Dinella, Lisa M; Fulcher, Megan; Weisgram, Erica S
Gender segregation of careers is still prominent in the U.S. workforce. The current study was designed to investigate the role of sex-typed personality traits and gender identity in predicting emerging adults' interests in sex-typed careers. Participants included 586 university students (185 males, 401 females). Participants reported their sex-typed personality traits (masculine and feminine traits), gender identities (gender typicality, contentment, felt pressure to conform, and intergroup bias), and interests in sex-typed careers. Results indicated both sex-typed personality traits and gender identity were important predictors of young adults' career interests, but in varying degrees and differentially for men and women. Men's sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their masculine career interests even more so when the interaction of their masculine traits and gender typicality were considered. When gender typicality and sex-typed personality traits were considered simultaneously, gender typicality was negatively related to men's feminine career interests and gender typicality was the only significant predictor of men's feminine career interests. For women, sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their sex-typed career interests. The level of pressure they felt to conform to their gender also positively predicted interest in feminine careers. The interaction of sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality did not predict women's career interests more than when these variables were considered as main effects. Results of the multidimensional assessment of gender identity confirmed that various dimensions of gender identity played different roles in predicting career interests and gender typicality was the strongest predictor of career interests.
Choi, Pik Lin
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine gender identities of Chinese male and female middle leaders in secondary schools and how gender dynamics play in the leadership process and impact on career aspirations and career development. Design/methodology/approach: This paper draws on the data of a larger qualitative study conducted using the…
Karami, Roya; Ismail, Maimunah; Sail, Rahim Md.
This article examines the relationship between gender identity and career aspirations of a group of Iranian international postgraduate students studying at a Malaysian public university. This study uses the Farmer's Achievement Motivation Theory and Astin's Sociopsychological Model of Career Choice as theoretical framework. The data were collected…
Lock, Robynne M.; Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff
Although nearly half of high school physics students are female, only 21% of physics bachelor's degrees are earned by women. Using data from a national survey of college students in introductory English courses (on science-related experiences, particularly in high school), we examine the influence of students' physics and math identities on their choice to pursue a physics career. Males have higher math and physics identities than females in all three dimensions of our identity framework. These dimensions include: performance/competence (perceptions of ability to perform/understand), recognition (perception of recognition by others), and interest (desire to learn more). A regression model predicting students' intentions to pursue physics careers shows, as expected, that males are significantly more likely to choose physics than females. Surprisingly, however, when physics and math identity are included in the model, females are shown to be equally likely to choose physics careers as compared to males.
Gushue, George V.; Whitson, Melissa L.
This study is a preliminary exploration of how individual differences in gender role attitudes and ethnic identity might be related to career decision self-efficacy and the gender traditionality of career choice goals in a sample of 102 9th-grade Black and Latina girls. Extending social-cognitive career theory, the authors examined 2 path models…
Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire
This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…
The concerns about physicians' career advancement tend to be raised in gender terms, because women presently constitute close to and will soon form a majority of the medical students in most western societies. The question is to what extent female and male medical students and residents today make similar or different career and lifestyle choices? Two major mechanisms have been referred to as the reason for gender differences in career paths for physicians. The major theoretical framework tends to be the socialization or sex-role theory and later versions of this explanatory framework. The other mechanism referred to is structural and points to the barriers or the concrete support that women and men experience in making their career decisions. Studies of medical students in the UK and US have shown that women students expected family demands to hamper career plans, while male students were less influenced by family concerns. The importance of role models and mentors in setting the career goals of medical students and residents has recently confirmed early studies of the topic. A number of studies have documented that early negative experiences or lack of encouragement in medical school deter women from choosing surgery as a career. Recent studies suggest that lifestyle choices rather than merely career advancement influence both female and male surgeons' career plans.
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Mattila, Aino; Kärnä, Teemu; Joutsenneimi, Kaisla
Transsexualism and other variations of gender identity are based on a stable sense of identity. The aetiology of this phenomenon is not fully known. Suffering caused by gender dysphoria is alleviated with sex reassignment. The psychiatric assessment of both adolescents and adults has been centralized in Finland to two university hospitals, the Helsinki University Hospital and Tampere University Hospital. In both hospitals, multidisciplinary teams aim at differential diagnosis by using well-known psychiatric and psychological instruments. Wishes for sex reassignment that are caused by a mental health disorder are excluded. Assessment in adolescence is challenging because the identity in youth is still forming.
Cook, Ellen Piel
Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)
Stringer, Kate J.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.
Career identity development is salient in adolescence and young adulthood, but little research has assessed career identity in populations other than four-year college students. Context should be considered when examining career identity, and to address this gap in the literature, the current study examined the extent to which parental support for…
Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity.
Sobel, Vivian; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne
The following syndromes of XY intersexuality are reviewed: 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency, and complete and partial androgen insensitivity with attention focused on issues of gender identity. Each syndrome, with its unique presentation, provides an opportunity to explore the relative effects of nature (androgens) versus nurture (sex of rearing) in gender identity development. The phenomenon of gender role reversal in these conditions is described and theories on the determinants of gender identity formation are proposed. Issues of importance to psychiatrists in treating patients who have these conditions also are discussed.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how early career professionals "do gender" in their new professional context. Specifically, it explores how two groups of graduates, psychologists and political scientists, "do gender" as early career professionals with a particular emphasis on how they acquire legitimacy in…
Duberley, Joanne; Cohen, Laurie
In this article we reflect on the increasingly popular concept of career capital, and apply the concept to data generated with a sample of women scientists. We propose that by examining career capital through a "gendered lens" we can provide insight into structural constraint, often missing in discussions of this concept. Based on the findings…
Hamilton, W; Chapman, P H
The purpose of this communication is to report cognate studies which suggest that the nature of the peripheral metabolism of testosterone may impart gender direction to thought construction and motive. In patients with the complete testicular feminizing syndrome , the XO/XY syndrome , female trans-sexualism  and testicular agenesis  HCG-tests of 3 days duration were performed, and plasma and urinary testosterone, urinary excretion of 5 alpha-androstane, 3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (5 alpha-diol), 5 beta-androstane, 3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (5 beta-diol) and epiandrosterone before and after stimulation were measured. In addition steroid transformation was examined by incubation studies with human fetal brain tissue. The results of the latter method presented here are in agreement with published work. It seems clear therefore that the peripheral levels of androgens, oestrogens and their metabolites combine with cerebral steroid transformation, metabolism and possible also synthesis in order to establish gender identity. Exploration of the role of peripheral hormones as stimulators of both gender identity and gender function has dictated the need for a new approach to therapy for gender abnormalities in psyche and soma.
Couch, Carol A., Ed.
This booklet is intended to help counselors guide high school students in exploring nontraditional career options. It provides a brief historical perspective on the significance gender role stereotyping has had on U.S. society in the past, the impact it continues to have on the career decisions being made by current generations of young men and…
Page-Jones, S; Abbey, G
This research investigates vet and vet nurse career identity through the qualitative methodology of narrative enquiry. It derives learning and understanding from these empirical data to assist the veterinary profession to adjust to the changing industry landscape. Through a case series of 20 vets and vet nurses' career stories, this paper seeks understanding about career identity and its impact on individuals and organisations in the light of industry consolidation. Findings suggest that career is central to identity for many veterinary professionals who tend to have a strong sense of self; this is particularly evident around self as learner and technically competent, teacher and educator, ethical and moral and dedicated and resilient. Consequently, mismatches between 'who I am' and 'what I do' tend not to lead to identity customisation (to fit self into role or organisation) but to the search for alternative, more identity-compatible employment. This study offers a valuable insight for employers, veterinary professionals and universities. It suggests that businesses can gain competitive advantage and employees achieve validation and enrichment by working towards organisational and individual identity congruence and that teaching veterinary professionals with contemporary business in mind may develop graduates with a more sustainable identity.
Murdock, Jennifer L.; Strear, Molly M.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.; Henderson, Angela C.
Given the unique experiences of collegiate athletes and the need to facilitate their transition as they complete postsecondary education and join the workforce, the present study sought to evaluate a group-administered career development program at a US university focused on preparing students for the transition into professional life upon…
Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…
Jantzer, Amanda Macht; Stalides, Dimitrios J.; Rottinghaus, Patrick J.
The authors conducted a multiple group path analysis examining gender differences in relations among career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE), career decision-making outcome expectations (CDMOE), and career decision-making intentions-goals (CDMIG), as well as linkages between these three sociocognitive variables and vocational identity status…
Cassie, Diana V. W.; Chen, Charles P.
This study examined the differential impact of an educational intervention on high school students' career maturity based on gender. Dimensions of career maturity investigated include congruence, career certainty, career indecision, career decision-making self-efficacy and career exploration. Females were found to increase significantly in…
North, Connie E.
As LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex) issues become increasingly integrated into multicultural education discourses, we as educators need to examine the implications of our pedagogies for teaching about gender and sexual identities. This article explores my teaching of non-conforming gender identities in…
van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Klingensmith, Katherine; Volkmar, Fred R
In this review, we briefly summarize much of the existing literature on gender-related concerns and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), drawing attention to critical shortcomings in our current understanding and potential clinical implications. Some authors have concluded that gender identity disorder (GID), or gender dysphoria (GD), is more common in individuals with ASD, providing a range of potential explanations. However, existing literature is quantitatively limited, and our capacity to draw conclusions is further complicated by conceptual challenges regarding how gender identity is best understood. Discourses that emphasize gender as a component of identity formation are gaining prominence and seem particularly salient when applied to ASD. Individuals with ASD should enjoy equal rights with regard to treatment for gender dysphoria. Clinicians may be able to assist individuals in understanding this aspect of their identity by broadening the social frame and facilitating an exploration of gender roles.
Freedman, Susan A.
Various definitions of gender identity have ranged from recognition of one's biological sex to an individual's sense of masculinity or femininity. For the purpose of this paper, which examines some of the theoretical approaches to the subject, gender identity will be defined as "the degree to which individuals are 'aware' of and accept their…
Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn
Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.
Raggl, Andrea; Troman, Geoff
As the largest public sector institution in the United Kingdom, education is a key site for studying the context of "choice" and changes in the identities of professional workers in contemporary society. Recruitment and retention problems in education have led to the creation of new routes into teaching to attract career changers from…
... the Difference Between Gender and Sex? Being a boy or a girl, for most children, is something ... themselves, they will declare themselves to be a boy or a girl (or sometimes something in between); ...
Drawing on post-structural and post-colonial conceptions of gender, this paper explores multiple student masculinities and femininities in the classrooms of four junior secondary schools in Botswana. These gendered identities, it is argued, are negotiated within broader institutional constraints that have been socio-historically produced. Such…
Using the self-reported level of happiness as a measure of subjective well-being, this study examines the relationship between gender identity and subjective well-being with data from Taiwan. The findings suggest that an individual's perceptions about the ideals of women's gender roles in the labor market, the family, and politics are strongly related to his or her assigned social category, the prescriptions and characteristics associated with the social category, and the actions taken to match the ideals of gender identity. Consistent with Akerlof and Kranton's (2000) identity model, it is also found that an individual's gains or losses in gender identity lead to increases or decreases in the level of happiness.
Wilson, Maureen E.; Liddell, Debora L.; Hirschy, Amy S.; Pasquesi, Kira
The purposes of this study were to identify factors of midlevel student affairs administrators' professional identity and to examine the association of those factors to career commitment, career entrenchment, and demographic characteristics. Principal axis factor analysis derived 3 dimensions of professional identity: career contentment, community…
Kuyper, Lisette; Wijsen, Ciel
Several studies estimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria among adults by examining the number of individuals turning to health services. Since individuals might be hesitant to seek medical care related to gender dysphoria, these studies could underestimate the prevalence. The studies also lack information regarding the variance among different aspects of gender dysphoric conditions. Therefore, the current study estimated the prevalence by examining self-reported gender identity and dysphoria in a Dutch population sample (N = 8,064, aged 15-70 years old). Three measures assessed aspects of gender dysphoria: gender identity, dislike of the natal female/male body, and wish to obtain hormones/sex reassignment surgery. Results showed that 4.6 % of the natal men and 3.2 % of the natal women reported an ambivalent gender identity (equal identification with other sex as with sex assigned at birth) and 1.1 % of the natal men and 0.8 % of the natal women reported an incongruent gender identity (stronger identification with other sex as with sex assigned at birth). Lower percentages reported a dislike of their natal body and/or a wish for hormones/surgery. Combining these figures estimated the percentage of men reporting an ambivalent or incongruent gender identity combined with a dislike of their male body and a wish to obtain hormones/surgery at 0.6 %. For women, this was 0.2 %. These novel findings show that studies based on the number of individuals seeking medical care might underestimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria. Furthermore, the findings argue against a dichotomous approach to gender dysphoria.
Le Heuzey, M-F
There has been an explosion of public interest and concern about children and adolescents who show an interest in changing their gender. And it is an emerging problem for pediatricians, which brings many inquiries about what to do? Both the diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder are controversial. But there are a new early treatment using puberty blocking hormones.
Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L
This article summarizes for the practicing endocrinologist the current literature on the psychobiology of the development of gender identity and its variants in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) or with non-DSD transgenderism. Gender reassignment remains the treatment of choice for strong and persistent gender dysphoria in both categories, but more research is needed on the short-term and long-term effects of puberty-suppressing medications and cross-sex hormones on brain and behavior.
Liao, Lih-Mei; Audi, Laura; Magritte, Ellie; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Quigley, Charmian A
Paediatric specialists involved in the care of children with disorders of sex development may be expected to provide straightforward answers to questions concerning the "true sex" of a child, reflecting common perceptions of sex/gender as an immutable binary biological reality. This article highlights how much more broad and complex the topic of gender identity and its development is. Many theories have been put forward to advance knowledge of gender identity. Against the breadth and depth of this vast topic, the current overview is inevitably incomplete. It begins by arguing for a more consistent use of 'sex' and 'gender'. It considers in turn three influential theoretical frameworks that lend themselves to empirical research. These are: 1) the role of the brain; 2) the role of socialisation; and 3) multi-dimensional gender development. The article ends by suggesting potentially fruitful questions and areas for future research.
Since the late 1980s there has been an increase of "second career teachers" (SCTs), professionals that switch careers to become teachers. Little is known about SCTs and their sense of professional identity. Building from Pierre Bourdieu's concepts of power and cultural capital, the professional identities of teachers were examined…
Whitmarsh, Lona; Wentworth, Diane Keyser
Career development research has often explored gender differences in and development of career patterns (Gottfredson, 2006). Hyde's (2005) meta-analysis indicated that men and women shared more similarities than differences. Applying Hyde's gender similarities hypothesis to careers, the authors conducted a 2-stage study. Stage 1 was an analysis of…
Redmond, Dionne; Flauto, Phil
Identity formation involves the development of self esteem, social skills, and a sense of self. Many gay and lesbian adults have noted that they were aware of their attraction to members of the same sex as early as five- and six-years-old. Reactions they received from parents and others often added to their stress. Following a description of the…
Sikora, Joanna; Pokropek, Artur
Using data from the Program for International Student Assessment 2006 surveys for 50 countries, this paper explores gender segregation of adolescent science career plans. We ask whether, in different cultures, bridging the male-female gap in science self-concept could reduce gender disparities in students' career preferences. Bringing together the…
Berg, R; Berg, G
Gender identity and sexual orientation were investigated in 34 men operated for hypospadias in childhood and in 36 matched control subjects. Independent psychiatric assessments from semi-structured interviews, and double-blind formalized psychological ratings from the Rorschach, yielded similar findings. The probands were less secure in their maleness but were similar in sexual orientation as compared to the controls. A third blind, independent measure of unconscious gender identity, the Franck Drawing Completion Test, gave further evidence of uncertain gender identity in the patients. A self-administered inventory, the Gough Femininity Scale, showed a tendency for the patients to take more feminine sex roles. The findings are discussed from psychoendocrinological as well as psycho-analytical view points. The need for early psychological preventive measures for hypospadic boys and their parents is stressed.
This paper aims to contribute to understanding of emergent gender/sexual identities in Thailand. Thailand has become a popular destination for sex change operations by providing the medical technology for a complete transformation, with relatively few procedures and satisfactory results at a reasonable price. Data were gathered from 24 transsexual male-to-female sex workers working in Pattaya and Patpong, well-known sex-tourism hot spots in Thailand. Findings suggest the emergence of new understandings of gender/sexual identity. Sex-tourism/sex work significantly illuminates the process through which gender is contested and re-imagined. The coming together of cultures in Thailand's sex industry, coupled with advances in medical technology, has resulted in the emergence of new concepts of gender.
Literature about gender differences and their possible origins, and contemporary psychoanalytic formulations of gender, is reviewed. There is a broad consensus among investigators from different fields, and among psychoanalysts of different theoretical persuasions, that the modal female personality tends to be more sociocentric, and the modal male personality more self-centric. These modal personality differences may be qualitative rather than quantitative. The concept of core gender identity, which articulates the psychological root of these differences, is reexamined in the light of contemporary research into constitutional differences in the organization and activation of the brain, and an interactional model of core gender identity as a dynamic evolving phenomenon over the course of the life cycle is proposed.
Bimrose, Jenny; Brown, Alan; Barnes, Sally-Anne
This article discusses the career biographies of four individuals in transition. They were responding to the challenges of engaging in work-related learning, re-shaping their careers and their career identities. The four cases were selected from a larger sample of fifty participants in a five-year longitudinal, qualitative case study, which has…
Reiner, William G; Reiner, D Townsend
Children with disorders of sex development have similarities to, but also marked contrasts with, children with normal anatomy but who have gender dysphoria. Understanding gender identity development in children with sex disorders will probably help us understand typical gender identity development more than in understanding gender development in children with gender identity disorder.
Barker, Anne M.
Engineering has been one of the most difficult fields for 'women to enter and in which to succeed. Although the percentage of female engineers has Increased, women are still seriously underrcpresented in the workforce. This study examined the effect offender on career commitment, success, satisfaction, and involvement in engineering, and the effect of personality and work environment on these variables. Alumni from an engineering school in the northeastern United States were surveyed. The questionnaire was analyzed using statistical and descriptive methods to determine relationships among these variables. Women's commitment scores were lower than men's when controlled for other variables, including satisfaction and involvement. Men had longer tenure as engineers than women, even when controlled for year of graduation, professional engineering status, and number of children. Women did not leave engineering in different proportions than men, but they did earn significantly less despite controlling for year of graduation and number of hours worked weekly. Some gender differences in workplace experience were also found, including having colleagues act protectively, being mistaken for secretaries, and seeing men progress faster in their careers than equally qualified women.
Corby, Brooke C.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Perry, David G.
The generality of S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's (2001) model of gender identity and adjustment was evaluated by examining associations between gender identity (felt gender typicality, felt gender contentedness, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and social adjustment in 863 White, Black, and Hispanic 5th graders (mean age = 11.1 years).…
Yunger, Jennifer L.; Carver, Priscilla R.; Perry, David G.
This study examined influences of gender identity on change in preadolescents' adjustment over time. In each of two successive years, three measures of gender identity (felt gender typicality, contentment with gender assignment, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and four measures of adjustment (self-esteem, internalizing symptoms,…
Rochlen, Aaron B.; Blazina, Christopher; Raghunathan, Raj
The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of alternative career counseling marketing materials on men's interest in and attitudes toward career counseling, as well as to assess the career planning needs of men with varying levels of gender role conflict. Male undergraduate students (N=123) participated in the study that assessed the…
Hartung, Paul J.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pope, Mark; Niles, Spencer G.; Farrow, Beverly
Career-Development Assessment and Counseling (C-DAC) uses a comprehensive assessment battery to help clients explore their roles, developmental stages and tasks, career attitudes and knowledge, value, and interests within their unique life contexts. Recommends elaborating C-DAC model to formally appraise cultural identity and to coincide identity…
Byars-Winston, Angela M.
Scholarship is emerging on intervention models that purposefully attend to cultural variables throughout the career assessment and career counseling process (Swanson & Fouad, in press). One heuristic model that offers promise to advance culturally-relevant vocational practice with African Americans is the Outline for Cultural Formulation (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). This article explicates the Outline for Cultural Formulation in career assessment and career counseling with African Americans integrating the concept of cultural identity into the entire model. The article concludes with an illustration of the Outline for Cultural Formulation model with an African American career client. PMID:20495668
Lally, Patricia S; Kerr, Gretchen A
The purpose of this study was to examine the career planning of university student athletes and relationships between their career planning and athletic and student role identities. Two retrospective in-depth interviews were held with four male and four female university student athletes. Participants entered university with vague or nonexistent career objectives and invested heavily in their athletic roles. In the latter years of their college career, the participants discarded their sport career ambitions and allowed the student role to become more prominent in their identity hierarchies. The current findings support Brown and Hartley's (1998) suggestion that student athletes may invest in both the athlete and student role identities simultaneously and that investing in the latter may permit the exploration of nonsport career options.
Kukreti, Prerna; Kandpal, Manish; Jiloha, R C
Gender identity is the sense of belonging that one feels for a particular sex psychologically and socially, independent of one's biological sex. There is much less systematic data on gender identity in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report a case of non-classical CAH presenting as a case of gender identity disorder.
Kukreti, Prerna; Kandpal, Manish; Jiloha, R. C.
Gender identity is the sense of belonging that one feels for a particular sex psychologically and socially, independent of one's biological sex. There is much less systematic data on gender identity in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report a case of non-classical CAH presenting as a case of gender identity disorder. PMID:24891708
Williams, Christine Marie
Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) delineates the ways in which social forces may influence women's career development and create gender segregation in different types of occupations (see Betz, 2007 for a review). However, a number of questions remain, specifically in regards to how social forces may shape the core…
McAlpine, Lynn; Amundsen, Cheryl; Turner, Gill
Our longitudinal qualitative research program examining doctoral student, post-PhD researcher and new lecturer experience is situated in an international literature documenting how early career academics learn through experience. In common with others, our work is framed within an identity perspective. What makes our view of identity distinct is a…
Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.
Using data collected from a nationally-representative sample of first-year college students, we examine how students' identity development as physics persons and their likelihood to pursue a career in physical science is predicted by differing immigrant experiences. We consider broad factors having a social, economic, or cultural nature as covariates in a propensity score model that assesses differences due to immigrant generation. Our results show that, when controlling for such factors as race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, and gender, students' physics identities and the likelihood of choosing a career in physical science are significantly higher amongst first generation students than second generation (or later) students. We conclude that physical science as a career option can be influenced by the experiences of being an immigrant and through the relationship between origin and host culture.
Student engagement in science, as defined by Iva Gurgel, Mauricio Pietrocola, and Graciella Watanabe, is of great importance because a student's perceived compatibility with science learning is highly influenced by personal identities, or how students see themselves in relations to the world. This can greatly impact their learning experiences. In this forum, I build on the work of Gurgel, Pietrocola, and Watanabe by exploring the relationships between engagement in physics and gender, and by looking at the expansive nature of the concept of culture. I expand the conversation by investigating ways in which learning science has impacted my own identity/worldview, particularly how it affects my personal teaching and learning experiences. I focus the conversation around the relationship between gender and the experience of learning science to further the dialogue concerning identity and how it impacts engagement in science. I also look at the role of didactic transposition in the perceived disconnect with science. I reveal my experiences and analysis through a personal narrative.
Meeussen, Loes; Veldman, Jenny; Van Laar, Colette
The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (in)compatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women's family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults (N = 445) perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to 'have it all': mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men's family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults' gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way.
Meeussen, Loes; Veldman, Jenny; Van Laar, Colette
The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (in)compatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women’s family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults (N = 445) perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to ‘have it all’: mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men’s family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults’ gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way. PMID:27909416
Morgan, Sandra; And Others
Analyzed career paths of middle managers in bank. Study of matched pairs found that men (n=25) advanced faster and reached middle management through fewer promotions and positions than did women (n=25). Men had significantly more work experience outside of banking. In banking careers, men held more jobs in lending, whereas women occupied more…
Sacharin, Vera; Lee, Fiona; Gonzalez, Richard
Professional women's identity integration--the perceived compatibility between work and gender identities--plays a role in how task or relationship information is processed. Seventy female business school students were primed with either their professional or their gender identity. Business women with higher identity integration showed an…
Dodson, Thomas A.; Borders, L. DiAnne
Men established in traditional (mechanical engineering, n = 100) and nontraditional (elementary school counseling, n = 100) careers were compared on their career compromise choices (sex type vs. prestige), adherence to masculinity ideology, gender role conflict, and job satisfaction. The engineers tended to choose sex type over prestige; the…
Tracey, Catherine; Nicholl, Honor
The complex web of gender influence in the workplace results from a multifaceted interplay of factors [Walby et al. (1994) Medicine and Nursing. Sage Publications, London]. Literature reports that in nursing men's success compared with that of women is disproportionate and substantial evidence of gender-based disadvantage is found [Women in Management Review13 (1998) 184]. However, studies have not addressed the specific reasons for this and little is known of how or what influences nurses' career decisions and developments [Journal of Advanced Nursing25 (1997) 602]. Those studies which examine career developments and patterns are mainly found in the private business sector.
This study examined lay theories regarding gender identity disorder (GID). Pilot interviews were completed with participants (n = 10) regarding their views on possible causes and treatments of GID. Participants (mainly young British people and students; n = 124) then completed a questionnaire that was based on the interviews and a review of the salient literature on lay theories. As hypothesized, participants believed most in biomedical causes and treatments of GID. Factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors in relation to causes of GID: upbringing and personal factors, pregnancy and brain abnormalities, environmental factors, and biomedical causes. Five factors that were identified in relation to the cure/treatment of GID were psychological assistance and personal factors, extreme medical and behavioral changes, alternative therapies, external factors, and medical treatments. The results indicated that participants neither agreed nor strongly disagreed about causes and cures regarding GID, but that these beliefs were logically related. Limitations, particularly of sampling, were considered. PMID:24059967
In Pakistan, the self-serving use of Islam by more secular elements alongside politico-religious ones facilitated the latter's increasing influence and the conflation and intricate interweaving of Islam and Pakistani nationhood. A paradigm shift under Zia's martial law revamped society as much as state laws, producing both religiously defined militias and aligned civil society groups. Examining the impact on women of fusing religion and politics, this paper argues that women become symbolic markers of appropriated territory in the pursuit of state power, and that the impact of such fusing, different for differently situated women, needs to be gauged in societal terms as well as in terms of state dynamics. Questioning the positing of civil society as a self-evident progressive desideratum, the paper concludes that gender equality projects seeking reconfigurations of power cannot be effective without vigorously competing in the creation of knowledge, culture and identity.
Gender identity disorder in girls is reported far less frequently than in boys. The analysis of a six-year-old adopted girl with gender identity disorder is presented to show the importance of the mother-infant relationship and of parental, especially maternal, attitudes toward gender in the normal development of gender identity and gender role definition. This child's unusual history included a late adoption, with clear evidence of separation trauma, and the ongoing influence of maternal infertility. Her symptoms of gender identity disorder appeared before her second birthday and were well established by three years of age. The analysis, from age six to thirteen, achieved a better adaptation to her gender. Her masculine strivings gradually became incorporated into an essentially feminine orientation.
Lipshits-Braziler, Yuliya; Tatar, Moshe
This study investigated gender and ethnic differences in the perception of different types of career barriers among young adults in relation to their views of themselves as individuals (Personal Career Barriers) and their views of their gender and ethnic group (Group Career Barriers). This study also explored gender and ethnic differences in the…
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine how the gender of distance learning students related to variables such as the perception of the availability of library resources, technology available at home and work, technology provided by a university for distance learning, and career preparedness. A total of 166 master's students in the…
Rudd, Elizabeth; Morrison, Emory; Sadrozinski, Renate; Nerad, Maresi; Cerny, Joseph
Using a national survey of 508 art history Ph.D.s including data on graduate school performance and careers 10-15 years post-Ph.D., this study investigates gender, family, and academic tenure in art history, the humanities field with the highest proportion of women. Alternative hypotheses derived from three perspectives--termed here "clockwork,"…
Gadassi, Reuma; Waser, Ayelet; Gati, Itamar
Depression has detrimental effects on broad areas of functioning. However, its association with career decision-making factors has been largely unexplored. In the present study, we focused on the association between career decision-making difficulties, career-decision status, and career-preference crystallization, on the one hand, and depression, on the other. The hypothesis that high levels of career decision-making difficulties, less advanced decision status, and low levels of preference crystallization are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms was tested with a sample of 222 college seniors. In addition, since it has been found that work-related stressors are more often associated with depression among men than women, it was hypothesized that the associations between vocational factors and depression would be stronger for men than for women. The participants filled out online self-report questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, emotional and personality-related career decision-making difficulties, career-decision status, and career preferences. The results indicated that self-concept and identity-related career decision-making difficulties were associated with depressive symptoms for both men and women. In addition, for men, but not for women, less crystallization of career preferences also predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms. These results show how important it is for counseling psychologists to understand the role of the individual's vocational situation in depression.
Barlow, D H; Abel, G G; Blanchard, E B
Gender identity change in a conservatively diagnosed 21-year-old transexual after faith healing was fortuitously observed, was objectively and independently measured, and is reported. This case, and other recent developments, suggests a reexamination of the possibilities of psychosocial intervention to modify atypical gender identity.
Dragowski, Eliza A.; Scharron-del Rio, Maria R.; Sandigorsky, Amy L.
Childhood gender identity development is reviewed in the context of biological, environmental, cultural, and diagnostic factors. With the upcoming 5th revision of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," the authors offer a critical consideration of childhood gender identity disorder, along with proposed diagnostic changes.…
Katsurada, Emiko; Sugihara, Yoko
Investigated the relationship between Japanese college students' gender role identity and attitudes toward marriage, exploring the effects of gender-segregated school backgrounds on gender role identity and attitudes toward marriage. Women without any coeducational school background had relatively strong masculinity and desired to marry at older…
de Vries, Annelou L C; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T
This article reviews studies on gender identity outcome in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD). It appears that a high percentage of affected individuals suffer from gender dysphoria. However, these figures differ substantially among the various DSD and they never reach 100%. From the studies it also becomes clear that a distinction should be made between gender role behavior and gender identity. Put in a broader theoretical framework, there is now more evidence that biological factors influence the development of gender role behavior than gender identity. Developmental psychology studies add evidence that social and psychological factors play a role as well in gender development. Clinicians should be aware of, but not overestimate the influences of neurobiological factors in gender development.
Martin, Carol Lynn; Andrews, Naomi C Z; England, Dawn E; Zosuls, Kristina; Ruble, Diane N
The goal was to test a new dual identity perspective on gender identity by asking children (n = 467) in three grades (Mage = 5.7, 7.6, 9.5) to consider the relation of the self to both boys and girls. This change shifted the conceptualization of gender identity from one to two dimensions, provided insights into the meaning and measurement of gender identity, and allowed for revisiting ideas about the roles of gender identity in adjustment. Using a graphical measure to allow assessment of identity in young children and cluster analyses to determine types of identity, it was found that individual and developmental differences in how similar children feel to both genders, and these variations matter for many important personal and social outcomes.
Levitt, Heidi M; Puckett, Julia A; Ippolito, Maria R; Horne, Sharon G
Sexual minority women were divided into four groups to study their gender identities (butch and femme), and gender expression (traditionally gendered and non-traditionally gendered women who do not identify as butch or femme). Experiences of heterosexist events (discrimination, harassment, threats of violence, victimization, negative emotions associated with these events), mental health (self esteem, stress, depression), and supports for a sexual minority identity (social support, outness, internalized homophobia) were examined across these groups. Findings suggested that butch-identified women experienced more heterosexist events than femme women or women with non-traditional gender expressions. There were no differences in mental health variables.
Priess, Heather A.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
Gender intensification, an increased pressure for adolescents to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles, has been posited as an explanation for the emergence of the gender difference in depression. This longitudinal study assessed whether 410 individuals became more stereotypical in their gender-role identity across adolescence and whether…
A schematic overview of the development of male and female gender identity has been presented with an attempt to formulate a developmental line. The steps include: (Table: see text) In discussion of these steps an effort was made to distinguish between core morphological or core gender identity--that is, the primary sense of being male or female, to which other aspects of gender identity are added over the course of development to eventually include a "mix" of masculinity and femininity; gender role identity, which includes the conscious and unconscious mental representations of dialogues with other people vis-à-vis one's gender identity as well as identification with role models; and the separate process of choosing a sexual partner orientation. These separate strands join together and intermingle to make up what we view globally as "gender identity."
Chused, J F
One consequence of a heightened interest in intersubjectivity in the current psychoanalytic literature has been a relative neglect of the examination of unconscious fantasies. Presenting material from the analysis of three males, each of whom, in childhood and/or adolescence, hid his penis between his legs and looked at himself in a mirror naked, the author demonstrates the importance of attending to both unconscious fantasies and their manifestations within the interactive field of analysis. The first patient is a young child with a gender identity disorder, whose wish to be like his mother was a response to the emotional loss of her during early childhood. The second patient is an adolescent, whose behaviour in front of a mirror was a manifestation of his desire to possess his mother and be her, to humiliate and sadistically control her, and at the same time, to experience the masochistic sexual gratification of being a seemingly helpless victim. The third patient, a 48-year-old male, came to analysis filled with suicidal impulses and self-hatred related to homosexual impulses. His repeated examination of himself in a mirror, with penis hidden, reflected severe castration anxiety, related to an ambivalent relationship with an angry mother and a longing for attention from an unavailable father. The article closes with a description of the similarities and differences in the dynamics of these three males as well as a discussion of the meaning of similar behaviour in other males seen in consultation.
Heath, Shirley Brice, Ed.; McLaughlin, Milbrey W., Ed.
