As37 antigen, guanylyl cyclases, proteolytic enzymes, and other proteins conserved among different parasites, were identified through homology. This study represents a new approach to helminth-related proteomic studies using an amphibian animal model. Furthermore, this study identified protein markers that are important to the host–parasite relationship and the viability, development, infectivity, and virulence of helminths. PMID:25161903

  2. PrePhyloPro: phylogenetic profile-based prediction of whole proteome linkages

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yulong; Liu, Chengcheng; Moghimyfiroozabad, Shayan; Yang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Direct and indirect functional links between proteins as well as their interactions as part of larger protein complexes or common signaling pathways may be predicted by analyzing the correlation of their evolutionary patterns. Based on phylogenetic profiling, here we present a highly scalable and time-efficient computational framework for predicting linkages within the whole human proteome. We have validated this method through analysis of 3,697 human pathways and molecular complexes and a comparison of our results with the prediction outcomes of previously published co-occurrency model-based and normalization methods. Here we also introduce PrePhyloPro, a web-based software that uses our method for accurately predicting proteome-wide linkages. We present data on interactions of human mitochondrial proteins, verifying the performance of this software. PrePhyloPro is freely available at http://prephylopro.org/phyloprofile/. PMID:28875072

  3. Proteomic Profiling Of Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Protein Expression Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Norhaiza; Zhang, J.; Brown, P. J.; James, D. C.; Birch, J. R.; Racher, A. J.; Smales, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    We have undertaken two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) proteomic profiling on a series of cell lines with different recombinant antibody production rates. Due to the nature of 2-DE proteomic investigations there will always be `process variability' factors in any data set collected in this way. Some of this variation will arise during sample preparation, gel running and staining, while further variation will arise from the gel analysis procedure. Therefore, in order to identify all significant changes in protein expression between biological samples when analysed by 2-DE, the system precision or `error', and how this correlates to protein abundance, must be known. Only then can the system be considered robust and investigators accurately and confidently report all observable statistically significant changes in protein expression. We introduce an expression variability test to identify protein spots whose expression correlates with increased antibody production. The results have highlighted a small number of candidate proteins for further investigation.

  4. Proteomics profile of cellular response to chiral drugs: prospects for pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Bun Ching, Chi; Zhang, Jianhua; Sui, Jianjun; Ning Chen, Wei

    2010-02-01

    Chiral drugs account for a large proportion of drugs available in the market. There is increasing awareness of the importance of drug chirality and the role it plays in explaining the oftentimes dramatic differences in biological activities in the current drug development portfolio. Using recently developed chiral drugs-cell interaction system, several examples of protein profiles induced by chiral drugs were illustrated in detail on the platform of 2-D LC interfaced with MS/MS system. In addition, the background of chiral drug investigation from which contemporary drug chirality research has emerged, the techniques involved in proteomics technology, the application of proteomics in this exciting area, and the perspectives in future applications are also discussed.

  5. PrePhyloPro: phylogenetic profile-based prediction of whole proteome linkages.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yulong; Liu, Chengcheng; Moghimyfiroozabad, Shayan; Yang, Yi; Alavian, Kambiz N

    2017-01-01

    Direct and indirect functional links between proteins as well as their interactions as part of larger protein complexes or common signaling pathways may be predicted by analyzing the correlation of their evolutionary patterns. Based on phylogenetic profiling, here we present a highly scalable and time-efficient computational framework for predicting linkages within the whole human proteome. We have validated this method through analysis of 3,697 human pathways and molecular complexes and a comparison of our results with the prediction outcomes of previously published co-occurrency model-based and normalization methods. Here we also introduce PrePhyloPro, a web-based software that uses our method for accurately predicting proteome-wide linkages. We present data on interactions of human mitochondrial proteins, verifying the performance of this software. PrePhyloPro is freely available at http://prephylopro.org/phyloprofile/.

  6. Proteomic profile evolution during steatosis development in ducks.

    PubMed

    Bax, M L; Chambon, C; Marty-Gasset, N; Remignon, H; Fernandez, X; Molette, C

    2012-01-01

    We investigated a protein profile evolution during steatosis in ducks using 2-dimensional electrophoresis gels to better understand the mechanisms underlying liver steatosis at the level of hepatic proteins in waterfowl. Two-dimensional electrophoresis gels were performed in the liver at different stages of steatosis in the duck. Mule ducks were slaughtered after 0, 14, or 23 meals of overfeeding, according to commercial conditions. Thirty-one proteic spots were differentially expressed between 3 or 2 durations of overfeeding: 3 spots were differentially expressed between the 3 times and 28 spots were differentially expressed between 2 times. The identified proteins (14) could be regrouped into 5 categories: enzymes, translation factors, proteins involved in cell structure, proteins with antioxidant properties, and proteins that can link calcium. This study opens new research areas in the understanding of steatosis in waterfowl, such as cell structure and oxidative stress.

  7. Fermentation and proteome profiles of Lactobacillus plantarum strains during growth under food-like conditions.

    PubMed

    Siragusa, Sonya; De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; Minervini, Fabio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-16

    This study aimed at investigating the proteomic adaptation of Lactobacillus plantarum strains. Cultivation of L. plantarum strains under food-like conditions (wheat flour hydrolyzed, whey milk, tomato juice) affected some metabolic traits (e.g., consumption of carbohydrates and synthesis of organic acids) compared to de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth. The analysis of the fermentation profile showed that the highest number of carbon sources metabolized by L. plantarum strains was found using cells cultivated in media containing low concentration of glucose or no glucose at all. The proteomic maps of the strains were comparatively determined after growth on MRS broth and under food-like conditions. The amount of proteins depended on strain and, especially, on culture conditions. Proteins showing decreased or increased amounts under food-like conditions were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS/MS or LC-nano-ESI-MS/MS. Changes of the proteome concerned proteins that are involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy metabolism, Sec-dependent secretion system, stress response, nucleotide metabolism, regulation of nitrogen metabolism, and protein biosynthesis. A catabolic repression by glucose on carbohydrate transport and metabolism was also found. The characterization of the proteomes in response to changing environmental conditions could be useful to get L. plantarum strains adapted for specific applications. Microbial cell performance during food biotechnological processes has become one of the greatest concerns all over the world. L. plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium with a large industrial application for fermented foods or functional foods (e.g., probiotics). The present study compared the fermentation and proteomic profiling of L. plantarum strains during growth under food-like conditions and under optimal laboratory conditions (MRS broth). This study provides specific mechanisms of proteomic adaptation involved in the microbial performances

  8. A framework for personalized medicine: prediction of drug sensitivity in cancer by proteomic profiling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of personalized medicine is to provide patients optimal drug screening and treatment based on individual genomic or proteomic profiles. Reverse-Phase Protein Array (RPPA) technology offers proteomic information of cancer patients which may be directly related to drug sensitivity. For cancer patients with different drug sensitivity, the proteomic profiling reveals important pathophysiologic information which can be used to predict chemotherapy responses. Results The goal of this paper is to present a framework for personalized medicine using both RPPA and drug sensitivity (drug resistance or intolerance). In the proposed personalized medicine system, the prediction of drug sensitivity is obtained by a proposed augmented naive Bayesian classifier (ANBC) whose edges between attributes are augmented in the network structure of naive Bayesian classifier. For discriminative structure learning of ANBC, local classification rate (LCR) is used to score augmented edges, and greedy search algorithm is used to find the discriminative structure that maximizes classification rate (CR). Once a classifier is trained by RPPA and drug sensitivity using cancer patient samples, the classifier is able to predict the drug sensitivity given RPPA information from a patient. Conclusion In this paper we proposed a framework for personalized medicine where a patient is profiled by RPPA and drug sensitivity is predicted by ANBC and LCR. Experimental results with lung cancer data demonstrate that RPPA can be used to profile patients for drug sensitivity prediction by Bayesian network classifier, and the proposed ANBC for personalized cancer medicine achieves better prediction accuracy than naive Bayes classifier in small sample size data on average and outperforms other the state-of-the-art classifier methods in terms of classification accuracy. PMID:22759571

  9. Proteomic identification of gender molecular markers in Bothrops jararaca venom.

    PubMed

    Zelanis, André; Menezes, Milene C; Kitano, Eduardo S; Liberato, Tarcísio; Tashima, Alexandre K; Pinto, Antonio F M; Sherman, Nicholas E; Ho, Paulo L; Fox, Jay W; Serrano, Solange M T

    2016-04-29

    Variation in the snake venom proteome is a well-documented phenomenon; however, sex-based variation in the venom proteome/peptidome is poorly understood. Bothrops jararaca shows significant sexual size dimorphism and here we report a comparative proteomic/peptidomic analysis of venoms from male and female specimens and correlate it with the evaluation of important venom features. We demonstrate that adult male and female venoms have distinct profiles of proteolytic activity upon fibrinogen and gelatin. These differences were clearly reflected in their different profiles of SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and glycosylated proteins. Identification of differential protein bands and spots between male or female venoms revealed gender-specific molecular markers. However, the proteome comparison by in-solution trypsin digestion and label-free quantification analysis showed that the overall profiles of male and female venoms are similar at the polypeptide chain level but show striking variation regarding their attached carbohydrate moieties. The analysis of the peptidomes of male and female venoms revealed different contents of peptides, while the bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPPs) showed rather similar profiles. Furthermore we confirmed the ubiquitous presence of four BPPs that lack the C-terminal Q-I-P-P sequence only in the female venom as gender molecular markers. As a result of these studies we demonstrate that the sexual size dimorphism is associated with differences in the venom proteome/peptidome in B. jararaca species. Moreover, gender-based variations contributed by different glycosylation levels in toxins impact venom complexity. Bothrops jararaca is primarily a nocturnal and generalist snake species, however, it exhibits a notable ontogenetic shift in diet and in venom proteome upon neonate to adult transition. As is common in the Bothrops genus, B. jararaca shows significant sexual dimorphism in snout-vent length and weight, with females being

  10. Whole-proteome phylogeny of prokaryotes by feature frequency profiles: An alignment-free method with optimal feature resolution.

    PubMed

    Jun, Se-Ran; Sims, Gregory E; Wu, Guohong A; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2010-01-05

    We present a whole-proteome phylogeny of prokaryotes constructed by comparing feature frequency profiles (FFPs) of whole proteomes. Features are l-mers of amino acids, and each organism is represented by a profile of frequencies of all features. The selection of feature length is critical in the FFP method, and we have developed a procedure for identifying the optimal feature lengths for inferring the phylogeny of prokaryotes, strictly speaking, a proteome phylogeny. Our FFP trees are constructed with whole proteomes of 884 prokaryotes, 16 unicellular eukaryotes, and 2 random sequences. To highlight the branching order of major groups, we present a simplified proteome FFP tree of monophyletic class or phylum with branch support. In our whole-proteome FFP trees (i) Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota, and a random sequence outgroup are clearly separated; (ii) Archaea and Bacteria form a sister group when rooted with random sequences; (iii) Planctomycetes, which possesses an intracellular membrane compartment, is placed at the basal position of the Bacteria domain; (iv) almost all groups are monophyletic in prokaryotes at most taxonomic levels, but many differences in the branching order of major groups are observed between our proteome FFP tree and trees built with other methods; and (v) previously "unclassified" genomes may be assigned to the most likely taxa. We describe notable similarities and differences between our FFP trees and those based on other methods in grouping and phylogeny of prokaryotes.

  11. The human liver-specific proteome defined by transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Caroline; Mardinoglu, Adil; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Edlund, Karolina; Lundberg, Emma; Pontén, Fredrik; Nielsen, Jens; Uhlen, Mathias

    2014-07-01

    Human liver physiology and the genetic etiology of the liver diseases can potentially be elucidated through the identification of proteins with enriched expression in the liver. Here, we combined data from RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and antibody-based immunohistochemistry across all major human tissues to explore the human liver proteome with enriched expression, as well as the cell type-enriched expression in hepatocyte and bile duct cells. We identified in total 477 protein-coding genes with elevated expression in the liver: 179 genes have higher expression as compared to all the other analyzed tissues; 164 genes have elevated transcript levels in the liver shared with at least one other tissue type; and an additional 134 genes have a mild level of increased expression in the liver. We identified the precise localization of these proteins through antibody-based protein profiling and the subcellular localization of these proteins through immunofluorescent-based profiling. We also identified the biological processes and metabolic functions associated with these proteins, investigated their contribution in the occurrence of liver diseases, and identified potential targets for their treatment. Our study demonstrates the use of RNA-Seq and antibody-based immunohistochemistry for characterizing the human liver proteome, as well as the use of tissue-specific proteins in identification of novel drug targets and discovery of biomarkers.-Kampf, C., Mardinoglu, A., Fagerberg, L., Hallström, B. M., Edlund, K., Lundberg, E., Pontén, F., Nielsen, J., Uhlen, M. The human liver-specific proteome defined by transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling. © FASEB.

  12. Human monocyte-derived macrophages are heterogenous: Proteomic profile of different phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Eligini, S; Brioschi, M; Fiorelli, S; Tremoli, E; Banfi, C; Colli, S

    2015-06-21

    Tissue macrophages play a key role in many aspects of human physiology and pathology. These cells are heterogeneous both in term of morphology and function. As an example, heterogeneity has been reported within the atherosclerotic lesions where distinct populations exert opposite functions driving plaque progression or stability. Tissue macrophages are not easily obtained and differentiated blood-derived monocytes are largely used as surrogate model. We previously reported that human macrophages spontaneously differentiated from adherent monocytes show two dominant subsets, distinct for morphology (spindle and round) and functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intracellular proteome of these two macrophage subsets by means of a microproteomic workflow properly set up to simultaneously identify and quantify proteins from a minimal number of morphotypically heterogeneous cells in culture. We report two distinct proteomic profiles that distinguish round from spindle macrophages. In particular, differential abundances were observed for proteins involved in membrane traffic regulation, lipid handling, efferocytosis, and protection against stress conditions. Results reinforce and extend previous data on the functional and antigenic profile of these macrophage phenotypes strengthening the suitability of our model to focus on macrophage heterogeneity. Tissue macrophages patrol homeostatic functions, immune surveillance, and resolution of inflammation. The spectrum of macrophage activation states is, therefore, wide and gives ground for the heterogeneity of these cells, documented in health and disease. This study provides knowledge of the distinct proteome that characterises the two dominant morphotypes (round and spindle) of human macrophages that, in our culture condition, are generated by spontaneous differentiation from blood-derived monocytes. Results extend previous data about the different antigenic, transcriptional, and functional profiles of these

  13. Different Proteome Profiles between Male and Female Populus cathayana Exposed to UV-B Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunxiang; Feng, Lihua; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Yuanbin; Zhang, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    With increasing altitude, solar UV-B radiation is enhanced. Based on the phenomenon of male-biased sex ratio of Populus cathayana Rehder in high altitude alpine area, we hypothesized that males have a faster and more sophisticated responsive mechanism to high UV-B radiation than that of females. Our previous studies have shown sexually different responses to high UV-B radiation were existed in P. cathayana at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic levels. However, the responses at the proteomic level remain unclear. In this study, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteome analysis was performed in P. cathayana females and males. A total of 2,405 proteins were identified, with 331 proteins defined as differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Among of these, 79 and 138 DEPs were decreased and 47 and 107 DEPs were increased under high solar UV-B radiation in females and males, respectively. A bioinformatics analysis categorized the common responsive proteins in the sexes as related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, translation/transcription/post-transcriptional modification, photosynthesis, and redox reactions. The responsive proteins that showed differences in sex were mainly those involved in amino acid metabolism, stress response, and translation/transcription/post-transcriptional modification. This study provides proteomic profiles that poplars responding to solar UV-B radiation, and it also provides new insights into differentially sex-related responses to UV-B radiation. PMID:28326097

  14. S-Nitrosylation Proteome Profile of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Human Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, Heidi M.; Gupta, Shivali; Petersen, John R.; Kuyumcu-Martinez, Muge N.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) protects the heart against ischemic injury; however, NO- and superoxide-dependent S-nitrosylation (S-NO) of cysteines can affect function of target proteins and play a role in disease outcome. We employed 2D-GE with thiol-labeling FL-maleimide dye and MALDI-TOF MS/MS to capture the quantitative changes in abundance and S-NO proteome of HF patients (versus healthy controls, n = 30/group). We identified 93 differentially abundant (59-increased/34-decreased) and 111 S-NO-modified (63-increased/48-decreased) protein spots, respectively, in HF subjects (versus controls, fold-change | ≥1.5|, p ≤ 0.05). Ingenuity pathway analysis of proteome datasets suggested that the pathways involved in phagocytes' migration, free radical production, and cell death were activated and fatty acid metabolism was decreased in HF subjects. Multivariate adaptive regression splines modeling of datasets identified a panel of proteins that will provide >90% prediction success in classifying HF subjects. Proteomic profiling identified ATP-synthase, thrombospondin-1 (THBS1), and vinculin (VCL) as top differentially abundant and S-NO-modified proteins, and these proteins were verified by Western blotting and ELISA in different set of HF subjects. We conclude that differential abundance and S-NO modification of proteins serve as a mechanism in regulating cell viability and free radical production, and THBS1 and VCL evaluation will potentially be useful in the prediction of heart failure. PMID:27635260

  15. Profiling the secretome and extracellular proteome of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Harold J G; Mancuso, Francesco M; Espadas, Guadalupe; Seidl, Michael F; Chiva, Cristina; Govers, Francine; Sabidó, Eduard

    2014-08-01

    Oomycetes are filamentous organisms that cause notorious diseases, several of which have a high economic impact. Well known is Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Previously, in silico analyses of the genome and transcriptome of P. infestans resulted in the annotation of a large number of genes encoding proteins with an N-terminal signal peptide. This set is collectively referred to as the secretome and comprises proteins involved in, for example, cell wall growth and modification, proteolytic processes, and the promotion of successful invasion of plant cells. So far, proteomic profiling in oomycetes was primarily focused on subcellular, intracellular or cell wall fractions; the extracellular proteome has not been studied systematically. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the in vivo secretome and extracellular proteome of P. infestans. We have used mass spectrometry to analyze P. infestans proteins present in seven different growth media with mycelial cultures and this resulted in the consistent identification of over two hundred proteins. Gene ontology classification pinpointed proteins involved in cell wall modifications, pathogenesis, defense responses, and proteolytic processes. Moreover, we found members of the RXLR and CRN effector families as well as several proteins lacking an obvious signal peptide. The latter were confirmed to be bona fide extracellular proteins and this suggests that, similar to other organisms, oomycetes exploit non-conventional secretion mechanisms to transfer certain proteins to the extracellular environment.

  16. Proteomic profiling of developing cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guanjing; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Grupp, Kara; Chen, Sixue; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2013-10-01

    Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense) is widely cultivated because of its long, strong seed trichomes ('fibers') used for premium textiles. These agronomically advanced fibers were derived following domestication and thousands of years of human-mediated crop improvement. To gain an insight into fiber development and evolution, we conducted comparative proteomic and transcriptomic profiling of developing fiber from an elite cultivar and a wild accession. Analyses using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) LC-MS/MS technology identified 1317 proteins in fiber. Of these, 205 were differentially expressed across developmental stages, and 190 showed differential expression between wild and cultivated forms, 14.4% of the proteome sampled. Human selection may have shifted the timing of developmental modules, such that some occur earlier in domesticated than in wild cotton. A novel approach was used to detect possible biased expression of homoeologous copies of proteins. Results indicate a significant partitioning of duplicate gene expression at the protein level, but an approximately equal degree of bias for each of the two constituent genomes of allopolyploid cotton. Our results demonstrate the power of complementary transcriptomic and proteomic approaches for the study of the domestication process. They also provide a rich database for mining for functional analyses of cotton improvement or evolution.

  17. Proteomic Profiling of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Leaves during Rhizomania Compatible Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Kimberly M.; Broccardo, Carolyn J.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Wintermantel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), severely impacts sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with BNYVV, but as resistance breaking strains become more prevalent, effective disease control strategies will require the application of novel methods based on better understanding of disease susceptibility and symptom development. Herein, proteomic profiling was conducted on susceptible sugar beet, infected with two strains of BNYVV, to clarify the types of proteins prevalent during compatible virus-host plant interactions. Total protein was extracted from sugar beet leaf tissue infected with BNYVV, quantified, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 203 proteins were confidently identified, with a predominance of proteins associated with photosynthesis and energy, metabolism, and response to stimulus. Many proteins identified in this study are typically associated with systemic acquired resistance and general plant defense responses. These results expand on relatively limited proteomic data available for sugar beet and provide the ground work for additional studies focused on understanding the interaction of BNYVV with sugar beet. PMID:28250378

  18. Different Proteome Profiles between Male and Female Populus cathayana Exposed to UV-B Radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunxiang; Feng, Lihua; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Yuanbin; Zhang, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    With increasing altitude, solar UV-B radiation is enhanced. Based on the phenomenon of male-biased sex ratio of Populus cathayana Rehder in high altitude alpine area, we hypothesized that males have a faster and more sophisticated responsive mechanism to high UV-B radiation than that of females. Our previous studies have shown sexually different responses to high UV-B radiation were existed in P. cathayana at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic levels. However, the responses at the proteomic level remain unclear. In this study, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteome analysis was performed in P. cathayana females and males. A total of 2,405 proteins were identified, with 331 proteins defined as differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Among of these, 79 and 138 DEPs were decreased and 47 and 107 DEPs were increased under high solar UV-B radiation in females and males, respectively. A bioinformatics analysis categorized the common responsive proteins in the sexes as related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, translation/transcription/post-transcriptional modification, photosynthesis, and redox reactions. The responsive proteins that showed differences in sex were mainly those involved in amino acid metabolism, stress response, and translation/transcription/post-transcriptional modification. This study provides proteomic profiles that poplars responding to solar UV-B radiation, and it also provides new insights into differentially sex-related responses to UV-B radiation.

  19. Proteomic Profiling of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Leaves during Rhizomania Compatible Interactions.

    PubMed

    Webb, Kimberly M; Broccardo, Carolyn J; Prenni, Jessica E; Wintermantel, William M

    2014-04-09

    Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), severely impacts sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with BNYVV, but as resistance breaking strains become more prevalent, effective disease control strategies will require the application of novel methods based on better understanding of disease susceptibility and symptom development. Herein, proteomic profiling was conducted on susceptible sugar beet, infected with two strains of BNYVV, to clarify the types of proteins prevalent during compatible virus-host plant interactions. Total protein was extracted from sugar beet leaf tissue infected with BNYVV, quantified, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 203 proteins were confidently identified, with a predominance of proteins associated with photosynthesis and energy, metabolism, and response to stimulus. Many proteins identified in this study are typically associated with systemic acquired resistance and general plant defense responses. These results expand on relatively limited proteomic data available for sugar beet and provide the ground work for additional studies focused on understanding the interaction of BNYVV with sugar beet.

  20. Profiling the Secretome and Extracellular Proteome of the Potato Late Blight Pathogen Phytophthora infestans

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Harold J. G.; Mancuso, Francesco M.; Espadas, Guadalupe; Seidl, Michael F.; Chiva, Cristina; Govers, Francine; Sabidó, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Oomycetes are filamentous organisms that cause notorious diseases, several of which have a high economic impact. Well known is Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Previously, in silico analyses of the genome and transcriptome of P. infestans resulted in the annotation of a large number of genes encoding proteins with an N-terminal signal peptide. This set is collectively referred to as the secretome and comprises proteins involved in, for example, cell wall growth and modification, proteolytic processes, and the promotion of successful invasion of plant cells. So far, proteomic profiling in oomycetes was primarily focused on subcellular, intracellular or cell wall fractions; the extracellular proteome has not been studied systematically. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the in vivo secretome and extracellular proteome of P. infestans. We have used mass spectrometry to analyze P. infestans proteins present in seven different growth media with mycelial cultures and this resulted in the consistent identification of over two hundred proteins. Gene ontology classification pinpointed proteins involved in cell wall modifications, pathogenesis, defense responses, and proteolytic processes. Moreover, we found members of the RXLR and CRN effector families as well as several proteins lacking an obvious signal peptide. The latter were confirmed to be bona fide extracellular proteins and this suggests that, similar to other organisms, oomycetes exploit non-conventional secretion mechanisms to transfer certain proteins to the extracellular environment. PMID:24872595

  1. Proteomic Profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Identifies Nutrient-starvation-responsive Toxin–antitoxin Systems*

    PubMed Central

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Agner, Jeppe; Piersma, Sander R.; Højrup, Peter; Pham, Thang V.; Weldingh, Karin; Jimenez, Connie R.; Andersen, Peter; Rosenkrands, Ida

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully enter the latent stage, Mycobacterium tuberculosis must adapt to conditions such as nutrient limitation and hypoxia. In vitro models that mimic latent infection are valuable tools for describing the changes in metabolism that occur when the bacterium exists in a non-growing form. We used two complementary proteomic approaches, label-free LC-MS/MS analysis and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, to determine the proteome profile of extracellular proteins from M. tuberculosis cultured under nutrient starvation. Through the label-free LC-MS/MS analysis of fractionated samples, 1176 proteins were identified from culture filtrates of log phase and nutrient-starved cultures, and the protein levels of 230 proteins were increased in nutrient-starved culture filtrates, whereas those of 208 proteins were decreased. By means of Gene Ontology clustering analysis, significant differences in the overall metabolism during nutrient starvation were detected. Notably, members of the toxin–antitoxin systems were present in larger quantities in nutrient-starved cultures, supporting a role for these global modules as M. tuberculosis switches its metabolism into dormancy. Decreased abundance of proteins involved in amino acid and protein synthesis was apparent, as well as changes in the lipid metabolism. Further analysis of the dataset identified increased abundance of lipoproteins and decreased abundance of ESAT-6 family proteins. Results from the two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis proteomics demonstrated overall agreement with the LC-MS/MS data and added complementary insights about protein degradation and modification. PMID:23345537

  2. Proteomic Profile in Glomeruli of Type-2 Diabetic KKAy Mice using 2-Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaodan; Yang, Gang; Fan, Qiuling; Wang, Lining

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. To search for glomerular proteins associated with early-stage DN, glomeruli of spontaneous type 2 diabetic KKAy mice were analyzed by 2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Material/Methods Glomeruli of 20-week spontaneous type 2 diabetic KKAy mice and age-matched C57BL/6 mice were isolated by kidney perfusion with magnetic beads. Proteomic profiles of glomeruli were investigated by using 2D-DIGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis was used to confirm the results of proteomics. Immunohistochemical and semi-quantitative analysis were used to confirm the differential expression of prohibitin and annexin A2 in glomeruli. Results We identified 19 differentially expressed proteins – 17 proteins were significantly up-regulated and 2 proteins were significantly down-regulated in glomeruli of diabetic KKAy mice. Among them, prohibitin and annexin A2 were up-regulated and Western blot analysis validated the same result in proteomics. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed up-regulation of prohibitin and annexin A2 in glomeruli of KKAy mice. Conclusions Our findings suggest that prohibitin and annexin A2 may be associated with early-stage DN. Further functional research might help to reveal the pathogenesis of DN. PMID:25515740

  3. Effects of a Terrified-Sound Stress on Serum Proteomic Profiling in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Zhang, Xin; Xiong, Xiaofan; Wu, Qiuhua; Zhao, Lingyu; Liu, Liying; Qin, Yannan; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2015-10-01

    The serum proteomic profiles of mice exposed to terrified-sound-induced stress and after stress release were investigated. Serum samples from 32 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 each) and analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry techniques (MALDI-TOF MS) combined with magnetic bead-based weak cation-exchange chromatography. ClinProTools software identified several distinct markers that differed between the stressed and control groups and between the stress released and stressed released controls. Of 33 m/z peaks that differed among the four groups, 17 were significantly different (P < 0.05). Five peaks (m/z: 2793.37, 2924.86, 1979.90, 3492.49, 3880.24) showed significant differences in expression after exposure to terrified-sound stress and returned to control levels after stress release. These were sequence identified as peptide regions of dimethylaniline monooxygenase, myosin-9, uncharacterized protein in Rattus norvegicus, apolipoprotein C-I, and plasma serine protease inhibitor (Serpina 5). Our study provides the first evidence of significant changes in serum proteomic profiles in mice exposed to terrified-sound stress, which suggests that protein expression profiles are affected by the stress. Normal expression levels were restored after stress release, suggesting the activation of self-adjustment mechanisms for the recovery of protein expression levels altered by this stress.

  4. Proteomic profiling of sea bass muscle by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Pisanu, Salvatore; Roggio, Tonina; Preziosa, Elena; Saroglia, Marco; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the proteome profile of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) muscle was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and tandem mass spectrometry with the aim of providing a more detailed characterization of its specific protein expression profile. A highly populated and well-resolved 2-DE map of the sea bass muscle tissue was generated, and the corresponding protein identity was provided for a total of 49 abundant protein spots. Upon Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, the proteins mapped in the sea bass muscle profile were mostly related to glycolysis and to the muscle myofibril structure, together with other biological activities crucial to fish muscle metabolism and contraction, and therefore to fish locomotor performance. The data presented in this work provide important and novel information on the sea bass muscle tissue-specific protein expression, which can be useful for future studies aimed to improve seafood traceability, food safety/risk management and authentication analysis. This work is also important for understanding the proteome map of the sea bass toward establishing the animal as a potential model for muscular studies.

  5. Profiling of antioxidative enzyme expression induced by various food components using targeted proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Bartenbacher, Sven; Östreicher, Christiane; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2017-09-01

    A method was developed for targeted proteome analysis of the expression profile of a set of antioxidative enzymes in rat macrophages and applied to screen the antioxidative potential of several food components/foods. Expression profiles of heme oxygenase 1, peroxiredoxin 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S transferase P1, and superoxide dismutase 1 were analyzed by nanoLC-MS/MS in selected scheduled reaction monitoring (sSRM) mode monitoring two to three peptides per protein and three transitions per peptide. Relative quantification was performed by metabolic labeling. The validated method was used to profile the activity of capsaicin, carnosol, diallyl trisulfide, maslinic acid, quercetin, sulforaphane, cinnamaldehyde and coffee extract to modulate the expression levels of antioxidative enzymes. Carnosol and sulforaphane most effectively induced protein expression, leading to upregulation of at least five out of the six antioxidative enzymes by a maximum factor of 22.80 ± 6.71 (heme oxygenase 1 by carnosol). Heme oxygenase 1 was most susceptible to nutritive modulation, whereas glutathione reductase expression rates were hardly affected. Targeted mass proteome analysis allows comprehensive evaluation of antioxidative effects by food ingredients. Simultaneous expression analysis of a set of proteins provided valuable insights how various enzymes were differently affected by food components. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Differential proteomic profiling to study the mechanism of cardiac pharmacological preconditioning by resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Bezstarosti, Karel; Das, Samarjit; Lamers, Jos M J; Das, Dipak K

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that resveratrol, a grape-derived polyphenolic phytoalexin, provides pharmacological preconditioning of the heart through a NO-dependent mechanism. To further explore the molecular mechanisms involved in resveratrol-mediated cardioprotection, we monitored the effects of resveratrol treatment after ischemia-reperfusion on the protein profile by implementation of proteomic analysis. Two groups of rats were studied; one group of animals was fed resveratrol for 7 days, while the other group was given vehicle only. The rats were sacrificed for the isolated working heart preparation and for isolation of cytoplasmic fraction from left ventricle homogenates to carry out the proteomic as well as immunoblot at baseline and at the end of 30 min ischemia/2-h perfusion. The results demonstrate significant cardiopro-tection with resveratrol evidenced by improved ventricular recovery and reduced infarct size and cardiomyocyte apopto-sis. The left ventricular cytoplasmic fractions were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Differentially regulated proteins were detected with quantitative computer analysis of the Coomassie blue stained 2-DE images and identified by MALDI-TOF (MS) and nanoLC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Five redox-regulated and precondi-tioning-related proteins were identified that were all upregulated by resveratrol: MAPKK, two different aB-crystallin species, HSP 27 and PE binding protein. Another HSP27 species and aldose reductase were downregulated and peroxire-doxin-2 remained constant. The results of the immunoblot analysis of phosphorylated MAPKK, -HSP27 and -aB-crys-tallin and PE binding protein were consistent with the proteomic findings, but not with peroxiredoxin-2. The proteomic analysis showed also downregulation of some proteins in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and matrix and the myofila-ment regulating protein MLC kinase-2. The results of the present study demonstrate that proteomic profiling

  7. Proteomic and metabolomic profiles demonstrate variation among free-living and symbiotic vibrio fischeri biofilms.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Dozal, Alba; Gorman, Clayton; Nishiguchi, Michele K

    2015-10-23

    A number of bacterial species are capable of growing in various life history modes that enable their survival and persistence in both planktonic free-living stages as well as in biofilm communities. Mechanisms contributing to either planktonic cell or biofilm persistence and survival can be carefully delineated using multiple differential techniques (e.g., genomics and transcriptomics). In this study, we present both proteomic and metabolomic analyses of Vibrio fischeri biofilms, demonstrating the potential for combined differential studies for elucidating life-history switches important for establishing the mutualism through biofilm formation and host colonization. The study used a metabolomics/proteomics or "meta-proteomics" approach, referring to the combined protein and metabolic data analysis that bridges the gap between phenotypic changes (planktonic cell to biofilm formation) with genotypic changes (reflected in protein/metabolic profiles). Our methods used protein shotgun construction, followed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) detection and quantification for both free-living and biofilm forming V. fischeri. We present a time-resolved picture of approximately 100 proteins (2D-PAGE and shotgun proteomics) and 200 metabolites that are present during the transition from planktonic growth to community biofilm formation. Proteins involved in stress response, DNA repair damage, and transport appeared to be highly expressed during the biofilm state. In addition, metabolites detected in biofilms correspond to components of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix (sugars and glycerol-derived). Alterations in metabolic enzymes were paralleled by more pronounced changes in concentration of intermediates from the glycolysis pathway as well as several amino acids. This combined analysis of both types of information (proteins, metabolites) has provided a more complete picture of the biochemical processes of biofilm formation and what determines

  8. The need for detailed gender-specific occupational safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Cruz Rios, Fernanda; Chong, Wai K; Grau, David

    2017-09-01

    The female work in population is growing in the United States, therefore the occupational health and safety entities must start to analyze gender-specific data related to every industry, especially to nontraditional occupations. Women working in nontraditional jobs are often exposed to extreme workplace hazards. These women have their safety and health threatened because there are no adequate policies to mitigate gender-specific risks such as discrimination and harassment. Employers tend to aggravate this situation because they often fail to provide proper reporting infrastructure and support. According to past studies, women suffered from workplace injuries and illnesses that were less prominent among men. Statistics also confirmed that men and women faced different levels of risks in distinct work environments. For example, the rates of workplace violence and murders by personal acquaintances were significantly higher among women. In this paper, the authors analyze prior public data on fatal and nonfatal injuries to understand why we need to differentiate genders when analyzing occupational safety and health issues. The analyses confirmed that women dealt with unique workplace hazards compared to men. It is urgent that public agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Labor, record gender-specific data in details and by occupations and industries. The reader will become aware of the current lack - and need - of data and knowledge about injuries and illnesses separated by gender and industry. Finally, safety and health researchers are encouraged to investigate the gender-specific data in all industries and occupations, as soon as they become available. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic proteomic profiling of a unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece ATCC51142 across light-dark diurnal cycles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Unicellular cyanobacteria of the genus Cyanothece are recognized for their ability to execute nitrogen (N2)-fixation in the dark and photosynthesis in the light. An understanding of these mechanistic processes in an integrated systems context should provide insights into how Cyanothece might be optimized for specialized environments and/or industrial purposes. Systems-wide dynamic proteomic profiling with mass spectrometry (MS) analysis should reveal fundamental insights into the control and regulation of these functions. Results To expand upon the current knowledge of protein expression patterns in Cyanothece ATCC51142, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis using partial ("unsaturated") metabolic labeling and high mass accuracy LC-MS analysis. This dynamic proteomic profiling identified 721 actively synthesized proteins with significant temporal changes in expression throughout the light-dark cycles, of which 425 proteins matched with previously characterized cycling transcripts. The remaining 296 proteins contained a cluster of proteins uniquely involved in DNA replication and repair, protein degradation, tRNA synthesis and modification, transport and binding, and regulatory functions. Functional classification of labeled proteins suggested that proteins involved in respiration and glycogen metabolism showed increased expression in the dark cycle together with nitrogenase, suggesting that N2-fixation is mediated by higher respiration and glycogen metabolism. Results indicated that Cyanothece ATCC51142 might utilize alternative pathways for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) acquisition, particularly, aspartic acid and glutamate as substrates of C and N, respectively. Utilization of phosphoketolase (PHK) pathway for the conversion of xylulose-5P to pyruvate and acetyl-P likely constitutes an alternative strategy to compensate higher ATP and NADPH demand. Conclusion This study provides a deeper systems level insight into how Cyanothece ATCC51142

  10. A Miniaturized Chemical Proteomic Approach for Target Profiling of Clinical Kinase Inhibitors in Tumor Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Chamrád, Ivo; Rix, Uwe; Stukalov, Alexey; Gridling, Manuela; Parapatics, Katja; Müller, André C.; Altiok, Soner; Colinge, Jacques; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Haura, Eric B.; Bennett, Keiryn L.

    2014-01-01

    While targeted therapy based on the idea of attenuating the activity of a preselected, therapeutically relevant protein has become one of the major trends in modern cancer therapy, no truly specific targeted drug has been developed and most clinical agents have displayed a degree of polypharmacology. Therefore, the specificity of anticancer therapeutics has emerged as a highly important but severely underestimated issue. Chemical proteomics is a powerful technique combining postgenomic drug-affinity chromatography with high-end mass spectrometry analysis and bioinformatic data processing to assemble a target profile of a desired therapeutic molecule. Due to high demands on the starting material, however, chemical proteomic studies have been mostly limited to cancer cell lines. Herein, we report a down-scaling of the technique to enable the analysis of very low abundance samples, as those obtained from needle biopsies. By a systematic investigation of several important parameters in pull-downs with the multikinase inhibitor bosutinib, the standard experimental protocol was optimized to 100 µg protein input. At this level, more than 30 well-known targets were detected per single pull-down replicate with high reproducibility. Moreover, as presented by the comprehensive target profile obtained from miniaturized pull-downs with another clinical drug, dasatinib, the optimized protocol seems to be extendable to other drugs of interest. Sixty distinct human and murine targets were finally identified for bosutinib and dasatinib in chemical proteomic experiments utilizing core needle biopsy samples from xenotransplants derived from patient tumor tissue. Altogether, the developed methodology proves robust and generic and holds many promises for the field of personalized health care. PMID:23901793

  11. Proteomic analysis of hair shafts from monozygotic twins: Expression profiles and genetically variant peptides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Wen; Mason, Katelyn E; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Salemi, Michelle; Phinney, Brett S; Rocke, David M; Parker, Glendon J; Rice, Robert H

    2017-07-01

    Forensic association of hair shaft evidence with individuals is currently assessed by comparing mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of reference and casework samples, primarily for exclusionary purposes. Present work tests and validates more recent proteomic approaches to extract quantitative transcriptional and genetic information from hair samples of monozygotic twin pairs, which would be predicted to partition away from unrelated individuals if the datasets contain identifying information. Protein expression profiles and polymorphic, genetically variant hair peptides were generated from ten pairs of monozygotic twins. Profiling using the protein tryptic digests revealed that samples from identical twins had typically an order of magnitude fewer protein expression differences than unrelated individuals. The data did not indicate that the degree of difference within twin pairs increased with age. In parallel, data from the digests were used to detect genetically variant peptides that result from common nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes expressed in the hair follicle. Compilation of the variants permitted sorting of the samples by hierarchical clustering, permitting accurate matching of twin pairs. The results demonstrate that genetic differences are detectable by proteomic methods and provide a framework for developing quantitative statistical estimates of personal identification that increase the value of hair shaft evidence. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. [Direct proteome profiling of human blood serum in the experiment with 5-day dry immersion].

    PubMed

    Pastushkova, L Kh; Pakharukova, N A; Trifonova, O P; Dobrokhotov, I V; Valeeva, O A; Larina, I M

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the investigation was to determine changes in blood plasma proteome in healthy human subjects (n = 14, 19 to 26 y.o.) in an experiment with dry immersion (DI). Plasma samples were drawn 7 and 2 days before the exposure, on DI days 2, 3 and 5, and on days 1, 3, 7 and 15 after the experiment. Previous to direct MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometric profiling, serum samples were pre-fractionated and enriched with magnetic particles MB WCX (WCX--a weak cation exchanger) on ClinProt (Bruker Daltonics). In each spectrum, 175 MS-peaks were detected on average within the mass range from 1000 to 17,000 Da with the signal/noise ratio = 5. Student's criterion (p < 0.05) was used to define reliable differences between DI and baseline samples from 48 peaks (27.4 % of all the proteome profile peaks). On DI days 2 and 3, growth of peak areas was observed in fragments of complement system proteins C3 and C4, high-molecular kininogen and fibrinogen that can be attributed to organism adaptation to conditions of the experiment. Significant increases of the peak area of apolipoprotein CI (reduced form with segregated threonine and proline) and C4 enzymes of the complement system, and fibrinogen on the first day after the experiment can be related to changes in motor activities of the subjects.

  13. Advancing clinicopathologic diagnosis of high-risk neuroblastoma using computerized image analysis and proteomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Niazi, M Khalid Khan; Chung, Jonathan H; Heaton-Johnson, Katherine J; Martinez, Daniel; Castellanos, Raquel; Irwin, Meredith; Master, Stephen R; Pawel, Bruce; Gurcan, Metin N; Weiser, Daniel

    2016-07-21

    A subset of patients with neuroblastoma are at extremely high risk for treatment failure, though they are not identifiable at diagnosis and therefore have the highest mortality with conventional treatment approaches. Despite tremendous understanding of clinical and biological features that correlate with prognosis, neuroblastoma at ultra-high risk for treatment failure remains a diagnostic challenge. As a first step towards improving prognostic risk stratification within the high-risk group of patients, we determined the feasibility of using computerized image analysis and proteomic profiling on single slides from diagnostic tissue specimens. After expert pathologist review of tumor sections to ensure quality and representative material input, we evaluated multiple regions of single slides as well as multiple sections from different patients' tumors using computational histologic analysis and semi-quantitative proteomic profiling. We found that both approaches determined that intertumor heterogeneity was greater than intratumor heterogeneity. Unbiased clustering of samples was greatest within a tumor, suggesting a single section can be representative of the tumor as a whole. There is expected heterogeneity between tumor samples from different individuals with a high degree of similarity among specimens derived from the same patient. Both techniques are novel to supplement pathologist review of neuroblastoma for refined risk stratification, particularly since we demonstrate these results using only a single slide derived from what is usually a scarce tissue resource. Due to limitations of traditional approaches for upfront stratification, integration of new modalities with data derived from one section of tumor hold promise as tools to improve outcomes.

  14. Advancing Clinicopathologic Diagnosis of High-risk Neuroblastoma Using Computerized Image Analysis and Proteomic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Niazi, M Khalid Khan; Chung, Jonathan H; Heaton-Johnson, Katherine J; Martinez, Daniel; Castellanos, Raquel; Irwin, Meredith S; Master, Stephen R; Pawel, Bruce R; Gurcan, Metin N; Weiser, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    A subset of patients with neuroblastoma are at extremely high risk for treatment failure, though they are not identifiable at diagnosis and therefore have the highest mortality with conventional treatment approaches. Despite tremendous understanding of clinical and biological features that correlate with prognosis, neuroblastoma at ultra-high risk for treatment failure remains a diagnostic challenge. As a first step towards improving prognostic risk stratification within the high-risk group of patients, we determined the feasibility of using computerized image analysis and proteomic profiling on single slides from diagnostic tissue specimens. After expert pathologist review of tumor sections to ensure quality and representative material input, we evaluated multiple regions of single slides as well as multiple sections from different patients' tumors using computational histologic analysis and semiquantitative proteomic profiling. We found that both approaches determined that intertumor heterogeneity was greater than intratumor heterogeneity. Unbiased clustering of samples was greatest within a tumor, suggesting a single section can be representative of the tumor as a whole. There is expected heterogeneity between tumor samples from different individuals with a high degree of similarity among specimens derived from the same patient. Both techniques are novel to supplement pathologist review of neuroblastoma for refined risk stratification, particularly since we demonstrate these results using only a single slide derived from what is usually a scarce tissue resource. Due to limitations of traditional approaches for upfront stratification, integration of new modalities with data derived from one section of tumor hold promise as tools to improve outcomes.

