Science.gov

Sample records for gendered career identities

  1. Sex-typed personality traits and gender identity as predictors of young adults' career interests.

    PubMed

    Dinella, Lisa M; Fulcher, Megan; Weisgram, Erica S

    2014-04-01

    Gender segregation of careers is still prominent in the U.S. workforce. The current study was designed to investigate the role of sex-typed personality traits and gender identity in predicting emerging adults' interests in sex-typed careers. Participants included 586 university students (185 males, 401 females). Participants reported their sex-typed personality traits (masculine and feminine traits), gender identities (gender typicality, contentment, felt pressure to conform, and intergroup bias), and interests in sex-typed careers. Results indicated both sex-typed personality traits and gender identity were important predictors of young adults' career interests, but in varying degrees and differentially for men and women. Men's sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their masculine career interests even more so when the interaction of their masculine traits and gender typicality were considered. When gender typicality and sex-typed personality traits were considered simultaneously, gender typicality was negatively related to men's feminine career interests and gender typicality was the only significant predictor of men's feminine career interests. For women, sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their sex-typed career interests. The level of pressure they felt to conform to their gender also positively predicted interest in feminine careers. The interaction of sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality did not predict women's career interests more than when these variables were considered as main effects. Results of the multidimensional assessment of gender identity confirmed that various dimensions of gender identity played different roles in predicting career interests and gender typicality was the strongest predictor of career interests.

  2. Gender Identities and Career Aspirations of Middle Leaders: Cases in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Pik Lin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine gender identities of Chinese male and female middle leaders in secondary schools and how gender dynamics play in the leadership process and impact on career aspirations and career development. Design/methodology/approach: This paper draws on the data of a larger qualitative study conducted using the…

  3. Gender Identities and Career Aspirations of Middle Leaders: Cases in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Pik Lin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine gender identities of Chinese male and female middle leaders in secondary schools and how gender dynamics play in the leadership process and impact on career aspirations and career development. Design/methodology/approach: This paper draws on the data of a larger qualitative study conducted using the…

  4. The Relationships among Sex, Gender Identity Factors, and Career-Decision-Situation-Specified Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Karan, Orville

    2004-01-01

    The present study revealed that gender identity involved the integration of various gender identity factors as suggested by Spence (1993) and that career-decision-situation-specified personality variables could be classified into higher order personality trait dimensions as suggested by Tellegen (1985). The results also indicate that the pattern…

  5. Gender Identity and Career Aspiration to Top Management of Malaysian Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Roya; Ismail, Maimunah; Sail, Rahim Md.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender identity and career aspirations of a group of Iranian international postgraduate students studying at a Malaysian public university. This study uses the Farmer's Achievement Motivation Theory and Astin's Sociopsychological Model of Career Choice as theoretical framework. The data were collected…

  6. Gender Identity and Career Aspiration to Top Management of Malaysian Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Roya; Ismail, Maimunah; Sail, Rahim Md.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender identity and career aspirations of a group of Iranian international postgraduate students studying at a Malaysian public university. This study uses the Farmer's Achievement Motivation Theory and Astin's Sociopsychological Model of Career Choice as theoretical framework. The data were collected…

  7. Physics career intentions: The effect of physics identity, math identity, and gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, Robynne M.; Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Although nearly half of high school physics students are female, only 21% of physics bachelor's degrees are earned by women. Using data from a national survey of college students in introductory English courses (on science-related experiences, particularly in high school), we examine the influence of students' physics and math identities on their choice to pursue a physics career. Males have higher math and physics identities than females in all three dimensions of our identity framework. These dimensions include: performance/competence (perceptions of ability to perform/understand), recognition (perception of recognition by others), and interest (desire to learn more). A regression model predicting students' intentions to pursue physics careers shows, as expected, that males are significantly more likely to choose physics than females. Surprisingly, however, when physics and math identity are included in the model, females are shown to be equally likely to choose physics careers as compared to males.

  8. The Relationship of Ethnic Identity and Gender Role Attitudes to the Development of Career Choice Goals among Black and Latina Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.; Whitson, Melissa L.

    2006-01-01

    This study is a preliminary exploration of how individual differences in gender role attitudes and ethnic identity might be related to career decision self-efficacy and the gender traditionality of career choice goals in a sample of 102 9th-grade Black and Latina girls. Extending social-cognitive career theory, the authors examined 2 path models…

  9. The Relationship of Ethnic Identity and Gender Role Attitudes to the Development of Career Choice Goals among Black and Latina Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.; Whitson, Melissa L.

    2006-01-01

    This study is a preliminary exploration of how individual differences in gender role attitudes and ethnic identity might be related to career decision self-efficacy and the gender traditionality of career choice goals in a sample of 102 9th-grade Black and Latina girls. Extending social-cognitive career theory, the authors examined 2 path models…

  10. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  11. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  12. Gender and medical careers.

    PubMed

    Riska, Elianne

    2011-03-01

    The concerns about physicians' career advancement tend to be raised in gender terms, because women presently constitute close to and will soon form a majority of the medical students in most western societies. The question is to what extent female and male medical students and residents today make similar or different career and lifestyle choices? Two major mechanisms have been referred to as the reason for gender differences in career paths for physicians. The major theoretical framework tends to be the socialization or sex-role theory and later versions of this explanatory framework. The other mechanism referred to is structural and points to the barriers or the concrete support that women and men experience in making their career decisions. Studies of medical students in the UK and US have shown that women students expected family demands to hamper career plans, while male students were less influenced by family concerns. The importance of role models and mentors in setting the career goals of medical students and residents has recently confirmed early studies of the topic. A number of studies have documented that early negative experiences or lack of encouragement in medical school deter women from choosing surgery as a career. Recent studies suggest that lifestyle choices rather than merely career advancement influence both female and male surgeons' career plans.

  13. Beyond Gender Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the continuing significance of gender identity as a category of analysis within the field of gender theory and research in education. I begin by considering contemporary discussions of the limitations of research relating to gender theory and research in education. Following on from this, I explore some contemporary…

  14. [Diagnosing gender identity].

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Mattila, Aino; Kärnä, Teemu; Joutsenneimi, Kaisla

    2015-01-01

    Transsexualism and other variations of gender identity are based on a stable sense of identity. The aetiology of this phenomenon is not fully known. Suffering caused by gender dysphoria is alleviated with sex reassignment. The psychiatric assessment of both adolescents and adults has been centralized in Finland to two university hospitals, the Helsinki University Hospital and Tampere University Hospital. In both hospitals, multidisciplinary teams aim at differential diagnosis by using well-known psychiatric and psychological instruments. Wishes for sex reassignment that are caused by a mental health disorder are excluded. Assessment in adolescence is challenging because the identity in youth is still forming.

  15. Gendered Avatar Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolums, Viola

    2011-01-01

    Gendered appearance in "World of Warcraft" is of particular interest because it seems to infiltrate interactions between individuals without serving a functional purpose within the game itself. It provides an opportunity to look at avatar choice in environments that have a primary purpose aside from existing as an arena for creating identity, and…

  16. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  17. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  18. Career Identity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Kate J.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Career identity development is salient in adolescence and young adulthood, but little research has assessed career identity in populations other than four-year college students. Context should be considered when examining career identity, and to address this gap in the literature, the current study examined the extent to which parental support for…

  19. Career Identity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Kate J.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Career identity development is salient in adolescence and young adulthood, but little research has assessed career identity in populations other than four-year college students. Context should be considered when examining career identity, and to address this gap in the literature, the current study examined the extent to which parental support for…

  20. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender identity in XY intersexuality.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Vivian; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne

    2004-07-01

    The following syndromes of XY intersexuality are reviewed: 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency, and complete and partial androgen insensitivity with attention focused on issues of gender identity. Each syndrome, with its unique presentation, provides an opportunity to explore the relative effects of nature (androgens) versus nurture (sex of rearing) in gender identity development. The phenomenon of gender role reversal in these conditions is described and theories on the determinants of gender identity formation are proposed. Issues of importance to psychiatrists in treating patients who have these conditions also are discussed.

  2. The ontogeny of career identities in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Malanchuk, Oksana; Messersmith, Emily E; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2010-01-01

    Exploration and identity formation are primary developmental tasks during adolescence and the transition to adulthood. Yet little is known about occupational identity formation and growth during this period of life. In this chapter, the authors describe their ongoing research on this topic. First, they present their findings on the ontogeny of the complexity of career identities. Then they discuss their findings regarding the relationship between early career identity formation and psychological well-being at ages nineteen and twenty-one.

  3. Strategies for Combating Gendered Perceptions of Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Dorota; Ozbilgin, Mustafa F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Earlier work on career choice has identified that career choice involves gendered processes which lead to differentiated career outcomes for women and men. However, this literature remained anaemic in offering career counselling strategies for addressing the negative impacts of these processes. The paper aims to explore the creativity…

  4. Graduates "Doing Gender" as Early Career Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nystrom, Sofia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how early career professionals "do gender" in their new professional context. Specifically, it explores how two groups of graduates, psychologists and political scientists, "do gender" as early career professionals with a particular emphasis on how they acquire legitimacy in…

  5. Graduates "Doing Gender" as Early Career Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nystrom, Sofia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how early career professionals "do gender" in their new professional context. Specifically, it explores how two groups of graduates, psychologists and political scientists, "do gender" as early career professionals with a particular emphasis on how they acquire legitimacy in…

  6. Biochemical determinants in Gender identity.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, W; Chapman, P H

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to report cognate studies which suggest that the nature of the peripheral metabolism of testosterone may impart gender direction to thought construction and motive. In patients with the complete testicular feminizing syndrome [4], the XO/XY syndrome [4], female trans-sexualism [4] and testicular agenesis [5] HCG-tests of 3 days duration were performed, and plasma and urinary testosterone, urinary excretion of 5 alpha-androstane, 3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (5 alpha-diol), 5 beta-androstane, 3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (5 beta-diol) and epiandrosterone before and after stimulation were measured. In addition steroid transformation was examined by incubation studies with human fetal brain tissue. The results of the latter method presented here are in agreement with published work. It seems clear therefore that the peripheral levels of androgens, oestrogens and their metabolites combine with cerebral steroid transformation, metabolism and possible also synthesis in order to establish gender identity. Exploration of the role of peripheral hormones as stimulators of both gender identity and gender function has dictated the need for a new approach to therapy for gender abnormalities in psyche and soma.

  7. Gendering Career Capital: An Investigation of Scientific Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duberley, Joanne; Cohen, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    In this article we reflect on the increasingly popular concept of career capital, and apply the concept to data generated with a sample of women scientists. We propose that by examining career capital through a "gendered lens" we can provide insight into structural constraint, often missing in discussions of this concept. Based on the findings…

  8. Career identity in the veterinary profession.

    PubMed

    Page-Jones, S; Abbey, G

    2015-04-25

    This research investigates vet and vet nurse career identity through the qualitative methodology of narrative enquiry. It derives learning and understanding from these empirical data to assist the veterinary profession to adjust to the changing industry landscape. Through a case series of 20 vets and vet nurses' career stories, this paper seeks understanding about career identity and its impact on individuals and organisations in the light of industry consolidation. Findings suggest that career is central to identity for many veterinary professionals who tend to have a strong sense of self; this is particularly evident around self as learner and technically competent, teacher and educator, ethical and moral and dedicated and resilient. Consequently, mismatches between 'who I am' and 'what I do' tend not to lead to identity customisation (to fit self into role or organisation) but to the search for alternative, more identity-compatible employment. This study offers a valuable insight for employers, veterinary professionals and universities. It suggests that businesses can gain competitive advantage and employees achieve validation and enrichment by working towards organisational and individual identity congruence and that teaching veterinary professionals with contemporary business in mind may develop graduates with a more sustainable identity.

  9. Collegiate Athletes and Career Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Jennifer L.; Strear, Molly M.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.; Henderson, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    Given the unique experiences of collegiate athletes and the need to facilitate their transition as they complete postsecondary education and join the workforce, the present study sought to evaluate a group-administered career development program at a US university focused on preparing students for the transition into professional life upon…

  10. Collegiate Athletes and Career Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Jennifer L.; Strear, Molly M.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.; Henderson, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    Given the unique experiences of collegiate athletes and the need to facilitate their transition as they complete postsecondary education and join the workforce, the present study sought to evaluate a group-administered career development program at a US university focused on preparing students for the transition into professional life upon…

  11. Gender Equity and Nontraditional Career Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Carol A., Ed.

    This booklet is intended to help counselors guide high school students in exploring nontraditional career options. It provides a brief historical perspective on the significance gender role stereotyping has had on U.S. society in the past, the impact it continues to have on the career decisions being made by current generations of young men and…

  12. [Gender identity and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Behar, R; de la Barrera, M; Michelotti, J

    2001-09-01

    A possible role of the feminine gender role in the genesis of eating disorders is possible, since most patients with these disorders are women. To compare some traits of gender identity between females with eating disorders and a control group. An structured clinical interview based on the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) were administered to 63 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa (ED group) and 63 comparison subjects (C group). Forty three percent of patients in contrast with 23.8% of controls were classified within the feminine category. Likewise 19% of patients and 31.7% of controls were qualified as Androgynous; 27% of patients and 43% of controls were qualified as Undifferentiated. There were significant differences between patients and controls in 22 items of the BSRI (p < 0.01). Both groups rejected and were identified with some feminine, masculine and neutral qualities. Femininity emerged as the main trait of gender identity in patients suffering of eating disorders. In contrast, Androgyny showed by the control group could result in a better adaptability and flexibility to face difficult life circumstances.