How ethnic identity and gender figure in building the embedded identities of youth in different contexts is examined, focusing on the self-concepts of inner-city youth. The voices of urban youth argue that their embedded identities, or multilayered self-conceptions, represent far more than simple labels of ethnic or racial membership. After an…
Hurner, Sheryl Marie
"Robotics as Science (re)Form" utilizes qualitative research methods to examine the career trajectories and gender identity formation of female youth participating as members of an all-girl, academic team within the male-dominated environment of the FIRST Robotics competition. Following the constant comparative approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), my project relies upon triangulating ethnographic data drawn from extensive field notes, semi-structured interviews, and digital and video imagery compiled over two years of participant observation. Drawing upon the sociolinguistic "community of practice" (CoP) framework (Eckert & McConnell-Ginet, 1992; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998), this study maps the range of gendered "identities" available to girls involved in non-traditional academic and occupational pursuits within a local context, and reveals the nature, structure and impact of power operating within this CoP, a significantly underdeveloped construct within the language and gender literature. These research findings (1) contribute to refining theories of situated or problem based learning with a focus on female youth (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998); (2) reveal affordances and barriers within the local program design that enable (and preclude) women and minority youth entering the engineering pipeline; and (3) enrich our understanding of intragroup language and gendered "practices" to counter largely essentializing generalizations based upon quantitative analysis. Keywords: Robotics, gender, identity formation, science, STEM, communities of practice
Scott, Anne B.; Ciani, Keith D.
The current study hypothesized that undergraduates enrolled in a career explorations course would report significant gains in career decision-making self-efficacy and vocational identity during a semester. A repeated measures MANOVA was used to assess 88 students' precourse and postcourse self-efficacy for five tasks related to career decision…
Castilla, Emilio J
This study helps to fill a significant gap in the literature on organizations and inequality by investigating the central role of merit-based reward systems in shaping gender and racial disparities in wages and promotions. The author develops and tests a set of propositions isolating processes of performance-reward bias, whereby women and minorities receive less compensation than white men with equal scores on performance evaluations. Using personnel data from a large service organization, the author empirically establishes the existence of this bias and shows that gender, race, and nationality differences continue to affect salary growth after performance ratings are taken into account, ceteris paribus. This finding demonstrates a critical challenge faced by the many contemporary employers who adopt merit-based practices and policies. Although these policies are often adopted in the hope of motivating employees and ensuring meritocracy, policies with limited transparency and accountability can actually increase ascriptive bias and reduce equity in the workplace.
Nauta, Margaret M.; Kahn, Jeffrey H.
Relationships between young adults' identity status, the consistency and differentiation of their career interests, and their career decision self-efficacy were assessed. Among 111 college students, identity status was related to career decision self-efficacy and differentiation of interests, but it was not associated with consistency of…
Haley, Karen J.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Levin, John S.
This study examines and enriches understanding of the career choice process for graduate students of color. Social identity theory (SIT) is used as a framework to expand our understanding of how and why graduate students choose (or do not choose) faculty careers. Graduate students' cultural social identities influenced their career choice…
Burke, Peter J.; Stets, Jan E.; Cerven, Christine
Drawing upon identity theory, expectation states theory, and legitimation theory, we examine how the task leader identity in task-oriented groups is more likely to be verified for persons with high status characteristics. We hypothesize that identity verification will be accomplished more readily for male group members and legitimated task leaders…
Lyons, Heather Z; Brenner, Bradley R; Lipman, Jennifer
Researchers have hypothesized about the potentially competing demands of sexual identity development and career development (e.g., Chen, Stracuzzi, & Ruckdeschel, 2004; Fassinger, 1996; Morrow, 1997; Schmidt, 2004). In the present study, we explored these hypotheses focusing specifically on career decision making. Using cluster analysis, we identified three groups of lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults who differed in terms of the conflict experienced between sexual identity and career development: career conflict group (n = 11), sexual identity conflict group (n = 45), and those who experienced low levels of conflict between the two domains (n = 71). Differences were found between the clusters in levels of career decision making supports, career decision making barriers, and career decision making self-efficacy. Results tentatively suggest the importance of considering within-group differences when using Social Cognitive Career Theory to understand the career decision making of this population.
Rojewski, Jay W.; And Others
Examination of the impact of gender and academic-risk behavior on the career maturity and competence of 110 rural youth revealed that females were more involved and independent in their career development and that high-risk students were less able to solve career-related problems. Addresses implications for rural career education and vocational…
This paper applies social interactionism to gender identity issues as addressed in the art therapy literature and within interview data collected from art therapists working in the field. The findings revealed that perceptions from practicing art therapists differed from ideas put forth in the art therapy literature about gender traits that…
Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Granger, Kristen L.
During adolescence, gender identity (GI) develops through a dialectic process of personal reflection and with input from the social environment. Peers play an important role in the socialization of gendered behavior, but no studies to-date have assessed peer influences on GI. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine peer influences on…
Cash, Thomas F.; Ancis, Julie R.; Strachan, Melissa D.
Examines how women's body-image experiences relate to their own gender attitudes and ideologies. Responses from 122 undergraduate women reveal minimal relationships between body-image attitudes and either feminist identity or adherence to traditional gender beliefs at individual/stereotypic or societal levels. Male-female social interactions…
Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin
The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…
Azzarito, Laura; Katzew, Adriana
This paper shows how a group of young people and researchers, through their reading of images, performed "identity work" within discourses of the body and gender in physical education. To explore young people's identity narratives and physicality, the researchers used an ethnographic method using photo-elicitation. Findings in this study showed…
Wilson, Elaine; Deaney, Rosemary
The quest to understand what it means to "become" a teacher and the conditions in which such aspirations can be translated into lived experience, continues to exercise teacher educators and researchers alike. Whilst the literature points towards the importance of developing teacher identity, little attention has been given to…
The Metamorphoses Greek myth includes a story about a woman raised as a male falling in love with another woman, and being transformed into a man prior to a wedding ceremony and staying with her. It is therefore considered that people who desire to live as though they have the opposite gender have existed since ancient times. People who express a sense of discomfort with their anatomical sex and related roles have been reported in the medical literature since the middle of the 19th century. However, homosexual, fetishism, gender identity disorder, and associated conditions were mixed together and regarded as types of sexual perversion that were considered ethically objectionable until the 1950s. The first performance of sex-reassignment surgery in 1952 attracted considerable attention, and the sexologist Harry Benjamin reported a case of 'a woman kept in the body of a man', which was called transsexualism. John William Money studied the sexual consciousness about disorders of sex development and advocated the concept of gender in 1957. Thereafter the disparity between anatomical sex and gender identity was referred to as the psychopathological condition of gender identity disorder, and this was used for its diagnostic name when it was introduced into DSM-III in 1980. However, gender identity disorder encompasses a spectrum of conditions, and DSM-III -R categorized it into three types: transsexualism, nontranssexualism, and not otherwise specified. The first two types were subsequently combined and standardized into the official diagnostic name of 'gender identity disorder' in DSM-IV. In contrast, gender identity disorder was categorized into four groups (including transsexualism and dual-role transvestism) in ICD-10. A draft proposal of DSM-5 has been submitted, in which the diagnostic name of gender identity disorder has been changed to gender dysphoria. Also, it refers to 'assigned gender' rather than to 'sex', and includes disorders of sexual development
THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND CAREER PROGRESSION IN STEM...in the United States. v AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-204 THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND CAREER PROGRESSION IN...UNLIMITED. vi vii AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-204 THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND CAREER PROGRESSION IN STEM
Hoffman, Rose Marie
The author explored the relationships among women's gender identity constructs as well as the relationships of those constructs to ethnic identity. Nine of the 12 hypothesized relationships between gender self-definition and female identity development statuses and between gender self-acceptance and female identity development statuses were…
The conflicts individuals with ambiguous sexual characteristics suffer from are not the result of genetic features but of the rigid and dichotomous gender order, which is currently undergoing a renaissance. This also applies to individuals with an uncertain gender identity. In the best interests of the child a concept of gender seems necessary, that goes beyond a binary separation and allows gender-specific intermediary stages in the personal development of identity. Such a gender concept can be developed following psychoanalytic theories. The present discourse contains a scale of connecting factors for a differentiated and less normative conceptualization of gender development. Starting from Freud's concept of constitutional bisexuality, Robert Stoller's theory, which has been firmly rooted in the mainstream of psychoanalysis for more than 40 years, will be critically reviewed. By involving Reimut Reiche's and Jean Laplanche's arguments, a continuative psychological gender theory will be drafted, which does not normatively and reductively claim the demarcation of gender, but rather opens up a space for gender diversity.
O'Neil, Deborah A; Hopkins, Margaret M
In this Perspective article we propose that in order to pave the way for women's career advancement into the senior ranks of organizations, attention must be directed at the systemic norms and structures that drive the gendered nature of the workplace. A focus on individual level issues, i.e., women lacking confidence and women opting out, detracts from the work that must be done at the organizational level in order to dismantle the system of pervasive, structural disadvantage facing women seeking to advance to senior leadership positions.
Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E; Martin, Carol Lynn; Granger, Kristen L
During adolescence, gender identity (GI) develops through a dialectic process of personal reflection and with input from the social environment. Peers play an important role in the socialization of gendered behavior, but no studies to-date have assessed peer influences on GI. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine peer influences on four aspects of adolescents' GI in racially and ethnically diverse 7th- and 8th-grade students (N = 670; 49.5% boys, M age = 12.64) using a longitudinal social network modeling approach. We hypothesized stronger peer influence effects on between-gender dimensions of GI (intergroup bias and felt pressure for gender conformity) than on within-gender dimensions of GI (typicality and contentedness). Consistent with expectations, we found significant peer influence on between-gender components of GI-intergroup bias among 7th and 8th graders as well as felt pressure for gender conformity among 8th graders. In contrast, within-gender components of GI showed no evidence of peer influence. Importantly, these peer socialization effects were evident even when controlling for tendencies to select friends who were similar on gender, gender typicality, and contentedness (8th graders only). Employing longitudinal social network analyses provides insights into and clarity about the roles of peers in gender development. (PsycINFO Database Record
Townsel, Norman L., Jr.
Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) holds that self-efficacy and outcome expectations are primary predictors of career choice goals and actions, with contextual influences moderating those choices and actions. Racial identity research indicates that African American adolescents perceive more barriers than their White counterparts. The current…
Deogracias, Joseph J; Johnson, Laurel L; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Kessler, Suzanne J; Schober, Justine M; Zucker, Kenneth J
The present study reports on the construction of a dimensional measure of gender identity (gender dysphoria) for adolescents and adults. The 27-item gender identity/gender dysphoria questionnaire for adolescents and adults (GIDYQ-AA) was administered to 389 university students (heterosexual and nonheterosexual) and 73 clinic-referred patients with gender identity disorder. Principal axis factor analysis indicated that a one-factor solution, accounting for 61.3% of the total variance, best fits the data. Factor loadings were all >or= .30 (median, .82; range, .34-.96). A mean total score (Cronbach's alpha, .97) was computed, which showed strong evidence for discriminant validity in that the gender identity patients had significantly more gender dysphoria than both the heterosexual and nonheterosexual university students. Using a cut-point of 3.00, we found the sensitivity was 90.4% for the gender identity patients and specificity was 99.7% for the controls. The utility of the GIDYQ-AA is discussed.
Student engagement in science, as defined by Iva Gurgel, Mauricio Pietrocola, and Graciella Watanabe, is of great importance because a student's perceived compatibility with science learning is highly influenced by personal identities, or how students see themselves in relations to the world. This can greatly impact their learning experiences. In…
Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin
The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.
Chung, Y. Barry
Analysis of responses from 165 undergraduates on the Career Decision Making Self Efficacy Scale revealed high internal consistency for the instrument and moderate correlation between it and the Career Commitment Scale. No gender or ethnic differences were found in this correlation. Blacks scored significantly higher than whites on both measures.…
Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter
This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…
Duffy, Ryan D.; Klingaman, Elizabeth A.
The current study explored the relation of ethnic identity achievement and career development progress among a sample of 2,432 first-year college students who completed the Career Decision Profile and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. Among students of color, correlational analyses revealed a series of statistically significant, but…
Guerra, Antonia L.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.
Investigates students' identity formation and perceptions of parental acceptance and encouragement of independence as predictors of career indecision. Four measurements were administered to 169 undergraduate students for the study. Results show career indecision was predicted by higher identity moratorium, less maternal acceptance, and fewer years…
Healy, Charles C.; Mourton, Don L.
Examined whether congruence between occupational choice and inventoried interests and vocational identity related to typical career counseling outcomes in college students. Results showed that women higher in identity estimated higher career maturity; women high in congruence reported less anxiety; and women high in both congruence and identity…
Fowler, Melisa Diane Creasy
There is a gap in existence between the number of males and females entering science careers. Research has begun to focus largely on how identity impacts the selection of such careers. While much research has been done to examine the factors that impact student identity, little work has been done to examine what happens to female students who have…
Okabe, Nobuyuki; Sato, Toshiki; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Ido, Yumiko; Terada, Seishi; Kuroda, Shigetoshi
The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients with gender identity disorder (GID) at a GID clinic in Japan. A total of 603 consecutive patients were evaluated at the GID clinic using clinical information and results of physical and neurological examinations. Using DSM-IV criteria, 579 patients (96.0%) were diagnosed with GID. Four patients were excluded for transvestic fetishism, eight for homosexuality, five for schizophrenia, three for personality disorders, and four for other psychiatric disorders. Among the GID patients, 349 (60.3%) were the female-to-male (FTM) type, and 230 (39.7%) were the male-to-female (MTF) type. Almost all FTM-type GID patients started to feel discomfort with their sex before puberty and were sexually attracted to females. The proportion of FTM patients who had experienced marriage as a female was very low, and very few had children. Therefore, FTM-type GID patients seem to be highly homogeneous. On the other hand, various patterns of age at onset and sexual attraction existed among MTF patients. Among the MTF-type GID patients, 28.3% had married as males and 18.7% had sired children. Thus, MTF-type GID patients seem to be more heterogeneous.
T'Sjoen, Guy; De Cuypere, Griet; Monstrey, Stan; Hoebeke, Piet; Freedman, F Kenneth; Appari, Mahesh; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Van Borsel, John; Cools, Martine
Women and girls with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) invariably have a female typical core gender identity. In this case report, we describe the first case of male gender identity in a CAIS individual raised female leading to complete sex reassignment involving both androgen treatment and phalloplasty. CAIS was diagnosed at age 17, based on an unambiguously female phenotype, a 46,XY karyotype, and a 2660delT androgen receptor (AR) gene mutation, leading to a premature stop in codon 807. Bilateral gonadectomy was performed but a short period of estrogen treatment induced a negative emotional reaction and treatment was stopped. Since the age of 3, childhood-onset cross gender behavior had been noticed. After a period of psychotherapy, persisting male gender identity was confirmed. There was no psychiatric co-morbidity and there was an excellent real life experience. Testosterone substitution was started, however without inducing any of the desired secondary male characteristics. A subcutaneous mastectomy was performed and the patient received phalloplasty by left forearm free flap and scrotoplasty. Testosterone treatment was continued, without inducing virilization, and bone density remained normal. The patient qualifies as female-to-male transsexual and was treated according to the Standards of Care by the World Professional Association for Transgender Health with good outcome. However, we do not believe that female sex of rearing as a standard procedure should be questioned in CAIS. Our case challenges the role of a functional AR pathway in the development of male gender identity.
Phillips, Debby A
Modern and postmodern scholars are addressing the crisis in masculinity by questioning the meaning of masculinity and by rethinking masculinity, male development, gender, and identity. This article explicates current modern humanist positions and postmodern positions on these topics. The first section summarizes contemporary theories advanced by scholars in the relatively new discipline of men's studies. The second section presents postmodern positions exploring sex as a biological given, the emerging critiques of differentiating sex and gender, and poststructural psychoanalytic positions on simultaneous production of individual subjectivity (sense of self), masculine identity, and society. Implications of these perspectives are identified.
Sohn, Michael; Bosinski, Hartmut A G
Transsexualism is defined as a strong and persistent cross-gender identification with the patient's persistent discomfort with his or her sex and a sense of inappropriateness in the gender role of that sex (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth revision, text revision [DSM-IV-TR]). The disturbance is not concurrent with a physical intersex condition and causes clinical distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The trained mental health professional is obliged to find out if the patient fulfills the criteria of an irreversible gender transposition and if he or she will benefit from medical (hormonal and surgical) sex-reassignment treatment. If a patient has absolved 12 months of real-life experience and at least 6 months of continuous hormonal treatment, the indication for surgical sex reassignment may be given. Genital sex-reassignment in male-to-female transsexuals includes vaginoplasty, preferably by inversion of penoscrotal skin flaps, clitoroplasty, and vulvoplasty. The operation may be performed in one or two sessions. In contrast to genital reassignment in male-to-female patients, no operative standards are available in female-to-male subjects. Recently, neophallus creation from sensate free forearm flaps has emerged as the most promising approach for those patients who want to have a neophallus. Other alternatives such as metoidoioplasty or neophallus reconstruction from regional flaps exist, but are also accompanied by multiple possible complications and re-interventions. Best results are to be expected when using multidisciplinary teams of plastic surgeons, urologists, gynecologists, and experts in sexual medicine in large volume centers.
Rosa, Katemari Diogo da
This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.
Khapova, Svetlana N.; Arthur, Michael B.; Wilderom, Celeste P. M.; Svensson, Jorgen S.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate career change intention and its predictors among career change seekers interested in a career opportunity in the information technology (IT) industry. Design/methodology/approach: Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to predict career change intention in this group. In addition, we…
McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope
This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…
Ing, Marsha; Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Tsai, Sherry M.
This longitudinal study analyzes survey responses in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade from diverse public school students (n = 482) to explore gender differences in engineering and science career preferences. Females were far more likely to express interest in a science career (31%) than an engineering career (13%), while the reverse was true for…
Many theories of career development are derived from theories of personality; however, broader perspectives on career development are being built on emerging research focused on gender, race, ethnicity, and social class. The main career development theories are as follows: trait and factor theories (which assumes the possibility of matching…
Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii
Assisting transgender individuals is a concern for career development practitioners because there is a lack of knowledge on this topic. The complexity of gender reassignment surgery brings challenges and unique needs to this population, throughout gender transition, and requires career development practitioners to understand these challenges and…
Keys, David E.
Reports results of investigations into relationships of gender and sex role with career decision making of Certified Management Accountants (CMA). The Bem Sex Role Inventory responses from 87 women CMA's and 87 men CMA's show both gender and sex role to be significantly related to various aspects of career decision making. (Author/SA)
Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary; Haasler, Simone; Tomassini, Massimo; Suzanne, Pamela A.
Institutionalised discrimination continues to perpetuate deep rooted social divisions, with gender inequality persisting as a pervasive feature of labour markets across the world. Despite the depth and breadth of gender inequality, there is limited acknowledgement in career theory that the career support needs of women are distinctive. A…
Reisner, Sari L; Greytak, Emily A; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Ybarra, Michele L
Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the United States. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N = 5,542) sampled adolescents ages 13 to 18 years old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches theirs assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12-month alcohol use, marijuana use, and nonmarijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment.
Reisner, Sari L.; Greytak, Emily A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Ybarra, Michele
Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the U.S. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N=5,542) sampled adolescents 13–18 years-old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches one’s sex assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12 month alcohol use, marijuana use, and non-marijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment. PMID:24742006
Eddleston, Kimberly A; Veiga, John F; Powell, Gary N
Using survey data from 400 managers, the authors examined whether gender self-schema would explain sex differences in preferences for status-based and socioemotional career satisfiers. Female gender self-schema, represented by femininity and family role salience, completely mediated the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for socioemotional career satisfiers. However, male gender self-schema, represented by masculinity and career role salience, did not mediate the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for status-based career satisfiers. As expected, male managers regarded status-based career satisfiers as more important and socioemotional career satisfiers as less important than female managers did. The proposed conceptualization of male and female gender self-schemas, which was supported by the data, enhances understanding of adult self-schema and work-related attitudes and behavior.
Johnson, Laurel L; Bradley, Susan J; Birkenfeld-Adams, Andrea S; Kuksis, Myra A Radzins; Maing, Dianne M; Mitchell, Janet N; Zucker, Kenneth J
This paper reports on the psychometric properties of a 16-item parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire, originally developed by P. H. Elizabeth and R. Green (1984), to aid in the assessment of children with potential problems in their gender identity development. The questionnaire, which covered aspects of the core phenomenology of gender identity disorder (GID), was completed by parents of gender-referred children (N = 325) and controls (siblings, clinic-referred, and nonreferred; N = 504), who ranged in age from 2.5-12 years (mean age, 7.6 years). Factor-analysis indicated that a one-factor solution, containing 14 of the 16 items with factor loadings > or =.30, best fit the data, accounting for 43.7% of the variance. The gender-referred children had a significantly more deviant total score than did the controls, with a large effect size of 3.70. The GIQ total score had negligible age effects, indicating that the questionnaire has utility for assessing change over time. The gender-referred children who met the complete DSM criteria for GID had a significantly more deviant total score than did the children who were subthreshold for GID, although the latter group had a mean score that was closer to the threshold cases than to the controls. With a specificity rate set at 95% for the controls, the sensitivity rate for the probands was 86.8%. It is concluded that this parent-report gender identity questionnaire has excellent psychometric properties and can serve as a useful screening device for front-line clinicians, for whom more extensive, expensive, and time-consuming assessment procedures may be precluded.
Bowles, Terence V.; Brindle, Kimberley A.
The first aim of the current article is to primarily propose a model to assist career counsellors in understanding and guiding adolescents towards career commitment. The second aim is to focus on the relationship between career identity and career certainty, and how these positively influence the achievement of ego identity and maturity. Finally,…
Cichocka, Aleksandra; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kofta, Mirek; Rozum, Joanna
The aim of this research was to examine conditions that modify feminists' support for women as targets of gender discrimination. In an experimental study we tested a hypothesis that threatened feminist identity will lead to greater differentiation between feminists and conservative women as victims of discrimination and, in turn, a decrease in support for non-feminist victims. The study was conducted among 96 young Polish female professionals and graduate students from Gender Studies programs in Warsaw who self-identified as feminists (Mage = 22.23). Participants were presented with a case of workplace gender discrimination. Threat to feminist identity and worldview of the discrimination victim (feminist vs. conservative) were varied between research conditions. Results indicate that identity threat caused feminists to show conditional reactions to discrimination. Under identity threat, feminists perceived the situation as less discriminatory when the target held conservative views on gender relations than when the target was presented as feminist. This effect was not observed under conditions of no threat. Moreover, feminists showed an increase in compassion for the victim when she was portrayed as a feminist compared to when she was portrayed as conservative. Implications for the feminist movement are discussed.
Wallien, Madeleine S.C.; Swaab, Hanna; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and type of comorbidity in children with gender identity disorder (GID). Method: The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children--Parent Version was used to assess psychopathology according to the DSM in two groups of children. The first group consisted of 120 Dutch children (age range 4-11 years) who were…
Luk-Fong, Yuk Yee Pattie; Brennan, Marie
In a time of mass schooling in most parts of the world, the discourse of the "woman primary teacher" is often the subject of discourse. Yet most stories of these women teachers emerge from other (Western) contexts, with little known about how changing education processes affect the gendered identities of women in other cultural settings.…
Bartlett, Nancy H.; Vasey, Paul L.; Bukowski, William M.
Evaluates empirical studies to determine whether Gender Identity Disorder (GID) in children meets DSM-IV definitional criteria of mental illness. Concludes that children who experience a sense of inappropriateness in their culturally prescribed sex role but do not experience discomfort with their biological sex should not be considered to have a…
Longitudinal data from 105 junior high school students were analyzed to examine the relationship between gender and identity development over time. Analysis of variance, t tests, and analysis of covariance were employed. Taken collectively, results indicated that patterns of change over time were similar for males and females; as the students aged, they grew in psychosocial maturity regardless of gender. These results are consistent with other work using Eriksonian-based assessment instruments. Gilligan, using ethnographic methodology and a framework at odds with Erikson's, has proposed a very different interpretation of development across gender. Perhaps the two methodologies and the concomitant findings should be considered in a complementary fashion in view of the complex societal forces imposed upon females as they progress in their identity development.
Dittmann, R W
This article discusses general issues with regard to gender-identity problems, sex reassignment, and clinical management in patients with ambiguous genitalia, based on a detailed case history of a patient with penile agenesis who has been followed more than 20 years. After initial uncertainty, the patient began to grow up as a boy, lived from the fourth year of life as a girl and young woman, and lived from late puberty on as a man. Over his lifetime he experienced extensive corrective surgery plus hormonal substitution therapy. Pre- and perinatal hormonal conditions, phenomenology of the genitalia, sex of rearing, timing of sex reassignment and corrective surgery, for example, appear to be important components for the development of gender-role behavior, gender identity, and sexual orientation of intersex patients. Findings and retrospective considerations for this patient suggest the need for careful differential activities in diagnostic workup, approaches to sex assignment and possible reassignment, and the clinical management of patients and families.
Singh, Devita; Deogracias, Joseph J; Johnson, Laurel L; Bradley, Susan J; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study aimed to provide further validity evidence for the dimensional measurement of gender identity and gender dysphoria in both adolescents and adults. Adolescents and adults with gender identity disorder (GID) were compared to clinical control (CC) adolescents and adults on the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA), a 27-item scale originally developed by Deogracias et al. (2007). In Study 1, adolescents with GID (n = 44) were compared to CC adolescents (n = 98); and in Study 2, adults with GID (n = 41) were compared to CC adults (n = 94). In both studies, clients with GID self-reported significantly more gender dysphoria than did the CCs, with excellent sensitivity and specificity rates. In both studies, degree of self-reported gender dysphoria was significantly correlated with recall of cross-gender behavior in childhood-a test of convergent validity. The research and clinical utility of the GIDYQ-AA is discussed, including directions for further research in distinct clinical populations.
Duch, Jordi; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Woodruff, Teresa K.
Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in promoting research productivity and impact. What remains unclear is whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines differ in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,980 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at select U.S. research universities. We find that female faculty have significantly fewer distinct co-authors over their careers than males, but that this difference can be fully accounted for by females’ lower publication rate and shorter career lengths. Next, we find that female scientists have a lower probability of repeating previous co-authors than males, an intriguing result because prior research shows that teams involving new collaborations produce work with higher impact. Finally, we find evidence for gender segregation in some sub-disciplines in molecular biology, in particular in genomics where we find female faculty to be clearly under-represented. PMID:27814355
Gangestad, S W; Bailey, J M; Martin, N G
Taxa are nonarbitrary classes whose existence is an empirical question and not a matter of mere semantic convenience. Taxometric procedures detect whether numerical relations between purported indicators of conjectured taxa bear the hallmarks of true taxa. On the basis of theoretical considerations, the current study tested whether taxa underlie sexual orientation and related measures of gender identity. Two taxometric procedures, maximum covariance, making hits maximum (MAXCOV) and mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC), were applied to Kinsey Scales and measures of childhood gender nonconformity and adult gender identity in a sample of nearly 5,000 members of the Australian Twin Registry. Results suggest that latent taxa underlie these measures. About 12-15% of men and 5-10% of women belong to latent taxa associated with homosexual preference. These percentages are greater than those of individuals who report homosexual preference, however, and hence it appears that an appreciable proportion of individuals in these taxa have heterosexual preference. An understanding of the origins of these latent taxa may be important to understanding the development of sexual orientation and gender identity.
Langs, R; Rapp, P E; Pinto, A; Cramer, G; Badalamenti, A
This paper details the application of three distinctive approaches to the analysis of line-by-line scores for themes of gender and identity in recorded psychotherapy consultations conducted by three male analysts with a female patient. The first method involved commonly used statistical comparisons of the frequency with which gender subthemes and allusions to identity appeared in each consultation session. The results of this study indicate three significantly different patterns of gender material in the communications from the patient with each of the analysts who interviewed her--and from each analyst and patient/analyst system as well. Therapist dominance in this area appeared to be quite strong. The second study involved measures of overall informational complexity for various aspects of the gender/identity sequence of communications. Here too, individual differences emerged. They not only add to the evidence for therapist dominance in these protocols, but also provide indications that sessions differ in respect to the extent to which the information they contain is ordered and repetitive or redundant, as compared to disordered, complex, and varied. The third study availed itself of stochastic methods in which the Box-Jenkins models were used to define mathematically and post hoc, the deeper structure of aspects of the vicissitudes of gender/identity expressions in the course of these consultations. The main finding was that change in speaker role in respect to these themes accelerated in response to random interventional shocks to the system that occurred at the time of measurement and inversely with shocks to the system sustained the previous second. This look into the deeper structure of these sequences revealed considerable sensitivity to recent shocks to the patient/therapist system, much underlying instability, and strong tendencies toward establishing stability or equilibrium when the system destabilized. Of note is the finding that all three
Courses: Gender Communication, Communication and Careers, Organizational Communication. Objectives: At the end of the activity, students will be able: to identify and analyze the socialization of gender expectations, to recognize and describe how early this type of socialization can occur, to critique the early socialization of gendered career…
Wiseman, Mel; Davidson, Sarah
Western society recognises male and female sex from physiological attributes, such as genitals and chromosomes. 'Gender' is the social and cultural expectation of how males and females should think, behave and how they should be treated by others (Diamond, 2002). Some children and adolescents experience distress, marginalization, and abuse associated with their gender identifications, preferences and behaviours, which are inconsistent with those expected of their biological sex. Often their families and society find gender non-conformity at best difficult, at worst offensive, distressing and intolerable. There is increasing focus on how mental health professionals work with difference in gender and sexual identity and recent publications highlight the shift from pathologizing transgender to a more 'identity-based' perspective, focussing more on the stigmatizing affects of the environment and the impact on the individual (Bockting, 2009). This article describes the challenges of binary gender discourse for young people and their wider contexts and considers how clinicians may more helpfully respond to avoid unhelpful binaries and so keep the young person in mind. The therapeutic aims of the UK Gender Identity Development Service (GIDS) for children and young people are considered and examples of our work provided.
Zucker, K J; Green, R; Coates, S; Zuger, B; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Zecca, G M; Lertora, V; Money, J; Hahn-Burke, S; Bradley, S J; Blanchard, R
Sibling sex ratio (the ratio of brothers to sisters) was calculated for 444 boys with gender identity disorder (or with behaviors consistent with this diagnosis). The probands were ascertained from several researchers with expertise with this disorder and from the English language case report literature between 1938 and 1995. Among the probands with at least one sibling (N = 333), the results showed that boys with gender identity disorder had a significant excess of brothers to sisters, 131.1:100, when compared with the expected secondary sex ratio of 106:100. The excess of brothers replicated a previous study by Blanchard, Zucker, Bradley, and Hume (1995), in which the sibling sex ratio was 140.6:100. Further analyses showed that the probands were born later relative to their brothers than they were relative to their sisters. These findings are amenable to several psychosocial and biological explanations, which require further investigation.
Increasing interest by national and international agencies affects the environment career practitioners work in. Market-driven systems, deregulation and technological innovation change how people access services. This article examines some of the implications of these aspects on how career practitioners build their occupational identity, finding…
Bosinski, H A G
The current classification systems (ICD-10, DSM-IV), epidemiology, symptoms and diagnostic features of gender identity disorders are discussed. In the best interest of the patients, and in view of the legal situation, treatment has to follow set "standards of care". The necessity of a psychotherapeutically guided real life test, lasting at least 1 year before somatic treatment can begin, is again pointed out.
Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T
The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) to suppress puberty in adolescents with gender dysphoria is a fairly new intervention in the field of gender identity disorders or transsexualism. GnRHa are used to give adolescents time to make balanced decisions on any further treatment steps, and to obtain improved results in the physical appearance of those who opt to continue with sex reassignment. The effects of GnRHa are reversible. However, concerns have been raised about the risk of making the wrong treatment decisions, as gender identity could fluctuate during adolescence, adolescents in general might have poor decision-making abilities, and there are potential adverse effects on health and on psychological and psychosexual functioning. Proponents of puberty suppression emphasize the beneficial effects of GnRHa on the adolescents' mental health, quality of life and of having a physical appearance that makes it possible for the patients to live unobtrusively in their desired gender role. In this Review, we discuss the evidence pertaining to the debate on the effects of GnRHa treatment. From the studies that have been published thus far, it seems that the benefits outweigh the risks. However, more systematic research in this area is needed to determine the safety of this approach.
Diemer, Matthew A.; Blustein, David L.
Emancipatory communitarian perspectives advocate for theory, research, and action that address the needs of oppressed groups, such as urban adolescents. Considering the dearth of instruments sensitive to the career development needs of urban adolescents, this study examined the component structure of three indices of career development with 220…
The careers profession is challenged significantly by government, employers and potential consumers to articulate its added value to society. Neoliberal discourses such as privatisation, deregulation, flexicurity and a self-help culture are impacting upon arrangements for the design and delivery of all-age careers provision across the UK. In this…
Lengelle, Reinekke; Meijers, Frans
We propose that writing can be employed to foster the kind of career learning required in the twenty-first century. The article offers insights into how writing exercises and approaches can be applied to help students construct their career stories in a way that allows them to engage in a dialogical learning process and work in a self-directed…
A detailed, general and comprehensive accounting scheme is presented, consisting of nine stages of career development, three major sets of elements contributing to career choice (in terms of personal, cultural and situational roles), and 20 hypotheses relating the separate elements. Implicit in the model is a novel procedure and method for…
Rennie, Leonie J.; Dunne, Mairead
This study examines the relationships between gender, ethnicity, and Fijian students' attitudes and perceptions about science, attributions of success and failure in science as school, science as a career, and the career-related advice they received. Data were collected with a questionnaire administered to a stratified, random, one-sixth sample of Form 5 (16-year-old) students in Fiji. Gender and ethnicity were found to have no consistent relationship with students' perceptions, attitudes, and attributions about science. However, students, particularly males, demonstrated strong sex-stereotyping of science-related careers, and different kinds of career advice were given to students on the basis of their gender and ethnicity. These, rather than students' attitudes and performance in science, are more likely to explain the patterns linking gender and ethnicity with the science-related work force and higher education in Fiji.