  15. Comparison of proteomic profiles in the zebrafish retina during experimental degeneration and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Eastlake, Karen; Heywood, Wendy E.; Tracey-White, Dhani; Aquino, Erika; Bliss, Emily; Vasta, Gerardo R.; Mills, Kevin; Khaw, Peng T.; Moosajee, Mariya; Limb, G. Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish spontaneously regenerate the retina after injury. Although the gene expression profile has been extensively studied in this species during regeneration, this does not reflect protein function. To further understand the regenerative process in the zebrafish, we compared the proteomic profile of the retina during injury and upon regeneration. Using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and label-free quantitative proteomics (quadrupole time of flight LC-MS/MS), we analysed the retina of adult longfin wildtype zebrafish at 0, 3 and 18 days after Ouabain injection. Gene ontology analysis indicates reduced metabolic processing, and increase in fibrin clot formation, with significant upregulation of fibrinogen gamma polypeptide, apolipoproteins A-Ib and A-II, galectin-1, and vitellogenin-6 during degeneration when compared to normal retina. In addition, cytoskeleton and membrane transport proteins were considerably altered during regeneration, with the highest fold upregulation observed for tubulin beta 2 A, histone H2B and brain type fatty acid binding protein. Key proteins identified in this study may play an important role in the regeneration of the zebrafish retina and investigations on the potential regulation of these proteins may lead to the design of protocols to promote endogenous regeneration of the mammalian retina following retinal degenerative disease. PMID:28300160

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of four Bacillus clausii strains: proteomic expression signature distinguishes protein profile of the strains.

    PubMed

    Lippolis, Rosa; Gnoni, Antonio; Abbrescia, Anna; Panelli, Damiano; Maiorano, Stefania; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Papa, Sergio; Gaballo, Antonio

    2011-11-18

    A comparative proteomic approach, using two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, has been developed to compare and elucidate the differences among the cellular proteomes of four closely related isogenic O/C, SIN, N/R and T, B. clausii strains during both exponential and stationary phases of growth. Image analysis of the electropherograms reveals a high degree of concordance among the four proteomes, some proteins result, however, differently expressed. The proteins spots exhibiting high different expression level were identified, by mass-spectrometry analysis, as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHA, EC1.2.1.3; ABC0046 isoform) aldehyde dehydrogenase (DHAS, EC 1.2.1.3; ABC0047 isoform) and flagellin-protein of B. clausii KSM-k16. The different expression levels of the two dehydrogenases were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and dehydrogenases enzymatic activity. The different patterns of protein expression can be considered as cell proteome signatures of the different strains.

  17. One-dimensional proteomic profiling of Danio rerio embryo vitellogenin to estimate quantum dot toxicity.

    PubMed

    Petushkova, Natalia A; Kuznetsova, Galina P; Larina, Olesya V; Kisrieva, Yulia S; Samenkova, Natalia F; Trifonova, Oxana P; Miroshnichenko, Yuliana V; Zolotarev, Konstantin V; Karuzina, Irina I; Ipatova, Olga M; Lisitsa, Andrey V

    2015-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is the major egg yolk protein (YP) in most oviparous species and may be useful as an indicator in ecotoxicological testing at the biochemical level. In this study, we obtained detailed information about the Vtgs of Danio rerio embryos by cutting SDS-PAGE gel lanes into thin slices, and analyzing them slice-by-slice with (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. We conducted three proteomic analyses, comparing embryonic Danio rerio Vtg cleavage products after exposure for 48 h to CdSecore/ZnSshell quantum dots (QDs), after exposure to a mixture of the components used for quantum dot synthesis (MCS-QDs), and in untreated embryos. The Vtg mass spectrometric profiles of the QDs-treated embryos differed from those of the unexposed or MCS-QDs-treated embryos. This study demonstrates the possible utility of Vtg profiling in D. rerio embryos as a sensitive diagnostic tool to estimate nanoparticle toxicity.

  18. Lung Cancer Signatures in Plasma Based on Proteome Profiling of Mouse Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Ayumu; Politi, Katerina; Pitteri, Sharon J.; Lockwood, William W.; Faça, Vitor M.; Kelly-Spratt, Karen; Wong, Chee-Hong; Zhang, Qing; Chin, Alice; Park, Kwon-Sik; Goodman, Gary; Gazdar, Adi F.; Sage, Julien; Dinulescu, Daniela M.; Kucherlapati, Raju; DePinho, Ronald A.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Varmus, Harold E.; Hanash, Samir M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY We investigated the potential of in-depth quantitative proteomics to reveal plasma protein signatures that reflect lung tumor biology. We compared plasma protein profiles of four mouse models of lung cancer with profiles of models of pancreatic, ovarian, colon, prostate, and breast cancer and two models of inflammation. A protein signature for Titf1/Nkx2-1, a known lineage-survival oncogene in lung cancer, was found in plasmas of mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma. An EGFR signature was found in plasma of an EGFR mutant model, and a distinct plasma signature related to neuroendocrine development was uncovered in the small-cell lung cancer model. We demonstrate relevance to human lung cancer of the protein signatures identified on the basis of mouse models. PMID:21907921

  19. In vivo Host-Pathogen Interaction as Revealed by Global Proteomic Profiling of Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Pascual, Francisco; Ortíz-Severín, Javiera; Varas, Macarena A.; Allende, Miguel L.; Chávez, Francisco P.

    2017-01-01

    demonstrated the suitability of zebrafish embryos as a model for in vivo host-pathogen based proteomic studies in P. aeruginosa. Our global proteomic profiling identifies novel molecular signatures that give systematic insight into zebrafish-Pseudomonas interaction. PMID:28791256

  20. A Targeted Quantitative Proteomics Strategy for Global Kinome Profiling of Cancer Cells and Tissues*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Lei; Wang, Yinsheng

    2014-01-01

    Kinases are among the most intensively pursued enzyme superfamilies as targets for anti-cancer drugs. Large data sets on inhibitor potency and selectivity for more than 400 human kinases became available recently, offering the opportunity to design rationally novel kinase-based anti-cancer therapies. However, the expression levels and activities of kinases are highly heterogeneous among different types of cancer and even among different stages of the same cancer. The lack of effective strategy for profiling the global kinome hampers the development of kinase-targeted cancer chemotherapy. Here, we introduced a novel global kinome profiling method, based on our recently developed isotope-coded ATP-affinity probe and a targeted proteomic method using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM), for assessing simultaneously the expression of more than 300 kinases in human cells and tissues. This MRM-based assay displayed much better sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy than the discovery-based shotgun proteomic method. Approximately 250 kinases could be routinely detected in the lysate of a single cell line. Additionally, the incorporation of iRT into MRM kinome library rendered our MRM kinome assay easily transferrable across different instrument platforms and laboratories. We further employed this approach for profiling kinase expression in two melanoma cell lines, which revealed substantial kinome reprogramming during cancer progression and demonstrated an excellent correlation between the anti-proliferative effects of kinase inhibitors and the expression levels of their target kinases. Therefore, this facile and accurate kinome profiling assay, together with the kinome-inhibitor interaction map, could provide invaluable knowledge to predict the effectiveness of kinase inhibitor drugs and offer the opportunity for individualized cancer chemotherapy. PMID:24520089

  1. A targeted quantitative proteomics strategy for global kinome profiling of cancer cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Lei; Wang, Yinsheng

    2014-04-01

    Kinases are among the most intensively pursued enzyme superfamilies as targets for anti-cancer drugs. Large data sets on inhibitor potency and selectivity for more than 400 human kinases became available recently, offering the opportunity to design rationally novel kinase-based anti-cancer therapies. However, the expression levels and activities of kinases are highly heterogeneous among different types of cancer and even among different stages of the same cancer. The lack of effective strategy for profiling the global kinome hampers the development of kinase-targeted cancer chemotherapy. Here, we introduced a novel global kinome profiling method, based on our recently developed isotope-coded ATP-affinity probe and a targeted proteomic method using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM), for assessing simultaneously the expression of more than 300 kinases in human cells and tissues. This MRM-based assay displayed much better sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy than the discovery-based shotgun proteomic method. Approximately 250 kinases could be routinely detected in the lysate of a single cell line. Additionally, the incorporation of iRT into MRM kinome library rendered our MRM kinome assay easily transferrable across different instrument platforms and laboratories. We further employed this approach for profiling kinase expression in two melanoma cell lines, which revealed substantial kinome reprogramming during cancer progression and demonstrated an excellent correlation between the anti-proliferative effects of kinase inhibitors and the expression levels of their target kinases. Therefore, this facile and accurate kinome profiling assay, together with the kinome-inhibitor interaction map, could provide invaluable knowledge to predict the effectiveness of kinase inhibitor drugs and offer the opportunity for individualized cancer chemotherapy.

  2. Proteomic profiling of the brain of mice with experimental cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Ehab; Huang, Honglei; Ahras, Malika; Lall, Amar; Thezenas, Marie L; Fischer, Roman; Kessler, Benedikt M; Pain, Arnab; Billker, Oliver; Casals-Pascual, Climent

    2017-06-05

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe neurological complication of malaria infection in both adults and children. In pursuit of effective treatment of CM, clinical studies, postmortem analysis and animal models have been employed to understand the pathology and identify effective interventions. In this study, a shotgun proteomics analysis was conducted to profile the proteomic signature of the brain tissue of mice with experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in order to further understand the underlying pathology. To identify CM-associated response, proteomic signatures of the brains of C57/Bl6N mice infected with P. berghei ANKA that developed neurological syndrome were compared to those of mice infected with P. berghei NK65 that developed equally high parasite burdens without neurological signs, and to those of non-infected mice. The results show that the CM-associated response in mice that developed neurological signs comprise mainly acute-phase reaction and coagulation cascade activation, and indicate the leakage of plasma proteins into the brain parenchyma. Cerebral malaria (CM) remains a major cause of death in children. The majority of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Even with adequate access to treatment, mortality remains high and neurological sequelae can be found in up to 20% of survivors. No adjuvant treatment to date has been shown to reduce mortality and the pathophysiology of CM is largely unknown. Experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) is a well-established model that may contribute to identify and test druggable targets. In this study we have identified the disruption of the blood-brain barrier following inflammatory and vascular injury as a mechanism of disease. In this study we report a number of proteins that could be validated as potential biomarkers of ECM. Further studies, will be required to validate the clinical relevance of these biomarkers in human CM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Urinary proteomic profiling reveals diclofenac-induced renal injury and hepatic regeneration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Swelm, Rachel P.L. van; Laarakkers, Coby M.M.; Pertijs, Jeanne C.L.M.; Verweij, Vivienne; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Russel, Frans G.M.

    2013-06-01

    Diclofenac (DF) is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of rheumatic disorders, but is often associated with liver injury. We applied urinary proteomic profiling using MALDI-TOF MS to identify biomarkers for DF-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Female CH3/HeOUJIco mice were treated with 75 mg/kg bw DF by oral gavage and 24 h urine was collected. Proteins identified in urine of DF-treated mice included epidermal growth factor, transthyretin, kallikrein, clusterin, fatty acid binding protein 1 and urokinase, which are related to liver regeneration but also to kidney injury. Both organs showed enhanced levels of oxidative stress (TBARS, p < 0.01). Kidney injury was confirmed by histology and increased Kim1 and Il-6 mRNA expression levels (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). Liver histology and plasma ALT levels in DF-treated mice were not different from control, but mRNA expression of Stat3 (p < 0.001) and protein expression of PCNA (p < 0.05) were increased, indicating liver regeneration. In conclusion, urinary proteome analysis revealed that DF treatment in mice induced kidney and liver injury. Within 24 h, however, the liver was able to recover by activating tissue regeneration processes. Hence, the proteins found in urine of DF-treated mice represent kidney damage rather than hepatic injury. - Highlights: • The urinary proteome shows biological processes involved in adverse drug reactions. • Urine proteins of DF-treated mice relate to kidney injury rather than liver injury. • Liver regeneration, not liver injury, is apparent 24h after oral DF administration. • Pretreatment with LPS does not enhance DF-induced liver injury in mice.

  4. Temporal profiling of the adipocyte proteome during differentiation using a 5-plex SILAC based strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Travis; Kim, Jae-Woo; Mortensen, Peter; Otto, Tamara; Nalli, Anuradha; Tang, Qi-Qun; Lane, M. Daniel; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2008-01-01

    The adipose tissue has important secretory and endocrine functions in humans. The regulation of adipocyte differentiation has been actively pursued using transcriptomic methods over the last several years. Quantitative proteomics has emerged as a promising approach to obtain temporal profiles of biological processes such as differentiation. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is a simple and robust method for labeling proteins in vivo. Here, we describe the development and application of a five-plex SILAC experiment using four different heavy stable isotopic forms of arginine to study the nuclear proteome and the secretome during the course of adipocyte differentiation. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis using a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument resulted in identification of a total 882 proteins from these two proteomes. Of these proteins, 427 were identified on the basis of one or more arginine containing peptides that allowed quantitation. In addition to previously reported molecules that are differentially expressed during the process of adipogenesis (e.g. adiponectin and lipoprotein lipase), we identified several proteins whose differential expression during adipocyte differentiation has not been documented previously. For example, THO complex 4, a context-dependent transcriptional activator in the T-cell receptor alpha enhancer complex, showed highest expression at middle stage of adipogenesis while SNF2 alpha, a chromatin remodeling protein, was downregulated upon initiation of adipogenesis and remained so during subsequent time points. This study using a 5-plex SILAC to investigate dynamics illustrates the power of this approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in a temporal fashion. PMID:18947249

  5. The influence of iron on the proteomic profile of Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Lima, Daniel C; Duarte, Fábio T; Medeiros, Viviane K S; Lima, Diogo B; Carvalho, Paulo C; Bonatto, Diego; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia R

    2014-10-20

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a bacterium commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions and is associated with important pharmacological and industrial attributes such as producing substances with therapeutic properties and synthesizing biodegradable polymers. Its genome was sequenced, however, approximately 40% of its genes still remain with unknown functions. Although C. violaceum is known by its versatile capacity of living in a wide range of environments, little is known on how it achieves such success. Here, we investigated the proteomic profile of C. violaceum cultivated in the absence and presence of high iron concentration, describing some proteins of unknown function that might play an important role in iron homeostasis, amongst others. Briefly, C. violaceum was cultivated in the absence and in the presence of 9 mM of iron during four hours. Total proteins were identified by LC-MS and through the PatternLab pipeline. Our proteomic analysis indicates major changes in the energetic metabolism, and alterations in the synthesis of key transport and stress proteins. In addition, it may suggest the presence of a yet unidentified operon that could be related to oxidative stress, together with a set of other proteins with unknown function. The protein-protein interaction network also pinpointed the importance of energetic metabolism proteins to the acclimatation of C. violaceum in high concentration of iron. This is the first proteomic analysis of the opportunistic pathogen C. violaceum in the presence of high iron concentration. Our data allowed us to identify a yet undescribed operon that might have a role in oxidative stress defense. Our work provides new data that will contribute to understand how this bacterium achieve its capacity of surviving in harsh conditions as well as to open a way to explore the yet little availed biotechnological characteristics of this bacterium with the further exploring of the proteins of unknown function that we showed to be

  6. Changes of human serum proteome profile during 7-day “dry” immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakharukova, N. A.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Grigoriev, A. I.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize changes of serum proteome profile during 7-day "dry" immersion (DI). The experiment with DI consisted of three series: control group without countermeasures (10 men), with using mechanical stimulation (6 men) and low-frequency myostimulation (5 men) as preventive means. Serum samples were fractionated using ClinProt robot (Bruker Daltonics) on magnetic beads (weak cation exchange magnetic beads—MB WCX) prior to mass-spectral profiling. It was obtained 170 peaks after fractionation of serum samples in each group. On 7th immersion day peak areas of fibrinopeptide A ( m/ z=1206; 1464), angiotensin II ( m/ z=1051), high molecular mass kininogen fragment ( m/ z=2133 Da) and C3-fragment of the complement system ( m/ z=1350 Da) were significantly decreased comparing with pre-experimental values of all experimental series. Peak areas of apolipoprotein C III ( m/ z=9419) and C4a fragment of the complement system ( m/ z=3206 Da) were increased. On 7th day of the recovery peak areas of all changed peaks were not close to pre-experimental values. This fact provided evidence of incomplete recovery of an organism after DI. The depth of the alterations had considerable individual variability. Thereby the detected changes of serum proteome profile in the experiment. They indicated a reorganization of the hormonal, immune systems and lipid metabolism. The use of myostimulation and mechanical stimulation as countermeasures partly compensated adverse effects of 7-day dry immersion on the parameters of coagulation system (fibrinopeptide A) and lipid metabolism (apolipoprotein CIII).

  7. Proteomic profiling of the signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus egg and spermatophore.

    PubMed

    Niksirat, Hamid; Andersson, Liselotte; James, Peter; Kouba, Antonín; Kozák, Pavel

    2014-10-01

    Proteins of the signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus egg and spermatophore were identified using in-gel digestion, mass spectrometry, and Mascot search. Forty-one and one-hundred-fifty proteins were identified in egg and spermatophore, respectively. The proteins were classified into nine categories including cell defence, cell signaling, cytoskeleton, DNA related activity, metabolism and energy production, protease and protease inhibitor, respiration, transportation, and others and unknown. Twenty-two proteins were found in both egg and spermatophore. The respiration and cytoskeleton groups are the most diverse categories in the protein profiles of the egg and spermatophore, respectively. No protein was assigned to DNA related activity and cell defence categories in the protein profile of the crayfish egg. Differences between protein profiles of the crayfish egg and spermatophore show different functional priorities for each of gametes. Several proteins having possible roles in gametogenesis, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and fertilization were identified. This proteomic profile of signal crayfish gametes provides a basis for further investigation of functional roles of the identified proteins in aspects of reproduction such as capacitation and fertilization. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Discovery of serum biomarkers of ovarian cancer using complementary proteomic profiling strategies

    PubMed Central

    Arslan‐Low, Elif; Kabir, Musarat; Worthington, Jenny; Camuzeaux, Stephane; Sinclair, John; Szaub, Joanna; Afrough, Babak; Podust, Vladimir N.; Fourkala, Evangelia‐Ourania; Cubizolles, Myriam; Kronenberg, Florian; Fung, Eric T.; Gentry‐Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ovarian cancer is a devastating disease and biomarkers for its early diagnosis are urgently required. Serum may be a valuable source of biomarkers that may be revealed by proteomic profiling. Herein, complementary serum protein profiling strategies were employed for discovery of biomarkers that could discriminate cases of malignant and benign ovarian cancer. Experimental design Identically collected and processed serum samples from 22 cases of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 45 benign ovarian neoplasms, and 64 healthy volunteers were subjected to immunodepletion and protein equalization coupled to 2D‐DIGE/MS and multidimensional fractionation coupled to SELDI‐TOF profiling with MS/MS for protein identification. Selected candidates were verified by ELISA in samples from malignant (n = 70) and benign (n = 89) cases and combined marker panels tested against serum CA125. Results Both profiling platforms were complementary in identifying biomarker candidates, four of which (A1AT, SLPI, APOA4, VDBP) significantly discriminated malignant from benign cases. However, no combination of markers was as good as CA125 for diagnostic accuracy. SLPI was further tested as an early marker using prediagnosis serum samples. While it rose in cases toward diagnosis, it did not discriminate prediagnosis cases from controls. Conclusions and clinical relevance The candidate biomarkers warrant further validation in independent sample sets. PMID:25290619

  9. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis

    PubMed Central

    Laatsch, Chelsea N.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B.; Flagler, Michael J.; Davis, Michael G.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.

    2014-01-01

    Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals. PMID:25165623

  10. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis.

    PubMed

    Laatsch, Chelsea N; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Rocke, David M; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B; Flagler, Michael J; Davis, Michael G; Eigenheer, Richard A; Phinney, Brett S; Rice, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African-American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals.

  11. Proteomic and activity profiles of ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in germinating barley embryo.

    PubMed

    Bønsager, Birgit C; Shahpiri, Azar; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2010-10-01

    Enzymes involved in redox control are important during seed germination and seedling growth. Ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in barley embryo extracts were monitored both by 2D-gel electrophoresis and activity measurements from 4 to 144 h post imbibition (PI). Strikingly different activity profiles were observed. No ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was present in mature seeds but activity was detected after 24 h PI and increased 14-fold up to 144 h PI. In contrast, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) activity was present at 4h PI and first decreased by 9-fold until 72 h PI followed by a 5-fold increase at 144 h PI. Glutathione reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities were also detected at 4 h PI, and showed modest increases of 1.8- and 2.7-fold, respectively, by 144 h PI. The combination of functional analysis with the proteomics approach enabled correlation of the activity profiles and protein abundance. While gel spots containing APX showed intensity changes consistent with the activity profile from 0 to 72 h PI, DHAR spot intensities indicated that post-translational regulation may be responsible for the observed changes in activity. Transcript profiling, 2D-western blotting and mass spectrometric characterization of multiple APX spots demonstrated the presence of APX1 and minor amounts of APX2.

  12. Analysis of Biostimulated Microbial Communities from Two Field Experiments Reveals Temporal and Spatial Differences in Proteome Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Callister, Stephen J; Wilkins, Mike; Nicora, Carrie D.; Williams, Ken; Banfield, Jillian F.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; N'Guessan, A. Lucie; Mouser, Paula J; Elifantz, Hila; Smith, Richard D.; Lovley, Derek; Lipton, Mary S; Long, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stimulated by an acetate-amendment field experiment conducted in 2007, anaerobic microbial populations in the aquifer at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Colorado reduced mobile U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). During this experiment, planktonic biomass was sampled at various time points to quantitatively evaluate proteomes. In 2008, an acetateamended field experiment was again conducted in a similar manner to the 2007 experiment. As there was no comprehensive metagenome sequence available for use in proteomics analysis, we systematically evaluated 12 different organism genome sequences to generate sets of aggregate genomes, or pseudo-metagenomes , for supplying relative quantitative peptide and protein identifications. Proteomics results support previous observations of the dominance of Geobacteraceae during biostimulation using acetate as sole electron donor, and revealed a shift from an early stage of iron reduction to a late stage of iron reduction. Additionally,ashift from iron reduction to sulfate reduction was indicated by changes in the contribution of proteome information contributed by different organism genome sequences within the aggregate set. In addition, the comparison of proteome measurements made between the 2007 field experiment and 2008 field experiment revealed differences in proteome profiles. These differences may be the result of alterations in abundance and population structure within the planktonic biomass samples collected for analysis.

  13. Analysis of biostimulated microbial communities from two field experiments reveals temporal and spatial differences in proteome profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Callister, S.J.; Wilkins, M.J.; Nicora, C.D.; Williams, K.H.; Banfield, J.F.; VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Hettich, R.L.; NGuessan, A.L.; Mouser, P.J.; Elifantz, H.; Smith, R.D.; Lovley, D.R.; Lipton, M.S.; Long, P.E.

    2010-07-15

    Stimulated by an acetate-amendment field experiment conducted in 2007, anaerobic microbial populations in the aquifer at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Colorado reduced mobile U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). During this experiment, planktonic biomass was sampled at various time points to quantitatively evaluate proteomes. In 2008, an acetate-amended field experiment was again conducted in a similar manner to the 2007 experiment. As there was no comprehensive metagenome sequence available for use in proteomics analysis, we systematically evaluated 12 different organism genome sequences to generate sets of aggregate genomes, or “pseudo-metagenomes”, for supplying relative quantitative peptide and protein identifications. Proteomics results support previous observations of the dominance of Geobacteraceae during biostimulation using acetate as sole electron donor, and revealed a shift from an early stage of iron reduction to a late stage of iron reduction. Additionally, a shift from iron reduction to sulfate reduction was indicated by changes in the contribution of proteome information contributed by different organism genome sequences within the aggregate set. In addition, the comparison of proteome measurements made between the 2007 field experiment and 2008 field experiment revealed differences in proteome profiles. These differences may be the result of alterations in abundance and population structure within the planktonic biomass samples collected for analysis.

  14. Proteomics profiling of epidermal mucus secretion of a cichlid (Symphysodon aequifasciata) demonstrating parental care behavior.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kenny; Joshi, Shashikant; Jin, Lam Toong; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2006-04-01

    The discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciata) is a cichlid demonstrating advanced mode of parental care towards fry. Both male and female fish utilized epidermal mucus secreted from specialized epidermal cells to feed developing fry. We utilized proteomics to compare protein profile from parental and nonparental fish. Gel analysis revealed a total of 35 spots that were up-regulated in parental mucus. In tandem, another 18 spots were uniquely expressed in parental mucus. MS analysis of these spots identified proteins such as fructose biphosphate aldolase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, and heat shock proteins, which are essential to support energy provision, cell repair and proliferation, stress mediation, and defense mechanism in parental fish during parental-care period. Concurrently, the detection of several antioxidant-related proteins such as thioredoxin peroxidase and hemopexin suggests a need to overcome oxidative stress during hypermucosal production in parental-care behavior. A C-type lectin was also found to be uniquely expressed in parental mucus and could have important role in providing antimicrobial defense to both parental fish and fry. In summary, our study shows that discus mucus proteome undergoes changes in protein expression during parental-care period.

  15. Biomarker discovery for ovine paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) by proteomic serum profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Taylor, D; Begg, D J; Whittington, R J

    2011-07-01

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting ruminants and other species. It is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In this study, surface enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI TOF-MS) was used as a platform to identify candidate biomarkers from sheep serum. Multivariate biomarker models which aimed to differentiate sheep with paratuberculosis and vaccinated-exposed sheep from unexposed animals were proposed based on classification and regression tree (CART) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) algorithms from two array types. The accuracy of classification of sheep into unexposed or exposed groups ranged from 75 to 100% among models. SELDI was used to monitor protein profile changes over time during an experimental infection trial by examining sera collected at 4-, 8- and 13-months post infection. Although three different SELDI instruments were used, nine consistent proteomic features were observed associated with exposure to MAP. Two of the putative serum biomarkers were purified from serum using chromatographic methods and were identified as transthyretin and alpha haemoglobin by tandem mass spectrometry. They belong to highly abundant, acute phase reactants in the serum proteome and have also been discovered as serum biomarkers in human inflammatory conditions and cancer. Their relationship to the pathogenesis of Johne's disease remains to be elucidated.

  16. Identification of three immunodominant motifs with atypical isotype profile scattered over the Onchocerca volvulus proteome

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorst, Bieke; Stuyver, Lieven J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the immune response upon infection with the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus and the mechanisms that evolved in this parasite to evade immune mediated elimination is essential to expand the toolbox available for diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines development. Using high-density peptide microarrays we scanned the proteome-wide linear epitope repertoire in Cameroonian onchocerciasis patients and healthy controls from Southern Africa which led to the identification of 249 immunodominant antigenic peptides. Motif analysis learned that 3 immunodominant motifs, encompassing 3 linear epitopes, are present in 70, 43, and 31 of these peptides, respectively and appear to be scattered over the entire proteome in seemingly non-related proteins. These linear epitopes are shown to have an atypical isotype profile dominated by IgG1, IgG3, IgE and IgM, in contrast to the commonly observed IgG4 response in chronic active helminth infections. The identification of these linear epitope motifs may lead to novel diagnostic development but further evaluation of cross-reactivity against common co-infecting human nematode infections will be needed. PMID:28125577

  17. Dynamic proteomic profile of potato tuber during its in vitro development.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jae Woong; Choi, Jong-Soon; Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Kwon, Sang Oh; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Nookaraju, Akula; Nam, Ju-Hyun; Choi, Chi-Won; Kim, Seung Il; Ajappala, Hemavathi; Kim, Hyun Soon; Jeon, Jae Heung; Park, Se Won

    2012-10-01

    Potato tuberization is a complicated biochemical process, which is dependent on external environmental factors. Tuber development in potato consists of a series of biochemical and morphological processes at the stolon tip. Signal transduction proteins are involved in the source-sink transition during potato tuberization. In the present study, we examined protein profiles under in vitro tuber-inducing conditions using a shotgun proteomic approach involving denaturing gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 251 proteins were identified and classified into 9 groups according to distinctive expression patterns during the tuberization stage. Stolon stage-specific proteins were primarily involved in the photosynthetic machinery. Proteins specific to the initial tuber stage included patatin. Proteins specific to the developing tuber stage included 6-fructokinase, phytoalexin-deficient 4-1, metallothionein II-like protein, and malate dehydrogenase. Novel stage-specific proteins identified during in vitro tuberization were ferredoxin-NADP reductase, 34 kDa porin, aquaporin, calmodulin, ripening-regulated protein, and starch synthase. Superoxide dismutase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and catalase I were most abundantly expressed in the stolon; however, the enzyme activities of these proteins were most activated at the initial tuber. The present shotgun proteomic study provides insights into the proteins that show altered expression during in vitro potato tuberization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proteome and transcriptome profiles of a Her2/Neu-driven mouse model of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schoenherr, Regine M; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S; Lin, ChenWei; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Liu, Tao; Holzman, Ted; Coleman, Ilsa; Feng, Li-Chia; Lorentzen, Travis D; Krasnoselsky, Alexei L; Wang, Pei; Liu, Yan; Gurley, Kay E; Amon, Lynn M; Schepmoes, Athena A; Moore, Ronald J; Camp, David G; Chodosh, Lewis A; Smith, Richard D; Nelson, Peter S; McIntosh, Martin W; Kemp, Christopher J; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2011-04-01

    We generated extensive transcriptional and proteomic profiles from a Her2-driven mouse model of breast cancer that closely recapitulates human breast cancer. This report makes these data publicly available in raw and processed forms, as a resource to the community. Importantly, we previously made biospecimens from this same mouse model freely available through a sample repository, so researchers can obtain samples to test biological hypotheses without the need of breeding animals and collecting biospecimens. Twelve datasets are available, encompassing 841 LC-MS/MS experiments (plasma and tissues) and 255 microarray analyses of multiple tissues (thymus, spleen, liver, blood cells, and breast). Cases and controls were rigorously paired to avoid bias. In total, 18,880 unique peptides were identified (PeptideProphet peptide error rate ≤1%), with 3884 and 1659 non-redundant protein groups identified in plasma and tissue datasets, respectively. Sixty-one of these protein groups overlapped between cancer plasma and cancer tissue. These data are of use for advancing our understanding of cancer biology, for software and quality control tool development, investigations of analytical variation in MS/MS data, and selection of proteotypic peptides for multiple reaction monitoring-MS. The availability of these datasets will contribute positively to clinical proteomics. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Proteome and Transcriptome Profiles of a Her2/Neu-driven Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schoenherr, Regine M.; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Lin, ChenWei; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Liu, Tao; Holzman, Ted; Coleman, Ilsa; Feng, Li-Chia; Lorentzen, Travis D.; Krasnoselsky, Alexei L.; Wang, Pei; Liu, Yan; Gurley, Kay E.; Amon, Lynn M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Smith, Richard D.; Nelson, Peter S.; McIntosh, Martin W.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We generated extensive transcriptional and proteomic profiles from a Her2-driven mouse model of breast cancer that closely recapitulates human breast cancer. This report makes these data publicly available in raw and processed forms, as a resource to the community. Importantly, we previously made biospecimens from this same mouse model freely available through a sample repository, so researchers can obtain samples to test biological hypotheses without the need of breeding animals and collecting biospecimens. Experimental design Twelve datasets are available, encompassing 841 LC-MS/MS experiments (plasma and tissues) and 255 microarray analyses of multiple tissues (thymus, spleen, liver, blood cells, and breast). Cases and controls were rigorously paired to avoid bias. Results In total, 18,880 unique peptides were identified (PeptideProphet peptide error rate ≤1%), with 3884 and 1659 non-redundant protein groups identified in plasma and tissue datasets, respectively. Sixty-one of these protein groups overlapped between cancer plasma and cancer tissue. Conclusions and clinical relevance These data are of use for advancing our understanding of cancer biology, for software and quality control tool development, investigations of analytical variation in MS/MS data, and selection of proteotypic peptides for MRM-MS. The availability of these datasets will contribute positively to clinical proteomics. PMID:21448875

  20. Modulation of proteomic profile in H295R adrenocortical cell line induced by mitotane.

    PubMed

    Stigliano, A; Cerquetti, L; Borro, M; Gentile, G; Bucci, B; Misiti, S; Piergrossi, P; Brunetti, E; Simmaco, M; Toscano, V

    2008-03-01

    Mitotane, 1,1-dichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chloro-phenyl) ethane (o,p'-DDD), is a compound that represents the effective agent in the treatment of the adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), able to block cortisol synthesis. In this type of cancer, the biological mechanism induced by this treatment remains still unknown. In this study, we have already shown a greater impairment in the first steps of the steroidogenesis and recognized a little effect on cell cycle. We also evaluated the variation of proteomic profile of the H295R ACC cell line, either in total cell extract or in mitochondria-enriched fraction after treatment with mitotane. In total cell extracts, triose phosphate isomerase, alpha-enolase, D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, peroxiredoxin II and VI, heat shock protein 27, prohibitin, histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein, and profilin-1 showed a different expression. In the mitochondrial fraction, the following proteins appeared to be down regulated: aldolase A, peroxiredoxin I, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, tubulin-beta isoform II, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, and nucleotide diphosphate kinase, whereas adrenodoxin reductase, cathepsin D, and heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A were positively up-regulated. This study represents the first proteomic study on the mitotane effects on ACC. It permits to identify some protein classes affected by the drug involved in energetic metabolism, stress response, cytoskeleton structure, and tumorigenesis.

  1. Whole-Proteome Peptide Microarrays for Profiling Autoantibody Repertoires within Multiple Sclerosis and Narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Zandian, Arash; Forsström, Björn; Häggmark-Månberg, Anna; Schwenk, Jochen M; Uhlén, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Ayoglu, Burcu

    2017-02-09

    The underlying molecular mechanisms of autoimmune diseases are poorly understood. To unravel the autoimmune processes across diseases, comprehensive and unbiased analyses of proteins targets recognized by the adaptive immune system are needed. Here we present an approach starting from high-density peptide arrays to characterize autoantibody repertoires and to identify new autoantigens. A set of ten plasma and serum samples from subjects with multiple sclerosis, narcolepsy, and without any disease diagnosis were profiled on a peptide array representing the whole proteome, hosting 2.2 million 12-mer peptides with a six amino acid lateral shift. On the basis of the IgG reactivities found on these whole-proteome peptide microarrays, a set of 23 samples was then studied on a targeted array with 174 000 12-mer peptides of single amino acid lateral shift. Finally, verification of IgG reactivities was conducted with a larger sample set (n = 448) using the bead-based peptide microarrays. The presented workflow employed three different peptide microarray formats to discover and resolve the epitopes of human autoantibodies and revealed two potentially new autoantigens: MAP3K7 in multiple sclerosis and NRXN1 in narcolepsy. The presented strategy provides insights into antibody repertoire reactivity at a peptide level and may accelerate the discovery and validation of autoantigens in human diseases.

  2. Immunostimulatory potential and proteome profiling of Leishmania donovani soluble exogenous antigens.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Samant, M; Misra, P; Khare, P; Sundar, S; Garg, Ravendra; Dube, A

    2015-07-01

    Isolation of the soluble exogenous antigens (SEAgs), its immune response study and proteome profiling is an essential prerequisite for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of Leishmania donovani. The immunostimulatory potential of L. donovani SEAgs, purified from culture of L. donovani clinical isolate, was evaluated for their ability to induce cellular responses in treated/cured hamsters. SEAgs induced significant proliferative responses in lymphocytes (SI 5.6 ± 2.3; P < 0.01) isolated from cured hamster. In addition, significant NO production in response to SEAgs was also noticed in macrophages of hamsters, mouse and human cell lines (J774A-1 and THP1). Western blot analyses with antibodies against proteophosphoglycan (PPG; surface-expressed and secreted molecule) of L. donovani revealed that PPG molecules are also present in L. donovani SEAgs. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteome analysis of 12 protein bands of SEAgs through MALDI-TOF/TOF endorsed the identification of some Th1-stimulatory immunogenic proteins. These immunogenic proteins may offer increased hope for the discovery of new promising vaccine candidates against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The overall results suggest that immunostimulatory molecules are present in the SEAgs, which may be further exploited, for developing a subunit vaccine against VL a fatal human disease.

  3. Gold-nanobeacons for gene therapy: evaluation of genotoxicity, cell toxicity and proteome profiling analysis.

    PubMed

    Conde, João; Larguinho, Miguel; Cordeiro, Ana; Raposo, Luís R; Costa, Pedro M; Santos, Susana; Diniz, Mário S; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Baptista, Pedro V

    2014-08-01

    Antisense therapy is a powerful tool for post-transcriptional gene silencing suitable for down-regulating target genes associated to disease. Gold nanoparticles have been described as effective intracellular delivery vehicles for antisense oligonucleotides providing increased protection against nucleases and targeting capability via simple surface modification. We constructed an antisense gold-nanobeacon consisting of a stem-looped oligonucleotide double-labelled with 3'-Cy3 and 5'-Thiol-C6 and tested for the effective blocking of gene expression in colorectal cancer cells. Due to the beacon conformation, gene silencing was directly detected as fluorescence increases with hybridisation to target, which can be used to assess the level of silencing. Moreover, this system was extensively evaluated for the genotoxic, cytotoxic and proteomic effects of gold-nanobeacon exposure to cancer cells. The exposure was evaluated by two-dimensional protein electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to perform a proteomic profile and 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay, glutathione-S-transferase assay, micronucleus test and comet assay to assess the genotoxicity. This integrated toxicology evaluation showed that the proposed nanotheranostics strategy does not exhibit significant toxicity, which is extremely relevant when translating into in vivo systems.

  4. Streptococcus iniae SF1: Complete Genome Sequence, Proteomic Profile, and Immunoprotective Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bao-cun; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive bacterium that is reckoned one of the most severe aquaculture pathogens. It has a broad host range among farmed marine and freshwater fish and can also cause zoonotic infection in humans. Here we report for the first time the complete genome sequence as well as the host factor-induced proteomic profile of a pathogenic S. iniae strain, SF1, a serotype I isolate from diseased fish. SF1 possesses a single chromosome of 2,149,844 base pairs, which contains 2,125 predicted protein coding sequences (CDS), 12 rRNA genes, and 45 tRNA genes. Among the protein-encoding CDS are genes involved in resource acquisition and utilization, signal sensing and transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, and defense against host immune response. Potential virulence genes include those encoding adhesins, autolysins, toxins, exoenzymes, and proteases. In addition, two putative prophages and a CRISPR-Cas system were found in the genome, the latter containing a CRISPR locus and four cas genes. Proteomic analysis detected 21 secreted proteins whose expressions were induced by host serum. Five of the serum-responsive proteins were subjected to immunoprotective analysis, which revealed that two of the proteins were highly protective against lethal S. iniae challenge when used as purified recombinant subunit vaccines. Taken together, these results provide an important molecular basis for future study of S. iniae in various aspects, in particular those related to pathogenesis and disease control. PMID:24621602

  5. In-depth proteomic profiling of left ventricular tissues in human end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shanshan; Xia, Yan; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yi; Chen, Zhangwei; Xie, Juanjuan; Qian, Juying; Shen, Huali; Yang, Pengyuan

    2017-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is caused by reduced left ventricular (LV) myocardial function, which is one of the most common causes of heart failure (HF). We performed iTRAQ-coupled 2D-LC-MS/MS to profile the cardiac proteome of LV tissues from healthy controls and patients with end-stage DCM. We identified 4263 proteins, of which 125 were differentially expressed in DCM tissues compared to LV controls. The majority of these were membrane proteins related to cellular junctions and neuronal metabolism. In addition, these proteins were involved in membrane organization, mitochondrial organization, translation, protein transport, and cell death process. Four key proteins involved in the cell death process were also detected by western blotting, indicated that cell death was activated in DCM tissues. Furthermore, S100A1 and eEF2 were enriched in the “cellular assembly and organization” and “cell cycle” networks, respectively. We verified decreases in these two proteins in end-stage DCM LV samples through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). These observations demonstrate that our understanding of the mechanisms underlying DCM can be deepened through comparison of the proteomes of normal LV tissues with that from end-stage DCM in humans. PMID:28427148

  6. Time- and compartment-resolved proteome profiling of the extracellular niche in lung injury and repair

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Herbert B; Fernandez, Isis E; Burgstaller, Gerald; Schaab, Christoph; Scheltema, Richard A; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Eickelberg, Oliver; Mann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key regulator of tissue morphogenesis and repair. However, its composition and architecture are not well characterized. Here, we monitor remodeling of the extracellular niche in tissue repair in the bleomycin-induced lung injury mouse model. Mass spectrometry quantified 8,366 proteins from total tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) over the course of 8 weeks, surveying tissue composition from the onset of inflammation and fibrosis to its full recovery. Combined analysis of proteome, secretome, and transcriptome highlighted post-transcriptional events during tissue fibrogenesis and defined the composition of airway epithelial lining fluid. To comprehensively characterize the ECM, we developed a quantitative detergent solubility profiling (QDSP) method, which identified Emilin-2 and collagen-XXVIII as novel constituents of the provisional repair matrix. QDSP revealed which secreted proteins interact with the ECM, and showed drastically altered association of morphogens to the insoluble matrix upon injury. Thus, our proteomic systems biology study assigns proteins to tissue compartments and uncovers their dynamic regulation upon lung injury and repair, potentially contributing to the development of anti-fibrotic strategies. PMID:26174933

  7. Identification of three immunodominant motifs with atypical isotype profile scattered over the Onchocerca volvulus proteome.

    PubMed

    Lagatie, Ole; Van Dorst, Bieke; Stuyver, Lieven J

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the immune response upon infection with the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus and the mechanisms that evolved in this parasite to evade immune mediated elimination is essential to expand the toolbox available for diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines development. Using high-density peptide microarrays we scanned the proteome-wide linear epitope repertoire in Cameroonian onchocerciasis patients and healthy controls from Southern Africa which led to the identification of 249 immunodominant antigenic peptides. Motif analysis learned that 3 immunodominant motifs, encompassing 3 linear epitopes, are present in 70, 43, and 31 of these peptides, respectively and appear to be scattered over the entire proteome in seemingly non-related proteins. These linear epitopes are shown to have an atypical isotype profile dominated by IgG1, IgG3, IgE and IgM, in contrast to the commonly observed IgG4 response in chronic active helminth infections. The identification of these linear epitope motifs may lead to novel diagnostic development but further evaluation of cross-reactivity against common co-infecting human nematode infections will be needed.

  8. Mass spectral analysis of urine proteomic profiles of dairy cows suffering from clinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuang; Shu, Shi; Xia, Cheng; Wang, Pengxian; Sun, Yuhang; Xu, Chuchu; Li, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Ketosis is an important metabolic disorder in dairy cows during the transition period. The urine proteomics of ketosis has not been investigated using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). The aim is to determine differences between urine proteomic profiles of healthy cows and those with clinical ketosis, and facilitate studies of the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms that lead to liver pathology in ketosis. We analyzed the urine samples of 20 cows with clinical ketosis (group 1) and 20 control cows (group 2) using SELDI-TOF-MS. Thirty-nine peptide peaks differed between both groups. Polypeptides corresponding to 26 of these differential peptide peaks were identified using the SWISS-PROT protein database. We found that the peaks of 11 distinct polypeptides from the urine samples of the ketosis group were significantly reduced, compared with those of the control group as based on the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Among these were VGF (non-acronymic) protein, amyloid precursor protein, serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, C1INH, apolipoprotein C-III, cystatin C, transthyretin, hepcidin, human neutrophil peptides, and osteopontin. These proteins may represent novel biomarkers of the metabolic changes that occur in dairy cows with ketosis. Our results will help to better understand the physiological changes and pathogenesis observed in cows with ketosis. The SELDI-TOF-MS can be used to understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of ketosis and identify biomarkers of the disease.

  9. [The proteomic profiling of blood serum of children with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Korkotashvili, L V; Kolesov, S A; Jukova, E A; Vidmanova, T A; Kankova, N Yu; Bashurova, I A; Sidorova, A M; Kulakova, E V

    2015-03-01

    The mass-spectra of proteome of blood serum from healthy children and children with gastroesophageal reflux disease were received. The technology platform including direct proteome mass-spectrometer profiling after pre-fractional rectification using magnetic particles MB WCX was applied. The significant differences in mass-spectra were established manifesting in detection of more mass-spectrometer peaks and higher indicators of their intensity and area in group of healthy children. The study detected 39 particular peptides and low-molecular proteins predominantly intrinsic to healthy or ill children. It was established that two peptides with molecular mass 925 and 909 Da. are registered only in healthy patients and have no traces in group ofpatients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. The peptide 1564 Da is detected only in blood of children with gastroesophageal reflux disease and totally is absent in healthy children. The research data permitted to reveal specific patterns (signatures) of low-molecular proteins and peptides specific for blood serum of healthy children and patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. The results testify the availability of singularities in metabolism of low-molecular proteins and can be used as a basis for development of minimally invasive mass-spectrometer system for its diagnostic.