  13. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  14. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  15. An Exploration of Social Cognitive Mechanisms, Gender, and Vocational Identity among Eighth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzer, Amanda Macht; Stalides, Dimitrios J.; Rottinghaus, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a multiple group path analysis examining gender differences in relations among career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE), career decision-making outcome expectations (CDMOE), and career decision-making intentions-goals (CDMIG), as well as linkages between these three sociocognitive variables and vocational identity status…

  16. The Gender-Mediated Impact of a Career Development Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassie, Diana V. W.; Chen, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the differential impact of an educational intervention on high school students' career maturity based on gender. Dimensions of career maturity investigated include congruence, career certainty, career indecision, career decision-making self-efficacy and career exploration. Females were found to increase significantly in…

  17. The Gender-Mediated Impact of a Career Development Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassie, Diana V. W.; Chen, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the differential impact of an educational intervention on high school students' career maturity based on gender. Dimensions of career maturity investigated include congruence, career certainty, career indecision, career decision-making self-efficacy and career exploration. Females were found to increase significantly in…

  18. Threading "Stitches" to Approach Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Connie E.

    2010-01-01

    As LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex) issues become increasingly integrated into multicultural education discourses, we as educators need to examine the implications of our pedagogies for teaching about gender and sexual identities. This article explores my teaching of non-conforming gender identities in…

  19. Threading "Stitches" to Approach Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Connie E.

    2010-01-01

    As LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex) issues become increasingly integrated into multicultural education discourses, we as educators need to examine the implications of our pedagogies for teaching about gender and sexual identities. This article explores my teaching of non-conforming gender identities in…

  20. Gender identity and autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Klingensmith, Katherine; Volkmar, Fred R

    2015-03-01

    In this review, we briefly summarize much of the existing literature on gender-related concerns and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), drawing attention to critical shortcomings in our current understanding and potential clinical implications. Some authors have concluded that gender identity disorder (GID), or gender dysphoria (GD), is more common in individuals with ASD, providing a range of potential explanations. However, existing literature is quantitatively limited, and our capacity to draw conclusions is further complicated by conceptual challenges regarding how gender identity is best understood. Discourses that emphasize gender as a component of identity formation are gaining prominence and seem particularly salient when applied to ASD. Individuals with ASD should enjoy equal rights with regard to treatment for gender dysphoria. Clinicians may be able to assist individuals in understanding this aspect of their identity by broadening the social frame and facilitating an exploration of gender roles.

  1. Gender Identity and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I.; Klingensmith, Katherine; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we briefly summarize much of the existing literature on gender-related concerns and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), drawing attention to critical shortcomings in our current understanding and potential clinical implications. Some authors have concluded that gender identity disorder (GID), or gender dysphoria (GD), is more common in individuals with ASD, providing a range of potential explanations. However, existing literature is quantitatively limited, and our capacity to draw conclusions is further complicated by conceptual challenges regarding how gender identity is best understood. Discourses that emphasize gender as a component of identity formation are gaining prominence and seem particularly salient when applied to ASD. Individuals with ASD should enjoy equal rights with regard to treatment for gender dysphoria. Clinicians may be able to assist individuals in understanding this aspect of their identity by broadening the social frame and facilitating an exploration of gender roles. PMID:25744543

  2. Speaking of Gender Identity: Theoretical Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Susan A.

    Various definitions of gender identity have ranged from recognition of one's biological sex to an individual's sense of masculinity or femininity. For the purpose of this paper, which examines some of the theoretical approaches to the subject, gender identity will be defined as "the degree to which individuals are 'aware' of and accept their…

  3. The Influences of Career Support and Sexual Identity on Sexual Minority Women's Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Lauren D.; Gushue, George V.; Cerrone, Michelle T.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between sexual identity, family/friend career support, and career aspirations in a sample of 381 sexual minority women. The results indicated that family career support and friend career support were positively related to career aspirations of sexual minority women. The results also indicated that the…

  4. Emotion, gender, and gender typical identity in autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.

  5. [Gender differences in career motivation: female doctors' ambitions benefit from family friendly work environment].

    PubMed

    Pas, B R; Lagro-Janssen, A L M; Doorewaard, J A C M; Eisinga, R N; Peters, C P

    2008-10-04

    To determine gender differences in career motivation and the effect of a family friendly work environment. Cross-sectional pilot investigation. A web survey among male and female doctors (n = 107; 72 women and 35 men) in different specialties, including surgical, internal medicine and general practitioners, was used to gather information on different dimensions of career motivation and perceptions of the family friendliness of the work environment. Differences were analysed by means of t-tests and regression analyses. Male doctors had higher scores on career identity and on career planning than female doctors. However, male and female doctors did not differ in their willingness to achieve top positions. Female doctors were more determined concerning their career goals than their male counterparts. The family friendliness of the work environment had an overall positive effect on career motivation for both male and female doctors. However, a family friendly work environment had a negative effect on the career identity of male doctors. For male and female doctors alike, support to achieve career goals and elimination of career barriers lead to increased career identity. Male and female doctors differed in certain dimensions of career motivation. Offering support for career goals and taking away career barriers leads to a higher career motivation than offering a family friendly work environment.

  6. Turning to Teaching: Gender and Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raggl, Andrea; Troman, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    As the largest public sector institution in the United Kingdom, education is a key site for studying the context of "choice" and changes in the identities of professional workers in contemporary society. Recruitment and retention problems in education have led to the creation of new routes into teaching to attract career changers from…

  7. "Doing Identity" in the Botswana Classroom: Negotiating Gendered Institutional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on post-structural and post-colonial conceptions of gender, this paper explores multiple student masculinities and femininities in the classrooms of four junior secondary schools in Botswana. These gendered identities, it is argued, are negotiated within broader institutional constraints that have been socio-historically produced. Such…

  8. "Doing Identity" in the Botswana Classroom: Negotiating Gendered Institutional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on post-structural and post-colonial conceptions of gender, this paper explores multiple student masculinities and femininities in the classrooms of four junior secondary schools in Botswana. These gendered identities, it is argued, are negotiated within broader institutional constraints that have been socio-historically produced. Such…

  9. Identity, gender, and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Using the self-reported level of happiness as a measure of subjective well-being, this study examines the relationship between gender identity and subjective well-being with data from Taiwan. The findings suggest that an individual's perceptions about the ideals of women's gender roles in the labor market, the family, and politics are strongly related to his or her assigned social category, the prescriptions and characteristics associated with the social category, and the actions taken to match the ideals of gender identity. Consistent with Akerlof and Kranton's (2000) identity model, it is also found that an individual's gains or losses in gender identity lead to increases or decreases in the level of happiness.

  10. Professional Identity, Career Commitment, and Career Entrenchment of Midlevel Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maureen E.; Liddell, Debora L.; Hirschy, Amy S.; Pasquesi, Kira

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors of midlevel student affairs administrators' professional identity and to examine the association of those factors to career commitment, career entrenchment, and demographic characteristics. Principal axis factor analysis derived 3 dimensions of professional identity: career contentment, community…

  11. Professional Identity, Career Commitment, and Career Entrenchment of Midlevel Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maureen E.; Liddell, Debora L.; Hirschy, Amy S.; Pasquesi, Kira

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors of midlevel student affairs administrators' professional identity and to examine the association of those factors to career commitment, career entrenchment, and demographic characteristics. Principal axis factor analysis derived 3 dimensions of professional identity: career contentment, community…

  12. [Gender identity disorder in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Le Heuzey, M-F

    2013-03-01

    There has been an explosion of public interest and concern about children and adolescents who show an interest in changing their gender. And it is an emerging problem for pediatricians, which brings many inquiries about what to do? Both the diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder are controversial. But there are a new early treatment using puberty blocking hormones.

  13. Gender identities and gender dysphoria in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kuyper, Lisette; Wijsen, Ciel

    2014-02-01

    Several studies estimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria among adults by examining the number of individuals turning to health services. Since individuals might be hesitant to seek medical care related to gender dysphoria, these studies could underestimate the prevalence. The studies also lack information regarding the variance among different aspects of gender dysphoric conditions. Therefore, the current study estimated the prevalence by examining self-reported gender identity and dysphoria in a Dutch population sample (N = 8,064, aged 15-70 years old). Three measures assessed aspects of gender dysphoria: gender identity, dislike of the natal female/male body, and wish to obtain hormones/sex reassignment surgery. Results showed that 4.6 % of the natal men and 3.2 % of the natal women reported an ambivalent gender identity (equal identification with other sex as with sex assigned at birth) and 1.1 % of the natal men and 0.8 % of the natal women reported an incongruent gender identity (stronger identification with other sex as with sex assigned at birth). Lower percentages reported a dislike of their natal body and/or a wish for hormones/surgery. Combining these figures estimated the percentage of men reporting an ambivalent or incongruent gender identity combined with a dislike of their male body and a wish to obtain hormones/surgery at 0.6 %. For women, this was 0.2 %. These novel findings show that studies based on the number of individuals seeking medical care might underestimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria. Furthermore, the findings argue against a dichotomous approach to gender dysphoria.

  14. Second Career Teachers and (Mis)Recognitions of Professional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1980s there has been an increase of "second career teachers" (SCTs), professionals that switch careers to become teachers. Little is known about SCTs and their sense of professional identity. Building from Pierre Bourdieu's concepts of power and cultural capital, the professional identities of teachers were examined…

  15. Second Career Teachers and (Mis)Recognitions of Professional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1980s there has been an increase of "second career teachers" (SCTs), professionals that switch careers to become teachers. Little is known about SCTs and their sense of professional identity. Building from Pierre Bourdieu's concepts of power and cultural capital, the professional identities of teachers were examined…

  16. Determinant factors of gender identity: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lih-Mei; Audi, Laura; Magritte, Ellie; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Quigley, Charmian A

    2012-12-01

    Paediatric specialists involved in the care of children with disorders of sex development may be expected to provide straightforward answers to questions concerning the "true sex" of a child, reflecting common perceptions of sex/gender as an immutable binary biological reality. This article highlights how much more broad and complex the topic of gender identity and its development is. Many theories have been put forward to advance knowledge of gender identity. Against the breadth and depth of this vast topic, the current overview is inevitably incomplete. It begins by arguing for a more consistent use of 'sex' and 'gender'. It considers in turn three influential theoretical frameworks that lend themselves to empirical research. These are: 1) the role of the brain; 2) the role of socialisation; and 3) multi-dimensional gender development. The article ends by suggesting potentially fruitful questions and areas for future research.

  17. Gender Identity Disorder in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Dionne; Flauto, Phil

    Identity formation involves the development of self esteem, social skills, and a sense of self. Many gay and lesbian adults have noted that they were aware of their attraction to members of the same sex as early as five- and six-years-old. Reactions they received from parents and others often added to their stress. Following a description of the…

  18. Evidence supporting the biologic nature of gender identity.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Aruna; Weinand, Jamie D; Safer, Joshua D

    2015-02-01

    To review current literature that supports a biologic basis of gender identity. A traditional literature review. Evidence that there is a biologic basis for gender identity primarily involves (1) data on gender identity in patients with disorders of sex development (DSDs, also known as differences of sex development) along with (2) neuroanatomical differences associated with gender identity. Although the mechanisms remain to be determined, there is strong support in the literature for a biologic basis of gender identity.

  19. Penile malformation, gender identity and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Berg, R; Berg, G

    1983-09-01

    Gender identity and sexual orientation were investigated in 34 men operated for hypospadias in childhood and in 36 matched control subjects. Independent psychiatric assessments from semi-structured interviews, and double-blind formalized psychological ratings from the Rorschach, yielded similar findings. The probands were less secure in their maleness but were similar in sexual orientation as compared to the controls. A third blind, independent measure of unconscious gender identity, the Franck Drawing Completion Test, gave further evidence of uncertain gender identity in the patients. A self-administered inventory, the Gough Femininity Scale, showed a tendency for the patients to take more feminine sex roles. The findings are discussed from psychoendocrinological as well as psycho-analytical view points. The need for early psychological preventive measures for hypospadic boys and their parents is stressed.

  20. Transsexual emergence: gender variant identities in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ocha, Witchayanee

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to understanding of emergent gender/sexual identities in Thailand. Thailand has become a popular destination for sex change operations by providing the medical technology for a complete transformation, with relatively few procedures and satisfactory results at a reasonable price. Data were gathered from 24 transsexual male-to-female sex workers working in Pattaya and Patpong, well-known sex-tourism hot spots in Thailand. Findings suggest the emergence of new understandings of gender/sexual identity. Sex-tourism/sex work significantly illuminates the process through which gender is contested and re-imagined. The coming together of cultures in Thailand's sex industry, coupled with advances in medical technology, has resulted in the emergence of new concepts of gender.

  1. Nature, nurture, and core gender identity.

    PubMed

    Robbins, M

    1996-01-01

    Literature about gender differences and their possible origins, and contemporary psychoanalytic formulations of gender, is reviewed. There is a broad consensus among investigators from different fields, and among psychoanalysts of different theoretical persuasions, that the modal female personality tends to be more sociocentric, and the modal male personality more self-centric. These modal personality differences may be qualitative rather than quantitative. The concept of core gender identity, which articulates the psychological root of these differences, is reexamined in the light of contemporary research into constitutional differences in the organization and activation of the brain, and an interactional model of core gender identity as a dynamic evolving phenomenon over the course of the life cycle is proposed.