An incongruence between one's physiological sex and the gender identity that is one's basic sense of self as a man or a woman is known as gender identity disorder. In general, the conditions of physiological men having female gender identity and physiological women having male gender identity are called male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder, respectively. Although the precise pathogenesis of gender identity disorder remains unclear, the prevalence of gender identity disorder is quite high, with the rates calculated for male-to-female to be 1:25,000 and female-to-male to be 1:12,000 in Hokkaido, Japan. The diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder in Japan are based on the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Guidelines for Patients with Gender Identity Disorder, 4th edition. Although gender identity disorder was previously thought to be a psychiatric condition, it is extremely difficult to assign gender identity to physiological sex by psychiatric and psychological treatments. To adapt the figure of the body to the native gender identity, physical treatments such as administration of cross-sex steroids and sex reassignment surgery are considered. However, there are very few institutions that routinely carry out sex reassignment surgery in Japan, even though it is mandatory for changing sex on the census register at the present time. Sex reassignment surgery for male-to-female and female-to-male patients includes orchiectomy, penectomy, clitoroplasty, vaginoplasty and vulvoplasty, and hysterectomy, ovariectomy, metoidioplasty and phalloplasty, respectively. To provide accurate information about physical treatment for patients with gender identity disorder, even urologists who are not actively involved in the diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder should understand the fundamental aspects and contemporary problems of gender identity disorder.
This paper contributes to the contested body of work on graduate employability, employment and sustained career building. Educational establishments across the world are expected to equip students with the knowledge and skills for employability, sustainable employment and career development. The protean career concept and the boundary-less career…
Salami, Samuel Olayinka
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of emotional intelligence with career development and the moderating role of gender in the relationship. This study adopted a survey research design. Questionnaires were used to obtain data on emotional intelligence, career development and demographic factors from 485 secondary school…
National Academies Press, 2010
"Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty" presents new and surprising findings about career differences between female and male full-time, tenure-track, and tenured faculty in science, engineering, and mathematics at the nation's top research universities. Much of this…
Ramaswami, Aarti; Dreher, George F.; Bretz, Robert; Wiethoff, Carolyn
The moderating effects of biological gender on the relationships between mentoring and career attainment were explored among legal professionals. Research results indicated that male and female lawyers were equally likely to have senior male mentors. However, senior male mentors were associated with higher career attainment only for female…
Grunert, Megan L.; Bodner, George M.
This paper describes results from a study on the career choices of women earning doctorates in chemistry in the United States. Presented here are findings related to the participants' identification with traditional female gender roles and expectations for behavior in the male-dominated field of chemistry. Underlying a career decision-making model…
Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Hazari, Zahra; Tai, Robert
This retrospective cohort study characterizes how interest in science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) careers changes during high school for more than 6,000 students in a representative national sample of 34 two- and four-year colleges taking mandatory college English courses. Overall, large gender differences in career plans were…
Simpson, Ruth; Sturges, Jane; Woods, Adrian; Altman, Yochanan
Against the background of an earlier study, this article presents the findings of a Canadian-based survey of career benefits from the MBA. Results indicate first that gender and age interact to influence perceptions of career outcomes and second that both men and women gain intrinsic benefits from the MBA. However, intrinsic benefits vary by…
Schuette, Christine T.; Ponton, Michael K.; Charlton, Margaret L.
The authors explored the relationship between the career aspirations of 89 preadolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds and the actual occupations of the working adults in their homes with regard to status, job gender identification, and interest (Holland, 1997). There was a significant relationship between boys' career aspirations and the…
Hamilton, Asia Fuller; Malin, Joel; Hackmann, Donald
This study analyzed high school Career and Technical Education (CTE) enrollments in Illinois, with comparisons to national data when possible, by career cluster and pathway and with respect to gender and racial/ethnic makeup of students. Enrollment patterns in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) CTE programming were emphasized.…
Evans, Clifford D.; Diekman, Amanda B.
Despite widespread changes in occupational opportunities, men and women continue to show divergent preferences for careers. This research invoked a motivational framework to explain sex-differentiated career interest. From a role congruity perspective (Diekman & Eagly, 2008), the internalization of gender roles leads people to endorse…
Hüttges, Annett; Fay, Doris
Women are strongly underrepresented at top positions in research, with some research suggesting the postdoctoral career stage is a critical stage for female researchers. Drawing on role congruity theory and social cognitive career theory, we tested the gender-differential impact of work values (extrinsic rewards-oriented work values and work-life…
Gangaher, Arushi; Chauhan, Vasundhera; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Mehta, Manju
Background: Disorders of sexual development (DSD) may pose a challenge to live as a fully-functioning male or female. In this study, we prospectively assessed eleven 46 XY DSD patients who were being treated at our center over the last 8 months for gender dysphoria. Materials and Methods: To determine gender dysphoria, age-appropriate gender identity (GI) questionnaires were used. For patients, 12 years and below, parent report GI questionnaire for children was used and for those above 12 years of age, GI/gender dysphoria questionnaire for adolescents and adults was administered. Results: Of 11 patients with 46 XY DSD, three were diagnosed with 5 alpha reductase deficiency (5aRD), two with partial gonadal dysgenesis, three with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, one each with ovotesticular, complete gonadal dysgenesis, and complete androgen insensitivity. Gender assigned at birth was female in eight and male in three patients. Among the eight reared as female, gender had been reassigned as male in three patients well before the present study was conducted. None of the eleven patients had gender dysphoria at the time of this study. Conclusion: Early gender of rearing was seen to be a critical indicator of present GI in our patients except in cases of 5aRD. PMID:27366722
Powell, Abigail; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara
In the UK, women remain under-represented in engineering and technology (E&T). Research has, therefore, investigated barriers and solutions to women's recruitment, retention and progression. Recruitment into the sector may be supported by exploring the career decisions of women and men who have chosen to study E&T. Triangulating quantitative and qualitative data from E&T students at a UK university, this paper examines the gendered nature of career choice narratives. It finds that women often maintain contradictory views; upholding gendered stereotypes about women's suitability for the so-called masculine work, yet also subscribing to ideals that the sector is accessible to all who wish to work in it. This is explained using an individualist framework in which women construct an autonomous sense of self, yet are also shaped by a gendered self. Women's discourse around career choice, therefore, reveals the problematic nature of gender norms for achieving gender equity in E&T.
Only 48.6% of University Council For Educational Administration (UCEA) institutions which focus on social justice in principal preparation programs address sexual orientation, this case describes how the completion of an equity audit for an educational leadership course compelled Principal Olson to reflect on his identity as a social justice…
Pauletti, Rachel E; Cooper, Patrick J; Perry, David G
We investigated whether gender identity influences preadolescents' tendency to single out gender-atypical peers for abuse. Data were gathered from 195 boys and girls (M age = 10.1 years) in the fall and spring of a school year. Children self-reported multiple dimensions of gender identity (intergroup bias, felt pressure for gender differentiation, felt gender typicality, gender contentedness); peers assessed each other's social behavior (gender nonconformity, aggression toward each classmate). Using multilevel modeling, we examined how children's attacks on gender-nonconforming peers (relative to their attacks on other peers) changed over the school year depending on their gender identity. There was modest support for the hypothesis that overconfident, arrogant gender identity promotes abuse of gender-atypical peers but considerable support for the hypothesis that insecure, self-questioning gender identity fosters this tendency. Implications for issues central to contemporary personality theory (e.g., Person × Situation interaction) are discussed. New and somewhat surprising information about the cognitive and behavioral characteristics of gender-nonconforming preadolescents is provided.
Eryigit, Suna; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.
The current study investigated and compared the associations between identity processing styles and the actual work of identity formation in the career domain in two national contexts, the US and Turkey. Identity styles represent individuals' orientations to identity work, and were measured by the Identity Processing Styles Q-Sort (IPSQ). The…
Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.; Almarode, John T.
What motivates individuals to embark on graduate careers in physics and chemistry and how could these motivations impact future productivity? This study examines gender differences in such motivations and their ability to predict select future success outcomes (publications and grant funding) for physical scientists. The data were obtained as part…
Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid
Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…
Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Scott, Marc A; Way, Niobe
A considerable amount of social identity research has focused on race and racial identity, while gender identity, particularly among Black adolescents, remains underexamined. The current study used survey data from 183 Black adolescent males (13-16 years old) to investigate the development and relation between racial and gender identity centrality and private regard, and how these identities impact adjustment over time. It was found that dimensions of racial and gender identity were strongly correlated. Levels of racial centrality increased over time while gender centrality, and racial and gender private regard declined. In addition, racial and gender identity uniquely contributed to higher levels of psychological well-being and academic adjustment. These findings are discussed within the context of existing identity theories and intersectionality theory.
Koumoundourou, Georgia A.; Kounenou, Kalliopi; Siavara, Eftyxia
This study explored the mediating role of career decision self-efficacy between core self-evaluations (CSE), a newly established construct within the personality domain, and adolescents' vocational identity. Using a sample of 200 Greek high school students, it was found that for female adolescents CSE influenced vocational identity both directly…
Hirschy, Amy S.; Wilson, Maureen E.; Liddell, Debora L.; Boyle, Kathleen M.; Pasquesi, Kira
In this study, the authors propose and test a model of professional identity development among early career student affairs professionals. Using survey data from 173 new professionals (0-5 years of experience), factor analysis revealed 3 dimensions of professional identity: commitment, values congruence, and intellectual investment. Multivariate…
Becker, Inga; Gjergji-Lama, Voltisa; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit
Given the increasing demand for counselling in gender dysphoria in childhood in Germany, there is a definite need for empirical data on characteristics and developmental trajectories of this clinical group. This study aimed to provide a first overview by assessing demographic characteristics and developmental trajectories of a group of gender variant boys and girls referred to the specialised Gender Identity Clinic in Hamburg. Data were extracted from medical charts, transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis methods. Categories were set up by inductive-deductive reasoning based on the patients' parents' and clinicians' information in the files. Between 2006 and 2010, 45 gender variant children and adolescents were seen by clinicians; 88.9% (n = 40) of these were diagnosed with gender identity disorder (ICD-10). Within this group, the referral rates for girls were higher than for boys (1:1.5). Gender dysphoric girls were on average older than the boys and a higher percentage of girls was referred to the clinic at the beginning of adolescence (> 12 years of age). At the same time, more girls reported an early onset age. More girls made statements about their (same-sex) sexual orientation during adolescence and wishes for gender confirming medical interventions. More girls than boys revealed self-mutilation in the past or present as well as suicidal thoughts and/or attempts. Results indicate that the presentation of clinically referred gender dysphoric girls differs from the characteristics boys present in Germany; especially with respect to the most salient age differences. Therefore, these two groups require different awareness and individual treatment approaches.
Gushue, George V.; Scanlan, Kolone R. L.; Pantzer, Karen M.; Clarke, Christine P.
This study explores the relationship between the social cognitive construct of career decision-making self-efficacy and the outcome variables of vocational identity and career exploration behaviors in a sample of 72 urban African American high school students. The results indicate that higher levels of career decision-making self-efficacy are…
Esters, Levon T.; Retallick, Michael S.
This exploratory study examined the effect of an agriculturally-based experiential and work-based learning program, Science With Practice (SWP), on the vocational identity, career decision self-efficacy, and career maturity of undergraduate agriculture and life sciences students. The SWP experience helped clarify students' career interests and…
Schwartz, Seth J.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.
Examined the effects of variations in acculturation and gender on identity processes and outcomes in a sample of 357 students at a culturally diverse university. Results indicate that the processes underlying identity development are consistent across variations in acculturation and gender. Supplemental analyses revealed effects of acculturation…
Wilson, Marc Stewart; Liu, James H
The aim of this research was to investigate the claim that gender differences in levels of social dominance orientation (SDO; Pratto, Sidanius, Stallworth, & Malle, 1994), a personality variable measuring a general predisposition towards anti-egalitarianism, are essentially invariant (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999). Previous findings have indicated that (regardless of covariate) males display higher levels of SDO than females. Two studies were conducted to test the expectation (derived from social identity theory) that the gender-SDO relationship would be moderated by strength of gender group identification. Both samples (150 non-students and 163 students) completed the full SDO(6) measure, and measures of gender group identification. Consistent with predictions, strength of gender identification was found to moderate the gender-SDO relationship, such that increasing group identification was associated with increasing SDO scores for males, and decreasing SDO for females. This result raises questions concerning the theoretical basis of social dominance theory, and whether gender group membership should be accorded a different status from other 'arbitrary-set' group memberships.
Abele, Andrea E.; Spurk, Daniel
This study investigated the impact of gender, the gender-related self-concept (agency and communion), and the timing of parenthood on objective career success of 1,015 highly educated professionals. Hypotheses derived from a dual-impact model of gender and career-related processes were tested in a 5-wave longitudinal study over a time span of 10…
Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Katz, Andrew D.; Chew, Aaronson Y.; Ray, G. Christopher; Laine, Lia; Caulum, David
This study examined the influence of gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity on the career aspirations of over 22,000 8th and 10th grade youth. The top five occupations identified by youth as aspirations included artist, lawyer, musician, FBI agent, and actor/actress. Top occupations were also reported for each gender x socioeconomic…
Morales, Marie Paz E.; Avilla, Ruel A.; Espinosa, Allen A.
The present study explored gender inequality in K to 12 basic education, based on the experiences of first year pre-service science and mathematics teachers. It also determined if pre-service teachers' pursuit of a career in science or mathematics teaching was related to gender influences. A survey instrument was used to gather data for the study.…
Cundiff, Jessica L.; Vescio, Theresa K.; Loken, Eric; Lo, Lawrence
The present research examined whether gender-science stereotypes were associated with science identification and, in turn, science career aspirations among women and men undergraduate science majors. More than 1,700 students enrolled in introductory science courses completed measures of gender-science stereotypes (implicit associations and…
Cook, Ellen Piel
Discusses recent perspectives on gender differences in life and career planning, focusing on gendered context of women's and men's lives. Notes that men and women develop different orientations regarding occupational achievement and interpersonal relationships that interact with broader sociocultural norms for sexes' behavior to produce different…
Malach-Pines, Ayala; Kaspi-Baruch, Oshrit
Purpose: The paper addresses the influence of culture and gender on the choice of a management career among men and women MBA students in Israel, the USA, the UK, Turkey, Cyprus, Hungary and India. The culture by gender comparison enabled an examination of five theories: two that focused on culture (Hofstede's and an application of Schneider's ASA…
Schneider, Catharina; Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo O; Briken, Peer; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; De Cuypere, Griet; Haraldsen, Ira R; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Richter-Appelt, Hertha
This study examined two instruments measuring gender dysphoria within the multicenter study of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). The Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS) and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA) were examined for their definitions of gender dysphoria and their psychometric properties, and evaluated for their congruence in assessing the construct. The sample of 318 participants consisted of 178 male-to-females (MtF) and 140 female-to-males (FtM) who were recruited from the four ENIGI gender clinics. Both instruments were significantly correlated in the group of MtFs. For the FtM group, there was a trend in the same direction but smaller. Gender dysphoria was found to be defined differently in the two instruments, which led to slightly different findings regarding the subgroups. The UGDS detected a difference between the subgroups of early and late onset of gender identity disorder in the group of MtFs, whereas the GIDYQ-AA did not. For the FtM group, no significant effect of age of onset was found. Therefore, both instruments seem to capture not only similar but also different aspects of gender dysphoria. The UGDS focusses on bodily aspects, gender identity, and gender role, while the GIDYQ-AA addresses subjective, somatic, social, and sociolegal aspects. For future research, consistency in theory and definition of gender dysphoria is needed and should be in line with the DSM-5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.
Rathi, Anubhav; Bhatia, Manjeet Singh
Gender identity disorder (GID) is a complex disorder and can be defined as a group of disorders whose common feature is a strong and persistent preference for living as a person of the other sex. It is associated with significant impairment in social, occupational, interpersonal, and other areas of functioning. We describe the case of an adolescent, biologically male who was brought to our outpatient department primarily with symptoms of adjustment disorder with GID and the management provided. The role of a psychiatrist in the management, ethical and legal issues involved is also discussed.
Kumar, Kuldip; Gupta, Manushree
Gender identity disorder is one of the most controversial diagnoses of DSM-IV and almost incomparable in the complexity of its social, ethical and political considerations to any other diagnosis. We present a case of 30 year-old male who presented with complaints of suggestive of depressive disorder with a recent suicidal attempt. Careful history taking reveals underlying conflicts with prominent gender dysphoria and social complexities. The patient is managed primarily by pharmacotherapy and harm reduction model. Our case reflects a unique coping strategy against the present sociocultural values and ambiguity of law in this part of the world.
Gaddy, Catherine D.; And Others
Examined the influence of sex role on 70 professional women's career involvement after having children. Results showed women categorized as masculine were employed a greater proportion of time after having children. The more equalitarian the woman's marriage, the more likely she was to continue career participation after having children. (WAS)
Meijers, Frans; Kuijpers, Marinka; Gundy, Chad
In this article we focus on the effects of career education and guidance among students (ages 12-19) enrolled in prevocational and secondary vocational education in The Netherlands. Our study included 3,499 students and 166 teachers in 226 classes in 34 schools. The results showed that career competencies positively contributed to learning…
Scholarship is emerging on intervention models that purposefully attend to cultural variables throughout the career assessment and career counseling process. One heuristic model that offers promise to advance culturally relevant vocational practice with African Americans is the Outline for Cultural Formulation (CF). This article explicates the…
Mraz, Jennifer Arin
In recent years, there has been much concern over the decline of biologists who actually identify themselves to be naturalists, which negatively impacts the field of conservation and the study of biology as a whole. This could result in a decrease in individuals who participate in naturalist-like activities, such as informal environmental education and environmental volunteerism. The purpose of my study was to determine what discourse identities were held by naturalist development program participants, how these discourse identities related to their volunteer motives in environmental settings, and how discourse identity related to professional careers. I defined identity through the lens of discourse-identity, which describes a person's identity as being conveyed through that individual's communication and actions. I conducted individual interviews or used an online questionnaire to ask questions to naturalist development program attendees about their workshop experience, relationship with nature, volunteer motives and activities, as well as professional career or career aspiration. Volunteer motives were quantitatively measured in both types of program participants using the published Volunteer Motivation Questionnaire. Overall, I found that 100 study participants had six discourse identities: naturalist (n = 27), aspiring naturalist ( n = 32), nature steward (n = 5), outreach volunteer (n = 6), casual nature observer (n = 22), and recreational nature user (n = 8). Naturalist development programs should focus on developing more naturalist-like discourse identities in their participants to help encourage participation in naturalist activities. Volunteer motives were ranked by importance to participants in the following order: helping the environment, learning, user, project organization, values and esteem, social, and career. The majority of Master Naturalist Program study participants that stated a career were in non-STEM careers; however, the majority of
Olson-Kennedy, J; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Kreukels, B.P.C; Meyer-Bahlburg, H.F.L; Garofalo, R; Meyer, W; Rosenthal, S.M.
This review summarizes relevant research focused on prevalence and natural history of gender non-conforming / transgender youth, and outcomes of currently recommended clinical practice guidelines. This review identifies gaps in knowledge, and provides recommendations foci for future research. Recent findings Increasing numbers of gender nonconforming youth are presenting for care. Clinically useful information for predicting individual psychosexual development pathways is lacking. Transgender youth are at high risk for poor medical and psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal data examining the impact of early social transition and medical interventions are sparse. Existing tools to understand gender identity and quantify gender dysphoria need to be reconfigured in order to study a more diverse cohort of transgender individuals. Increasingly, biomedical data are beginning to change the trajectory of scientific investigation. Summary Extensive research is needed to improve understanding of gender dysphoria, and transgender experience, particularly among youth. Recommendations include identification of predictors of persistence of gender dysphoria from childhood into adolescence, and a thorough investigation into the impact of interventions for transgender youth. Finally, examining the social environments of transgender youth is critical for the development of appropriate interventions necessary to improve the lives of transgender people. PMID:26825472
Zucker, K J; Lightbody, S; Pecore, K; Bradley, S J; Blanchard, R
This study examined the birth order of girls with gender identity disorder (N = 22). Each proband was matched to 3-7 clinical control girls for age at assessment and number of siblings (the mode number of controls per proband was 7) (total N = 147). The number of older brothers, older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters was recorded. Slater's birth order index showed that the probands were significantly more likely to be early born than were the controls. A modified Slater's index also compared the birth order of the probands and the controls only to their brothers (when they had one or more) and only to their sisters (when they had one or more). Compared to the controls, the probands were born early compared to their sisters, but not to their brothers. These findings are the inverse of two previous studies of boys with gender identity disorder, who were later born relative to clinical control boys, an effect that appeared to be accounted for primarily by being born later relative to older brothers, but not to older sisters.
This paper traces the workplace practices within which mid-career women faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) carry out their careers. Findings from this case study of 25 faculty at one research university revealed three institutional processes that constrained their careers: (a) access to and integration into career…
Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Klaghofer, Richard; Abel, Thomas; Buddeberg, Claus
Background The medical specialities chosen by doctors for their careers play an important part in the development of health-care services. This study aimed to investigate the influence of gender, personality traits, career motivation and life goal aspirations on the choice of medical speciality. Methods As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 522 fourth-year residents were asked in what speciality they wanted to qualify. They also assessed their career motivation and life goal aspirations. Data concerning personality traits such as sense of coherence, self-esteem, and gender role orientation were collected at the first assessment, four years earlier, in their final year of medical school. Data analyses were conducted by univariate and multivariate analyses of variance and covariance. Results In their fourth year of residency 439 (84.1%) participants had made their speciality choice. Of these, 45 (8.6%) subjects aspired to primary care, 126 (24.1%) to internal medicine, 68 (13.0%) to surgical specialities, 31 (5.9%) to gynaecology & obstetrics (G&O), 40 (7.7%) to anaesthesiology/intensive care, 44 (8.4%) to paediatrics, 25 (4.8%) to psychiatry and 60 (11.5%) to other specialities. Female residents tended to choose G&O, paediatrics, and anaesthesiology, males more often surgical specialities; the other specialities did not show gender-relevant differences of frequency distribution. Gender had the strongest significant influence on speciality choice, followed by career motivation, personality traits, and life goals. Multivariate analyses of covariance indicated that career motivation and life goals mediated the influence of personality on career choice. Personality traits were no longer significant after controlling for career motivation and life goals as covariates. The effect of gender remained significant after controlling for personality traits, career motivation and life goals. Conclusion Gender had the
Rury, John L.
Reviews Lotus Coffman's 1911 survey showing surprising parity in men and women teachers' salaries. Women's inability or unwillingness to work after marriage resulted in distinctive male and female career paths in education. Women, relegated to their "real" careers as wives and mothers, did not remain teachers long enough to compete for…
Zucker, Kenneth J; Bradley, Susan J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Choi, Kathryn
This study provided a descriptive and quantitative comparative analysis of data from an assessment protocol for adolescents referred clinically for gender identity disorder (n = 192; 105 boys, 87 girls) or transvestic fetishism (n = 137, all boys). The protocol included information on demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual measures. Gender identity disorder and transvestic fetishism youth had high rates of general behavior problems and poor peer relations. On the psychosexual measures, gender identity disorder patients had considerably greater cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did transvestic fetishism youth and other control youth. Male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a nonhomosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex) reported more indicators of transvestic fetishism than did male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a homosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex). The percentage of transvestic fetishism youth and male gender identity disorder patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation self-reported similar degrees of behaviors pertaining to transvestic fetishism. Last, male and female gender identity disorder patients with a homosexual sexual orientation had more recalled cross-gender behavior during childhood and more concurrent cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation. The authors discuss the clinical utility of their assessment protocol.
This study investigated gender role influences on Turkish adolescents' self-identity process as part of the International Self-Identity Research Project. A total of 154 male and 119 female adolescents ages 14 through 17 from urban and rural areas of Turkey were surveyed through a questionnaire. The results indicated that "family" was the dominant source of belongingness for both males and females, followed by "friendships" and "school." Friendships and education were valued more by females than by males. Symbolic items (e.g., relationships, happiness) influenced females' self-identity more than they did males, while males tended to place greater importance on material items (e.g., home, TV, sports equipment). Athletic activities were highly important in males' self-validation process while females were oriented more toward the artistic and creative. General affective attributes (e.g., honesty, respect, thoughtfulness) were similarly valued by males and females as important criteria for self-evaluation. Finally, males were more religious, patriotic, and felt stronger ties to ancestors while females appeared to be more altruistic and placed high importance on social relations.
da Rosa, Katemari Diogo
This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the…
Veldman, Jenny; Meeussen, Loes; Van Laar, Colette; Phalet, Karen
The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees’ perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (in)compatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes. PMID:28220097
Veldman, Jenny; Meeussen, Loes; Van Laar, Colette; Phalet, Karen
The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees' perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (in)compatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes.
Harbaugh, Evan; Lindsey, Eric W
Individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality have been linked to numerous personality and demographic variables. This study investigated the influence that gender role identity, involvement in gender-typed activities, and religiosity plays in this relationship. The sample included 194 undergraduate students from a Northeastern university. Analyses revealed that both males and females who held a more masculine gender role identity and individual commitment to religion scored higher on measures of homophobia and heteronormativity, whereas there was no association between spiritual meaning in life and attitudes toward homosexuality. Among males, but not females, more masculine gender identity and less spiritual meaning in life was associated with greater homophobia. The importance of the findings for research on the origins of attitudes toward individuals with a homosexual orientation are discussed, as well as the potential directions for future research on connections between gender role identity, religious affiliation, and attitudes toward gays and lesbians.
Alavi, Kaveh; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein
Abstract Introduction Gender identity disorders (GID) are heterogeneous disorders that may be influenced by culture and social norms. Aim The aim of this study was to determine masculine and feminine gender roles in a group of Iranian patients with GID and compare these roles with two control groups. Methods Twelve male‐to‐female (MF) and 27 female‐to‐male (FM) individuals with GID referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute in Tehran, I. R. Iran were evaluated by self‐report inventories and were compared with two groups of healthy controls (81 men and 89 women). Diagnoses were established based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM‐IV) criteria. Data analysis was done using analysis of variance and chi‐squared test. Main Outcome Measures Masculine and feminine gender roles were assessed by two questionnaires: (i) Gender‐Masculine (GM) and Gender‐Feminine (GF) scales derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory‐2 (MMPI‐2); (ii) Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Results In the scales of masculinity, MF‐GID individuals scored as male controls, but lower than female controls. FM‐GID individuals scored similar to female controls and higher than male controls. In femininity scales, MF‐GID individuals and control women seemed similar, and both scored higher than the other groups. FM‐GID persons were considered less feminine than both controls in the GF scale of MMPI‐2, but not in the BSRI. In both scales, FM‐GID persons had higher scores than control women and MF‐GID individuals. Conclusion Iranian FM‐GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF‐GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261–268. PMID:26797060
Kuper, Laura E; Nussbaum, Robin; Mustanski, Brian
Although the term transgender is increasingly used to refer to those whose gender identity or expression diverges from culturally defined categories of sex and gender, less is known about the self-identities of those who fall within this category. Historically, recruitment of transgender populations has also been limited to specialized clinics and support groups. This study was conducted online, with the aim of exploring the gender identities, sexual orientation identities, and surgery and hormonal statuses of those who identify with a gender identity other than, or in addition to, that associated with their birth sex (n = 292). Genderqueer was the most commonly endorsed gender identity, and pansexual and queer were the most commonly endorsed sexual orientation identities. Participants indentified with a mean of 2.5 current gender identities, 1.4 past gender identities, and 2 past sexual orientation identities. The majority of participants either did not desire or were unsure of their desire to take hormones or undergo sexual reassignment surgery. However, birth sex and age were significant predictors of "bottom" surgery and hormone status/desire, along with several identities and orientations. This study explores explanations and implications for these patterns of identification, along with the potential distinctiveness of this sample.
Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth
Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in
Dipeolu, Abiola; Sniatecki, Jessica L.; Storlie, Cassandra A.; Hargrave, Stephanie
This study examined dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes as predictors of vocational identity among high school students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Regression analysis results indicated that dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes were significant predictors of vocational identity, accounting for 42% of the…
Muka, Samantha K
In 1916, a 41 years old woman with little formal scientific education became the secretary of the New York Aquarium (NYA). In becoming the Aquarium's first female officer, Ida M. Mellen realized her lifelong dream of successfully pursuing a career in the biological sciences and broke with the limitations and low expectations surrounding her sex and class backgrounds. By 1930, Mellen left the NYA and pursued a career in popular hobbyist writing, becoming the foremost expert on aquarium fishes and domesticated cats in the United States. Margaret Rossiter and other historians of science have illuminated women's common career paths in the sciences, but little work has been done on individuals whose gender and class impacted their career. Building on Rossiter's framework, this case study suggests that class, as much as gender, structured the scientific career of women. Through the narrative of the outsider scientific practitioner, we can more fully illuminate the social structure of scientific work. Examining the struggles of Mellen to enter and maintain a scientific career sheds light, not just on her own career path, but those alternately closed to her. If we wish to understand science in the early twentieth century, especially questions of inclusion and exclusion in the scientific process, we must examine those individuals who operated on the periphery of the "traditional" scientific path.
Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya
Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1-S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for S3 and S4, respectively). In controls, the percentages of femininity findings were significantly higher when compared to DSD females (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for S5 and S6 respectively). There was no significant difference between 46 XX DSD patients and 46 XY DSD patients with respect to the percentage of any of the seven findings. Two patients requested gender change to male; only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions (S7). In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients.
Munson, Benjamin; Crocker, Laura; Pierrehumbert, Janet B; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study examined whether boys with gender identity disorder (GID) produced less prototypically male speech than control boys without GID, a possibility that has been suggested by clinical observations. Two groups of listeners participated in tasks where they rated the gender typicality of single words (group 1) or sentences (group 2) produced by 15 5-13 year old boys with GID and 15 age-matched boys without GID. Detailed acoustic analyses of the stimuli were also conducted. Boys with GID were rated as less boy-like than boys without GID. In the experiment using sentence stimuli, these group differences were larger than in the experiment using single-word stimuli. Listeners' ratings were predicted by a variety of acoustic parameters, including ones that differ between the two groups and ones that are stereotypically associated with adult men's and women's speech. Future research should examine how these variants are acquired.
Morrison, Chad M.
Early career teaching is a difficult phase to navigate with many newly qualified teachers choosing to leave the profession within the first few years. The professional identities of these and other teachers are shaped by challenging and unanticipated experiences. The schools where this teaching takes place also have profound influence on these…
Hargrove, Byron K.; Creagh, Maureen G.; Burgess, Brian L.
Vocational identity scores of 210 college students varied by family achievement orientation. Career decision-making self-efficacy was influenced by family differences in achievement, intellectual-cultural, and moral-religious 'orientation; conflict; and expressiveness. Family interaction patterns thus may play a small but significant role in…
Visual sources in the form of teachers' journals and careers literature constitute an important part of the material culture of the teaching profession, and demand examination for their impact on occupational identity. The material allows for a range of interpretations and the approach taken here is speculative, in both methodologies and analysis.…
Flum, Hanoch; Cinamon, Rachel Gali
Migration is a common phenomenon of the globalization era. In this article we explore the interplay of three foundational concepts in the migration experiences of Ethiopian Jewish immigrants in Israel: citizenship, identity and career. Through our analysis we examine the multiple layers of being an immigrant citizen. Following immigration, as…
Allan, Barbara; Lewis, Dina
This study takes a relatively new direction in researching virtual learning communities (VLCs) as it explores the ways in which VLC membership can support lifelong learning and impact on individual learning careers and professional identities beyond the life of the community. The case study spans 4 years. The findings suggest that through the…
Brown, Scott C.
To better serve the needs of a pluralistic student population, Mount Holyoke College's Career Development Center shifted the focus of its programs and services. This article discusses the dynamic, multidimensional nature of identity and how practitioners might create more effective interventions to support their diverse students. (Contains 13…
Tovar-Murray, Darrick; Jenifer, Ericka S.; Andrusyk, Jara; D'Angelo, Ryan; King, Tia
Drawing primarily on the construct of psychological buffer, the purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which racism-related stress and ethnic identity are determinants of career aspirations. A total of 163 African American college students from a predominately White Midwestern university participated in the study. A moderation…
McArdle, Sarah; Waters, Lea; Briscoe, Jon P.; Hall, Douglas T.
Recently, Fugate et al. [Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Ashforth, B. E. (2004). Employability: A psycho-social construct, its dimensions, and applications. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65"(1), 14] defined employability as a psycho-social construct comprised of three dimensions: (i) adaptability; (ii) career identity; and (iii)…
Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.
The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and…
Cuca, Janet Melei
Career plans, based on responses to the Association of American Medical Colleges' first annual graduation questionnaire concerning the racial/ethnic identity of 1978 U.S. medical graduates, are reported. The data show that the six racial/ethnic groups follow similar general trends, though group differences do appear. (MLW)
Careers advisers in the UK have experienced significant change and upheaval within their professional practice. This research explores the role of postgraduate-level professional development in contributing to professional identity. The research utilises a case study approach and adopts multiple tools to provide an in-depth examination of…
Reiner, William G; Reiner, D Townsend
Disorders of sex development (DSD), like gender dysphoria, are conditions with major effects on child sexuality and identity, as well as sexual orientation. Each may in some cases lead to change of gender from that assigned neonatally. These similarities-and the conditions' differences-provide a context for reviewing the articles in this issue about clinical approaches to children with gender dysphoria, in relation to assessment, intervention, and ethics.
Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Hurdle, Donna
This article presents the findings of a survey completed by 1351 predominantly Mexican American middle school students residing in a large urban center in the U.S. Southwest. The study explores possible associations between drug use attitudes and behaviors and gender (biological sex), gender identity, ethnicity, and acculturation status. Based on the concepts of "machismo" and "marianismo" that have been used to describe Mexican populations, four dimensions of gender identity were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity, and submissive femininity. In explaining a variety of indicators of drug use behaviors and anti-drug norms, gender alone had limited explanatory power, while gender identity-often regardless of gender-was a better predictor. Aggressive masculinity was generally associated with higher risk of drug use, while the other three gender identity measures had selected protective effects. However, the impact of gender identity was strongly mediated by acculturation. Less acculturated Mexican American students reported lower aggressive masculinity scores than non-Latinos. Less acculturated Mexican American girls reported both the lowest aggressive masculinity scores and the highest submissive femininity scores. More acculturated Mexican American students, along with the less acculturated Mexican American boys, did not appear to be following a polarized approach to gender identity (machismo and marianismo) as was expected. The findings suggest that some aspects of culturally prescribed gender roles can have a protective effect against drug use behaviors and attitudes, possibly for both girls and boys.
Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to…
Drummond, Kelley D.; Bradley, Susan J.; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Zucker, Kenneth J.
This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3-12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15-36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60%…
McGeown, Sarah P.
The extent to which children's reading choices could be predicted by their motivation and gender identity was examined. Two hundred and twenty-three children (average age 9 years 11 months) completed questionnaires measuring book reading choices, reading motivation, gender identity (identification with masculine and feminine traits) and a…
Gushue, George V.; Whitson, Melissa L.
This study examines the influence of two potential sources of strength (i.e., ethnic identity and parent/teacher support) on the cognitive variables of career decision self-efficacy and outcome expectations in a sample of 104 African American ninth-grade students. The results indicate that parental support is positively related to career decision…
Woods, Jordan Blair
There is a dearth of engagement with LGBTQ populations, and sexual orientation and gender identity more broadly, in the field of criminology. This article analyzes the treatment of sexual orientation and gender identity at the birth of the discipline around the 1870 s. Through an analysis of Cesare Lombroso's writings, the article argues that a multifaceted stigma of deviance attached to homosexuality and gender nonconformity in early criminological theory. The article explains this multifaceted stigma in terms of broader political, social, cultural, and legal developments before and during the late nineteenth century that shaped modern Western conceptions of sexual orientation and gender identity.
Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell
The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.
Blickenstaff, Jacob Clark
Women are under-represented in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors and careers in most industrialized countries around the world. This paper explores the broad array of explanations for the absence of women in STEM put forth in the literature of the last 30 years. It is argued that some proposed explanations are without…
Gati, Itamar; Perez, Maya
The present research focused on gender differences in career preferences, comparing those in 2010 with those in 1990 (as reported by Gati, Osipow, & Givon, 1995). The tested hypothesis was that gender differences in aspect-based career preferences (e.g., income, teamwork, professional advancement, length of training) would have decreased over the past 20 years. The career preferences of 21,767 young adult women and 15,532 men-who used an Internet-based career guidance system in 2010 to assist them in making a career decision-were analyzed and compared with the respective preferences of 1,252 young adult women and 751 young adult men who used a previous version of the system in 1990. As hypothesized, gender differences were attenuated in most aspects (e.g., professional advancement, management); however, these differences increased in a few aspects (e.g., community service and counseling are increasingly preferred by women). The findings and their implications are discussed.
Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B
The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our
Vantieghem, Wendelien; Vermeersch, Hans; Van Houtte, Mieke
Educational gender gap research tries to explain the differential achievement of boys and girls at secondary school, which manifests in many western countries. Several explanatory frameworks are used for this purpose, such as masculinities theory. In this review article, the history of educational gender gap research in Anglo-Saxon literature and…
de Wolf, Virginia A.
Early career experiences of a sample of 233 University of Washington doctorates were studied. Doctorates were initially grouped into seven degree areas (physical science, biological science, social science, humanities, education, engineering, and other). As hypothesized, significant differences were found between the genders in their distribution…
Luzzo, Darrell Anthony
The present study examined: (1) the relationship between the number and types of occupational barriers perceived by college students and their current levels of career development; and (2) gender and ethnic differences in the types of barriers perceived. Participants (129 women and 59 men) responded to open-ended questions about perceived barriers…
Gilbert, Lucia Albino
This book describes the frontier of close relationships, where traditional gender roles are being reevaluated in light of what is both functional and optimal for persons in dual-career partnerships. Because social environments are crucial to understanding personal relationships and individual behavior, the three chapters in part 1 describe the…
Misiaszek, Lauren Ila
Drawing on data from nine focus groups in four countries, I argue for the need to develop a research agenda around the intersectionality of early career, gender and crisis. I first give a brief explanation of the background, methodology and limitations of the study. Second, I lay out some key conceptualizations and their own limitations and then…
Rodrigues, Susan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Snape, Jonathan B.
This study adds to a body of research reporting on pupils' choices and outcomes in relation to science. The article reports on 536 Scottish pupils' perceptions regarding reported intention to choose careers in science, with further analysis in terms of family, friends, gender and ethnicity. The pupils, aged 14-15, from 5 schools in one Scottish…
Brinkman, Britney G; Rabenstein, Kelly L.; Rosén, Lee A.; Zimmerman, Toni S.
In the current study, 45 girls and 41 boys participated in focus groups following a program designed to teach them about social justice. The children articulated the discrepancy between their own gender identity and gender role stereotypes and discussed potential problems with conforming to gender role expectations as well as consequences of…
Hren, Stephen Frank
The purpose of this study was to determine how perceived gender roles developed throughout childhood and early adulthood impacted the career decisions of women in science-related career fields. An additional purpose was to determine if my experiences as I analyzed the data and the propositions discovered in the study would become a transformative…
This study examined the impact of hate crimes upon gay and lesbian victims, reviewing 1538 hate crimes committed in Los Angeles County. Differences between sexual orientation and other hate crime categories were considered for offense severity, reportage to law enforcement, and victim impact. The type of offense varied between crimes classified for sexual orientation (n=551) and other bias-motivated crimes (n=987). Assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and stalking were predictive of sexual orientation hate crimes. Sexual orientation bias crimes evidenced greater severity of violence to the person and impact upon victim level of functioning. More violent forms of aggression were predictive of gay and lesbian victim's underreportage to law enforcement. For sexual orientation offenses, victim gender and race/ethnicity differences were predictive of the base rates of crime reportage as well. These findings are considered in terms of a group-risk hypothesis, encountered by multiple outgroup persons, that influences help-seeking behavior and ingroup identity.
Gómez-Gil, Esther; Esteva, Isabel; Almaraz, M Cruz; Pasaro, Eduardo; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio
Familial studies and reports of co-occurrence of gender identity disorder (GID) within a family may help to clarify the question of whether transsexualism is a familial phenomenon. In a sample of 995 consecutive transsexual probands (677 male-to-female [MF] and 318 female-to-male [FM]), we report 12 pairs of transsexual non-twin siblings (nine pairs of MF siblings, two pairs of MF-FM siblings, and one pair of FM siblings). The present study doubles the number of case reports of co-occurrence of transsexualism in non-twin siblings available in the literature. According to our data, the probability that a sibling of a transsexual will also be transsexual was 4.48 times higher for siblings of MF than for siblings of FM transsexual probands, and 3.88 times higher for the brothers than for the sisters of transsexual probands. Moreover, the prevalence of transsexualism in siblings of transsexuals (1/211 siblings) was much higher than the range expected according to the prevalence data of transsexualism in Spain. The study suggests that siblings of transsexuals may have a higher risk of being transsexual than the general population, and that the risk is higher for brothers than sisters of transsexuals, and for siblings of MF than FM transsexuals. Nevertheless, the risk is low.
Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya
Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1–S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3–S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5–S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for S3 and S4, respectively). In controls, the percentages of femininity findings were significantly higher when compared to DSD females (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for S5 and S6 respectively). There was no significant difference between 46 XX DSD patients and 46 XY DSD patients with respect to the percentage of any of the seven findings. Two patients requested gender change to male; only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions (S7). In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients. PMID:23874323
Kithyo, Isaac Mattemu; Petrina, Stephen
A study of 39 technical college students in Kenya found the majority enrolled in gender-traditional programs. Although school facilities, guidance, and labor market orientation played a part, gender was the most persuasive factor in career choice. Parental pressure and stereotypical guidance reinforced gender norms, but some students were able to…
Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Lingard, Erin Chase; Nieri, Tanya; Nagoshi, Julieann
This study explored relationships between several hypothesized dimensions of gender identity and substance use outcomes within a non-probability sample of adolescents in Monterrey, Mexico. Based on Mexican concepts of machismo and marianismo, four gender identity constructs were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity and submissive femininity. The study assessed how well these gender identity measures predicted substance use behaviors, substance use intentions, expectancies, and normative approval, and exposure and vulnerability to substance offers. Data were drawn from questionnaires completed by 327 students from 2 Monterrey secondary schools. Multivariate ordered logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for school level effects, indicated that aggressive masculinity was associated with higher risk of drug use on most outcomes, while affective femininity was associated with lower risk on selected outcomes. Assertive masculinity was associated with only one of the outcomes examined and submissive femininity with none of them. Most gender identity effects persisted after controlling for biological sex, academic performance, age, and other gender identity measures. For two of the outcomes, the gender identity measures had significantly stronger effects for males than for females. The findings are interpreted in light of males' higher risk for drug use and changes in gender roles and gendered behavior that are now occurring in Mexico as in the U.S.
Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Lingard, Erin Chase; Nieri, Tanya; Nagoshi, Julieann
This study explored relationships between several hypothesized dimensions of gender identity and substance use outcomes within a non-probability sample of adolescents in Monterrey, Mexico. Based on Mexican concepts of machismo and marianismo, four gender identity constructs were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity and submissive femininity. The study assessed how well these gender identity measures predicted substance use behaviors, substance use intentions, expectancies, and normative approval, and exposure and vulnerability to substance offers. Data were drawn from questionnaires completed by 327 students from 2 Monterrey secondary schools. Multivariate ordered logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for school level effects, indicated that aggressive masculinity was associated with higher risk of drug use on most outcomes, while affective femininity was associated with lower risk on selected outcomes. Assertive masculinity was associated with only one of the outcomes examined and submissive femininity with none of them. Most gender identity effects persisted after controlling for biological sex, academic performance, age, and other gender identity measures. For two of the outcomes, the gender identity measures had significantly stronger effects for males than for females. The findings are interpreted in light of males’ higher risk for drug use and changes in gender roles and gendered behavior that are now occurring in Mexico as in the U.S. PMID:18329826
van Eijk, Marieke
Health care institutions are often severely criticized for regulating the lives of individuals who deviate from socially sanctioned norms. In teaching people where they fit in the conventional scheme of things, institutions often reproduce socially dominant ideologies of normality, health, and self. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted at a university-based gender identity clinic in the United States, I demonstrate that while some institutions adopt dominant cultural frameworks, others critically assess these. To understand the intricacies of the clinic's psychotherapeutic practices, I analyze the clinicians' constructions of health and suffering. Instead of viewing transgenderism as a psychiatric condition, these clinicians approach it as a normal human condition that is marginalized by society's heteronormative values. The analysis, attentive to the interaction among social context, institutional work, and psychotherapeutic ideologies, shows that while some institutions reproduce hegemonic cultural frameworks, others, in their attempts to alleviate people's suffering, do challenge dominant social norms.
... orientation or gender identity to the list of hate crimes covered by existing Federal law. See Matthew Shepard.... Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs--Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity; Proposed... Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs--Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity...
Technical Report 963 AD-A25 7 778 Gender and Ethnic Effects in the 1990 Army Career Satisfaction Survey Mary Sue Hay U.S. Army Research Institute...62785A Satisfaction Survey 791 2105 6. AUTHOR(S) H01 Hay, Mary Sue 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION U.S...1990 Army Career Satisfaction Survey (ACSS) was developed to determine the attitudes of the Army’s active duty force toward downsizing the U.S. Army
Lurye, Leah E; Zosuls, Kristina M; Ruble, Diane N
The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment.
Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard
In science disciplines, students develop career goals based in part on their high school experiences. Science teachers and their personal characteristics are a part of this experience. In the case of physics, teacher gender is believed to modulate the interplay between student's own gender and their gender-related perceptions of physics. Using national data from college students (PRiSE Project, N=7505), we analyze the physics teacher gender effects on the choice of a career in the physical sciences by both male and female students. We examine three sub-samples of the data: students who have not taken any high school physics courses (about 60 percent of the total), those who have taken one physics course (teacher female or male), and those who have taken two physics courses (two female, two male, or one female and one male teacher). A correspondence analysis reveals an exploratory picture of the association between primary and confounding factors. Subsequently, a linear regression on students' physical science career choices is used as a confirmatory analysis of this picture.
Rind, Irfan Ahmed
This paper attempts to examine how female students' roles as learners are influenced by their socially constructed gender identities and gender roles in studying English as Second Language (ESL) at a public sector university of Pakistan. The aim is to understand how female students' gender identities and gender roles affect their learning. With an…
Burri, Andrea; Cherkas, Lynn; Spector, Timothy; Rahman, Qazi
Background Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates – childhood gender typicality (CGT) and adult gender identity (AGI). However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426) who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%), AGI (11%) and CGT (31%). For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. Conclusions/Significance This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation. PMID:21760939
Carnaghi, Andrea; Maass, Anne; Fasoli, Fabio
The current studies investigate the effects of homophobic labels on the self-perception of heterosexual males, hypothesizing that when exposed to homophobic epithets, they are motivated to underline their masculinity and claim a distinctly heterosexual identity by taking distance from homosexuals and, to a lesser degree, from women. Heterosexual male participants were subliminally (Study 1) and supraliminally (Study 2) primed either by a homophobic epithet or by a category label, and completed the Traditional Beliefs About Gender and Gender Identity scale. Participants stressed their heterosexual identity, but not their gender distinctiveness, when exposed to homophobic epithets, compared to category labels. Study 2 demonstrated that the relation between the homophobic label and the participants' heterosexual identity was mediated by how negatively they reacted to the antigay label. Heterosexual identity was enhanced in reaction to homophobic labels but not to an equally derogatory label referring to regional identity. Results are discussed within an intergroup framework.
Gushue, George V.; Clarke, Christine P.; Pantzer, Karen M.; Scanlan, Kolone R. L.
This study explored the potential relationship between the social cognitive variables of career decision making self-efficacy and perceptions of barriers and the outcome variables of vocational identity and career exploration behaviors in a sample of 128 urban Latino/a high school students. The results indicated that higher levels of career…
Downing, Haley M.; Nauta, Margaret M.
The purpose of this study was to test the fit of a theoretical model in which separation-individuation, career exploration, and identity diffusion were specified as mediators of the relationship between attachment functioning (anxious and avoidant) and career indecision (informational and personal-emotional). Structural equation modeling (SEM)…
Ojeda, Lizette; Pina-Watson, Brandy; Castillo, Linda G.; Castillo, Rosalinda; Khan, Noshaba; Leigh, Jennifer
This study examined the role of culture and personality on the career decision self-efficacy of 338 Latino seventh-grade public middle school students. Specifically, we examined the role of acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity, and conscientiousness on career decision self-efficacy. Findings indicated Latina girls were more acculturated…
Fowler, Melisa Diane Creasy
There is a gap in existence between the number of males and females entering science careers. Research has begun to focus largely on how identity impacts the selection of such careers. While much research has been done to examine the factors that impact student identity, little work has been done to examine what happens to female students who have been successful in science in a rural K-12 school once they leave high school and enter the world of academia. Thus, this study examined the following questions: (1) How do three recent female high school graduates from rural K-12 high schools narrate their identity? (2) How do the females narrate their experiences in a rural community and high school in relation to their science identity? (3) What do the participants describe as influencing their academic and career choices as they transition into the life of a college student? This study involved three female participants from a small rural community in a southeastern state. Each female has lived their entire life in the community and has attended only one K-12 school. All three females ranked in the top ten of their senior class and excelled in their science coursework. Additionally, each female elected to attend college locally and to live at home. The study utilized the qualitative methodology of interpretive biography. The researcher used a guided interview protocol with participants which served as the basis for the creation of their narrative biographies. The biographies were then analyzed for emergent themes. Sociocultural theory, identity theory, and critical feminism provided the theoretical frameworks utilized in data analysis. Findings from this study suggested that there were many differing factors influencing the science identity and career choices of the females under study. However, the most salient factor impacting their choices was their desire to remain in their hometown. Directions for future research suggestions involve exploring female students who
Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha
The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.
Rajkumar, Ravi Philip
Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed.
Praveen, E P; Desai, Ankush K; Khurana, M L; Philip, Jim; Eunice, Marumudi; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Kucheria, Kiran; Gupta, Devendra K; Seith, Ashu; Ammini, Ariachery C
Male pseudohermaphroditism (46,XY DSD) due to 5alpha-reductase deficiency has been recognized for the last few decades. There is scant literature on this entity in India. We compiled data on five patients with this disorder. Four of our five patients were reared as females. Our assessment of these children reveals that they had male gender identity from childhood. Three of the four reared as females chose to change gender role at adolescence, while the fourth is still prepubertal. We conclude that all these patients had male gender identity from early childhood. The parents took note of this only after the appearance of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty, thereby giving an impression of change in gender identity and gender role.
Rajkumar, Ravi Philip
Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed. PMID:25548672
Harris, Frank, III; Harper, Shaun R.
Previous research has neglected to explore identities and development among male students at community colleges. This chapter provides some insight into who these men are, their precollege gender socialization experiences, and conflicts that impede the development of productive masculinities.
Pega, Frank; Veale, Jaimie F
We analyzed the case of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which did not address gender identity in their final report. We argue that gender identity is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health (SDH) that results in health inequities. We identify right to health mechanisms, such as established human rights instruments, as suitable policy tools for addressing gender identity as an SDH to improve health equity. We urge the World Health Organization to add gender identity as an SDH in its conceptual framework for action on the SDHs and to develop and implement specific recommendations for addressing gender identity as an SDH.
Yang, Glen; Villalta, Jacqueline D.; Weiss, Dana A.; Carroll, Peter R.; Breyer, Benjamin N.
Purpose Gender disparities have long existed in medicine but they have not been well examined in urology. We analyzed a large cohort of graduating urology residents to investigate gender disparities in academic productivity, as measured by peer reviewed publications and academic career choice. Materials and Methods We assembled a list of urology residents who graduated from 2002 through 2008 who were affiliated with the top 50 urology hospitals, as ranked by 2009 U.S. News & World Report. PubMed® was queried to determine the publication output of each resident during the last 3 years of residency. We used an Internet search to determine the fellowship training, career choice and academic rank of each subject. Gender effects on each factor were evaluated. Results A total of 459 male (84.5%) and 84 female (15.5%) residents were included in analysis. During residency women produced fewer total publications (average 3.0 vs 4.8, p = 0.01) and fewer as first author (average 1.8 vs 2.5, p = 0.03) than men. A higher proportion of women than men underwent fellowship training (54.8% vs 48.5%, p =0.29) and ultimately chose an academic career (40.5% vs 33.3%, p = 0.20), although these differences were not statistically significant. Of residents who chose an academic career a higher proportion of men than women (24.7% vs 2.9%, p = 0.01) obtained associate vs assistant professor rank. Conclusions Women produced fewer peer reviewed publications than men during residency but they were equally likely to undergo fellowship training and choose an academic career. During the study period a higher proportion of men achieved associate professor rank. PMID:22902027
Nomura, Kyoko; Gohchi, Kengo
Research has shown that women physicians work fewer hours and are more likely to become inactive professionally and to switch to part-time labor, compared with their male counterparts. The published literature suggests that a gender disparity still exists in medicine which may decrease work motivation among women physicians. The authors investigated whether the experience and the perception of gender-based career obstacles among women physicians in Japan are associated with their working status (i.e., full-time vs. part-time). The present cross-sectional study is based on surveys of alumnae from 13 private medical schools in Japan conducted between June 2009 and May 2011. Of those who agreed to participate in this study, 1684 completed a self-administered questionnaire (overall response rate 83%). Experience of gender-based obstacles was considered affirmative if a woman physician had been overlooked for opportunities of professional advancement based on gender. Perception of gender-based obstacles referred to the self-reported degree of difficulty of promotion and opportunities for a position in higher education. Approximately 20% of the study participants responded that they experienced gender-based obstacles while 24% answered that they were not sure. The scores for perception of gender-based career obstacles were statistically higher among part-time workers compared with full-time workers (mean difference = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.39-2.00). Adjusting for age, marital status, the presence of children, workplace, board certification, holding a PhD degree, overall satisfaction of being a physician, and household income, stepwise logistic regression models revealed that physicians with the strongest perception of gender-based career obstacles were more likely to work part-time rather than full-time (OR, 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Although the experience of gender-based obstacles was not associated with working status among women physicians, the results demonstrated that a
Gibbs, Kenneth D; McGready, John; Bennett, Jessica C; Griffin, Kimberly
Increasing biomedical workforce diversity remains a persistent challenge. Recent reports have shown that biomedical sciences (BMS) graduate students become less interested in faculty careers as training progresses; however, it is unclear whether or how the career preferences of women and underrepresented minority (URM) scientists change in manners distinct from their better-represented peers. We report results from a survey of 1500 recent American BMS Ph.D. graduates (including 276 URMs) that examined career preferences over the course of their graduate training experiences. On average, scientists from all social backgrounds showed significantly decreased interest in faculty careers at research universities, and significantly increased interest in non-research careers at Ph.D. completion relative to entry. However, group differences emerged in overall levels of interest (at Ph.D. entry and completion), and the magnitude of change in interest in these careers. Multiple logistic regression showed that when controlling for career pathway interest at Ph.D. entry, first-author publication rate, faculty support, research self-efficacy, and graduate training experiences, differences in career pathway interest between social identity groups persisted. All groups were less likely than men from well-represented (WR) racial/ethnic backgrounds to report high interest in faculty careers at research-intensive universities (URM men: OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98, p = 0.04; WR women: OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.89, p = 0.008; URM women: OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.71, p<0.001), and URM women were more likely than all other groups to report high interest in non-research careers (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.28-2.90, p = 0.002). The persistence of disparities in the career interests of Ph.D. recipients suggests that a supply-side (or "pipeline") framing of biomedical workforce diversity challenges may limit the effectiveness of efforts to attract and retain the best and most diverse
Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara
In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in…
van den Besselaar, Peter; Sandström, Ulf
We take up the issue of performance differences between male and female researchers, and investigate the change of performance differences during the early career. In a previous paper it was shown that among starting researchers gendered performance differences seem small to non-existent (Van Arensbergen et al. 2012). If the differences do not occur in the early career anymore, they may emerge in a later period, or may remain absent. In this paper we use the same sample of male and female researchers, but now compare performance levels about 10 years later. We use various performance indicators: full/fractional counted productivity, citation impact, and relative citation impact in terms of the share of papers in the top 10 % highly cited papers. After the 10 years period, productivity of male researchers has grown faster than of female researcher, but the field normalized (relative) citation impact indicators of male and female researchers remain about equal. Furthermore, performance data do explain to a certain extent why male careers in our sample develop much faster than female researchers' careers; but controlling for performance differences, we find that gender is an important determinant too. Consequently, the process of hiring academic staff still remains biased.
Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia
This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…
Social feminists insist on the relevance of personal experience and believe that, for changes to occur, it is essential to understand the dynamics of how and why gender roles are perpetuated. Social feminists view the career course of second-career teachers as vulnerable to the covert structures and curriculum of the schools. The social feminist…
Sumner, Kenneth E.; Brown, Theresa J.
Examined the role that sources of career information (e.g., professors, family) play in shaping college students' salary expectations. Results suggest differences in entry level salary expectations were associated with gender and gender-linkage of college major; women gathered more information from female sources than did men; and career…
Kramer, Maeona K
Gender identity is a powerful aspect of self that shapes values, attitudes, and conduct. Family caregivers, particularly women, tend to forgo institutionalization of care recipients even when care demands are overwhelming. The reluctance of women to relinquish care raises questions about the relationship between gender identity and the bearing of burden. To illuminate the relationship between gender and burden, 36 adult women caring for highly dependent adults were asked to describe the nature of "self"; that is, how they characterized themselves as a person. Results were tabulated and critically examined in relation to stereotypical gender traits, as well as social and political processes that create gender dichotomies. Overall, self-characterizations indicated caregivers had internalized stereotypical female gender traits that support and facilitate the enduring of burden.
Sinclair, Samantha; Carlsson, Rickard
The present study examined the impact of gender identity threat on adolescents' occupational preferences. Two hundred and ninety-seven adolescents (45% girls, M age = 14.4, SD = .54) participated in the experiment. There were substantial differences between boys' and girls' occupational preferences. Importantly, adolescents who received a threat to their gender identity became more stereotypical in job preferences, suggesting a causal link between threatened gender identity and stereotypical preferences. A comparison threat to one's capability did not have this effect, indicating a unique effect of gender identity threat. Further, individual differences in gender identity concerns predicted gender stereotypical preferences, and this finding was replicated with an independent sample (N = 242). In conclusion, the results suggest that threats to adolescents' gender identity may contribute to the large gender segregation on the labor market.
Gushue, George V.
This study explored the relation of ethnic identity to two determinants of career interests identified by social-cognitive career theory (SCCT): self-efficacy and outcome expectations. For a sample of 128 Latino/a ninth graders, the results indicated that ethnic identity had a direct and positive relationship to career decision-making…
Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.
This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…
Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Discher, Christine; Gedrose, Benjamin
The concept of intersexuality subsumes a wide variety of phenomena with very specific underlying causes. In all these cases, an untypical development takes place during the prenatal sex differentiation process becoming clinically manifest, either at, or soon after birth or at the time of puberty. It subsumes conditions in which biological sexual characteristics (e.g. chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, hormonal sex, morphological sex) differ from each other and one person cannot easily be assigned to one sex. One of the main goals of medical treatment of persons with intersex-syndroms is the development of a stable gender identity. Over the last few years, sex (and gender) assignment of persons with different forms of intersexuality has become a much discussed topic. An interesting--and very obviously observable--variable that was brought in connection with sex assignment is gender related childhood play behaviour. The purpose of the presented study is to examine 37 persons with different forms of intersexuality (disturbances of androgen biosynthesis, partial and complete androgen insensitivity, gonadal dysgenesis with 46,XY and congenital adrenal hyperplasia with 46,XX) with regard to gender identity and gender role behaviour in childhood. Not all subjects in the study group had developed a clear female or male gender identity. In contrast to previous studies, some persons with CAIS did not recall distinguished female childhood play behaviour and these persons did not show a clear female gender identity. In contrast to results from other studies, the CAH-affected girls in this study did not seem to recall masculinized behaviour. Further research is needed to guarantee better psychosexual development with good quality of life in individuals with intersexuality.
Mehrotra, Meeta; Calasanti, Toni M.
Research on immigrants often points to the family as a source of support and a location for oppression. Using in-depth interviews with 38 first-generation immigrant Indians, this study adds to this literature by exploring families as sites of identity work where first-generation immigrants manage their gendered ethnic identities. Relocation into a…
Paechter, Carrie; Clark, Sheryl
This paper starts from the idea that children learn and construct gendered identities within local communities of masculinity and femininity practice, including peer communities. The data presented come from an ESRC-funded study of tomboy identities, which investigated the enabling and constraining factors for girls in taking up and maintaining…
Healey, Amanda C.; Hays, Danica G.
This quantitative study examined professional identity development and orientation for 489 counseling practitioners, educators, and trainees as predicted by participant-identified sex and engagement in professional activities. Differences between male and female participants regarding aspects of professional identity were evaluated. Discriminant…
In recent years, social identity has been recognized as a salient factor in second/foreign language learning, since literacy practice is not simply a matter of acquiring pre-given knowledge and sets of strategies, but involves a complex process of negotiating identities, cultures or even power relations. This study reports how a Taiwanese…
Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Chantara, Soontornpathai
A student's motivational orientation is considered to be a predictor of a range of related education decisions, from attending classes to choosing a particular course or a profession. This survey study conducted with student volunteers (males = 519; females = 904) enrolled in secondary school science-math academic stream in Thailand investigated the relationship between measures of motivation (achievement goal orientation and physics and biology classroom anxiety) and aspirations for high earning science and math related careers. Results of multiple discriminant analyses showed gender differences in the motivational factors that influence career aspirations. Our interpretation of the findings highlights the significance of cultural beliefs about gender in decision making for careers.
Endendijk, Joyce J; Beltz, Adriene M; McHale, Susan M; Bryk, Kristina; Berenbaum, Sheri A
Key questions for developmentalists concern the origins of gender attitudes and their implications for behavior. We examined whether prenatal androgen exposure was related to gender attitudes, and whether and how the links between attitudes and gendered activity interest and participation were mediated by gender identity and moderated by hormones. Gender attitudes (i.e., gender-role attitudes and attitudes about being a girl), gender identity, and gender-typed activities were reported by 54 girls aged 10-13 years varying in degree of prenatal androgen exposure, including 40 girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (C-CAH) exposed to high prenatal androgens and 14 girls with non-classical (NC) CAH exposed to low, female-typical, prenatal androgens. Both girls with C-CAH and NC-CAH reported positive attitudes about being a girl and egalitarian gender attitudes, consistent with their female-typical gender identity. In contrast, girls with C-CAH had more male-typed activity interest and participation than girls with NC-CAH. Gender attitudes were linked to activities in both groups, with gender identity mediating the links. Specifically, gender-role attitudes and positive attitudes about being a girl were associated with feminine gender identity, which in turn was associated with decreased male-typed activity interests and participation, and increased female-typed activity interests. Our results are consistent with schema theories, with attitudes more closely associated with gender identity than with prenatal androgens.
Roy, Kakoli; Gotway Crawford, Carol A.
During the past decade, efforts to promote gender parity in the healing and public health professions have met with only partial success. We provide a critical update regarding the status of women in the public health profession by exploring gender-related differences in promotion rates at the nation's leading public health agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Using personnel data drawn from CDC, we found that the gender gap in promotion has diminished across time and that this reduction can be attributed to changes in individual characteristics (e.g., higher educational levels and more federal work experience). However, a substantial gap in promotion that cannot be explained by such characteristics has persisted, indicating continuing barriers in women's career advancement. PMID:20075327
Chen, Zhuo; Roy, Kakoli; Gotway Crawford, Carol A
During the past decade, efforts to promote gender parity in the healing and public health professions have met with only partial success. We provide a critical update regarding the status of women in the public health profession by exploring gender-related differences in promotion rates at the nation's leading public health agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Using personnel data drawn from CDC, we found that the gender gap in promotion has diminished across time and that this reduction can be attributed to changes in individual characteristics (e.g., higher educational levels and more federal work experience). However, a substantial gap in promotion that cannot be explained by such characteristics has persisted, indicating continuing barriers in women's career advancement.
Conti, Annamaria; Visentin, Fabiana
We examine differences in the careers of men and women Ph.D.s from two major European universities. Having performed regression analysis, we find that women are more likely than men to be employed in public administration when the alternatives are either academia or industry. Between the latter two alternatives, women are more likely to be employed in academia. These gender differences persist after accounting for Ph.D.s' and their supervisors' characteristics. Gender gaps are smaller for Ph.D.s with large research outputs and for those who conducted applied research. Restricting the analysis to Ph.D.s who pursued postdoc training, women are less likely than men to be employed in highly ranked universities, even after controlling for their research outputs. Finally, we find gender differences in Ph.D.s' appointment to professorship, which are explained by the Ph.D.s' publication output and the quality of their postdoc training.
Martin-Storey, Alexa; August, Elana G
The visibility of a stigmatized identity is central in determining how individuals experience that identity. Sexual minority status (e.g., identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) has traditionally been identified as a concealable stigma, compared with race/ethnicity or physical disability status. This conceptualization fails to recognize, however, the strong link between sexual minority status and a visible stigma: gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity, or the perception that an individual fails to conform to gendered norms of behavior and appearance, is strongly stigmatized, and is popularly associated with sexual minority status. The hypothesis that harassment due to gender nonconformity mediates the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms was tested. Heterosexual and sexual minority-identified college and university students (N = 251) completed questionnaires regarding their sexual minority identity, experiences of harassment due to gender nonconformity, harassment due to sexual minority status, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was supported, in which the association between sexual minority identity and depressive symptoms occurred via harassment due to gender nonconformity. Findings highlight harassment due to gender nonconformity as a possible mechanism for exploring variability in depressive symptoms among sexual minorities.
Moleiro, Carla; Pinto, Nuno
Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems) with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i) to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii) to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii) to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity. PMID:26483748
Istar Lev, Arlene
This paper focuses on the impact of heteronormativity on research and clinical theory, utilizing the case of a lesbian couple with a young gender dysphoric child as a backdrop to discuss the contextual unfolding of gender development within a lesbian parented family. The extant research on LGBTQ-headed families has minimized the complexity of children's developing gender identity and sexual orientation living in queer families, and has been guided by heteronormative assumptions that presume a less optimal outcome if the children of LGBTQ parents are gay or transgender themselves. This article challenges family therapists to recognize the enormous societal pressure on LGBTQ parents to produce heterosexual, gender-normative children, and the expectations on their children, especially those questioning their own sex or gender identities.
Moleiro, Carla; Pinto, Nuno
Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems) with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i) to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii) to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii) to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity.
Yu, Lu; Xie, Dong; Shek, Daniel T L
This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001) in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to "Felt Pressure" and "Intergroup Bias" in the original model. The third factor "Gender Compatibility" appeared to be a combination of "Gender Typicality" and "Gender Contentment" in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity.
Capobianco, Brenda M.; Yu, Ji H.; French, Brian F.