  10. Profiling the erythrocyte membrane proteome isolated from patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Bruno M; Charro, Nuno; Blonder, Josip; Lopes, Carlos; Azevedo, Pilar; Bugalho de Almeida, António; Chan, King C; Prieto, DaRue A; Issaq, Haleem; Veenstra, Timothy D; Penque, Deborah

    2012-12-05

    Structural and metabolic alterations in erythrocytes play an important role in the pathophysiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Whether these dysfunctions are related to the modulation of erythrocyte membrane proteins in patients diagnosed with COPD remains to be determined. Herein, a comparative proteomic profiling of the erythrocyte membrane fraction isolated from peripheral blood of smokers diagnosed with COPD and smokers with no COPD was performed using differential (16)O/(18)O stable isotope labeling. A total of 219 proteins were quantified as being significantly differentially expressed within the erythrocyte membrane proteomes of smokers with COPD and healthy smokers. Functional pathway analysis showed that the most enriched biofunctions were related to cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, hematological system development, immune response, oxidative stress and cytoskeleton. Chorein (VPS13A), a cytoskeleton related protein whose defects had been associated with the presence of cell membrane deformation of circulating erythrocytes was found to be down-regulated in the membrane fraction of erythrocytes obtained from COPD patients. Methemoglobin reductase (CYB5R3) was also found to be underexpressed in these cells, suggesting that COPD patients may be at higher risk for developing methemoglobinemia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics.

  11. Proteomic Profiling and Functional Characterization of Multiple Post-Translational Modifications of Tubulin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ningning; Xiong, Yun; Ren, Yiran; Zhang, Linlin; He, Xianfei; Wang, Xincheng; Liu, Min; Li, Dengwen; Shui, Wenqing; Zhou, Jun

    2015-08-07

    Tubulin is known to undergo unique post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as detyrosination and polyglutamylation, particularly in the unstructured carboxy-terminal tails (CTTs). However, more conventional PTMs of tubulin and their roles in the regulation of microtubule properties and functions remain poorly defined. Here, we report the comprehensive profiling of tubulin phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitylation, and O-GlcNAcylation in HeLa cells with a proteomic approach. Our tubulin-targeted analysis has identified 80 residues bearing single or multiple conventional PTMs including 24 novel PTM sites not covered in previous global proteomic surveys. By using a series of PTM-deficient or PTM-mimicking mutants, we further find that tubulin phosphorylation and acetylation play important roles in the control of microtubule assembly and stability. In addition, these tubulin PTMs have distinct effects on the retrograde transport of adenoviruses along microtubules. These findings thus enlarge the repertoire of tubulin PTMs and foster our understanding of their versatile roles in the regulation of microtubule dynamics and cellular functions.

  12. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  13. Gender-specific incidence of autoimmune diseases from national registers.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that autoimmune diseases affect predominantly in women, but the available evidence came from case control study with potential selection and recall bias. We aimed to examine the gender-specific incidence of autoimmune diseases by using national wide registers in Sweden. Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and Outpatient Register were used to identify a set of autoimmune diseases between 1987 and 2010. Gender-specific incidence rate was standardized directly according to the Swedish age distribution in 2000. A total of 403,757 individuals were diagnosed with autoimmune diseases between 1987 and 2010 in Sweden. The overall incidence of 32 autoimmune disease was 60% higher in women than men. Female predominance was noted in 18 specific diseases, whereas the rest of them showed no difference or male predominance. The age of onset was different between men and women in 27 autoimmune diseases. Our study suggested that the classical view of female predominance of autoimmune diseases may be far from striking than previously believed. Further studies are needed to examine whether there is true difference between men and women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitations for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on (90)Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has a similar structure to the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly re-evaluated: gastrointestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0-80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general populations exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  15. Profiling the proteomics in honeybee worker brains submitted to the proboscis extension reflex.

    PubMed

    da Silva Menegasso, Anally Ribeiro; Pratavieira, Marcel; de Saldanha da Gama Fischer, Juliana; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Malaspina, Osmar; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2017-01-16

    The proboscis extension reflex (PER) is an unconditioned stimulus (US) widely used to access the ability of honeybees to correlate it with a conditioned stimulus (CS) during learning and memory acquisition. However, little is known about the biochemical/genetic changes in worker honeybee brains induced by the PER alone. The present investigation profiled the proteomic complement associated with the PER to further the understanding of the major molecular transformations in the honeybee brain during the execution of a US. In the present study, a quantitative shotgun proteomic approach was employed to assign the proteomic complement of the honeybee brain. The results were analyzed under the view of protein networking for different processes involved in PER behavior. In the brains of PER-stimulated individuals, the metabolism of cyclic/heterocyclic/aromatic compounds was activated in parallel with the metabolism of nitrogenated compounds, followed by the up-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, the proteins involved with the anatomic and cytoskeleton; the down-regulation of the anatomic development and cell differentiation in other neurons also occurred. The assay of proboscis extension reflex is frequently used to access honeybees' ability to correlate an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus (such as an odor) to establish learning and memory acquisition. The reflex behavior of proboscis extension was associated with various conditioned stimuli, and the biochemical/genetic evaluation of the changes occurring in honeybee brains under these conditions reflect the synergistic effects of both insect manipulations (training to answer to an unconditioned stimulus and training to respond to a conditioned stimulus). Little or no information is available regarding the biochemical changes stimulated by an unconditioned stimulus alone, such as the proboscis extension reflex. The present investigation characterizes the proteomic changes occurring in the brains of

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE: HIPPOCAMPUS PROTEOME AND METABOLOME PROFILES IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT PUPS

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Rachel E.; Chen, Jing; Jagadapillai, Rekha; Jang, HyeJeong; Abomoelak, Bassam; Brock, Guy; Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke during development is linked to neurodevelopmental delays and cognitive impairment including impulsivity, attention deficit disorder, and lower IQ. However, brain region specific biomolecular alterations induced by developmental cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) remain largely unexplored. In the current molecular phenotyping study, a mouse model of ‘active’ developmental CSE (serum cotinine>50 ng/mL) spanning pre-implantation through third trimester-equivalent brain development (gestational day (GD) 1 through postnatal day (PD) 21) was utilized. Hippocampus tissue collected at the time of cessation of exposure was processed for gel-based proteomic and non-targeted metabolomic profiling with Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) for selection of features of interest. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was utilized to identify candidate molecular and metabolic pathways impacted within the hippocampus. CSE impacted glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid metabolism, and neurodevelopment pathways within the developing hippocampus. PMID:24486158

  17. Proteomic Profile of Brucella abortus-Infected Bovine Chorioallantoic Membrane Explants

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Juliana P. S.; Pires, Simone F.; Chapeaurouge, Alexander D.; Perales, Jonas; Santos, Renato L.; Andrade, Hélida M.; Lage, Andrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus is the etiological agent of bovine brucellosis, a zoonotic disease that causes significant economic losses worldwide. The differential proteomic profile of bovine chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) explants at early stages of infection with B. abortus (0.5, 2, 4, and 8 h) was determined. Analysis of CAM explants at 0.5 and 4 h showed the highest differences between uninfected and infected CAM explants, and therefore were used for the Differential Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE). A total of 103 spots were present in only one experimental group and were selected for identification by mass spectrometry (MALDI/ToF-ToF). Proteins only identified in extracts of CAM explants infected with B. abortus were related to recognition of PAMPs by TLR, production of reactive oxygen species, intracellular trafficking, and inflammation. PMID:27104343

  18. Proteomic profiling of the mitochondrial ribosome identifies Atp25 as a composite mitochondrial precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Woellhaf, Michael W; Sommer, Frederik; Schroda, Michael; Herrmann, Johannes M

    2016-10-15

    Whereas the structure and function of cytosolic ribosomes are well characterized, we only have a limited understanding of the mitochondrial translation apparatus. Using SILAC-based proteomic profiling, we identified 13 proteins that cofractionated with the mitochondrial ribosome, most of which play a role in translation or ribosomal biogenesis. One of these proteins is a homologue of the bacterial ribosome-silencing factor (Rsf). This protein is generated from the composite precursor protein Atp25 upon internal cleavage by the matrix processing peptidase MPP, and in this respect, it differs from all other characterized mitochondrial proteins of baker's yeast. We observed that cytosolic expression of Rsf, but not of noncleaved Atp25 protein, is toxic. Our results suggest that eukaryotic cells face the challenge of avoiding negative interference from the biogenesis of their two distinct translation machineries.

  19. Proteomic Profiling of Nonenzymatically Glycated Proteins in Human Plasma and Erythrocyte Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qibin; Tang, Ning; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2008-05-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation of peptides and proteins by D-glucose has important implications in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, particularly in the development of diabetic complications. In this report, a thorough proteomic profiling of glycated proteins was attempted by using phenylboronate affinity chromatography to enrich glycated proteins and glycated, tryptic peptides from human plasma and erythrocyte membranes. Enriched peptides were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry, and 76 and 31 proteins were confidently identified as glycated from human plasma and erythrocyte membrane, respectively. It was observed that most of the glycated proteins can be identified in samples from individuals with normal glucose tolerance, although samples from individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus have slightly higher numbers of glycated proteins and more glycation sites identified.

  20. In situ imaging and proteome profiling indicate andrographolide is a highly promiscuous compound

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Wijaya, Hadhi; Samanta, Sanjay; Lam, Yulin; Yao, Shao Q.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products represent an enormous source of pharmacologically useful compounds, and are often used as the starting point in modern drug discovery. Many biologically interesting natural products are however not being pursued as potential drug candidates, partly due to a lack of well-defined mechanism-of-action. Traditional in vitro methods for target identification of natural products based on affinity protein enrichment from crude cellular lysates cannot faithfully recapitulate protein-drug interactions in living cells. Reported herein are dual-purpose probes inspired by the natural product andrographolide, capable of both reaction-based, real-time bioimaging and in situ proteome profiling/target identification in live mammalian cells. Our results confirm that andrographolide is a highly promiscuous compound and engaged in covalent interactions with numerous previously unknown cellular targets in cell type-specific manner. We caution its potential therapeutic effects should be further investigated in detail. PMID:26105662

  1. Proteomic Profile of Brucella abortus-Infected Bovine Chorioallantoic Membrane Explants.

    PubMed

    Mol, Juliana P S; Pires, Simone F; Chapeaurouge, Alexander D; Perales, Jonas; Santos, Renato L; Andrade, Hélida M; Lage, Andrey P

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus is the etiological agent of bovine brucellosis, a zoonotic disease that causes significant economic losses worldwide. The differential proteomic profile of bovine chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) explants at early stages of infection with B. abortus (0.5, 2, 4, and 8 h) was determined. Analysis of CAM explants at 0.5 and 4 h showed the highest differences between uninfected and infected CAM explants, and therefore were used for the Differential Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE). A total of 103 spots were present in only one experimental group and were selected for identification by mass spectrometry (MALDI/ToF-ToF). Proteins only identified in extracts of CAM explants infected with B. abortus were related to recognition of PAMPs by TLR, production of reactive oxygen species, intracellular trafficking, and inflammation.

  2. A Pro-Atherogenic HDL Profile in Coronary Heart Disease Patients: An iTRAQ Labelling-Based Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Li-rong; Wang, Dong-xue; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Xiao-xing; Zhao, Hui; Hua, Lu; Xu, Ping; Li, Yi-shi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to compare the protein composition of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and controls by proteomic methods. Background HDL has been reported to exert pro-atherogenic properties in CHD patients. Accumulating evidence indicates that HDL composition, rather than the HDL-C level, determines its functions. The changes in HDL composition involved in the conversion of anti-atherogenic to pro-atherogenic properties in CHD patients are currently unknown. Methods and Results iTRAQ combined with nanoLC-MS/MS was performed to obtain a differential expression profile of the HDL pooled samples of the male age-matched CHD patients and controls (n = 10/group). Of the 196 proteins identified in the examined HDL, 12 were differentially expressed between the CHD patients and the controls, including five up-regulated proteins and seven down-regulated proteins. Using GO analysis, we determined that the up-regulated proteins were mostly involved in inflammatory reactions, displaying a potential pro-atherogenic profile. In contrast, the down-regulated proteins were mostly involved in lipid metabolism processes, displaying anti-atherogenic properties. To confirm the proteomic results, serum amyloid A (SAA) and apoC-I were selected and quantified by ELISA, in the same population as the proteomic analysis, as well as another independent population (n = 120/group). Consistent with the proteomic results, the amount of SAA was significantly increased, and apoC-I was significantly decreased in the HDL particles of CHD patients compared with those of controls (P<0.05). Conclusions Our study shows that the HDL proteome changes to a pro-atherogenic profile in CHD patients, which might compromise the protective effects of HDL. Proteomic analysis of HDL composition may provide more relevant information regarding their functional properties than steady-state HDL-C levels. PMID:24859250

  3. Yeast Interspecies Comparative Proteomics Reveals Divergence in Expression Profiles and Provides Insights into Proteome Resource Allocation and Evolutionary Roles of Gene Duplication.

    PubMed

    Kito, Keiji; Ito, Haruka; Nohara, Takehiro; Ohnishi, Mihoko; Ishibashi, Yuko; Takeda, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Omics analysis is a versatile approach for understanding the conservation and diversity of molecular systems across multiple taxa. In this study, we compared the proteome expression profiles of four yeast species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces mikatae, Kluyveromyces waltii, and Kluyveromyces lactis) grown on glucose- or glycerol-containing media. Conserved expression changes across all species were observed only for a small proportion of all proteins differentially expressed between the two growth conditions. Two Kluyveromyces species, both of which exhibited a high growth rate on glycerol, a nonfermentative carbon source, showed distinct species-specific expression profiles. In K. waltii grown on glycerol, proteins involved in the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis were expressed in high abundance. In K. lactis grown on glycerol, the expression of glycolytic and ethanol metabolic enzymes was unexpectedly low, whereas proteins involved in cytoplasmic translation, including ribosomal proteins and elongation factors, were highly expressed. These marked differences in the types of predominantly expressed proteins suggest that K. lactis optimizes the balance of proteome resource allocation between metabolism and protein synthesis giving priority to cellular growth. In S. cerevisiae, about 450 duplicate gene pairs were retained after whole-genome duplication. Intriguingly, we found that in the case of duplicates with conserved sequences, the total abundance of proteins encoded by a duplicate pair in S. cerevisiae was similar to that of protein encoded by nonduplicated ortholog in Kluyveromyces yeast. Given the frequency of haploinsufficiency, this observation suggests that conserved duplicate genes, even though minor cases of retained duplicates, do not exhibit a dosage effect in yeast, except for ribosomal proteins. Thus, comparative proteomic analyses across multiple species may reveal not only species-specific characteristics of metabolic processes under

  4. Yeast Interspecies Comparative Proteomics Reveals Divergence in Expression Profiles and Provides Insights into Proteome Resource Allocation and Evolutionary Roles of Gene Duplication*

    PubMed Central

    Kito, Keiji; Ito, Haruka; Nohara, Takehiro; Ohnishi, Mihoko; Ishibashi, Yuko; Takeda, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Omics analysis is a versatile approach for understanding the conservation and diversity of molecular systems across multiple taxa. In this study, we compared the proteome expression profiles of four yeast species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces mikatae, Kluyveromyces waltii, and Kluyveromyces lactis) grown on glucose- or glycerol-containing media. Conserved expression changes across all species were observed only for a small proportion of all proteins differentially expressed between the two growth conditions. Two Kluyveromyces species, both of which exhibited a high growth rate on glycerol, a nonfermentative carbon source, showed distinct species-specific expression profiles. In K. waltii grown on glycerol, proteins involved in the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis were expressed in high abundance. In K. lactis grown on glycerol, the expression of glycolytic and ethanol metabolic enzymes was unexpectedly low, whereas proteins involved in cytoplasmic translation, including ribosomal proteins and elongation factors, were highly expressed. These marked differences in the types of predominantly expressed proteins suggest that K. lactis optimizes the balance of proteome resource allocation between metabolism and protein synthesis giving priority to cellular growth. In S. cerevisiae, about 450 duplicate gene pairs were retained after whole-genome duplication. Intriguingly, we found that in the case of duplicates with conserved sequences, the total abundance of proteins encoded by a duplicate pair in S. cerevisiae was similar to that of protein encoded by nonduplicated ortholog in Kluyveromyces yeast. Given the frequency of haploinsufficiency, this observation suggests that conserved duplicate genes, even though minor cases of retained duplicates, do not exhibit a dosage effect in yeast, except for ribosomal proteins. Thus, comparative proteomic analyses across multiple species may reveal not only species-specific characteristics of metabolic processes under

  5. Acclimation to different depths by the marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica: transcriptomic and proteomic profiles

    PubMed Central

    Dattolo, Emanuela; Gu, Jenny; Bayer, Philipp E.; Mazzuca, Silvia; Serra, Ilia A.; Spadafora, Antonia; Bernardo, Letizia; Natali, Lucia; Cavallini, Andrea; Procaccini, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    For seagrasses, seasonal and daily variations in light and temperature represent the mains factors driving their distribution along the bathymetric cline. Changes in these environmental factors, due to climatic and anthropogenic effects, can compromise their survival. In a framework of conservation and restoration, it becomes crucial to improve our knowledge about the physiological plasticity of seagrass species along environmental gradients. Here, we aimed to identify differences in transcriptomic and proteomic profiles, involved in the acclimation along the depth gradient in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, and to improve the available molecular resources in this species, which is an important requisite for the application of eco-genomic approaches. To do that, from plant growing in shallow (−5 m) and deep (−25 m) portions of a single meadow, (i) we generated two reciprocal Expressed Sequences Tags (EST) libraries using a Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) approach, to obtain depth/specific transcriptional profiles, and (ii) we identified proteins differentially expressed, using the highly innovative USIS mass spectrometry methodology, coupled with 1D-SDS electrophoresis and labeling free approach. Mass spectra were searched in the open source Global Proteome Machine (GPM) engine against plant databases and with the X!Tandem algorithm against a local database. Transcriptional analysis showed both quantitative and qualitative differences between depths. EST libraries had only the 3% of transcripts in common. A total of 315 peptides belonging to 64 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. ATP synthase subunits were among the most abundant proteins in both conditions. Both approaches identified genes and proteins in pathways related to energy metabolism, transport and genetic information processing, that appear to be the most involved in depth acclimation in P. oceanica. Their putative rules in acclimation to depth were discussed. PMID:23785376

  6. Analysis and comparison of proteomic profiles of tear fluid from human, cow, sheep, and camel eyes.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Farrukh A; Chen, Ziyan; Liang, Jingwen; Li, Kaijun; Al-Rajhi, Ali A; Chaudhry, Imtiaz A; Li, Mingtao; Wu, Kaili

    2011-11-25

    To investigate the tear proteome profiles of human, cow, sheep, and camel comparatively and to explore the difference of tear protein profiles among different species. Tears were collected from both eyes of 25 clinically healthy volunteers, 50 cows, 25 sheep, and 50 camels. Pooled tear protein samples were separated by SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Protein spots of differential expression were excised and subjected to in-gel digestion and identification by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrum analysis. Because of the incomplete genomic data of cow, sheep, and camel, a combined strategy of de novo sequencing and BLAST (Best Local Alignment Search Tool) homology searching was also used for protein identification. The differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blot analysis. On comparison with human tears (182 ± 6 spots), 223 ± 8, 217 ± 11, and 241 ± 3 well-resolved protein spots were detected in triphenylmethane dye-stained gels of cow, sheep, and camel tears, respectively. Similar high-abundant proteins (lactoferrin, lysozyme, etc.) were found in all tear fluids. Tear lipocalins have been identified in cow and sheep tears. BLAST searching revealed a 21-kDa protein, identical with human vitelline membrane outer layer protein 1 (VMO1) homolog, in camel tears. The Western blot confirmed that VMO1 homolog was present in both camel and sheep tears but not in human and cow tears. The comparative proteomic analyses of tears from healthy humans, cows, sheep, and camels were first reported. Differential protein expression existed in the tear among species, offering useful information for further study on tear proteins and the related ocular diseases.

  7. Do cultural conditions induce differential protein expression: Profiling of extracellular proteome of Aspergillus terreus CM20.

    PubMed

    M, Saritha; Singh, Surender; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Goel, Renu; Nain, Lata

    2016-11-01

    The present study reports the diversity in extracellular proteins expressed by the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus terreus CM20 with respect to differential hydrolytic enzyme production profiles in submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions, and analysis of the extracellular proteome. The SSF method was superior in terms of increase in enzyme activities resulting in 1.5-3 fold enhancement as compared to SmF, which was explained by the difference in growth pattern of the fungus under the two culture conditions. As revealed by zymography, multiple isoforms of endo-β-glucanase, β-glucosidase and xylanase were expressed in SSF, but not in SmF. Extracellular proteome profiling of A. terreus CM20 under SSF condition using liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identified 63 proteins. Functional classification revealed the hydrolytic system to be composed of glycoside hydrolases (56%), proteases (16%), oxidases and dehydrogenases (6%), decarboxylases (3%), esterases (3%) and other proteins (16%). Twenty families of glycoside hydrolases (GH) (1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 28, 30, 32, 35, 43, 54, 62, 67, 72, 74 and 125), and one family each of auxiliary activities (AA7) and carbohydrate esterase (CE1) were detected, unveiling the vast diversity of synergistically acting biomass-cleaving enzymes expressed by the fungus. Saccharification of alkali-pretreated paddy straw with A. terreus CM20 proteins released high amounts of glucose (439.63±1.50mg/gds), xylose (121.04±1.25mg/gds) and arabinose (56.13±0.56mg/gds), thereby confirming the potential of the enzyme cocktail in bringing about considerable conversion of lignocellulosic polysaccharides to sugar monomers.

  8. Unraveling the proteomic profile of mice testis during the initiation of meiosis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Binbin; Guo, Yueshuai; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Quan; Gao, Tingting; Zheng, Bo; Zheng, Haoyu; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Zuomin; Guo, Xuejiang; Huang, Xiaoyan; Sha, Jiahao

    2015-04-29

    In mice, once primordial germ cells (PGCs) are generated, they continue to proliferate and migrate to eventually reach the future gonads. They initiate sexual differentiation after their colonization of the gonads. During this process, retinoic acid (RA) induces meiosis in the female germ cells, which proceeds to the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase I, whereas the male germ cells initiate growth arrest. After birth, meiosis is initiated in mice spermatogonia by their conversion to preleptotene spermatocytes. There are evidences showing the roles of RA in the regulation of spermatogonial differentiation and meiosis initiation. However, it is still not well known on what responds to RA and how RA signaling engages meiosis. Thus, we constructed a proteomic profile of proteins associated with meiosis onset during testis development in mouse and identified 104 differentially expressed proteins (≥1.5 folds). Bioinformatic analysis showed proteins functioning in specific cell processes. The expression patterns of five selected proteins were verified via Western blot, of which we found that Tfrc gene was RA responsive, with a RA responsive element, and could be up regulated by RA in spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) line. Taken together, the results provide an important reference profile for further functional study of meiosis initiation. Spermatogenesis involves mitosis of spermatogonia, meiosis of spermatocytes and spermiogenesis, in which meiosis is a unique event to germ cells, and not in the somatic cells. Till now, the detailed molecular mechanisms of the transition from mitosis to meiosis are still not elucidated. With high-throughput proteomic technology, it is now possible to systemically identify proteins possibly involved. With TMT-6plex based quantification, we identified 104 proteins differentially between testes without meiosis (day 8.5) and those that were meiosis initiated (day 10.5). And a well-known protein essential for meiosis initiation, stra8, was

  9. Comprehensive and quantitative proteomic analyses of zebrafish plasma reveals conserved protein profiles between genders and between zebrafish and human.

    PubMed

    Li, Caixia; Tan, Xing Fei; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-04-13

    Omic approaches have been increasingly used in the zebrafish model for holistic understanding of molecular events and mechanisms of tissue functions. However, plasma is rarely used for omic profiling because of the technical challenges in collecting sufficient blood. In this study, we employed two mass spectrometric (MS) approaches for a comprehensive characterization of zebrafish plasma proteome, i.e. conventional shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for an overview study and quantitative SWATH (Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra) for comparison between genders. 959 proteins were identified in the shotgun profiling with estimated concentrations spanning almost five orders of magnitudes. Other than the presence of a few highly abundant female egg yolk precursor proteins (vitellogenins), the proteomic profiles of male and female plasmas were very similar in both number and abundance and there were basically no other highly gender-biased proteins. The types of plasma proteins based on IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) classification and tissue sources of production were also very similar. Furthermore, the zebrafish plasma proteome shares significant similarities with human plasma proteome, in particular in top abundant proteins including apolipoproteins and complements. Thus, the current study provided a valuable dataset for future evaluation of plasma proteins in zebrafish.

  10. Gender-specific psychosocial impact of living with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Page B; Thompson, Pamela

    2009-06-01

    Although many psychosocial issues affect all people living with epilepsy, certain issues either are specific to one gender or have a different prevalence or significance between men and women with epilepsy. Most studies suggest that the incidence of epilepsy is slightly higher in males with epilepsy. Sexual dysfunction is common among men and women with epilepsy and has been related to epilepsy type and treatment. Women living with epilepsy are often prone to increased seizure frequency at certain phases of their menstrual cycles. Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women may worsen seizures. Treatment during pregnancy is often a precarious balancing act between the teratogenic risks of AEDs and the maintenance of maternal seizure control. However, pregnancy registries and other prospective studies have given us invaluable information on how to optimize treatment regimens as well as information about safety of breastfeeding. These gender-specific factors should be a key consideration when counseling and treating patients with epilepsy.

  11. Personalized Proteome Profiles of Healthy and Tumor Human Colon Organoids Reveal Both Individual Diversity and Basic Features of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cristobal, Alba; van den Toorn, Henk W P; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans; Heck, Albert J R; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2017-01-03

    Diseases at the molecular level are complex and patient dependent, necessitating development of strategies that enable precision treatment to optimize clinical outcomes. Organoid technology has recently been shown to have the potential to recapitulate the in vivo characteristics of the original individual's tissue in a three-dimensional in vitro culture system. Here, we present a quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis and a comparative transcriptomic analysis of human colorectal tumor and healthy organoids derived, in parallel, from seven patients. Although gene and protein signatures can be derived to distinguish the tumor organoid population from healthy organoids, our data clearly reveal that each patient possesses a distinct organoid signature at the proteomic level. We demonstrate that a personalized patient-specific organoid proteome profile can be related to the diagnosis of a patient and with future development contribute to the generation of personalized therapies.

  12. Gender-specific gene expression in post-mortem human brain: localization to sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Vawter, Marquis P; Evans, Simon; Choudary, Prabhakara; Tomita, Hiroaki; Meador-Woodruff, Jim; Molnar, Margherita; Li, Jun; Lopez, Juan F; Myers, Rick; Cox, David; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda; Jones, Edward G; Bunney, William E

    2004-02-01

    Gender differences in brain development and in the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression have been reported. Gender differences in human brain might be related to patterns of gene expression. Microarray technology is one useful method for investigation of gene expression in brain. We investigated gene expression, cell types, and regional expression patterns of differentially expressed sex chromosome genes in brain. We profiled gene expression in male and female dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and cerebellum using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray platform. Differentially expressed genes between males and females on the Y chromosome (DBY, SMCY, UTY, RPS4Y, and USP9Y) and X chromosome (XIST) were confirmed using real-time PCR measurements. In situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of gender-specific genes and neuronal expression of XIST, RPS4Y, SMCY, and UTY in three brain regions examined. The XIST gene, which silences gene expression on regions of the X chromosome, is expressed in a subset of neurons. Since a subset of neurons express gender-specific genes, neural subpopulations may exhibit a subtle sexual dimorphism at the level of differences in gene regulation and function. The distinctive pattern of neuronal expression of XIST, RPS4Y, SMCY, and UTY and other sex chromosome genes in neuronal subpopulations may possibly contribute to gender differences in prevalence noted for some neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies of the protein expression of these sex-chromosome-linked genes in brain tissue are required to address the functional consequences of the observed gene expression differences.

  13. Large-Scale and Deep Quantitative Proteome Profiling Using Isobaric Labeling Coupled with Two-Dimensional LC-MS/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Gritsenko, Marina A.; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-02-12

    Comprehensive, quantitative information on abundances of proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) can potentially provide novel biological insights into diseases pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Herein, we introduce a quantitative strategy utilizing isobaric stable isotope-labelling techniques combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) for large-scale, deep quantitative proteome profiling of biological samples or clinical specimens such as tumor tissues. The workflow includes isobaric labeling of tryptic peptides for multiplexed and accurate quantitative analysis, basic reversed-phase LC fractionation and concatenation for reduced sample complexity, and nano-LC coupled to high resolution and high mass accuracy MS analysis for high confidence identification and quantification of proteins. This proteomic analysis strategy has been successfully applied for in-depth quantitative proteomic analysis of tumor samples, and can also be used for integrated proteome and PTM characterization, as well as comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis across samples from large clinical cohorts.

  14. Proteomic profiling reveals dopaminergic regulation of progenitor cell functions of goldfish radial glial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lei; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Esau, Crystal; Da Fonte, Dillon F; Trudeau, Vance L

    2016-07-20

    proteome on a large scale in a vertebrate species. These data provide novel insight into glial protein networks that are associated with neuroendocrine function and neurogenesis in the teleost brain. While the role of radial glial cells in organizing brain structure and neurogenesis has been well studied, protein profiling experiments in this unique cell type has not been conducted. This study is the first to profile the proteome of goldfish radial glial cells in culture and to study the regulation of progenitor functions of radial glial cells by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This study provides the foundation for molecular network analysis in fish radial glial cells, and identifies cellular processes and signaling pathways in these cells with roles in neurogenesis and neuroendocrine function. Lastly, this study begins to characterize signatures and biomarkers for specific neuroendocrine and neurogenesis disruptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Proteome and Transcriptome Profiles of a Her2/Neu-driven Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenherr, Regine M.; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Lin, Chen Wei; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Liu, Tao; Holzman, Ted; Coleman, Ilsa; Feng, Li-Chia; Lorentzen, Travis D.; Krasnoselsky, Alexei L.; Wang, Pei; Liu, Yan; Gurley, Kay E.; Amon, Lynn M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Smith, Richard D.; Nelson, Peter S.; McIntosh, Martin; Kemp, Christopher; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, mouse models have proven to be invaluable in expanding our understanding of cancer biology. We have amassed a tremendous amount of proteomics and transcriptomics data profiling blood and tissues from a Her2-driven mouse model of breast cancer that closely recapitulates the pathology and natural history of human breast cancer. The purpose of this report is to make all of these data publicly available in raw and processed forms, as a resource to the community. Importantly, high quality biospecimens from this same mouse model are freely available through a sample repository that we established, so researchers can readily obtain samples to test biological hypotheses without the need of breeding animals and collecting biospecimens. Specifically, six proteomics and six transcriptomics datasets are available, with the former encompassing 841 liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) experiments of both plasma and tissue samples, and the latter including 255 individual microarray analyses of five different tissue types (thymus, spleen, liver, blood cells, and breast ± laser capture microdissection). A total of 18,880 unique peptides were identified with a PeptideProphet error rate ≤1%, with 3884 non-redundant protein groups identified in five plasma datasets, and 1659 non-redundant protein groups in a tissue dataset (4977 non-redundant protein groups in total). We anticipate that these data will be of use to the community for software tool development, investigations of analytical variation in MS/MS data, development of quality control tools (multiple technical replicates are provided for a subset of the data), empirical selection of proteotypic peptides for multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry, and for advancing our understanding of cancer biology.

  16. Integrated Left Ventricular Global Transcriptome and Proteome Profiling in Human End-Stage Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Namik; Muiya, Nzioka P.; AlHarazi, Olfat; Shinwari, Zakia; Andres, Editha

    2016-01-01

    Aims The disease pathways leading to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are still elusive. The present study investigated integrated global transcriptional and translational changes in human DCM for disease biomarker discovery. Methods We used identical myocardial tissues from five DCM hearts compared to five non-failing (NF) donor hearts for both transcriptome profiling using the ABI high-density oligonucleotide microarrays and proteome expression with One-Dimensional Nano Acquity liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry on the Synapt G2 system. Results We identified 1262 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 269 proteins (DEPs) between DCM cases and healthy controls. Among the most significantly upregulated (>5-fold) proteins were GRK5, APOA2, IGHG3, ANXA6, HSP90AA1, and ATP5C1 (p< 0.01). On the other hand, the most significantly downregulated proteins were GSTM5, COX17, CAV1 and ANXA3. At least ten entities were concomitantly upregulated on the two analysis platforms: GOT1, ALDH4A1, PDHB, BDH1, SLC2A11, HSP90AA1, HSP90AB1, H2AFV, HSPA5 and NDUFV1. Gene ontology analyses of DEGs and DEPs revealed significant overlap with enrichment of genes/proteins related to metabolic process, biosynthetic process, cellular component organization, oxidative phosphorylation, alterations in glycolysis and ATP synthesis, Alzheimer’s disease, chemokine-mediated inflammation and cytokine signalling pathways. Conclusion The concomitant use of transcriptome and proteome expression to evaluate global changes in DCM has led to the identification of sixteen commonly altered entities as well as novel genes, proteins and pathways whose cardiac functions have yet to be deciphered. This data should contribute towards better management of the disease. PMID:27711126

  17. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Early and Late Responses to Salicylic Acid in Cucumber Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, studies on the molecular mechanism of SA, especially during the early SA responses, are lagging behind. In this study, we initiated a comprehensive isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis to explore the early and late SA-responsive proteins in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. Upon SA application through the roots, endogenous SA accumulated in cucumber leaves. By assaying the changes in marker gene expression and photosynthetic rate, we collected samples at 12 h and 72 h post treatment (hpt) to profile the early and late SA responsiveness, respectively. The iTRAQ assay followed by tandem mass spectrometry revealed 135 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) at 12 hpt and 301 DEPs at 72 hpt. The functional categories for these SA-responsive proteins included in a variety of biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport, protein folding and modification, proteolysis, cell wall organization, and the secondary phenylpropanoid pathway. Conclusively, based on the abundant changes of these DEPs, together with their putative functions, we proposed a possible SA-responsive protein network. It appears that SA could elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via enhancing the photosynthetic electron transferring, and then confer some growth-promoting and stress-priming effects on cells during the late phase, including enhanced photosynthesis and ROS scavenging, altered carbon metabolic flux for the biosynthesis of amino acids and nucleotides, and cell wall reorganization. Overall, the present iTRAQ assay provides higher proteome coverage and deepened our understanding of the molecular basis of SA-responses. PMID:27551830

  18. Proteomic profile of carbonylated proteins in rat liver: discovering possible mechanisms for tetracycline-induced steatosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhenglu; Yan, Siyu; Hu, Hui; Duan, Zhigui; Yin, Lanxuan; Liao, Shenke; Sun, Yubai; Yin, Dazhong; Li, Guolin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate biochemical mechanisms for the tetracycline-induced steatosis in rats, targeted proteins of oxidative modification were profiled. The results showed that tetracycline induced lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and cell viability decline in HepG2 cells only under the circumstances of palmitic acid overload. Tetracycline administration in rats led to significant decrement in blood lipids, while resulted in more than four times increment in intrahepatic triacylglycerol and typical microvesicular steatosis in the livers. The triacylglycerol levels were positively correlated with oxidative stress. Proteomic profiles of carbonylated proteins revealed 26 targeted proteins susceptible to oxidative modification and most of them located in mitochondria. Among them, the long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase was one of the key enzymes regulating fatty acid β-oxidation. Oxidative modification of the enzyme in the tetracycline group depressed its enzymatic activity. In conclusion, the increased influx of lipid into the livers is the first hit of tetracycline-induced microvesicular steatosis. Oxidative stress is an essential part of the second hit, which may arise from the lipid overload and attack a series of functional proteins, aggravating the development of steatosis. The 26 targeted proteins revealed here provide a potential direct link between oxidative stress and tetracycline-induced steatosis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Stromal proteome expression profile and muscle-invasive bladder cancer research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To globally characterize the cancer stroma expression profile of muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma and to discuss the cancer biology as well as biomarker discovery from stroma. Laser capture micro dissection was used to harvest purified muscle-invasive bladder cancer stromal cells and normal urothelial stromal cells from 4 paired samples. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the proteome expression profile. The differential proteins were further analyzed using bioinformatics tools and compared with the published literature. Results We identified 868/872 commonly expressed proteins and 978 differential proteins from 4 paired cancer and normal stromal samples using laser capture micro dissection coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. 487/491 proteins uniquely expressed in cancer/normal stroma. Differential proteins were compared with the entire list of the international protein index (IPI), and there were 42/42 gene ontology (GO) terms exhibited as enriched and 8/5 exhibited as depleted in cellular Component, respectively. Significantly altered pathways between cancer/normal stroma mainly include metabolic pathways, ribosome, focal adhesion, etc. Finally, descriptive statistics show that the stromal proteins with extremes of PI and MW have the same probability to be a biomarker. Conclusions Based on our results, stromal cells are essential component of the cancer, biomarker discovery and network based multi target therapy should consider neoplastic cells itself and corresponding stroma as whole one. PMID:22920603

  20. Analytical validation of serum proteomic profiling for diagnosis of prostate cancer: sources of sample bias.

    PubMed

    McLerran, Dale; Grizzle, William E; Feng, Ziding; Bigbee, William L; Banez, Lionel L; Cazares, Lisa H; Chan, Daniel W; Diaz, Jose; Izbicka, Elzbieta; Kagan, Jacob; Malehorn, David E; Malik, Gunjan; Oelschlager, Denise; Partin, Alan; Randolph, Timothy; Rosenzweig, Nicole; Srivastava, Shiv; Srivastava, Sudhir; Thompson, Ian M; Thornquist, Mark; Troyer, Dean; Yasui, Yutaka; Zhang, Zhen; Zhu, Liu; Semmes, O John

    2008-01-01

    This report and a companion report describe a validation of the ability of serum proteomic profiling via SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry to detect prostatic cancer. Details of this 3-stage process have been described. This report describes the development of the algorithm and results of the blinded test for stage 1. We derived the decision algorithm used in this study from the analysis of serum samples from patients with prostate cancer (n = 181) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (n = 143) and normal controls (n = 220). We also derived a validation test set from a separate, geographically diverse set of serum samples from 42 prostate cancer patients and 42 controls without prostate cancer. Aliquots were subjected to randomization and blinded analysis, and data from each laboratory site were subjected to the decision algorithm and decoded. Using the data collected from the validation test set, the decision algorithm was unsuccessful in separating cancer from controls with any predictive utility. Analysis of the experimental data revealed potential sources of bias. The ability of the decision algorithm to successfully differentiate between prostate cancer, BPH, and control samples using data derived from serum protein profiling was compromised by bias.

  1. Quantitative transcriptome, proteome, and sulfur metabolite profiling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae response to arsenite.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Michael; Lagniel, Gilles; Kristiansson, Erik; Junot, Christophe; Nerman, Olle; Labarre, Jean; Tamás, Markus J

    2007-06-19

    Arsenic is ubiquitously present in nature, and various mechanisms have evolved enabling cells to evade toxicity and acquire tolerance. Herein, we explored how Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) respond to trivalent arsenic (arsenite) by quantitative transcriptome, proteome, and sulfur metabolite profiling. Arsenite exposure affected transcription of genes encoding functions related to protein biosynthesis, arsenic detoxification, oxidative stress defense, redox maintenance, and proteolytic activity. Importantly, we observed that nearly all components of the sulfate assimilation and glutathione biosynthesis pathways were induced at both gene and protein levels. Kinetic metabolic profiling evidenced a significant increase in the pools of sulfur metabolites as well as elevated cellular glutathione levels. Moreover, the flux in the sulfur assimilation pathway as well as the glutathione synthesis rate strongly increased with a concomitant reduction of sulfur incorporation into proteins. By combining comparative genomics and molecular analyses, we pinpointed transcription factors that mediate the core of the transcriptional response to arsenite. Taken together, our data reveal that arsenite-exposed cells channel a large part of assimilated sulfur into glutathione biosynthesis, and we provide evidence that the transcriptional regulators Yap1p and Met4p control this response in concert.

  2. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Vellaichamy, Adaikkalam; Wang, Dongping; Zamdborg, Leonid; Kelleher, Neil L; Huber, Steven C; Zhao, Youfu

    2013-02-21

    Protein lysine acetylation (LysAc) has recently been demonstrated to be widespread in E. coli and Salmonella, and to broadly regulate bacterial physiology and metabolism. However, LysAc in plant pathogenic bacteria is largely unknown. Here we first report the lysine acetylome of Erwinia amylovora, an enterobacterium causing serious fire blight disease of apples and pears. Immunoblots using generic anti-lysine acetylation antibodies demonstrated that growth conditions strongly affected the LysAc profiles in E. amylovora. Differential LysAc profiles were also observed for two E. amylovora strains, known to have differential virulence in plants, indicating translational modification of proteins may be important in determining virulence of bacterial strains. Proteomic analysis of LysAc in two E. amylovora strains identified 141 LysAc sites in 96 proteins that function in a wide range of biological pathways. Consistent with previous reports, 44% of the proteins are involved in metabolic processes, including central metabolism, lipopolysaccharide, nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, several proteins involved in E. amylovora virulence, including exopolysaccharide amylovoran biosynthesis- and type III secretion-associated proteins, were found to be lysine acetylated, suggesting that LysAc may play a major role in bacterial virulence. Comparative analysis of LysAc sites in E. amylovora and E. coli further revealed the sequence and structural commonality for LysAc in the two organisms. Collectively, these results reinforce the notion that LysAc of proteins is widespread in bacterial metabolism and virulence.

  3. Comparative analysis of proteomic profiles between endometrial caruncular and intercaruncular areas in ewes during the peri-implantation period

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The endometrium of sheep consists of plenty of raised aglandular areas called caruncular (C), and intensely glandular intercaruncular areas (IC). In order to better understand the endometrium involved mechanisms of implantation, we used LC-MS/MS technique to profile the proteome of ovine endometrial C areas and IC areas separately during the peri-implantation period, and then compared the proteomic profiles between these two areas. We successfully detected 1740 and 1813 proteins in C areas and IC areas respectively. By comparing the proteome of these two areas, we found 170 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) (P < 0.05), functional bioinformatics analysis showed these DEPs were mainly involved in growth and remodeling of endometrial tissue, cell adhesion and protein transport, and so on. Our study, for the first time, provided a proteomic reference for elucidating the differences between C and IC areas, as an integrated function unit respectively, during the peri-implantation period. The results could help us to better understand the implantation in the ewes. In addition, we established a relatively detailed protein database of ovine endometrium, which provide a unique reference for further studies. PMID:24093944

  4. Proteomic Profiling of Paraffin-Embedded Samples Identifies Metaplasia-Specific and Early-Stage Gastric Cancer Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Josane F.; Ham, Amy-Joan L.; Whitwell, Corbin; Nam, Ki Taek; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kim, Woo Ho; Zhang, Bing; Li, Ming; LaFleur, Bonnie; Liebler, Daniel C.; Goldenring, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis and curative resection are the predominant factors associated with increased survival in patients with gastric cancer. However, most gastric cancer cases are still diagnosed at later stages. Since most pathologic specimens are archived as FFPE samples, the ability to use them to generate expression profiles can greatly improve cancer biomarker discovery. We sought to uncover new biomarkers for stomach preneoplastic metaplasias and neoplastic lesions by generating proteome profiles using FFPE samples. We combined peptide isoelectric focusing and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis to generate proteomic profiles from FFPE samples of intestinal-type gastric cancer, metaplasia, and normal mucosa. The expression patterns of selected proteins were analyzed by immunostaining first in single tissue sections from normal stomach, metaplasia, and gastric cancer and later in larger tissue array cohorts. We detected 60 proteins up-regulated and 87 proteins down-regulated during the progression from normal mucosa to metaplasia to gastric cancer. Two of the up-regulated proteins, LTF and DMBT1, were validated as specific markers for spasmolytic polypeptide–expressing metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia, respectively. In cancers, significantly lower levels of DMBT1 or LTF correlated with more advanced disease and worse prognosis. Thus, proteomic profiling using FFPE samples has led to the identification of two novel markers for stomach metaplasias and gastric cancer prognosis. PMID:22944598

  5. From global proteome profiling to single targeted molecules of follicular fluid and oocyte: contribution to embryo development and IVF outcome.

    PubMed

    Benkhalifa, Moncef; Madkour, Aicha; Louanjli, Noureddine; Bouamoud, Nouzha; Saadani, Brahim; Kaarouch, Ismail; Chahine, Hikmat; Sefrioui, Omar; Merviel, Philippe; Copin, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The development of in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques for infertility management has led to the investigation of the proteome of follicular fluid and oocyte. In addition, different markers contributing to oocyte maturation and embryo development potential have been reported in the literature. Different techniques were utilized to analyze whole proteome or single protein markers in follicular fluid and oocytes, particularly in animal models. Data from several studies have generated large amounts of information, however, an ideal profile to predict the best oocytes and embryos suitable for implantation are still to be uncovered. The identification of such profiles and markers from follicular fluid, oocytes and endometrium should help scientists and clinicians develop better strategies to improving clinical outcome of IVF cycles.