  2. Researching Careers, Learning and Identities: Career Attachments as Anchors or Chains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimrose, Jenny; Brown, Alan; Barnes, Sally-Anne

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the career biographies of four individuals in transition. They were responding to the challenges of engaging in work-related learning, re-shaping their careers and their career identities. The four cases were selected from a larger sample of fifty participants in a five-year longitudinal, qualitative case study, which has…

  3. Sex steroids and variants of gender identity.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L

    2013-09-01

    This article summarizes for the practicing endocrinologist the current literature on the psychobiology of the development of gender identity and its variants in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) or with non-DSD transgenderism. Gender reassignment remains the treatment of choice for strong and persistent gender dysphoria in both categories, but more research is needed on the short-term and long-term effects of puberty-suppressing medications and cross-sex hormones on brain and behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Revealing gendered identity and agency in dementia.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Geraldine

    2017-05-03

    As identity and agency are central to the well-being of people with dementia, this paper explores whether their dialogue conveys a gendered sense of identity and agency. The author discusses whether they demonstrate not just a subjective sense of being but also an understanding of their relational selves. Findings are presented from a qualitative study in the North of England which examined the everyday decisions made by married couples when one partner had dementia. Ethnographic methods were used, including participant observation and interviews. While dialogical analysis usually centres on the subjective self, it was also used to examine intersubjectivity. Comparisons are made between the dialogue of women and men in order to draw conclusions about the gendered nature of identity and agency. The study found that the women and men defined themselves according to their social and gender identities. The literature had suggested that agency might be a gendered concept and the study confirmed that men were somewhat individualistic and rational in their concerns, whereas women were more relational and even spiritual. Yet, women and men demonstrated emotional reflexivity. As national and international health policy prioritises living well with dementia, more systematic attention should be given to the role of gender in influencing well-being in dementia. Health and social care staff should recognise and facilitate the gender identity and related social roles of people with dementia (e.g. parent, carer and worker) in order to enhance their quality of life. © 2017 The Author. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Thoughts on the nature of identity: disorders of sex development and gender identity.

    PubMed

    Reiner, William G; Reiner, D Townsend

    2011-10-01

    Children with disorders of sex development have similarities to, but also marked contrasts with, children with normal anatomy but who have gender dysphoria. Understanding gender identity development in children with sex disorders will probably help us understand typical gender identity development more than in understanding gender development in children with gender identity disorder.

  6. Gender Similarity or Gender Difference? Contemporary Women's and Men's Career Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmarsh, Lona; Wentworth, Diane Keyser

    2012-01-01

    Career development research has often explored gender differences in and development of career patterns (Gottfredson, 2006). Hyde's (2005) meta-analysis indicated that men and women shared more similarities than differences. Applying Hyde's gender similarities hypothesis to careers, the authors conducted a 2-stage study. Stage 1 was an analysis of…

  7. Gender Similarity or Gender Difference? Contemporary Women's and Men's Career Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmarsh, Lona; Wentworth, Diane Keyser

    2012-01-01

    Career development research has often explored gender differences in and development of career patterns (Gottfredson, 2006). Hyde's (2005) meta-analysis indicated that men and women shared more similarities than differences. Applying Hyde's gender similarities hypothesis to careers, the authors conducted a 2-stage study. Stage 1 was an analysis of…

  8. Cross-Gender Identity in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFillipis, Nick

    This paper discusses causes and symptoms of transsexual identity in young children, especially boys. Presented are defining characteristics and possible causal factors of cross-gender behavior based on the work of Richard Green and others. Research thus far has been unable to strongly implicate either biological or psychological etiological…

  9. Understanding Gender Identity in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gayle; Allan, Carol; Wells, Kristopher

    2007-01-01

    Educators concerned with diversity, equity, and human rights in schools share their personal and professional narratives as impetus for developing suggestions and strategies designed to help teachers, students, and administrators deepen their understandings of gender identity educational issues in an effort to support transitioning teachers in…

  10. Gender Segregation of Adolescent Science Career Plans in 50 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikora, Joanna; Pokropek, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Program for International Student Assessment 2006 surveys for 50 countries, this paper explores gender segregation of adolescent science career plans. We ask whether, in different cultures, bridging the male-female gap in science self-concept could reduce gender disparities in students' career preferences. Bringing together the…

  11. Gender Segregation of Adolescent Science Career Plans in 50 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikora, Joanna; Pokropek, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Program for International Student Assessment 2006 surveys for 50 countries, this paper explores gender segregation of adolescent science career plans. We ask whether, in different cultures, bridging the male-female gap in science self-concept could reduce gender disparities in students' career preferences. Bringing together the…

  12. Does Gender Identity Influence Children's Psychological Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunger, Jennifer L.; Carver, Priscilla R.; Perry, David G.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined influences of gender identity on change in preadolescents' adjustment over time. In each of two successive years, three measures of gender identity (felt gender typicality, contentment with gender assignment, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and four measures of adjustment (self-esteem, internalizing symptoms,…

  13. Gender Identity and Adjustment in Black, Hispanic, and White Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Brooke C.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Perry, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The generality of S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's (2001) model of gender identity and adjustment was evaluated by examining associations between gender identity (felt gender typicality, felt gender contentedness, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and social adjustment in 863 White, Black, and Hispanic 5th graders (mean age = 11.1 years).…

  14. Gender Identity and Adjustment in Black, Hispanic, and White Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Brooke C.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Perry, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The generality of S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's (2001) model of gender identity and adjustment was evaluated by examining associations between gender identity (felt gender typicality, felt gender contentedness, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and social adjustment in 863 White, Black, and Hispanic 5th graders (mean age = 11.1 years).…

  15. Appraising Cultural Identity in Career-Development Assessment and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pope, Mark; Niles, Spencer G.; Farrow, Beverly

    1998-01-01

    Career-Development Assessment and Counseling (C-DAC) uses a comprehensive assessment battery to help clients explore their roles, developmental stages and tasks, career attitudes and knowledge, value, and interests within their unique life contexts. Recommends elaborating C-DAC model to formally appraise cultural identity and to coincide identity…

  16. Effects of Gender on Engineering Career Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Anne M.

    Engineering has been one of the most difficult fields for 'women to enter and in which to succeed. Although the percentage of female engineers has Increased, women are still seriously underrcpresented in the workforce. This study examined the effect offender on career commitment, success, satisfaction, and involvement in engineering, and the effect of personality and work environment on these variables. Alumni from an engineering school in the northeastern United States were surveyed. The questionnaire was analyzed using statistical and descriptive methods to determine relationships among these variables. Women's commitment scores were lower than men's when controlled for other variables, including satisfaction and involvement. Men had longer tenure as engineers than women, even when controlled for year of graduation, professional engineering status, and number of children. Women did not leave engineering in different proportions than men, but they did earn significantly less despite controlling for year of graduation and number of hours worked weekly. Some gender differences in workplace experience were also found, including having colleagues act protectively, being mistaken for secretaries, and seeing men progress faster in their careers than equally qualified women.

  17. The career planning, athletic identity, and student role identity of intercollegiate student athletes.

    PubMed

    Lally, Patricia S; Kerr, Gretchen A

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the career planning of university student athletes and relationships between their career planning and athletic and student role identities. Two retrospective in-depth interviews were held with four male and four female university student athletes. Participants entered university with vague or nonexistent career objectives and invested heavily in their athletic roles. In the latter years of their college career, the participants discarded their sport career ambitions and allowed the student role to become more prominent in their identity hierarchies. The current findings support Brown and Hartley's (1998) suggestion that student athletes may invest in both the athlete and student role identities simultaneously and that investing in the latter may permit the exploration of nonsport career options.

  18. Gender Role Conflict, Attitudes toward Career Counseling, Career Decision Needs and Perceptions of Career Counseling Advertising Brochures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Blazina, Christopher; Raghunathan, Raj

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of alternative career counseling marketing materials on men's interest in and attitudes toward career counseling, as well as to assess the career planning needs of men with varying levels of gender role conflict. Male undergraduate students (N=123) participated in the study that assessed the…

  19. The Vocational Significance of Black Identity: Cultural Formulation Approach to Career Assessment and Career Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Byars-Winston, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship is emerging on intervention models that purposefully attend to cultural variables throughout the career assessment and career counseling process (Swanson & Fouad, in press). One heuristic model that offers promise to advance culturally-relevant vocational practice with African Americans is the Outline for Cultural Formulation (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). This article explicates the Outline for Cultural Formulation in career assessment and career counseling with African Americans integrating the concept of cultural identity into the entire model. The article concludes with an illustration of the Outline for Cultural Formulation model with an African American career client. PMID:20495668

  20. Gender identity disorder and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Urs; Milos, Gabriella

    2002-12-01

    We report three cases of transsexual patients who are suffering from an eating disorder: a biological male patient diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN), a biological male patient with bulimia nervosa (BN), and a biological female patient with AN as well as a severe alcohol dependence. The relationship between eating behavior, gender identity, sexual orientation, and body dissatisfaction is discussed. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 32: 473-478, 2002.

  1. Identity-Trajectory: Reframing Early Career Academic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Lynn; Amundsen, Cheryl; Turner, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Our longitudinal qualitative research program examining doctoral student, post-PhD researcher and new lecturer experience is situated in an international literature documenting how early career academics learn through experience. In common with others, our work is framed within an identity perspective. What makes our view of identity distinct is a…

  2. Identity-Trajectory: Reframing Early Career Academic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Lynn; Amundsen, Cheryl; Turner, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Our longitudinal qualitative research program examining doctoral student, post-PhD researcher and new lecturer experience is situated in an international literature documenting how early career academics learn through experience. In common with others, our work is framed within an identity perspective. What makes our view of identity distinct is a…

  3. Gender Identification Moderates Social Identity Threat Effects on Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Hagiwara, Nao

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined whether gender identification moderates women's working memory following exposure to situations that threaten the integrity of their gender group. Young adults read sentences that either threatened women's gender identity (in the social identity threat condition) or did not threaten this identity (in the control…

  4. Mistaken gender identity in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kukreti, Prerna; Kandpal, Manish; Jiloha, R C

    2014-04-01

    Gender identity is the sense of belonging that one feels for a particular sex psychologically and socially, independent of one's biological sex. There is much less systematic data on gender identity in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report a case of non-classical CAH presenting as a case of gender identity disorder.

  5. Mistaken gender identity in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kukreti, Prerna; Kandpal, Manish; Jiloha, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity is the sense of belonging that one feels for a particular sex psychologically and socially, independent of one's biological sex. There is much less systematic data on gender identity in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report a case of non-classical CAH presenting as a case of gender identity disorder. PMID:24891708

  6. The effect of immigration status on physics identity and physical science career intentions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2012-02-01

    Using data collected from a nationally-representative sample of first-year college students, we examine how students' identity development as physics persons and their likelihood to pursue a career in physical science is predicted by differing immigrant experiences. We consider broad factors having a social, economic, or cultural nature as covariates in a propensity score model that assesses differences due to immigrant generation. Our results show that, when controlling for such factors as race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, and gender, students' physics identities and the likelihood of choosing a career in physical science are significantly higher amongst first generation students than second generation (or later) students. We conclude that physical science as a career option can be influenced by the experiences of being an immigrant and through the relationship between origin and host culture.

  7. Gender Differences in the Careers of Former Postdoctoral Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2004-03-01

    The Project Access study examined the careers of men and women who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships and thus were presumably of about equal promise at the start of their professional careers. Had the women scientists in this elite group overcome a threshold beyond which they proceeded on equal footing with their male counterparts; or did a glass ceiling impede their careers? We found gender differences in career outcomes in the group we studied (699 questionnaires, 200 interviews), but these differences varied considerably by scientific discipline. Moreover, the career disparities for women, as a group, appear now to result chiefly from a series of subtle but identifiable and sometimes counterintuitive impediments as well as from slight gender differences in socialization. Each disadvantage by itself may be small, but in their accumulation they significantly influence women's careers.

  8. Gender, identity and culture in learning physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Katelin

    2016-06-01

    Student engagement in science, as defined by Iva Gurgel, Mauricio Pietrocola, and Graciella Watanabe, is of great importance because a student's perceived compatibility with science learning is highly influenced by personal identities, or how students see themselves in relations to the world. This can greatly impact their learning experiences. In this forum, I build on the work of Gurgel, Pietrocola, and Watanabe by exploring the relationships between engagement in physics and gender, and by looking at the expansive nature of the concept of culture. I expand the conversation by investigating ways in which learning science has impacted my own identity/worldview, particularly how it affects my personal teaching and learning experiences. I focus the conversation around the relationship between gender and the experience of learning science to further the dialogue concerning identity and how it impacts engagement in science. I also look at the role of didactic transposition in the perceived disconnect with science. I reveal my experiences and analysis through a personal narrative.

  9. Conflating Gender and Identity: The Need for Gender-Fluid Programming in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamani-Gallaher, Eboni M.

    This chapter explores the role of gender as a critical aspect of identity formation. The chapter reviews how narrow definitions of gender deeply shape campus climate, particularly for individuals who challenge norms in terms of gender identity, gender expression, and gender roles.

  10. Gender Labels and Gender Identity as Predictors of Drug Use among Ethnically Diverse Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Hecht, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the roles of gender labels and gender identity in predicting drug use among diverse, urban middle school students, examining nurturant femininity, confident masculinity, and dominant masculinity. Overall, gender labels and gender identity were important predictors of drug use. Gender labels were more salient in explaining differences…

  11. The Career Planning, Athletic Identity, and Student Role Identity of Intercollegiate Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, Patricia S.; Kerr, Gretchen A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the career planning of university student athletes and relationships between their career planning and athletic and student role identities. Two retrospective in-depth interviews were held with four male and four female university student athletes. Participants entered university with vague or nonexistent…

  12. Gender in the Development of Career Related Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christine Marie

    2010-01-01

    Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) delineates the ways in which social forces may influence women's career development and create gender segregation in different types of occupations (see Betz, 2007 for a review). However, a number of questions remain, specifically in regards to how social forces may shape the core…

  13. Gender in the Development of Career Related Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christine Marie

    2010-01-01

    Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) delineates the ways in which social forces may influence women's career development and create gender segregation in different types of occupations (see Betz, 2007 for a review). However, a number of questions remain, specifically in regards to how social forces may shape the core…

  14. [Intersection between gender and socioeconomic status in medical sciences career choice].