The integration of engineering concepts and practices into elementary science education has become an emerging concern for science educators and practitioners, alike. Moreover, how children, specifically preadolescents (grades 1-5), engage in engineering design-based learning activities may help science educators and researchers learn more about children's earliest identification with engineering. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which engineering identity differed among preadolescents across gender and grade, when exposing students to engineering design-based science learning activities. Five hundred fifty preadolescent participants completed the Engineering Identity Development Scale (EIDS), a recently developed measure with validity evidence that characterizes children's conceptions of engineering and potential career aspirations. Data analyses of variance among four factors (i.e., gender, grade, and group) indicated that elementary school students who engaged in the engineering design-based science learning activities demonstrated greater improvements on the EIDS subscales compared to those in the comparison group. Specifically, students in the lower grade levels showed substantial increases, while students in the higher grade levels showed decreases. Girls, regardless of grade level and participation in the engineering learning activities, showed higher scores in the academic subscale compared to boys. These findings suggest that the integration of engineering practices in the science classroom as early as grade one shows potential in fostering and sustaining student interest, participation, and self-concept in engineering and science.
... ``the language be changed to simply include `actual and perceived sexual orientation and gender identity... inquiries would have on low-income transgender people who cannot afford to access legal gender change.... Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity; Final...
Rosenblum, Norman D; Kluijtmans, Manon; Ten Cate, Olle
The clinician-scientist role is critical to the future of health care, and in 2010, the Carnegie Report on Educating Physicians focused attention on the professional identity of practicing clinicians. Although limited in number, published studies on the topic suggest that professional identity is likely a critical factor that determines career sustainability. In contrast to clinicians with a singular focus on clinical practice, clinician-scientists combine two major disciplines, clinical medicine and scientific research, to bridge discovery and clinical care. Despite its importance to advancing medical practice, the clinician-scientist career faced a variety of threats, which have been identified recently by the 2014 National Institutes of Health Physician Scientist Workforce. Yet, professional identity development in this career pathway is poorly understood. This Perspective focuses on the challenges to the clinician-scientist's professional identity and its development. First, the authors identify the particular challenges that arise from the different cultures of clinical care and science and the implications for clinician-scientist professional identity formation. Next, the authors synthesize insights about professional identity development within a dual-discipline career and apply their analysis to a discussion about the implications for clinician-scientist identity formation. Although not purposely developed to address identity formation, the authors highlight those elements within clinician-scientist training and career development programs that may implicitly support identity development. Finally, the authors highlight a need to identify empirically the elements that compose and determine clinician-scientist professional identity and the processes that shape its formation and sustainability.
Storek, Josephine; Furnham, Adrian
In all 102 participants completed 2 intelligence tests, a self-estimated domain-masculine (DMIQ) intelligence rating (which is a composite of self-rated mathematical-logical and spatial intelligence), a measure of self-esteem, and of self-control. The aim was to confirm and extend previous findings about the role of general intelligence and gender identity in self-assessed intelligence. It aimed to examine further correlates of the Hubris-Humility Effect that shows men believe they are more intelligent than women. The DMIQ scores were correlated significantly with gender, psychometrically assessed IQ, and masculinity but not self-esteem or self-control. Stepwise regressions indicated that gender and gender role were the strongest predictors of DMIQ accounting for a third of the variance.
Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P
Two histories of physically normal men with persistent gender issues highlight the major impact played by parental input on the sexual and gender development of children. Both men had been subjected to firm, harsh behavior modification by their parents, particularly their mothers, during childhood in response to effeminate behavior. While both men continue to manifest major gender/sexual issues as adults, their outcomes have been dramatically different. The first man takes female hormones and denies any satisfaction from his sexuality. This individual remains convinced that he has female internal sexual organs and monthly internal menstrual bleeding. Although he has a career, he has become alienated from his family and is a social cripple. The second man has a successful career, lives a heterosexual life with his children and wife of 20 years and is involved in his community. He is visually attracted to men and remains obsessed with male pornography. This individual credits his mother with directing him toward a successful heterosexual life, which he feels has prevented the emotional burden of an active homosexual life. These two cases illustrate the tremendous influence played by environment and parental input on the sexual perspectives of developing children.
Miller, Nancy B.; Falk, R. Frank; Huang, Yinmei
Traditional sex-based categories are giving way to more expanded notions of gender among young men and women today. Along with feminine and masculine personalities, some individuals combine both for a more androgynous persona, whereas others exhibit few distinctly feminine or masculine characteristics. In a study of 118 gifted college students,…
Johnson, Hope; And Others
The expression of children's concepts of sex-roles was explored by examining changes in the masculinity and femininity of human figure drawings of males and females. A total of 106 sixth-grade students participated in two Draw-a-Person sessions. In the drawing task, persons to be drawn were either specified in terms of gender or unspecified as to…
Gorski, Paul C.; Alimo, Craig; Brimhall-Vargas, Mark; Clark, Christone; Harewood, Gia; Horton, Julie; O'Neill, Nancy; Subbaraman, Sivagami
Reviews documentary and ethnographic films that examine gender-related issues, summarizing each film and analyzing its relevance to multicultural and social justice education. The films are: "The Fairer Sex?"; "Macho, 2000"; "The Pill"; "Step by Step: Building a Feminist Movement"; "I am a Man";…
Bosacki, Sandra Leanne; Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Park-Saltzman, Jeeseon
Research suggests that self-control or self-regulation may play a role in the connections among spirituality, health, well-being, and social behavior. Within the framework of social-cognitive developmental theory, we explore the question of how do children and adolescents learn to think of themselves as gendered and spiritual beings within the…
Jourian, T. J.
This chapter discusses the historical and evolving terminology, constructs, and ideologies that inform the language used by those who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and same-gender loving, who may identify as queer, as well as those who are members of trans* communities from multiple and intersectional perspectives.
Elmore, Kristen C; Oyserman, Daphna
Gender matters in the classroom, but not in the way people may assume; girls are outperforming boys. Identity-Based Motivation (IBM) theory explains why: People prefer to act in ways that feel in-line with important social identities such as gender. If a behavior feels identity-congruent, difficulty is interpreted as meaning that the behavior is important, not impossible, but what feels identity-congruent is context-dependent. IBM implies that boys (and girls) scan the classroom for clues about how to be male (or female); school effort will feel worthwhile if successful engagement with school feels gender-congruent, not otherwise. A between-subjects experimental design tested this prediction, manipulating whether gender and success felt congruent, incongruent, or not linked (control). Students in the success is gender-congruent condition described more school-focused possible identities, rated their likely future academic and occupational success higher, and tried harder on an academic task (this latter effect was significant only for boys).
Building on the study by Wagner et al, this commentary opens with a discussion of the persistence of gender disparities in career development and the challenge of interpreting those disparities. Given the multifaceted challenges facing rehabilitation medicine, facilitation of the career and leadership development of women physiatrists is critical. I suggest 3 areas of targeted action to facilitate the realization of women physiatrists' intellectual capital: (1) updated approaches to faculty and leadership development and mentoring, (2) more flexible faculty structures, and (3) chair support and accountability. Each member of the rehabilitation medicine community who cares about the future of the discipline is challenged to contribute to the dialogues that are necessary to carry these recommendations forward.
Doubé, Wendy; Lang, Catherine
A multimedia university programme with relatively equal numbers of male and female students in elective programming subjects provided a rare opportunity to investigate female motivation to study and pursue computer programming in a career. The MSLQ was used to survey 85 participants. In common with research into deterrence of females from STEM domains, females displayed significantly lower self-efficacy and expectancy for success. In contrast to research into deterrence of females from STEM domains, both genders placed similar high values on computer programming and shared high extrinsic and intrinsic goal orientation. The authors propose that the stereotype associated with a creative multimedia career could attract female participation in computer programming whereas the stereotype associated with computer science could be a deterrent.
Eckstrand, Kristen L; Ng, Henry; Potter, Jennifer
Although recent changes in health care delivery have improved routine and gender-affirming care for transgender people, common approaches to care are still often based on a binary (i.e., male/female) gender framework that can make patients with gender-nonconforming (GNC) identities and expressions feel marginalized. Binary representation perpetuates invisibility, discrimination, and victimization-and subsequent poorer health-among GNC patients. In response, clinicians and health care systems should extend their efforts to provide gender-affirming and responsible care to GNC people. This article reviews terminology related to gender, the limited research-and necessary directions for future research-on GNC communities, and provides strategies for health care professionals and systems to ensure provision of gender-affirming and responsible care to GNC patients.
This paper is basically about terminology. In it I discuss the terms "masculinity" and "femininity" and how they relate to being male and being female. My theme arises from an increasing difficulty that I am finding in understanding how individual identities relate to dominant constructions of masculinity and femininity. Christine Skelton and…
Students negotiate their masculine and feminine identities as students of information and communication technology (ICT) and computer users as they participate in specialist ICT courses and in other areas of their lives. As they negotiate these roles, they are established in relations of power and authority with the technology and with each other.…
Wilson, Ian; Griffin, Christine; Wren, Bernadette
This exploratory study involved the qualitative analysis of the responses of eight children with atypical gender identity organization to open-ended questions about their experiences of secondary school. The aim was to develop an understanding of these young people's interaction with their peers. It became apparent that all but one of the participants had been bullied. In this context, participants reported difficulties in developing friendships, although each participant received support from at least one of their peers. Given the hostile school environment participants did not necessarily talk to these individuals about their experiences in relation to their gender identity. The clinical implications for working with young people on a developing gender identity, and the impact on their mental health, are considered.
Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Meltzoff, Andrew N
Objectives: Social categories shape children's lives in subtle and powerful ways. Although research has assessed children's knowledge of social groups, most prominently race and gender, few studies have examined children's understanding of their own multiple social identities and how they intersect. This paper explores how children evaluate the importance and meaning of their racial and gender identities, and variation in these evaluations based on the child's own age, gender, and race. Method: Participants were 222 Black, White, and Mixed-Race children (girls: n = 136; Mage = 9.94 years). Data were gathered in schools via 1-on-1 semistructured interviews. Analyses focused on specific measures of the importance and meaning of racial and gender identity for children. Results: We found that: (a) children rate gender as a more important identity than race; (b) the meanings children ascribe to gender identity emphasized inequality and group difference whereas the meaning of race emphasized physical appearance and humanism/equality; and (c) children's assessments of importance and meaning varied as a function of child race and gender, but not age. Conclusion: The findings extend research on young children's social identity development and the role of culture and context in children's emerging racial and gender identities. Implications for identity theory and development and intergroup relations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Organizational cultures shape and reinforce socially appropriate roles for men and women. Drawing on a performativity framework, which assumes that gender is socially constructed through gendered "performances," this study employs interviews with and observations of six women faculty members to examine how dominant discourses define and maintain…
Swaab, D F
Male sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior are thought, on the basis of experiments in rodents, to be caused by androgens, following conversion to estrogens. However, observations in human subjects with genetic and other disorders show that direct effects of testosterone on the developing fetal brain are of major importance for the development of male gender identity and male heterosexual orientation. Solid evidence for the importance of postnatal social factors is lacking. In the human brain, structural diferences have been described that seem to be related to gender identity and sexual orientation.
Lemaire, Mathieu; Thomazeau, Barbara; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique
We describe the case of a 23-year-old woman with Gender Identity Disorder (GID) asking for a cross-sex hormonal treatment with sex reassignment surgery and who was recently diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Gender identity clinics are now reporting an overrepresentation of individuals with ASD among GID patients. The prevalence of ASD is 10-fold higher among GID patients than in general population. However, few case reports or studies have explored the co-occurrence of ASD and GID. This co-occurrence is relevant for diagnostic and clinical management and also raises important theoretical issues.
Tranel, D; Damasio, A R; Damasio, H
We conducted a series of experiments to assess the ability to recognize the meaning of facial expressions, gender, and age in four patients with severe impairments of the recognition of facial identity. In three patients the recognition of face identity could be dissociated from that of facial expression, age, and gender. In one, all forms of face recognition were impaired. Thus, a given lesion may preclude one type of recognition but not another. We conclude that (1) the cognitive demands posed by different forms of recognition are met at different processing levels, and (2) different levels depend on different neural substrates.
Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; London, Andrew S; Cahill, Sean; Karpiak, Stephen E
This study examines the association of sexual identity and gender among older clients with HIV at an AIDS service organization using the Andersen Model. Data confirm those aging with HIV exhibit high rates of age-associated illnesses 10 to 20 years before expected. They have fragile social networks that cannot supply the informal supports needed. This aging population will need to increasingly access community-based services. Sexual identity and gender were weak covariates of service utilization. Although heterosexual men used more services, utilization was largely predicted by service needs and the use of case management. Implications for service delivery and policy are discussed.
Cribbs, Jennifer Dawn
There is a need for research to explore the connections between students' self-perceptions and their goals and future engagement with mathematics. This is particularly the case when considering that student interest declines as they transition through K-12 and gender differences continue to persist in mathematics related careers. Knowing how…
Wisniewski, Amy B; Migeon, Claude J
Adolescents with abnormal sexual differentiation or intersex conditions present a unique challenge to their healthcare providers. While sex refers to the biologic considerations that specify a person as male or female, gender refers to the sex of rearing. For the child with an intersex condition, sex may differ from gender, and as that child grows into adolescence, this may lead to many concerns, questions, and decisions. Although gender is usually fixed by adolescence, there will be those adolescents with intersex conditions wishing a gender reassignment during this period. Often a physician is the best resource for information and counsel to these young adults. Although most infants with ambiguous genitalia will have a karyotype done to determine gender identity, there are occasions when a gender discrepancy is not noticed until an adolescent presents with delayed pubarche. Regardless of the age at diagnosis, at adolescence, the physician must the address the medical consequences of infertility, bone health, and hormone replacement in addition to handling the heightened psychological concerns of gender identity during puberty. It is hoped that adolescents with intersex conditions will have the support and information necessary to allow them to live as normal a life as possible.
Sowell, Scott P.
This research joins the gender equity conversation within science education by providing a feminist poststructural analysis of teachers' doing gender and teaching science. Feminist poststructuralism is used in recognition of the oppressive nature of dualistic modes of thought, which often reduce reality into a limiting either/or fallacy and can be theoretically constraining as research within any particular field becomes more sophisticated. By uprooting the concept of gendered identity from the unproductive grip of essentialism, and conceptualizing it instead as a shifting 'work in progress,' feminist poststructuralism provides an invigorating theoretical framework from which to conduct inquiries. From a this perspective, the identity of a teacher, as any identity, is not a fixed entity, but rather an unfinished project, swarmed upon by a variety of competing discourses. Situated in a rural middle school in the Florida panhandle, this research explores how numerous discourses compete to define what it means to be a female science teacher. More specifically, the aims of this research are to explore: (a) how the participants negotiated successful gendered identities within science and (b) how this taking up of subject positions crystallized into classroom practices which worked to reproduce and/or challenge commonsense notions of the heteropatriarchal gender dualism as well as the enmeshment of masculinity and science. Findings illustrate a wide array of classroom pedagogical practices, ranging from antioppressive emancipatory constructions of both gender and science to more traditional objectivist constructions that validated the patriarchal status quo. Explicating teacher identity as effects of these pedagogical approaches proved insightful in unveiling notions of resistance, frustration, enthusiasm, and agency as the teachers reflected on their practice.
Kogan, Lori R; McConnell, Sherry L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina
This article addresses the challenges that gender performance expectations create within the veterinary profession. An investigation of veterinary students' perceptions of the essential characteristics that define successful veterinarians and veterinary students, and the gender differences within these definitions, is described. Because previous research supports the premise that the standards required for success differ for males and females, it is likely that male and female veterinary students possess different career expectations and definitions of career success. The ramifications of these differences are explored, and proposed strategies to address this issue, in the form of student support services, are discussed.
This article describes a clinical program designed to address broadly defined mental health needs of children who experience stress related to not fitting into normative gender types and argues for the need for integrated services that address the spectrum of gender variance. An array of services useful to children and their families is proposed. The article describes the clinical population served, common clinical and social problems, and a rationale for the interventions provided.
Wood, Christine V; Campbell, Patricia B; McGee, Richard
This paper analyzes perspectives on academic careers among 60 beginning PhD students in the biomedical sciences. It presents seven perspectives on academic careers articulated by the students in the sample and explains the way that race/ethnicity, gender, and students' family education backgrounds are tied to those perspectives. The findings show that traditionally underrepresented students find the academic career path less navigable than students from well-represented groups. Among underrepresented students, even those from higher family education backgrounds, experiences related to race/ethnicity and gender often inform perceptions of the academic career even before they start their graduate research training. As the composition of the graduate population changes to include more women and underrepresented racial and ethnic minority men, it is important to note that not all graduate students enter with the same perspectives and views of the academic career and that there are meaningful differences in perspectives across demographic lines. Graduate programs can play a critical role in providing information and support for graduate students as they navigate their career choices, particularly at the earliest stages of training. By becoming sensitive to students' perspectives on career options, and understanding how differences in perspectives arise, mentors and others can align advising strategies with the experiences and views of students.
Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Wallien, Madeleine; Johnson, Laurel L; Owen-Anderson, Allison F H; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J
A one-factor, 14-item parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children (GIQC) was developed in a sample of 325 clinic-referred children with gender identity problems and 504 controls from Toronto, Canada (Johnson et al., 2004). In this study, we report a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of the GIQC on gender-referred children (N = 338) from Toronto and gender-referred children (N = 175) from Utrecht, The Netherlands. Across clinics, the results showed both similarities and differences. Gender-referred boys from Utrecht had a significantly higher total score (indicating more cross-gender behavior) than did gender-referred boys from Toronto, but there was no significant difference for girls. In the Toronto sample, the gender-referred girls had a significantly higher total score than the gender-referred boys, but there was no significant sex difference in the Utrecht sample. Across both clinics, gender-referred children who met the complete DSM criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) had a significantly higher cross-gender score than the gender-referred children who were subthreshold for GID (Cohen's d = 1.11). The results of this study provide the first empirical evidence of relative similarity in cross-gender behavior in a sample of gender-referred children from western Europe when compared to North American children. The results also provide some support for cross-clinic consistency in clinician-based diagnosis of GID.
Dunatov, Linda J.
The purpose of this narrative inquiry study was to gain a richer understanding from the perspective of gender about how third and fourth year women osteopathic medical students at the University of Pikeville-Kentucky College of Osteopathic Medicine (KYCOM) constructed their developing professional identities as future osteopathic physicians. This…
Di Ceglie, Domenico
Gender identity disorders (GID) in young people are complex and often distressing conditions. The paper starts by examining the experience of the professional worker resulting from the interaction with this group of young people and their families. This is frequently characterised by a sense of being under pressure and in danger. The view put…
This commentary to "Gender in the Management Education Classroom" (Bilimoria, O'Neil, Hopkins, & Murphy, 2010) employs social identity and self-categorization theory to analyze the incident described in the article. In any MBA classroom, students are dealing with multiple group memberships. Similar to workplace settings, when the focus is on…
Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F
It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation should be programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Data on genetic and hormone independent influence on gender identity are presently divergent and do not provide convincing information about the underlying etiology. To what extent fetal programming may determine sexual orientation is also a matter of discussion. A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus.
Wallace, Janice; Wallin, Dawn
This paper traces the academic identity formation(s) of 10 Canadian female academics whose disciplinary knowledge is in the field of educational administration. We trace the ways in which discourses of gender, institutional power, and other cultural and social influences shaped their sense of themselves as academics in the highly patriarchal…
Cahill, Spencer E.
Naturally occurring interactions recorded during participant observation in two preschools were analyzed in order to develop a distinctively sociological theory of gender identity acquisition. Attention was focused on the use of sex-categorical terms and the "grammar" of sex categorization practices underlying this usage. The analysis…
Brown, Nedd I.
The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of a selected group of rural high school male students regarding their attitudes about the influences they perceive in their lives that have had an impact on their gender identity. This study surveyed the perceptions of a group of high school students from Dell Rapids High School in rural…
Wohlwend, Karen E.
Using data from a 3-year ethnographic study in US early childhood classrooms, I examine two kindergarten boys' classroom play with their favourite Disney Princess transmedia to see how they negotiated gender identity layers clustered in the franchise's commercially given storylines and consumer expectations. This analysis contributes necessarily…
de Rooij, Susanne R; Painter, Rebecca C; Swaab, Dick F; Roseboom, Tessa J
Sexual differentiation of the human brain has been suggested to take place through exposure to sex steroids during intrauterine development. Animal experiments have shown that interference in this process by underfeeding of the mother can result in feminization of the male offspring. We explored the possible effects of prenatal exposure to famine on sexual orientation and gender identity in humans. We used the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid to assess sexual orientation and also assessed gender identity in a group of 380 men and 472 women who were born as term singletons around the time of the 1944-1945 Dutch famine. Prenatal exposure to famine did not affect sexual orientation in men or in women. Three people indicated having some gender identity problems: one woman born before the famine and one man and woman exposed to famine in late gestation. In men, a later birth order was associated with a non-exclusively heterosexual identification. In conclusion, we found no evidence for a significant association between exposure to famine in utero and altered sexual orientation and gender identity. The small sample size of participants with non-exclusively heterosexual identification (possibly due to underreporting of homosexuality) may have reduced our power to detect any differences.
Research has shown that one of the most effective responses for women to thwart sexual assault is through competence in physical fighting techniques. Various studies also reveal multiple benefits beyond the actual defensive moves learned and the impact of women's self-defense classes on gender identity; however, the primary focus has been on white…
Edwards, Keith E.; Jones, Susan R.
The theory that emerged from this constructivist grounded theory study of 10 college men's experiences depicts their gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society's expectations of them as men. In order to try to meet these perceived expectations, participants described putting on a performance that was like wearing a mask…
McBride, Nicholas R.
This article explores how choral directors negotiate personal and professional identity in relation to gender discourse. Many music teachers have tried hypermasculine messages, such as "Real men sing," used as recruitment tools for getting adolescent boys to join choir. Designed to counter the perception that "singing is for…
Lin, Yi-Ching; Billingham, Robert E
The relationship between perceived parenting styles and gender role identity was examined in college students. 230 undergraduate students (48 men, 182 women; 18-23 years old) responded to the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI). The hypothesis was that parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive for both fathers and mothers) would be significantly associated with gender role identity (undifferentiated, feminine, masculine, and androgynous) of college students, specifically whether authoritative parenting styles associated with androgyny. To account for differences in sex on gender role identity or parenting styles, sex was included as a factor. The pattern of the difference in identity groups was similar for males and females. There were significant differences in parenting styles between gender role groups. Maternal and paternal authoritativeness correlated with participants' femininity, and for both parents, the relationship was observed to be stronger in males than females; paternal authoritativeness was significantly associated with androgyny. Future research based on these results should investigate how the findings relate to children's psychological well-being and behavioral outcomes.
In Inquiry into Identity: Race, Class, and Gender (RCG), an eighth grade social studies class, the students' stories serve as springboards for higher-order learning. Through sharing personal experiences and listening to one another respectfully, students form a learning community in which deep, critical thinking naturally emerges. They gain…
Deutsch, Madeline B; Buchholz, David
Transgender (Trans, Trans*) persons may have a gender identity and a preferred name that differ from those assigned at birth, and/or those listed on their current legal identification (Gender ID, Birth-assigned Sex, Legal Sex). Transgender people who are referred to in a clinical setting using the wrong pronoun or name may suffer distress, ridicule or even assault by others in the waiting area, and may not return for further care. Furthermore, failure to accurately document (and therefore count) transgender identities has negative implications on quality improvement and research efforts, funding priorities and policy activities. The recent announcement that gender identity data may be included in Meaningful Use Stage 3 has accelerated the need for guidance for both vendors and local implementation teams on how to best record and store these data. A recent study demonstrated wide variation in current practices. This manuscript provides a description of identifiers associated with gender identity, and makes practical and evidence based recommendations for implementation and front-end functionality.
Vaccaro, Annemarie; Russell, E. I. Annie; Koob, Robert M.
This chapter describes a new model for understanding college students with minoritized identities of sexuality and gender (MIoSG) within sociopolitical, institutional/campus, homeplace, and time contexts. The MIoSG Students and Contexts Model can be adopted and adapted by educators working in a variety of postsecondary settings.
Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A.; Stewart, Abigail; Sambuco, Dana; DeCastro, Rochelle; Ubel, Peter A.
Purpose Since prior studies have suggested that male physicians earn more than their female counterparts, the authors examined whether this disparity exists in a recently hired cohort. Method In 2010-11, the authors surveyed recent recipients of National Institutes of Health (NIH) mentored career development (i.e., K08 or K23) awards, receiving responses from 1,275 (75% response rate). For the 1,012 physicians with academic positions in clinical specialties who reported salary, they constructed linear regression models of salary considering gender, age, race, marital status, parental status, additional doctoral degree, academic rank, years on faculty, specialty, institution type, region, institution NIH funding rank, K-award type, K-award funding institute, K-award year, work hours, and research time. They evaluated the explanatory value of spousal employment status using Peters-Belson regression. Results Mean salary was $141,325 (95% confidence interval [CI] 135,607-147,043) for women and $172,164 (95% CI 167,357-176,971) for men. Male gender remained an independent, significant predictor of salary (+$10,921, P < 0.001) even after adjusting for specialty, academic rank, work hours, research time, and other factors. Peters-Belson analysis indicated that 17% of the overall disparity in the full sample was unexplained by the measured covariates. In the married subset, after accounting for spousal employment status, 10% remained unexplained. Conclusions The authors observed, in this recent cohort of elite, early-career physician researchers, a gender difference in salary that was not fully explained by specialty, academic rank, work hours, or even spousal employment. Creating more equitable procedures for establishing salary at academic institutions is important. PMID:24072109
Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Dolezal, Curtis; Baker, Susan W; Carlson, Ann D; Obeid, Jihad S; New, Maria I
Gender assignment of children with intersexuality and related conditions has recently become highly controversial. On the basis of extensive animal research and a few human case reports, some authors have proposed the putative masculinization of the brain by prenatal hormones-indicated by the degree of genital masculinization-as the decisive criterion of gender assignment and have derived the recommendation that 46,XX newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and full genital masculinization should be assigned to the male gender. The purpose of this study was to test in CAH girls of middle childhood the assumption that prenatal androgens determine the development of gender identity. Fifteen girls with CAH (range of genital Prader stage, 2-4/5), 30 control girls, and 16 control boys (age range, 5-12 years) underwent 2 gender-play observation sessions, and a gender identity interview yielding scales of gender confusion/dysphoria. About half a year earlier, mothers had completed 2 questionnaires concerning their children's gender-related behavior. The results showed that, as expected, CAH girls scored more masculine than control girls on all scales measuring gender-related behavior, with robust effect sizes. By contrast, neither conventionally significant differences nor trends were found on the 3 scales of the gender identity interview. We conclude that prenatal androgenization of 46,XX fetuses leads to marked masculinization of later gender-related behavior, but the absence of any increased gender-identity confusion/dysphoria does not indicate a direct determination of gender identity by prenatal androgens and does not, therefore, support a male gender assignment at birth of the most markedly masculinized girls.
The concept of careers has an extensive history in the sociology of health and illness. Among other things, the notion of a career has been used to describe the changing identities of patients diagnosed with mental illness, to identify distinct stages in the progression of various illnesses, and to recognize the cooperative efforts of hospitalized patients. However, the career concept may be reanalyzed as part of an analytical metaphor that makes salient both the agency of people with illnesses and the social structures in which they are enmeshed. This metaphor, ILLNESS IS WORK, can valorize and aid understanding of the identity work and actions of patients with chronic illnesses, particularly illnesses with a low degree of social recognition and medical prestige such as myalgic encephalopathy and chronic fatigue syndrome.
Expressions of homo/transphobia continue to rupture and sometimes even erase the lives of persons with sexual/gender identity-difference across the globe. Despite this, experiences with violence of this nature largely go unexamined in peace education scholarship. In order to begin a discussion about sexuality/gender identity-difference within a…
Saunders, Kendra J.; Kashubeck-West, Susan
This study examined relations between feminist identity development, gender-role orientation, and psychological well-being in 244 women of varying ages and backgrounds. As hypothesized, both feminist identity development and gender-role orientation contributed independently to the explanation of variance in psychological well-being.…
Pishghadam, Reza; Saboori, Fahime; Samavarchi, Laila; Hassanzadeh, Tahereh
The present study pursued two goals: first, to construct and validate a masculinity/femininity scale (MFS); and second, to reveal and compare the dominant gender identity of English, Arabic, and Persian teachers. Regarding the first goal, a 30- item gender identity scale was designed and, using the data collected from 300 junior high school…
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer
The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the 2010–2011 academic year suggests that the relationship between ethnic identity and attitude toward school is a complex interaction among individual characteristics of ethnicity/race, ethnic identity, gender, and ecological context. Quantitative results reveal that White female and Hispanic and African American male students exhibit strong ethnic identity that correlates positively with school attitude; however, qualitative results indicate very different paths in getting to those outcomes. Hispanic students appear to benefit from a strong ethnic identity that assists with positive relationships at school, while African American male students utilize parental cultural socialization as a protective function in school. The results emphasize the implications of positive school climates for all students. PMID:25866457
Joseph, Albert; Cliffe, Charlotte; Hillyard, Miriam; Majeed, Azeem
In this review, we introduce the topic of transgender medicine, aimed at the non-specialist clinician working in the UK. Appropriate terminology is provided alongside practical advice on how to appropriately care for transgender people. We offer a brief theoretical discussion on transgenderism and consider how it relates to broader understandings of both gender and disease. In respect to epidemiology, while it is difficult to assess the exact size of the transgender population in the UK, population surveys suggest a prevalence of between 0.2 and 0.6% in adults, with rates of referrals to gender identity clinics in the UK increasing yearly. We outline the legal framework that protects the rights of transgender people, showing that is not legal for physicians to deny transgender people access to services based on their personal beliefs. Being transgender is often, although not always, associated with gender dysphoria, a potentially disabling condition in which the discordance between a person's natal sex (that assigned to them at birth) and gender identity results in distress, with high associated rates of self-harm, suicidality and functional impairment. We show that gender reassignment can be a safe and effective treatment for gender dysphoria with counselling, exogenous hormones and surgery being the mainstay of treatment. The role of the general practitioner in the management of transgender patients is discussed and we consider whether hormone therapy should be initiated in primary care in the absence of specialist advice, as is suggested by recent General Medical Council guidance.
Lange, Dustin D; Wong, Alex W K; Strauser, David R; Wagner, Stacia
The aims of this study were as follows: (a) to compare levels of career thoughts and vocational identity between young adult childhood central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors and noncancer peers and (b) to investigate the contribution of vocational identity and affect on career thoughts among cancer survivors. Participants included 45 young adult CNS cancer survivors and a comparison sample of 60 college students. Participants completed Career Thoughts Inventory, My Vocational Situation, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Multivariate analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data in this study. CNS cancer survivors had a higher level of decision-making confusion than the college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that vocational identity and positive affect significantly predicted the career thoughts of CNS survivors. The differences in decision-making confusion suggest that young adult CNS survivors would benefit from interventions that focus on providing knowledge of how to make decisions, while increasing vocational identity and positive affect for this specific population could also be beneficial.
Martin, Lisa D.
The purpose of this study was to examine music education doctoral students' shifting occupational identity beliefs, career intent and commitment, and overall confidence for teaching in higher education. A total of 124 music education doctoral students, enrolled at 29 institutions of higher education in the United States, completed a onetime,…
Scott, Jill Rice
The purpose of this project was to create and study an online mentoring community that connected fifth and sixth grade girls and female STEM mentors. The project was designed to give girls who were interested in science the chance to communicate online with women who were successful STEM professionals. The community provided the girls a venue to ask the women questions about their careers, their interests, and their science identities. Through this venue the girls were able to explore various STEM careers, be exposed to role models, and potentially increase their interest in science for the future. Mentoring has been shown to have a positive impact on girls and help improve their attitudes toward science and interests in STEM. The project examined the nature of the online mentoring process as well as the participants' perceptions of the opportunities and constraints of the community. The girls were members of an afterschool academy and the mentoring took place through the Internet using a secure educational social networking program. The program spanned a four-week period between April and May 2013. The main purpose of this study was formative since online mentoring is a relatively new area of research. This investigation produced detailed accounts of activities between the girls and the mentors. Findings revealed that the participants approached the community uniquely and explored many aspects of career exploration, STEM interest, and science identity. The participants also identified what they perceived as the opportunities afforded by the community as well as the constraints posed by the community. The research represented by this study was practitioner research with the work connecting theory with practice. The knowledge gained through the intentional reflection on and study of the Einstein Girls online mentoring community was useful in the production of knowledge that is transformative for the researcher's professional practice and transferable to other
Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F
During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other.
In the study this article explores, the meaning of gender identity for religious and secular Jewish and Arab women in Israeli society is examined. The study focuses on how Israeli women, rank gender identity, relative to other identities like being Jewish/Arab, being Israeli/Palestinian, religious or secular, of a certain ethnic group, and political identity. It examines the characteristics of gender identity and the attitudes that are associated with it. The analysis shows that the hierarchies of identities are different for religious and secular Jewish and Arab women, and that this is related to having different sociopolitical attitudes (e.g., Women's social and political involvement, social obedience, social influence). Thus, the hierarchy of identities and the sociopolitical attitudes of religious women indicate a more consensual acceptance of the social order than the hierarchy of identities and the sociopolitical attitudes of secular women, especially among Arab women.
Richards, Gayle Patrice
The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from 1993 to 2001 to explore gender differences in mobility. Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion. The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables. Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks. While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident. Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men. The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children. Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively. Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women. Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented.
This study draws from sociocultural theory to examine how biographical factors interplay with contextual factors to shape the professional identity of a Spanish language teacher candidate. Specifically, it explores the student teaching experience of Marcos, a 30-year-old language teacher candidate from South America. Analysis of the data reveals…
Veale, Jaimie F.