  6. Protein alterations associated with pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis found in human plasma using global quantitative proteomics profiling

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sheng; Chen, Ru; Crispin, David A.; May, Damon; Stevens, Tyler; McIntosh, Martin; Bronner, Mary P.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brentnall, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease that is difficult to diagnose at early stages when curable treatments are effective. Biomarkers that can improve current pancreatic cancer detection would have great value in improving patient management and survival rate. A large scale quantitative proteomics study was performed to search for the plasma protein alterations associated with pancreatic cancer. The enormous complexity of the plasma proteome and the vast dynamic range of protein concentration therein present major challenges for quantitative global profiling of plasma. To address these challenges, multi-dimensional fractionation at both protein and peptide levels was applied to enhance the depth of proteomics analysis. Employing stringent criteria, more than thirteen hundred proteins total were identified in plasma across 8-orders of magnitude in protein concentration. Differential proteins associated with pancreatic cancer were identified, and their relationship with the proteome of pancreatic tissue and pancreatic juice from our previous studies was discussed. A subgroup of differentially expressed proteins was selected for biomarker testing using an independent cohort of plasma and serum samples from well-diagnosed patients with pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis and non-pancreatic disease controls. Using ELISA methodology, the performance of each of these protein candidates was benchmarked against CA19-9, the current gold standard for a pancreatic cancer blood test. A composite marker of TIMP1 and ICAM1 demonstrate significantly better performance than CA19-9 in distinguishing pancreatic cancer from the non-pancreatic disease controls and chronic pancreatitis controls. In addition, protein AZGP1 was identified as a biomarker candidate for chronic pancreatitis. The discovery and technical challenges associated with plasma-based quantitative proteomics are discussed and may benefit the development of plasma proteomics technology in general. The protein

  7. Gender-Specific Effects of Cognitive Load on Social Discounting

    PubMed Central

    Strombach, Tina; Margittai, Zsofia; Gorczyca, Barbara; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We live busy, social lives, and meeting the challenges of our complex environments puts strain on our cognitive systems. However, cognitive resources are limited. It is unclear how cognitive load affects social decision making. Previous findings on the effects of cognitive load on other-regarding preferences have been ambiguous, allowing no coherent opinion whether cognitive load increases, decreases or does not affect prosocial considerations. Here, we suggest that social distance between individuals modulates whether generosity towards a recipient increases or decreases under cognitive load conditions. Participants played a financial social discounting task with several recipients at variable social distance levels. In this task, they could choose between generous alternatives, yielding medium financial rewards for the participant and recipient at variable social distances, or between a selfish alternative, yielding larger rewards for the participant alone. We show that the social discount function of male participants was significantly flattened under high cognitive load conditions, suggesting they distinguished less between socially close and socially distant recipients. Unexpectedly, the cognitive-load effect on social discounting was gender-specific: while social discounting was strongly dependent on cognitive load in men, women were nearly unaffected by cognitive load manipulations. We suggest that cognitive load leads men, but not women to simplify the decision problem by neglecting the social distance information. We consider our study a good starting point for further experiments exploring the role of gender in prosocial choice. PMID:27788192

  8. Gender-Specific Effects of Cognitive Load on Social Discounting.

    PubMed

    Strombach, Tina; Margittai, Zsofia; Gorczyca, Barbara; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We live busy, social lives, and meeting the challenges of our complex environments puts strain on our cognitive systems. However, cognitive resources are limited. It is unclear how cognitive load affects social decision making. Previous findings on the effects of cognitive load on other-regarding preferences have been ambiguous, allowing no coherent opinion whether cognitive load increases, decreases or does not affect prosocial considerations. Here, we suggest that social distance between individuals modulates whether generosity towards a recipient increases or decreases under cognitive load conditions. Participants played a financial social discounting task with several recipients at variable social distance levels. In this task, they could choose between generous alternatives, yielding medium financial rewards for the participant and recipient at variable social distances, or between a selfish alternative, yielding larger rewards for the participant alone. We show that the social discount function of male participants was significantly flattened under high cognitive load conditions, suggesting they distinguished less between socially close and socially distant recipients. Unexpectedly, the cognitive-load effect on social discounting was gender-specific: while social discounting was strongly dependent on cognitive load in men, women were nearly unaffected by cognitive load manipulations. We suggest that cognitive load leads men, but not women to simplify the decision problem by neglecting the social distance information. We consider our study a good starting point for further experiments exploring the role of gender in prosocial choice.

  9. No clinical benefit of gender-specific total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chen; Wang, Jiaxing; Cheng, Mengqi; Peng, Xiaochun; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose There is no consensus regarding the clinical relevance of gender-specific prostheses in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We summarize the current best evidence in a comparison of clinical and radiographic outcomes between gender-specific prostheses and standard unisex prostheses in female patients. Methods We used the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Science Citation Index, and Scopus databases. We included randomized controlled trials published up to January 2013 that compared gender-specific prostheses with standard unisex prostheses in female patients who underwent primary TKAs. Results 6 trials involving 423 patients with 846 knee joints met the inclusion criteria. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 designs regarding pain, range of motion (ROM), knee scores, satisfaction, preference, complications, and radiographic results. The gender-specific design (Gender Solutions; Zimmer Inc, Warsaw, Indiana) reduced the prevalence of overhang. However, it had less overall coverage of the femoral condyles compared to the unisex group. In fact, the femoral prosthesis in the standard unisex group matched better than that in the gender-specific group. Interpretation Gender-specific prostheses do not appear to confer any benefit in terms of clinician- and patient-reported outcomes for the female knee. PMID:24954488

  10. Exploration of Serum Proteomic Profiling and Diagnostic Model That Differentiate Crohn's Disease and Intestinal Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fenming; Xu, Chengfu; Ning, Longgui; Hu, Fengling; Shan, Guodong; Chen, Hongtan; Yang, Ming; Chen, Wenguo; Yu, Jiekai; Xu, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore the diagnostic models of Crohn’s disease (CD), Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) and the differential diagnostic model between CD and ITB by analyzing serum proteome profiles. Methods Serum proteome profiles from 30 CD patients, 21 ITB patients and 30 healthy controls (HCs) were analyzed by using weak cationic magnetic beads combined with MALDI-TOF-MS technique to detect the differentially expressed proteins of serum samples. Three groups were made and compared accordingly: group of CD patients and HCs, group of ITB patients and HCs, group of CD patients and ITB patients. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to screen the ten most differentiated protein peaks (P < 0.05). Genetic algorithm combining with support vector machine (SVM) was utilized to establish the optimal diagnostic models for CD, ITB and the optimal differential diagnostic model between CD and ITB. The predictive effects of these models were evaluated by Leave one out (LOO) cross validation method. Results There were 236 protein peaks differently expressed between group of CD patients and HCs, 305 protein peaks differently expressed between group of ITB patients and HCs, 332 protein peaks differently expressed between group of CD patients and ITB patients. Ten most differentially expressed peaks were screened out between three groups respectively (P < 0.05) to establish diagnostic models and differential diagnostic model. A diagnostic model comprising of four protein peaks (M/Z 4964, 3029, 2833, 2900) can well distinguish CD patients and HCs, with a specificity and sensitivity of 96.7% and 96.7% respectively. A diagnostic model comprising four protein peaks (M/Z 3030, 2105, 2545, 4210) can well distinguish ITB patients and HCs, with a specificity and sensitivity of 93.3% and 95.2% respectively. A differential diagnostic model comprising three potential biomarkers protein peaks (M/Z 4267, 4223, 1541) can well distinguish CD patients and ITB patients, with a specificity and sensitivity of 76

  11. The human adrenal gland proteome defined by transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Julia; Botling, Johan; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Djureinovic, Dijana; Uhlén, Mathias; Pontén, Fredrik

    2016-11-30

    The adrenal gland is a composite endocrine organ with vital functions that include the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. To define the molecular landscape that underlies the specific functions of the adrenal gland, we combined a genome-wide transcriptomics approach based on mRNA sequencing of human tissues with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling on tissue microarrays. Approximately two-thirds of all putative protein coding genes were expressed in the adrenal gland and the analysis identified 253 genes with an elevated pattern of expression in the adrenal gland, with only 37 genes showing a markedly higher expression level (>5-fold) in the adrenal gland compared to 31 other normal human tissue types analyzed. The analyses allowed for an assessment of the relative expression levels for well-known proteins involved in adrenal gland function, but also identified previously poorly characterized proteins in the adrenal cortex, such as FERM domain containing 5 (FRMD5) and protein NOV homolog (NOV). In summary, we provide a global analysis of the adrenal gland transcriptome and proteome, with a comprehensive list of genes with elevated expression in the adrenal gland and spatial information with examples of protein expression patterns for corresponding proteins. These genes and proteins constitute important starting points for an improved understanding of the normal function and pathophysiology of the adrenal glands.

  12. Proteome profile of peritoneal effluents in children on glucose- or icodextrin-based peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Candiano, Giovanni; Santucci, Laura; Petretto, Andrea; Mangraviti, Salvatore; Canepa, Alberto; Perri, Katia; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Verrina, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    We compared the proteome profile of peritoneal effluents obtained with icodextrin (Ico) or glucose (Glu) in paediatric patients and defined the oxido-redox status of proteins. Sixteen patients underwent two 14-h daytime dwells performed on subsequent days with 7.5% Ico and 3.86% Glu solutions. Protein composition was analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry; oxidized products were evaluated by cyanine labelling. Peritoneal transport kinetics of β2-microglobulin and cystatin C was linear for both solutions, but was significantly higher with Ico than with Glu, suggesting a better efficiency for these molecules. There was a linear correlation between total protein removal during Ico and Glu dialysis in the same patient, suggesting that it is a function of peritoneal membrane characteristics. The ratio between proteins removed by Ico and by Glu solutions was higher at low removal rate. Image gel analysis revealed 1064 and 774 spots, respectively, in Ico and Glu solutions; 524 were common, and 314 were higher in Ico than Glu effluents. Analysis of protein oxido-redox status showed a greater amount of oxidized albumin in Ico dialysate that was correlated with lower serum levels. Our results indicate a better efficiency of Ico in removing small proteins. Removal of big proteins and their oxidized isoforms reflects potentially opposite effects. The long-term clinical consequences of removing also potentially important molecules are to be defined.

  13. Towards the profiling of the Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane transportome by targeted proteomics.

    PubMed

    Monneuse, Jean-Marc; Sugano, Madeleine; Becue, Thierry; Santoni, Véronique; Hem, Sonia; Rossignol, Michel

    2011-05-01

    Plant membranes bear a variety of transporters belonging to multigene families that are affected by environmental and nutritional conditions. In addition, they often display high-sequence identity, making difficult in-depth investigation by current shot-gun strategies. In this study, we set up a targeted proteomics approach aimed at identifying and quantifying within single experiments the five major proton pumps of the autoinhibited H(+) ATPases (AHA) family, the 13 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP) water channels (PIPs), and ten members of ammonium transporters (AMTs) and nitrate transporter (NRT) families. Proteotypic peptides were selected and isotopically labeled heavy versions were used for technical optimization and for quantification of the corresponding light version in biological samples. This approach allowed to quantify simultaneously nine PIPs in leaf membranes and 13 PIPs together with three autoinhibited H(+) ATPases, two ammonium transporters, and two NRTs in root membranes. Similarly, it was used to investigate the effect of a salt stress on the expression of these latter 20 transporters in roots. These novel isoform-specific data were compared with published transcriptome information and revealed a close correlation between PIP isoforms and transcripts levels. The obtained resource is reusable and can be expanded to other transporter families for large-scale profiling of membrane transporters. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Alterations of protein profile in zebrafish liver cells exposed to methyl parathion: a membrane proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingyu; Huang, He-Qing

    2012-03-01

    Methyl parathion (MP) is an extensively used organophosphorus pesticide, which has been associated with a wide spectrum of toxic effects on environmental organisms. The aim of this study is to investigate the alterations of membrane protein profiles in zebrafish liver (ZFL) cell line exposed to MP for 24 h using proteomic approaches. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed a total of 13 protein spots, whose expression levels were significantly altered by MP. These differential proteins were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, and nine proteins were identified to be membrane proteins, among which seven were up-regulated, while two were down-regulated. In addition, the mRNA levels corresponding to these differential membrane proteins were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. And the differential expression of arginase-2 was specially validated via Western blotting. Regarding the physiological functions, these proteins are involved in molecular chaperon, cytoskeleton system, cell metabolism, signal transduction, transport and hormone receptor respectively, suggesting the complexity of MP-mediated toxicity to ZFL cell. These data could provide useful insights for better understanding the hepatotoxic mechanisms of MP and develop novel protein biomarkers for effectively monitoring MP contamination level in aquatic environment.

  15. Altered protein profile in chronic myeloid leukemia chronic phase identified by a comparative proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Pizzatti, Luciana; Sá, Lílian Ayres; de Souza, Jamison Menezes; Bisch, Paulo Mascarello; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2006-05-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia is a hematological disorder in which the Ph chromosome is a marker of the disease, detected virtually in all cases. The chimeric transcripts encode a 210-kDa chimeric protein with altered tyrosine kinase activity, responsible for the disease phenotype. In this work, we tried to identify which are the molecular changes common to chronic phase patients, those that represent the chronic phase molecular phenotype. To address this problem we analyzed through a comparative proteomic approach, several CML bone marrow cells protein profile from patients in chronic phase and healthy bone marrow donors. From these results, we identified 31 differentially expressed proteins. Among these proteins, we pointed out c-Myc binding protein 1, 53BP1, Mdm4, OSBP-related protein 3 and Mortalin as putative candidates to BCR-ABL targets in chronic phase. Moreover, we describe for the first time the cytoplasmic protein map from bone marrow cells that helped in the elucidation of the changes we were looking for.

  16. Quantitative Proteome Profiling of Street Rabies Virus-Infected Mouse Hippocampal Synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoning; Shi, Ning; Li, Ying; Dong, Chunyan; Zhang, Maolin; Guan, Zhenhong; Duan, Ming

    2016-09-01

    It is well established now that neuronal dysfunction rather than structural damage may be responsible for the development of rabies. In order to explore the underlying mechanisms in rabies virus (RABV) and synaptic dysfunctions, a quantitative proteome profiling was carried out on synaptosome samples from mice hippocampus. Synaptosome samples from mice hippocampus were isolated and confirmed by Western blot and transmission electron microscopy. Synaptosome protein content changes were quantitatively detected by Nano-LC-MS/MS. Protein functions were classified by the Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway. PSICQUIC was used to create a network. MCODE algorithm was applied to obtain subnetworks. Of these protein changes, 45 were upregulated and 14 were downregulated following RABV infection relative to non-infected (mock) synaptosomes. 28 proteins were unique to mock treatment and 12 were unique to RABV treatment. Proteins related to metabolism and synaptic vesicle showed the most changes in expression levels. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks revealed that several key biological processes related to synaptic functions potentially were modulated by RABV, including energy metabolism, cytoskeleton organization, and synaptic transmission. These data will be useful for better understanding of neuronal dysfunction of rabies and provide the foundation for future research.

  17. Deciphering the proteomic profile of rice (Oryza sativa) bran: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Fabio; Fumagalli, Marco; Profumo, Antonella; Viglio, Simona; Sala, Alberto; Dolcini, Lorenzo; Temporini, Caterina; Nicolis, Stefania; Merli, Daniele; Corana, Federica; Casado, Begona; Iadarola, Paolo

    2009-12-01

    The exact knowledge of the qualitative and quantitative protein components of rice bran is an essential aspect to be considered for a better understanding of the functional properties of this resource. Aim of the present investigation was to extract the largest number of rice bran proteins and to obtain their qualitative characterization. For this purpose, three different extraction protocols have been applied either on full-fat or on defatted rice bran. Likewise, to identify the highest number of proteins, MS data collected from 1-DE, 2-DE and gel-free procedures have been combined. These approaches allowed to unambiguously identify 43 proteins that were classified as signalling/regulation proteins (30%), proteins with enzymatic activity (30%), storage proteins (30%), transfer (5%) and structural (5%) proteins. The fact that all extraction and identification procedures have been performed in triplicate with an excellent reproducibility provides a rationale for considering the platform of proteins shown in this study as the potential proteome profile of rice bran. It also represents a source of information to evaluate better the qualities of rice bran as food resource.

  18. Proteomic profiling of small-molecule inhibitors reveals dispensability of MTH1 for cancer cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Tatsuro; Kawatani, Makoto; Muroi, Makoto; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Futamura, Yushi; Aono, Harumi; Tanaka, Miho; Honda, Kaori; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Since recent publications suggested that the survival of cancer cells depends on MTH1 to avoid incorporation of oxidized nucleotides into the cellular DNA, MTH1 has attracted attention as a potential cancer therapeutic target. In this study, we identified new purine-based MTH1 inhibitors by chemical array screening. However, although the MTH1 inhibitors identified in this study targeted cellular MTH1, they exhibited only weak cytotoxicity against cancer cells compared to recently reported first-in-class inhibitors. We performed proteomic profiling to investigate the modes of action by which chemically distinct MTH1 inhibitors induce cancer cell death, and found mechanistic differences among the first-in-class MTH1 inhibitors. In particular, we identified tubulin as the primary target of TH287 and TH588 responsible for the antitumor effects despite the nanomolar MTH1-inhibitory activity in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of MTH1 did not rescue cells from MTH1 inhibitor–induced cell death, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of MTH1 did not suppress cancer cell growth. Taken together, we conclude that the cytotoxicity of MTH1 inhibitors is attributable to off-target effects and that MTH1 is not essential for cancer cell survival. PMID:27210421

  19. Pancreatic islet proteome profile in Zucker fatty rats chronically treated with a grape seed procyanidin extract.

    PubMed

    Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pallarès, Victor; Ubaida Mohien, Ceereena; Baiges, Isabel; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2012-12-01

    Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to modify glucose metabolism and β-cell functionality through its lipid-lowering effects in a diet-induced obesity model. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronically administrated GSPE on the proteomic profile of pancreatic islets from Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) experiment was conducted and 31 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in ZF rats treated with GSPE compared to untreated ZF rats. Of these proteins, five subcategories of biological processes emerged: hexose metabolic processes, response to hormone stimulus, apoptosis and cell death, translation and protein folding, and macromolecular complex assembly. Gene expression analysis supported the role of the first three biological processes, concluding that GSPE limits insulin synthesis and secretion and modulates factors involved in apoptosis, but these molecular changes are not sufficient to counteract the genetic background of the Zucker model at a physiological level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Proteomic profiling of halloysite clay nanotube exposure in intestinal cell co-culture

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xianyin; Agarwal, Mangilal; Lvov, Yuri M.; Pachpande, Chetan; Varahramyan, Kody; Witzmann, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Halloysite is aluminosilicate clay with a hollow tubular structure with nanoscale internal and external diameters. Assessment of halloysite biocompatibility has gained importance in view of its potential application in oral drug delivery. To investigate the effect of halloysite nanotubes on an in vitro model of the large intestine, Caco-2/HT29-MTX cells in monolayer co-culture were exposed to nanotubes for toxicity tests and proteomic analysis. Results indicate that halloysite exhibits a high degree of biocompatibility characterized by an absence of cytotoxicity, in spite of elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Exposure-specific changes in expression were observed among 4081 proteins analyzed. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed protein profiles suggest that halloysite stimulates processes related to cell growth and proliferation, subtle responses to cell infection, irritation and injury, enhanced antioxidant capability, and an overall adaptive response to exposure. These potentially relevant functional effects warrant further investigation in in vivo models and suggest that chronic or bolus occupational exposure to halloysite nanotubes may have unintended outcomes. PMID:23606564

  1. Comparative proteomic profiles reveal characteristic Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins induced by cholesterol during dormancy conditions.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Morales, Lazaro; Leon-Solis, Lizbel; Monroy-Muñoz, Irma E; Talavera-Paulin, Moises; Serafin-López, Jeanet; Estrada-Garcia, Iris; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Helguera-Repetto, Addy C; Gonzalez-Y-Merchand, Jorge A

    2017-08-01

    Cholesterol has been reported to play an important role during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and during its dormant state inside the host. We present the determination of proteomic profiles of M. tuberculosis H37Rv in the presence of cholesterol as the sole carbon source under exponential growth and in two in vitro dormancy phases (NRP1 and NRP2). Using 2D-PAGE, we detected that M. tuberculosis expressed a high diversity of proteins in both exponential and non-replicative phases. We also found that cholesterol was involved in the overexpression of some proteins related to sulfur metabolism (CysA2), electron transport (FixB), cell wall synthesis (Ald), iron storage (BfrB), protein synthesis (Tig and EF-Tu) and dormancy maintenance (HspX and TB 31.7). According to our results we propose that proteins Ald, BfrB, FadA5 and TB31.7 are likely to play a fundamental role during in vitro dormancy of M. tuberculosis in the presence of cholesterol, helping to counteract its intracellular hostile microenvironment.

  2. [Changes in proteome profiles of rat liver microsomes induced by silicon dioxide nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Tananova, O N; Arianova, E A; Gmoshinskii, I V; Toropygin, I Yu; Khryapova, E V; Trusov, N V; Khotimchenko, S A; Tutel'yan, V A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of daily intragastric administration of an aqueous dispersion of silicon nanoparticles (NPs) (the dose range from 1.0 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg body weight for 28 days) to rats on the proteomic profile of liver microsomes has been investigated by 2D-electrophoresis followed by subsequent mass spectrometry identification. The liver microsomal fraction was isolated by differential centrifugation and its protein composition was analyzed by 2D-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Identification of protein spots was carried out using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis. The mass spectrometry analysis revealed the protein GRP78 (78 kD glucose-regulated protein precursor), belonging to the family of heat shock proteins. This protein present in animals of the control group was not detected in NP-treated rats of group 2 (1 mg/kg body weight/day) and group 3 (10 mg/kg body weight/day). This protein predominantly localized in the liver cell endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane has the chaperone biological activity. Possible mechanisms of the effects of engineered nanoparticles on biosynthetic processes in the body are discussed.

  3. Proteomic profiling of mitochondria: what does it tell us about the ageing brain?

    PubMed

    Ingram, Thomas; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-12-13

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in numerous neurodegenerative and age-related disorders. It has also been linked to cellular ageing, however our current understanding of the mitochondrial changes that occur are unclear. Functional studies have made some progress reporting reduced respiration, dynamic structural modifications and loss of membrane potential, though there are conflicts within these findings. Proteomic analyses, together with functional studies, are required in order to profile the mitochondrial changes that occur with age and can contribute to unravelling the complexity of the ageing phenotype. The emergence of improved protein separation techniques, combined with mass spectrometry analyses has allowed the identification of age and cell-type specific mitochondrial changes in energy metabolism, antioxidants, fusion and fission machinery, chaperones, membrane proteins and biosynthesis pathways. Here, we identify and review recent data from the analyses of mitochondria from rodent brains. It is expected that knowledge gained from understanding age-related mitochondrial changes of the brain should lead to improved biomarkers of normal ageing and also age-related disease progression.

  4. Proteomic profiling of mitochondria: what does it tell us about the ageing brain?

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Thomas; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in numerous neurodegenerative and age-related disorders. It has also been linked to cellular ageing, however our current understanding of the mitochondrial changes that occur are unclear. Functional studies have made some progress reporting reduced respiration, dynamic structural modifications and loss of membrane potential, though there are conflicts within these findings. Proteomic analyses, together with functional studies, are required in order to profile the mitochondrial changes that occur with age and can contribute to unravelling the complexity of the ageing phenotype. The emergence of improved protein separation techniques, combined with mass spectrometry analyses has allowed the identification of age and cell-type specific mitochondrial changes in energy metabolism, antioxidants, fusion and fission machinery, chaperones, membrane proteins and biosynthesis pathways. Here, we identify and review recent data from the analyses of mitochondria from rodent brains. It is expected that knowledge gained from understanding age-related mitochondrial changes of the brain should lead to improved biomarkers of normal ageing and also age-related disease progression. PMID:27992860

  5. A review on symptoms, treatments protocols, and proteomic profile in sulfur mustard-exposed victims.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Abdolghaffari, Amir H; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-06-28

    Sulfur mustard (SM) as an alkylating and vesicating agent was used for 100 years as a chemical weapon. SM as bi-functional mustard can attacks and alkylates lots of biomolecules. Different cellular mechanism and molecular pathways are responsible for damages to body tissues. Such as DNA damages, oxidative stress, Apoptosis, and inflammation. Sulfur mustard penetrated body organs and induces long term eye, skin, lung, gastrointestinal, urogenital damages and can cause carcinogenic and mutagenic consequences. Currently there is no definitive treatment protocol for SM exposed patients. The goal of treatment is relieving the symptoms with fast healing rate and retrieval of damaged tissues to normal function and appearance in short period of time. Evaluation of proteomics profile in SM-exposed victims has been performed in animal model and human patients. These studies revealed that different protein were involved in the patients with SM damages to skin and lungs. Apolipoprotein A1, type I cytokeratins K14, K16 and K17, S100 calcium-binding protein A8, α1 haptoglobin isoforms, Amyloid A1, albumin, haptoglobin, and keratin isoforms, immunoglobulin kappa chain are defined expressed proteins in the damaged tissues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Serum proteomic profiling and haptoglobin polymorphisms in patients with GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    McGuirk, Joseph; Hao, Gang; Hou, Weijian; Abhyankar, Sunil; Williams, Casey; Yan, Weisi; Yuan, Jianda; Guan, Xiuqin; Belt, Robert; Dejarnette, Shaun; Wieman, Jeffery; Yan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    We studied serum proteomic profiling in patients with graft versus host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry analysis. The expression of a group of proteins, haptoglobin (Hp), alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein A-IV, serum paraoxonase and Zn-alpha-glycoprotein were increased and the proteins, clusterin precursor, alpha-2-macroglobulin, serum amyloid protein precursor, sex hormone-binding globulin, serotransferrin and complement C4 were decreased in patients with extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Serum haptoglobin (Hp) levels in patients with cGVHD were demonstrated to be statistically higher than in patients without cGVHD and normal controls (p < 0.01). We used immunoblotting and PCR in combination with 2-DE gel image analysis to determine Hp polymorphisms in 25 allo-HCT patients and 16 normal donors. The results demonstrate that patients with cGVHD had a higher incidence of HP 2-2 phenotype (43.8%), in comparison to the patients without cGVHD (0%) and normal donors (18.7%), suggesting the possibility that specific Hp polymorphism may play a role in the development of cGVHD after allo-HCT. In this study, quantitative serum Hp levels were shown to be related to cGVHD development. Further, the data suggest the possibility that specific Hp polymorphisms may be associated with cGVHD development and warrant further investigation. PMID:19379511

  7. Discovery metabolite profiling--forging functional connections between the proteome and metabolome.

    PubMed

    Saghatelian, Alan; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2005-08-19

    Of primary interest for every enzyme is the identification of its physiological substrates. However, the vast structural diversity of endogenous metabolites, coupled with the overlapping activities of numerous enzymes, makes it difficult to deduce the identity of natural substrates for a given enzyme based on in vitro experiments. To address this challenge, we recently introduced an LC-MS based analytical method termed discovery metabolite profiling (DMP) to evaluate the global metabolic effects of enzyme inactivation in vivo. We have applied DMP to study mice lacking the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which degrades the endocannabinoid family of signaling lipids. DMP identified several previously uncharacterized FAAH substrates, including a structurally novel class of brain lipids that represent conjugates of very long chain fatty acids with the amino acid derivative taurine [N-acyl taurines (NATs)]. These findings show that DMP can establish direct connections between the proteome and metabolome and thus offers a powerful strategy to assign physiological functions to enzymes in the post-genomic era.

  8. MS/MS-based strategies for proteomic profiling of invasive cell structures.

    PubMed

    Havrylov, Serhiy; Park, Morag

    2015-01-01

    Acquired capacity of cancer cells to penetrate through the extracellular matrix of surrounding tissues is a prerequisite for tumour metastatic spread - the main source of cancer-associated mortality. Through combined efforts of many research groups, we are beginning to understand that the ability of cells to invade through the extracellular matrix is a multi-faceted phenomenon supported by variety of specialised protrusive cellular structures, primarily pseudopodia, invadopodia and podosomes. Additionally, secreted extracellular vesicles are being increasingly recognised as important mediators of invasive cell phenotypes and therefore may be considered bona fide invasive cell structures. Dissection of the molecular makings underlying biogenesis and function of all of these structures is crucial to identify novel targets for specific anti-metastatic therapies. Rapid advances and growing accessibility of MS/MS-based protein identification made this family of techniques a suitable and appropriate choice for proteomic profiling of invasive cell structures. In this review, we provide a summary of current progress in the characterisation of protein composition and topology of protein interaction networks of pseudopodia, invadopodia, podosomes and extracellular vesicles, as well as outline challenges and perspectives of the field.

  9. Proteomic profiling of birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen extracts from different origins.

    PubMed

    Erler, Anja; Hawranek, Thomas; Krückemeier, Leif; Asam, Claudia; Egger, Matthias; Ferreira, Fátima; Briza, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Pollen of the European white birch is a major source of spring pollinosis in Europe. Pollen-allergy diagnosis and treatment by specific immunotherapy commonly rely on extracts of natural origin. To gain insight into the protein content and its variability, we evaluated the profile of allergenic and non-allergenic proteins in extracts of pollen from different origins by MS-based proteomics. Aqueous extracts prepared from commercially available Swedish birch pollen, pollen collected from Austrian trees and a commercial skin prick extract were analyzed by 1-DE, 2-DE, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, resulting in a complete inventory of extractable, disease-relevant pollen proteins. A main focus of this study was on the isoform distribution of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen. Using a combination of intact mass determination and peptide sequencing, five isoforms (a, b, d, f and j) were unequivocally identified in Swedish and Austrian birch pollen extracts, while the skin prick extract contained only isoforms a, b and d. Using the same methods as for Bet v 1, divergencies in the sequence of birch profilin (Bet v 2), a plant panallergen, were solved. The molecular characterization of pollen extracts is relevant for standardization and development of new reagents for specific immunotherapy.

  10. Development stage-specific proteomic profiling uncovers small, lineage specific proteins most abundant in the Aspergillus Fumigatus conidial proteome.

    PubMed

    Suh, Moo-Jin; Fedorova, Natalie D; Cagas, Steven E; Hastings, Susan; Fleischmann, Robert D; Peterson, Scott N; Perlin, David S; Nierman, William C; Pieper, Rembert; Momany, Michelle

    2012-04-30

    The pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent infectious cause of death in severely immunocompromised individuals such as leukemia and bone marrow transplant patients. Germination of inhaled conidia (asexual spores) in the host is critical for the initiation of infection, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this process. To gain insights into early germination events and facilitate the identification of potential stage-specific biomarkers and vaccine candidates, we have used quantitative shotgun proteomics to elucidate patterns of protein abundance changes during early fungal development. Four different stages were examined: dormant conidia, isotropically expanding conidia, hyphae in which germ tube emergence has just begun, and pre-septation hyphae. To enrich for glycan-linked cell wall proteins we used an alkaline cell extraction method. Shotgun proteomic resulted in the identification of 375 unique gene products with high confidence, with no evidence for enrichment of cell wall-immobilized and secreted proteins. The most interesting discovery was the identification of 52 proteins enriched in dormant conidia including 28 proteins that have never been detected in the A. fumigatus conidial proteome such as signaling protein Pil1, chaperones BipA and calnexin, and transcription factor HapB. Additionally we found many small, Aspergillus specific proteins of unknown function including 17 hypothetical proteins. Thus, the most abundant protein, Grg1 (AFUA_5G14210), was also one of the smallest proteins detected in this study (M.W. 7,367). Among previously characterized proteins were melanin pigment and pseurotin A biosynthesis enzymes, histones H3 and H4.1, and other proteins involved in conidiation and response to oxidative or hypoxic stress. In contrast, expanding conidia, hyphae with early germ tubes, and pre-septation hyphae samples were enriched for proteins responsible for housekeeping functions, particularly translation

  11. Plasma proteomic profiles from disease-discordant monozygotic twins suggest that molecular pathways are shared in multiple systemic autoimmune diseases*

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Although systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID) share many clinical and laboratory features, whether they also share some common features of pathogenesis remains unclear. We assessed plasma proteomic profiles among different SAID for evidence of common molecular pathways that could provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms shared by these diseases. Methods Differential quantitative proteomic analyses (one-dimensional reverse-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) were performed to assess patterns of plasma protein expression. Monozygotic twins (four pairs discordant for systemic lupus erythematosus, four pairs discordant for juvenile idiopathic arthritis and two pairs discordant for juvenile dermatomyositis) were studied to minimize polymorphic gene effects. Comparisons were also made to 10 unrelated, matched controls. Results Multiple plasma proteins, including acute phase reactants, structural proteins, immune response proteins, coagulation and transcriptional factors, were differentially expressed similarly among the different SAID studied. Multivariate Random Forest modeling identified seven proteins whose combined altered expression levels effectively segregated affected vs. unaffected twins. Among these seven proteins, four were also identified in univariate analyses of proteomic data (syntaxin 17, α-glucosidase, paraoxonase 1, and the sixth component of complement). Molecular pathway modeling indicated that these factors may be integrated through interactions with a candidate plasma biomarker, PON1 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Conclusions Together, these data suggest that different SAID may share common alterations of plasma protein expression and molecular pathways. An understanding of the mechanisms leading to the altered plasma proteomes common among these SAID may provide useful insights into their pathogeneses. PMID:22044644

  12. Proteomic and Glycoproteomic Profilings Reveal That Post-translational Modifications of Toxins Contribute to Venom Phenotype in Snakes.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Silva, Débora; Zelanis, André; Kitano, Eduardo S; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Reis, Marcelo S; Lopes, Aline S; Serrano, Solange M T

    2016-08-05

    Snake venoms are biological weapon systems composed of secreted proteins and peptides that are used for immobilizing or killing prey. Although post-translational modifications are widely investigated because of their importance in many biological phenomena, we currently still have little understanding of how protein glycosylation impacts the variation and stability of venom proteomes. To address these issues, here we characterized the venom proteomes of seven Bothrops snakes using a shotgun proteomics strategy. Moreover, we compared the electrophoretic profiles of native and deglycosylated venoms and, in order to assess their subproteomes of glycoproteins, we identified the proteins with affinity for three lectins with different saccharide specificities and their putative glycosylation sites. As proteinases are abundant glycosylated toxins, we examined the effect of N-deglycosylation on their catalytic activities and show that the proteinases of the seven venoms were similarly affected by removal of N-glycans. Moreover, we prospected putative glycosylation sites of transcripts of a B. jararaca venom gland data set and detected toxin family related patterns of glycosylation. Based on our global analysis, we report that Bothrops venom proteomes and glycoproteomes contain a core of components that markedly define their composition, which is conserved upon evolution in parallel to other molecular markers that determine their phylogenetic classification.

  13. The Human Pancreas Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Uhlén, Mathias; Korsgren, Olle; Lindskog, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas is composed of both exocrine glands and intermingled endocrine cells to execute its diverse functions, including enzyme production for digestion of nutrients and hormone secretion for regulation of blood glucose levels. To define the molecular constituents with elevated expression in the human pancreas, we employed a genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of the human transcriptome to identify genes with elevated expression in the human pancreas. This quantitative transcriptomics data was combined with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling to allow mapping of the corresponding proteins to different compartments and specific cell types within the pancreas down to the single cell level. Analysis of whole pancreas identified 146 genes with elevated expression levels, of which 47 revealed a particular higher expression as compared to the other analyzed tissue types, thus termed pancreas enriched. Extended analysis of in vitro isolated endocrine islets identified an additional set of 42 genes with elevated expression in these specialized cells. Although only 0.7% of all genes showed an elevated expression level in the pancreas, this fraction of transcripts, in most cases encoding secreted proteins, constituted 68% of the total mRNA in pancreas. This demonstrates the extreme specialization of the pancreas for production of secreted proteins. Among the elevated expression profiles, several previously not described proteins were identified, both in endocrine cells (CFC1, FAM159B, RBPJL and RGS9) and exocrine glandular cells (AQP12A, DPEP1, GATM and ERP27). In summary, we provide a global analysis of the pancreas transcriptome and proteome with a comprehensive list of genes and proteins with elevated expression in pancreas. This list represents an important starting point for further studies of the molecular repertoire of pancreatic cells and their relation to disease states or treatment effects. PMID:25546435

  14. Protein Profiling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics in Two West African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fye, Haddy K. S.; Wright-Drakesmith, Cynthia; Kramer, Holger B.; Camey, Suzi; da Costa, Andre Nogueira; Jeng, Adam; Bah, Alasana; Kirk, Gregory D.; Sharif, Mohamed I. F.; Ladep, Nimzing G.; Okeke, Edith; Hainaut, Pierre; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D.; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Mendy, Maimuna E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular Carcinoma is the third most common cause of cancer related death worldwide, often diagnosed by measuring serum AFP; a poor performance stand-alone biomarker. With the aim of improving on this, our study focuses on plasma proteins identified by Mass Spectrometry in order to investigate and validate differences seen in the respective proteomes of controls and subjects with LC and HCC. Methods Mass Spectrometry analysis using liquid chromatography electro spray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight was conducted on 339 subjects using a pooled expression profiling approach. ELISA assays were performed on four significantly differentially expressed proteins to validate their expression profiles in subjects from the Gambia and a pilot group from Nigeria. Results from this were collated for statistical multiplexing using logistic regression analysis. Results Twenty-six proteins were identified as differentially expressed between the three subject groups. Direct measurements of four; hemopexin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein A1 and complement component 3 confirmed their change in abundance in LC and HCC versus control patients. These trends were independently replicated in the pilot validation subjects from Nigeria. The statistical multiplexing of these proteins demonstrated performance comparable to or greater than ALT in identifying liver cirrhosis or carcinogenesis. This exercise also proposed preliminary cut offs with achievable sensitivity, specificity and AUC statistics greater than reported AFP averages. Conclusions The validated changes of expression in these proteins have the potential for development into high-performance tests usable in the diagnosis and or monitoring of HCC and LC patients. The identification of sustained expression trends strengthens the suggestion of these four proteins as worthy candidates for further investigation in the context of liver disease. The statistical combinations also provide a novel inroad of

  15. Proteomic Profiling in Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Courses Reveals Potential Biomarkers of Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Maria; Qualtieri, Antonio; Tortorella, Carla; Direnzo, Vita; Bagalà, Angelo; Mastrapasqua, Mariangela; Spadafora, Patrizia; Trojano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our project was to perform an exploratory analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteomic profiles of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, collected in different phases of their clinical course, in order to investigate the existence of peculiar profiles characterizing the different MS phenotypes. The study was carried out on 24 Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS), 16 Relapsing Remitting (RR) MS, 11 Progressive (Pr) MS patients. The CSF samples were analysed using the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time Of Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer in linear mode geometry and in delayed extraction mode (m/z range: 1000–25000 Da). Peak lists were imported for normalization and statistical analysis. CSF data were correlated with demographic, clinical and MRI parameters. The evaluation of MALDI-TOF spectra revealed 348 peak signals with relative intensity ≥1% in the study range. The peak intensity of the signals corresponding to Secretogranin II and Protein 7B2 were significantly upregulated in RRMS patients compared to PrMS (p<0.05), whereas the signals of Fibrinogen and Fibrinopeptide A were significantly downregulated in CIS compared to PrMS patients (p<0.04). Additionally, the intensity of the Tymosin β4 peak was the only signal to be significantly discriminated between the CIS and RRMS patients (p = 0.013). Although with caution due to the relatively small size of the study populations, and considering that not all the findings remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons, in our opinion this mass spectrometry evaluation confirms that this technique may provide useful and important information to improve our understanding of the complex pathogenesis of MS. PMID:25098164

  16. Proteomic profiling in multiple sclerosis clinical courses reveals potential biomarkers of neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Maria; Qualtieri, Antonio; Tortorella, Carla; Direnzo, Vita; Bagalà, Angelo; Mastrapasqua, Mariangela; Spadafora, Patrizia; Trojano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our project was to perform an exploratory analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteomic profiles of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, collected in different phases of their clinical course, in order to investigate the existence of peculiar profiles characterizing the different MS phenotypes. The study was carried out on 24 Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS), 16 Relapsing Remitting (RR) MS, 11 Progressive (Pr) MS patients. The CSF samples were analysed using the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time Of Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer in linear mode geometry and in delayed extraction mode (m/z range: 1000-25000 Da). Peak lists were imported for normalization and statistical analysis. CSF data were correlated with demographic, clinical and MRI parameters. The evaluation of MALDI-TOF spectra revealed 348 peak signals with relative intensity ≥ 1% in the study range. The peak intensity of the signals corresponding to Secretogranin II and Protein 7B2 were significantly upregulated in RRMS patients compared to PrMS (p<0.05), whereas the signals of Fibrinogen and Fibrinopeptide A were significantly downregulated in CIS compared to PrMS patients (p<0.04). Additionally, the intensity of the Tymosin β4 peak was the only signal to be significantly discriminated between the CIS and RRMS patients (p = 0.013). Although with caution due to the relatively small size of the study populations, and considering that not all the findings remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons, in our opinion this mass spectrometry evaluation confirms that this technique may provide useful and important information to improve our understanding of the complex pathogenesis of MS.

  17. Proteomic profiling of proteins associated with methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in different regions of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Huijun; Qiu, Pingming; Luo, Hong

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that methamphetamine (MA) can cause obvious damage to the brain, but the exact mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, proteomic methods of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry analysis were used to identify global protein profiles associated with MA-induced neurotoxicity. For the first time, 30 protein spots have been found differentially expressed in different regions of rat brain, including 14 in striatum, 12 in hippocampus and 4 in frontal cortex. The proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry were Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1, alpha synuclein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N, stathmin 1, calcineurin B, cystatin B, subunit of mitochondrial H-ATP synthase, ATP synthase D chain, mitochondrial, NADH dehydrogenase(ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 8, glia maturation factor, beta, Ash-m, neurocalcin delta, myotrophin, profiling IIa, D-dopachrome tautomerase, and brain lipid binding protein. The known functions of these proteins were related to the pathogenesis of MA-induced neurotoxicity, including oxidative stress, degeneration/apoptosis, mitochontrial/energy metabolism and others. Of these proteins, alpha-synuclein was up-regulated, and ATP synthase D chain, mitochondrial was down-regulated in all brain regions. Two proteins, Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase, subunit of mitochondrial H-ATPsynthase were down-regulated and Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 8 were up-regulated simultaneously in striatum and hippocaltum. The expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH 1) increased both in striatum and frontal cortex. The parallel expression patterns of these proteins suggest that the pathogenesis of MA neurotoxicity in different brain regions may share some same pathways.

  18. The human pancreas proteome defined by transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Angelika; Pontén, Fredrik; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Schwenk, Jochen M; Uhlén, Mathias; Korsgren, Olle; Lindskog, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas is composed of both exocrine glands and intermingled endocrine cells to execute its diverse functions, including enzyme production for digestion of nutrients and hormone secretion for regulation of blood glucose levels. To define the molecular constituents with elevated expression in the human pancreas, we employed a genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of the human transcriptome to identify genes with elevated expression in the human pancreas. This quantitative transcriptomics data was combined with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling to allow mapping of the corresponding proteins to different compartments and specific cell types within the pancreas down to the single cell level. Analysis of whole pancreas identified 146 genes with elevated expression levels, of which 47 revealed a particular higher expression as compared to the other analyzed tissue types, thus termed pancreas enriched. Extended analysis of in vitro isolated endocrine islets identified an additional set of 42 genes with elevated expression in these specialized cells. Although only 0.7% of all genes showed an elevated expression level in the pancreas, this fraction of transcripts, in most cases encoding secreted proteins, constituted 68% of the total mRNA in pancreas. This demonstrates the extreme specialization of the pancreas for production of secreted proteins. Among the elevated expression profiles, several previously not described proteins were identified, both in endocrine cells (CFC1, FAM159B, RBPJL and RGS9) and exocrine glandular cells (AQP12A, DPEP1, GATM and ERP27). In summary, we provide a global analysis of the pancreas transcriptome and proteome with a comprehensive list of genes and proteins with elevated expression in pancreas. This list represents an important starting point for further studies of the molecular repertoire of pancreatic cells and their relation to disease states or treatment effects.