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Hernández, Georgina; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Compeán-Dardón, Sandra; Verde-Flota, Elizabeth; Delgado-Sáncnchez, Guadalupe; Tamez-González, Silivia

    2006-01-01

    Analyze the relationship between gender identity and socioeconomic level associated with career choice among undergraduate students selecting the area of health sciences. Our sample was comprised of first year medical nutrition, dentistry and nursing students (n=637) admitted to the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Xochimilco. A self administered questionnaire was used. The dependent variable was career choice. Independent variables included socioeconomic status, gender norms in student's homes, and gender stereotype internalization. More female nursing students came from low socioeconomic strata, while medical students had a higher socioeconomic status. Among males, more nursing and medical students belonged to a higher socioeconomicstrata. Nutrition and dentistry students belonged to a medium strata. In comparison with males from high socioeconomic strata more male participants reported that household chores were divided among men and women. For women, as the socioeconomic level increased, the participation of men and women also increased. In the indicators of internalization of gender stereotypes, nursing students had the highest rates in the submission scale, but the lowest for masculinity and machismo. As the socioeconomic strata increased, the characteristics of masculinity and machismo also increased. The present results seem to indicate that among women of low socioeconomic strata more traditional gender stereotypes prevail which lead them to seek career choices considered femenine. Among men, there is a clear relationship between career choice, socioeconomic level and internalization of gender stereotypes.

  15. Identities in Harmony: Gender-Work Identity Integration Moderates Frame Switching in Cognitive Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacharin, Vera; Lee, Fiona; Gonzalez, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Professional women's identity integration--the perceived compatibility between work and gender identities--plays a role in how task or relationship information is processed. Seventy female business school students were primed with either their professional or their gender identity. Business women with higher identity integration showed an…

  16. Identities in Harmony: Gender-Work Identity Integration Moderates Frame Switching in Cognitive Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacharin, Vera; Lee, Fiona; Gonzalez, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Professional women's identity integration--the perceived compatibility between work and gender identities--plays a role in how task or relationship information is processed. Seventy female business school students were primed with either their professional or their gender identity. Business women with higher identity integration showed an…

  17. Combining Gender, Work, and Family Identities: The Cross-Over and Spill-Over of Gender Norms into Young Adults’ Work and Family Aspirations

    PubMed Central

    Meeussen, Loes; Veldman, Jenny; Van Laar, Colette

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (in)compatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women’s family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults (N = 445) perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to ‘have it all’: mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men’s family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults’ gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way. PMID:27909416

  18. Combining Gender, Work, and Family Identities: The Cross-Over and Spill-Over of Gender Norms into Young Adults' Work and Family Aspirations.

    PubMed

    Meeussen, Loes; Veldman, Jenny; Van Laar, Colette

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (in)compatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women's family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults (N = 445) perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to 'have it all': mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men's family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults' gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way.

  19. Endocrinologic treatment of gender identity disorders.

    PubMed

    Tangpricha, Vin; Ducharme, Stanley H; Barber, Thomas W; Chipkin, Stuart R

    2003-01-01

    To review the diagnosis, therapeutic options, and potential complications of treatment of transsexualism. We summarize the appropriate initial assessment and the current guidelines for hormonal and surgical treatment of patients with transsexualism. The cardinal feature of transsexualism is the permanent feeling of gender dysphoria. As part of the treatment of this condition, patients may seek medical and surgical therapies to change their physical appearance to match their internal gender identity. Cross-sex hormone therapy is a key medical management and is often prescribed in consultation with an endocrinologist. Patients should participate in a period of psychotherapy before such hormonal therapy is initiated. Medical therapies for transsexualism are associated with potentially serious complications, such as thromboembolism related to estrogen treatment and testosterone-induced hepatotoxicity. Patients should be carefully selected for therapy with use of the current management guidelines published by the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association. Physicians caring for patients with transsexualism should have a general knowledge about the diagnosis, available treatment, and monitoring for complications of hormonal therapy. Ongoing research and education are necessary for improvement in the health care of these patients.

  20. Teacher Identity and Early Career Resilience: Exploring the Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Jane; Morrison, Chad

    2011-01-01

    A collaborative research project that explored the impact of professional, individual and relational conditions on the resilience of early career teachers revealed the importance of understanding how they engage in the formation of professional identities. Drawing on the traditions of narrative enquiry and critical ethnography, this article…

  1. Primary Teacher Identity, Commitment and Career in Performative School Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troman, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    The research reported here maps changes in primary teachers' identity, commitment and perspectives and subjective experiences of occupational career in the context of performative primary school cultures. The research aimed to provide in-depth knowledge of performative school culture and teachers' subjective experiences in their work of teaching.…

  2. Gender Differences in Career Paths in Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Sandra; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed career paths of middle managers in bank. Study of matched pairs found that men (n=25) advanced faster and reached middle management through fewer promotions and positions than did women (n=25). Men had significantly more work experience outside of banking. In banking careers, men held more jobs in lending, whereas women occupied more…

  3. Gender Differences in Career Paths in Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Sandra; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed career paths of middle managers in bank. Study of matched pairs found that men (n=25) advanced faster and reached middle management through fewer promotions and positions than did women (n=25). Men had significantly more work experience outside of banking. In banking careers, men held more jobs in lending, whereas women occupied more…

  4. Beyond the Binary: Gender, Identity, and Change at Brandeis University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agans, Lyndsay J.

    2007-01-01

    This article offers a case study outlining promising practices and effective dialogues on gender identity, privilege, and trans gender issues. Also presented are methods for student affairs professionals to foster organizational change to serve transgender student needs.

  5. Social epidemiology of depression and anxiety by gender identity

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Gordon, Allegra R.; Corliss, Heather L.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates depression and anxiety in gender minority (i.e., transgender and/or gender nonconforming) compared to non-gender minority (cisgender) young adults. Methods Data were from the Growing Up Today Study, a national cohort of U.S. young adults. A two-step method (maternal-reported natal sex in 1996 cross-classified with participant-reported current gender identity in 2010) was used to identify gender minority and non-gender minority respondents (n=7831; mean age=26 years). Differences in past-week depressive symptoms and anxious symptoms were examined cross-sectionally by gender identity. Gender minority and non-gender minority respondents were compared using age-adjusted logistic regression models. Results In gender minorities, the prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms meeting clinical cutoffs was 52% and 38%, respectively compared to non-gender minorities (27% and 30% in females and 25% and 14% in males) (p<0.01). Conclusion Gender identity is an understudied social determinant of mental health. Surveillance efforts to monitor mental health disparities should include survey questions to assess gender identity in epidemiologic research. Research and interventions to understand and ameliorate mental health disparities by gender identity are needed. PMID:27267142

  6. Lay Theories of Gender Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Radhika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined lay theories regarding gender identity disorder (GID). Pilot interviews were completed with participants (n = 10) regarding their views on possible causes and treatments of GID. Participants (mainly young British people and students; n = 124) then completed a questionnaire that was based on the interviews and a review of the salient literature on lay theories. As hypothesized, participants believed most in biomedical causes and treatments of GID. Factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors in relation to causes of GID: upbringing and personal factors, pregnancy and brain abnormalities, environmental factors, and biomedical causes. Five factors that were identified in relation to the cure/treatment of GID were psychological assistance and personal factors, extreme medical and behavioral changes, alternative therapies, external factors, and medical treatments. The results indicated that participants neither agreed nor strongly disagreed about causes and cures regarding GID, but that these beliefs were logically related. Limitations, particularly of sampling, were considered. PMID:24059967

  7. Contested identities: gendered politics, gendered religion in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaheed, Farida

    2010-01-01

    In Pakistan, the self-serving use of Islam by more secular elements alongside politico-religious ones facilitated the latter's increasing influence and the conflation and intricate interweaving of Islam and Pakistani nationhood. A paradigm shift under Zia's martial law revamped society as much as state laws, producing both religiously defined militias and aligned civil society groups. Examining the impact on women of fusing religion and politics, this paper argues that women become symbolic markers of appropriated territory in the pursuit of state power, and that the impact of such fusing, different for differently situated women, needs to be gauged in societal terms as well as in terms of state dynamics. Questioning the positing of civil society as a self-evident progressive desideratum, the paper concludes that gender equality projects seeking reconfigurations of power cannot be effective without vigorously competing in the creation of knowledge, culture and identity.

  8. Gender identity disorder in a girl: insights from adoption.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, K

    1995-01-01

    Gender identity disorder in girls is reported far less frequently than in boys. The analysis of a six-year-old adopted girl with gender identity disorder is presented to show the importance of the mother-infant relationship and of parental, especially maternal, attitudes toward gender in the normal development of gender identity and gender role definition. This child's unusual history included a late adoption, with clear evidence of separation trauma, and the ongoing influence of maternal infertility. Her symptoms of gender identity disorder appeared before her second birthday and were well established by three years of age. The analysis, from age six to thirteen, achieved a better adaptation to her gender. Her masculine strivings gradually became incorporated into an essentially feminine orientation.

  9. Men in Traditional and Nontraditional Careers: Gender Role Attitudes, Gender Role Conflict, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Thomas A.; Borders, L. DiAnne

    2006-01-01

    Men established in traditional (mechanical engineering, n = 100) and nontraditional (elementary school counseling, n = 100) careers were compared on their career compromise choices (sex type vs. prestige), adherence to masculinity ideology, gender role conflict, and job satisfaction. The engineers tended to choose sex type over prestige; the…

  10. Men in Traditional and Nontraditional Careers: Gender Role Attitudes, Gender Role Conflict, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Thomas A.; Borders, L. DiAnne

    2006-01-01

    Men established in traditional (mechanical engineering, n = 100) and nontraditional (elementary school counseling, n = 100) careers were compared on their career compromise choices (sex type vs. prestige), adherence to masculinity ideology, gender role conflict, and job satisfaction. The engineers tended to choose sex type over prestige; the…

  11. The multifaceted influence of gender in career progress in nursing.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Catherine; Nicholl, Honor

    2007-10-01

    The complex web of gender influence in the workplace results from a multifaceted interplay of factors [Walby et al. (1994) Medicine and Nursing. Sage Publications, London]. Literature reports that in nursing men's success compared with that of women is disproportionate and substantial evidence of gender-based disadvantage is found [Women in Management Review13 (1998) 184]. However, studies have not addressed the specific reasons for this and little is known of how or what influences nurses' career decisions and developments [Journal of Advanced Nursing25 (1997) 602]. Those studies which examine career developments and patterns are mainly found in the private business sector.

  12. Childhood Gender Identity...Disorder? Developmental, Cultural, and Diagnostic Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragowski, Eliza A.; Scharron-del Rio, Maria R.; Sandigorsky, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood gender identity development is reviewed in the context of biological, environmental, cultural, and diagnostic factors. With the upcoming 5th revision of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," the authors offer a critical consideration of childhood gender identity disorder, along with proposed diagnostic changes.…

  13. Gender identity change in a transsexual: an exorcism.

    PubMed

    Barlow, D H; Abel, G G; Blanchard, E B

    1977-09-01

    Gender identity change in a conservatively diagnosed 21-year-old transexual after faith healing was fortuitously observed, was objectively and independently measured, and is reported. This case, and other recent developments, suggests a reexamination of the possibilities of psychosocial intervention to modify atypical gender identity.

  14. Childhood Gender Identity...Disorder? Developmental, Cultural, and Diagnostic Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragowski, Eliza A.; Scharron-del Rio, Maria R.; Sandigorsky, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood gender identity development is reviewed in the context of biological, environmental, cultural, and diagnostic factors. With the upcoming 5th revision of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," the authors offer a critical consideration of childhood gender identity disorder, along with proposed diagnostic changes.…

  15. A Dual Identity Approach for Conceptualizing and Measuring Children's Gender Identity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Andrews, Naomi C Z; England, Dawn E; Zosuls, Kristina; Ruble, Diane N

    2017-01-01

    The goal was to test a new dual identity perspective on gender identity by asking children (n = 467) in three grades (Mage  = 5.7, 7.6, 9.5) to consider the relation of the self to both boys and girls. This change shifted the conceptualization of gender identity from one to two dimensions, provided insights into the meaning and measurement of gender identity, and allowed for revisiting ideas about the roles of gender identity in adjustment. Using a graphical measure to allow assessment of identity in young children and cluster analyses to determine types of identity, it was found that individual and developmental differences in how similar children feel to both genders, and these variations matter for many important personal and social outcomes. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Gender identity disorder and anorexia nervosa in male monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Urs; Milos, Gabriella; Braun-Scharm, Hellmuth

    2004-03-01

    Male identical twins with gender identity disorder (GID) in childhood and anorexia nervosa (AN) are presented. Etiologic aspects and the relationship among gender identity, sexual orientation, body dissatisfaction, and AN are discussed. Case reports and a review of the literature are reported. In childhood, both twins showed an atypical gender behavior. Whereas one of the twins later developed a transsexual gender identity and asked for sex reassignment, the other developed a male identity but his appearance and clothing are effeminate. According to their biologic sex, they are concordant in regard to their homosexual orientation. In adolescence, both developed AN. Monozygotism was proved by DNA analysis. GID in childhood could be at least partly hereditary, whereas the development of the later phenotype of the gender identification is more determined by environmental factors. GID might be a risk factor for the development of AN. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 239-243, 2004.