We analyzed the case of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which did not address gender identity in their final report. We argue that gender identity is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health (SDH) that results in health inequities. We identify right to health mechanisms, such as established human rights instruments, as suitable policy tools for addressing gender identity as an SDH to improve health equity. We urge the World Health Organization to add gender identity as an SDH in its conceptual framework for action on the SDHs and to develop and implement specific recommendations for addressing gender identity as an SDH. PMID:25602894
Zucker, Kenneth J.
Corrects various assertions from an article on gender identity disorder in children, explaining that the original research found that 76.1 percent of gender-referred children expressed cross-sex wishes, rather than 17-36 percent of gender-referred boys, as stated in the earlier article. Notes that the original research sample included…
Kessels, Ursula; Heyder, Anke; Latsch, Martin; Hannover, Bettina
Background: Gender differences in educational outcomes encompass many different areas. For example, in some educational settings, boys lag behind girls on indicators of educational success, such as leaving certificates and type of school attended. In studies testing performance, boys typically show lower competence in reading compared with girls,…
Chung, Yueh-Chin; Lin, Ching-Yi; Huang, Chien-Ning; Yang, Jen-Hung
The trend of medical career choice in the younger generation has resulted in deficiency of manpower in the four major disciplines of internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, and pediatrics, which will threaten people's health care in Taiwan. However, perceptions of gender awareness and factors affecting the career choices of medical students have not been investigated systemically in Taiwan. To explore the perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices, we recruited 280 1(st)- and 7(th)-year male and female medical students at a Medical University for the study. A modified Nijmegen questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale containing medical curricula (18 items), gender awareness (13 items), and career inclination (9 items) was adopted as the investigation tool in our study. The response rate was 75% (224/280). With regard to gender, the 1(st)-year male students had greater confidence in being a physician than the female students (p < 0.05), and female students subjectively suggested an advantage to communicate with patients or colleagues (p < 0.05). Faculty attitude in treating students differently by gender was more prominent in the 7(th)-year than in the 1(st)-year students (p < 0.001), and they felt male preceptors typically were more enthusiastic to teach and to rank higher grades to female than to male students; however, this was not observed among female preceptors. Both male and female students showed a low level of agreement that clinical skills and performance of a physician were significantly different by gender and "female physicians are more empathetic and provide more communications than male physicians". Factors influencing career choices of medical students, including "personal interests/talents" and "academic achievement of the specialty," were not significantly different by gender. Factors included "training and learning environments of the specialty", "risk of lawsuit", and "economic incentive" were more
Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence.
Career aspirations of 57 British girls and 64 boys aged 14- 16 were examined. Girls' choices have become far more ambitious. In contrast to the literature, these boys' aspirations remain high. Choices still reflect a deeply embedded gender dichotomy and demonstrate little recognition of changes in the labor market. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)
A large proportion of the gender wage gap is usually left unexplained. In this paper, we investigate whether the unexplained component is due to misspecification. Using a sample of recent UK graduates, we introduce variables on career expectations and character traits, variables that are typically not observed. The evidence indicates that women…
While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…
Sweet, Stephen; Baker, Kimberly M.
This article describes and assesses two learning modules designed to make students aware of gender and racial inequalities present in their own intended careers. Students identify their intended occupation in respect to the Standard Occupational Classification system and then use that code to determine the composition and earnings in that…
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica
The United States has made a significant effort and investment in STEM education, yet the size and the composition of the STEM workforce continues to fail to meet demand. It is thus important to understand the barriers and factors that influence individual educational and career choices. In this article, we conduct a literature review of the current knowledge surrounding individual and gender differences in STEM educational and career choices, using expectancy-value theory as a guiding framework. The overarching goal of this paper is to provide both a well-defined theoretical framework and complementary empirical evidence for linking specific sociocultural, contextual, biological, and psychological factors to individual and gender differences in STEM interests and choices. Knowledge gained through this review will eventually guide future research and interventions designed to enhance individual motivation and capacity to pursue STEM careers, particularly for females who are interested in STEM but may be constrained by misinformation or stereotypes. PMID:24298199
Sinclair, Samantha; Carlsson, Rickard; Björklund, Fredrik
When faced with a threat to gender identity, people may try to restore their gender status by acting in a more gender-typical manner. The present research investigated effects of gender identity threat on self-presentations of agentic and communal traits in a Swedish and an Argentine sample (N = 242). Under threat (vs. affirmation), Swedish women deemphasized agentic traits (d [95% CI] = -0.41 [-0.93, 0.11]), Argentine women increased their emphasis on communal traits (d = 0.44 [-0.08, 0.97]), and Argentine men increased their emphasis on agentic traits (d = 0.49 [-0.03, 1.01]). However, Swedish men did not appear to be affected by the threat regarding agentic (d = 0.04 [-0.47, 0.55]) or communal traits (d = 0.23 [-0.29, 0.74]). The findings are to be considered tentative. Implications for identity threat research are discussed.
Barboza, Gia Elise; Dominguez, Silvia; Chance, Elena
We investigated whether being attacked physically due to one's gender identity or expression was associated with suicide risk among trans men and women living in Virginia. The sample consisted of 350 transgender men and women who participated in the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Survey (THIS). Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the competing outcomes associated with suicidal risk. Thirty-seven percent of trans men and women experienced at least one physical attack since the age of 13. On average, individuals experienced 3.97 (SD = 2.86) physical attacks; among these about half were attributed to one's gender identity or expression (mean = 2.08, SD = 1.96). In the multivariate multinomial regression, compared to those with no risk, being physically attacked increased the odds of both attempting and contemplating suicide regardless of gender attribution. Nevertheless, the relative impact of physical victimization on suicidal behavior was higher among those who were targeted on the basis of their gender identity or expression. Finally, no significant association was found between multiple measures of institutional discrimination and suicide risk once discriminatory and non-discriminatory physical victimization was taken into account. Trans men and women experience high levels of physical abuse and face multiple forms of discrimination. They are also at an increased risk for suicidal tendencies. Interventions that help transindividuals cope with discrimination and physical victimization simultaneously may be more effective in saving lives.
Dealing with self-identity, sexual orientation, and gender identity is often a struggle for minors. The potential negative outcomes minors face when their sexual orientation or gender identity is disclosed to others before they have an opportunity to address it in their own time has become more evident in the media. Because of the intimate nature of the provider-patient relationship, the healthcare provider may be the first person in whom they confide. If a minor receives a positive, nonjudgmental experience from his or her provider, it will often lead to a more positive self-image, whereas a negative, judgmental experience will often result in the opposite. Critical components of their experience are a sense of trust that the provider will keep the information confidential and the healthcare setting being organized in a manner that promotes privacy. Healthcare providers play a key role in developing and projecting a safe, comfortable environment where the minor can discretely discuss issues of sexual orientation and gender identity. Establishing this environment will usually facilitate a positive therapeutic relationship between the minor and the provider. Steps healthcare providers can take to achieve trust from minor patients and ensure confidentiality of sensitive information are understanding privacy laws, making privacy a priority, getting consent, training staff, and demonstrating privacy in the environment.
Piegza, Magdalena; Leksowska, Aleksandra; Pudlo, Robert; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Matysiakiewicz, Jerzy; Gierlotka, Zbigniew; Gorczyca, Piotr W
Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly difficult to clearly classify the issues associated with the phenomenon of gender dysphoria due to the fact that one identifies oneself in the context of increasingly fluid categories of gender identity-- an intrinsic sense of being a woman or a man. The authors present a woman whose internal problems connected with her sexuality and incomplete identification with the role attributed to her gender originate from her family history. Long-lasting, traumatic experiences of incestuous abuse and violence on the part of close relatives disturbed her development in many areas of personality and functioning. The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis of the existence of gender identity disorder accompanied by depressive disorders. In addition to the medical history, the study of patient's problems included the following diagnostic tools: the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach Inkblot Test in a CSR Exner system (TPA). The study revealed that as for sexual identification, the patient unambiguously identifies herself as a woman. Her behaviour to become like a man does not deny her sex, or even involve a temporary need of belonging to the opposite sex. It should be interpreted in the broader context of her traumatic experiences, not just sexual, but also concerning different aspects of a female gender role.
Vanderlaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Zucker, Kenneth J
In adult male samples, homosexuality is associated with a preponderance of older brothers (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect). In several studies comparing gender dysphoric youth, who are likely to be homosexual in adulthood, to clinical or non-clinical control groups, the findings have been consistent with the fraternal birth order effect in males; however, less is known about unique sibship characteristics of gender dysphoric females. The current study investigated birth order and sibling sex ratio in a large sample of children and adolescents referred to the same Gender Identity Service (N = 768). Probands were classified as heterosexual males, homosexual males, or homosexual females based on clinical diagnostic information. Groups differed significantly in age and sibship size, and homosexual females were significantly more likely to be only children. Subsequent analyses controlled for age and for sibship size. Compared to heterosexual males, homosexual males had a significant preponderance of older brothers and homosexual females had a significant preponderance of older sisters. Similarly, the older sibling sex ratio of homosexual males showed a significant excess of brothers whereas that of homosexual females showed a significant excess of sisters. Like previous studies of gender dysphoric youth and adults, these findings were consistent with the fraternal birth order effect. In addition, the greater frequency of only children and elevated numbers of older sisters among the homosexual female group adds to a small literature on sibship characteristics of potential relevance to the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in females.
VanderLaan, Doug P.; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Zucker, Kenneth J.
In adult male samples, homosexuality is associated with a preponderance of older brothers (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect). In several studies comparing gender dysphoric youth, who are likely to be homosexual in adulthood, to clinical or non-clinical control groups, the findings have been consistent with the fraternal birth order effect in males; however, less is known about unique sibship characteristics of gender dysphoric females. The current study investigated birth order and sibling sex ratio in a large sample of children and adolescents referred to the same Gender Identity Service (N = 768). Probands were classified as heterosexual males, homosexual males, or homosexual females based on clinical diagnostic information. Groups differed significantly in age and sibship size, and homosexual females were significantly more likely to be only children. Subsequent analyses controlled for age and for sibship size. Compared to heterosexual males, homosexual males had a significant preponderance of older brothers and homosexual females had a significant preponderance of older sisters. Similarly, the older sibling sex ratio of homosexual males showed a significant excess of brothers whereas that of homosexual females showed a significant excess of sisters. Like previous studies of gender dysphoric youth and adults, these findings were consistent with the fraternal birth order effect. In addition, the greater frequency of only children and elevated numbers of older sisters among the homosexual female group adds to a small literature on sibship characteristics of potential relevance to the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in females. PMID:24651045
Socías, María Eugenia; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Arístegui, Inés; Zalazar, Virginia; Romero, Marcela; Sued, Omar; Kerr, Thomas
Introduction In May 2012, Argentina passed its “Gender Identity” Law, which aimed to address the legal invisibility, discrimination and marginalization that transgender individuals have historically faced. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with engagement with the Gender Identity Law among transwomen living in Argentina. Methods Data were derived from a 2013 nationwide, cross-sectional study involving transwomen in Argentina. Using multivariate logistic regression, we assessed the prevalence and factors associated with acquiring a gender-congruent identity card within the first 18 months of enactment of the Gender Identity Law. Results Among 452 transwomen, 260 (57.5%) reported that they had obtained a new gender-congruent identity card. In multivariate analysis, factors positively associated with acquiring a new ID were: previously experiencing discrimination by healthcare workers (adjusted odd ratio [aOR] = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.27–3.20); having engaged in transition procedures (aOR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.58–5.93); and having a job other than sex work (aOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.06–3.10). Foreign born transwomen were less likely to have obtained a new ID (aOR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06–0.33). Conclusions More than half of transwomen in our sample acquired a new gender-congruent ID within the first 18 months of enactment of the Gender Identity Law. However, access to and uptake of this right has been heterogeneous. In particular, our findings suggest that the most empowered transwomen may have been among the first to take advantage of this right. Although educational level, housing conditions, HIV status and sex work were not associated with the outcome, foreign-born status was a strong negative correlate of new ID acquisition. Therefore, additional efforts should be made in order to ensure that benefits of this founding policy reach all transwomen in Argentina. PMID:25133547
Go, Vivian Fei-ling; Quan, Vu Minh; Chung, A; Zenilman, Jonathan; Hanh, Vu Thi Minh; Celentano, David
We conducted a qualitative study to explore the pathways by which traditional gender roles may ultimately affect Vietnamese women's interpretation of sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms and health-seeking strategies. Data on gender roles, perceptions of types of sexual relationships, perceptions of persons with STDs, and STD patient experiences were gathered through in-depth interviews and focus groups with 18 men and 18 women in the general population of northern Vietnam. A framework integrating Andersen's behavioral model of health services use and Zurayk's multi-layered model was used to conceptualize women's health-seeking behavior for STD symptoms. Both men and women noted clear gender differences in sexual roles and expectations. According to participants, a woman's primary roles in northern Vietnam are socially constructed as that of a wife and mother-and in these roles, she is expected to behave in a faithful and obedient manner vis à vis her husband. It emerged that men's marital and sexual roles are less clearly defined by traditional norms and are more permissive in their tolerance of premarital and extramarital sex. For women, however, these activities are socially condemned. Finally, since STDs are associated with sexual promiscuity, both men and women expressed anxiety about telling their partners about an STD; women's expressions were characterized more by fear of social and physical consequences, whereas men expressed embarrassment. Community level interventions that work towards disassociating STDs from traditional social norms may enable Vietnamese women to report possible STD symptoms and promote diagnosis and care for STDs.
Discusses evidence showing that career planning services are often extraordinarily underused my male students. In this article, a veteran career cervices director considers the issue of participation in career planning activities by male students. (GCP)
Jackson, Benita; Rivera-Olmedo, Noemi
Background Prior research suggests that stronger racial/ethnic identification offsets negative effects of discrimination on substance use. Yet research in this area and on whether gender modifies this association is limited for Latina/os. Purpose The purpose of the present study is to examine whether different sources of discrimination (everyday and racial/ethnic) are associated with substance use (alcohol use disorder, smoking), if racial/ethnic identity buffers this association, and the potential moderating role of gender among these variables. Methods We present cross-sectional, US population-based data from the Latina/o adult sample (1427 females and 1127 males) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed self-reported measures of everyday and racial/ethnic discrimination, racial/ethnic identity, smoking status, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) lifetime alcohol use disorder. Results Weighted logistic regression analyses showed that before inclusion of three-way interactions and adjusting for covariates, everyday discrimination predicted increased risk for any DSM-IV lifetime alcohol use disorders. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect of everyday discrimination on the risk of being a current smoker was strongest for Latino men with high levels of racial/ethnic identity compared to those with low racial/ethnic identity. No differences were noted among Latino women. There were no main or interaction effects of racial/ethnic discrimination for any substance use outcome. Conclusions Findings suggest differential associations for type of discrimination and outcome and that the role of racial/ethnic identity is gender-specific for smoking, appearing particularly detrimental for Latino men reporting high levels of racial/ethnic identity. PMID:26489844
Menke, Donna J.
Student-athletes who identify more strongly with their athletic role than their academic life may neither encounter nor embrace the chance to explore career options. Their lack of exposure or interest to career advising may compound career immaturity and development. Gordon's (2006) 3-I (inquire, inform, integrate) decision-making process applied…
Dawson, Chris; O'Connor, Pam
The literature has made us all aware of large gender differences in students' atttudes to science, in enrolment statistics in upper high school and tertiary level science courses, and in different spheres of employment. What have not been looked at in detail are the factors which are influential when students begin to make choices in early high school, choices which may well set them on a particular pathway from which it is difficult to turn. This preliminary study identifies factors which students in a Year 9 class believed were influential on the limited subject choices they had been able to make in Years 8 and 9, and the factors they believed would be most influential on choices to be made later in the school. In addition the students' views of science, of the separate sciences, and of their anticipated career patterns were sought. Several interesting findings were made which, if validated in further work, could lead to strategies which would support other approaches designed to reduce gender imbalances related to science.
Di Ceglie, Domenico; Thümmel, Elizabeth Coates
This article gives an account of an experience of group work with parents and carers who had children or adolescents with gender identity disorder (GID). The history of this intervention within the context of a service for children with gender identity problems is outlined. The limited literature on the subject is reviewed. Group meetings were held monthly for 6 months, facilitated by two therapists (the authors). Selection criteria for group participants, the aims of the group and the methodology for achieving those aims are described. Some information about the group's composition is provided. The structure and content of the group sessions are outlined together with details of some group interactions. Finally, we present the results of an evaluation of the intervention through feedback questionnaires and discuss the value for the children and young people of running such groups.
In this paper, I consider the activities of a group of individuals who tinker with and build radio hardware in an informal setting called 'Geek Group'. They conceive of Geek Group as a radical pedagogical activity, which constitutes an aspect of activism surrounding citizen access to low-power FM radio. They are also concerned with combating the gendered nature of hardware skills, yet in spite of their efforts men tend to have more skill and familiarity with radio hardware than women. Radio tinkering has a long history as a masculine undertaking and a site of masculine identity construction. I argue that this case represents an interplay between geek, activist, and gendered identities, all of which are salient for this group, but which do not occur together without some tension.
Mauroy, M C
In view of the numerous questions raised by the recently disclosed pedophilia, sexual abuses and prostitution of children, it appeared worthwhile to review the recent studies dealing with the child sexual development and the onset of the gender identity. These studies consist partly in retrospective analysis of pathological situations and partly in the analysis of normal development. It appears that the social and emotional surroundings of the child, provided that they were continuous and devoid of ambiguity, play a prominent role in this process. At present, numerous authors consider that gender identity is achieved at about 2 years of age when the child has a harmonious general development. The family physician and the paediatrician are on the first line to detect potential problems provided that they were aware of the main determinants and symptoms involved.
Weinraub, M; Clemens, L P; Sockloff, A; Ethridge, T; Gracely, E; Myers, B
The onset and development of preschoolers' awareness of sex role stereotypes, gender labeling, gender identity, and sex-typed toy preference were explored in 26-, 31-, and 36-month-old children. Gender labeling, gender identity, sex-typed toy preferences, and awareness of adult sex role differences were observed in significantly more 26-month-old children than would have been expected by chance. Verbal gender labeling was observed in a majority of 26-month-olds, while verbal and nonverbal gender identity were observed in a majority of 31-month-olds. Nonverbal gender labeling and awareness of adult sex role differences were observed in a majority of children by 36 months. No evidence of awareness of sex differences in children's toys was found in the majority of children at any age. Awareness of sex role differences in children's toys was not related to awareness of adult sex role differences. Brighter children were more aware of adult sex role differences. Sex-typed toy preference was not related to awareness of sex role differences but was related to gender identity. Predictors of sex role development included the mothers' employment, and the father's personality traits, attitudes toward women, and sex-typed activities in the home. Implications for theories of early sex role development are discussed.
Hren, Stephen Frank
The purpose of this study was to determine how perceived gender roles developed throughout childhood and early adulthood impacted the career decisions of women in science-related career fields. An additional purpose was to determine if my experiences as I analyzed the data and the propositions discovered in the study would become a transformative agent for me. A multicase framework was utilized so that within and between case analyses could be achieved. Four women who showed early promise in science were chosen as the case study participants. The relationship of gender roles to the career decisions made by the four cases were arbitrated through three areas: (a) supports, which came from parents, immediate family members, spouses, teachers, mentors, and collaborators; (b) opportunities, which were separated into family experiences and opportunities, school and community opportunities, and postsecondary/current opportunities; and (c) postmodern feminism, which was the lens that grounded this study and fit well with the lives of the cases. As seen through a postmodern feminist lens, the cases' social class, their lived experiences tied to their opportunities and supports, and the culture of growing up in a small rural community helped them develop personas for the professions they chose even where those professions did not necessarily follow from the early promise shown for a science-related career. In addition, as related to my transformation as a male researcher, being a male conducting research in a realm most often shared by women, I was able to gain greater empathy and understanding of what it takes for women to be successful in a career and at the same time maintain a fruitful family life.
Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine D
This article examines (a) variation in rates of sexual harassment across mode (e.g., in-person, online) and type of harassment, (b) the impact of sexual harassment (i.e., distressing vs. non-distressing), and (c) how sexual harassment is similarly and differently experienced across sexual orientation and gender identity groups. Data were collected as part of the Teen Health and Technology online survey of 5,907 13 to 18 year-old Internet users in the United States. Past year sexual harassment was reported by 23-72% of youth, depending upon sexual orientation, with the highest rates reported by lesbian/queer girls (72%), bisexual girls (66%), and gay/queer boys (66%). When examined by gender identity, transgender youth reported the highest rates of sexual harassment - 81%. Overall, the most common modes for sexual harassment were in-person followed by online. Distress in the form of interference with school, family, and/or friends; creating a hostile environment; or being very/extremely upset was reported by about half of the sexually harassed bisexual girls and lesbian/queer girls, 65% of the gender non-conforming/other gender youth, and 63% of the transgender youth. Youth with high social support and self-esteem were less likely to report sexual harassment. Findings point to the great importance of sexual harassment prevention for all adolescents, with particular emphasis on the unique needs and experiences of youth of different sexual orientations and gender identities. Socio-emotional programs that emphasize self-esteem building could be particularly beneficial for reducing the likelihood of victimization and lessen the impact when it occurs.
Dittrich, Boris O
International human rights apply to all people, including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons. But up until recently, there was no document that explained these rights specifically as they relate to sexual orientation and gender identity. In this article, based on his presentation at a concurrent session at the conference, Boris Dittrich describes the development of the Yogyakarta Principles, which not only list the rights involved, but also provide recommendations to states (and others) concerning how the rights should implemented.
Pécoud, P; Pralong, F; Bauquis, O; Stiefel, F
Gender identity disorder is defined as a permanent desire to relieve one's own sexual features to acquire the sexual features and line to life of the opposite sex. The diagnosis is based on the psychiatric evaluation and treatment on an interdisciplinary approach by endocrinologists, surgeons and psychiatrists, and can be conceptualized into distinct phases: diagnostic evaluation, real life experience, hormonal treatment and surgery. Multiples challenges have to be faced, especially by the psychiatrist who follows the patient during the whole process.
Norvilitis, Jill M; Reid, Howard M
Two studies assessed the relation between gender role and executive function. In Study One (N = 234) analyses indicated that among college students executive function, assessed by the Coolidge and Griego scale, is related to masculine gender-role classification, measured by the Bem Sex-role Inventory. This relationship remained significant when biological sex was controlled. Further, factor analysis of the Bem Sex-role Inventory identified six components, three related to executive function. Two of these scales were associated with masculine characteristics, and the third was associated with the denial of several feminine items. Study Two (N = 53) further assessed the relationship among undergraduates through additional measures of executive functions and mood, in addition to the Bem Sex-role Inventory. In this study, executive functioning, as measured by the Coolidge and Griego scale, was again generally related to masculinity. Psychological well-being was not related to gender identity or executive functioning.
Smyth, Frederick L; Nosek, Brian A
Women's representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women's representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men's, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female), including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines' gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines' scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors' affecting development of adults' and, especially, children's implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity.
Drummond, Kelley D; Bradley, Susan J; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3-12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15-36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60% of the girls met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for GID, and 40% were subthreshold for the diagnosis. At follow-up, 3 participants (12%) were judged to have GID or gender dysphoria. Regarding sexual orientation, 8 participants (32%) were classified as bisexual/homosexual in fantasy, and 6 (24%) were classified as bisexual/homosexual in behavior. The remaining participants were classified as either heterosexual or asexual. The rates of GID persistence and bisexual/homosexual sexual orientation were substantially higher than base rates in the general female population derived from epidemiological or survey studies. There was some evidence of a "dosage" effect, with girls who were more cross-sex typed in their childhood behavior more likely to be gender dysphoric at follow-up and more likely to have been classified as bisexual/homosexual in behavior (but not in fantasy).
Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong
Previous studies have indicated that the butch-femme identities of lesbian women are related to gender roles (e.g., instrumentality and expressiveness). This study examined the association between butch and femme lesbian identities and gender nonconformity in both childhood (Study 1: 434 lesbian women and 230 heterosexual women) and adulthood (Study 2: 207 lesbian women and 342 heterosexual women) among women in China. In Study 1 (97 femmes, 76 androgynous women, and 264 butches), butches recalled more childhood gender nonconformity (CGN) than did femmes, androgynous, and heterosexual women, and androgynous women recalled more CGN than did heterosexual women. In Study 2 (43 femmes, 44 androgynous women, and 120 butches), butches reported more adulthood gender nonconformity (AGN) based on a "people-thing" dimension of interests than did femmes and heterosexual women, and androgynous women reported preferring more masculine hobbies than did femmes or heterosexual women. There was no significant difference in CGN and AGN between femmes and heterosexual women. These results indicate that femmes are quite similar to heterosexual women with regard to CGN and AGN, thus providing an important extension of previous studies based on a Chinese sample.
Manson, Spero M; Martinez, Dominic F; Buchwald, Dedra S; Rubio, Doris M; Moss, Marc
This paper is the second in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline. It focuses on the role that Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs can play in supporting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in primary and secondary schools, as well as in facilitating these interests during transition to undergraduate training. Special emphasis should be placed on helping to form and sustain an identity as a scientist, and on instilling the persistence necessary to overcome numerous barriers to its actualization. CTSAs can contribute to cementing this sense of self by facilitating peer support, mentorship, and family involvement that will reinforce early educational decisions leading to clinical and translational science research careers. Meanwhile, the interests, skills, and motivation induced by participation in STEM programs must be sustained in transition to the next level in the educational pipeline, typically undergraduate study. Examples of CTSA collaborations with local schools, businesses, interest groups, and communities at large illustrate the emerging possibilities and promising directions with respect to each of these challenges.
Manson, Spero M.; Martinez, Dominic F.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Rubio, Doris M.; Moss, Marc
This paper is the second in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline. It focuses on the role that CTSA programs can play in supporting science, technology, engineering, and math education in primary and secondary schools, as well as in facilitating these interests during transition to undergraduate training. Special emphasis should be placed on helping to form and sustain an identity as a scientist, and on instilling the persistence necessary to overcome numerous barriers to its actualization. CTSAs can contribute to cementing this sense of self by facilitating peer support, mentorship, and family involvement that will reinforce early educational decisions leading to clinical and translational science research careers. Meanwhile, the interests, skills, and motivation induced by participation in STEM programs must be sustained in transition to the next level in the educational pipeline, typically undergraduate study. Examples of CTSA collaborations with local schools, businesses, interest groups, and communities at large illustrate the emerging possibilities and promising directions with respect to each of these challenges. PMID:26271774
Gibson, Britton A; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Rutledge, Ronnye; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L
Transgender women (TGW) face compounded levels of stigma and discrimination, resulting in multiple health risks and poor health outcomes. TGW identities are erased by forcing them into binary sex categories in society or treating them as men who have sex with men (MSM). In Malaysia, where both civil and religious law criminalise them for their identities, many TGW turn to sex work with inconsistent prevention methods, which increases their health risks. This qualitative study aims to understand how the identities of TGW sex workers shapes their healthcare utilisation patterns and harm reduction behaviours. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 male-to-female transgender (mak nyah) sex workers in Malaysia. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analysed using thematic coding. Results suggest that TGW identity is shaped at an early age followed by incorporation into the mak nyah community where TGW were assisted in gender transition and introduced to sex work. While healthcare was accessible, it failed to address the multiple healthcare needs of TGW. Pressure for gender-affirming health procedures and fear of HIV and sexually transmitted infection screening led to potentially hazardous health behaviours. These findings have implications for developing holistic, culturally sensitive prevention and healthcare services for TGW.
This paper focuses on specific aspects of male sexuality and how this sexual identity is built in the Aids era, based on conversations with low-income youth, ages 14-21 years, living in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro. We examine how Aids is perceived and investigate sexuality in this epidemic context. The goal is to provide concrete data to support a prevention campaign and contribute to preventive policies in Brazilian society. The proposal is based on the sexual identity of this gender/age group, comparing their reports on sexual practice. We used a partially open-ended interview protocol. We focus on the way young males choose their sexual identity under the premise that this is how men can become the channel for Aids transmission. Our research was thus based on gender and sexual identity as categories. Our results indicate that for a young man, 'being a man' means having an active sexual life, thus creating a stereotype placing them at risk for HIV transmission.
The present study was an assessment of attitudes of 410 ethnically Dutch adolescents toward three ethnic minority groups living in the Netherlands. Stereotypes, symbolic beliefs, affective associations, and the evaluation of possible interactions were used to predict the global evaluation of ethnic outgroups and accounted for much of the variance in ethnic attitudes. The relative importance of the four predictors varied by target group and location. Gender differences were found in the structure of attitudes; symbolic beliefs played a greater role in the attitudes of boys, whereas emotions played a more central role in the attitudes of girls. The evaluation of Dutch identity was related to the favorability of ethnic attitudes and also to the underlying structure. Respondents with a positive national identity had less favorable ethnic attitudes, and emotions were more predictive of their attitudes, whereas symbolic beliefs were most predictive among respondents with a less positive national identity.
Kuper, Laura E; Wright, Laurel; Mustanski, Brian
Little is known about the experiences of individuals who may fall under the umbrella of "transgender" but do not transition medically and/or socially. The impact of the increasingly widespread use of the term "transgender" itself also remains unclear. The authors present narratives from four female-born youth of color who report a history of identifying as a "stud." Through analysis of their processes of identity signification, the authors demonstrate how stud identity fuses aspects of gender and sexuality while providing an alternate way of making meaning of gender variance. As such, this identity has important implications for research and organizing centered on an LGBT-based identity framework.
The author examined differences in sex-typing of household tasks (adult gender roles and children's chores) and differences in gender identity among adult Israelis. The author compared 2 groups of participants: single people without children (single-family participants; n = 62) and married people with children (full-family participants; n = 62). Regarding sex-typing of household tasks and direct assessments of masculine and feminine identity, there were no differences between single-family participants and full-family participants. However, family status affected self-assessments of gender identity that were based on cultural definitions of masculine and feminine attributes. Furthermore, correlations between direct assessments of gender identity and sex-typing of household tasks differed according to family status.
Levine, Stephen B; Solomon, Anna
Beginning in August 2007, we committed ourselves to a clinical review the co-morbid diagnostic patterns of the last 10 patients interviewed by our Gender Identity Clinic. We found 90% of these diverse patients had at least one other significant form of psychopathology. This finding seems to be in marked contrast to the public, forensic, and professional rhetoric of many who care for transgendered adults. Much of this rhetoric sounds remarkably certain about the long-term value of gender transition, hormones, and sex reassignment surgery in improving the lives of those with Gender Identity Disorder (GID). Such clinical certainty would have to be based on carefully established sophisticated follow-up findings. These are lacking. The psychopathologies in this series included problems of mood and anxiety regulation and adapting in the world. Two of the 10 have had persistent significant regrets about their previous transitions. In discussing management decisions, civil rights, and ethics, we planned to separately briefly present the 10 patients. However, our decision to seek patients' permission proved so upsetting to three of the first six patients that we altered the structure of this report. Our attempt to follow the ethical principle of informed consent caused us to violate the principle of nonmalfiescence. This distressing experience only illustrates, however, the disadvantage of discussing professional concepts with lay audiences. Emphasis on civil rights is not a substitute for the recognition and treatment of associated psychopathology. Gender identity specialists, unlike the media, need to be concerned about the majority of patients, not just the ones who are apparently functioning well in transition.
Berenbaum, Sheri A; Bailey, J Michael
To address questions about sex assignment in children with ambiguous genitalia, we studied gender identity in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in relation to characteristics of the disease and treatment, particularly genital appearance and surgery. A 9-item gender identity interview was administered to 43 girls with classical CAH ranging in age from 3-18 yr, 7 tomboys, and 29 sister control girls. Groups were compared on total score and on individual items. Results showed that, on the total gender identity score, 88% of girls with CAH had scores overlapping those of control girls, but the average score was intermediate between control girls and tomboys. On individual items of gender identity (discomfort as a girl, wish to be a boy), girls with CAH were similar to control girls. Gender identity in girls with CAH was not related to degree of genital virilization or age at which genital reconstructive surgery was done. Thus, moderate androgen excess early in development appears to produce a small increase in the risk of atypical gender identity, but this risk cannot be predicted from genital virilization.
Vasey, Paul L; Bartlett, Nancy H
This article examines whether gender identity disorder in childhood (GIDC) constitutes a mental disorder as outlined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR). Data were collected in Samoa, a culture that is characterized by a high degree of social tolerance towards feminine males who are known locally as fa'afafine. The study location was chosen because, unlike Western locales, it afforded the opportunity to examine whether gender-atypical behavior, gender-atypical identity, and sex-atypical identity, in and of themselves, cause distress in sex/gender variant individuals, while simultaneously controlling for the confounding effects of extreme societal intolerance towards such individuals. Because of our focus on the DSM-IV-TR's diagnosis of GIDC, we were specifically interested in ascertaining whether adult fa'afafine recalled a strong and persistent cross-gender identification in childhood, a sense of inappropriateness in the male-typical gender role, a discomfort with their sex, or distress associated with any of the above. In addition, we sought to determine whether parental encouragement or discouragement of cross-gender behaviors influence feelings of distress in relation to the behaviors in question. Based on the cross-cultural information presented here, we conclude that the diagnostic category of GIDC should not occur in its current form in future editions of the DSM, as there is no compelling evidence that cross-gender behaviors or identities, in and of themselves, cause distress in the individual.
Sullivan, Sherry E.; Mainiero, Lisa A.