  19. Global proteome profiling of dental cementum under experimentally-induced apposition.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Cristiane R; Giorgetti, Ana Paula O; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Domingues, Romênia R; Sallum, Enilson Antonio; Alves, Marcelo C; Kolli, Tamara N; Foster, Brian L; Nociti, Francisco H

    2016-06-01

    Dental cementum (DC) covers the tooth root and has important functions in tooth attachment and position. DC can be lost to disease, and regeneration is currently unpredictable due to limited understanding of DC formation. This study used a model of experimentally-induced apposition (EIA) in mice to identify proteins associated with new DC formation. Mandibular first molars were induced to super-erupt for 6 and 21days after extracting opposing maxillary molars. Decalcified and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mandible sections were prepared for laser capture microdissection. Microdissected protein extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the data submitted to repeated measure ANOVA test (RM-ANOVA, alpha=5%). A total of 519 proteins were identified, with 97 (18.6%) proteins found exclusively in EIA sites and 50 (9.6%) proteins exclusively expressed in control sites. Fifty six (10.7%) proteins were differentially regulated by RM-ANOVA (p<0.05), with 24 regulated by the exclusive effect of EIA (12 proteins) or the interaction between EIA and time (12 proteins), including serpin 1a, procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer, tenascin X (TNX), and asporin (ASPN). In conclusion, proteomic analysis demonstrated significantly altered protein profile in DC under EIA, providing new insights on DC biology and potential candidates for tissue engineering applications. Dental cementum (DC) is a mineralized tissue that covers the tooth root surface and has important functions in tooth attachment and position. DC and other periodontal tissues can be lost to disease, and regeneration is currently unpredictable due to lack of understanding of DC formation. This study used a model of experimentally-induced apposition (EIA) in mice to promote new cementum formation, followed by laser capture microdissection (LCM) and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomic analysis. This approach identified

  20. Proteomic Profiling of Exosomes Leads to the Identification of Novel Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Duijvesz, Diederick; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Hoogland, Marije; Vredenbregt-van den Berg, Mirella S.; Willemsen, Rob; Luider, Theo N.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Jenster, Guido

    2013-12-31

    Introduction: Current markers for prostate cancer, such as PSA lack specificity. Therefore, novel biomarkers are needed. Unfortunately, biomarker discovery from body fluids is often hampered by the high abundance of many proteins unrelated to disease. An attractive alternative biomarker discovery approach is the isolation of small vesicles (exosomes, ~100 nm). They contain proteins that are specific to the tissue from which they are derived and therefore can be considered as treasure chests for disease-specific marker discovery. Profiling prostate cancer-derived exosomes could reveal new markers for this malignancy. Materials and Methods: Exosomes were isolated from 2 immortalized primary prostate epithelial cells (PNT2C2 and RWPE-1) and 2 PCa cell lines (PC346C and VCaP) by ultracentrifugation. Proteomic analyses utilized a nanoLC coupled with an LTQ-Orbitrap operated in tandem MS (MS/MS) mode, followed by the Accurate Mass and Time (AMT) tag approach. Exosomal proteins were validated by Western blotting. A Tissue Micro Array, containing 481 different PCa samples (radical prostatectomy), was used to correlate candidate markers with several clinical-pathological parameters such as PSA, Gleason score, biochemical recurrence, and (PCa-related) death. Results: Proteomic characterization resulted in the identification of 263 proteins by at least 2 peptides. Specifically analysis of exosomes from PNT2C2, RWPE-1, PC346C, and VCaP identified 248, 233, 169, and 216 proteins, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed 52 proteins differently expressed between PCa and control cells, 9 of which were more abundant in PCa. Validation by Western blotting confirmed a higher abundance of FASN, XPO1 and PDCD6IP (ALIX) in PCa exosomes. The Tissue Micro 4 Array showed strong correlation of higher Gleason scores and local recurrence with increased cytoplasmic XPO1 (P<0.001). Conclusions: Differentially abundant proteins of cell line-derived exosomes make a clear subdivision between

  1. Salt stress-induced changes in antioxidative defense system and proteome profiles of salt-tolerant and sensitive Frankia strains.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Amrita; Singh, Anumeha; Singh, Satya S; Mishra, Arun K

    2017-04-16

    An appreciation of comparative microbial survival is most easily done while evaluating their adaptive strategies during stress. In the present experiment, antioxidative and whole cell proteome variations based on spectrophotometric analysis and SDS-PAGE and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis have been analysed among salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive Frankia strains. This is the first report of proteomic basis underlying salt tolerance in these newly isolated Frankia strains from Hippophae salicifolia D. Don. Salt-tolerant strain HsIi10 shows higher increment in the contents of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase as compared to salt-sensitive strain HsIi8. Differential 2-DGE profile has revealed differential profiles for salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive strains. Proteomic confirmation of salt tolerance in the strains with inbuilt efficiency of thriving in nitrogen-deficient locales is a definite advantage for these microbes. This would be equally beneficial for improvement of soil nitrogen status. Efficient protein regulation in HsIi10 suggests further exploration for its potential use as biofertilizer in saline soils.

  2. Comparative Proteomic Profiling Reveals Molecular Characteristics Associated with Oogenesis and Oocyte Maturation during Ovarian Development of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Meng-Yi; Liu, Yu-Wei; Zhang, Zheng; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Time-dependent expression of proteins in ovary is important to understand oogenesis in insects. Here, we profiled the proteomes of developing ovaries from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to obtain information about ovarian development with particular emphasis on differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) involved in oogenesis. A total of 4838 proteins were identified with an average peptide number of 8.15 and sequence coverage of 20.79%. Quantitative proteomic analysis showed that a total of 612 and 196 proteins were differentially expressed in developing and mature ovaries, respectively. Furthermore, 153, 196 and 59 potential target proteins were highly expressed in early, vitellogenic and mature ovaries and most tested DEPs had the similar trends consistent with the respective transcriptional profiles. These proteins were abundantly expressed in pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic stages, including tropomyosin, vitellogenin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, heat shock protein, importin protein, vitelline membrane protein, and chorion protein. Several hormone and signal pathway related proteins were also identified during ovarian development including piRNA, notch, insulin, juvenile, and ecdysone hormone signal pathways. This is the first report of a global ovary proteome of a tephritid fruit fly, and may contribute to understanding the complicate processes of ovarian development and exploring the potentially novel pest control targets. PMID:28665301

  3. Proteomic profiling of NCI-60 extracellular vesicles uncovers common protein cargo and cancer type-specific biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xia; Singh, Rakesh K.; Meckes, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Packed with biological information, extracellular vesicles (EVs) offer exciting promise for biomarker discovery and applications in therapeutics and non-invasive diagnostics. Currently, our understanding of EV contents is confined by the limited cells from which vesicles have been characterized utilizing the same enrichment method. Using sixty cell lines from the National Cancer Institute (NCI-60), here we provide the largest proteomic profile of EVs in a single study, identifying 6,071 proteins with 213 common to all isolates. Proteins included established EV markers, and vesicular trafficking proteins such as Rab GTPases and tetraspanins. Differentially-expressed proteins offer potential for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Network analysis of vesicle quantity and proteomes identified EV components associated with vesicle secretion, including CD81, CD63, syntenin-1, VAMP3, Rab GTPases, and integrins. Integration of vesicle proteomes with whole-cell molecular profiles revealed similarities, suggesting EVs provide a reliable reflection of their progenitor cell content, and are therefore excellent indicators of disease. PMID:27894104

  4. Proteomic protease specificity profiling of clostridial collagenases reveals their intrinsic nature as dedicated degraders of collagen☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Eckhard, Ulrich; Huesgen, Pitter F.; Brandstetter, Hans; Overall, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridial collagenases are among the most efficient degraders of collagen. Most clostridia are saprophytes and secrete proteases to utilize proteins in their environment as carbon sources; during anaerobic infections, collagenases play a crucial role in host colonization. Several medical and biotechnological applications have emerged utilizing their high collagenolytic efficiency. However, the contribution of the functionally most important peptidase domain to substrate specificity remains unresolved. We investigated the active site sequence specificity of the peptidase domains of collagenase G and H from Clostridium histolyticum and collagenase T from Clostridium tetani. Both prime and non-prime cleavage site specificity were simultaneously profiled using Proteomic Identification of protease Cleavage Sites (PICS), a mass spectrometry-based method utilizing database searchable proteome-derived peptide libraries. For each enzyme we identified > 100 unique-cleaved peptides, resulting in robust cleavage logos revealing collagen-like specificity patterns: a strong preference for glycine in P3 and P1′, proline at P2 and P2′, and a slightly looser specificity at P1, which in collagen is typically occupied by hydroxyproline. This specificity for the classic collagen motifs Gly-Pro-X and Gly-X-Hyp represents a remarkable adaptation considering the complex requirements for substrate unfolding and presentation that need to be fulfilled before a single collagen strand becomes accessible for cleavage. Biological significance We demonstrate the striking sequence specificity of a family of clostridial collagenases using proteome derived peptide libraries and PICS, Proteomic Identification of protease Cleavage Sites. In combination with the previously published crystal structures of these proteases, our results represent an important piece of the puzzle in understanding the complex mechanism underlying collagen hydrolysis, and pave the way for the rational design of

  5. Development of a Listeria monocytogenes EGDe Partial Proteome Reference Map and Comparison with the Protein Profiles of Food Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ramnath, Manilduth; Rechinger, K. Björn; Jänsch, Lothar; Hastings, John W.; Knøchel, Susanne; Gravesen, Anne

    2003-01-01

    A partially annotated proteome reference map of the food pathogen Listeria monocytogenes was developed for exponentially growing cells under standardized, optimal conditions by using the sequenced strain EGDe (serotype 1/2a) as a model organism. The map was developed by using a reproducible total protein extraction and two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis procedure, and it contained 33 identified proteins representing the four main protein functional classes. In order to facilitate analysis of membrane proteins, a protein compartmentalization procedure was assessed. The method used provided partial fractionation of membrane and cytosolic proteins. The total protein 2-D profiles of three serotype 1/2a strains and one serotype 1/2b strain isolated from food were compared to the L. monocytogenes EGDe proteome. An average of 13% of the major protein spots in the food strain proteomes were not matched in the strain EGDe proteome. The variation was greater for the less intense spots, and on average 28% of these spots were not matched. Two of the proteins identified in L. monocytogenes EGDe were missing in one or more of the food isolates. These two proteins were proteins involved in the main glycolytic pathway and in metabolism of coenzymes and prosthetic groups. The two corresponding genes were found by PCR amplification to be present in the four food isolates. Our results show that the L. monocytogenes EGDe reference map is a valuable starting point for analyses of strains having various origins and could be useful for analyzing the proteomes of different isolates of this pathogen. PMID:12788738

  6. [Gender-specific risk factors for acute low back pain: starting points for target-group-specific prevention].

    PubMed

    Ochsmann, E; Rüger, H; Kraus, T; Drexler, H; Letzel, S; Münster, E

    2009-08-01

    Women complain about back pain more often than men, giving rise to the question of whether gender-specific risk profiles could be identified. Secondary data analysis was done of the telephone health survey conducted by the Robert Koch Institute in 2003 (n=7,829). Bivariate (chi(2)) and gender-stratified multivariate tests were conducted (odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals). Women (28.5%) complained about acute low back pain significantly more often than men did (18%; p<0.001). The multivariate analysis found gender-specific risk estimates for the following factors: age, degenerative diseases of the joints, osteoporosis, depression, smoking, employment, municipality size, and impairment of daily work because of physical impairment. The present examination is an attempt to deduce factors to be taken into account for gender-specific care of patients with acute low back pain. Preventive measures and therapy approaches could be influenced by these findings. To adequately address the problem, future analyses should specifically include psychosocial factors.

  7. Mitochondrial proteome: toward the detection and profiling of disease associated alterations.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Paul C; Herrmann, E Clifford

    2012-01-01

    Existing at the heart of cellular energy metabolism, the mitochondrion is uniquely positioned to have a major impact on human disease processes. Examples of mitochondrial impact on human pathology abound and include etiologies ranging from inborn errors of metabolism to the site of activity of a variety of toxic compounds. In this review, the unique aspects of the mechanisms related to the mitochondrial proteome are discussed along with an overview of the literature related to mitochondrial proteomic exploration. The review includes discussion of potential areas for exploration and advantages of applying proteomic techniques to the study of mitochondria.

  8. Gender specific intrapartum and neonatal outcomes for term babies.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Liam; Prior, Tomas; Greer, Ristan; Kumar, Sailesh

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the gender specific intrapartum and neonatal outcomes in term, singleton, appropriately grown babies. De-identified, routinely collected data of all women meeting inclusion criteria between 2001 and 2011 were examined (n=9223). Inclusion criteria were public (non-insured), primiparous women who had delivered singleton, appropriately grown babies at term. In this retrospective cohort study, we estimated 95% confidence intervals. Outcomes measured were maternal demographics, mode of delivery, birthweight, APGAR score, cord blood acidemia, respiratory distress, any resuscitation requirement, nursery admission and stillbirth rates. The sex ratio of male babies was 1.05:1 (4718 males; 4505 females, p=0.85). Male babies were more likely to be delivered by instrumental (p=0.004) or caesarean (p<0.001). Birthweight was found to be a significant influencing factor on mode of delivery. Even after adjusting for birthweight, male babies were more likely to be delivered by instrumental delivery (OR 1.24, p<0.001), as well as by emergency caesarean for failure to progress (OR 1.24, p=0.04) and fetal distress (OR 1.38, p<0.001). Male babies, despite having greater birthweights than female babies (p<0.001), were more likely to have lower APGAR scores at 5 min (p=0.004), require neonatal resuscitation (p<0.001), develop respiratory distress (p=0.005) and require nursery admission (p<0.001). No statistical difference between male and female babies was found for cord blood acidemia (p=0.58) or stillbirth (p=0.49). This large cohort study demonstrates that term, appropriately grown male babies in primiparous pregnancies fare more poorly in the intrapartum and neonatal periods than female babies. Even when birthweight was accounted for, male babies still required higher rates of intervention in the intrapartum and neonatal periods. This suggests gender may play an independent role in influencing pregnancy outcomes, although the underlying

  9. Proteomic Profiling of Serial Prediagnostic Serum Samples for Early Detection of Colon Cancer in the U.S. Military.

    PubMed

    Shao, Stephanie; Neely, Benjamin A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Eckhaus, Janet; Bourgeois, Jolie; Brooks, Jasmin; Jones, Elizabeth E; Drake, Richard R; Zhu, Kangmin

    2017-05-01

    Background: Serum proteomic biomarkers offer a promising approach for early detection of cancer. In this study, we aimed to identify proteomic profiles that could distinguish colon cancer cases from controls using serial prediagnostic serum samples.Methods: This was a nested case-control study of active duty military members. Cases consisted of 264 patients diagnosed with colon cancer between 2001 and 2009. Controls were matched to cases on age, gender, race, serum sample count, and collection date. We identified peaks that discriminated cases from controls using random forest data analysis with a 2/3 training and 1/3 validation dataset. We then included epidemiologic data to see whether further improvement of model performance was obtainable. Proteins that corresponded to discriminatory peaks were identified.Results: Peaks with m/z values of 3,119.32, 2,886.67, 2,939.23, and 5,078.81 were found to discriminate cases from controls with a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 67% in the year before diagnosis. When smoking status was included, sensitivity increased to 76% while histories of other cancer and tonsillectomy raised specificity to 76%. Peaks at 2,886.67 and 3,119.32 m/z were identified as histone acetyltransferases while 2,939.24 m/z was a transporting ATPase subunit.Conclusions: Proteomic profiles in the year before cancer diagnosis have the potential to discriminate colon cancer patients from controls, and the addition of epidemiologic information may increase the sensitivity and specificity of discrimination.Impact: Our findings indicate the potential value of using serum prediagnostic proteomic biomarkers in combination with epidemiologic data for early detection of colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 711-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Serum proteome profiling detects myelodysplastic syndromes and identifies CXC chemokine ligands 4 and 7 as markers for advanced disease

    PubMed Central

    Aivado, Manuel; Spentzos, Dimitrios; Germing, Ulrich; Alterovitz, Gil; Meng, Xiao-Ying; Grall, Franck; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Klement, Giannoula; Steidl, Ulrich; Otu, Hasan H.; Czibere, Akos; Prall, Wolf C.; Iking-Konert, Christof; Shayne, Michelle; Ramoni, Marco F.; Gattermann, Norbert; Haas, Rainer; Mitsiades, Constantine S.; Fung, Eric T.; Libermann, Towia A.

    2007-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are among the most frequent hematologic malignancies. Patients have a short survival and often progress to acute myeloid leukemia. The diagnosis of MDS can be difficult; there is a paucity of molecular markers, and the pathophysiology is largely unknown. Therefore, we conducted a multicenter study investigating whether serum proteome profiling may serve as a noninvasive platform to discover novel molecular markers for MDS. We generated serum proteome profiles from 218 individuals by MS and identified a profile that distinguishes MDS from non-MDS cytopenias in a learning sample set. This profile was validated by testing its ability to predict MDS in a first independent validation set and a second, prospectively collected, independent validation set run 5 months apart. Accuracy was 80.5% in the first and 79.0% in the second validation set. Peptide mass fingerprinting and quadrupole TOF MS identified two differential proteins: CXC chemokine ligands 4 (CXCL4) and 7 (CXCL7), both of which had significantly decreased serum levels in MDS, as confirmed with independent antibody assays. Western blot analyses of platelet lysates for these two platelet-derived molecules revealed a lack of CXCL4 and CXCL7 in MDS. Subtype analyses revealed that these two proteins have decreased serum levels in advanced MDS, suggesting the possibility of a concerted disturbance of transcription or translation of these chemokines in advanced MDS. PMID:17220270

  11. Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Function of Different Vegetative Tissues of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zou, Qiong; Wang, Jinxing; Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Zeping; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2016-12-01

    Moringa oleifera is a rich source of bioactive compounds and is widely used in traditional medicine and food for its nutritional value; however, the protein and peptide components of different tissues are rarely discussed. Here, we describe the first investigation of M. oleifera proteomes using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methods. We aimed to elucidate the protein profiles of M. oleifera leaves, stem, bark, and root. Totally 202 proteins were identified from four vegetative organs. We identified 101 proteins from leaves, 51 from stem, 94 from bark and 67 from root, finding that only five proteins existed in both four vegetative parts. The calculated pI of most of the proteins is distributed in 5-10 and the molecular weight distributed below 100 kDa. Functional classification analysis revealed that proteins which are involved in catalytic activities are the most abundant both in leaves, stem, bark and root. Identification of several heat shock proteins in four vegetative tissues might be adaptive for resistance to high temperature environmental stresses of tropical or subtropical areas. Some enzymes involved in antioxidant processes were also identified in M. oleifera leaves, stem, bark and root. Among the four tissues studies here, leaves protein content and molecular diversity were the highest. The identification of the flocculating protein MO2.1 and MO2.2 in the bark and root provides clue to clarify the antimicrobial molecular mechanisms of root and bark. This study provides information on the protein compositions of M. oleifera vegetative tissues that will be beneficial for potential drug and food supplement development and plant physiology research.

  12. Proteomic Profiling and Identification of Immunodominant Spore Antigens of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis‡

    PubMed Central

    DelVecchio, Vito G.; Connolly, Joseph P.; Alefantis, Timothy G.; Walz, Alexander; Quan, Marian A.; Patra, Guy; Ashton, John M.; Whittington, Jessica T.; Chafin, Ryan D.; Liang, Xudong; Grewal, Paul; Khan, Akbar S.; Mujer, Cesar V.

    2006-01-01

    Differentially expressed and immunogenic spore proteins of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, which includes Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis, were identified. Comparative proteomic profiling of their spore proteins distinguished the three species from each other as well as the virulent from the avirulent strains. A total of 458 proteins encoded by 232 open reading frames were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis for all the species. A number of highly expressed proteins, including elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), elongation factor G, 60-kDa chaperonin, enolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and others exist as charge variants on two-dimensional gels. These charge variants have similar masses but different isoelectric points. The majority of identified proteins have cellular roles associated with energy production, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, posttranslational modifications, and translation. Novel vaccine candidate proteins were identified using B. anthracis polyclonal antisera from humans postinfected with cutaneous anthrax. Fifteen immunoreactive proteins were identified in B. anthracis spores, whereas 7, 14, and 7 immunoreactive proteins were identified for B. cereus and in the virulent and avirulent strains of B. thuringiensis spores, respectively. Some of the immunodominant antigens include charge variants of EF-Tu, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, Δ-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, and a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Alanine racemase and neutral protease were uniquely immunogenic to B. anthracis. Comparative analysis of the spore immunome will be of significance for further nucleic acid- and immuno-based detection systems as well as next-generation vaccine development. PMID:16957262

  13. Feeding Low or Pharmacological Concentrations of Zinc Oxide Changes the Hepatic Proteome Profiles in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Bondzio, Angelika; Pieper, Robert; Gabler, Christoph; Weise, Christoph; Schulze, Petra; Zentek, Juergen; Einspanier, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological levels of zinc oxide can promote growth and health of weaning piglets, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are yet not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine changes in the global hepatic protein expression in response to dietary zinc oxide in weaned piglets. Nine half-sib piglets were allocated to three dietary zinc treatment groups (50, 150, 2500 mg/kg dry matter). After 14 d, pigs were euthanized and liver samples taken. The increase in hepatic zinc concentration following dietary supplementation of zinc was accompanied by up-regulation of metallothionein mRNA and protein expression. Global hepatic protein profiles were obtained by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis following matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 15 proteins were differentially (P<0.05) expressed between groups receiving control (150 mg/kg) or pharmacological levels of zinc (2500 mg/kg) with 7 down- (e.g. arginase1, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase, HSP70) and 8 up-regulated (e.g. apolipoprotein AI, transferrin, C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase) proteins. Additionally, three proteins were differentially expressed with low zinc supply (50 mg/kg Zn) in comparison to the control diet. The identified proteins were mainly associated with functions related to cellular stress, transport, metabolism, and signal transduction. The differential regulation was evaluated at the mRNA level and a subset of three proteins of different functional groups was selected for confirmation by western blotting. The results of this proteomic study suggest that zinc affects important liver functions such as blood protein secretion, protein metabolism, detoxification and redox homeostasis, thus supporting the hypothesis of intermediary effects of pharmacological levels of zinc oxide fed to pigs. PMID:24282572

  14. Proteomic profiling and identification of immunodominant spore antigens of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, Vito G; Connolly, Joseph P; Alefantis, Timothy G; Walz, Alexander; Quan, Marian A; Patra, Guy; Ashton, John M; Whittington, Jessica T; Chafin, Ryan D; Liang, Xudong; Grewal, Paul; Khan, Akbar S; Mujer, Cesar V

    2006-09-01

    Differentially expressed and immunogenic spore proteins of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, which includes Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis, were identified. Comparative proteomic profiling of their spore proteins distinguished the three species from each other as well as the virulent from the avirulent strains. A total of 458 proteins encoded by 232 open reading frames were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis for all the species. A number of highly expressed proteins, including elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), elongation factor G, 60-kDa chaperonin, enolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and others exist as charge variants on two-dimensional gels. These charge variants have similar masses but different isoelectric points. The majority of identified proteins have cellular roles associated with energy production, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, posttranslational modifications, and translation. Novel vaccine candidate proteins were identified using B. anthracis polyclonal antisera from humans postinfected with cutaneous anthrax. Fifteen immunoreactive proteins were identified in B. anthracis spores, whereas 7, 14, and 7 immunoreactive proteins were identified for B. cereus and in the virulent and avirulent strains of B. thuringiensis spores, respectively. Some of the immunodominant antigens include charge variants of EF-Tu, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, and a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Alanine racemase and neutral protease were uniquely immunogenic to B. anthracis. Comparative analysis of the spore immunome will be of significance for further nucleic acid- and immuno-based detection systems as well as next-generation vaccine development.

  15. Proteomic profiling of inflammatory signaling molecules in the tears of patients on chronic glaucoma medication.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tina T; Zhou, Lei; Li, Jing; Tong, Louis; Zhao, Shao Zhen; Li, Xiao Rong; Yu, Shang Juan; Koh, Siew Kwan; Beuerman, Roger W

    2011-09-22

    To identify the tear proteins associated with the long-term use of glaucoma medication by using proteomic analysis and to compare these proteins to those previously reported in primary dry eye disease. Eighteen patients treated with topical antiglaucoma medications and 10 normal age-matched subjects with no prior topical treatment were recruited for the study. Tears were collected by using Schirmer's strip and analyzed by iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) for tear proteins by mass spectrometry. Conjunctival samples were collected and RNA expression determined by PCR. Of the 124 identified tear proteins (99% confidence, ProtScore ≥ 2.0), we found that the tear levels of S100-A8, S100-A9, mammaglobin B, and 14-3-3 ζ/δ were significantly increased in the medicated group compared with levels in the nonmedicated group (P < 0.05). For S100-A9, mammaglobin B, and 14-3-3 ζ/δ, use of topical medication for less than 1 year did not reach statistical significance compared with that in the nonmedicated group. Eyes on topical medication for less than 1 year showed a decrease in proline-rich 4 protein tear level (P = 0.0049) compared to nonmedicated group. The tear proteins detected in the medicated group differed from those in the primary dry eye group. Treatment with topical antiglaucoma medications for longer than 1 year may start to induce ocular surface inflammation. The inflammatory tear protein profile present in chronically medicated glaucomatous eyes appears to be different from that found in primary dry eye. Identification of tear proteins specific to medicated glaucomatous eyes will help to specifically develop targeted screening modalities and therapeutic agents different from current conventional dry eye management.

  16. Anticancer drug clustering based on proteomic profiles and a sensitivity database in a lung cancer cell line panel

    PubMed Central

    HINO, MITSUNORI; MATSUDA, KUNIKO; MIYANAGA, AKIHIKO; KURIBAYASI, HIDEHIKO; MIZUTANI, HIDEAKI; NORO, RINTARO; MINEGISHI, YUJI; OKANO, TETSUYA; SEIKE, MASAHIRO; KAWAKAMI, AKIKO; YOSHIMURA, AKINOBU; OGAWA, NAOKI; UESAKA, HARUKA; KUDOH, SHOJI; GEMMA, AKIHIKO

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we performed a molecular pharmacological study that applied a combination of DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling and drug sensitivity tests in vitro with a view to designing an improved chemotherapeutic strategy for advanced lung cancer. Utilizing recent key technological advances in proteomics, particularly antibody array-based methodologies, the current study aimed to examine the benefit of protein expression profiling in an analogous molecular pharmacological context. We performed protein expression analysis in a panel of lung cancer cell lines via an antibody array approach. Using a modified NCI program, we related cell line-specific proteomic profiles to the previously determined cytotoxic activity of a selection of commonly used anticancer agents, namely docetaxel, paclitaxel, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), SN38, cisplatin (CDDP) and carboplatin (CBDCA). In addition, we compared these results with those obtained from our prior DNA microarray-based transcriptomic study. In our expression-drug correlation analysis using antibody array, gemcitabine consistently belonged to an isolated cluster. Docetaxel, paclitaxel, 5-FU, SN38, CBDCA and CDDP were gathered together into one large cluster. These results coincided with those generated by the prior transcriptomic study. Various genes were commonly listed that differentiated gemcitabine from the others. The identified factors associated with drug sensitivities were different between both analyses. Our proteomic profiling data provided confirmation of the previous transcript expression-drug sensitivity correlation analysis. These results suggest that chemotherapy regimens that include gemcitabine should be evaluated in second-line chemotherapy in cases where the first-line chemotherapy did not include this drug. Protein expression-drug sensitivity correlations in lung cancer cells in vitro may provide useful information in determining the most appropriate therapeutic options

  17. Salt stress induces changes in the proteomic profile of micropropagated sugarcane shoots.

    PubMed

    Passamani, Lucas Z; Barbosa, Roberta R; Reis, Ricardo S; Heringer, Angelo S; Rangel, Patricia L; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Grativol, Clícia; Veiga, Carlos F M; Souza-Filho, Gonçalo A; Silveira, Vanildo

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress is one of the most common stresses in agricultural regions worldwide. In particular, sugarcane is affected by salt stress conditions, and no sugarcane cultivar presently show high productivity accompanied by a tolerance to salt stress. Proteomic analysis allows elucidation of the important pathways involved in responses to various abiotic stresses at the biochemical and molecular levels. Thus, this study aimed to analyse the proteomic effects of salt stress in micropropagated shoots of two sugarcane cultivars (CB38-22 and RB855536) using a label-free proteomic approach. The mass spectrometry proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006075. The RB855536 cultivar is more tolerant to salt stress than CB38-22. A quantitative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis identified 1172 non-redundant proteins, and 1160 of these were observed in both cultivars in the presence or absence of NaCl. Compared with CB38-22, the RB855536 cultivar showed a greater abundance of proteins involved in non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms, ion transport, and photosynthesis. Some proteins, such as calcium-dependent protein kinase, photosystem I, phospholipase D, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were more abundant in the RB855536 cultivar under salt stress. Our results provide new insights into the response of sugarcane to salt stress, and the changes in the abundance of these proteins might be important for the acquisition of ionic and osmotic homeostasis during exposure to salt stress.

  18. Salt stress induces changes in the proteomic profile of micropropagated sugarcane shoots

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Ricardo S.; Heringer, Angelo S.; Rangel, Patricia L.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Grativol, Clícia; Veiga, Carlos F. M.; Souza-Filho, Gonçalo A.

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress is one of the most common stresses in agricultural regions worldwide. In particular, sugarcane is affected by salt stress conditions, and no sugarcane cultivar presently show high productivity accompanied by a tolerance to salt stress. Proteomic analysis allows elucidation of the important pathways involved in responses to various abiotic stresses at the biochemical and molecular levels. Thus, this study aimed to analyse the proteomic effects of salt stress in micropropagated shoots of two sugarcane cultivars (CB38-22 and RB855536) using a label-free proteomic approach. The mass spectrometry proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006075. The RB855536 cultivar is more tolerant to salt stress than CB38-22. A quantitative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis identified 1172 non-redundant proteins, and 1160 of these were observed in both cultivars in the presence or absence of NaCl. Compared with CB38-22, the RB855536 cultivar showed a greater abundance of proteins involved in non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms, ion transport, and photosynthesis. Some proteins, such as calcium-dependent protein kinase, photosystem I, phospholipase D, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were more abundant in the RB855536 cultivar under salt stress. Our results provide new insights into the response of sugarcane to salt stress, and the changes in the abundance of these proteins might be important for the acquisition of ionic and osmotic homeostasis during exposure to salt stress. PMID:28419154

  19. Proteomic and transcriptomic profiling of Staphylococcus aureus surface LPXTG-proteins: correlation with agr genotypes and adherence phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ythier, Mathilde; Resch, Grégory; Waridel, Patrice; Panchaud, Alexandre; Gfeller, Aurélie; Majcherczyk, Paul; Quadroni, Manfredo; Moreillon, Philippe

    2012-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections involve numerous adhesins and toxins, which expression depends on complex regulatory networks. Adhesins include a family of surface proteins covalently attached to the peptidoglycan via a conserved LPXTG motif. Here we determined the protein and mRNA expression of LPXTG-proteins of S. aureus Newman in time-course experiments, and their relation to fibrinogen adherence in vitro. Experiments were performed with mutants in the global accessory-gene regulator (agr), surface protein A (Spa), and fibrinogen-binding protein A (ClfA), as well as during growth in iron-rich or iron-poor media. Surface proteins were recovered by trypsin-shaving of live bacteria. Released peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass-spectrometry. To unambiguously identify peptides unique to LPXTG-proteins, the analytical conditions were refined using a reference library of S. aureus LPXTG-proteins heterogeneously expressed in surrogate Lactococcus lactis. Transcriptomes were determined by microarrays. Sixteen of the 18 LPXTG-proteins present in S. aureus Newman were detected by proteomics. Nine LPXTG-proteins showed a bell-shape agr-like expression that was abrogated in agr-negative mutants including Spa, fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA), ClfA, iron-binding IsdA, and IsdB, immunomodulator SasH, functionally uncharacterized SasD, biofilm-related SasG and methicillin resistance-related FmtB. However, only Spa and SasH modified their proteomic and mRNA profiles in parallel in the parent and its agr- mutant, whereas all other LPXTG-proteins modified their proteomic profiles independently of their mRNA. Moreover, ClfA became highly transcribed and active in fibrinogen-adherence tests during late growth (24 h), whereas it remained poorly detected by proteomics. On the other hand, iron-regulated IsdA-B-C increased their protein expression by >10-times in iron-poor conditions. Thus, proteomic, transcriptomic, and adherence

  20. Proteomic and Transcriptomic Profiling of Staphylococcus aureus Surface LPXTG-proteins: Correlation with agr Genotypes and Adherence Phenotypes*

    PubMed Central

    Ythier, Mathilde; Resch, Grégory; Waridel, Patrice; Panchaud, Alexandre; Gfeller, Aurélie; Majcherczyk, Paul; Quadroni, Manfredo; Moreillon, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections involve numerous adhesins and toxins, which expression depends on complex regulatory networks. Adhesins include a family of surface proteins covalently attached to the peptidoglycan via a conserved LPXTG motif. Here we determined the protein and mRNA expression of LPXTG-proteins of S. aureus Newman in time-course experiments, and their relation to fibrinogen adherence in vitro. Experiments were performed with mutants in the global accessory-gene regulator (agr), surface protein A (Spa), and fibrinogen-binding protein A (ClfA), as well as during growth in iron-rich or iron-poor media. Surface proteins were recovered by trypsin-shaving of live bacteria. Released peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass-spectrometry. To unambiguously identify peptides unique to LPXTG-proteins, the analytical conditions were refined using a reference library of S. aureus LPXTG-proteins heterogeneously expressed in surrogate Lactococcus lactis. Transcriptomes were determined by microarrays. Sixteen of the 18 LPXTG-proteins present in S. aureus Newman were detected by proteomics. Nine LPXTG-proteins showed a bell-shape agr-like expression that was abrogated in agr-negative mutants including Spa, fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA), ClfA, iron-binding IsdA, and IsdB, immunomodulator SasH, functionally uncharacterized SasD, biofilm-related SasG and methicillin resistance-related FmtB. However, only Spa and SasH modified their proteomic and mRNA profiles in parallel in the parent and its agr- mutant, whereas all other LPXTG-proteins modified their proteomic profiles independently of their mRNA. Moreover, ClfA became highly transcribed and active in fibrinogen-adherence tests during late growth (24 h), whereas it remained poorly detected by proteomics. On the other hand, iron-regulated IsdA-B-C increased their protein expression by >10-times in iron-poor conditions. Thus, proteomic, transcriptomic, and adherence

  1. Proteomic profiling for the identification of serum diagnostic biomarkers for abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aortic aneurysm is an increasingly common vascular disorder with fatal implication. However, there is no established diagnosis other than that based on aneurysmal size. For this purpose, serum protein biomarkers for aortic aneurysms are valuable. Although most of the studies on serum biomarker discovery have been based on comparison of serum proteins from the patient group with those from the healthy group, we considered that comparison of serial protein profiles such as those in presurgical and postsurgical sera within one patient would facilitate identification of biomarkers since the variability of serial protein profiles within one patient is smaller than that between groups. In this study, we examined serum proteins with differential levels in postsurgery compared with those in presurgery after the removal of aneurysmal tissues in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) patients in order to identify potential serum biomarkers for AAAs and TAAs. Results A proteomic approach with an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling followed by nano liquid chromatography (nanoLC)-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF/TOF)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used. In the sera of patients with AAAs and TAAs, a total of 63 and 71 proteins with differential levels were further narrowed down to 6 and 8 increased proteins (≧1.3 fold, postsurgical vs. presurgical) (p < 0.05, patient vs. control) and 12 and 17 decreased proteins (< 0.77 fold, postsurgical vs. presurgical) (p < 0.05, patient vs. control) in postsurgical sera compared with those in presurgical sera, respectively. All of the increased proteins in postsurgical sera of both AAA and TAA patients included several known acute-phase proteins. On the other hand, in the decreased proteins, we found intriguing molecules such as α-2-macroglobulin, gelsolin, kallistatin, and so on. Among them, we confirmed that

  2. Gestational Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects the Function and Proteome Profile of F1 Spermatozoa in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Karmakar, Polash Chandra; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maternal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) has been linked to offspring reproductive abnormalities. However, exactly how BPA affects offspring fertility remains poorly understood. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gestational BPA exposure on sperm function, fertility, and proteome profile of F1 spermatozoa in adult mice. Methods: Pregnant CD-1 mice (F0) were gavaged with BPA at three different doses (50 μg/kg bw/day, 5 mg/kg bw/day, and 50 mg/kg bw/day) on embryonic days 7 to 14. We investigated the function, fertility, and related processes of F1 spermatozoa at postnatal day 120. We also evaluated protein profiles of F1 spermatozoa to monitor their functional affiliation to disease. Results: BPA inhibited sperm count, motility parameters, and intracellular ATP levels in a dose-dependent manner. These effects appeared to be caused by reduced numbers of stage VIII seminiferous epithelial cells in testis and decreased protein kinase A (PKA) activity and tyrosine phosphorylation in spermatozoa. We also found that BPA compromised average litter size. Proteins differentially expressed in spermatozoa from BPA treatment groups are known to play a critical role in ATP generation, oxidative stress response, fertility, and in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Conclusions: Our study provides mechanistic support for the hypothesis that gestational exposure to BPA alters sperm function and fertility via down-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation through a PKA-dependent mechanism. In addition, we anticipate that the BPA-induced changes in the sperm proteome might be partly responsible for the observed effects in spermatozoa. Citation: Rahman MS, Kwon WS, Karmakar PC, Yoon SJ, Ryu BY, Pang MG. 2017. Gestational exposure to bisphenol-A affects the function and proteome profile of F1 spermatozoa in adult mice. Environ Health Perspect 125:238–245; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP378 PMID:27384531

  3. Proteomic profiling of Bacillus licheniformis reveals a stress response mechanism in the synthesis of extracellular polymeric flocculants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wencheng; Chen, Zhen; Shen, Liang; Wang, Yuanpeng; Li, Qingbiao; Yan, Shan; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; He, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Some bioflocculants composed of extracellular polymeric substances are produced under peculiar conditions. Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC2876 is a microorganism that secretes both extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) under stress conditions. In this work, SWATH acquisition LC-MS/MS method was adopted for differential proteomic analysis of B. licheniformis, aiming at determining the bacterial stress mechanism. Compared with LB culture, 190 differentially expressed proteins were identified in B. licheniformis CGMCC2876 cultivated in EPS culture, including 117 up-regulated and 73 down-regulated proteins. In γ-PGA culture, 151 differentially expressed proteins, 89 up-regulated and 62 down-regulated, were found in the cells. Up-regulated proteins involved in amino acid biosynthesis were found to account for 43% and 41% of the proteomes in EPS and γ-PGA cultivated cells, respectively. Additionally, a series of proteins associated with amino acid degradation were found to be repressed under EPS and γ-PGA culture conditions. Transcriptional profiling via the qPCR detection of selected genes verified the proteomic analysis. Analysis of free amino acids in the bacterial cells further suggested the presence of amino acid starvation conditions. EPS or γ-PGA was synthesized to alleviate the effect of amino acid limitation in B. licheniformis. This study identified a stress response mechanism in the synthesis of macromolecules in B. licheniformis, providing potential culture strategies to improve the production of two promising bioflocculants.

  4. PiB-PET Imaging-Based Serum Proteome Profiles Predict Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seokjo; Jeong, Hyobin; Baek, Je-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Jin; Han, Sun-Ho; Cho, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hee; Hong, Hyun Seok; Kim, Young Ho; Yi, Eugene C; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L; Hwang, Daehee; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2016-07-06

    Development of a simple, non-invasive early diagnosis platform of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using blood is urgently required. Recently, PiB-PET imaging has been shown to be powerful to quantify amyloid-β plaque loads leading to pathophysiological alterations in AD brains. Thus, there has been a need for serum biomarkers reflecting PiB-PET imaging data as an early diagnosis platform of AD. Here, using LC-MS/MS analysis coupled with isobaric tagging, we performed comprehensive proteome profiling of serum samples from cognitively normal controls, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD patients, who were selected using PiB-PET imaging. Comparative analysis of the proteomes revealed 79 and 72 differentially expressed proteins in MCI and AD, respectively, compared to controls. Integrated analysis of these proteins with genomic and proteomic data of AD brain tissues, together with network analysis, identified three biomarker candidates representing the altered proteolysis-related process in MCI or AD: proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), coagulation factor XIII, A1 polypeptide (F13A1), and dermcidin (DCD). In independent serum samples of MCI and AD, we confirmed the elevation of the candidates using western blotting and ELISA. Our results suggest that these biomarker candidates can serve as a potential non-invasive early diagnosis platform reflecting PiB-PET imaging for MCI and AD.

  5. [Direct proteomic profiling of human urine and blood serum in an experiment with 5-day dry immersion].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Changes in proteome of urine and blood serum obtained from 14 healthy humans (age 21-29 yrs) medically certified for an experiment with dry immersion were analyzed. Urine and serum samples were pre-fractionated and enriched with magnetic particles MB-WCX and MB-HIC, respectively, on robot ClinProt (Bruker Daltonics) for direct mass-spectrometry profiling by MALDI-TOF. As a result, 143 protein peaks on the average were identified in urine samples. It was shown that a high variation coefficient in 23.7% of protein peaks, i.e. double technical, points to the most plastic fraction of the urine proteome. In blood serum, 175 peaks were identified in a sample on the average. Comparison of baseline and immersion mass-spectra of the blood proteome revealed significant differences. Increased peak areas of several protein fragments--C3 and C4 fragments of complement system, high-molecular kininogen and fibrinogen--can be ascribed to human body adaptation to the experimental conditions.

  6. Targeted cellular process profiling approach for uterine leiomyoma using cDNA microarray, proteomics and gene ontology analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Woong Shick; Kim, Ko-Woon; Bae, Su Mi; Yoon, Joo Hee; Lee, Joon Mo; Namkoong, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Chong Kook; Lee, Young Joo; Kim, Yong-Wan

    2003-01-01

    This study utilized both cDNA microarray and two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis technology to investigate the multiple interactions of genes and proteins involved in uterine leiomyoma pathophysiology. Also, the gene ontology analysis was used to systematically characterize the global expression profiles at cellular process levels. We profiled differentially expressed transcriptome and proteome in six-paired leiomyoma and normal myometrium. Screening up to 17 000 genes identified 21 upregulated and 50 downregulated genes. The gene-expression profiles were classified into mutually dependent 420 functional sets, resulting in 611 cellular processes according to the gene ontology. Also, protein analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified 33 proteins (17 upregulated and 16 downregulated) of more than 500 total spots, which was classified into 302 cellular processes. Of these functional profilings, downregulations of transcriptomes and proteoms were shown in cell adhesion, cell motility, organogenesis, enzyme regulator, structural molecule activity and response to external stimulus functional activities that are supposed to play important roles in pathophysiology. In contrast, the upregulation was only shown in nucleic acid-binding activity. Taken together, potentially significant pathogenetic cellular processes were identified and showed that the downregulated functional profiling has a significant impact on the discovery of pathogenic pathway in leiomyoma. Also, the gene ontology analysis can overcome the complexity of expression profiles of cDNA microarray and two-dimensional protein analysis via its cellular process-level approach. Therefore, a valuable prognostic candidate gene with relevance to disease-specific pathogenesis can be found at cellular process levels. PMID:14748746

  7. Proteomic Profiling of EBNA1-Host Protein Interactions in Latent and Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Malik-Soni, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is expressed in both latent and lytic modes of EBV infection and contributes to EBV-associated cancers. Using a proteomics approach, we profiled EBNA1-host protein interactions in nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinoma cells in the context of latent and lytic EBV infection. We identified several interactions that occur in both modes of infection, including a previously unreported interaction with nucleophosmin and RNA-mediated interactions with several heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) and La protein. PMID:22496234

  8. Proteomic profiling of EBNA1-host protein interactions in latent and lytic Epstein-Barr virus infections.

    PubMed

    Malik-Soni, Natasha; Frappier, Lori

    2012-06-01

    The Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is expressed in both latent and lytic modes of EBV infection and contributes to EBV-associated cancers. Using a proteomics approach, we profiled EBNA1-host protein interactions in nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinoma cells in the context of latent and lytic EBV infection. We identified several interactions that occur in both modes of infection, including a previously unreported interaction with nucleophosmin and RNA-mediated interactions with several heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) and La protein.

  9. Proteomic profiles of five strains of oxygenic photosynthetic cyanobacteria of the genus Cyanothece

    SciTech Connect

    Aryal, Uma K.; Callister, Stephen J.; McMahon, Benjamin H.; McCue, Lee Ann; Brown, Joseph N.; Stockel, Jana; Liberton, Michelle L.; Mishra, Sujata; Zhang, Xiaohui; Nicora, Carrie D.; Angel, Thomas E.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Sherman, Louis A.