  17. Disorders of sex development and gender identity outcome in adolescence and adulthood: understanding gender identity development and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2007-06-01

    This article reviews studies on gender identity outcome in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD). It appears that a high percentage of affected individuals suffer from gender dysphoria. However, these figures differ substantially among the various DSD and they never reach 100%. From the studies it also becomes clear that a distinction should be made between gender role behavior and gender identity. Put in a broader theoretical framework, there is now more evidence that biological factors influence the development of gender role behavior than gender identity. Developmental psychology studies add evidence that social and psychological factors play a role as well in gender development. Clinicians should be aware of, but not overestimate the influences of neurobiological factors in gender development.

  18. Gender-Role Identity, Attitudes toward Marriage, and Gender-Segregated School Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsurada, Emiko; Sugihara, Yoko

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between Japanese college students' gender role identity and attitudes toward marriage, exploring the effects of gender-segregated school backgrounds on gender role identity and attitudes toward marriage. Women without any coeducational school background had relatively strong masculinity and desired to marry at older…

  19. Gender identity and gender role orientation in female assigned patients with disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Aino K; Fagerholm, Riitta; Santtila, Pekka; Miettinen, Päivi J; Taskinen, Seppo

    2012-11-01

    Gender identity and gender role orientation were assessed in 24 female assigned patients with disorders of sex development. A total of 16 patients were prenatally exposed to androgens, of whom 15 had congenital adrenal hyperplasia and 1 was virilized due to maternal tumor. Eight patients had 46,XY karyotype, of whom 5 had partial and 3 had complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Gender identity was measured by the 27-item Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults with 167 female medical students as controls, and gender role was assessed by the femininity and masculinity subscales of the 30-item Bem Sex Role Inventory with 104 female and 64 male medical students as controls. No patient reached the cutoff for gender identity disorder on the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. However, patients with 46,XY karyotype demonstrated a somewhat more conflicted gender identity, although the overall differences were relatively small. As to gender role orientation, patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome had high scores on the femininity and masculinity scales of the Bem Sex Role Inventory, which made them the most androgynous group. Our findings, although clinically not clear cut, suggest that patients with disorders of sex development are a heterogeneous group regarding gender identity and gender role outcomes, and that this issue should be discussed with the family when treatment plans are made. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender differences in the association of depression with career indecisiveness, career-decision status, and career-preference crystallization.

    PubMed

    Gadassi, Reuma; Waser, Ayelet; Gati, Itamar

    2015-10-01

    Depression has detrimental effects on broad areas of functioning. However, its association with career decision-making factors has been largely unexplored. In the present study, we focused on the association between career decision-making difficulties, career-decision status, and career-preference crystallization, on the one hand, and depression, on the other. The hypothesis that high levels of career decision-making difficulties, less advanced decision status, and low levels of preference crystallization are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms was tested with a sample of 222 college seniors. In addition, since it has been found that work-related stressors are more often associated with depression among men than women, it was hypothesized that the associations between vocational factors and depression would be stronger for men than for women. The participants filled out online self-report questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, emotional and personality-related career decision-making difficulties, career-decision status, and career preferences. The results indicated that self-concept and identity-related career decision-making difficulties were associated with depressive symptoms for both men and women. In addition, for men, but not for women, less crystallization of career preferences also predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms. These results show how important it is for counseling psychologists to understand the role of the individual's vocational situation in depression. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Sexual minority women's gender identity and expression: challenges and supports.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Heidi M; Puckett, Julia A; Ippolito, Maria R; Horne, Sharon G

    2012-01-01

    Sexual minority women were divided into four groups to study their gender identities (butch and femme), and gender expression (traditionally gendered and non-traditionally gendered women who do not identify as butch or femme). Experiences of heterosexist events (discrimination, harassment, threats of violence, victimization, negative emotions associated with these events), mental health (self esteem, stress, depression), and supports for a sexual minority identity (social support, outness, internalized homophobia) were examined across these groups. Findings suggested that butch-identified women experienced more heterosexist events than femme women or women with non-traditional gender expressions. There were no differences in mental health variables. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  2. Male gender identity and sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chused, J F

    1999-12-01

    One consequence of a heightened interest in intersubjectivity in the current psychoanalytic literature has been a relative neglect of the examination of unconscious fantasies. Presenting material from the analysis of three males, each of whom, in childhood and/or adolescence, hid his penis between his legs and looked at himself in a mirror naked, the author demonstrates the importance of attending to both unconscious fantasies and their manifestations within the interactive field of analysis. The first patient is a young child with a gender identity disorder, whose wish to be like his mother was a response to the emotional loss of her during early childhood. The second patient is an adolescent, whose behaviour in front of a mirror was a manifestation of his desire to possess his mother and be her, to humiliate and sadistically control her, and at the same time, to experience the masochistic sexual gratification of being a seemingly helpless victim. The third patient, a 48-year-old male, came to analysis filled with suicidal impulses and self-hatred related to homosexual impulses. His repeated examination of himself in a mirror, with penis hidden, reflected severe castration anxiety, related to an ambivalent relationship with an angry mother and a longing for attention from an unavailable father. The article closes with a description of the similarities and differences in the dynamics of these three males as well as a discussion of the meaning of similar behaviour in other males seen in consultation.

  3. Social Epidemiology of Depression and Anxiety by Gender Identity.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Gordon, Allegra R; Corliss, Heather L; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates depression and anxiety in gender minority (i.e., transgender and/or gender nonconforming) compared with nongender minority (cisgender) young adults. Data were from the Growing Up Today Study, a national cohort of U.S. young adults. A two-step method (maternal-reported natal sex in 1996 cross-classified with participant-reported current gender identity in 2010) was used to identify gender minority and nongender minority respondents (n = 7,831; mean age = 26 years). Differences in past week depressive symptoms and anxious symptoms were examined cross-sectionally by gender identity. Gender minority and nongender minority respondents were compared using age-adjusted logistic regression models. In gender minorities, the prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms meeting clinical cutoffs was 52% and 38%, respectively, compared with nongender minorities (27% and 30% in females and 25% and 14% in males; p < .01). Gender identity is an understudied social determinant of mental health. Surveillance efforts to monitor mental health disparities should include survey questions to assess gender identity in epidemiologic research. Research and interventions to understand and ameliorate mental health disparities by gender identity are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Equality and Illusion: Gender and Tenure in Art History Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Elizabeth; Morrison, Emory; Sadrozinski, Renate; Nerad, Maresi; Cerny, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Using a national survey of 508 art history Ph.D.s including data on graduate school performance and careers 10-15 years post-Ph.D., this study investigates gender, family, and academic tenure in art history, the humanities field with the highest proportion of women. Alternative hypotheses derived from three perspectives--termed here "clockwork,"…

  5. Equality and Illusion: Gender and Tenure in Art History Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Elizabeth; Morrison, Emory; Sadrozinski, Renate; Nerad, Maresi; Cerny, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Using a national survey of 508 art history Ph.D.s including data on graduate school performance and careers 10-15 years post-Ph.D., this study investigates gender, family, and academic tenure in art history, the humanities field with the highest proportion of women. Alternative hypotheses derived from three perspectives--termed here "clockwork,"…

  6. Does Gender Matter? University Library Access and Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniella

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine how the gender of distance learning students related to variables such as the perception of the availability of library resources, technology available at home and work, technology provided by a university for distance learning, and career preparedness. A total of 166 master's students in the…

  7. Perceived Career Barriers and Coping among Youth in Israel: Ethnic and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipshits-Braziler, Yuliya; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender and ethnic differences in the perception of different types of career barriers among young adults in relation to their views of themselves as individuals (Personal Career Barriers) and their views of their gender and ethnic group (Group Career Barriers). This study also explored gender and ethnic differences in the…

  8. Identity and Inner-City Youth: Beyond Ethnicity and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Shirley Brice, Ed.; McLaughlin, Milbrey W., Ed.

    How ethnic identity and gender figure in building the embedded identities of youth in different contexts is examined, focusing on the self-concepts of inner-city youth. The voices of urban youth argue that their embedded identities, or multilayered self-conceptions, represent far more than simple labels of ethnic or racial membership. After an…

  9. Effects of an Undergraduate Career Class on Men's and Women's Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Vocational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Anne B.; Ciani, Keith D.

    2008-01-01

    The current study hypothesized that undergraduates enrolled in a career explorations course would report significant gains in career decision-making self-efficacy and vocational identity during a semester. A repeated measures MANOVA was used to assess 88 students' precourse and postcourse self-efficacy for five tasks related to career decision…

  10. A developmental line of gender identity, gender role, and choice of love object.

    PubMed

    Tyson, P

    1982-01-01

    A schematic overview of the development of male and female gender identity has been presented with an attempt to formulate a developmental line. The steps include: (Table: see text) In discussion of these steps an effort was made to distinguish between core morphological or core gender identity--that is, the primary sense of being male or female, to which other aspects of gender identity are added over the course of development to eventually include a "mix" of masculinity and femininity; gender role identity, which includes the conscious and unconscious mental representations of dialogues with other people vis-à-vis one's gender identity as well as identification with role models; and the separate process of choosing a sexual partner orientation. These separate strands join together and intermingle to make up what we view globally as "gender identity."

  11. Adolescent Gender-Role Identity and Mental Health: Gender Intensification Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priess, Heather A.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    Gender intensification, an increased pressure for adolescents to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles, has been posited as an explanation for the emergence of the gender difference in depression. This longitudinal study assessed whether 410 individuals became more stereotypical in their gender-role identity across adolescence and whether…

  12. Adolescent Gender-Role Identity and Mental Health: Gender Intensification Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priess, Heather A.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    Gender intensification, an increased pressure for adolescents to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles, has been posited as an explanation for the emergence of the gender difference in depression. This longitudinal study assessed whether 410 individuals became more stereotypical in their gender-role identity across adolescence and whether…

  13. Human identity versus gender identity: The perception of sexual addiction among Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Moshtagh, Mozhgan; Mirlashari, Jila; Rafiey, Hassan; Azin, Ali; Farnam, Robert

    2017-07-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to explore the images of personal identity from the perspective of women with sexual addiction. The data required for the study were collected through 31 in-depth interviews. Sensing a threat to personal identity, dissatisfaction with gender identity, dissociation with the continuum of identity, and identity reconstruction in response to threat were four of the experiences that were common among women with sexual addiction. Painful emotional experiences appear to have created a sense of gender and sexual conflict or weakness in these women and thus threatened their personal identity and led to their sexual addiction.

  14. Robotics as science (re)form: Exploring power, learning and gender(ed) identity formation in a "community of practice"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurner, Sheryl Marie

    "Robotics as Science (re)Form" utilizes qualitative research methods to examine the career trajectories and gender identity formation of female youth participating as members of an all-girl, academic team within the male-dominated environment of the FIRST Robotics competition. Following the constant comparative approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), my project relies upon triangulating ethnographic data drawn from extensive field notes, semi-structured interviews, and digital and video imagery compiled over two years of participant observation. Drawing upon the sociolinguistic "community of practice" (CoP) framework (Eckert & McConnell-Ginet, 1992; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998), this study maps the range of gendered "identities" available to girls involved in non-traditional academic and occupational pursuits within a local context, and reveals the nature, structure and impact of power operating within this CoP, a significantly underdeveloped construct within the language and gender literature. These research findings (1) contribute to refining theories of situated or problem based learning with a focus on female youth (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998); (2) reveal affordances and barriers within the local program design that enable (and preclude) women and minority youth entering the engineering pipeline; and (3) enrich our understanding of intragroup language and gendered "practices" to counter largely essentializing generalizations based upon quantitative analysis. Keywords: Robotics, gender, identity formation, science, STEM, communities of practice

  15. Gender identity and sexual orientation in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    George, Rita; Stokes, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Clinical impressions indicate that there is an overrepresentation of gender-dysphoria within the autism spectrum disorder. However, little is presently known about the demographics of gender-identity issues in autism spectrum disorder. Based upon what little is known, we hypothesized that there would be an increased prevalence of gender-dysphoria among those with autism spectrum disorder compared to a typically developing population. We surveyed gender-dysphoria with the Gender-Identity/Gender-Dysphoria Questionnaire among 90 males and 219 females with autism spectrum disorder and compared these rates to those of 103 males and 158 females without autism spectrum disorder. When compared to typically developing individuals, autistic individuals reported a higher number of gender-dysphoric traits. Rates of gender-dysphoria in the group with autism spectrum disorder were significantly higher than reported in the wider population. Mediation analysis found that the relationship between autistic traits and sexual orientation was mediated by gender-dysphoric traits. Results suggest that autism spectrum disorder presents a unique experience to the formation and consolidation of gender identity, and for some autistic individuals, their sexual orientation relates to their gender experience. It is important that clinicians working with autism spectrum disorder are aware of the gender-diversity in this population so that the necessary support for healthy socio-sexual functioning and mental well-being is provided.

  16. Exploring Hybrid Identities: South Asian American Women Pursue a Career in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Amita Roy

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how second-generation South Asian American women negotiated their hybrid identities to pursue a career in teaching. Many South Asian Americans have not pursued a career in teaching because of various external and internal factors that have influenced their sense of identity, academic achievement, and professional career path…

  17. The Influence of Cultural Social Identity on Graduate Student Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Karen J.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Levin, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines and enriches understanding of the career choice process for graduate students of color. Social identity theory (SIT) is used as a framework to expand our understanding of how and why graduate students choose (or do not choose) faculty careers. Graduate students' cultural social identities influenced their career choice…

  18. Identity Status, Consistency and Differentiation of Interests, and Career Decision Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauta, Margaret M.; Kahn, Jeffrey H.