Purpose: The major purpose of this paper is to examine how gender differences impact the enactment of careers. An additional goal is to examine whether, as suggested by recent conceptualizations, careers are indeed becoming more boundary less. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on the results of two in-depth qualitative studies (n =…
Buschor, Christine Bieri; Kappler, Christa; Keck Frei, Andrea; Berweger, Simone
The study examines the career decision-making of Swiss academic high school students opting for a career in a non-traditional, gender-typed area of work during the transition to higher education. Based on a longitudinal study, a qualitative study with 11 female students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and 13 male student…
Hiestand, K R; Horne, S G; Levitt, H M
While research examining healthcare experiences of sexual minority individuals is growing, thus far research has been limited on lesbian gender identity and its relationship to physical and mental health. This study explores access to and experiences of healthcare with a sample of 516 butch and femme identified lesbian and bisexual women. In comparison to femme-identified women, it was found that butch women had routine gynecological examinations significantly less frequently, perceived poorer treatment in healthcare settings, were more likely to be out within healthcare settings, placed more importance on securing LGBT-positive healthcare practitioners, and had more difficulty finding LGBT-positive medical doctors. No differences were found for mental health. The results suggest that butch women may be more at risk for physical health concerns than femme women, in particular those illnesses that can be prevented or treated with regular gynecological care (e.g., uterine or cervical cancer). Implications of the study include greater awareness among healthcare professionals of sexual minority gender identity in addition to sexual identity, and more support for butch-identified women to access vital healthcare services.
Zeng, Xiaohan; Duch, Jordi; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Radicchi, Filippo; Otis, Shayna; Woodruff, Teresa; Amaral, Luis
Many studies demonstrate that there is still a significant gender bias, especially at higher career levels, in many areas including science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated field-dependent, gender-specific effects of the selective pressures individuals experience as they pursue a career in academia within seven STEM disciplines. We built a unique database that comprises 437,787 publications authored by 4,292 faculty members at top United States research universities. Our analyses reveal that gender differences in publication rate and impact are discipline-specific. Our results also support two hypotheses. First, the widely-reported lower publication rates of female faculty are correlated with the amount of research resources typically needed in the discipline considered, and thus may be explained by the lower level of institutional support historically received by females. Second, in disciplines where pursuing an academic position incurs greater career risk, female faculty tend to have a greater fraction of higher impact publications than males. Our findings have significant, field-specific, policy implications for achieving diversity at the faculty level within the STEM disciplines. L. A. N. Amaral gratefully acknowledges the support of NSF awards SBE 0624318 and 0830388, and ThomsonReuters for access to the WoS data. J. Duch and M. Sales-Pardo's work have been partially supported by the Spanish DGICYT under project FIS2010-18639.
For over two decades the under-representation of African Americans in school science and the workplace has been a central concern for educators, policy makers, and researchers. Existing literature provides many accounts of the barriers to science career attainment. This study examined the science career trajectories of fourteen African American…
Brodeur, Lori J.
This grounded theory study highlights the words of urban career teachers who participated on a wikispace (wiki). The purpose of the investigation was to offer urban career teachers a space, outside of their daily work, in which to recognize and understand their professionalism. The grounded theory content analysis is carried out by way of a study…
There has been much research conducted into the effects of early career experiences on future practice. The research indicates that early career academics are particularly susceptible to burnout, as they are still developing their professional knowledge base, and are therefore more reliant on their theoretical knowledge or idealism to interpret…
Strauss, Karoline; Griffin, Mark A; Parker, Sharon K
The term future work self refers to an individual's representation of himself or herself in the future that reflects his or her hopes and aspirations in relation to work. The clearer and more accessible this representation, the more salient the future work self. An initial study with 2 samples (N = 397; N = 103) showed that future work self salience was distinct from established career concepts and positively related to individuals' proactive career behavior. A follow-up longitudinal analysis, Study 2 (N = 53), demonstrated that future work self salience had a lagged effect on proactive career behavior. In Study 3 (N = 233), we considered the role of elaboration, a further attribute of a future work self, and showed that elaboration motivated proactive career behavior only when future work self salience was also high. Together the studies suggest the power of future work selves as a motivational resource for proactive career behavior.
Byne, William; Bradley, Susan J; Coleman, Eli; Eyler, A Evan; Green, Richard; Menvielle, Edgardo J; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Pleak, Richard R; Tompkins, D Andrew
Both the diagnosis and treatment of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) are controversial. Although linked, they are separate issues and the DSM does not evaluate treatments. The Board of Trustees (BOT) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), therefore, formed a Task Force charged to perform a critical review of the literature on the treatment of GID at different ages, to assess the quality of evidence pertaining to treatment, and to prepare a report that included an opinion as to whether or not sufficient credible literature exists for development of treatment recommendations by the APA. The literature on treatment of gender dysphoria in individuals with disorders of sex development was also assessed. The completed report was accepted by the BOT on September 11, 2011. The quality of evidence pertaining to most aspects of treatment in all subgroups was determined to be low; however, areas of broad clinical consensus were identified and were deemed sufficient to support recommendations for treatment in all subgroups. With subjective improvement as the primary outcome measure, current evidence was judged sufficient to support recommendations for adults in the form of an evidence-based APA Practice Guideline with gaps in the empirical data supplemented by clinical consensus. The report recommends that the APA take steps beyond drafting treatment recommendations. These include issuing position statements to clarify the APA's position regarding the medical necessity of treatments for GID, the ethical bounds of treatments of gender variant minors, and the rights of persons of any age who are gender variant, transgender or transsexual.
Equity Issues, 1998
Career pathways align vocational and academic education within career clusters and provide students new options from grades 9-14. They must have the following elements: industry breadth and depth; opportunities for many populations; career options at entry, technical, and professional levels; and alternative delivery options and academic and…
Corry, Lisa M.
The question explored in this research from the literature is: Regarding college student identity development, what is known about personal integrative spirituality and relational Christian spirituality, with a particular focus on gender differences? Spirituality is included as an aspect of identity development by theorists Erikson, Marcia,…
Johnson, H Durell; Brady, Evelyn; McNair, Renae; Congdon, Darcy; Niznik, Jamie; Anderson, Samantha
Closeness is an integral aspect of friendships, and males and females differ in their closeness experiences within these relationships. However, identity development and friendship type (e.g., same-sex versus cross-sex friendships) may moderate these gender differences. In an attempt to clarify the relationships among gender, identity, and friendship closeness, the current study examined gender and identity associations with reported emotional closeness in emerging adults' same- and cross-sex friendships. Responses from 181 college undergraduates (89 males and 92 females) indicated similar levels of emotional closeness reported for same- and cross-sex friendships. Results also indicated overall identity commitment and friendship identity commitment associations with same-sex friendship closeness. Examination of closeness reports for cross-sex friends revealed a significant association with overall identity commitment for emerging adult males. A significant association was not indicated for emerging adult females. The associations between identity and emotional closeness in same-sex friendships and male cross-sex friendships support previous studies that report differences in the role of these relationships for emerging adult males and females. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the gender and identity differences in emerging adults' reports of friendship closeness.
Shek, Yen Ling; McEwen, Marylu K.
This study was conducted using a sample of Asian American male college students (N = 173) from one east coast public, research institution and one west coast public, research institution to explore the relationships of racial identity and gender role conflict with self-esteem. The study employed the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale,…
Fontanari, Anna-Martha V; Andreazza, Tahiana; Costa, Ângelo B; Salvador, Jaqueline; Koff, Walter J; Aguiar, Bianca; Ferrari, Pamela; Massuda, Raffael; Pedrini, Mariana; Silveira, Esalba; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo S; Gama, Clarissa S; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia; Kapczinski, Flavio; Lobato, Maria Ines R
Gender Identity Disorder (GID) is characterized by a strong and persistent cross-gender identification that affects different aspects of behavior. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity. Altered BDNF-signaling is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disordersand is related to traumatic life events. To examine serum BDNF levels, we compared one group of DSM-IV GID patients (n = 45) and one healthy control group (n = 66). Serum BDNF levels were significantly decreased in GID patients (p = 0.013). This data support the hypothesis that the reduction found in serum BDNF levels in GID patients may be related to the psychological abuse that transsexuals are exposed during their life.
Bermúdez de la Vega, José A; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Bernal, Susana; Audí, Laura
In 4 complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) members of one family, 2 presented extreme and unusual clinical features: male gender identity disorder (case 1) and female precocious central puberty (case 2). The AR gene carried the mutation c.1752C>G, p.Phe584Leu. Gender dysphoria in CAIS may be considered as a true transgender and has been described in 3 other cases. Central precocious puberty has only been described in 1 case; Müllerian ducts in case 2 permitted menarche. Despite the common CAIS phenotype, there was a familial disparity for gender identity adequacy and timing and type of puberty.
Drescher, Jack; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy; Winter, Sam
The World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of revising the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) and ICD-11 has an anticipated publication date of 2015. The Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health (WGSDSH) is charged with evaluating clinical and research data to inform the revision of diagnostic categories related to sexuality and gender identity that are currently included in the mental and behavioural disorders chapter of ICD-10, and making initial recommendations regarding whether and how these categories should be represented in the ICD-11. The diagnostic classification of disorders related to (trans)gender identity is an area long characterized by lack of knowledge, misconceptions and controversy. The placement of these categories has shifted over time within both the ICD and the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), reflecting developing views about what to call these diagnoses, what they mean and where to place them. This article reviews several controversies generated by gender identity diagnoses in recent years. In both the ICD-11 and DSM-5 development processes, one challenge has been to find a balance between concerns related to the stigmatization of mental disorders and the need for diagnostic categories that facilitate access to healthcare. In this connection, this article discusses several human rights issues related to gender identity diagnoses, and explores the question of whether affected populations are best served by placement of these categories within the mental disorders section of the classification. The combined stigmatization of being transgender and of having a mental disorder diagnosis creates a doubly burdensome situation for this group, which may contribute adversely to health status and to the attainment and enjoyment of human rights. The ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and
Munsch, Christin L; Willer, Robb
We experimentally investigated the effects of gender identity threat on men's and women's perceptions of date rape and sexual coercion. Results showed that men whose masculinity was threatened responded by blaming the victim and exonerating the perpetrator more, while threatened women respond by blaming male perpetrators more and placing less blame on female victims. Men's response to threats was more pronounced than women's, an asymmetry we attribute to the cultural devaluation of femininity. Our findings highlight the significance of masculinity concerns in perceptions of sexual violence and, more generally, the importance of perceiver context in views of violence against women.
Mann, Stephen L
Building on Barrett (1998), this study provides a sociolinguistic analysis of the language used by Suzanne, a European-American drag queen, during her on-stage performance in the southeastern United States. Suzanne uses wigs and costumes to portray a female character on stage, but never hides the fact that she is biologically male. She is also a member of a predominantly African-American cast. Through her creative use of linguistic features such as stylemixing (i.e., the use of linguistic features shared across multiple language varieties) and expletives, Suzanne is able to perform an identity that frequently blurs gender and racial lines.
Kulis, Stephen S; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Kopak, Albert M; Olmsted, Maureen E; Crossman, Ashley
This study examined interactive relationships among ethnic identity, gender, time in the US, and changes in substance use outcomes among a school-based sample of 1,731 Mexican-heritage preadolescents (ages 9-13). Residual change multilevel models adjusting for school clustering and using multiply imputed data assessed changes from beginning to end of fifth grade in use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana and inhalants, and four substance use antecedents. Effects of ethnic identity were conditional on time in the US, and in opposite directions by gender. Among males living longer in the US, stronger ethnic identity predicted desirable changes in all but one outcome (substance offers). Among females living longer in the US, stronger ethnic identity predicted undesirable changes in alcohol use, pro-drug norms, and peer substance use. Interpretations focus on differential exposure to substance use opportunities and the erosion of traditional gender role socialization among Mexican-heritage youth having lived longer in the US.
Ahlqvist, Sheana; London, Bonita; Rosenthal, Lisa
Although the perceived compatibility between one's gender and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) identities (gender-STEM compatibility) has been linked to women's success in STEM fields, no work to date has examined how the stability of identity over time contributes to subjective and objective STEM success. In the present study, 146 undergraduate female STEM majors rated their gender-STEM compatibility weekly during their freshman spring semester. STEM women higher in gender rejection sensitivity, or gender RS, a social-cognitive measure assessing the tendency to perceive social-identity threat, experienced larger fluctuations in gender-STEM compatibility across their second semester of college. Fluctuations in compatibility predicted impaired outcomes the following school year, including lower STEM engagement and lower academic performance in STEM (but not non-STEM) classes, and significantly mediated the relationship between gender RS and STEM engagement and achievement in the 2nd year of college. The week-to-week changes in gender-STEM compatibility occurred in response to negative academic (but not social) experiences.
Watt, Helen M. G.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Morris, Zoe A.; Durik, Amanda M.; Keating, Daniel P.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
In this international, longitudinal study, we explored gender differences in, and gendered relationships among, math-related motivations emphasized in the Eccles (Parsons) et al. (1983) expectancy-value framework, high school math participation, educational aspirations, and career plans. Participants were from Australia, Canada, and the United…
Rodríguez, Carmen; Inda, Mercedes; Fernández, Carmen Mª
This study tested social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in the technological domain with 2,359 high-school students in Asturias (Spain). Path analyses were run to determine the influence of gender on the SCCT model and to explain the influence of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and…
Ma, Yingliang; Paterson, Helena M; Pollick, Frank E
We present the methods that were used in capturing a library of human movements for use in computer-animated displays of human movement. The library is an attempt to systematically tap into and represent the wide range of personal properties, such as identity, gender, and emotion, that are available in a person's movements. The movements from a total of 30 nonprofessional actors (15 of them female) were captured while they performed walking, knocking, lifting, and throwing actions, as well as their combination in angry, happy, neutral, and sad affective styles. From the raw motion capture data, a library of 4,080 movements was obtained, using techniques based on Character Studio (plug-ins for 3D Studio MAX, AutoDesk, Inc.), MATLAB The MathWorks, Inc.), or a combination of these two. For the knocking, lifting, and throwing actions, 10 repetitions of the simple action unit were obtained for each affect, and for the other actions, two longer movement recordings were obtained for each affect. We discuss the potential use of the library for computational and behavioral analyses of movement variability, of human character animation, and of how gender, emotion, and identity are encoded and decoded from human movement.
Coolidge, Frederick L; Thede, Linda L; Young, Susan E
The heritability and prevalence of the gender identity disorder (GID) was examined, as well as its comorbidity with separation anxiety and depression, in a nonretrospective study of child and adolescent twins. The parents of 314 twins (ages 4-17 years; 96 monozygotic pairs [MZ] and 61 dizygotic [DZ] pairs) completed the Coolidge Personality and Neuropsychological Inventory (CPNI) containing a six-item DSM-IV-based GID scale. Prevalence of clinically significant GID symptomatology in the twin sample was estimated to be 2.3%. Univariate model fitting analyses were conducted using an ordinal transformation of the GID scale. The model that best described the data included a significant additive genetic component accounting for 62% of the variance and a nonshared environmental component accounting for the remaining 38% of the variance. Results suggested no heterogeneity in the parameter estimates resulting from age. The correlation between GID and depression was modest, but significant (r = .20; P < .05), whereas the correlation between GID and separation anxiety was nonsignificant (P > .05). Overall, the results support the hypothesis that there is a strong heritable component to GID. The findings may also imply that gender identity may be much less a matter of choice and much more a matter of biology.
Bosson, Jennifer K; Michniewicz, Kenneth S
In 5 studies (N = 756), we show that men's relative to women's gender ingroup identities are characterized by greater levels of gender dichotomization, a tendency to distance masculine from feminine traits. We demonstrate further that men's gender dichotomization is motivated, in part, by a need to eschew femininity from their ingroup identity to bolster a precarious gender status. Studies 1-3 establish and replicate the basic effect, and rule out alternative explanations (positivity, projection, status striving) for men's tendency to dichotomize more than women. Studies 4 and 5 demonstrate the motivated nature of gender dichotomization by establishing that men, but not women, dichotomize more strenuously when reminded of the precariousness of their gender status, and report stronger motivation to restore their gender status upon learning that their ingroup is becoming less dichotomized. Across 3 studies, strength of identification with their gender group moderates men's dichotomization tendencies. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for understanding the precarious nature of manhood and identifies practical applications of gender dichotomization in the interpersonal realm.
Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Pfäfflin, Friedemann
Apart from some general issues related to the Gender Identity Disorder (GID) diagnosis, such as whether it should stay in the DSM-V or not, a number of problems specifically relate to the current criteria of the GID diagnosis for adolescents and adults. These problems concern the confusion caused by similarities and differences of the terms transsexualism and GID, the inability of the current criteria to capture the whole spectrum of gender variance phenomena, the potential risk of unnecessary physically invasive examinations to rule out intersex conditions (disorders of sex development), the necessity of the D criterion (distress and impairment), and the fact that the diagnosis still applies to those who already had hormonal and surgical treatment. If the diagnosis should not be deleted from the DSM, most of the criticism could be addressed in the DSM-V if the diagnosis would be renamed, the criteria would be adjusted in wording, and made more stringent. However, this would imply that the diagnosis would still be dichotomous and similar to earlier DSM versions. Another option is to follow a more dimensional approach, allowing for different degrees of gender dysphoria depending on the number of indicators. Considering the strong resistance against sexuality related specifiers, and the relative difficulty assessing sexual orientation in individuals pursuing hormonal and surgical interventions to change physical sex characteristics, it should be investigated whether other potentially relevant specifiers (e.g., onset age) are more appropriate.
Ruppin, Ulrike; Pfäfflin, Friedemann
The aim of this study was to re-examine individuals with gender identity disorder after as long a period of time as possible. To meet the inclusion criterion, the legal recognition of participants' gender change via a legal name change had to date back at least 10 years. The sample comprised 71 participants (35 MtF and 36 FtM). The follow-up period was 10-24 years with a mean of 13.8 years (SD = 2.78). Instruments included a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods: Clinical interviews were conducted with the participants, and they completed a follow-up questionnaire as well as several standardized questionnaires they had already filled in when they first made contact with the clinic. Positive and desired changes were determined by all of the instruments: Participants reported high degrees of well-being and a good social integration. Very few participants were unemployed, most of them had a steady relationship, and they were also satisfied with their relationships with family and friends. Their overall evaluation of the treatment process for sex reassignment and its effectiveness in reducing gender dysphoria was positive. Regarding the results of the standardized questionnaires, participants showed significantly fewer psychological problems and interpersonal difficulties as well as a strongly increased life satisfaction at follow-up than at the time of the initial consultation. Despite these positive results, the treatment of transsexualism is far from being perfect.
Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N; Szkrybalo, Joel
Most of the critique in the A. Bandura and K. Bussey (see record 2004-18097-001) commentary is a misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the points made by C. L. Martin, D. N. Ruble, and J. Szkrybalo in their 2002 Psychological Bulletin article (see record 2002-18663-003). First, Martin et al. never intended to present a comprehensive theory; instead, it was a review of 2 different cognitive approaches to gender development. Second, there is no time line test that has been failed; instead, gender cognitions may occur earlier than initially believed. Third, Bandura and Bussey dismissed central gender cognitions-gender identity and gender stereotype knowledge-despite considerable evidence in their support. Fourth, Bandura and Bussey never addressed the gaps and ambiguities inherent in their theory that Martin et al. questioned in their earlier article. Finally, Bandura and Bussey's misunderstandings of cognitive theorists' views on socialization agents, sociocultural influences, agency, and motivation created theoretical rifts where none exist.
Black, Laura; Williams, Julian; Hernandez-Martinez, Paul; Davis, Pauline; Pampaka, Maria; Wake, Geoff
The construct of identity has been used widely in mathematics education in order to understand how students (and teachers) relate to and engage with the subject (Kaasila, 2007; Sfard & Prusak, 2005; Boaler, 2002). Drawing on cultural historical activity theory (CHAT), this paper adopts Leont'ev's notion of "leading activity" in order to explore…
Veale, Jaimie F
Recalled childhood gender role/identity is a construct that is related to sexual orientation, abuse, and psychological health. The purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity of a short version of Zucker et al.'s (2006) "Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Gender Role Questionnaire" using confirmatory factor analysis and to test the stability of the factor structure across groups (measurement invariance). Six items of the questionnaire were completed online by 1929 participants from a variety of gender identity and sexual orientation groups. Models of the six items loading onto one factor had poor fit for the data. Items were removed for having a large proportion of error variance. Among birth-assigned females, a five-item model had good fit for the data, but there was evidence for differences in scale's factor structure across gender identity, age, level of education, and country groups. Among birth-assigned males, the resulting four-item model did not account for all of the relationship between variables, and modeling for this resulted in a model that was almost saturated. This model also had evidence of measurement variance across gender identity and sexual orientation groups. The models had good reliability and factor score determinacy. These findings suggest that results of previous studies that have assessed recalled childhood gender role/identity may have been susceptible to construct bias due to measurement variance across these groups. Future studies should assess measurement invariance between groups they are comparing, and if it is not found the issue can be addressed by removing variant indicators and/or applying a partial invariance model.
Sumia, Maria; Lindberg, Nina; Työläjärvi, Marja; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu
We studied current (GIDYQ-A) and recalled (RCGI) childhood gender identity among 719 upper secondary school students 401 girls, mean age 17.0 (SD = 0.88) years old and 318 boys, mean age 17.2 (SD = 0.86 years old in Finland. We also compared these dimensions of identity in community youth to same dimensions among adolescent sex reassignment (SR) applicants. Most community youth scored high on the normative, cis-gender end of gender experience (median score 4.9 for boys and 4.9 for girls) and recalled fairly gender typical childhood behaviours and experiences. The girls displayed more gender non-conformity in childhood. Among the boys 2.2% and among the girls 0.5% displayed potentially clinically significant gender dysphoria on the GIDYQ-A. The community youth differed clearly from adolescent SR applicants on current and recalled childhood gender identity (SR applicants were 47, 6 natal boys and 41 natal girls, average ages were 16.4 years old (SD = 0.93) and girls were on average 16.8 years old (SD = 1.0).
The third versions of the guideline for treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology does not include puberty-delaying hormone therapy. It is recommended that feminizing/masculinizing hormone therapy and genital surgery should not be carried out until 18 year old and 20 year old, respectively. On the other hand, the sixth (2001) and the seventh (2011) versions of the standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people of World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) recommend that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2, [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by the endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until age 16 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. A questionnairing on 181 people with GID diagnosed in the Okayama University Hospital (Japan) showed that female to male (FTM) transsexuals hoped to begin masculinizing hormone therapy at age of 15.6 +/- 4.0 (mean +/- S.D.) whereas male to female (MTF) transsexuals hoped to begin feminizing hormone therapy as early as age 12.5 +/- 4.0, before presenting secondary sex characters. After confirmation of strong and persistent cross-gender identification, adolescents with GID should be treated with cross-gender hormone or puberty-delaying hormone to prevent developing undesired sex characters. These treatments may prevent transsexual adolescents from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Subsequent early breast and genital surgery may help being employed in desired sexuality.
The guideline for the treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology was revised in January 2012. The guideline eased restrictions for the endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents. A medical specialist can start treating transsexual adolescents at the age of 15 after the diagnosis of GID. It recommends that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2 [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until the age of 15 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. Female-to-male transsexuals do not necessarily want to start androgen therapy before presenting female secondary sexual characteristics because androgen can easily stop menstruation, cause beard growth, and lower the voice. On the contrary, male-to-female transsexuals want to start estrogen therapy before presenting male secondary sexual characteristics because estrogen cannot alter the beard and low voice. It is important to identify children with gender dysphoria in school and help them receive medical advice. However, approximately half of school teachers think that children with gender dysphoria are very rare and they do not know of the notification from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN, which aims to help children with gender dysphoria. The revision of the guideline for the treatment of transsexual people and endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents by medical specialists may prevent them from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Furthermore, the treatment may help avoid mental disorders, aid being employed with the desired sexuality, and, subsequently, getting married and having children.
Hoekstra, Hans A.
Career development is described as the interactive progression of internal career identity formation and the growth of external career significance. Argued is the need for a content model of career development where the field is dominated by process theories. A theory is put forward of career development crystallizing in the acquisition of career…
Waaijer, Cathelijn J. F.; Sonneveld, Hans; Buitendijk, Simone E.; van Bochove, Cornelis A.; van der Weijden, Inge C. M.
Recent decades have seen a sharp increase in the number of female PhD graduates in the Netherlands. Currently, the share of females among newly graduated PhDs is almost on par with that of males. A considerable body of scientific studies has investigated the role of gender in the academic workplace. However, the role of gender in the careers of all PhD graduates, including those outside academia, has been studied less. In this study, we investigate gender differences in type of job, occupation, career perception and research performance of recent PhDs. The study is based on a survey of persons who obtained a PhD from one of five Dutch universities between 2008 and early 2012. We show that gender differences in post-PhD careers are non-existent in some aspects studied, but there are small differences in other aspects, such as sector of employment, type of contract, involvement in teaching and management, and career perception. In contrast, male and female PhDs differ sharply on two factors. The first is field of PhD, females being heavily underrepresented in engineering and the natural sciences. The second is part-time employment, females being much more likely to work part-time than males, especially if they work in the Netherlands. In later career stages, the combination of the small and large differences can be presumed to affect the career progression of female PhDs through cumulative disadvantage. PMID:27736968
Waaijer, Cathelijn J F; Sonneveld, Hans; Buitendijk, Simone E; van Bochove, Cornelis A; van der Weijden, Inge C M
Recent decades have seen a sharp increase in the number of female PhD graduates in the Netherlands. Currently, the share of females among newly graduated PhDs is almost on par with that of males. A considerable body of scientific studies has investigated the role of gender in the academic workplace. However, the role of gender in the careers of all PhD graduates, including those outside academia, has been studied less. In this study, we investigate gender differences in type of job, occupation, career perception and research performance of recent PhDs. The study is based on a survey of persons who obtained a PhD from one of five Dutch universities between 2008 and early 2012. We show that gender differences in post-PhD careers are non-existent in some aspects studied, but there are small differences in other aspects, such as sector of employment, type of contract, involvement in teaching and management, and career perception. In contrast, male and female PhDs differ sharply on two factors. The first is field of PhD, females being heavily underrepresented in engineering and the natural sciences. The second is part-time employment, females being much more likely to work part-time than males, especially if they work in the Netherlands. In later career stages, the combination of the small and large differences can be presumed to affect the career progression of female PhDs through cumulative disadvantage.
Anselmi, Dina L.; Smith, Kathleen M.
While women are more involved in work outside the home and changes in traditional role orientations are occurring, the nature and extent of such changes remain unclear. A questionnaire was administered to 126 male and 94 female college students to examine their career, marriage, and family expectations. The results indicated that although career,…
Thomas, Theda; Allen, Alesha
This paper reports on an investigation into first year students' perceptions of IT as a career. There are many stereotypes of the typical IT professional. These stereotypes are often depicted in the media and affect students' perceptions of the career and whether they should study IT or not. An exploratory study into male and female first year…
This article reports on data from a larger scale study exploring female principals' experiences of their career route to the principalship of secondary schools in South Africa. To understand these experiences, the study used an analytical framework that identifies three phases principals go through on their career route, namely: anticipation,…
Peake, Amy; Harris, Karen L.
For 66 young adult couples, marriage plans were positively related to knowledge and certainty about multiple role planning. Men with more nontraditional career partners had more commitment to and involvement in multiple role planning. Women with marriage plans and nontraditional career expectations had substantially higher commitment and…
Samudzi, Zoe; Mannell, Jenevieve
Sex workers are often perceived as possessing 'deviant' identities, contributing to their exclusion from health services. The literature on sex worker identities in relation to health has focused primarily on cisgender female sex workers as the 'carriers of disease', obscuring the experiences of cisgender male and transgender sex workers and the complexities their gender identities bring to understandings of stigma and exclusion. To address this gap, this study draws on 21 interviews with cisgender male and transgender female sex workers receiving services from the Sex Workers Education and Advocacy Taskforce in Cape Town, South Africa. Our findings suggest that the social identities imposed upon sex workers contribute to their exclusion from public, private, discursive and geographic spaces. While many transgender female sex workers described their identities using positive and empowered language, cisgender male sex workers frequently expressed shame and internalised stigma related to identities, which could be described as 'less than masculine'. While many of those interviewed felt empowered by positive identities as transgender women, sex workers and sex worker-advocates, disempowerment and vulnerability were also linked to inappropriately masculinised and feminised identities. Understanding the links between gender identities and social exclusion is crucial to creating effective health interventions for both cisgender men and transgender women in sex work.
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei
Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei
Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.
Diamond, Michael J
A model of masculine gender identity development is presented that demonstrates how a male's sense of his masculinity and the ambiguities of his gender are being reworked throughout his life. Of factors shaping the boy's sense of masculinity early on, particular emphasis is placed on the role of the involved father, the nature of the parental relationship, and the mother's recognition and affirmation of her son's maleness. While healthy masculine gender identity is founded predominantly on the boy's unique struggles in separating from his mother, it does not result from what has been traditionally viewed as the boy's disidentification from her (and from the feminine more generally). Indeed, boys who need to violently repudiate their identifications with their mother are more susceptible to a fragile, rigid masculine identity and narcissistic psychopathology. A case example of a young adult man illustrates the impact of identifications with both parents. The interplay of early masculine identity development and later life challenges confronting the adult male is briefly noted. "Masculine" ego ideals shift across developmental junctions until, ultimately, a more mature sense of masculinity emerges: the phallic wish to deny differentiation and maintain unlimited possibility is renounced and mourned and certain real limits concerning sex, gender, and generational differences are accepted. This reshaping of the "masculine" ego ideal consequently involves the transformation of a man's previously adaptive "phallicism" into more realistic, "genital" ego ideals-an achievement involving interplay between masculine and feminine identifications and the integration of antithetical elements no longer so unconsciously gendered.
Porfeli, Erik J.; Savickas, Mark L.
This article reports construction and initial validation of the United States form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS). The CAAS consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas.…
Yamasaki, Hideki; Douchi, Tsutomu; Nagata, Yukihiro
A 31-year-old regularly menstruating Japanese female was referred to our outpatient clinic by a psychiatrist. She had been diagnosed as having gender identity disorder by detailed counseling and clinical intervention 3 years earlier. After obtaining fully informed written consent, we treated her with 125 mg of testosterone enanthate, intramuscularly, every 2 weeks for 4 months. Serum testosterone levels increased to the normal male value (from 28 to 432 ng/dL). Although menstrual cycle remained regular, her voice became lower after 4 months of therapy. Body weight, body mass index, and lean body mass increased, while body fat mass and percentage of body fat decreased. However, trunk-leg fat ratio did not change during the observation period. During testosterone therapy, a disproportionate increase in lean body mass and decrease in body fat mass are early onset events, while the shift toward upper body fat distribution may be a late onset event along with increase in BMD.
del Río-Lozano, María; García-Calvente, María del Mar; Marcos-Marcos, Jorge; Entrena-Durán, Francisco; Maroto-Navarro, Gracia
We examined the influence of gender identity on men's and women's perceptions of assuming the caregiver role to identify different coping strategies and the effects on caregiver health and quality of life. The study, performed in Andalusia, Spain, was based on a sociological analysis of the narratives produced during semistructured interviews with primary informal caregivers (16 men and 16 women) of different profiles. We observed a cultural assumption that women should assume the caregiver role and found that women shouldered the bulk of caregiving responsibilities and did not usually seek support. This might explain the high prevalence of chronic health disorders, stress, anxiety, depression, neglect of health, and social isolation we observed among women caregivers. Because the caregiver role was not socially imposed on men in our setting, men caregivers adopted a flexible attitude and tended to seek external support before their health and quality of life were seriously affected.
Meybodi, Azadeh Mazaheri; Hajebi, Ahmad; Jolfaei, Atefeh Ghanbari
Background: Co-morbid psychiatric disorders affect prognosis, psychosocial adjustment and post-surgery satisfaction in patients with gender identity disorder. In this paper, we assessed the frequency of personality disorders in Iranian GID patients. Methods: Seventy- three patients requesting sex reassignment surgery (SRS) were recruited for this crosssectional study. Of the participants, 57.5% were biologically male and 42.5% were biologically female. They were assessed through the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory II (MCMI- II). Results: The frequency of personality disorders was 81.4%. The most frequent personality disorder was narcissistic personality disorder (57.1%) and the least was borderline personality disorder. The average number of diagnoses was 3.00 per patient. Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that the prevalence of personality disorders was higher among the participants, and the most frequent personality disorder was narcissistic personality disorder (57.1%), and borderline personality disorder was less common among the studied patients. PMID:25664291
Transgender children who are not treated for their condition are at high risk of violence and suicide. As a matter of survival, many are willing to take whatever help is available, even if this is offered by illegal sources, and this often traps them into the juvenile criminal system and exposes them to various threats. Endocrinology offers a revolutionary instrument to help children/adolescents with gender identity disorder: suspension of puberty. Suspension of puberty raises many ethical issues, and experts dissent as to when treatment should be commenced and how children should be followed up. This paper argues that suspension of puberty is not only not unethical: if it is likely to improve the child's quality of life and even save his or her life, then it is indeed unethical to defer treatment.