    2014-07-03

    Members of the cyanobacterial genus Cyanothece exhibit considerable variation in physiological and biochemical characteristics. The comparative assessment of the genomes and the proteomes has the potential to provide insights on differences among Cyanothece strains. By applying Sequedex (http://sequedex.lanl.gov), an annotationindependent method for ascribing gene functions, we confirmed significant speciesspecific differences of functional genes in different Cyanothece strains, particularly in Cyanothece PCC7425. Using a shotgun proteomics approach based on prefractionation and tandem mass spectrometry, we detected ~28-48% of the theoretical Cyanothece proteome depending on the strain. The expression of a total of 642 orthologous proteins was observed in all five Cyanothece strains. These shared orthologous proteins showed considerable correlations in their protein abundances across different Cyanothece strains. Functional classification indicated that the majority of proteins involved in central metabolic functions such as amino acid, carbohydrate, protein and RNA metabolism, photosynthesis, respiration and stress responses were observed to a greater extent in the core proteome, whereas proteins involved in membrane transport, iron acquisition, regulatory functions, flagellar motility and chemotaxis were observed to a greater extent in the unique proteome. Considerable differences were evident across different Cyanothece strains. Notably, the analysis of Cyanothece PCC7425, which showed the highest number of unique proteins (682),

  10. Proteomics profiling of fiber development and domestication in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Hu, Guanjing; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Pathak, Dharminder; Chen, Sixue; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2014-12-01

    Comparative proteomic analyses were performed to detail the evolutionary consequences of strong directional selection for enhanced fiber traits in modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Using two complementary proteomic approaches, 2-DE and iTRAQ LC-MS/MS, fiber proteomes were examined for four representative stages of fiber development. Approximately 1,000 protein features were characterized using each strategy, collectively resulting in the identification and functional categorization of 1,223 proteins. Unequal contributions of homoeologous proteins were detected for over a third of the fiber proteome, but overall expression was balanced with respect to the genome-of-origin in the allopolyploid G. hirsutum. About 30% of the proteins were differentially expressed during fiber development within wild and domesticated cotton. Notably, domestication was accompanied by a doubling of protein developmental dynamics for the period between 10 and 20 days following pollination. Expression levels of 240 iTRAQ proteins and 293 2-DE spots were altered by domestication, collectively representing multiple cellular and metabolic processes, including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis and destination, defense and stress response. Analyses of homoeolog-specific expression indicate that duplicated gene products in cotton fibers can be differently regulated in response to selection. These results demonstrate the power of proteomics for the analysis of crop domestication and phenotypic evolution.

  11. Proteomic Profiling of the Dystrophin-Deficient mdx Phenocopy of Dystrophinopathy-Associated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory complications are frequent symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a neuromuscular disorder caused by primary abnormalities in the dystrophin gene. Loss of cardiac dystrophin initially leads to changes in dystrophin-associated glycoproteins and subsequently triggers secondarily sarcolemmal disintegration, fibre necrosis, fibrosis, fatty tissue replacement, and interstitial inflammation. This results in progressive cardiac disease, which is the cause of death in a considerable number of patients afflicted with X-linked muscular dystrophy. In order to better define the molecular pathogenesis of this type of cardiomyopathy, several studies have applied mass spectrometry-based proteomics to determine proteome-wide alterations in dystrophinopathy-associated cardiomyopathy. Proteomic studies included both gel-based and label-free mass spectrometric surveys of dystrophin-deficient heart muscle from the established mdx animal model of dystrophinopathy. Comparative cardiac proteomics revealed novel changes in proteins associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism, glycolysis, signaling, iron binding, antibody response, fibre contraction, basal lamina stabilisation, and cytoskeletal organisation. This review summarizes the importance of studying cardiomyopathy within the field of muscular dystrophy research, outlines key features of the mdx heart and its suitability as a model system for studying cardiac pathogenesis, and discusses the impact of recent proteomic findings for exploring molecular and cellular aspects of cardiac abnormalities in inherited muscular dystrophies. PMID:24772416

  12. The impact of growth hormone on proteomic profiles: a review of mouse and adult human studies.

    PubMed

    Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Brittain, Alison L; Kopchick, John J

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a protein that is known to stimulate postnatal growth, counter regulate insulin's action and induce expression of insulin-like growth factor-1. GH exerts anabolic or catabolic effects depending upon on the targeted tissue. For instance, GH increases skeletal muscle and decreases adipose tissue mass. Our laboratory has spent the past two decades studying these effects, including the effects of GH excess and depletion, on the proteome of several mouse and human tissues. This review first discusses proteomic techniques that are commonly used for these types of studies. We then examine the proteomic differences found in mice with excess circulating GH (bGH mice) or mice with disruption of the GH receptor gene (GHR(-/-)). We also describe the effects of increased and decreased GH action on the proteome of adult patients with either acromegaly, GH deficiency or patients after short-term GH treatment. Finally, we explain how these proteomic studies resulted in the discovery of potential biomarkers for GH action, particularly those related with the effects of GH on aging, glucose metabolism and body composition.

  13. Gender-Specificity of Women's and Men's Self-Reported Attention to Sexual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Huberman, Jackie S; Maracle, Amanda C; Chivers, Meredith L

    2015-01-01

    Men's sexual arousal is largely dependent on the actor's gender in a sexual stimulus (gender-specific), whereas for women, particularly androphilic women, arousal is less dependent on gender (gender-nonspecific). According to information-processing models of sexual response, sexual arousal requires that attention be directed toward sexual cues. We evaluated whether men's and women's self-reported attention to sexual stimuli of men or women were consistent with genital responses and self-reported arousal. We presented gynephilic men (n = 21) and women (n = 22) and androphilic men (n = 16) and women (n = 33) with audiovisual stimuli depicting men or women engaged in sexual activities. Genital responses were continuously recorded and, following each stimulus, participants reported the amount of attention paid to the video and feelings of sexual arousal. Self-reported attention was gender-specific for men and gender-nonspecific for women, and generally mirrored genital responses and self-reported arousal. Gender-specificity of genital responses significantly predicted gender-specificity of self-reported arousal; however, for men only, this effect was significantly mediated by gender-specificity of self-reported attention. Gender differences in gender-specificity of sexual arousal may be partially accounted for by differences in gender-specificity of self-reported attention, although attention may play a greater role in men's sexual arousal than women's.

  14. Urine sample preparation and fractionation for global proteome profiling by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Court, Magali; Garin, Jérôme; Masselon, Christophe D

    2015-01-01

    Urine has garnered tremendous interest over the past decade as a potential source of protein biomarkers for various pathologies. However, due to its low protein concentration and the presence of interfering compounds, urine constitutes a challenging analyte in proteomics. In the context of a project aimed at the discovery and evaluation of new candidate biomarkers of bladder cancer in urine, our laboratory has implemented and evaluated an array of preparation techniques for urinary proteome analysis. We present here the protocol that, in our hands, yielded the best overall proteome coverage with the lowest analytical effort. It begins with protein precipitation using trichloroacetic acid, in solution digestion and RP-C18 cartridge desalting of the resulting peptides mixture, and is followed by peptide fractionation by gel-free isoelectric focusing, and nano-LC-MS/MS for database compilation.

  15. Proteomic profile of seminal plasma in adolescents and adults with treated and untreated varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Mariana; Intasqui, Paula; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele, the most important treatable cause of male infertility, is present in 15% of adult males, 35% of men with primary infertility, and 80% of men with secondary infertility. On the other hand, 80% of these men will not present infertility. Therefore, there is a need to differentiate a varicocele that is exerting a deleterious effect that is treatable from a “silent” varicocele. Despite the growing evidence of the cellular effects of varicocele, its underlying molecular mechanisms are still eluding. Proteomics has become a promising area to determine the reproductive biology of semen as well as to improve diagnosis of male infertility. This review aims to discuss the state-of-art in seminal plasma proteomics in patients with varicocele to discuss the challenges in undertaking these studies, as well as the future outlook derived from the growing body of evidence on the seminal proteome. PMID:26643563

  16. Functional and Integrative Analysis of the Proteomic Profile of Radish Root under Pb Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Tang, Mingjia; Jiang, Haiyan; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ronghua; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most abundant heavy metal (HM) pollutants, which can penetrate the plant through the root and then enter the food chain causing potential health risks for human beings. Radish is an important root vegetable crop worldwide. To investigate the mechanism underlying plant response to Pb stress in radish, the protein profile changes of radish roots respectively upon Pb(NO3)2 at 500 mg L−1(Pb500) and 1000 mg L−1(Pb1000), were comprehensively analyzed using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification). A total of 3898 protein species were successfully detected and 2141 were quantified. Among them, a subset of 721 protein species were differentially accumulated upon at least one Pb treatment, and 135 ones showed significantly abundance changes under both two Pb-stressed conditions. Many critical protein species related to protein translation, processing, and degradation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, photosynthesis, and respiration and carbon metabolism were successfully identified. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of the 135 differential abundance protein species (DAPS) revealed that the overrepresented GO terms included “cell wall,” “apoplast,” “response to metal ion,” “vacuole,” and “peroxidase activity,” and the critical enriched pathways were involved in “citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport,” “pyruvate metabolism,” “phenylalanine metabolism,” “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis,” and “carbon metabolism.” Furthermore, the integrative analysis of transcriptomic, miRNA, degradome, metabolomics and proteomic data provided a strengthened understanding of radish response to Pb stress at multiple levels. Under Pb stress, many key enzymes (i.e., ATP citrate lyase, Isocitrate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase and malate dehydrogenase) involved in the glycolysis and TCA cycle were severely affected, which ultimately cause alteration of some

  17. Protein solubility and differential proteomic profiling of recombinant Escherichia coli overexpressing double-tagged fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chung-Hsien; Lee, Wen-Chien

    2010-08-28

    Overexpression of recombinant proteins usually triggers the induction of heat shock proteins that regulate aggregation and solubility of the overexpressed protein. The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-mass spectrometry approach was used to profile the proteome of Escherichia coli overexpressing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase (GlcNAc 2-epimerase) and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid aldolase (Neu5Ac aldolase), both fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) and polyionic peptide (5D or 5R). Overexpression of fusion proteins by IPTG induction caused significant differential expression of numerous cellular proteins; most of these proteins were down-regulated, including enzymes connected to the pentose phosphate pathway and the enzyme LuxS that could lead to an inhibition of tRNA synthesis. Interestingly, when plasmid-harboring cells were cultured in LB medium, gluconeogenesis occurred mainly through MaeB, while in the host strain, gluconeogenesis occurred by a different pathway (by Mdh and PckA). Significant up-regulation of the chaperones ClpB, HslU and GroEL and high-level expression of two protective small heat shock proteins (IbpA and IbpB) were found in cells overexpressing GST-GlcNAc 2-epimerase-5D but not in GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R-expressing E. coli. Although most of the recombinant protein was present in insoluble aggregates, the soluble fraction of GST-GlcNAc 2-epimerase-5D was higher than that of GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R. Also, in cells overexpressing recombinant GST-GlcNAc 2-epimerase-5D, the expression of σ32 was maintained at a higher level following induction. Differential expression of metabolically functional proteins, especially those in the gluconeogenesis pathway, was found between host and recombinant cells. Also, the expression patterns of chaperones/heat shock proteins differed among the plasmid-harboring bacteria in response to overproduction of recombinant proteins. In conclusion, the solubility of overexpressed recombinant proteins could

  18. Protein solubility and differential proteomic profiling of recombinant Escherichia coli overexpressing double-tagged fusion proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Overexpression of recombinant proteins usually triggers the induction of heat shock proteins that regulate aggregation and solubility of the overexpressed protein. The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-mass spectrometry approach was used to profile the proteome of Escherichia coli overexpressing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase (GlcNAc 2-epimerase) and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid aldolase (Neu5Ac aldolase), both fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) and polyionic peptide (5D or 5R). Results Overexpression of fusion proteins by IPTG induction caused significant differential expression of numerous cellular proteins; most of these proteins were down-regulated, including enzymes connected to the pentose phosphate pathway and the enzyme LuxS that could lead to an inhibition of tRNA synthesis. Interestingly, when plasmid-harboring cells were cultured in LB medium, gluconeogenesis occurred mainly through MaeB, while in the host strain, gluconeogenesis occurred by a different pathway (by Mdh and PckA). Significant up-regulation of the chaperones ClpB, HslU and GroEL and high-level expression of two protective small heat shock proteins (IbpA and IbpB) were found in cells overexpressing GST-GlcNAc 2-epimerase-5D but not in GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R-expressing E. coli. Although most of the recombinant protein was present in insoluble aggregates, the soluble fraction of GST-GlcNAc 2-epimerase-5D was higher than that of GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R. Also, in cells overexpressing recombinant GST-GlcNAc 2-epimerase-5D, the expression of σ32 was maintained at a higher level following induction. Conclusions Differential expression of metabolically functional proteins, especially those in the gluconeogenesis pathway, was found between host and recombinant cells. Also, the expression patterns of chaperones/heat shock proteins differed among the plasmid-harboring bacteria in response to overproduction of recombinant proteins. In conclusion, the solubility of

  19. Proteomic profiling: a novel approach to understanding the biological causes of soil water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Keulen, Geertje; Doerr, Stefan H.; Urbanek, Emilia; Jones, Alun; Dudley, Ed

    2010-05-01

    conditions rendering them hydrophilic. The dynamics of production of these proteins and the formation of these hydrophobic protein surfaces in soils are not known. Other, yet unknown, proteins may also contribute to development, reduction and temporal variability of soil water repellency. Here we present the first steps of a new NERC funded project aimed at exploring the relationship between the presence and/or absence of (hydrophobic) protein and soil water repellency. It involves isolation and characterisation of hydrophobic protein and the temporal metaproteomic profiles in UK grassland and dune soils with varying degrees of water repellency. This contributes to identifying the proteomic dynamics, which may influence soil hydrology and structure, and ultimately the ability of soils to absorb water, support biomass growth, store carbon, and to capture and degrade pollutants.

  20. Divergent selection for residual feed intake affects the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of pig skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A; Louveau, I; Gondret, F; Tréfeu, C; Gilbert, H; Lefaucheur, L

    2015-06-01

    Improving feed efficiency is a relevant strategy to reduce feed cost and environmental waste in livestock production. Selection experiments on residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, previously indicated that low RFI was associated with lower feed intake, similar growth rate, and greater lean meat content compared with high RFI. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, 24 Large White females from 2 lines divergently selected for RFI were examined. Pigs from a low-RFI ("efficient") and high-RFI ("inefficient") line were individually fed ad libitum from 67 d of age (27 kg BW) to slaughter at 115 kg BW (n = 8 per group). Additional pigs of the high-RFI line were feed restricted to the daily feed intake of the ad libitum low-RFI pigs (n = 8) to investigate the impact of selection independently of feed intake. Global gene and protein expression profiles were assessed in the LM collected at slaughter. The analyses involved a porcine commercial microarray and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. About 1,000 probes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01) between RFI lines. Only 10% of those probes were also affected by feed restriction. Gene functional classification indicated a greater expression of genes involved in protein synthesis and a lower expression of genes associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism in the low-RFI pigs compared with the high-RFI pigs. At the protein level, 11 unique identified proteins exhibited a differential abundance (P < 0.05) between RFI lines. Differentially expressed proteins were generally not significantly affected by feed restriction. Mitochondrial oxidative proteins such as aconitase hydratase, ATP synthase subunit α, and creatine kinase S-type had a lower abundance in the low-RFI pigs, whereas fructose-biphosphate aldolase A and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 2 proteins involved in glycolysis, had a greater abundance in those pigs compared with high-RFI pigs

  1. Statistical issues in the design and planning of proteomic profiling experiments.

    PubMed

    Cairns, David A

    2015-01-01

    The statistical design of a clinical proteomics experiment is a critical part of well-undertaken investigation. Standard concepts from experimental design such as randomization, replication and blocking should be applied in all experiments, and this is possible when the experimental conditions are well understood by the investigator. The large number of proteins simultaneously considered in proteomic discovery experiments means that determining the number of required replicates to perform a powerful experiment is more complicated than in simple experiments. However, by using information about the nature of an experiment and making simple assumptions this is achievable for a variety of experiments useful for biomarker discovery and initial validation.

  2. Proteomic profile of culture filtrate from the Brazilian vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau compared to M. bovis BCG Pasteur

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is currently the only available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) and comprises a heterogeneous family of sub-strains with genotypic and phenotypic differences. The World Health Organization (WHO) affirms that the characterization of BCG sub-strains, both on genomic and proteomic levels, is crucial for a better comprehension of the vaccine. In addition, these studies can contribute in the development of a more efficient vaccine against TB. Here, we combine two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry to analyse the proteomic profile of culture filtrate proteins (CFPs) from M. bovis BCG Moreau, the Brazilian vaccine strain, comparing it to that of BCG Pasteur. CFPs are considered of great importance given their dominant immunogenicity and role in pathogenesis, being available for interaction with host cells since early infection. Results The 2DE proteomic map of M. bovis BCG Moreau CFPs in the pH range 3 - 8 allowed the identification of 158 spots corresponding to 101 different proteins, identified by MS/MS. Comparison to BCG Pasteur highlights the great similarity between these BCG strains. However, quantitative analysis shows a higher expression of immunogenic proteins such as Rv1860 (BCG1896, Apa), Rv1926c (BCG1965c, Mpb63) and Rv1886c (BCG1923c, Ag85B) in BCG Moreau when compared to BCG Pasteur, while some heat shock proteins, such as Rv0440 (BCG0479, GroEL2) and Rv0350 (BCG0389, DnaK), show the opposite pattern. Conclusions Here we report the detailed 2DE profile of CFPs from M. bovis BCG Moreau and its comparison to BCG Pasteur, identifying differences that may provide relevant information on vaccine efficacy. These findings contribute to the detailed characterization of the Brazilian vaccine strain against TB, revealing aspects that may lead to a better understanding of the factors leading to BCG's variable protective efficacy against TB. PMID:21507239

  3. An Integrated Platform for Isolation, Processing, and Mass Spectrometry-based Proteomic Profiling of Rare Cells in Whole Blood*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Siyang; Plouffe, Brian D.; Belov, Arseniy M.; Ray, Somak; Wang, Xianzhe; Murthy, Shashi K.; Karger, Barry L.; Ivanov, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation and molecular characterization of rare cells (e.g. circulating tumor and stem cells) within biological fluids and tissues has significant potential in clinical diagnostics and personalized medicine. The present work describes an integrated platform of sample procurement, preparation, and analysis for deep proteomic profiling of rare cells in blood. Microfluidic magnetophoretic isolation of target cells spiked into 1 ml of blood at the level of 1000–2000 cells/ml, followed by focused acoustics-assisted sample preparation has been coupled with one-dimensional PLOT-LC-MS methodology. The resulting zeptomole detection sensitivity enabled identification of ∼4000 proteins with injection of the equivalent of only 100–200 cells per analysis. The characterization of rare cells in limited volumes of physiological fluids is shown by the isolation and quantitative proteomic profiling of first MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood as a model system and then two CD133+ endothelial progenitor and hematopoietic cells in whole blood from volunteers. PMID:25755294

  4. Long-term in vivo polychlorinated biphenyl 126 exposure induces oxidative stress and alters proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; Dos Anjos, Fabyana Maria; Shimada, Ana Lúcia; Cruz, Wesley Soares; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes; Cardozo, Karina Helena Morais; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra Helena

    2016-06-01

    It has been recently proposed that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a risk factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We investigated this hypothesis using long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure to rats addressing metabolic, cellular and proteomic parameters. Male Wistar rats were exposed to PCB126 (0.1, 1 or 10 μg/kg of body weight/day; for 15 days) or vehicle by intranasal instillation. Systemic alterations were quantified by body weight, insulin and glucose tolerance, and blood biochemical profile. Pancreatic toxicity was measured by inflammatory parameters, cell viability and cycle, free radical generation, and proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans. In vivo PCB126 exposure enhanced the body weight gain, impaired insulin sensitivity, reduced adipose tissue deposit, and elevated serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and insulin levels. Inflammatory parameters in the pancreas and cell morphology, viability and cycle were not altered in islets of Langerhans. Nevertheless, in vivo PCB126 exposure increased free radical generation and modified the expression of proteins related to oxidative stress on islets of Langerhans, which are indicative of early β-cell failure. Data herein obtained show that long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure through intranasal route induced alterations on islets of Langerhans related to early end points of DM2.

  5. Dynamic proteome profiling of individual proteins in human skeletal muscle after a high-fat diet and resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Camera, Donny M; Burniston, Jatin G; Pogson, Mark A; Smiles, William J; Hawley, John A

    2017-08-30

    It is generally accepted that muscle adaptation to resistance exercise (REX) training is underpinned by contraction-induced, increased rates of protein synthesis and dietary protein availability. By using dynamic proteome profiling (DPP), we investigated the contribution of both synthesis and breakdown to changes in abundance on a protein-by-protein basis in human skeletal muscle. Age-matched, overweight males consumed 9 d of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet during which time they either undertook 3 sessions of REX or performed no exercise. Precursor enrichment and the rate of incorporation of deuterium oxide into newly synthesized muscle proteins were determined by mass spectrometry. Ninety proteins were included in the DPP, with 28 proteins exhibiting significant responses to REX. The most common pattern of response was an increase in turnover, followed by an increase in abundance with no detectable increase in protein synthesis. Here, we provide novel evidence that demonstrates that the contribution of synthesis and breakdown to changes in protein abundance induced by REX differ on a protein-by-protein basis. We also highlight the importance of the degradation of individual muscle proteins after exercise in human skeletal muscle.-Camera, D. M., Burniston, J. G., Pogson, M. A., Smiles, W. J., Hawley, J. A. Dynamic proteome profiling of individual proteins in human skeletal muscle after a high-fat diet and resistance exercise. © FASEB.

  6. Long-term in vivo polychlorinated biphenyl 126 exposure induces oxidative stress and alters proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; dos Anjos, Fabyana Maria; Shimada, Ana Lúcia; Cruz, Wesley Soares; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes; Cardozo, Karina Helena Morais; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra Helena

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a risk factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We investigated this hypothesis using long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure to rats addressing metabolic, cellular and proteomic parameters. Male Wistar rats were exposed to PCB126 (0.1, 1 or 10 μg/kg of body weight/day; for 15 days) or vehicle by intranasal instillation. Systemic alterations were quantified by body weight, insulin and glucose tolerance, and blood biochemical profile. Pancreatic toxicity was measured by inflammatory parameters, cell viability and cycle, free radical generation, and proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans. In vivo PCB126 exposure enhanced the body weight gain, impaired insulin sensitivity, reduced adipose tissue deposit, and elevated serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and insulin levels. Inflammatory parameters in the pancreas and cell morphology, viability and cycle were not altered in islets of Langerhans. Nevertheless, in vivo PCB126 exposure increased free radical generation and modified the expression of proteins related to oxidative stress on islets of Langerhans, which are indicative of early β-cell failure. Data herein obtained show that long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure through intranasal route induced alterations on islets of Langerhans related to early end points of DM2. PMID:27292372

  7. Multiplex Imaging and Cellular Target Identification of Kinase Inhibitors via an Affinity-Based Proteome Profiling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ying; Pan, Sijun; Li, Zhengqiu; Li, Lin; Wu, Xiaoyuan; Hao, Piliang; Sze, Siu Kwan; Yao, Shao Q.

    2015-01-01

    MLN8237 is a highly potent and presumably selective inhibitor of Aurora kinase A (AKA) and has shown promising antitumor activities. Like other kinase inhibitors which target the ATP-binding site of kinases, MLN8237 might be expected to have potential cellular off-targets. Herein, we report the first photoaffinity-based, small molecule AKA probe capable of both live-cell imaging of AKA activities and in situ proteome profiling of potential off-targets of MLN8237 (including AKA-associating proteins). By using two mutually compatible, bioorthogonal reactions (copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition chemistry and TCO-tetrazine ligation), we demostrate small molecule-based multiplex bioimaging for simultaneous in situ monitoring of two important cell-cycle regulating kinases (AKA and CDK1). A broad range of proteins, as potential off-targets of MLN8237 and AKA's-interacting partners, is subsequently identified by affinity-based proteome profiling coupled with large-scale LC-MS/MS analysis. From these studies, we discover novel AKA interactions which were further validated by cell-based immunoprecipitation (IP) experiments. PMID:25579846

  8. Skin toxicology of lead species evaluated by their permeability and proteomic profiles: a comparison of organic and inorganic lead.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Fang, Jia-You

    2010-08-01

    Lead compounds are known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Lead absorption by the skin is an important route through which this metal enters the body. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the skin permeability and toxicological profiles of two lead species, lead acetate and lead nitrate. This study assessed lead-induced toxicity mechanisms by focusing on the histopathology, proteomics, cell growth, and cellular ATP. In vitro skin permeation assays showed that there was no significant difference of lead accumulation within and across the skin between the two lead species. The presence of simulated sweat reduced the skin uptake of lead. The skin deposition of lead acetate was greater than that of lead nitrate with in vivo topical application. On the other hand, lead nitrate produced greater changes in the skin's histology and proteomic profiles compared to lead acetate. Four protein spots which showed significant changes were identified and are discussed in this study. These included glucose-related protein precursor (GRP) 78, K14, alpha-actin, and Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2). These proteins are respectively associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis, wound healing, and proliferation. Lead presented a biphasic pattern on cell growth and intracellular ATP content, with a stimulating effect at low concentrations and an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation at higher concentrations.

  9. Proteome profiling of seed from inbred and mutant line of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grain sorghum is a major staple food, with fifth rank among the cereals world-wide, considering its importance for food and feed applications. Cereals are main part of human nutrition and strategic resources. In this study, we executed a comprehensive proteomic study to investigate the seed storage ...

  10. Label-Free Proteome Profiling of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae LC-MS/MS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-12

    Title Carbapenem- resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae LC-MS/MS Description A comprehensive analysis of proteome changes in CRKP cells in response to...the sub-MIC doses of antibiotics was performed by using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry. Sample Processing Protocol The pellets were

  11. Mass Spectrometry-based Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Human Pancreatic and Hepatic Stellate Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; Kadiyala, Vivek; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin L.; Steen, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    The functions of the liver and the pancreas differ; however, chronic inflammation in both organs is associated with fibrosis. Evidence suggests that fibrosis in both organs is partially regulated by organ-specific stellate cells. We explore the proteome of human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC) and human pancreatic stellate cells (hPaSC) using mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics to investigate pathophysiologic mechanisms. Proteins were isolated from whole cell lysates of immortalized hHSC and hPaSC. These proteins were tryptically digested, labeled with tandem mass tags (TMT), fractionated by OFFGEL, and subjected to MS. Proteins significantly different in abundance (P < 0.05) were classified via gene ontology (GO) analysis. We identified 1223 proteins and among them, 1222 proteins were quantifiable. Statistical analysis determined that 177 proteins were of higher abundance in hHSC, while 157 were of higher abundance in hPaSC. GO classification revealed that proteins of relatively higher abundance in hHSC were associated with protein production, while those of relatively higher abundance in hPaSC were involved in cell structure. Future studies using the methodologies established herein, but with further upstream fractionation and/or use of enhanced MS instrumentation will allow greater proteome coverage, achieving a comprehensive proteomic analysis of hHSC and hPaSC. PMID:23528454

  12. Integrative proteomic profiling of ovarian cancer cell lines reveals precursor cell associated proteins and functional status

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, F.; Watters, K. M.; Curtis, M.; Eckert, M. A.; Chiang, C. Y.; Tyanova, S.; Montag, A.; Lastra, R. R.; Lengyel, E.; Mann, M.

    2016-01-01

    A cell line representative of human high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) should not only resemble its tumour of origin at the molecular level, but also demonstrate functional utility in pre-clinical investigations. Here, we report the integrated proteomic analysis of 26 ovarian cancer cell lines, HGSOC tumours, immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells and fallopian tube epithelial cells via a single-run mass spectrometric workflow. The in-depth quantification of >10,000 proteins results in three distinct cell line categories: epithelial (group I), clear cell (group II) and mesenchymal (group III). We identify a 67-protein cell line signature, which separates our entire proteomic data set, as well as a confirmatory publicly available CPTAC/TCGA tumour proteome data set, into a predominantly epithelial and mesenchymal HGSOC tumour cluster. This proteomics-based epithelial/mesenchymal stratification of cell lines and human tumours indicates a possible origin of HGSOC either from the fallopian tube or from the ovarian surface epithelium. PMID:27561551

  13. Proteomic profiling of Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane vesicles: Current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaewook; Kim, Oh Youn; Gho, Yong Song

    2016-10-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are extracellular vesicles derived from Gram-negative bacteria. Recent progress in the studies of Gram-negative bacterial extracellular vesicles implies that OMVs may function as intercellular communicasomes in bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. Current MS-based high-throughput proteomic analyses of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs have identified thousands of vesicular proteins and provided clues to reveal the biogenesis and pathophysiological functions of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs. The future directions of proteomics of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs may include the isolation strategy of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs to thoroughly exclude nonvesicular contaminants and proteomics of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs derived from diverse conditions as well as body fluids of bacterium-infected hosts. We hope this review will shed light on future research in this emerging field of proteomics of extracellular vesicles derived from Gram-negative bacteria and contribute to the development of OMV-based diagnostic tools and effective vaccines.

  14. Application and Implementation of Selective Tissue Microdissection and Proteomic Profiling in Neurological Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Jay; Li, Jie; Szerlip, Nicholas; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.; Lonser, Russell R.; Oldfield, Edward H.; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Proteins are the primary components of cells and are vital constituents of any living organism. The proteins that make up an organism (proteome) are constantly changing and are intricately linked to neurological disease processes. The study of proteins, or proteomics, is a relatively new but rapidly expanding field with increasing relevance to neurosurgery. METHODS We present a review of the state-of-the-art proteomic technology and its applications in central nervous system diseases. RESULTS The technique of “selective microdissection” allows an investigator to selectively isolate and study a pathological tissue of interest. By evaluating protein expression in a variety of central nervous system disorders, it is clear that proteins are differentially expressed across disease states, and protein expression changes markedly during disease progression. CONCLUSION Understanding the patterns of protein expression in the nervous system has critical implications for the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disease. As gatekeepers in the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of central nervous system diseases, it is important for neurosurgeons to develop an appreciation for proteomic techniques and their utility. PMID:19145153

  15. Urine proteomics for profiling of human disease using high accuracy mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kentsis, Alex; Monigatti, Flavio; Dorff, Kevin; Campagne, Fabien; Bachur, Richard; Steen, Hanno

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the biologically relevant components of human tissues has enabled the invention of numerous clinically useful diagnostic tests, as well as non-invasive ways of monitoring disease and its response to treatment. Recent use of advanced MS-based proteomics revealed that the composition of human urine is more complex than anticipated. Here, we extend the current characterization of the human urinary proteome by extensively fractionating urine using ultra-centrifugation, gel electrophoresis, ion exchange and reverse-phase chromatography, effectively reducing mixture complexity while minimizing loss of material. By using high-accuracy mass measurements of the linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer and LC-MS/MS of peptides generated from such extensively fractionated specimens, we identified 2362 proteins in routinely collected individual urine specimens, including more than 1000 proteins not described in previous studies. Many of these are biomedically significant molecules, including glomerularly filtered cytokines and shed cell surface molecules, as well as renally and urogenitally produced transporters and structural proteins. Annotation of the identified proteome reveals distinct patterns of enrichment, consistent with previously described specific physiologic mechanisms, including 336 proteins that appear to be expressed by a variety of distal organs and glomerularly filtered from serum. Comparison of the proteomes identified from 12 individual specimens revealed a subset of generally invariant proteins, as well as individually variable ones, suggesting that our approach may be used to study individual differences in age, physiologic state and clinical condition. Consistent with this, annotation of the identified proteome by using machine learning and text mining exposed possible associations with 27 common and more than 500 rare human diseases, establishing a widely useful resource for the study of human pathophysiology and biomarker discovery. PMID

  16. P17.47COMPREHENSIVE PROTEOMIC PROFILING OF BEVACIZUMAB-RESISTANT GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, K.L.; Ly, L.; McKay, M.; Mallawaaratchy, D.M.; Mactier, S.; Crossett, B.; Molloy, M.; Buckland, M.E.; McDonald, K.L.; Christopherson, R.I.

    2014-01-01

    Drugs that impair tumour angiogenesis, i.e. therapeutic antibody anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, bevacizumab (BEV), are becoming standard therapy for recurrent GBM, despite having no impact on overall survival times. Resistance to BEV is fatal, and mechanisms are largely unexplored. With access to exceedingly rare fresh-frozen serial GBM tumours, we performed comprehensive quantitative proteome analyses to identify important mechanisms of BEV escape and tumour recurrence. Tumour tissues from three patients [primary (n = 2), recurrent (n = 2) and post-BEV recurrent (n = 3)] were homogenised, clarified (1,000 x g, 4°C) and ultracentrifuged (100,000 x g, 4°C) to isolate the soluble (SOL) proteome supernatant from the microsomal (MEM) pellet. Digested SOL and MEM proteomes were analysed by two independent quantitative MS/MS approaches; Label-free quantitation performed on spectra obtained in triplicate using an Orbitrap Velos (Thermo Electron) and 4-plex iTRAQ-labelling coupled ERLIC-RP MS/MS analysis using a 5600 TripleTOF® (AB Sciex; single run for MEM; duplicate run for SOL). Spectra were processed using Mascot Distiller, Progenesis, Scaffold and ProteinPilot™ softwares. This multi-centre proteomics project has achieved a number of highly reproducible and comprehensive quantitative proteome datasets (average of 1760 MEM proteins and 2334 SOL proteins identified at 95% confidence levels) from precious serial GBM specimens. Significant differentially abundant proteins include those involved in Rho regulation of actin-based motility and cytoskeleton and endocytosis signalling. Bioinformatics analyses with captured whole exome sequencing data are underway to define novel mechanisms of evasive resistance to BEV in recurrent GBM.

  17. Distinct proteomic profiles in post-mortem pituitary glands from bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Alsaif, Murtada; Chan, Man K; Rahmoune, Hassan; Steeb, Hannah; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). To examine this further, we carried out proteomic profiling of post-mortem pituitaries from 13 BD and 14 MDD patients, in comparison to 15 controls. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS(E)) analysis showed that BD patients had significantly increased levels of the major pituitary hormones pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and galanin. BD patients also showed changes in proteins associated with gene transcription, stress response, lipid metabolism and growth signalling. In contrast, LC-MS(E) profiling revealed that MDD patients had significantly decreased levels of the prohormone-converting enzyme carboxypeptidease E and follow-up enzymatic analysis showed decreased activity of prolyl-oligopeptidase convertase. This suggested that altered prohormone processing may occur in pituitaries of MDD patients. In addition, MDD patients had significant changes in proteins involved in intracellular transport and cytoskeletal signalling. Finally, we carried out selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry profiling for validation of protein changes in key biological pathways. This confirmed increased POMC levels in BD patients with no change in the levels of this prohormone in MDD. This study demonstrates that proteomic profiling analysis of the pituitary can lead to new insights into the pathophysiology of BD and MDD. Also, given that the pituitary directly releases a variety of bioactive molecules into the bloodstream, many of the proteins identified here could serve as focal points in the search for peripheral biomarkers in clinical or drug treatment studies of BD and MDD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

  19. GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

  20. Extending the limits of quantitative proteome profiling with data-independent acquisition and application to acetaminophen-treated three-dimensional liver microtissues.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Roland; Bernhardt, Oliver M; Gandhi, Tejas; Miladinović, Saša M; Cheng, Lin-Yang; Messner, Simon; Ehrenberger, Tobias; Zanotelli, Vito; Butscheid, Yulia; Escher, Claudia; Vitek, Olga; Rinner, Oliver; Reiter, Lukas

    2015-05-01

    The data-independent acquisition (DIA) approach has recently been introduced as a novel mass spectrometric method that promises to combine the high content aspect of shotgun proteomics with the reproducibility and precision of selected reaction monitoring. Here, we evaluate, whether SWATH-MS type DIA effectively translates into a better protein profiling as compared with the established shotgun proteomics. We implemented a novel DIA method on the widely used Orbitrap platform and used retention-time-normalized (iRT) spectral libraries for targeted data extraction using Spectronaut. We call this combination hyper reaction monitoring (HRM). Using a controlled sample set, we show that HRM outperformed shotgun proteomics both in the number of consistently identified peptides across multiple measurements and quantification of differentially abundant proteins. The reproducibility of HRM in peptide detection was above 98%, resulting in quasi complete data sets compared with 49% of shotgun proteomics. Utilizing HRM, we profiled acetaminophen (APAP)(1)-treated three-dimensional human liver microtissues. An early onset of relevant proteome changes was revealed at subtoxic doses of APAP. Further, we detected and quantified for the first time human NAPQI-protein adducts that might be relevant for the toxicity of APAP. The adducts were identified on four mitochondrial oxidative stress related proteins (GATM, PARK7, PRDX6, and VDAC2) and two other proteins (ANXA2 and FTCD). Our findings imply that DIA should be the preferred method for quantitative protein profiling.

  1. A proteogenomics approach integrating proteomics and ribosome profiling increases the efficiency of protein identification and enables the discovery of alternative translation start sites.

    PubMed

    Koch, Alexander; Gawron, Daria; Steyaert, Sandra; Ndah, Elvis; Crappé, Jeroen; De Keulenaer, Sarah; De Meester, Ellen; Ma, Ming; Shen, Ben; Gevaert, Kris; Van Criekinge, Wim; Van Damme, Petra; Menschaert, Gerben

    2014-12-01

    Next-generation transcriptome sequencing is increasingly integrated with MS to enhance MS-based protein and peptide identification. Recently, a breakthrough in transcriptome analysis was achieved with the development of ribosome profiling (ribo-seq). This technology is based on the deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments, thereby enabling the direct observation of in vivo protein synthesis at the transcript level. In order to explore the impact of a ribo-seq-derived protein sequence search space on MS/MS spectrum identification, we performed a comprehensive proteome study on a human cancer cell line, using both shotgun and N-terminal proteomics, next to ribosome profiling, which was used to delineate (alternative) translational reading frames. By including protein-level evidence of sample-specific genetic variation and alternative translation, this strategy improved the identification score of 69 proteins and identified 22 new proteins in the shotgun experiment. Furthermore, we discovered 18 new alternative translation start sites in the N-terminal proteomics data and observed a correlation between the quantitative measures of ribo-seq and shotgun proteomics with a Pearson correlation coefficient ranging from 0.483 to 0.664. Overall, this study demonstrated the benefits of ribosome profiling for MS-based protein and peptide identification and we believe this approach could develop into a common practice for next-generation proteomics.

  2. Extending the Limits of Quantitative Proteome Profiling with Data-Independent Acquisition and Application to Acetaminophen-Treated Three-Dimensional Liver Microtissues*

    PubMed Central

    Bruderer, Roland; Bernhardt, Oliver M.; Gandhi, Tejas; Miladinović, Saša M.; Cheng, Lin-Yang; Messner, Simon; Ehrenberger, Tobias; Zanotelli, Vito; Butscheid, Yulia; Escher, Claudia; Vitek, Olga; Rinner, Oliver; Reiter, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    The data-independent acquisition (DIA) approach has recently been introduced as a novel mass spectrometric method that promises to combine the high content aspect of shotgun proteomics with the reproducibility and precision of selected reaction monitoring. Here, we evaluate, whether SWATH-MS type DIA effectively translates into a better protein profiling as compared with the established shotgun proteomics. We implemented a novel DIA method on the widely used Orbitrap platform and used retention-time-normalized (iRT) spectral libraries for targeted data extraction using Spectronaut. We call this combination hyper reaction monitoring (HRM). Using a controlled sample set, we show that HRM outperformed shotgun proteomics both in the number of consistently identified peptides across multiple measurements and quantification of differentially abundant proteins. The reproducibility of HRM in peptide detection was above 98%, resulting in quasi complete data sets compared with 49% of shotgun proteomics. Utilizing HRM, we profiled acetaminophen (APAP)1-treated three-dimensional human liver microtissues. An early onset of relevant proteome changes was revealed at subtoxic doses of APAP. Further, we detected and quantified for the first time human NAPQI-protein adducts that might be relevant for the toxicity of APAP. The adducts were identified on four mitochondrial oxidative stress related proteins (GATM, PARK7, PRDX6, and VDAC2) and two other proteins (ANXA2 and FTCD). Our findings imply that DIA should be the preferred method for quantitative protein profiling. PMID:25724911

  3. Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety.

    PubMed

    de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R

    2010-05-01

    Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning.

  4. Comparison of Grain Proteome Profiles of Four Brazilian Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriela Barbosa; Valentim-Neto, Pedro Alexandre; Blank, Martina; Faria, Josias Correa de; Arisi, Ana Carolina Maisonnave

    2017-08-30

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a source of proteins for about one billion people worldwide. In Brazil, 'BRS Sublime', 'BRS Vereda', 'BRS Esteio', and 'BRS Estilo' cultivars were developed by Embrapa to offer high yield to farmers and excellent quality to final consumers. In this work, grain proteomes of these common bean cultivars were compared based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to compare 349 matched spots in these cultivars proteomes, and all cultivars were clearly separated in PCA plot. Thirty-two differentially accumulated proteins were identified by MS. Storage proteins such as phaseolins, legumins, and lectins were the most abundant, and novel proteins were also identified. We have built a useful platform that could be used to analyze other Brazilian cultivars and genotypes of common beans.

  5. Proteomic profiling of the mesenteric lymph after hemorrhagic shock: Differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Experiments show that upon traumatic injury the composition of mesenteric lymph changes such that it initiates an immune response that can ultimately result in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). To identify candidate protein mediators of this process we carried out a quantitative proteomic study on mesenteric lymph from a well characterized rat shock model. We analyzed three animals using analytical 2D differential gel electrophoresis. Intra-animal variation for the majority of protein spots was minor. Functional clustering of proteins revealed changes arising from several global classes that give novel insight into fundamental mechanisms of MODS. Mass spectrometry based proteomic analysis of proteins in mesenteric lymph can effectively be used to identify candidate mediators and loss of protective agents in shock models. PMID:21906351

  6. Proteomic analysis of human nasal mucosa: different expression profile in rhino-pathologic states.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Siciliano, R A; Papa, F; Mazzeo, M F; De Nitto, E; Quaranta, N; Lippolis, R

    2014-09-01

    Rhinitis comprises several diseases with varying causes and different clinical manifestations and pathological features, but treated as a single clinical disorder. As heterogeneous disease, proper differential diagnosis is useful to delineate appropriate therapeutic intervention. Comparative proteomic investigation was aimed to provide information for specific differentially expressed proteins in rhino pathologic state, that could be used for diagnostic purpose and therapeutic monitoring. Proteins extracted from nasal mucosa cells of patients with different features of rhinitis and from control subjects, were separated by 2-DE. Proteins differentially expressed were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Comparative proteomic analyses led to the identification of eighteen proteins differentially expressed in patients with rhinitis, mainly related to cell defense and innate and acquired immunity. From that, at least one protein can be a possible candidate as biomarker of disease.