    2007-01-01

    Relationships between young adults' identity status, the consistency and differentiation of their career interests, and their career decision self-efficacy were assessed. Among 111 college students, identity status was related to career decision self-efficacy and differentiation of interests, but it was not associated with consistency of…

  19. The Influence of Cultural Social Identity on Graduate Student Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Karen J.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Levin, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines and enriches understanding of the career choice process for graduate students of color. Social identity theory (SIT) is used as a framework to expand our understanding of how and why graduate students choose (or do not choose) faculty careers. Graduate students' cultural social identities influenced their career choice…

  20. Gender, Legitimation, and Identity Verification in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Peter J.; Stets, Jan E.; Cerven, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Drawing upon identity theory, expectation states theory, and legitimation theory, we examine how the task leader identity in task-oriented groups is more likely to be verified for persons with high status characteristics. We hypothesize that identity verification will be accomplished more readily for male group members and legitimated task leaders…

  1. Are there gender differences in choosing a surgical career?

    PubMed

    Wendel, Theresa M; Godellas, Constantine V; Prinz, Richard A

    2003-10-01

    Interest in general surgery has declined among US medical students, with the increasing number of female medical students being cited as a causative factor. This study evaluates factors related to choosing a general surgery career and determines if they differ between men and women. A survey assessing factors that contributed to career choice was distributed to a 2002 graduating medical school class to be returned with their match lists. Students were asked, from a given list, which factors influenced their career choice. Those students who did not pursue a career in general surgery were asked what factors contributed to that decision. The results were stratified by gender. Of 120 surveys, 54 women and 48 men responded (response rate=85%). The reason most commonly cited for a particular career choice by both men and women was the intellectual challenge of the field, chosen by 41 men (85%) and 46 women (85%). The two next most common reasons cited by male students were an elective in the field and practice lifestyle (40 of 48 respondents, or 82%, for each). Practice lifestyle was a contributing factor for 37 of the 54 women, or 69% (P=.132). The other reasons most commonly cited by women were an elective and faculty in the chosen field (46 of 54, or 85%, and 38 of 54, or 70%). Thirty-seven of the 48 men, or 77% (P=.588), felt that faculty in the field contributed to their career choice. The most commonly cited reasons for not choosing general surgery--residency lifestyle, practice lifestyle, and length of training--were the same for both groups. Fewer women than men considered practice lifestyle in choosing their medical career. However, both men and women considered lifestyle, elective in the field of choice, and faculty important in career choice. In 2002, men and women had the same reasons for pursuing a career in general surgery or seeking another specialty.

  2. Gender Differences in College Students' Career Maturity and Perceived Barriers in Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzzo, Darrell Anthony

    1995-01-01

    Gender differences in 401 college students' career maturity were investigated with quantitative measures that included attitudes, decision-making skills, and vocational congruence. Analyses revealed that females scored significantly higher than males on each of the measures. Qualitative analyses revealed that the perception of barriers may serve…

  3. Gender, race, and meritocracy in organizational careers.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Emilio J

    2008-05-01

    This study helps to fill a significant gap in the literature on organizations and inequality by investigating the central role of merit-based reward systems in shaping gender and racial disparities in wages and promotions. The author develops and tests a set of propositions isolating processes of performance-reward bias, whereby women and minorities receive less compensation than white men with equal scores on performance evaluations. Using personnel data from a large service organization, the author empirically establishes the existence of this bias and shows that gender, race, and nationality differences continue to affect salary growth after performance ratings are taken into account, ceteris paribus. This finding demonstrates a critical challenge faced by the many contemporary employers who adopt merit-based practices and policies. Although these policies are often adopted in the hope of motivating employees and ensuring meritocracy, policies with limited transparency and accountability can actually increase ascriptive bias and reduce equity in the workplace.

  4. Patterns of career and identity interference for lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Heather Z; Brenner, Bradley R; Lipman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized about the potentially competing demands of sexual identity development and career development (e.g., Chen, Stracuzzi, & Ruckdeschel, 2004; Fassinger, 1996; Morrow, 1997; Schmidt, 2004). In the present study, we explored these hypotheses focusing specifically on career decision making. Using cluster analysis, we identified three groups of lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults who differed in terms of the conflict experienced between sexual identity and career development: career conflict group (n = 11), sexual identity conflict group (n = 45), and those who experienced low levels of conflict between the two domains (n = 71). Differences were found between the clusters in levels of career decision making supports, career decision making barriers, and career decision making self-efficacy. Results tentatively suggest the importance of considering within-group differences when using Social Cognitive Career Theory to understand the career decision making of this population.

  5. Teenage Career Aspirations and Adult Career Attainment: The Role of Gender, Social Background and General Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Ingrid; Polek, Elzbieta

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the associations between gender, family background, general cognitive ability (g), teenage career aspirations, and career attainment in mid adulthood drawing on two large representative samples of the British population born in 1958 (N = 6,474) and in 1970 (N = 5,081). A developmental-contextual model of career development…

  6. Gender Attitudes, Feminist Identity, and Body Images among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Thomas F.; Ancis, Julie R.; Strachan, Melissa D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines how women's body-image experiences relate to their own gender attitudes and ideologies. Responses from 122 undergraduate women reveal minimal relationships between body-image attitudes and either feminist identity or adherence to traditional gender beliefs at individual/stereotypic or societal levels. Male-female social interactions…

  7. Peer Influence on Gender Identity Development in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Granger, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    During adolescence, gender identity (GI) develops through a dialectic process of personal reflection and with input from the social environment. Peers play an important role in the socialization of gendered behavior, but no studies to-date have assessed peer influences on GI. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine peer influences on…

  8. Peer Influence on Gender Identity Development in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Granger, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    During adolescence, gender identity (GI) develops through a dialectic process of personal reflection and with input from the social environment. Peers play an important role in the socialization of gendered behavior, but no studies to-date have assessed peer influences on GI. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine peer influences on…

  9. Gender Differences in Identity Development: An Examination of Longitudinal Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streitmatter, Janice

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed longitudinal data from 105 students when they were in junior high and high school to examine relationship between gender and identity development over time. Results indicated that patterns of change over time were similar for males and females; as students aged, they grew in psychosocial maturity regardless of gender. (Author/NB)

  10. An Interactionist Perspective on Understanding Gender Identity in Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussak, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies social interactionism to gender identity issues as addressed in the art therapy literature and within interview data collected from art therapists working in the field. The findings revealed that perceptions from practicing art therapists differed from ideas put forth in the art therapy literature about gender traits that…

  11. Gender identity and adjustment in black, Hispanic, and white preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Corby, Brooke C; Hodges, Ernest V E; Perry, David G

    2007-01-01

    The generality of S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's (2001) model of gender identity and adjustment was evaluated by examining associations between gender identity (felt gender typicality, felt gender contentedness, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and social adjustment in 863 White, Black, and Hispanic 5th graders (mean age = 11.1 years). Relations between gender identity and adjustment varied across ethnic/racial groups, indicating that S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's model requires amendment. It is suggested that the implications of gender identity for adjustment depend on the particular meanings that a child attaches to gender (e.g., the specific attributes the child regards as desirable for each sex); these meanings may vary across and within ethnic/racial groups. Cross-ethnic/racial investigation can aid theory building by pointing to constructs that are neglected in research with a single ethnic/racial group but that are crucial components of basic developmental processes. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Gender Attitudes, Feminist Identity, and Body Images among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Thomas F.; Ancis, Julie R.; Strachan, Melissa D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines how women's body-image experiences relate to their own gender attitudes and ideologies. Responses from 122 undergraduate women reveal minimal relationships between body-image attitudes and either feminist identity or adherence to traditional gender beliefs at individual/stereotypic or societal levels. Male-female social interactions…

  13. Changing Career and Changing Identity: How Do Teacher Career Changers Exercise Agency in Identity Construction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elaine; Deaney, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    The quest to understand what it means to "become" a teacher and the conditions in which such aspirations can be translated into lived experience, continues to exercise teacher educators and researchers alike. Whilst the literature points towards the importance of developing teacher identity, little attention has been given to…

  14. Changing Career and Changing Identity: How Do Teacher Career Changers Exercise Agency in Identity Construction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elaine; Deaney, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    The quest to understand what it means to "become" a teacher and the conditions in which such aspirations can be translated into lived experience, continues to exercise teacher educators and researchers alike. Whilst the literature points towards the importance of developing teacher identity, little attention has been given to…

  15. Satisfaction with Mentoring Relationships: Does Gender Identity Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz-Walters, Rowena; Eddleston, Kimberly-Ann; Simione, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of gender identity on proteges' satisfaction with mentoring relationships. More specifically, it aims to investigate whether or not a protege's feminine or masculine identity, by virtue of emphasizing different criteria, roles, and preferences, impacts his or her satisfaction with the…

  16. Performing Identities in Physical Education: (En)Gendering Fluid Selves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzarito, Laura; Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows how a group of young people and researchers, through their reading of images, performed "identity work" within discourses of the body and gender in physical education. To explore young people's identity narratives and physicality, the researchers used an ethnographic method using photo-elicitation. Findings in this study showed…

  17. Motherhood, pregnancy, and the negotiation of identity: the moral career of drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, Polly

    2011-03-01

    In this paper I seek to engage with literature on recovery by focusing on gendered identity and motherhood in accounts of pregnant and postpartum women. Interview accounts are analysed as the site of moral work where women use discursive strategies to present themselves as plausible mothers and locate themselves in relation to a moral career of drug treatment and motherhood. I make the case that this performative work entails the representation of lived practices as well as the presentation of self. I argue that opportunities need to be provided for pregnant and postpartum drug users to engage with services and that their performative work needs to be acknowledged by professionals in order that non-stigmatizing identities can be endorsed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [The history of the concept of gender identity disorder].

    PubMed

    Koh, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The Metamorphoses Greek myth includes a story about a woman raised as a male falling in love with another woman, and being transformed into a man prior to a wedding ceremony and staying with her. It is therefore considered that people who desire to live as though they have the opposite gender have existed since ancient times. People who express a sense of discomfort with their anatomical sex and related roles have been reported in the medical literature since the middle of the 19th century. However, homosexual, fetishism, gender identity disorder, and associated conditions were mixed together and regarded as types of sexual perversion that were considered ethically objectionable until the 1950s. The first performance of sex-reassignment surgery in 1952 attracted considerable attention, and the sexologist Harry Benjamin reported a case of 'a woman kept in the body of a man', which was called transsexualism. John William Money studied the sexual consciousness about disorders of sex development and advocated the concept of gender in 1957. Thereafter the disparity between anatomical sex and gender identity was referred to as the psychopathological condition of gender identity disorder, and this was used for its diagnostic name when it was introduced into DSM-III in 1980. However, gender identity disorder encompasses a spectrum of conditions, and DSM-III -R categorized it into three types: transsexualism, nontranssexualism, and not otherwise specified. The first two types were subsequently combined and standardized into the official diagnostic name of 'gender identity disorder' in DSM-IV. In contrast, gender identity disorder was categorized into four groups (including transsexualism and dual-role transvestism) in ICD-10. A draft proposal of DSM-5 has been submitted, in which the diagnostic name of gender identity disorder has been changed to gender dysphoria. Also, it refers to 'assigned gender' rather than to 'sex', and includes disorders of sexual development

  19. Work-Relationship Values and Gender Role Differences in Relation to Career-Marriage Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Stewart E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explored relationship of female and male undergraduate business majors' preferred future career-marriage arrangement to their relationship and work values, work motivation, and gender role orientation. Dual-career, career-job, and career-home groups showed significant differences on dimensions. Results are discussed in terms of factors underlying…

  20. Effects of Gender and Academic-Risk Behavior on the Career Maturity of Rural Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the impact of gender and academic-risk behavior on the career maturity and competence of 110 rural youth revealed that females were more involved and independent in their career development and that high-risk students were less able to solve career-related problems. Addresses implications for rural career education and vocational…

  1. Gender Self-Definition and Gender Self-Acceptance in Women: Intersections with Feminist, Womanist, and Ethnic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Rose Marie

    2006-01-01

    The author explored the relationships among women's gender identity constructs as well as the relationships of those constructs to ethnic identity. Nine of the 12 hypothesized relationships between gender self-definition and female identity development statuses and between gender self-acceptance and female identity development statuses were…

  2. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  3. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  4. Racial Identity Attitudes, Perceived Barriers, Career Self-Efficacy, and Career Outcome Expectations among African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsel, Norman L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) holds that self-efficacy and outcome expectations are primary predictors of career choice goals and actions, with contextual influences moderating those choices and actions. Racial identity research indicates that African American adolescents perceive more barriers than their White counterparts. The current…

  5. [The development of gender identity beyond rigid dichotomy].

    PubMed

    Quindeau, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    The conflicts individuals with ambiguous sexual characteristics suffer from are not the result of genetic features but of the rigid and dichotomous gender order, which is currently undergoing a renaissance. This also applies to individuals with an uncertain gender identity. In the best interests of the child a concept of gender seems necessary, that goes beyond a binary separation and allows gender-specific intermediary stages in the personal development of identity. Such a gender concept can be developed following psychoanalytic theories. The present discourse contains a scale of connecting factors for a differentiated and less normative conceptualization of gender development. Starting from Freud's concept of constitutional bisexuality, Robert Stoller's theory, which has been firmly rooted in the mainstream of psychoanalysis for more than 40 years, will be critically reviewed. By involving Reimut Reiche's and Jean Laplanche's arguments, a continuative psychological gender theory will be drafted, which does not normatively and reductively claim the demarcation of gender, but rather opens up a space for gender diversity.