Cugliari, Giovanni; Pizzigalli, Luisa
The purpose of this paper is twofold: to validate the properties of the Italian version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale (i.e., BIMS-IT), a self-report questionnaire based on the athletic and academic identities; and to investigate differences in psychosocial factors such as gender, age, type of sport, and competition level. The dimensionality of the BIMS-IT was explored by means of the exploratory factor analysis, considering the scale’s internal consistency too (Confirmatory Factor Analysis). Results related to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of measurement composed of two correlated factors: the athletic and academic identities and affectivity related to identities. For both factors, differences emerged between age, and competition level sub groups. In particular, higher identity scores emerged for ≤ 24 years old student-athletes with respect to their age counterparts. National sub-elite student-athletes reported lower identity values than those of national elite and international levels. Results suggest that the Italian version of the BIMS-IT is psychometrically robust and could be adopted for empirical uses. The higher identity scores reported by younger and higher competition level participants suggest a correspondent higher involvement into the student-athlete role. However, BIMS-IT represents a distinct model with respect to the original American BIMS, determining the need of further research on the student-athletes’ identity to better clarify any socio-cultural contest effects. PMID:28056046
Lupo, Corrado; Mosso, Cristina Onesta; Guidotti, Flavia; Cugliari, Giovanni; Pizzigalli, Luisa; Rainoldi, Alberto
The purpose of this paper is twofold: to validate the properties of the Italian version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale (i.e., BIMS-IT), a self-report questionnaire based on the athletic and academic identities; and to investigate differences in psychosocial factors such as gender, age, type of sport, and competition level. The dimensionality of the BIMS-IT was explored by means of the exploratory factor analysis, considering the scale's internal consistency too (Confirmatory Factor Analysis). Results related to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of measurement composed of two correlated factors: the athletic and academic identities and affectivity related to identities. For both factors, differences emerged between age, and competition level sub groups. In particular, higher identity scores emerged for ≤ 24 years old student-athletes with respect to their age counterparts. National sub-elite student-athletes reported lower identity values than those of national elite and international levels. Results suggest that the Italian version of the BIMS-IT is psychometrically robust and could be adopted for empirical uses. The higher identity scores reported by younger and higher competition level participants suggest a correspondent higher involvement into the student-athlete role. However, BIMS-IT represents a distinct model with respect to the original American BIMS, determining the need of further research on the student-athletes' identity to better clarify any socio-cultural contest effects.
Gilchrist, Heidi; Sullivan, Gerard
The suicide rate among young people in Australia has caused considerable concern and been the focus of research and intervention. Issues related to sexuality and gender can be the source of conflict for young people within their communities, and have been implicated in suicide attempts. This paper examines the cultural context of youth suicide, and asks how youth suicide may be related to emerging sexual identity, which all young people must negotiate through the customs, discourse and taboos of their society. In particular, it focuses on the situation of young heterosexual women. The findings are based on interviews with 41 young people, parents and youth service providers regarding youth suicide. Interviews were semi-structured and open-ended, and conducted in a suburban community. They included the use of scenarios or vignettes. Finding, suggest that traditional constructions of gender remain widespread, and that these are often disadvantageous to both young women and young men. Parents may be unaware that they have little control over, or even knowledge about, their teenagers' behaviour. Young people are more inclined to confide in their friends, who may not be equipped to deal with crises.
Rhee, Eunjeong; Lee, Bo Hyun; Kim, Boyoung; Ha, Gyuyoung; Lee, Sang Min
The current study investigated how the five components of planned happenstance skills are related to vocational identity statuses. For determination of relationships, cluster and discriminant analyses were conducted sequentially on a sample of 515 university students in South Korea. Cluster analysis revealed vocational identity statuses to be…
Kier, Meredith Weaver
National efforts to interest students in STEM careers are intensifying around the globe, due to a shortage of professionals to fill the growing demands in these fields. Although some US studies find high interest in STEM in K-12 students, longitudinal studies show a decline in interest following middle school. Many students, particularly females and minorities, feel that they do not fit the image of a STEM professional. Little is known about perceptions held by students in rural areas, who have limited access to diverse STEM careers. This dissertation study employed an in school STEM career video intervention with eighty-five rural, minority, eighth grade students in a high poverty district in the southeastern US. Research questions explore students' STEM career interests before and after the STEM career video intervention, and analyze how students in this population negotiate a potential identity in STEM. Applying aspects of Lent, Brown, & Hackett's social cognitive career theory (SCCT), students' exploration sheets and video planning sheets were coded to understand positive or negative contributors to STEM career interests. Students' initial explorations were limited to careers to which they had been previously exposed at home or in class, and were influenced by their personal dispositions Over the course of the intervention, increased knowledge of careers increased the diversity of careers selected, attention to educational level, and the influence of more sophisticated career outcomes on interest. Students selected careers based on personal interests and outcome expectations, but were able to identify how their academic strengths, dispositions, and family support systems related to their career goals. Post survey analyses found the presence of role models and high self-efficacy were new predictors of interest. Study results imply that similar interventions can help students gain more sophisticated understandings of careers, can motivate students without
van Goethem, Anne A. J.; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Boom, Jan; de Castro, Bram Orobio
The aim of this study was to explain adolescents' volunteering in terms of their morality and identity and to examine the moderation effect of gender and age in this process. Data were collected among 698 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 20 (M = 15.19; SD = 1.43). Adolescents' moral reasoning was positively associated with understanding moral issues…
In this review I explore the connections between debates about the transformation of work in a service-dominated economy and those about classed and gendered identities. I suggest they might usefully be connected in analyses of disadvantage and exclusion among working-class young people. Youth involvement in protest and unrest in English cities,…
Sinclair, Samantha; Carlsson, Rickard
The present study examined the impact of gender identity threat on adolescents' occupational preferences. Two hundred and ninety-seven adolescents (45% girls, M age = 14.4, SD = 0.54) participated in the experiment. There were substantial differences between boys' and girls' occupational preferences. Importantly, adolescents who received a threat…
Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien
Researchers and practitioners have been pursuing how to enhance counselors' multicultural counseling competencies (MCC). With a sample of 460 counselors, the author examined whether multicultural training changed the relationship between (a) racial/ethnic identity and MCC and (b) gender-role attitudes and MCC. The author found significant…
This study aims at revealing the relationships between the problematic Internet use of university students and their identity status, main Internet use purposes, and gender. A total of 464 university students participated in the study, and the research data were collected through the Problematic Internet Use Scale, the Extended Objective Measure…
Thomson, Nicole Renick; Zand, Debra H.
The present study investigates whether the gender identities of African American adolescents mediate sex differences found in their multidimensional self-concepts. The sample included 174 African American adolescents who completed the 21-item Children's Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Results…
Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Bauerband, L. Andrew
Our study used the construct of congruence to conceptualize the degree to which transgender individuals feel genuine, authentic, and comfortable with their gender identity and external appearance. In Study 1, the Transgender Congruence scale (TCS) was developed, and data from 162 transgender individuals were used to estimate the reliability and…
Jones, Kayla; Mendenhall, Sarah; Myers, Charlsie A.
Objective: This study examined differences in perceived stress and coping strategies based on gender role identity (GRI) and sex among traditional and nontraditional college students. Participants and Methods: Online surveys that assessed demographic information, GRI, and perceived stress were completed between October 2013 and March 2014 by 197…
A correlation was found between high (independent) occupational positions and masculine scores on the Franck Drawing Completion Test (FDCT). Acceptable individual long-term stability was also evident. The FDCT appears to be useful in assessing gender identity. (Author/ABB)
Owen-Anderson, Allison F. H.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Bradley, Susan J.; Zucker, Kenneth J.
Objective: The construct of empathy was examined in 20 boys with gender identity disorder (GID), 20 clinical control boys with externalizing disorders (ECC), 20 community control boys (NCB), and 20 community control girls (NCG). The mean age of the children was 6.86 years (range = 4-8 years). It was hypothesized that boys with GID would show…
Kulis, Stephen S.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kopak, Albert M.; Olmsted, Maureen E.; Crossman, Ashley
This study examined interactive relationships among ethnic identity, gender, time in the US, and changes in substance use outcomes among a school-based sample of 1,731 Mexican-heritage preadolescents (ages 9-13). Residual change multilevel models adjusting for school clustering and using multiply imputed data assessed changes from beginning to end…
Wood, Christine V.; Campbell, Patricia B.; McGee, Richard
This paper analyzes perspectives on academic careers among 60 beginning PhD students in the biomedical sciences. It presents seven perspectives on academic careers articulated by the students in the sample and explains the way that race/ethnicity, gender, and students’ family education backgrounds are tied to those perspectives. The findings show that traditionally underrepresented students find the academic career path less navigable than students from well-represented groups. Among underrepresented students, even those from higher family education backgrounds, experiences related to race/ethnicity and gender often inform perceptions of the academic career even before they start their graduate research training. As the composition of the graduate population changes to include more women and underrepresented racial and ethnic minority men, it is important to note that not all graduate students enter with the same perspectives and views of the academic career and that there are meaningful differences in perspectives across demographic lines. Graduate programs can play a critical role in providing information and support for graduate students as they navigate their career choices, particularly at the earliest stages of training. By becoming sensitive to students’ perspectives on career options, and understanding how differences in perspectives arise, mentors and others can align advising strategies with the experiences and views of students. PMID:28239250
Tonso, Karen L.
How do women and men student engineers develop an engineering identity (a sense of belonging, or not), while practicing "actual" engineering? What are the influences of gender, learning and knowledge, relations of power, and conceptions of equality on cultural identity development? I studied these issues in reform-minded engineering design classes, courses organized around teaching students communications, teamwork, and practical engineering. Engineering-student cultural identity categories revealed a status hierarchy, predicated on meeting "academic" criteria for excellence, and the almost total exclusion of women. While working as an engineering colleague on five student teams (three first-year and two senior) and attending their design classes, I documented how cultural identities were made evident and constructed in students' practical engineering. Design projects promoted linking academic knowledge with real-world situations, sharing responsibilities and trusting colleagues, communicating engineering knowledge to technical and non-technical members of business communities, and addressing gaps in students' knowledge. With a curriculum analysis and survey of students' perceptions of the differences between design and conventional courses, I embedded the design classes in the wider campus and found that: (1) Engineering education conferred prestige, power, and well-paying jobs on students who performed "academic" engineering, while failing to adequately encourage "actual" engineering practices. High-status student engineers were the least likely to perform "actual" engineering in design teams. (2) Engineering education advanced an ideology that encouraged its practitioners to consider men's privilege and women's invisibility normal. By making "acting like men act" the standards to which engineering students must conform, women learned to put up with oppressive treatment. Women's accepting their own mistreatment and hiding their womanhood became a condition of
al-Attia, H M
Between 1986 and 1995, a pedigree of six Arabs with male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5 alpha reductase-2 deficiency have been identified. All, were raised as girls since birth. At the time of diagnosis, three were post-pubertal, one pubertal and two pre-pubertal. The external genitalia of 'pseudo-vaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias' was identical in these subjects. Although these individuals were a homogeneous group in terms of their sex of upbringing, phenotypic appearance, endocrinological profile and socio-cultural background, the development of the gender identity and role was not uniform in these six cases. Their psycho-sexual make-up was closely related to the transaction of their life experiences. These cases provide further insight into the interaction between various factors involved in the development of gender identity and role in male pseudohermaphrodites in an Eastern culture.
Cahill, Sean R; Baker, Kellan; Deutsch, Madeline B; Keatley, Joanne; Makadon, Harvey J
Final rules issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology in October 2015 require electronic health record software certified for Meaningful Use to include sexual orientation and gender identity (SO/GI) fields. This is a critical step toward making SO/GI data collection a standard practice in clinical settings. Sexual orientation identity-whether one identifies as gay, lesbian, or bisexual-correlates with behavioral health burden, and it is important to collect these data. Providers should also collect sex assigned at birth data as well as current gender identity data. Training of clinical staff in collection and use of SO/GI data, education of LGBT patients, and SO/GI nondiscrimination policies are critical for successful implementation.
Burke, Sarah M; Menks, Willeke M; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Klink, Daniel T; Bakker, Julie
Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) are echo-like sounds that are produced by the inner ear in response to click-stimuli. CEOAEs generally have a higher amplitude in women compared to men and neonates already show a similar sex difference in CEOAEs. Weaker responses in males are proposed to originate from elevated levels of testosterone during perinatal sexual differentiation. Therefore, CEOAEs may be used as a retrospective indicator of someone's perinatal androgen environment. Individuals diagnosed with Gender Identity Disorder (GID), according to DSM-IV-TR, are characterized by a strong identification with the other gender and discomfort about their natal sex. Although the etiology of GID is far from established, it is hypothesized that atypical levels of sex steroids during a critical period of sexual differentiation of the brain might play a role. In the present study, we compared CEOAEs in treatment-naïve children and adolescents with early-onset GID (24 natal boys, 23 natal girls) and control subjects (65 boys, 62 girls). We replicated the sex difference in CEOAE response amplitude in the control group. This sex difference, however, was not present in the GID groups. Boys with GID showed stronger, more female-typical CEOAEs whereas girls with GID did not differ in emission strength compared to control girls. Based on the assumption that CEOAE amplitude can be seen as an index of relative androgen exposure, our results provide some evidence for the idea that boys with GID may have been exposed to lower amounts of androgen during early development in comparison to control boys.
Diemer, Elizabeth W.; Grant, Julia D.; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.; Patterson, David A.; Duncan, Alexis E.
Purpose This study examined associations of gender identity and sexual orientation with self-reported eating disorder (SR-ED) diagnosis and compensatory behaviors (CB) in trans- and cis-gender college students. Methods Data came from 289,024 students from 223 U.S. universities participating in The American College Health Association – National College Health Assessment II (median age 20 years). Rates of self-reported past year SR-ED diagnosis and past month use of diet pills and vomiting or laxatives were compared among transgender students (n=479) and cisgender sexual minority male (n=5,977) and female (n=9,445), unsure male (n=1,662) and female (n=3,395), and heterosexual male (n=91,599) and female (n=176,467) students using chi-squared tests. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of eating-related pathology outcomes after adjusting for covariates. Results Rates of past year SR-ED diagnosis and past month use of diet pills and vomiting or laxatives were highest among transgender students and lowest cisgender heterosexual men. Compared to cisgender heterosexual women, transgender students had greater odds of past year SR-ED diagnosis (OR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.41-6.26) and past month use of diet pills (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.48-2.83) and vomiting or laxatives (OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.83-3.30). Although cisgender sexual minority men and unsure men and women also had elevated rates of SR-ED diagnosis than heterosexual women, the magnitudes of these associations were lower than for transgender individuals (ORs: 1.40-1.54). Conclusions Transgender and cisgender sexual minority young adults have elevated rates of CB and SR-ED diagnosis. Appropriate interventions for these populations are urgently needed. PMID:25937471
The gender gap in entrepreneurship has typically been understood through women's structural disadvantages in acquiring the resources relevant for successful business ownership. This study builds on resource-based approaches to investigate how cultural beliefs about gender influence the process by which individuals initially come to identify…
After explaining the essential trans* terminology, I offer a short historical overview of the way health care has dealt with the subject of gender, trans* and health in different times. In the third section, I compare the world's most important diagnostic manuals, namely the International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD) and the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM), i.e. their criteria for 'gender identity disorders' (ICD-10) and 'gender dysphoria' (DSM-5). The fourth section branch out the factors which influence every diagnostic conception - of no matter whom - in the health care system. The last section discusses the implications resulting from this diagnostic dilemma for the health situation of gender nonconforming people.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an experiential program on the occupational identity, access, and career maturity of Black and Latino students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Data shows these students to be underrepresented in STEM fields. Student interest and access are noted in the literature to be amongst the reasons minorities do not pursue a career in STEM related fields. Jobs within the STEM industry pay considerably more than non-STEM related jobs, access to these jobs can help individuals transform their socioeconomic status. Lack of access and exposure to these fields for low socioeconomic minorities then becomes a social justice issue. A mixed methods approach was applied which included surveys and interviews of junior students currently in an experiential careers program with a STEM emphasis. Composites and subscales were created and checked for internal reliability and consistency. Interview responses were recorded and coded based on theories of occupational identity and emergent themes. Findings suggest that most students within the experiential careers program exhibited high levels of occupational identity. The experiential learning model works well to support continuous learning and the identity development of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an experiential program on the occupational identity, access, and career maturity of Black and Latino students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Data shows these students to be underrepresented in STEM fields. Student interest and access are noted in the literature to be amongst the…
Castelló, Montserrat; Kobayashi, Sofie; McGinn, Michelle K.; Pechar, Hans; Vekkaila, Jenna; Wisker, Gina
Within the current higher education context, early career researchers (ECRs) face a "risk-career" in which predictable, stable academic careers have become increasingly rare. Traditional milestones to signal progress toward a sustainable research career are disappearing or subject to reinterpretation, and ECRs need to attend to new or…
Lovelace, Bill E.; Teddlie, Jessie
A study examined the extent to which Texas vocational/applied technology programs and statewide and regional services and activities designed to eliminate sex bias and stereotyping are meeting students' needs. Questionnaires were sent to the directors/coordinators of 21 funded sex equity programs, administrators of career and technology education…
Martin, Cynthia L.
While years of effort to attract more women into higher education careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (collectively known as STEM disciplines) has shown some success, retaining women faculty once they are hired has been much less successful. Their retention is essential in order to maintain diversity among faculty.…
Sikora, Joanna; Saha, Lawrence J.
In this article, we investigate whether adolescent girls are more determined to enter professional careers compared to boys across countries. To this end, we analyse the data from the 2006 survey of OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). First, we establish whether girls are more ambitious than boys net of their academic…
Sikora, Joanna; Pokropek, Artur
This paper provides a comprehensive overview of adolescent career plans reported in PISA 2006. Its main focus is on the differences in the status and area of employment expected by girls and boys in high school. In almost all countries, girls lead boys in their interest in non-manual, high status professional occupations. This can be seen as a…
Webb, Louisa; Macdonald, Doune
The discursive practices of physical education reflect not only the expectations and constraints of discourses in the wider society, educational organizations and bureaucracies, but also the pervasive influences of working with and within sport. Within physical education, and specifically in the lives, work and careers of physical education…
Doube, Wendy; Lang, Catherine
A multimedia university programme with relatively equal numbers of male and female students in elective programming subjects provided a rare opportunity to investigate female motivation to study and pursue computer programming in a career. The MSLQ was used to survey 85 participants. In common with research into deterrence of females from STEM…
Bergstrom, Zoey; Sadler, Philip; Sonnert, Gerhard
This article uses U.S. survey data (N = 15,847) to characterize the evolution of student interest in an astronomy career in the period between middle school and the beginning of college. We find that middle school students have a relatively high interest in astronomy, which sharply declines with every phase of their education. However, many of the…
Powell, Abigail; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara
In the UK, women remain under-represented in engineering and technology (E&T). Research has, therefore, investigated barriers and solutions to women's recruitment, retention and progression. Recruitment into the sector may be supported by exploring the career decisions of women and men who have chosen to study E&T. Triangulating…
Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah; Tan, Hazel
Mathematics continues to be an enabling discipline for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)-based university studies and related careers. Explanatory models for females' underrepresentation in higher level mathematics and STEM-based courses comprise learner-related and environmental variables--including societal beliefs. Using…
Garfinkel, Paul E.; Bagby, R. Michael; Schuller, Deborah R.; Dickens, Susan E.; Schulte, Fiona S.; Fitzgerald, Leanne
Objective: The authors explored practice characteristics, activities, and career satisfaction of male and female psychiatrists. Method: A questionnaire was mailed to all practicing psychiatrists in Ontario, Canada, to which 52% responded. Results: More women specialized in child, women's mental health and geriatrics than did men, while men…
Holley, Lynn C.; Young, Diane S.
This study uses quantitative and qualitative findings from a mail and online questionnaire to examine the experiences and perspectives of 76 doctoral-degreed social work faculty about the factors that affected their career decisions. The authors discuss similarities and differences between women and men in job-related decision making. Respondent…
Ujike, Hiroshi; Otani, Kyohei; Nakatsuka, Mikiya; Ishii, Kazushi; Sasaki, Aiko; Oishi, Tomoko; Sato, Toshiki; Okahisa, Yuko; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Namba, Yuzaburo; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Shigetoshi
To investigate the biological mechanism of gender identity disorder (GID), five candidate sex hormone-related genes, encoding androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta), aromatase (CYP19), and progesterone receptor (PGR) were analyzed by a case-control association study. Subjects were 242 transsexuals (74 male-to-female patients (MTF) and 168 female-to-male patients (FTM)), and 275 healthy age- and geographical origin-matched controls (106 males and 169 females). The distributions of CAG repeat numbers in exon 1 of AR, TA repeat numbers in the promoter region of ERalpha, CA repeat numbers in intron 5 of ERbeta, TTTA repeat numbers in intron 4 of CYP19, and six polymorphisms (rs2008112, rs508653, V660L, H770H, rs572698 and PROGINS) of PGR were analyzed. No significant difference in allelic or genotypic distribution of any gene examined was found between MTFs and control males or between FTMs and control females. The present findings do not provide any evidence that genetic variants of sex hormone-related genes confer individual susceptibility to MTF or FTM transsexualism.
Brown, George R.; Shipherd, PhD, Jillian C.; Kauth, Michael; Piegari, Rebecca I.; Bossarte, Robert M.
Objectives. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of gender identity disorder (GID) diagnoses among veterans in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) health care system and examined suicide risk among veterans with a GID diagnosis. Methods. We examined VHA electronic medical records from 2000 through 2011 for 2 official ICD-9 diagnosis codes that indicate transgender status. We generated annual period prevalence estimates and calculated incidence using the prevalence of GID at 2000 as the baseline year. We cross-referenced GID cases with available data (2009–2011) of suicide-related events among all VHA users to examine suicide risk. Results. GID prevalence in the VHA is higher (22.9/100 000 persons) than are previous estimates of GID in the general US population (4.3/100 000 persons). The rate of suicide-related events among GID-diagnosed VHA veterans was more than 20 times higher than were rates for the general VHA population. Conclusions. The prevalence of GID diagnosis nearly doubled over 10 years among VHA veterans. Research is needed to examine suicide risk among transgender veterans and how their VHA utilization may be enhanced by new VA initiatives on transgender care. PMID:23947310
Russell, Stephen T; Day, Jack K; Ioverno, Salvatore; Toomey, Russell B
Bullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students' reports: We examined teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals' reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers' assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed.
Haraldsen, I R; Haug, E; Falch, J; Egeland, T; Opjordsmoen, S
Hormonally controlled differences in bone mineral density (BMD) between males and females are well studied. The effects of cross-sex hormones on bone metabolism in patients with early onset gender identity disorder (EO-GID), however, are unclear. We examined BMD, total body fat (TBF) and total lean body mass (TLBM) in patients prior to initiation of sex hormone treatment and during treatment at months 3 and 12. The study included 33 EO-GID patients who were approved for sex reassignment and a control group of 122 healthy Norwegians (males, n=77; females, n=45). Male patients (n=12) received an oral dose of 50 mug ethinylestradiol daily for the first 3 months and 100 mug daily thereafter. Female patients (n=21) received 250 mg testosterone enantate intramuscularly every third week. BMD, TBF and TLBM were estimated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In male patients, the DXA measurements except TBF were significantly lower compared to their same-sex control group at baseline and did not change during treatment. In female patients, the DXA measurements were slightly higher than in same-sex controls at baseline and also remained unchanged during treatment. In conclusion, this study reports that body composition and bone density of EO-GID patients show less pronounced sex differences compared to controls and that bone density was unaffected by cross-sex hormone treatment.
Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.
The categorization of gender identity variants (GIVs) as “mental disorders” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) is highly controversial among professionals as well as among persons with GIV. After providing a brief history of GIV categorizations in the DSM, this paper presents some of the major issues of the ongoing debate: GIV as psychopathology versus natural variation; definition of “impairment” and “distress” for GID; associated psychopathology and its relation to stigma; the stigma impact of the mental-disorder label itself; the unusual character of “sex reassignment surgery” as a psychiatric treatment; and the consequences for health and mental-health services if the disorder label is removed. Finally, several categorization options are examined: Retaining the GID category, but possibly modifying its grouping with other syndromes; narrowing the definition to dysphoria and taking “disorder” out of the label; categorizing GID as a neurological or medical rather than a psychiatric disorder; removing GID from both the DSM and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD); and creating a special category for GIV in the DSM. I conclude that--as also evident in other DSM categories--the decision on the categorization of GIVs cannot be achieved on a purely scientific basis, and that a consensus for a pragmatic compromise needs to be arrived at that accommodates both scientific considerations and the service needs of persons with GIVs. PMID:19851856
Russell, Stephen T.; Day, Jack K.; Ioverno, Salvatore; Toomey, Russell B.
Bullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students’ reports: We examined teachers’ reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals’ reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3,000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers’ reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers’ assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed. PMID:26790701
Speer, Susan A
This article provides the first systematic examination of the ways 'talk about sex' is occasioned and managed by doctors and patients in real-life interactions in a National Health Service Gender Identity Clinic. Drawing on a corpus of 194 recordings of psychiatric assessment sessions, the article examines how parties initiate and develop talk about sex, and which strategies appear to work best for doctor-patient alignment. The analyses revealed that the most aligning methods were for clinicians to make transitions from asking questions about relationships in general to talk about sex, or to build opportunistically on patients' relationship talk. However, talk about sex that lacked specificity or which made inaccurate presumptions about patients' sex lives, generated misalignment between clinician and patient. I suggest that such misalignment is not intrinsically bad. Rather, it provides evidence for the virtues of a more nuanced understanding of patient-centred communication. The article concludes with a discussion of the importance of grounding communication skills training and clinical practice in recordings of actual consultations.
van Goethem, Anne A J; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A G; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Boom, Jan; de Castro, Bram Orobio
The aim of this study was to explain adolescents' volunteering in terms of their morality and identity and to examine the moderation effect of gender and age in this process. Data were collected among 698 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 20 (M = 15.19; SD = 1.43). Adolescents' moral reasoning was positively associated with understanding moral issues and thinking about public responsibility towards these issues. In turn, moral understanding, along with being personally committed to act upon moral issues, were positively associated with identity. Extending the number of identity contexts tended to be related to being more likely to volunteer and to more volunteering involvement. Adolescents' identity integration was not related to how likely they were to volunteer, and was negatively related to their volunteering involvement. Clearer effects were found when differentiating between adolescent gender and age groups. Future research could examine this process over time, along with additional factors that may further explain adolescents' volunteering, and examine their age and gender specific effects.
Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate
Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers' alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's 'presumed media influence' theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers' constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers' drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships.
Shabir, I; Khurana, M L; Joseph, A A; Eunice, M; Mehta, M; Ammini, A C
Deficiency of the 5α-reductase 2 enzyme impairs the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and differentiation of external genitalia, seminal vesicles and prostate in males. The present study describes the phenotype, genotype and gender identity in a large cohort of patients with 5αRD2. All patients underwent detailed clinical evaluation, hormonal profile, karyotyping and molecular analysis of the SRD5A2 gene. The molecular analysis of the SRD5A2 gene showed the presence of mutant alleles in 24 patients. We found 6 novel mutations IVS(1-2) T>C, p.A52T, 188-189insTA, 904-905ins A, p.A12T and p.E57X in our patients. All patients had ambiguous genitalia and the degrees of under-virilization ranged from penoscrotal hypospadias and microphallus to clitoromegaly. The position of gonads was variable in patients with same mutation. All the patients with mutations in the SRD5A2 gene had male gender identity. Those reared as female had gender dysphoria and underwent gender reassignment. Though a specific genotype-phenotype correlation could not be established in our patient but confirming the diagnosis of 5αRD2 with assessment of the SRD5A2 gene may help in appropriate gender assignment.
Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate
Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers’ alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's ‘presumed media influence’ theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers’ constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers’ drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships. PMID:24443822
Fridell, Sari R; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Johnson, Laurel L; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J
The present study compared the sex-typed preferences for playmates and play styles in children referred for concerns about their gender identity development (199 boys, 43 girls) with that of controls (96 boys, 38 girls). Each child was administered the Playmate and Play Style Preferences Structured Interview (PPPSI) developed by Alexander and Hines (Alexander, G. M., & Hines, M. (1994). Child Development, 65, 869-879). In the two single dimension conditions (playmates and play styles), the controls significantly preferred same-sex playmates and same-sex play styles whereas the gender-referred children significantly preferred cross-sex playmates and cross-sex play styles. Effect sizes ranged from 1.56-2.78. In the conflict condition (which required a choice between same-sex playmates and cross-sex play styles vs. cross-sex playmates and same-sex play styles), there was a general indication of a hierarchical preference for the preferred play style in the single dimension condition as opposed to the preferred playmate except for the gender-referred boys, who showed an inverted pattern. For the gender-referred group, the PPPSI data were significantly correlated with other measures of sex-typed behavior, providing evidence of predictive validity. The PPPSI also discriminated between probands threshold and subthreshold for the diagnosis of gender identity disorder. The results were discussed in relation to both basic and applied issues in the assessment of sex-typed behavior in children.
Morrison, Emory; Rudd, Elizabeth; Nerad, Maresi
With event history analysis, we examine the impact of gender, marital status and spouse type, and parenting at key transition points in the early careers of more than 2,000 social science Ph.D. graduates. This analysis (a) uses data from recent Ph.D. graduates; (b) disentangles the effects of marriage and parenting; and (c) observes the effects of…
Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna
This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…
Poels, Karolien; De Cock, Nele; Malliet, Steven
This study addresses the female player of massively multiplayer online (role-playing) games and investigates how gender identity (GI), indicating a person's identification with characteristics that are traditionally defined as masculine or feminine, can be used to explain playing patterns within the female gender group. Results from an online survey (n=466) show that females' player motivations and play styles vary as a function of their GI, indicating that it is a relevant and additional predictor of play behavior and confirming that female play behavior cannot be generalized based on stereotypical male/female conceptions.
Leibowitz, Scott F; Spack, Norman P
Few interdisciplinary treatment programs that tend to the needs of youth with gender nonconforming behaviors, expressions, and identities exist in academic medical centers with formal residency training programs. Despite this, the literature provides evidence that these youth have higher rates of poor psychosocial adjustment and suicide attempts. This article explores the logistical considerations involved in developing a specialized interdisciplinary service to these gender minority youth in accordance with the existing treatment guidelines.Demographic data will be presented and treatment issues will be explored. The impact that a specialized interdisciplinary treatment program has on clinical expansion, research development, education and training, and community outreach initiatives is discussed.
Foto-Özdemir, Dilşad; Akdemir, Devrim; Çuhadaroğlu-Çetin, Füsun
The main aim of this study was to investigate the gender differences in defense mechanisms, ways of coping with stress and identity formation in relation to adolescent suicidal behavior. This study involved 64 adolescents between 12-17 years of age, who were admitted to the emergency service with a suicide attempt. They were evaluated with a semi-structured clinical interview (K-SADS), Ways of Coping Inventory (WCI), Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI) and Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF). 60.9% (n = 39) of the adolescents were female, and 39.1% (n=25) were male. There were no statistically significant differences between the girls and the boys with respect to the clinical characteristics of the suicide attempt and the rate of psychiatric disorders. Of the 64 adolescents with suicide attempt, 47 (73.4%) had at least one, and 26 (40.6%) had more than one psychiatric disorder according to K-SADS. Disruptive behavior disorders were more frequent in males, whereas depression was more frequent in girls. The data indicated the importance of identity confusion, major depression and ADHD in adolescents with suicide attempt in both genders. 43.6% (n=17) of the girls and 36% (n=9) of the boys obtained scores higher than the cut-off point of SIAF indicating identity confusion. Professional help seeking and NSSI behaviors before the suicide attempt were more common in adolescents with identity confusion. While there were differences between genders with respect to the defense mechanisms used, no significant difference was found in terms of ways of coping. Evaluation of DMI scores revealed that the turning against object subscale score was significantly higher in boys compared to girls. While evaluating the adolescents at risk, their defense mechanisms, way of coping and sense of identity, as well as their psychiatric diagnosis should be assessed in detail in order to identify the suicidal thoughts and prevent possible suicide attempts.
While many higher education scholars have considered gender (e.g., Dawson-Threat & Huba, 1996; DeLucia-Waack, Gerrity, Taub, & Baldo, 2001; Jacobs, 1995; Knox, Zusman, & Mcneely, 2004; Lackland & De Lisi, 2001; Massey & Christensen, 1990), most of the literature uses modernistic theories to examine gender roles or gendered differences among…
Blume, Libby Balter; Blume, Thomas W.
Proposes a dialectical model representing gender discourse in families. A brief review of literature in sociology, psychology, and gender studies focuses on three dialectical issues: nature versus culture, similarity versus difference, and stability versus fluidity. Deconstructing gender theories from a postmodern feminist perspective, the authors…
Harris, Latashia N
This thematically analyzed study seeks to explore the career decision perceptions of sexual minority college students at an urban historically black college/university (HBCU). This qualitative focus group study delved into how sexual minorities feel their visible variables of race, gender expression, and degree of disclosure influence their career thought process. Theories relative to the study included Krumboltz's social learning theory of career decision-making, gender role theory, racial socialization, Cass's homosexual identity model, and impression management. Though participants initially proclaimed they did not allow their sexual minority identity to affect their career decisions, their overall responses indicated otherwise.
Deruelle, Christine; Rondan, Cécilie; Salle-Collemiche, Xavier; Bastard-Rosset, Delphine; Da Fonséca, David
This study was aimed at investigating face categorization strategies in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Performance of 17 children with ASD was compared to that of 17 control children in a face-matching task, including hybrid faces (composed of two overlapping faces of different spatial bandwidths) and either low- or high-pass filtered faces. Participants were asked to match faces on the basis of identity, emotion or gender. Results revealed that children with ASD used the same strategies as controls when matching faces by gender. By contrast, in the identity and the emotion conditions, children with ASD showed a high-pass bias (i.e., preference for local information), contrary to controls. Consistent with previous studies on autism, these findings suggest that children with ASD do use atypical (local-oriented) strategies to process faces.
Goyal, Shrigopal; Deb, Koushik Sinha; Elawadhi, Deeksha; Kaw, Nanaji
Persons suffering from gender identity disorder (GID) are often severely marginalized in India and mostly live outside the society as a part of a minority community called the Hijras. Although substance abuse is considered a way of life in them, such patients rarely seek treatment because of the stigma and fear of discrimination. We report a case of GID presenting to tertiary care centre for treatment of multiple substance use dependence (SUD). The case is the first to highlight the use and dependence of multiple substances in the Hijra community of India. Further, the case emphasizes that SUD treatment might be a worthwhile intervention to bring such marginalized population under treatment, when further complicated issues on gender identity can be addressed.