  7. BONLAC: A Combinatorial Proteomic Technique to Measure Stimulus-induced Translational Profiles in Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, Heather; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Zhang, Guoan; Lebowitz, Joseph Z.; Alam, Danyal; Smith, Peter T.; Kirshenbaum, Kent; Neubert, Thomas A.; Vogel, Christine; Chao, Moses V.; Klann, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Stimulus-triggered protein synthesis is critical for brain health and function. However, due to technical hurdles, de novo neuronal translation is predominantly studied in cultured cells, whereas electrophysiological and circuit analyses often are performed in brain slices. The different properties of these two experimental systems create an information gap about stimulus-induced alterations in the expression of new proteins in mature circuits. To address this, we adapted two existing techniques, BONCAT and SILAC, to a combined proteomic technique, BONLAC, for use in acute adult hippocampal slices. Using BDNF-induced protein synthesis as a proof of concept, we found alterations in expression of proteins involved in neurotransmission, trafficking, and cation binding that differed from those found in a similar screen in cultured neurons. Our results indicate important differences between cultured neurons and slices, and suggest that BONLAC could be used to dissect proteomic changes underlying synaptic events in adult circuits. PMID:26205778

  8. Proteomic profiling of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells upon TGF-beta stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Daojing; Park, Jennifer S.; Chu, Julia S.F.; Ari, Krakowski; Luo, Kunxin; Chen, David J.; Li, Song

    2004-08-08

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into different types of cells, and have tremendous potential for cell therapy and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}) plays an important role in cell differentiation and vascular remodeling. We showed that TGF-{beta} induced cell morphology change and an increase in actin fibers in MSCs. To determine the global effects of TGF-{beta} on MSCs, we employed a proteomic strategy to analyze the effect of TGF-{beta} on the human MSC proteome. By using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and electrospray ionization coupled to Quadrupole/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometers, we have generated a proteome reference map of MSCs, and identified {approx}30 proteins with an increase or decrease in expression or phosphorylation in response to TGF-{beta}. The proteins regulated by TGF-{beta} included cytoskeletal proteins, matrix synthesis proteins, membrane proteins, metabolic enzymes, etc. TGF-{beta} increased the expression of smooth muscle (SM) {alpha}-actin and decreased the expression of gelsolin. Over-expression of gelsolin inhibited TGF-{beta}-induced assembly of SM {alpha}-actin; on the other hand, knocking down gelsolin expression enhanced the assembly of {alpha}-actin and actin filaments without significantly affecting {alpha}-actin expression. These results suggest that TGF-{beta} coordinates the increase of {alpha}-actin and the decrease of gelsolin to promote MSC differentiation. This study demonstrates that proteomic tools are valuable in studying stem cell differentiation and elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  9. Differential proteome profile of skin mucus of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) after probiotic intake and/or overcrowding stress.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Héctor; Morcillo, Patricia; Cuesta, Alberto; Brinchmann, Monica F; Esteban, María A

    2016-01-30

    Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) is the major cultured fish species in the Mediterranean area. High density stocking causes stress and increases the impact of diseases leading to economic losses. Probiotics could represent a solution to prevent diseases through several mechanisms such as improving the immune status and/or mucosal microbiota or competing with pathogens. The probiotic Shewanella putrefaciens, also known as Pdp11, was firstly isolated from the skin of healthy gilthead seabream. Our study focuses on the skin mucus proteome after dietary probiotic Pdp11 intake in fish maintained under normal or overcrowding conditions. 2-DE of skin mucus followed by LC-MS/MS analysis was done for each experimental group and differentially expressed proteins were identified. The results showed differentially expressed proteins especially involved in immune processes, such as lysozyme, complement C3, natural killer cell enhancing factor and nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor protein 1, whose transcript profiles were studied by qPCR. A consistency between lysozyme protein levels in the mucus and lysozyme mRNA levels in skin was found. Further research is necessary to unravel the implications of skin mucosal immunity on fish welfare and disease. The present work reveals the proteomic changes, which are taking place in the skin mucus of stressed and non-stressed gilthead seabream after Pdp11 probiotic intake. The study contributes to improving the knowledge on skin mucosal immunology of this relevant farmed fish species. Furthermore, the paper shows for the first time how a suitable proteomic methodology, in this case 2-DE followed by LC-MS/MS is useful to perform a comparative study with a non-invasive technique of skin mucus of gilthead seabream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comprehensive Proteomic Profiling of Wheat Gluten Using a Combination of Data-Independent and Data-Dependent Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Bromilow, Sophie N. L.; Gethings, Lee A.; Langridge, James I.; Shewry, Peter R.; Buckley, Michael; Bromley, Michael J.; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is the most important food crop in the world, the unique physiochemical properties of wheat gluten enabling a diverse range of food products to be manufactured. However, genetic and environmental factors affect the technological properties of gluten in unpredictable ways. Although newer proteomic methods have the potential to offer much greater levels of information, it is the older gel-based methods that remain most commonly used to identify compositional differences responsible for the variation in gluten functionality, in part due to the nature of their primary sequences. A combination of platforms were investigated for comprehensive gluten profiling: a QTOF with a data independent schema, which incorporated ion mobility (DIA-IM-MS) and a data dependent acquisition (DDA) workflow using a linear ion trap quadrupole (LTQ) instrument. In conjunction with a manually curated gluten sequence database a total of 2736 gluten peptides were identified with only 157 peptides identified by both platforms. These data showed 127 and 63 gluten protein accessions to be inferred with a minimum of one and three unique peptides respectively. Of the 63 rigorously identified proteins, 26 were gliadin species (4 ω-, 14 α-, and 8 γ-gliadins) and 37 glutenins (including 29 LMW glutenin and 8 HMW glutenins). Of the HMW glutenins, three were 1Dx type and five were 1Bx type illustrating the challenge of unambiguous identification of highly polymorphic proteins without cultivar specific gene sequences. The capacity of the platforms to sequence longer peptides was crucial to achieving the number of identifications, the combination of QTOF-LTQ technology being more important than extraction method to obtain a comprehensive profile. Widespread glutamine deamidation, a post-translational modification, was observed adding complexity to an already highly polymorphic mixture of proteins, with numerous insertions, deletions and substitutions. The data shown is the most comprehensive and

  11. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Tachyplesin I Targets in U251 Gliomaspheres

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Dai, Jianguo; Tang, Yongjun; Li, Lulu; Jin, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Tachyplesin I is a cationic peptide isolated from hemocytes of the horseshoe crab and its anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated in several tumor cells. However, there is limited information providing the global effects and mechanisms of tachyplesin I on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Here, by using two complementary proteomic strategies (2D-DIGE and dimethyl isotope labeling-based shotgun proteomics), we explored the effect of tachyplesin I on the proteome of gliomaspheres, a three-dimensional growth model formed by a GBM cell line U251. In total, the expression levels of 192 proteins were found to be significantly altered by tachyplesin I treatment. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that many of them were cytoskeleton proteins and lysosomal acid hydrolases, and the mostly altered biological process was related to cellular metabolism, especially glycolysis. Moreover, we built protein–protein interaction network of these proteins and suggested the important role of DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A) in the signal-transduction cascade of tachyplesin I. In conclusion, we propose that tachyplesin I might down-regulate cathepsins in lysosomes and up-regulate TOP2A to inhibit migration and promote apoptosis in glioma, thus contribute to its anti-tumor function. Our results suggest tachyplesin I is a potential candidate for treatment of glioma. PMID:28106765

  12. Novel alternative splicing isoform biomarkers identification from high-throughput plasma proteomics profiling of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the biopharmaceutical industry, biomarkers define molecular taxonomies of patients and diseases and serve as surrogate endpoints in early-phase drug trials. Molecular biomarkers can be much more sensitive than traditional lab tests. Discriminating disease biomarkers by traditional method such as DNA microarray has proved challenging. Alternative splicing isoform represents a new class of diagnostic biomarkers. Recent scientific evidence is demonstrating that the differentiation and quantification of individual alternative splicing isoforms could improve insights into disease diagnosis and management. Identifying and characterizing alternative splicing isoforms are essential to the study of molecular mechanisms and early detection of complex diseases such as breast cancer. However, there are limitations with traditional methods used for alternative splicing isoform determination such as transcriptome-level, low level of coverage and poor focus on alternative splicing. Results Therefore, we presented a peptidomics approach to searching novel alternative splicing isoforms in clinical proteomics. Our results showed that the approach has significant potential in enabling discovery of new types of high-quality alternative splicing isoform biomarkers. Conclusions We developed a peptidomics approach for the proteomics community to analyze, identify, and characterize alternative splicing isoforms from MS-based proteomics experiments with more coverage and exclusive focus on alternative splicing. The approach can help generate novel hypotheses on molecular risk factors and molecular mechanisms of cancer in early stage, leading to identification of potentially highly specific alternative splicing isoform biomarkers for early detection of cancer. PMID:24565027

  13. Global profiling of co- and post-translationally N-myristoylated proteomes in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Thinon, Emmanuelle; Serwa, Remigiusz A.; Broncel, Malgorzata; Brannigan, James A.; Brassat, Ute; Wright, Megan H.; Heal, William P.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Mann, David J.; Tate, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    Protein N-myristoylation is a ubiquitous co- and post-translational modification that has been implicated in the development and progression of a range of human diseases. Here, we report the global N-myristoylated proteome in human cells determined using quantitative chemical proteomics combined with potent and specific human N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) inhibition. Global quantification of N-myristoylation during normal growth or apoptosis allowed the identification of >100 N-myristoylated proteins, >95% of which are identified for the first time at endogenous levels. Furthermore, quantitative dose response for inhibition of N-myristoylation is determined for >70 substrates simultaneously across the proteome. Small-molecule inhibition through a conserved substrate-binding pocket is also demonstrated by solving the crystal structures of inhibitor-bound NMT1 and NMT2. The presented data substantially expand the known repertoire of co- and post-translational N-myristoylation in addition to validating tools for the pharmacological inhibition of NMT in living cells. PMID:25255805

  14. Proteomic profiling of mature leaves from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Tan, Hooi Sin; Jacoby, Richard P; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Taylor, Nicolas L; Liddell, Susan; Chee, Wong Wei; Chin, Chiew Foan

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm is one of the most productive oil bearing crops grown in Southeast Asia. Due to the dwindling availability of agricultural land and increasing demand for high yielding oil palm seedlings, clonal propagation is vital to the oil palm industry. Most commonly, leaf explants are used for in vitro micropropagation of oil palm and to optimize this process it is important to unravel the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying somatic embryo production from leaves. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to determine protein abundance of mature oil palm leaves. To do this, leaf proteins were extracted using TCA/acetone precipitation protocol and separated by 2DE. A total of 191 protein spots were observed on the 2D gels and 67 of the most abundant protein spots that were consistently observed were selected for further analysis with 35 successfully identified using MALDI TOF/TOF MS. The majority of proteins were classified as being involved in photosynthesis, metabolism, cellular biogenesis, stress response, and transport. This study provides the first proteomic assessment of oil palm leaves in this important oil crop and demonstrates the successful identification of selected proteins spots using the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) Elaeis guineensis EST and NCBI-protein databases. The MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium database with the data set identifier PXD001307. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Proteomic profiling of host-biofilm interactions in an oral infection model resembling the periodontal pocket

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Kai; Belibasakis, Georgios N.; Selevsek, Nathalie; Grossmann, Jonas; Bostanci, Nagihan

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal infections cause inflammatory destruction of the tooth supporting tissues. We recently developed a dynamic, in vitro periodontal organotypic tissue model in a perfusion bioreactor system, in co-culture with an 11-species subgingival biofilm, which may recapitulate early events during the establishment of periodontal infections. This study aimed to characterize the global proteome regulations in this host-biofilm interaction model. Semi-quantitative shotgun proteomics were applied for protein identification and quantification in the co-culture supernatants (human and bacterial) and the biofilm lysates (bacterial). A total of 896 and 3363 proteins were identified as secreted in the supernatant and expressed in the biofilm lysate, respectively. Enriched gene ontology analysis revealed that the regulated secreted human tissue proteins were related to processes of cytoskeletal rearrangement, stress responses, apoptosis, and antigen presentation, all of which are commensurate with deregulated host responses. Most secreted bacterial biofilm proteins derived from their cytoplasmic domain. In the presence of the tissue, the levels of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinomyces oris and Campylobacter rectus proteins were significantly regulated. The functions of the up-regulated intracellular (biofilm lysate) proteins were associated with cytokinesis. In conclusion, the proteomic overview of regulated pathways in this host-biofilm interaction model provides insights to the early events of periodontal pathogenesis. PMID:26525412

  16. Statin or fibrate chronic treatment modifies the proteomic profile of rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; Pellegrino, Maria Antonietta; Brocca, Lorenza; Digennaro, Claudio; Camerino, Diana Conte; Pierno, Sabata; Bottinelli, Roberto

    2011-04-15

    Statins and fibrates can cause myopathy. To further understand the causes of the damage we performed a proteome analysis in fast-twitch skeletal muscle of rats chronically treated with different hypolipidemic drugs. The proteomic maps were obtained from extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of rats treated for 2-months with 10mg/kg atorvastatin, 20 mg/kg fluvastatin, 60 mg/kg fenofibrate and control rats. The proteins differentially expressed were identified by mass spectrometry and further analyzed by immunoblot analysis. We found a significant modification in 40 out of 417 total spots analyzed in atorvastatin treated rats, 15 out of 436 total spots in fluvastatin treated rats and 21 out of 439 total spots in fenofibrate treated rats in comparison to controls. All treatments induced a general tendency to a down-regulation of protein expression; in particular, atorvastatin affected the protein pattern more extensively with respect to the other treatments. Energy production systems, both oxidative and glycolytic enzymes and creatine kinase, were down-regulated following atorvastatin administration, whereas fenofibrate determined mostly alterations in glycolytic enzymes and creatine kinase, oxidative enzymes being relatively spared. Additionally, all treatments resulted in some modifications of proteins involved in cellular defenses against oxidative stress, such as heat shock proteins, and of myofibrillar proteins. These results were confirmed by immunoblot analysis. In conclusions, the proteomic analysis showed that either statin or fibrate administration can modify the expression of proteins essential for skeletal muscle function suggesting potential mechanisms for statin myopathy.

  17. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Tachyplesin I Targets in U251 Gliomaspheres.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Dai, Jianguo; Tang, Yongjun; Li, Lulu; Jin, Gang

    2017-01-18

    Tachyplesin I is a cationic peptide isolated from hemocytes of the horseshoe crab and its anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated in several tumor cells. However, there is limited information providing the global effects and mechanisms of tachyplesin I on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Here, by using two complementary proteomic strategies (2D-DIGE and dimethyl isotope labeling-based shotgun proteomics), we explored the effect of tachyplesin I on the proteome of gliomaspheres, a three-dimensional growth model formed by a GBM cell line U251. In total, the expression levels of 192 proteins were found to be significantly altered by tachyplesin I treatment. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that many of them were cytoskeleton proteins and lysosomal acid hydrolases, and the mostly altered biological process was related to cellular metabolism, especially glycolysis. Moreover, we built protein-protein interaction network of these proteins and suggested the important role of DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A) in the signal-transduction cascade of tachyplesin I. In conclusion, we propose that tachyplesin I might down-regulate cathepsins in lysosomes and up-regulate TOP2A to inhibit migration and promote apoptosis in glioma, thus contribute to its anti-tumor function. Our results suggest tachyplesin I is a potential candidate for treatment of glioma.

  18. Proteomic profiling of the tumor microenvironment: recent insights and the search for biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although gain of oncogene functions and loss of tumor suppressor functions are driving forces in tumor development, the tumor microenvironment, comprising the extracellular matrix, surrounding stroma, signaling molecules and infiltrating immune and other cell populations, is now also recognized as crucial to tumor development and metastasis. Many interactions at the tumor cell-environment interface occur at the protein level. Proteomic approaches are contributing to the definition of the protein constituents of the microenvironment and their sources, modifications, interactions and turnover, as well as providing information on how these features relate to tumor development and progression. Recently, proteomic studies have revealed how cancer cells modulate the microenvironment through their secreted proteins and how they can alter their protein constituents to adapt to the microenvironment. Moreover, the release of proteins from the microenvironment into the circulatory system has relevance for the development of blood-based cancer diagnostics. Here, we review how proteomic approaches are being applied to studies of the tumor microenvironment to decipher tumor-stroma interactions and to elucidate the role of host cells in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24713112

  19. Transcriptional and Proteomic Profiling of Aspergillus flavipes in Response to Sulfur Starvation

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ashraf S. A.; Yassin, Marwa A.; Ali, Gul Shad

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus flavipes has received considerable interest due to its potential to produce therapeutic enzymes involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism. In natural habitats, A. flavipes survives under sulfur limitations by mobilizing endogenous and exogenous sulfur to operate diverse cellular processes. Sulfur limitation affects virulence and pathogenicity, and modulates proteome of sulfur assimilating enzymes of several fungi. However, there are no previous reports aimed at exploring effects of sulfur limitation on the regulation of A. flavipes sulfur metabolism enzymes at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and proteomic levels. In this report, we show that sulfur limitation affects morphological and physiological responses of A. flavipes. Transcription and enzymatic activities of several key sulfur metabolism genes, ATP-sulfurylase, sulfite reductase, methionine permease, cysteine synthase, cystathionine β- and γ-lyase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were increased under sulfur starvation conditions. A 50 kDa protein band was strongly induced by sulfur starvation, and the proteomic analyses of this protein band using LC-MS/MS revealed similarity to many proteins involved in the sulfur metabolism pathway. PMID:26633307

  20. Proteomic profile of the skin mucus of farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Jurado, Juan; Fuentes-Almagro, Carlos A; Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, Ma Ángeles; Prieto-Álamo, María-José

    2015-04-29

    Fish skin mucus is the first line of defense against infections and it discriminates between pathogenic and commensal bacterial strains. Mucus composition varies amongst fish species and is influenced by endogenous and exogenous factors. This study describes the first proteome map of the epidermal mucus of farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). We used an integrative proteomic approach by combining a label-free procedure (LC-MS/MS) with the classical 2-DE-PMF-MS/MS methodology. The identified mucosal proteins were clustered in four groups according to their biological functions. Structural proteins (actins, keratins, tubulins, tropomyosin, cofilin-2 and filamin-A) and metabolic proteins (ribosomal proteins, proteasomal subunits, NACA, VCP, histones, NDPK, transferrin, glycolytic enzymes, ATP synthase components, beta-globin, Apo-A1 and FABP7) were the best represented functional categories. We also found proteins involved in stress response (WAP65, HSPC70, Cu,Zn-SOD, and PRDX1 and PRDX2) and signal transduction (PP2A 65kDa regulatory subunit, 14-3-3 protein beta/alpha, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, RhoGDI and PEBP1). Most of the identified proteins address different aspects of the innate immune response. Additionally, we analyzed bacterial peptides identified in the skin mucus of healthy S. aurata. These results revealed that genera belonging to the Lactobacillales order constitute the most abundant microorganism populations in this habitat. This work shows that proteomic methods can be used to characterize fish skin mucus. Using a coupled approach of LC-MS/MS and a 2-DE-PMF-MS/MS, we have obtained the first comprehensive view of the skin mucosal proteome of S. aurata, a fish species that is economically relevant for Mediterranean aquaculture. We identified a panel of proteins involved in a variety of biological functions, particularly in the innate immune response. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first time a

  1. Proteomic peptide profiling for preemptive diagnosis of acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weissinger, E M; Metzger, J; Dobbelstein, C; Wolff, D; Schleuning, M; Kuzmina, Z; Greinix, H; Dickinson, A M; Mullen, W; Kreipe, H; Hamwi, I; Morgan, M; Krons, A; Tchebotarenko, I; Ihlenburg-Schwarz, D; Dammann, E; Collin, M; Ehrlich, S; Diedrich, H; Stadler, M; Eder, M; Holler, E; Mischak, H; Krauter, J; Ganser, A

    2014-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is one curative treatment for hematological malignancies, but is compromised by life-threatening complications, such as severe acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD). Prediction of severe aGvHD as early as possible is crucial to allow timely initiation of treatment. Here we report on a multicentre validation of an aGvHD-specific urinary proteomic classifier (aGvHD_MS17) in 423 patients. Samples (n=1106) were collected prospectively between day +7 and day +130 and analyzed using capillary electrophoresis coupled on-line to mass spectrometry. Integration of aGvHD_MS17 analysis with demographic and clinical variables using a logistic regression model led to correct classification of patients developing severe aGvHD 14 days before any clinical signs with 82.4% sensitivity and 77.3% specificity. Multivariate regression analysis showed that aGvHD_MS17 positivity was the only strong predictor for aGvHD grade III or IV (P<0.0001). The classifier consists of 17 peptides derived from albumin, β2-microglobulin, CD99, fibronectin and various collagen α-chains, indicating inflammation, activation of T cells and changes in the extracellular matrix as early signs of GvHD-induced organ damage. This study is currently the largest demonstration of accurate and investigator-independent prediction of patients at risk for severe aGvHD, thus allowing preemptive therapy based on proteomic profiling.

  2. Comparative proteomic study for profiling differentially expressed proteins between Chinese left- and right-sided colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong; Huang, Jinlin; Pei, Haiping; Zeng, Shan; Tao, Yiming; Shen, Liangfang; Zeng, Liang; Zhu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to profile differentially expressed protein markers between left-sided colon cancer (LSCC) and right-sided colon cancer (RSCC). Fresh tumor tissue samples from LSCC (n = 7) and RSCC (n = 7) groups were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS, followed by Western blotting. In 50 paraffin embedded samples from each group, levels of four differentially expressed proteins (identified by proteomics analysis) were measured by tissue microarray with immunohistochemistry staining to compare the different protein markers between LSCC and RSCC. Sixteen proteins were found to be differentially expressed between LSCC and RSCC. Ten proteins including HSP-60 and PDIA1 were identified to be highly expressed in LSCC (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), while the expression of six proteins including EEF1D and HSP-27 were higher in RSCC (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Virtually all of the indentified proteins were involved in cellular energy metabolism, protein folding/unfolding, and/or oxidative stress. Human colon tumors at various locations have different proteomic biomarkers. Differentially expressed proteins associated with energy metabolism, protein folding/unfolding and oxidative stress contribute to different tumorigenesis, tumor progression, and prognosis between left- and right-sided colon cancer.

  3. Global and comparative proteomic profiling of overwintering and developing mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae.

    PubMed

    Bonnett, Tiffany R; Robert, Jeanne A; Pitt, Caitlin; Fraser, Jordie D; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P W

    2012-12-01

    Mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), are native to western North America, but have recently begun to expand their range across the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The requirement for larvae to withstand extremely cold winter temperatures and potentially toxic host secondary metabolites in the midst of their ongoing development makes this a critical period of their lives. We have uncovered global protein profiles for overwintering mountain pine beetle larvae. We have also quantitatively compared the proteomes for overwintering larvae sampled during autumn cooling and spring warming using iTRAQ methods. We identified 1507 unique proteins across all samples. In total, 33 proteins exhibited differential expression (FDR < 0.05) when compared between larvae before and after a cold snap in the autumn; and 473 proteins exhibited differential expression in the spring when measured before and after a steady incline in mean daily temperature. Eighteen proteins showed significant changes in both autumn and spring samples. These first proteomic data for mountain pine beetle larvae show evidence of the involvement of trehalose, 2-deoxyglucose, and antioxidant enzymes in overwintering physiology; confirm and expand upon previous work implicating glycerol in cold tolerance in this insect; and provide new, detailed information on developmental processes in beetles. These results and associated data will be an invaluable resource for future targeted research on cold tolerance mechanisms in the mountain pine beetle and developmental biology in coleopterans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential proteomics profiling of the ova between healthy and Rice stripe virus-infected female insects of Laodelphax striatellus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Beibei; Qin, Faliang; Liu, Wenwen; Wang, Xifeng

    2016-01-01

    Rice stripe virus-infected females of the small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus) usually lay fewer eggs with a longer hatch period, low hatchability, malformation and retarded or defective development compared with healthy females. To explore the molecular mechanism of those phenomena, we analyzed the differential proteomics profiling of the ova between viruliferous and healthy female insects using an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) approach. We obtained 147 differentially accumulated proteins: 98 (66.7%) proteins increased, but 49 (33.3%) decreased in the ova of the viruliferous females. RT-qPCR was used to verify the 12 differential expressed proteins from iTRAQ, finding that trends in the transcriptional change for the 12 genes were consistent with those at the proteomic level. Differentially expressed proteins that were associated with meiosis (serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2B and cyclin B3) and mitosis (cyclin B3 and dynein heavy chain) in viruliferous ova may contribute to low hatchability and defective or retarded development. Alterations in the abundance of proteins involved in the respiratory chain and nutrition metabolism may affect embryonic development. Our study begins to explain macroscopical developmental phenomena and explore the mechanisms by which Rice stripe virus impacts the development of SBPH. PMID:27277140

  5. Comparative mitochondrial proteomic, physiological, biochemical and ultrastructural profiling reveal factors underpinning salt tolerance in tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Qiuxiang; Peng, Mu; Zhang, Xiuli; Lei, Pei; Ji, Ximei; Chow, Wahsoon; Meng, Fanjuan; Sun, Guanyu

    2017-08-22

    Polyploidy is an important phenomenon in plants because of its roles in agricultural and forestry production as well as in plant tolerance to environmental stresses. Tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a polyploid plant and a pioneer tree species due to its wide ranging adaptability to adverse environments. To evaluate the ploidy-dependent differences in leaf mitochondria between diploid and tetraploid black locust under salinity stress, we conducted comparative proteomic, physiological, biochemical and ultrastructural profiling of mitochondria from leaves. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis was performed with 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-MS, and the ultrastructure of leaf mitochondria was observed by transmission electron microscopy. According to 2-DE analysis, 66 proteins that responded to salinity stress significantly were identified from diploid and/or tetraploid plants and classified into 9 functional categories. Assays of physiological characters indicated that tetraploids were more tolerant to salinity stress than diploids. The mitochondrial ultrastructure of diploids was damaged more severely under salinity stress than that of tetraploids. Tetraploid black locust possessed more tolerance of, and ability to acclimate to, salinity stress than diploids, which may be attributable to the ability to maintain mitochondrial structure and to trigger different expression patterns of mitochondrial proteins during salinity stress.

  6. Proteomic profile of dormancy within Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms using iTRAQ and label-free strategies.

    PubMed

    Carvalhais, Virginia; Cerca, Nuno; Vilanova, Manuel; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important nosocomial bacterium among carriers of indwelling medical devices, since it has a strong ability to form biofilms. The presence of dormant bacteria within a biofilm is one of the factors that contribute to biofilm antibiotic tolerance and immune evasion. Here, we provide a detailed characterization of the quantitative proteomic profile of S. epidermidis biofilms with different proportions of dormant bacteria. A total of 427 and 409 proteins were identified by label-free and label-based quantitative methodologies, respectively. From these, 29 proteins were found to be differentially expressed between S. epidermidis biofilms with prevented and induced dormancy. Proteins overexpressed in S. epidermidis with prevented dormancy were associated with ribosome synthesis pathway, which reflects the metabolic state of dormant bacteria. In the opposite, underexpressed proteins were related to catalytic activity and ion binding, with involvement in purine, arginine, and proline metabolism. Additionally, GTPase activity seems to be enhanced in S. epidermidis biofilm with induced dormancy. The role of magnesium in dormancy modulation was further investigated with bioinformatics tool based in predicted interactions. The main molecular function of proteins, which strongly interact with magnesium, was nucleic acid binding. Different proteomic strategies allowed to obtain similar results and evidenced that prevented dormancy led to an expression of a markedly different repertoire of proteins in comparison to the one of dormant biofilms.

  7. Proteomic profiling of the photo-oxidation of silk fibroin: implications for historic tin-weighted silk.

    PubMed

    Solazzo, Caroline; Dyer, Jolon M; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Clerens, Stefan; Wyeth, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The stability of silk proteins to ultraviolet light is an issue of significant concern in both the appearance retention of silk-derived products and the preservation of historic silk textiles. Until now, evaluation of silk degradation has only been performed at the holistic, rather than molecular level. This article describes the first proteomic profiling of silk photo-oxidation, characterizing protein primary level modification leading to coloration changes, and evaluating the effects of tin weighting on photodegradation. Heavy-chain fibroin, the main proteinaceous component of the silk thread, is a repetitive, highly crystalline protein with a content rich in tyrosine. Photoproducts of tyrosine were characterized and the levels of oxidative modification at the protein primary structural level correlated with changes in coloration and tensile strength. The effect of tin as a weighting agent used on historical fabrics was examined. Tin-weighted fabrics were evaluated following two treatments (pink and dynamite) and proteomic analysis revealed a significant increase in oxidatively modified amino acid residues within the pink-treated silk. These findings offer new insight into the molecular-level oxidation of silk proteins under UV exposure, and the effects of silk treatments in either exacerbating or ameliorating this degradation.

  8. Deep proteome profiling of circulating granulocytes reveals bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein as a biomarker for severe atherosclerotic coronary stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bleijerveld, Onno B; Wijten, Patrick; Cappadona, Salvatore; McClellan, Elizabeth A; Polat, Ayse N; Raijmakers, Reinout; Sels, Jan-Willem; Colle, Loes; Grasso, Simona; van den Toorn, Henk W; van Breukelen, Bas; Stubbs, Andrew; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Heck, Albert J R; Hoefer, Imo E; Scholten, Arjen

    2012-11-02

    Coronary atherosclerosis represents the major cause of death in Western societies. As atherosclerosis typically progresses over years without giving rise to clinical symptoms, biomarkers are urgently needed to identify patients at risk. Over the past decade, evidence has accumulated suggesting cross-talk between the diseased vasculature and cells of the innate immune system. We therefore employed proteomics to search for biomarkers associated with severe atherosclerotic coronary lumen stenosis in circulating leukocytes. In a two-phase approach, we first performed in-depth quantitative profiling of the granulocyte proteome on a small pooled cohort of patients suffering from chronic (sub)total coronary occlusion and matched control patients using stable isotope peptide labeling, two-dimensional LC-MS/MS and data-dependent decision tree fragmentation. Over 3000 proteins were quantified, among which 57 candidate biomarker proteins remained after stringent filtering. The most promising biomarker candidates were subsequently verified in the individual samples of the discovery cohort using label-free, single-run LC-MS/MS analysis, as well as in an independent verification cohort of 25 patients with total coronary occlusion (CTO) and 19 matched controls. Our data reveal bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) as a promising biomarker for severe atherosclerotic coronary stenosis, being down-regulated in circulating granulocytes of CTO patients.

  9. Optimizing Personalized Normative Feedback: The Use of Gender-Specific Referents*

    PubMed Central

    LEWIS, MELISSA A.; NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON

    2008-01-01

    Objective Many brief interventions include personalized normative feedback (PNF) using gender-specific or gender-neutral referents. Several theories suggest that information pertaining to more socially proximal referents should have greater influence on one’s behavior compared with more socially distal referents. The current research evaluated whether gender specificity of the normative referent employed in PNF related to intervention efficacy. Method Following baseline assessment, 185 college students (45.2% women) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions: gender-specific feedback, gender-neutral feedback, or assessment-only control. Immediately after completing measures of perceived norms, alcohol consumption, and gender identity, participants in the gender-neutral and gender-specific intervention conditions were provided with computerized information detailing their own drinking behavior, their perceptions of student drinking, and actual student drinking. Results After a 1-month follow-up, the results indicated that normative feedback was effective in changing perceived norms and reducing alcohol consumption for both intervention groups for women and men. The results provide support, however, for changes in perceived gender-specific norms as a mediator of the effects of normative feedback on reduced drinking behavior for women only. Additionally, gender-specific feedback was found to be more effective for women higher in gender identity, relative to the gender-neutral feedback. A post-assessment follow-up telephone survey administered to assess potential demand characteristics corroborated the intervention effects. Conclusions Results extend previous research documenting efficacy of computer delivered PNF. Gender specificity and gender identity appear to be important elements to consider for PNF intervention efficacy for women. PMID:17286341

  10. [Search for potential gastric cancer biomarkers using low molecular weight blood plasma proteome profiling by mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, V E; Arnotskaia, N E; Ogorodnikova, E V; Davydov, M M; Ibraev, M A; Turkin, I N; Davydov, M I

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most widespread malignant tumors, still lacks reliable serum/plasma biomarkers of its early detection. In this study we have developed, unified, and tested a new methodology for search of gastric cancer biomarkers based on profiling of low molecular weight proteome (LMWP) (1-17 kDa). This approach included three main components: sample pre-fractionation, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), data analysis by a bioinformatics software package. Applicability and perspectives of the developed approach for detection of potential gastric cancer markers during LMWP analysis have been demonstrated using 69 plasma samples from patients with gastric cancer (stages I-IV) and 238 control samples. The study revealed peptides/polypeptides, which may be potentially used for detection of this pathology.

  11. Proteomic Profile of Unstable Atheroma Plaque: Increased Neutrophil Defensin 1, Clusterin, and Apolipoprotein E Levels in Carotid Secretome.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Gemma; Auguet, Teresa; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Berlanga, Alba; Curriu, Marta; Martinez, Salomé; Alibalic, Ajla; Aguilar, Carmen; Hernández, Esteban; Camara, María-Luisa; Canela, Núria; Herrero, Pol; Ruyra, Xavier; Martín-Paredero, Vicente; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-03-04

    Because of the clinical significance of carotid atherosclerosis, the search for novel biomarkers has become a priority. The aim of the present study was to compare the protein secretion profile of the carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP, n = 12) and nonatherosclerotic mammary artery (MA, n = 10) secretomes. We used a nontargeted proteomic approach that incorporated tandem immunoaffinity depletion, iTRAQ labeling, and nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. In total, 162 proteins were quantified, of which 25 showed statistically significant differences in secretome levels between carotid atherosclerotic plaque and nondiseased mammary artery. We found increased levels of neutrophil defensin 1, apolipoprotein E, clusterin, and zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein in CAP secretomes. Results were validated by ELISA assays. Also, differentially secreted proteins are involved in pathways such as focal adhesion and leukocyte transendothelial migration. In conclusion, this study provides a subset of identified proteins that are differently expressed in secretomes of clinical significance.

  12. Serum Proteome Profiles in Stricturing Crohn’s Disease: A pilot study.

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Peter; Zhang, Qibin; Shapiro, Jason; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Bramer, Lisa M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Weitz, Karl K.; Mallette, Meaghan; Moniz, Heather; Bright, Renee; Merrick, Marjorie; Shah, Samir A.; Sands, Bruce E.; Leleiko, Neal

    2015-08-01

    Background: Crohn’s disease (CD) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with different described behaviors, including stricture. At present, there are no laboratory studies that can differentiate stricturing CD from other phenotypes of IBD. We performed a pilot study to examine differences in the proteome among patients with stricturing Crohn’s disease, non-stricturing Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: Serum samples were selected from the Ocean State Crohn’s and Colitis Area Registry (OSCCAR), an established cohort of patients with IBD. Crohn’s disease patients with surgically-resected stricture were matched with similar patients with Crohn’s disease without known stricture, and with UC. Serum samples from each patient were digested and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize the proteome. Statistical analyses were performed to identify peptides and proteins that can differentiate CD with stricture. Results: Samples from 9 patients in each group (27 total patients) were analyzed. Baseline demographic characteristics were similar among the three groups. We quantified 7668 peptides and 897 proteins for analysis. ROC analysis identified a subset of peptides with an area under the curve greater than 0.9, indicating greater separation potential. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was able to distinguish among the three groups with up to 70% accuracy by peptides, and up to 80% accuracy by proteins. We identified the significantly different proteins and peptides, and determined their function based on previously published literature. Conclusions: The serum of patients with stricturing CD, non-stricturing CD, and UC are distinguishable via proteomic analysis. Some of the proteins that differentiate the stricturing phenotype have been implicated in complement activation, fibrinolytic pathways, and lymphocyte adhesion.

  13. Drought and salinity induced changes in ecophysiology and proteomic profile of Parthenium hysterophorus.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Javed; Bashir, Humayra; Bagheri, Rita; Baig, Affan; Al-Huqail, Asma; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Qureshi, M Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Parthenium hysterophorus is a plant that tolerates drought and salinity to an extremely high degree. Higher expression of stress-responsive proteome contributes for greater defence against abiotic stresses. Thus, P. hysterophorus could be a rich source of genes that encode stress-imparting mechanisms and systems. The present study utilizes comparative physiological and proteomic approaches for identification of key proteins involved in stress-defence of P. hysterophorus. Thirty-days-old plants were exposed to drought (10% PEG 6000) and salinity (160 mM NaCl) for 10 days duration. Both stresses induced oxidative stress estimated in terms of TBARS and H2O2. Levels of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were elevated, more by drought than salinity. Particularly, SOD, GR, CAT and GST proved to be assisting as very commendable defence under drought, as well as salinity. Levels of ascorbate, glutathione and proline were also increased by both stresses, more in response to drought. Comparative proteomics analysis revealed a significant change in relative abundance of 72 proteins under drought and salinity. Drought and salinity increased abundance of 45 and 41 proteins and decreased abundance of 24 and 26 proteins, respectively. Drought and salinity increased and decreased abundance of 31 and 18 proteins, respectively. The functions of identified proteins included those related to defence response (26%), signal transduction (13%), transcription and translation (10%), growth and development (8.5%), photosynthesis (8.5%), metabolism (7%), terpenoid biosynthesis (5.5%), protein modification and transport (7%), oxido-reductase (4%) and Miscellaneous (11%). Among the defence related proteins, antioxidants and HSPs constituted 26% and 21%, respectively. Present study suggests a potential role of defence proteins. Proteins involved in molecular stabilization, formation of osmolytes and wax and contributing to stress-avoiding anatomical features emerged as key and

  14. Proteome profiling reveals regional protein alteration in cerebrum of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) exposed to methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yueting; Yamamoto, Megumi; Figeys, Daniel; Ning, Zhibin; Chan, Hing Man

    2016-03-10

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to selectively damage the calcarine and precentral cortices along deep sulci and fissures in adult cases, but the detailed mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to identify and analyze the differential proteome expression in two regions of the cerebrum (the frontal lobe and the occipital lobe including the calcarine sulcus) of the common marmoset exposed to MeHg using a shot-gun proteomic approach. A total of 1045 and 1062 proteins were identified in the frontal lobe (FL) and occipital lobe (OL), of which, 62 and 89 proteins were found significantly changed with MeHg exposure. Functional enrichment/depletion analysis showed that the lipid metabolic process and proteolysis were affected in both two lobes. Functional changes in FL were characterized in cell cycle and cell division, sulfur compound metabolic process, microtubule-based process and glycerolipid metabolic process. In comparison, proteins were enriched in the functions of transport, carbohydrate metabolic process, chemical caused homeostasis and regulation of body fluid levels in OL. Pathway analysis predicted that vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption was disturbed in MeHg-treated FL. Our results showed that MeHg induced regional specific protein changes in FL and OL but with similar endpoint effects such as energy diminish and disruption of water transport. APOE and GPX1 were shown to be possible key proteins targeted by MeHg leading to multiple functional changes in OL. This is the first report of the whole proteome changes of primate cerebrum for MeHg neurotoxicity, and the results will contribute to the understanding of molecular basis of MeHg intoxication in humans.

  15. Investigation of urine proteomic profile of cosmonauts after long-term space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obraztcova, Olga; Liudmila Pastushkova, MRS.; Larina, Irina; Dobrokhotov, Igor; Kononikhin, Alexey; Nikolaev, Eugene

    The main interest is the study of changes in the protein composition of urine caused by aggressive factors of space flight. To analyze these changes, we investigated the proteome of urine obtained from cosmonauts after long-term spaceflight. We studied the protein composition of the second morning urine fractions obtained from six Russian cosmonauts aged 35 to 51 years, whose mission at the International Space Station continued from 169 to 199 days. Were used proteomic data acquisition technology and advanced bioinformatics analysis approaches. Collection of biomaterial was held within the space experiment "Proteome" before the flight, on the first and seventh day after landing. Urine protein was not detected spectrophotometrically in the majority of the urine samples before the flight, but on the first day after landing it was detected in four cosmonauts, and later - in two cosmonauts. By liquid chromatography (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) - mass-spectrometry (Thermo, Germany) technic, proteins in urine samples were detected in all periods of observation. As a result of our analysis, we have determined that the detected proteins had different origin. There were identified proteins synthesized in the kidney, liver and prostate. There was observed the drift of the protein composition in urine. One of the hallmarks of this drift was the disappearance of the five proteins in urine samples during the first day after the flight, despite their presence in the samples pre-flight period. They were: receptor tyrosine kinases, cytoskeletal keratin-1, G-protein-coupled receptors, inter-alpha (globulin) inhibitor H4. Such changes could be explained by the influence of factors of space flight, as well as the individual response of each cosmonaut’ organism when they return to the Earth conditions. Also, there was detected the trend to activate proteolysis of proteins in post-flight period, based on the identified secretory proteins with protease activity (cystatin M

  16. Proteomic profile of the plant-pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora capsici in response to the fungicide pyrimorph.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhili; Chen, Lei; Miao, Jianqiang; Wang, Zhiwen; Bulone, Vincent; Liu, Xili

    2015-09-01

    Pyrimorph is a novel fungicide from the carboxylic acid amide (CAA) family used to control plant-pathogenic oomycetes such as Phytophthora capsici. The proteomic response of P. capsici to pyrimorph was investigated using the iTRAQ technology to determine the target site of the fungicide and potential biomarker candidates of drug efficacy. A total of 1336 unique proteins were identified from the mycelium of wild-type P. capsici isolate (Hd3) and two pyrimorph-resistant mutants (R3-1 and R3-2) grown in the presence or absence of pyrimorph. Comparative analysis revealed that the three P. capsici isolates Hd3, R3-1, and R3-2 produced 163, 77, and 13 unique proteins, respectively, which exhibited altered levels of abundance in response to the pyrimorph treatment. Further investigations, using Cluster of Orthologous Groups of Proteins (COG) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis identified 35 proteins related to the mode of action of pyrimorph against P. capsici and 62 proteins involved in the stress response of P. capsici to pyrimorph. Many of the proteins with altered expression were associated with glucose and energy metabolism. Biochemical analysis using d-[U-(14) C]glucose verified the proteomics data, suggesting that the major mode of action of pyrimorph in P. capsici is the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis. These results also illustrate that proteomics approaches are useful tools for determining the pathways targeted by novel fungicides as well as for evaluating the tolerance of plant pathogens to environmental challenges, such as the presence of fungicides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Quantitative proteomics profiling of the poly(ADP-ribose)-related response to genotoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Pic, Émilie; Isabelle, Maxim; Krietsch, Jana; Éthier, Chantal; Paquet, Éric; Kelly, Isabelle; Boutin, Michel; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Foster, Leonard J.; Poirier, Guy G.

    2012-01-01

    Upon DNA damage induction, DNA-dependent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) synthesize an anionic poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) scaffold to which several proteins bind with the subsequent formation of pADPr-associated multiprotein complexes. We have used a combination of affinity-purification methods and proteomics approaches to isolate these complexes and assess protein dynamics with respect to pADPr metabolism. As a first approach, we developed a substrate trapping strategy by which we demonstrate that a catalytically inactive Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) mutant can act as a physiologically selective bait for the isolation of specific pADPr-binding proteins through its macrodomain-like domain. In addition to antibody-mediated affinity-purification methods, we used a pADPr macrodomain affinity resin to recover pADPr-binding proteins and their complexes. Second, we designed a time course experiment to explore the changes in the composition of pADPr-containing multiprotein complexes in response to alkylating DNA damage-mediated PARP activation. Spectral count clustering based on GeLC-MS/MS analysis was complemented with further analyses using high precision quantitative proteomics through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)- and Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics. Here, we present a valuable resource in the interpretation of systems biology of the DNA damage response network in the context of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and provide a basis for subsequent investigations of pADPr-binding protein candidates. PMID:22669911

  18. Quantitative proteomic profiling reveals photosynthesis responsible for inoculum size dependent variation in Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qian; Wang, Jiangxin; Lu, Shuhuan; Lv, Yajin; Yuan, Yingjin

    2013-03-01

    High density cultivation is essential to industrial production of biodiesel from microalgae, which involves in variations of micro-environment around individual cells, including light intensity, nutrition distribution, other abiotic stress and so on. To figure out the main limit factor in high inoculum cultivation, a quantitative proteomic analysis (iTRAQ-on-line 2-D nano-LC/MS) in a non-model green microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana, under different inoculum sizes was conducted. The resulting high-quality proteomic dataset consisted of 695 proteins. Using a cutoff of P < 0.05, 241 unique proteins with differential expression levels were identified between control and different inoculum sizes. Functional analysis showed that proteins participating in photosynthesis (light reaction) and Calvin cycle (carbon reaction pathway) had highest expression levels under inoculum size of 1 × 10(6) cells mL(-1), and lowest levels under 1 × 10(7) cells mL(-1). Canonical correlation analysis of the photosynthesis related proteins and metabolites biomarkers showed that a good correlation existed between them (canonical coefficient was 0.987), suggesting photosynthesis process greatly affected microalgae biodiesel productivity and quality. Proteomic study of C. sorokiniana under different illuminations was also conducted to confirm light intensity as a potential limit factor of high inoculum size. Nearly two thirds of proteins showed up-regulation under the illumination of 70-110 µmol m(-2) s(-1), compared to those of 40 µmol m(-2) s(-1). This result suggested that by elegantly adjusting light conditions, high cell density cultivation and high biodiesel production might be achieved. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Identification of haptoglobin peptide as a novel serum biomarker for lung squamous cell carcinoma by serum proteome and peptidome profiling.

    PubMed

    Okano, Tetsuya; Seike, Masahiro; Kuribayashi, Hidehiko; Soeno, Chie; Ishii, Takeo; Kida, Kozui; Gemma, Akihiko

    2016-03-01

    To date, a number of potential biomarkers for lung squamous cell cancer (SCC) have been identified; however, sensitive biomarkers are currently lacking to detect early stage SCC due to low sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, we compared the 7 serum proteomic profiles of 11 SCC patients, 7 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and 7 healthy smokers as controls to identify potential serum biomarkers associated with SCC and COPD. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass-spectrometric analysis (MS) using an affinity column revealed two candidate proteins, haptoglobin (HP) and apolipoprotein 4, as biomarkers of SCC, and α-1-antichymotrypsin as a marker of COPD. The iTRAQ technique was also used to identify SCC-specific peptides. HP protein expression was significantly higher in SCC patients than in COPD patients. Furthermore, two HP protein peptides showed significantly higher serum levels in SCC patients than in COPD patients. We established novel polyclonal antibodies for the two HP peptides and subsequently a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of these specific peptides in patient and control sera. The sensitivity of detection by ELISA of one HP peptide (HP216) was 70% of SCC patients, 40% of COPDs patients and 13% of healthy controls. We also measured CYFRA, a cytokeratin fragment clinically used as an SCC tumor marker, in all the 28 cases and found CYFRA was detected in only seven SCC cases. However, when the measurement of HP216 was combined with that of CYFRA, 100% (10 of 10 patients) of SCC cases were detected. Our proteomic profiling demonstrates that the SCC-specific HP peptide HP216 may potentially be used as a diagnostic biomarker for SCC.