  6. Influences on medical student career choice: gender or generation?

    PubMed

    Sanfey, Hilary A; Saalwachter-Schulman, Alison R; Nyhof-Young, Joyce M; Eidelson, Ben; Mann, Barry D

    2006-11-01

    We hypothesized that increased enrollment of female medical students and different priorities of the current generation of students would be important influences on the declining interest in surgical careers. Students scored statements on surgical careers on 5-point Likert scales regarding agreement and whether these statements encouraged them to pursue a career in surgery. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Qualitative comments were iteratively coded using a constant comparative method. Nine US medical schools. A Web-based survey on the Association for Surgical Education server was e-mailed to medical students. A total of 1300 of the 1365 respondents stated their sex. The survey asked questions pertaining to surgical life, surgical residency, surgeons as influence, equity, family, and other influences. A total of 680 (52%) of the 1300 respondents were male. Men and women disagreed about whether surgeons lead well-balanced lives (68% and 77%, respectively) and saw this as a deterrent. A total of 35% of women (3% men; P<.001) were discouraged by a lack of female role models. Compared with students unlikely to study surgery, lower percentages of male (74% vs 65%) and female students (85% vs 58%) likely to study surgery agreed that career choice was influenced by their decision to have a family (P=.01 for men, P<.001 for women). Of medical students who agreed that their skill sets were compatible with surgical careers, similar percentages were likely (30% men vs 24% women) and unlikely (49% men vs 54% women) to study surgery. All differences between men and women were less apparent when students likely to study surgery were compared with students unlikely to study surgery. The decision to have a family was a more significant influence for women than men, but family and lifestyle priorities were also important to male students, supporting our hypothesis that generation and gender are both important influences on career choices.

  7. Gender, Identity and Culture in Learning Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Katelin

    2016-01-01

    Student engagement in science, as defined by Iva Gurgel, Mauricio Pietrocola, and Graciella Watanabe, is of great importance because a student's perceived compatibility with science learning is highly influenced by personal identities, or how students see themselves in relations to the world. This can greatly impact their learning experiences. In…

  8. Gender, Identity and Culture in Learning Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Katelin

    2016-01-01

    Student engagement in science, as defined by Iva Gurgel, Mauricio Pietrocola, and Graciella Watanabe, is of great importance because a student's perceived compatibility with science learning is highly influenced by personal identities, or how students see themselves in relations to the world. This can greatly impact their learning experiences. In…

  9. Peer influence on gender identity development in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E; Martin, Carol Lynn; Granger, Kristen L

    2016-10-01

    During adolescence, gender identity (GI) develops through a dialectic process of personal reflection and with input from the social environment. Peers play an important role in the socialization of gendered behavior, but no studies to-date have assessed peer influences on GI. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine peer influences on four aspects of adolescents' GI in racially and ethnically diverse 7th- and 8th-grade students (N = 670; 49.5% boys, M age = 12.64) using a longitudinal social network modeling approach. We hypothesized stronger peer influence effects on between-gender dimensions of GI (intergroup bias and felt pressure for gender conformity) than on within-gender dimensions of GI (typicality and contentedness). Consistent with expectations, we found significant peer influence on between-gender components of GI-intergroup bias among 7th and 8th graders as well as felt pressure for gender conformity among 8th graders. In contrast, within-gender components of GI showed no evidence of peer influence. Importantly, these peer socialization effects were evident even when controlling for tendencies to select friends who were similar on gender, gender typicality, and contentedness (8th graders only). Employing longitudinal social network analyses provides insights into and clarity about the roles of peers in gender development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Psychological Capital, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…

  11. Psychological Capital, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…

  12. Schooling Girls in a Rural Community: An Examination of Female Science Identity and Science Career Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Melisa Diane Creasy

    2010-01-01

    There is a gap in existence between the number of males and females entering science careers. Research has begun to focus largely on how identity impacts the selection of such careers. While much research has been done to examine the factors that impact student identity, little work has been done to examine what happens to female students who have…

  13. Congruence and Vocational Identity: Outcomes of Career Counseling with Persuasive Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Charles C.; Mourton, Don L.

    1985-01-01

    Examined whether congruence between occupational choice and inventoried interests and vocational identity related to typical career counseling outcomes in college students. Results showed that women higher in identity estimated higher career maturity; women high in congruence reported less anxiety; and women high in both congruence and identity…

  14. Predicting Career Indecision in College Students: The Roles of Identity Formation and Parental Relationship Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Antonia L.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates students' identity formation and perceptions of parental acceptance and encouragement of independence as predictors of career indecision. Four measurements were administered to 169 undergraduate students for the study. Results show career indecision was predicted by higher identity moratorium, less maternal acceptance, and fewer years…

  15. Ethnic Identity and Career Development among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Klingaman, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study explored the relation of ethnic identity achievement and career development progress among a sample of 2,432 first-year college students who completed the Career Decision Profile and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. Among students of color, correlational analyses revealed a series of statistically significant, but…

  16. Identity politics: implications for gender analysis policy and training.

    PubMed

    Erturk, Y

    1997-01-01

    As attention has shifted from a concern for citizenship, equality, and welfare to ideas of empowerment, equity, and governance, the locus of competition over power has rested with "identity politics," a recognition of cultural diversity that claims the legitimate right to produce alternative definitions and symbols of identity in public space. The change in identity formation from universal/national to fractured/tribalizing has implications for gender relations in contexts where patriarchal power controls production and reproduction. Except for feminism, all discourses in the current competition over identity politics are patriarchal. A look at the forces of change that shifted the process of modernization to a process of globalization reveals that, while modernization tends to standardize, globalization embraces the contradictory forces of universalizing and diversifying trends. Issues of identity and inequality were not problematic until the modern and the traditional subsumed each other and, thus, revealed the inherent contradictions of modernization. The diversifying forces that jeopardize the transnationalization of identity into membership in a "human society" include 1) language differences among the working classes, 2) growing global inequalities, and 3) collective memories of antagonistic histories. An analysis of gender based on identity politics can be conducted on a macro-level to understand the reluctance of central governments to initiate certain interventions, competing needs, new contradictions, changing gender roles, and the importance of promoting a global social contract.

  17. The gender identity/gender dysphoria questionnaire for adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Deogracias, Joseph J; Johnson, Laurel L; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Kessler, Suzanne J; Schober, Justine M; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2007-11-01

    The present study reports on the construction of a dimensional measure of gender identity (gender dysphoria) for adolescents and adults. The 27-item gender identity/gender dysphoria questionnaire for adolescents and adults (GIDYQ-AA) was administered to 389 university students (heterosexual and nonheterosexual) and 73 clinic-referred patients with gender identity disorder. Principal axis factor analysis indicated that a one-factor solution, accounting for 61.3% of the total variance, best fits the data. Factor loadings were all >or= .30 (median, .82; range, .34-.96). A mean total score (Cronbach's alpha, .97) was computed, which showed strong evidence for discriminant validity in that the gender identity patients had significantly more gender dysphoria than both the heterosexual and nonheterosexual university students. Using a cut-point of 3.00, we found the sensitivity was 90.4% for the gender identity patients and specificity was 99.7% for the controls. The utility of the GIDYQ-AA is discussed.

  18. Physical attractiveness of boys with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Zucker, K J; Wild, J; Bradley, S J; Lowry, C B

    1993-02-01

    University students blind to group status rated boys with gender identity disorder and clinical control boys regarding their physical attractiveness. Ratings were made of the face and upper torso from photographs taken at the time of clinical assessment (mean age, 8.1 years). On all five adjectives (attractive, beautiful, cute, handsome, and pretty), boys with gender identity disorder were judged to be more attractive than were the clinical control boys. Attractiveness correlated with extent of behavioral femininity in the clinical control group, but not in the group of boys with gender identity disorder. The extent to which the group differences in attractiveness were due to objective, structural differences in facial attractiveness vs. socially created, or subjective, processes is discussed.

  19. Differences in Collaboration Patterns across Discipline, Career Stage, and Gender.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao Han T; Duch, Jordi; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Moreira, João A G; Radicchi, Filippo; Ribeiro, Haroldo V; Woodruff, Teresa K; Amaral, Luís A Nunes

    2016-11-01

    Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in promoting research productivity and impact. What remains unclear is whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines differ in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,980 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at select U.S. research universities. We find that female faculty have significantly fewer distinct co-authors over their careers than males, but that this difference can be fully accounted for by females' lower publication rate and shorter career lengths. Next, we find that female scientists have a lower probability of repeating previous co-authors than males, an intriguing result because prior research shows that teams involving new collaborations produce work with higher impact. Finally, we find evidence for gender segregation in some sub-disciplines in molecular biology, in particular in genomics where we find female faculty to be clearly under-represented.

  20. Clinical characteristics of patients with gender identity disorder at a Japanese gender identity disorder clinic.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Nobuyuki; Sato, Toshiki; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Ido, Yumiko; Terada, Seishi; Kuroda, Shigetoshi

    2008-01-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients with gender identity disorder (GID) at a GID clinic in Japan. A total of 603 consecutive patients were evaluated at the GID clinic using clinical information and results of physical and neurological examinations. Using DSM-IV criteria, 579 patients (96.0%) were diagnosed with GID. Four patients were excluded for transvestic fetishism, eight for homosexuality, five for schizophrenia, three for personality disorders, and four for other psychiatric disorders. Among the GID patients, 349 (60.3%) were the female-to-male (FTM) type, and 230 (39.7%) were the male-to-female (MTF) type. Almost all FTM-type GID patients started to feel discomfort with their sex before puberty and were sexually attracted to females. The proportion of FTM patients who had experienced marriage as a female was very low, and very few had children. Therefore, FTM-type GID patients seem to be highly homogeneous. On the other hand, various patterns of age at onset and sexual attraction existed among MTF patients. Among the MTF-type GID patients, 28.3% had married as males and 18.7% had sired children. Thus, MTF-type GID patients seem to be more heterogeneous.

  1. Gender identity disorders: diagnostic and surgical aspects.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Michael; Bosinski, Hartmut A G

    2007-09-01

    Transsexualism is defined as a strong and persistent cross-gender identification with the patient's persistent discomfort with his or her sex and a sense of inappropriateness in the gender role of that sex (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth revision, text revision [DSM-IV-TR]). The disturbance is not concurrent with a physical intersex condition and causes clinical distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The trained mental health professional is obliged to find out if the patient fulfills the criteria of an irreversible gender transposition and if he or she will benefit from medical (hormonal and surgical) sex-reassignment treatment. If a patient has absolved 12 months of real-life experience and at least 6 months of continuous hormonal treatment, the indication for surgical sex reassignment may be given. Genital sex-reassignment in male-to-female transsexuals includes vaginoplasty, preferably by inversion of penoscrotal skin flaps, clitoroplasty, and vulvoplasty. The operation may be performed in one or two sessions. In contrast to genital reassignment in male-to-female patients, no operative standards are available in female-to-male subjects. Recently, neophallus creation from sensate free forearm flaps has emerged as the most promising approach for those patients who want to have a neophallus. Other alternatives such as metoidoioplasty or neophallus reconstruction from regional flaps exist, but are also accompanied by multiple possible complications and re-interventions. Best results are to be expected when using multidisciplinary teams of plastic surgeons, urologists, gynecologists, and experts in sexual medicine in large volume centers.

  2. Male gender identity in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    T'Sjoen, Guy; De Cuypere, Griet; Monstrey, Stan; Hoebeke, Piet; Freedman, F Kenneth; Appari, Mahesh; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Van Borsel, John; Cools, Martine

    2011-06-01

    Women and girls with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) invariably have a female typical core gender identity. In this case report, we describe the first case of male gender identity in a CAIS individual raised female leading to complete sex reassignment involving both androgen treatment and phalloplasty. CAIS was diagnosed at age 17, based on an unambiguously female phenotype, a 46,XY karyotype, and a 2660delT androgen receptor (AR) gene mutation, leading to a premature stop in codon 807. Bilateral gonadectomy was performed but a short period of estrogen treatment induced a negative emotional reaction and treatment was stopped. Since the age of 3, childhood-onset cross gender behavior had been noticed. After a period of psychotherapy, persisting male gender identity was confirmed. There was no psychiatric co-morbidity and there was an excellent real life experience. Testosterone substitution was started, however without inducing any of the desired secondary male characteristics. A subcutaneous mastectomy was performed and the patient received phalloplasty by left forearm free flap and scrotoplasty. Testosterone treatment was continued, without inducing virilization, and bone density remained normal. The patient qualifies as female-to-male transsexual and was treated according to the Standards of Care by the World Professional Association for Transgender Health with good outcome. However, we do not believe that female sex of rearing as a standard procedure should be questioned in CAIS. Our case challenges the role of a functional AR pathway in the development of male gender identity.

  3. The role of gender identity in adolescents' antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Moreira Trillo, Vanesa; Mirón Redondo, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the relevance of the variables sex and gender to explain delinquency is a topic of growing interest in Criminology. This study tests a model of juvenile delinquency that integrates gender identity, the association with deviant peers, and a lack of attachment to conventional contexts. We used a sample of 970 adolescents of both sexes, representative of the urban population, between 12 and 18 years, attending public schools in Galicia (Spain). The results of path analysis confirm that: a) weak attachment to conventional contexts, and belonging to a deviant groups are precedents for deviation of adolescents of both sexes; b) these contexts also contribute to the development of gender identity; and c) gender identity affects the likelihood of deviation: femininity tends to reduce this behavior, and masculinity (in particular, negatively valued masculinity) contributes to increase it. These findings support the adequacy of including gender identity in the explanatory models of delinquency. They also suggest the need to reconsider the role of conventional settings in the socialization of masculinity and, therefore, in the genesis of adolescent delinquency of both sexes.