  20. Quantitative high-throughput profiling of snake venom gland transcriptomes and proteomes (Ovophis okinavensis and Protobothrops flavoviridis)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Advances in DNA sequencing and proteomics have facilitated quantitative comparisons of snake venom composition. Most studies have employed one approach or the other. Here, both Illumina cDNA sequencing and LC/MS were used to compare the transcriptomes and proteomes of two pit vipers, Protobothrops flavoviridis and Ovophis okinavensis, which differ greatly in their biology. Results Sequencing of venom gland cDNA produced 104,830 transcripts. The Protobothrops transcriptome contained transcripts for 103 venom-related proteins, while the Ovophis transcriptome contained 95. In both, transcript abundances spanned six orders of magnitude. Mass spectrometry identified peptides from 100% of transcripts that occurred at higher than contaminant (e.g. human keratin) levels, including a number of proteins never before sequenced from snakes. These transcriptomes reveal fundamentally different envenomation strategies. Adult Protobothrops venom promotes hemorrhage, hypotension, incoagulable blood, and prey digestion, consistent with mammalian predation. Ovophis venom composition is less readily interpreted, owing to insufficient pharmacological data for venom serine and metalloproteases, which comprise more than 97.3% of Ovophis transcripts, but only 38.0% of Protobothrops transcripts. Ovophis venom apparently represents a hybrid strategy optimized for frogs and small mammals. Conclusions This study illustrates the power of cDNA sequencing combined with MS profiling. The former quantifies transcript composition, allowing detection of novel proteins, but cannot indicate which proteins are actually secreted, as does MS. We show, for the first time, that transcript and peptide abundances are correlated. This means that MS can be used for quantitative, non-invasive venom profiling, which will be beneficial for studies of endangered species. PMID:24224955

  1. Quantitative high-throughput profiling of snake venom gland transcriptomes and proteomes (Ovophis okinavensis and Protobothrops flavoviridis).

    PubMed

    Aird, Steven D; Watanabe, Yutaka; Villar-Briones, Alejandro; Roy, Michael C; Terada, Kouki; Mikheyev, Alexander S

    2013-11-14

    Advances in DNA sequencing and proteomics have facilitated quantitative comparisons of snake venom composition. Most studies have employed one approach or the other. Here, both Illumina cDNA sequencing and LC/MS were used to compare the transcriptomes and proteomes of two pit vipers, Protobothrops flavoviridis and Ovophis okinavensis, which differ greatly in their biology. Sequencing of venom gland cDNA produced 104,830 transcripts. The Protobothrops transcriptome contained transcripts for 103 venom-related proteins, while the Ovophis transcriptome contained 95. In both, transcript abundances spanned six orders of magnitude. Mass spectrometry identified peptides from 100% of transcripts that occurred at higher than contaminant (e.g. human keratin) levels, including a number of proteins never before sequenced from snakes. These transcriptomes reveal fundamentally different envenomation strategies. Adult Protobothrops venom promotes hemorrhage, hypotension, incoagulable blood, and prey digestion, consistent with mammalian predation. Ovophis venom composition is less readily interpreted, owing to insufficient pharmacological data for venom serine and metalloproteases, which comprise more than 97.3% of Ovophis transcripts, but only 38.0% of Protobothrops transcripts. Ovophis venom apparently represents a hybrid strategy optimized for frogs and small mammals. This study illustrates the power of cDNA sequencing combined with MS profiling. The former quantifies transcript composition, allowing detection of novel proteins, but cannot indicate which proteins are actually secreted, as does MS. We show, for the first time, that transcript and peptide abundances are correlated. This means that MS can be used for quantitative, non-invasive venom profiling, which will be beneficial for studies of endangered species.

  2. Contributions of immunoaffinity chromatography to deep proteome profiling of human biofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chaochao; Duan, Jicheng; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Human biofluids, especially blood plasma or serum, hold great potential as the sources of potential biomarkers for various diseases; however, the enormous dynamic range of protein concentrations in biofluids represents a significant analytical challenge to detect promising low-abundance protein biomarkers. Over the last decade, various immunoaffinity chromatographic methods have been developed and routinely applied for separating low-abundance proteins from the high and moderate-abundance proteins, thus enabling more effective detection of low-abundance proteins. Herein, we review the advances of immunoaffinity separation methods and their contributions to the proteomics applications of different human biofluids. The limitations and future perspective of immunoaffinity separation methods are also discussed.

  3. Evaluation of three-dimensional gel electrophoresis to improve quantitative profiling of complex proteomes.

    PubMed

    Colignon, Bertrand; Raes, Martine; Dieu, Marc; Delaive, Edouard; Mauro, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Two-dimensional remains one of the main experimental approaches in proteome analysis. However, comigration of protein leads to several limitations: lack of accuracy in protein identification, impaired comparative quantification, and PTM detection. We have optimized a third additional step of in-gel separation to alleviate comigration associated drawbacks. Spot resolution is strikingly improved following this simple and rapid method and the positive impact on protein and peptide identification from MS/MS data, on the analysis of relative changes in protein abundance, and on the detection of PTM is described.

  4. Contributions of immunoaffinity chromatography to deep proteome profiling of human biofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chaochao; Duan, Jicheng; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei -Jun

    2016-01-12

    Human biofluids, especially blood plasma or serum, hold great potential as the sources of candidate biomarkers for various diseases; however, the enormous dynamic range of protein concentrations in biofluids represents a significant analytical challenge for detecting promising low-abundance proteins. Over the last decade, various immunoaffinity chromatographic methods have been developed and routinely applied for separating low-abundance proteins from the high- and moderate-abundance proteins, thus enabling much more effective detection of low-abundance proteins. Herein, we review the advances of immunoaffinity separation methods and their contributions to the proteomic applications in human biofluids. The limitations and future perspectives of immunoaffinity separation methods are also discussed.

  5. CSF profiling of the human brain enriched proteome reveals associations of neuromodulin and neurogranin to Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Remnestål, Julia; Just, David; Mitsios, Nicholas; Fredolini, Claudia; Mulder, Jan; Schwenk, Jochen M; Uhlén, Mathias; Kultima, Kim; Ingelsson, Martin; Kilander, Lena; Lannfelt, Lars; Svenningsson, Per; Nellgård, Bengt; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Häggmark‐Månberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    1 Purpose This study is part of a larger effort aiming to expand the knowledge of brain‐enriched proteins in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and to provide novel insight into the relation between such proteins and different neurodegenerative diseases. 2 Experimental design Here 280 brain‐enriched proteins in CSF from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are profiled. In total, 441 human samples of ventricular CSF collected post mortem and lumbar CSF collected ante mortem are analyzed using 376 antibodies in a suspension bead array setup, utilizing a direct labelling approach. 3 Results Among several proteins displaying differentiated profiles between sample groups, we focus here on two synaptic proteins, neuromodulin (GAP43) and neurogranin (NRGN). They are both found at elevated levels in CSF from AD patients in two independent cohorts, providing disease‐associated profiles in addition to verifying and strengthening previously observed patterns. Increased levels are also observed for patients for whom the AD diagnosis was not established at the time of sampling. 4 Conclusions and clinical relevance These findings indicate that analyzing the brain‐enriched proteins in CSF is of particular interest to increase the understanding of the CSF proteome and its relation to neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, this study lends support to the notion that measurements of these synaptic proteins could potentially be of great relevance in future diagnostic tests for AD. PMID:27604409

  6. Effect of N′-nitrosodimethylamine on red blood cell rheology and proteomic profiles of brain in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Areeba; Fatima, Ravish; Maheshwari, Veena; Ahmad, Riaz

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of N'-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) induced toxicity on red blood cell rheology in male rats and identified bands in proteomic profiles of brain which can be used as novel markers. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) profiles exhibited constitutive as well as induced expression of the polypeptides. Remarkably, the molecular weight range of the polypeptides (8–150 kDa) corresponded to that of the family of heat shock proteins. Our results revealed significant changes in blood parameters and showed the presence of acanthocytes, tear drop cells, spicules and cobot rings in the treated categories. Lactate dehydrogenase and esterase zymograms displayed a shift to anaerobic metabolism generating hypoxia-like conditions. This study strongly suggests that NDMA treatment causes acute toxicity leading to cell membrane destruction and alters protein profiles in rats. It is therefore recommended that caution should be exercised in using NDMA to avoid risks, and if at all necessary strategies should be designed to combat such conditions. PMID:22058653

  7. Gender-specific induction of cytochrome P450s in nonylphenol-treated FVB/NJ mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Juan P.; Chapman, Laura M.; Kretschmer, Xiomara C.; Baldwin, William S. . E-mail: wbaldwin@utep.edu

    2006-10-15

    Nonylphenol (NP) is a breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylates, which are used in a variety of industrial, agricultural, household cleaning, and beauty products. NP is one of the most commonly found toxicants in the United States and Europe and is considered a toxicant of concern because of its long half-life. NP is an environmental estrogen that also activates the pregnane X-receptor (PXR) and in turn induces P450s. No study to date has examined the gender-specific effects of NP on hepatic P450 expression. We provided NP at 0, 50 or 75 mg/kg/day for 7 days to male and female FVB/NJ mice and compared their P450 expression profiles. Q-PCR was performed on hepatic cDNA using primers to several CYP isoforms regulated by PXR or its relative, the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). In female mice, NP induced Cyp2b10 and Cyp2b13, and downregulated the female-specific P450s, Cyp3a41 and Cyp3a44. In contrast, male mice treated with NP showed increased expression of Cyp2a4, Cyp2b9, and Cyp2b10. Western blots confirmed induction of Cyp2b subfamily members in both males and females. Consistent with the Q-PCR data, Western blots showed dose-dependent downregulation of Cyp3a only in females and induction of Cyp2a only in males. The overall increase in female-predominant P450s in males (Cyp2a4, 2b9) and the decrease in female-predominant P450s in females (Cyp3a41, 3a44) suggest that NP is in part feminizing the P450 profile in males and masculinizing the P450 profile in females. Testosterone hydroxylation was also altered in a gender-specific manner, as testosterone 16{alpha}-hydroxylase activity was only induced in NP-treated males. In contrast, NP-treated females demonstrated a greater propensity for metabolizing zoxazolamine probably due to greater Cyp2b induction in females. In conclusion, NP causes gender-specific P450 induction and therefore exposure to NP may cause distinct pharmacological and toxicological effects in males compared to females.

  8. Gender-specific induction of cytochrome P450s in nonylphenol-treated FVB/NJ mice.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Juan P; Chapman, Laura M; Kretschmer, Xiomara C; Baldwin, William S

    2006-10-15

    Nonylphenol (NP) is a breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylates, which are used in a variety of industrial, agricultural, household cleaning, and beauty products. NP is one of the most commonly found toxicants in the United States and Europe and is considered a toxicant of concern because of its long half-life. NP is an environmental estrogen that also activates the pregnane X-receptor (PXR) and in turn induces P450s. No study to date has examined the gender-specific effects of NP on hepatic P450 expression. We provided NP at 0, 50 or 75 mg/kg/day for 7 days to male and female FVB/NJ mice and compared their P450 expression profiles. Q-PCR was performed on hepatic cDNA using primers to several CYP isoforms regulated by PXR or its relative, the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). In female mice, NP induced Cyp2b10 and Cyp2b13, and downregulated the female-specific P450s, Cyp3a41 and Cyp3a44. In contrast, male mice treated with NP showed increased expression of Cyp2a4, Cyp2b9, and Cyp2b10. Western blots confirmed induction of Cyp2b subfamily members in both males and females. Consistent with the Q-PCR data, Western blots showed dose-dependent downregulation of Cyp3a only in females and induction of Cyp2a only in males. The overall increase in female-predominant P450s in males (Cyp2a4, 2b9) and the decrease in female-predominant P450s in females (Cyp3a41, 3a44) suggest that NP is in part feminizing the P450 profile in males and masculinizing the P450 profile in females. Testosterone hydroxylation was also altered in a gender-specific manner, as testosterone 16alpha-hydroxylase activity was only induced in NP-treated males. In contrast, NP-treated females demonstrated a greater propensity for metabolizing zoxazolamine probably due to greater Cyp2b induction in females. In conclusion, NP causes gender-specific P450 induction and therefore exposure to NP may cause distinct pharmacological and toxicological effects in males compared to females.

  9. Identification of gender-specific candidate genes that influence bone microarchitecture in chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Subburaman; Hu, Yan; Edderkaoui, Bouchra

    2013-04-01

    Studies on the identification of the genetic basis for sexual dimorphism in peak bone mass are obviously important for providing novel therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat metabolic bone diseases. Our goal in this study was to identify the bone microstructure that could lead to differences in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and new candidate genes that regulate the gender effect on bone. We used a congenic line of mice that carry the BMD1-4 locus from CAST/EiJ (CAST) mice in a C57BL/6J (B6) background and show greater vBMD in female, but not male, congenics compared to age- and gender-matched B6 mice. To assess the vBMD variations between the two lines of mice, we performed μCT measurements and found no difference in cortical bone volume by tissue volume (BV/TV) between congenics and B6 mice. However, trabecular BV/TV was significantly greater in female, but not male, congenics compared to corresponding B6 mice, which was due to increased trabecular thickness but not reduced trabecular separation, suggesting that bone formation, but not bone resorption, is responsible for the trabecular bone phenotype observed in the female, but not male, congenics. To identify the gender candidate genes, we determined the polymorphisms between B6 and CAST within the BMD1-4 locus and performed gene expression profiling. We identified EF-hand calcium binding domain (Efcab2), consortin, connexin sorting protein (Cnst), and presenilin 2 (Psen2) as potential candidate genes that regulate bone mass by influencing trabecular thickness in a gender-specific manner.

  10. Effect of gender specific anthropometric characteristics on lung function in young competitive triathletes from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Johari, Hanapi M; Zainudin, Hakimi A; Knight, Victor F; Lumley, Steven A; Subramanium, Ananthan S; Caszo, Brinnell A; Gnanou, Justin V

    2017-04-01

    Anthropometric and lung function characteristics of triathletes are important for the implementation of individual specific training and recovery recommendations. However, limited data are available for these parameters in triathletes. Hence, the aim of this study was to characterize and examine the gender differences of lung function and anthropometry parameters in competitive triathletes from Malaysia. Body composition assessment and lung function tests were performed on sixteen competitive triathletes (nine male and seven female). The subject's body composition profile including muscle mass (kg), fat free mass (kg), and percent body fat was measured using a bio-impedance segmental body composition analyzer. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured by Quark PFT2 spirometer. The anthropometric measurements revealed that male triathletes were significantly taller than female triathletes and had significantly more protein and skeletal muscle mass. The female triathletes, however, had significantly higher percent body fat. Male triathletes had statistically significant higher FVC and FEV1 than female triathletes. Both the male and female triathletes showed a positive correlation between height, fat free mass and the lung function markers FVC and FEV1. This association was not seen with Body Mass Index (BMI) in female triathletes. The data from our study shows that anthropometric parameters are directly linked to lung function of a triathlete. We also found the relationship between BMI and lung function to be gender specific in triathletes and is dependent on the body protein and fat content. Hence, body composition characterization is essential and provides valuable information for developing individual specific training modules.

  11. Identification of Gender-Specific Candidate Genes That Influence Bone Microarchitecture in Chromosome 1

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Subburaman; Hu, Yan; Edderkaoui, Bouchra

    2016-01-01

    The studies on the identification of the genetic basis for sexual dimorphism in peak bone mass are obviously important toward providing novel therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat metabolic bone diseases. Our goal in this study is to identify the bone microstructure that could lead to differences in volumetric (v) bone mineral density (BMD) and identify new candidate genes that regulate the gender effect on bone. Therefore, we used a congenic line of mice that carry the BMD1-4 locus from CAST/EiJ (CAST) mice in a C57BL/6J (B6) background and show greater vBMD in female but not male congenics compared to age and gender matched B6 mice. To assess the vBMD variations between the two lines of mice, we performed micro-CT measurements and found no difference in cortical bone volume by tissue volume (BV/TV) between congenics and B6 mice. However, trabecular BV/TV was significantly greater in female but not male congenics compared to corresponding B6 mice which was due to increased trabecular thickness but not reduced trabecular separation suggesting that a bone formation but not a bone resorption is responsible for the trabecular bone phenotype observed in the female but not male congenics. To identify the gender candidate genes, we have determined the polymorphisms between B6 and CAST within the BMD1-4 locus and performed gene expression profiling. We have identified ef-hand calcium binding domain (Efcab2), consortin, connexin sorting protein (Cnst) and presenilin 2 (Psen2) as potential candidate genes that regulate bone mass by influencing trabecular thickness in a gender specific manner. PMID:23263656

  12. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Protein Profiles Involved in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Kung-Kai; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Chiu, Chiang-Yen; Liang, Shih-Shin; Huang, Chun-Hao; Chi, Shu-Wen; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Hsi, Edward; Cheng, Kuang-Hung; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins among various stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by shotgun proteomics using nano-liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry and stable isotope dimethyl labeling. Methods Differentially expressed proteins were identified and compared based on the mass spectral differences of their isotope-labeled peptide fragments generated from protease digestion. Results Our quantitative proteomic analysis of the differentially expressed proteins with stable isotope (deuterium/hydrogen ratio, ≥2) identified a total of 353 proteins, with at least 5 protein biomarker proteins that were significantly differentially expressed between cancer and normal mice by at least a 2-fold alteration. These 5 protein biomarker candidates include α-enolase, α-catenin, 14-3-3 β, VDAC1, and calmodulin with high confidence levels. The expression levels were also found to be in agreement with those examined by Western blot and histochemical staining. Conclusions The systematic decrease or increase of these identified marker proteins may potentially reflect the morphological aberrations and diseased stages of pancreas carcinoma throughout progressive developments leading to PDAC. The results would form a firm foundation for future work concerning validation and clinical translation of some identified biomarkers into targeted diagnosis and therapy for various stages of PDAC. PMID:26262590

  13. Proteomic Profile of Cryptococcus neoformans Biofilm Reveals Changes in Metabolic Processes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans, a pathogenic yeast, causes meningoencephalitis, especially in immunocompromised patients, leading in some cases to death. Microbes in biofilms can cause persistent infections, which are harder to treat. Cryptococcal biofilms are becoming common due to the growing use of brain valves and other medical devices. Using shotgun proteomics we determine the differences in protein abundance between biofilm and planktonic cells. Applying bioinformatic tools, we also evaluated the metabolic pathways involved in biofilm maintenance and protein interactions. Our proteomic data suggest general changes in metabolism, protein turnover, and global stress responses. Biofilm cells show an increase in proteins related to oxidation–reduction, proteolysis, and response to stress and a reduction in proteins related to metabolic process, transport, and translation. An increase in pyruvate-utilizing enzymes was detected, suggesting a shift from the TCA cycle to fermentation-derived energy acquisition. Additionally, we assign putative roles to 33 proteins previously categorized as hypothetical. Many changes in metabolic enzymes were identified in studies of bacterial biofilm, potentially revealing a conserved strategy in biofilm lifestyle. PMID:24467693

  14. Quantitative proteomic reveals the dynamic of protein profile during final oocyte maturation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chunmei; Lu, Weiqun; Chen, Aqin

    2017-08-26

    The molecular mechanisms underlying final oocyte maturation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to employ iTRAQ approach for a comprehensive characterization of during zebrafish oocyte maturation proteome and for comparison between fully-grow immature and mature oocytes prior to ovulation. A total of 1568 proteins were identified, which was representing the largest zebrafish isolated oocytes proteome dataset to date. Differential expression analysis revealed 190 proteins significantly changes between immature and mature oocytes, which 136 proteins were up-regulated and 54 proteins were down-regulated in mature oocytes comparison with immature oocytes. Functional analysis revealed that these differential proteins were mostly involved in cellular response to estrogen stimulus, cellular components, extracellular region, and enzyme regulator activity, etc. The revealed differentially changes in protein expression patterns associated with oocyte maturation suggest that several of the examined proteins, such as vitellogenin(Vtg3), protein S100(S100A10), 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase(HSD17B1), pentaxin, zona pellucida (ZP3.2), elongation factor1-alpha, caluemnin B, and 14-3-3 protein may play a specific role during zebrafish final oocyte maturation. These data will provide powerful information for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying zebrafish oocyte maturation, and these proteins may potentially act as markers to predict control oocyte maturation of zebrafish oocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Proteome profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed: characterization of functional metabolic pathways operating during seed development.

    PubMed

    Barvkar, Vitthal T; Pardeshi, Varsha C; Kale, Sandip M; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2012-12-07

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds are an important source of food and feed due to the presence of various health promoting compounds, making it a nutritionally and economically important plant. An in-depth analysis of the proteome of developing flax seed is expected to provide significant information with respect to the regulation and accumulation of such storage compounds. Therefore, a proteomic analysis of seven seed developmental stages (4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 30, and 48 days after anthesis) in a flax variety, NL-97 was carried out using a combination of 1D-SDS-PAGE and LC-MSE methods. A total 1716 proteins were identified and their functional annotation revealed that a majority of them were involved in primary metabolism, protein destination, storage and energy. Three carbon assimilatory pathways appeared to operate in flax seeds. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR of selected 19 genes was carried out to understand their roles during seed development. Besides storage proteins, methionine synthase, RuBisCO and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase were highly expressed transcripts, highlighting their importance in flax seed development. Further, the identified proteins were mapped onto developmental seed specific expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries of flax to obtain transcriptional evidence and 81% of them had detectable expression at the mRNA level. This study provides new insights into the complex seed developmental processes operating in flax.

  16. Characterization of Functional Reprogramming during Osteoclast Development Using Quantitative Proteomics and mRNA Profiling*

    PubMed Central

    An, Eunkyung; Narayanan, Manikandan; Manes, Nathan P.; Nita-Lazar, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    In addition to forming macrophages and dendritic cells, monocytes in adult peripheral blood retain the ability to develop into osteoclasts, mature bone-resorbing cells. The extensive morphological and functional transformations that occur during osteoclast differentiation require substantial reprogramming of gene and protein expression. Here we employ -omic-scale technologies to examine in detail the molecular changes at discrete developmental stages in this process (precursor cells, intermediate osteoclasts, and multinuclear osteoclasts), quantitatively comparing their transcriptomes and proteomes. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000471. Our analysis identified mitochondrial changes, along with several alterations in signaling pathways, as central to the development of mature osteoclasts, while also confirming changes in pathways previously implicated in osteoclast biology. In particular, changes in the expression of proteins involved in metabolism and redirection of energy flow from basic cellular function toward bone resorption appeared to play a key role in the switch from monocytic immune system function to specialized bone-turnover function. These findings provide new insight into the differentiation program involved in the generation of functional osteoclasts. PMID:25044017

  17. Soybean Roots Grown under Heat Stress Show Global Changes in Their Transcriptional and Proteomic Profiles.

    PubMed

    Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Batek, Josef; Gomez-Hernandez, Nicolas; Nguyen, Cuong T; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C; Zhang, Ning; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Hixson, Kim K; Weitz, Karl K; Aldrich, Joshua T; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Stacey, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is likely to be a key factor in the negative impact of climate change on crop production. Heat stress significantly influences the functions of roots, which provide support, water, and nutrients to other plant organs. Likewise, roots play an important role in the establishment of symbiotic associations with different microorganisms. Despite the physiological relevance of roots, few studies have examined their response to heat stress. In this study, we performed genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses on isolated root hairs, which are a single, epidermal cell type, and compared their response to stripped roots. On average, we identified 1849 and 3091 genes differentially regulated in root hairs and stripped roots, respectively, in response to heat stress. Our gene regulatory module analysis identified 10 key modules that might control the majority of the transcriptional response to heat stress. We also conducted proteomic analysis on membrane fractions isolated from root hairs and compared these responses to stripped roots. These experiments identified a variety of proteins whose expression changed within 3 h of application of heat stress. Most of these proteins were predicted to play a significant role in thermo-tolerance, as well as in chromatin remodeling and post-transcriptional regulation. The data presented represent an in-depth analysis of the heat stress response of a single cell type in soybean.

  18. Soybean Roots Grown under Heat Stress Show Global Changes in Their Transcriptional and Proteomic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Batek, Josef; Gomez-Hernandez, Nicolas; Nguyen, Cuong T.; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C.; Zhang, Ning; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Hixson, Kim K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Stacey, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is likely to be a key factor in the negative impact of climate change on crop production. Heat stress significantly influences the functions of roots, which provide support, water, and nutrients to other plant organs. Likewise, roots play an important role in the establishment of symbiotic associations with different microorganisms. Despite the physiological relevance of roots, few studies have examined their response to heat stress. In this study, we performed genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses on isolated root hairs, which are a single, epidermal cell type, and compared their response to stripped roots. On average, we identified 1849 and 3091 genes differentially regulated in root hairs and stripped roots, respectively, in response to heat stress. Our gene regulatory module analysis identified 10 key modules that might control the majority of the transcriptional response to heat stress. We also conducted proteomic analysis on membrane fractions isolated from root hairs and compared these responses to stripped roots. These experiments identified a variety of proteins whose expression changed within 3 h of application of heat stress. Most of these proteins were predicted to play a significant role in thermo-tolerance, as well as in chromatin remodeling and post-transcriptional regulation. The data presented represent an in-depth analysis of the heat stress response of a single cell type in soybean. PMID:27200004

  19. Proteomic profile of Cryptococcus neoformans biofilm reveals changes in metabolic processes.

    PubMed

    Santi, Lucélia; Beys-da-Silva, Walter O; Berger, Markus; Calzolari, Diego; Guimarães, Jorge A; Moresco, James J; Yates, John R

    2014-03-07

    Cryptococcus neoformans, a pathogenic yeast, causes meningoencephalitis, especially in immunocompromised patients, leading in some cases to death. Microbes in biofilms can cause persistent infections, which are harder to treat. Cryptococcal biofilms are becoming common due to the growing use of brain valves and other medical devices. Using shotgun proteomics we determine the differences in protein abundance between biofilm and planktonic cells. Applying bioinformatic tools, we also evaluated the metabolic pathways involved in biofilm maintenance and protein interactions. Our proteomic data suggest general changes in metabolism, protein turnover, and global stress responses. Biofilm cells show an increase in proteins related to oxidation-reduction, proteolysis, and response to stress and a reduction in proteins related to metabolic process, transport, and translation. An increase in pyruvate-utilizing enzymes was detected, suggesting a shift from the TCA cycle to fermentation-derived energy acquisition. Additionally, we assign putative roles to 33 proteins previously categorized as hypothetical. Many changes in metabolic enzymes were identified in studies of bacterial biofilm, potentially revealing a conserved strategy in biofilm lifestyle.

  20. Proteomic profiling of rice embryos from a hybrid rice cultivar and its parental lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Meng, Bo; Ge, Xiaomeng; Song, Shuhui; Yang, Yue; Yu, Xiaomin; Wang, Liguo; Hu, Songnian; Liu, Siqi; Yu, Jun

    2008-11-01

    Elite rice hybrids, when compared to their parental lines, exhibit increased yield and other favorable agronomical traits, such as pathogen- and water-stress resistances, which are described as heterosis, and the molecular mechanism of heterosis remains to be elucidated. Since genomic sequences of the paternal (9311) and maternal lines (P64S) of a major rice hybrid variety LYP9 (Liang-You-Pei-Jiu) were acquired recently, we performed a proteomic study on mature embryos of this hybrid triad based on 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS analyses, and identified 54 differentially expressed proteins involved in major biological processes including nutrient reservoir, response to stress, and metabolism. We observed that most of the storage proteins exhibit overdominance and stress-induced proteins display additivity. We compared proteomic results with transcriptomic data generated from the same embryo samples and found 28 candidate heterosis-associated genes shared by the two datasets. We further traced back to their genomic structures including protein-coding and regulatory regions and found that most of these genes have multiple copies in rice genomes as paralogous genes. Based on alignment of coding and regulation regions, we found that most of the differentially expressed genes at both protein and RNA levels are recent gene duplicates (paralogous genes) with relative little difference in protein-coding regions between orthologous genes (between genes of the two parental genomes) as compared to regulatory regions that harbor numerous indels and base substitutions.

  1. Soybean Roots Grown under Heat Stress Show Global Changes in Their Transcriptional and Proteomic Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Batek, Josef; Gomez-Hernandez, Nicolas; Nguyen, Cuong T.; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C.; Zhang, Ning; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Hixson, Kim K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Stacey, Gary

    2016-04-25

    Heat stress is likely to be a key factor in the negative impact of climate change on crop production. Roots provide support, water and nutrients to other plant organs. Likewise, roots play an important role in the establishment of symbiotic associations with different microorganisms. Despite the physiological relevance of roots, few studies have examined the response of these plant organs to heat stress. In this study, we performed genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses on isolated root hairs, which are a single, epidermal cell type, and compared their response to whole roots. We identified 2,013 genes differentially regulated in root hairs in response to heat stress. Our gene regulatory module analysis identified ten, key modules that controlled the majority of the transcriptional response to heat stress. We also conducted proteomic analysis on membrane fractions isolated from roots and root hairs. These experiments identified a variety of proteins whose expression changed within 3 hours of application of heat stress. Most of these proteins were predicted to play a role in thermotolerance, as well as in chromatin remodeling and post-transcriptional regulation. The data presented represent an in-depth analysis of the heat stress response of a single cell type in soybean.

  2. The proteome profile of the human osteosarcoma U2OS cell line.

    PubMed

    Niforou, Katerina M; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Vougas, Konstantinos; Kittas, Christos; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Tsangaris, George T

    2008-01-01

    The human osteosarcoma U2OS cell line is one of the first generated cell lines and is used in various areas of biomedical research. Knowledge of its protein expression is limited and no comprehensive study on the proteome of this cell line has been reported to date. Proteomics technology was used in order to analyse the proteins of the U2OS cell line. Total protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and MALDI--MS-MS following in-gel digestion with trypsin and, finally, protein identification was carried out by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) and post source decay (PSD), respectively. Approximately 3,000 spots were excised from two 2-DE gels and were analysed, resulting in the identification of 237 different gene products. The majority of the identified proteins were enzymes, regulatory proteins and RNA-associated proteins, while leukocyte markers and oncogenes were also present. Our findings include 11 protooncogenes (FKBP4, SRC8, PSD10, FUBP1, PARK7, NPM, PDIA1, OXRP, SET, TCTP and GRP75) related to the cancerous state of the U2OS cell line. The U2OS 2-DE database provides the basis for future protein studies.

  3. Proteomic profiling of Cronobacter turicensis 3032, a food-borne opportunistic pathogen.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Paula; Hartmann, Isabel; Lehner, Angelika; Stephan, Roger; Gehrig, Peter; Grossmann, Jonas; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Roschitzki, Bernd; Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Kathrin

    2009-07-01

    Members of the genus Cronobacter are opportunistic pathogens for neonates and are often associated with contaminated milk powder formulas. At present little is known about the virulence mechanisms or the natural reservoir of these organisms. The proteome of Cronobacter turicensis 3032, which has recently caused two deaths, was mapped aiming at a better understanding of physiology and putative pathogenic traits of this clinical isolate. Our analyses of extracellular, surface-associated and whole-cell proteins by two complementary proteomics approaches, 1D-SDS-PAGE combined with LC-ESI-MS/MS and 2D-LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, lead to the identification of 832 proteins corresponding to a remarkable 19% of the theoretically expressed protein complement of C. turicensis. The majority of the identified proteins are involved in central metabolic pathways, translation, protein folding and stability. Several putative virulence factors, whose expressions were confirmed by phenotypic assays, could be identified: a macrophage infectivity potentiator involved in C. turicensis persistence in host cells, a superoxide dismutase protecting the pathogen against reactive oxygen species and an enterobactin-receptor protein for the uptake of siderophore-bound iron. Most interestingly, a chitinase and a metalloprotease that might act against insects and fungi but no casein hydrolysing enzymes were found, suggesting that there is an environmental natural habitat of C. turicensis 3032.

  4. Quantitative proteome profiles help reveal efficient xylose utilization mechanisms in solventogenic Clostridium sp. strain BOH3.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anindya; Xin, Fengxue; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Yang, Kun-Lin; He, Jianzhong

    2017-09-01

    Development of sustainable biobutanol production platforms from lignocellulosic materials is impeded by inefficient five carbon sugar uptake by solventogenic bacteria. The recently isolated Clostridium sp. strain BOH3 is particularly advantaged in this regard as it serves as a model organism which can simultaneously utilize both glucose and xylose for high butanol (>15 g/L) production. Strain BOH3 was, therefore, investigated for its metabolic mechanisms for efficient five carbon sugar uptake using a quantitative proteomics based approach. The proteomics data show that proteins within the CAC1341-1349 operon play a pivotal role for efficient xylose uptake within the cells to produce butanol. Furthermore, up-regulation of key enzymes within the riboflavin synthesis pathway explained that xylose could induce higher riboflavin production capability of the bacteria (e.g., ∼80 mg/L from glucose vs. ∼120 mg/L from xylose). Overall results from the present experimental approach indicated that xylose-fed BOH3 cultures are subjected to high levels of redox stress which coupled with the solvent stress-trigger a sporulation response within the cells earlier than the glucose-fed cultures. The study lays the platform for metabolic engineering strategies in designing organisms for efficient butanol and other value-added chemicals such as riboflavin production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1959-1969. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparative proteomic profiling identifies potential prognostic factors for human clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang; Zhang, Hongwei; Luo, Longhua; Zhong, Kezhao; Ma, Yushui; Fan, Linlin; Fu, Da; Wan, Lijuan

    2016-12-01

    The identification of markers for disease diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive purposes will have a great effect in improving patient management. Proteomic‑based approaches for biomarker discovery are promising strategies used in cancer research. In this study, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis on four patients including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and paired adjacent non‑cancerous renal tissues using label‑free quantitative proteomics and liquid chromatography‑tandem mass spectrometry (LC‑MS/MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins. Among 3,061 identified non‑redundant proteins, we found that 210 proteins were differentially expressed (83 overexpressed and 127 underexpressed) in ccRCC tissue when compared with normal kidney tissues. Two most significantly dysregulated proteins (PCK1 and SNRPF) were chosen to be confirmed by western blotting. Pathway analysis of 210 differentially expressed proteins showed that dysregulated proteins are related to many cancer‑related biological processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and amino acid synthetic pathways. Online survival analysis indicated the prognostic value of these dysregulated proteins. In conclusion, we identified some potential diagnostic biomarkers for ccRCC and an in‑depth understanding of their involved biological pathways may help pave the way to discover new therapeutic strategies for ccRCC.

  6. Modifications of fungal membrane proteins profile under pathogenicity induction: A proteomic analysis of Botrytis cinerea membranome.

    PubMed

    Liñeiro, Eva; Chiva, Cristina; Cantoral, Jesús M; Sabidó, Eduard; Fernández-Acero, Francisco Javier

    2016-09-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a model fungus for the study of phytopathogenicity that exhibits a wide arsenal of tools to infect plant tissues. Most of these factors are related to signal transduction cascades, in which membrane proteins play a key role as a bridge between environment and intracellular molecular processes. This work describes the first description of the membranome of Botrytis under different pathogenicity conditions induced by different plant-based elicitors: glucose and tomato cell wall (TCW). A discovery proteomics analysis of membrane proteins was carried out by mass spectrometry. A total of 2794 proteins were successfully identified, 46% of them were classified as membrane proteins based on the presence of transmembrane regions and lipidation. Further analyses showed significant differences in the membranome composition depending on the available carbon source: 804 proteins were exclusively identified when the fungus was cultured with glucose as a sole carbon source, and 251 proteins were exclusively identified with TCW. Besides, among the 1737 common proteins, a subset of 898 proteins presented clear differences in their abundance. GO enrichment and clustering interaction analysis revealed changes in the composition of membranome with increase of signalling function in glucose conditions and carbohydrate degradation process in TCW conditions. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003099 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD003099).

  7. Soybean Roots Grown under Heat Stress Show Global Changes in Their Transcriptional and Proteomic Profiles

    DOE PAGES

    Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Batek, Josef; Gomez-Hernandez, Nicolas; ...

    2016-04-25

    Heat stress is likely to be a key factor in the negative impact of climate change on crop production. Heat stress significantly influences the functions of roots, which provide support, water, and nutrients to other plant organs. Likewise, roots play an important role in the establishment of symbiotic associations with different microorganisms. Despite the physiological relevance of roots, few studies have examined their response to heat stress. Here in this study, we performed genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses on isolated root hairs, which are a single, epidermal cell type, and compared their response to stripped roots. On average, we identifiedmore » 1849 and 3091 genes differentially regulated in root hairs and stripped roots, respectively, in response to heat stress. Our gene regulatory module analysis identified 10 key modules that might control the majority of the transcriptional response to heat stress. We also conducted proteomic analysis on membrane fractions isolated from root hairs and compared these responses to stripped roots. These experiments identified a variety of proteins whose expression changed within 3 h of application of heat stress. Most of these proteins were predicted to play a significant role in thermo-tolerance, as well as in chromatin remodeling and post-transcriptional regulation. In conclusion, the data presented represent an in-depth analysis of the heat stress response of a single cell type in soybean.« less

  8. Proteome-wide quantitative multiplexed profiling of protein expression: carbon-source dependency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; O’Connell, Jeremy D.; Gaun, Aleksandr; Gygi, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    The global proteomic alterations in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae due to differences in carbon sources can be comprehensively examined using mass spectrometry–based multiplexing strategies. In this study, we investigate changes in the S. cerevisiae proteome resulting from cultures grown in minimal media using galactose, glucose, or raffinose as the carbon source. We used a tandem mass tag 9-plex strategy to determine alterations in relative protein abundance due to a particular carbon source, in triplicate, thereby permitting subsequent statistical analyses. We quantified more than 4700 proteins across all nine samples; 1003 proteins demonstrated statistically significant differences in abundance in at least one condition. The majority of altered proteins were classified as functioning in metabolic processes and as having cellular origins of plasma membrane and mitochondria. In contrast, proteins remaining relatively unchanged in abundance included those having nucleic acid–related processes, such as transcription and RNA processing. In addition, the comprehensiveness of the data set enabled the analysis of subsets of functionally related proteins, such as phosphatases, kinases, and transcription factors. As a resource, these data can be mined further in efforts to understand better the roles of carbon source fermentation in yeast metabolic pathways and the alterations observed therein, potentially for industrial applications, such as biofuel feedstock production. PMID:26399295

  9. Temporal regulation of proteome profile in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Perumal; Jayapalan, Jaime J; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri S; Arumugam, Manjula; Hashim, Onn H

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diurnal rhythms of protein synthesis controlled by the biological clock underlie the rhythmic physiology in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we conducted a proteome-wide investigation of rhythmic protein accumulation in D. melanogaster. Materials and Methods. Total protein collected from fly samples harvested at 4 h intervals over the 24 h period were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, trypsin digestion and MS/MS analysis. Protein spots/clusters were identified with MASCOT search engine and Swiss-Prot database. Expression of proteins was documented as percentage of volume contribution using the Image Master 2D Platinum software. Results. A total of 124 protein spots/clusters were identified using MS/MS analysis. Significant variation in the expression of 88 proteins over the 24-h period was observed. A relatively higher number of proteins was upregulated during the night compared to the daytime. The complexity of temporal regulation of the D. melanogaster proteome was further reflected from functional annotations of the differently expressed proteins, with those that were upregulated at night being restricted to the heat shock proteins and proteins involved in metabolism, muscle activity, protein synthesis/folding/degradation and apoptosis, whilst those that were overexpressed in the daytime were apparently involved in metabolism, muscle activity, ion-channel/cellular transport, protein synthesis/folding/degradation, redox homeostasis, development and transcription. Conclusion. Our data suggests that a wide range of proteins synthesized by the fruit fly, D. melanogaster, is under the regulation of the biological clock.

  10. Proteomic profile of the Bradysia odoriphaga in response to the microbial secondary metabolite benzothiazole.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunhe; Cui, Kaidi; Xu, Chunmei; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Zhengqun; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-11-24

    Benzothiazole, a microbial secondary metabolite, has been demonstrated to possess fumigant activity against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Ditylenchus destructor and Bradysia odoriphaga. However, to facilitate the development of novel microbial pesticides, the mode of action of benzothiazole needs to be elucidated. Here, we employed iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis to investigate the effects of benzothiazole on the proteomic expression of B. odoriphaga. In response to benzothiazole, 92 of 863 identified proteins in B. odoriphaga exhibited altered levels of expression, among which 14 proteins were related to the action mechanism of benzothiazole, 11 proteins were involved in stress responses, and 67 proteins were associated with the adaptation of B. odoriphaga to benzothiazole. Further bioinformatics analysis indicated that the reduction in energy metabolism, inhibition of the detoxification process and interference with DNA and RNA synthesis were potentially associated with the mode of action of benzothiazole. The myosin heavy chain, succinyl-CoA synthetase and Ca(+)-transporting ATPase proteins may be related to the stress response. Increased expression of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, energy production and conversion pathways was responsible for the adaptive response of B. odoriphaga. The results of this study provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of benzothiazole at a large-scale translation level and will facilitate the elucidation of the mechanism of action of benzothiazole.

  11. Soybean Roots Grown under Heat Stress Show Global Changes in Their Transcriptional and Proteomic Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Batek, Josef; Gomez-Hernandez, Nicolas; Nguyen, Cuong T.; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C.; Zhang, Ning; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Hixson, Kim K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Stacey, Gary

    2016-04-25

    Heat stress is likely to be a key factor in the negative impact of climate change on crop production. Heat stress significantly influences the functions of roots, which provide support, water, and nutrients to other plant organs. Likewise, roots play an important role in the establishment of symbiotic associations with different microorganisms. Despite the physiological relevance of roots, few studies have examined their response to heat stress. Here in this study, we performed genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses on isolated root hairs, which are a single, epidermal cell type, and compared their response to stripped roots. On average, we identified 1849 and 3091 genes differentially regulated in root hairs and stripped roots, respectively, in response to heat stress. Our gene regulatory module analysis identified 10 key modules that might control the majority of the transcriptional response to heat stress. We also conducted proteomic analysis on membrane fractions isolated from root hairs and compared these responses to stripped roots. These experiments identified a variety of proteins whose expression changed within 3 h of application of heat stress. Most of these proteins were predicted to play a significant role in thermo-tolerance, as well as in chromatin remodeling and post-transcriptional regulation. In conclusion, the data presented represent an in-depth analysis of the heat stress response of a single cell type in soybean.

  12. Proteome Profile of Starch Granules Purified from Rice (Oryza sativa) Endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Shihai; Meng, Xiaoxi; Zhou, Lihui; Mujahid, Hana; Zhao, Chunfang; Zhang, Yadong; Wang, Cailin; Peng, Zhaohua

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the most important food energy source in cereals. Many of the known enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis are partially or entirely granule-associated in the endosperm. Studying the proteome of rice starch granules is critical for us to further understand the mechanisms underlying starch biosynthesis and packaging of starch granules in rice amyloplasts, consequently for the improvement of rice grain quality. In this article, we developed a protocol to purify starch granules from mature rice endosperm and verified the quality of purified starch granules by microscopy observations, I2 staining, and Western blot analyses. In addition, we found the phenol extraction method was superior to Tris-HCl buffer extraction method with respect to the efficiency in recovery of starch granule associated proteins. LC-MS/MS analysis showed identification of already known starch granule associated proteins with high confidence. Several proteins reported to be involved in starch synthesis in prior genetic studies in plants were also shown to be enriched with starch granules, either directly or indirectly, in our studies. In addition, our results suggested that a few additional candidate proteins may also be involved in starch synthesis. Furthermore, our results indicated that some starch synthesis pathway proteins are subject to protein acetylation modification. GO analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the identified proteins were mainly located in plastids and involved in carbohydrate metabolism. This study substantially advances the understanding of the starch granule associated proteome in rice and post translational regulation of some starch granule associated proteins. PMID:27992503

  13. Proteomic Profiling Reveals Upregulated Protein Expression of Hsp70 in Keloids

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hee; Shin, Jung U.; Lee, Hemin; Rah, Dong Kyun; Jung, Jin Young; Lee, Won Jai

    2013-01-01

    Background. The biochemical characteristics of keloid-derived fibroblasts differ from those of adjacent normal fibroblasts, and these differences are thought to be the cause of abnormal fibrosis. Therefore, we investigated the characteristic proteins that are differentially expressed in keloid-derived fibroblasts using proteomics tools. Objective. We attempted to investigate the novel proteins that play important roles in the pathophysiology of keloids. Methods. Proteomics analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in keloid-derived fibroblasts. Keloid-derived fibroblasts and adjacent normal fibroblasts were analyzed with 2-DAGE. We validated these proteins with immunoblot analysis, real-time RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Results. Sixteen differentially expressed protein spots were identified in keloid-derived fibroblasts. Among them, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was specifically upregulated in keloid-derived fibroblasts. Also, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis revealed increased Hsp70, TGF-β, and PCNA expressions in keloids compared to normal tissue. Conclusion. Hsp70 is overexpressed in keloid fibroblasts and tissue. The overexpression of Hsp70 may be involved in the pathogenesis of keloids, and the inhibition of Hsp70 could be a new therapeutic tool for the treatment of keloids. PMID:24260741

  14. Modulation of neuronal proteome profile in response to Japanese encephalitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Nabonita; Ghosh, Sourish; Vasaikar, Suhas V; Gomes, James; Basu, Anirban

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have reported the in vivo proteomi