  4. Masculinity, male development, gender, and identity: modern and postmodern meanings.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Debby A

    2006-05-01

    Modern and postmodern scholars are addressing the crisis in masculinity by questioning the meaning of masculinity and by rethinking masculinity, male development, gender, and identity. This article explicates current modern humanist positions and postmodern positions on these topics. The first section summarizes contemporary theories advanced by scholars in the relatively new discipline of men's studies. The second section presents postmodern positions exploring sex as a biological given, the emerging critiques of differentiating sex and gender, and poststructural psychoanalytic positions on simultaneous production of individual subjectivity (sense of self), masculine identity, and society. Implications of these perspectives are identified.

  5. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Katemari Diogo da

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.

  6. Gendered career considerations consolidate from the start of medical education.

    PubMed

    Alers, Margret; Verdonk, Petra; Bor, Hans; Hamberg, Katarina; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2014-09-13

    To explore changes in specialty preferences and work-related topics during the theoretical phase of Dutch medical education and the role of gender. A cohort of medical students at Radboudumc, the Netherlands, was surveyed at start (N=612, 69.1% female) and after three years (N=519, 69.2% female), on specialty preferences, full-time or part-time work, motivational factors, and work-life issues. Chi square tests were performed to analyze gender-differences, and logistic regression to explore the influence of gender on considerations. A total of 214 female and 78 male students completed both surveys. After three years, the male students remained highly interested in surgery, but the female students increasingly preferred gynecology. These initial preferences were predictive. Four out of five male students versus three out of five female students continued to show a full-time preference. Women increasingly preferred part-time work. After three years, the combination of work, care, and patient contact motivated female students more, whereas salary remained more important to male students. Female students indicated that their future careers would influence their family life; male students assumed having a family would only affect their partners' careers. Against an international background of the feminization of medicine, our study shows that career considerations are reinforced early in medical studies. Women prefer to work fewer hours and anticipate care tasks more often. Students' preferences reflect Dutch cultural norms about working men and women. Therefore, guidance in choice-making much earlier in medical education can create opportunities.

  7. Professional Identity as the Key to Career Change Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khapova, Svetlana N.; Arthur, Michael B.; Wilderom, Celeste P. M.; Svensson, Jorgen S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate career change intention and its predictors among career change seekers interested in a career opportunity in the information technology (IT) industry. Design/methodology/approach: Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to predict career change intention in this group. In addition, we…

  8. Professional Identity as the Key to Career Change Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khapova, Svetlana N.; Arthur, Michael B.; Wilderom, Celeste P. M.; Svensson, Jorgen S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate career change intention and its predictors among career change seekers interested in a career opportunity in the information technology (IT) industry. Design/methodology/approach: Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to predict career change intention in this group. In addition, we…

  9. The impact of gendered organizational systems on women's career advancement.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Deborah A; Hopkins, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    In this Perspective article we propose that in order to pave the way for women's career advancement into the senior ranks of organizations, attention must be directed at the systemic norms and structures that drive the gendered nature of the workplace. A focus on individual level issues, i.e., women lacking confidence and women opting out, detracts from the work that must be done at the organizational level in order to dismantle the system of pervasive, structural disadvantage facing women seeking to advance to senior leadership positions.

  10. If Ego Identity Is the Envelope Then Adaptive Change Is the Note to Self: Scaffolding the Career Choices of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Terence V.; Brindle, Kimberley A.

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of the current article is to primarily propose a model to assist career counsellors in understanding and guiding adolescents towards career commitment. The second aim is to focus on the relationship between career identity and career certainty, and how these positively influence the achievement of ego identity and maturity. Finally,…

  11. If Ego Identity Is the Envelope Then Adaptive Change Is the Note to Self: Scaffolding the Career Choices of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Terence V.; Brindle, Kimberley A.

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of the current article is to primarily propose a model to assist career counsellors in understanding and guiding adolescents towards career commitment. The second aim is to focus on the relationship between career identity and career certainty, and how these positively influence the achievement of ego identity and maturity. Finally,…

  12. Gender Differences in Reading Motivation: Does Sex or Gender Identity Provide a Better Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…

  13. Gender Differences in Reading Motivation: Does Sex or Gender Identity Provide a Better Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…

  14. Gender differences in medical students' motives and career choice.

    PubMed

    Heiligers, Phil J M

    2012-08-23

    The main subject is the influence of gender and the stage of life on the choice of specialty in medical education. In particular we looked at the influence of intrinsic and external motives on this relationship. The choice of specialty was divided into two moments: the choice between medical specialties and general practice; and the preference within medical specialties. In earlier studies the topic of motivation was explored, mostly related to gender. In this study stage of life in terms of living with a partner -or not- and stage of education was added. A questionnaire concerning career preferences was used. The online questionnaire was sent to all student members of the KNMG (Royal Dutch Medical Association). 58% of these students responded (N = 2397). Only 1478 responses could be used for analyses (36%). For stipulating the motives that played a role, principal components factor analysis has been carried out. For testing the mediation effect a set of regression analyses was performed: logistic regressions and multiple regressions. Although basic findings about gender differences in motivations for preferred careers are consistent with earlier research, we found that whether or not living with a partner is determinant for differences in profession-related motives and external motives (lifestyle and social situation). Furthermore living with a partner is not a specific female argument anymore, since no interactions are found between gender and living with a partner. Another issue is that motives are mediating the relationship between, living with a partner, and the choice of GP or medical specialty. For more clarity in the mediating effect of motives a longitudinal study is needed to find out about motives and changing circumstances. The present study provides a contribution to the knowledge of career aspirations of medical students, especially the impact of motivation. Gender and living with a partner influence both choices, but they are not interacting, so

  15. Gender differences in medical students’ motives and career choice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The main subject is the influence of gender and the stage of life on the choice of specialty in medical education. In particular we looked at the influence of intrinsic and external motives on this relationship. The choice of specialty was divided into two moments: the choice between medical specialties and general practice; and the preference within medical specialties. In earlier studies the topic of motivation was explored, mostly related to gender. In this study stage of life in terms of living with a partner -or not- and stage of education was added. Methods A questionnaire concerning career preferences was used. The online questionnaire was sent to all student members of the KNMG (Royal Dutch Medical Association). 58% of these students responded (N = 2397). Only 1478 responses could be used for analyses (36%). For stipulating the motives that played a role, principal components factor analysis has been carried out. For testing the mediation effect a set of regression analyses was performed: logistic regressions and multiple regressions. Results Although basic findings about gender differences in motivations for preferred careers are consistent with earlier research, we found that whether or not living with a partner is determinant for differences in profession-related motives and external motives (lifestyle and social situation). Furthermore living with a partner is not a specific female argument anymore, since no interactions are found between gender and living with a partner. Another issue is that motives are mediating the relationship between, living with a partner, and the choice of GP or medical specialty. For more clarity in the mediating effect of motives a longitudinal study is needed to find out about motives and changing circumstances. Conclusions The present study provides a contribution to the knowledge of career aspirations of medical students, especially the impact of motivation. Gender and living with a partner influence both

  16. A parent-report gender identity questionnaire for children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Laurel L; Bradley, Susan J; Birkenfeld-Adams, Andrea S; Kuksis, Myra A Radzins; Maing, Dianne M; Mitchell, Janet N; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2004-04-01

    This paper reports on the psychometric properties of a 16-item parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire, originally developed by P. H. Elizabeth and R. Green (1984), to aid in the assessment of children with potential problems in their gender identity development. The questionnaire, which covered aspects of the core phenomenology of gender identity disorder (GID), was completed by parents of gender-referred children (N = 325) and controls (siblings, clinic-referred, and nonreferred; N = 504), who ranged in age from 2.5-12 years (mean age, 7.6 years). Factor-analysis indicated that a one-factor solution, containing 14 of the 16 items with factor loadings > or =.30, best fit the data, accounting for 43.7% of the variance. The gender-referred children had a significantly more deviant total score than did the controls, with a large effect size of 3.70. The GIQ total score had negligible age effects, indicating that the questionnaire has utility for assessing change over time. The gender-referred children who met the complete DSM criteria for GID had a significantly more deviant total score than did the children who were subthreshold for GID, although the latter group had a mean score that was closer to the threshold cases than to the controls. With a specificity rate set at 95% for the controls, the sensitivity rate for the probands was 86.8%. It is concluded that this parent-report gender identity questionnaire has excellent psychometric properties and can serve as a useful screening device for front-line clinicians, for whom more extensive, expensive, and time-consuming assessment procedures may be precluded.

  17. Gender minority social stress in adolescence: disparities in adolescent bullying and substance use by gender identity.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Greytak, Emily A; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Ybarra, Michele L

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the United States. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N = 5,542) sampled adolescents ages 13 to 18 years old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches theirs assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12-month alcohol use, marijuana use, and nonmarijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment.

  18. Gender Minority Social Stress in Adolescence: Disparities in Adolescent Bullying and Substance Use by Gender Identity

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Greytak, Emily A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Ybarra, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the U.S. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N=5,542) sampled adolescents 13–18 years-old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches one’s sex assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12 month alcohol use, marijuana use, and non-marijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment. PMID:24742006

  19. Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Career Commitment: Gender and Ethnic Differences among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of responses from 165 undergraduates on the Career Decision Making Self Efficacy Scale revealed high internal consistency for the instrument and moderate correlation between it and the Career Commitment Scale. No gender or ethnic differences were found in this correlation. Blacks scored significantly higher than whites on both measures.…

  20. Threats to Feminist Identity and Reactions to Gender Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kofta, Mirek; Rozum, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was to examine conditions that modify feminists' support for women as targets of gender discrimination. In an experimental study we tested a hypothesis that threatened feminist identity will lead to greater differentiation between feminists and conservative women as victims of discrimination and, in turn, a decrease in support for non-feminist victims. The study was conducted among 96 young Polish female professionals and graduate students from Gender Studies programs in Warsaw who self-identified as feminists (Mage  = 22.23). Participants were presented with a case of workplace gender discrimination. Threat to feminist identity and worldview of the discrimination victim (feminist vs. conservative) were varied between research conditions. Results indicate that identity threat caused feminists to show conditional reactions to discrimination. Under identity threat, feminists perceived the situation as less discriminatory when the target held conservative views on gender relations than when the target was presented as feminist. This effect was not observed under conditions of no threat. Moreover, feminists showed an increase in compassion for the victim when she was portrayed as a feminist compared to when she was portrayed as conservative. Implications for the feminist movement are discussed.

  1. Women Teachers in Hong Kong: Stories of Changing Gendered Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk-Fong, Yuk Yee Pattie; Brennan, Marie

    2010-01-01

    In a time of mass schooling in most parts of the world, the discourse of the "woman primary teacher" is often the subject of discourse. Yet most stories of these women teachers emerge from other (Western) contexts, with little known about how changing education processes affect the gendered identities of women in other cultural settings.…

  2. Is Gender Identity Disorder in Children a Mental Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Nancy H.; Vasey, Paul L.; Bukowski, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates empirical studies to determine whether Gender Identity Disorder (GID) in children meets DSM-IV definitional criteria of mental illness. Concludes that children who experience a sense of inappropriateness in their culturally prescribed sex role but do not experience discomfort with their biological sex should not be considered to have a…

  3. Is Gender Identity Disorder in Children a Mental Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Nancy H.; Vasey, Paul L.; Bukowski, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates empirical studies to determine whether Gender Identity Disorder (GID) in children meets DSM-IV definitional criteria of mental illness. Concludes that children who experience a sense of inappropriateness in their culturally prescribed sex role but do not experience discomfort with their biological sex should not be considered to have a…

  4. Psychiatric Comorbidity among Children with Gender Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallien, Madeleine S.C.; Swaab, Hanna; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and type of comorbidity in children with gender identity disorder (GID). Method: The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children--Parent Version was used to assess psychopathology according to the DSM in two groups of children. The first group consisted of 120 Dutch children (age range 4-11 years) who were…

  5. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender differences and gender similarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.

  6. Schizophrenia modifying the expression of gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; De Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2009-04-01

    According to the Brazilian Federal Medical Association, transsexualism is recognized as a gender identity disorder if a long-term diagnostic therapeutic process has demonstrated that the transposition of gender roles is irreversible, and if only hormonal and surgical procedures are appropriate to relieve the stress associated with the gender identity. Although such treatment will only be initiated with caution and after a long phase of intense diagnostic screening, the differentiation between pure identity disorders and transsexual feelings secondary to an ongoing psychopathologic process, such as schizophrenia, can be arduous for many health professionals. To report a case of a female patient with schizophrenia and transsexualism and the risks of a potential diagnostic confusion. A 19-year-old black woman, with an 8-year history of undifferentiated schizophrenia and intense gender dysphoria, was referred for sex reassignment surgery evaluation in the Ambulatory for the Treatment of Sexual Disorders of the ABC Medical School. After a more adequate antipsychotic treatment, her masculine behavior has persisted, but her desire to change her own genital organs has decreased. A better acceptance of the multiplicity of possible genders should neither contribute to inadequate interpretations of the signs and symptoms of our patients nor facilitate dangerous clinical or surgical recommendations.

  7. Transgender Health: New Zealand's Innovative Statistical Standard for Gender Identity.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Reisner, Sari L; Sell, Randall L; Veale, Jaimie F

    2017-02-01

    The implementation of the New Zealand government's recently developed statistical standard for gender identity has led to, and will stimulate further, collection of gender identity data in administrative records, population surveys, and perhaps the census. This will provide important information about the demographics, health service use, and health outcomes of transgender populations to allow evidence-based policy development and service planning. However, the standard does not promote the two-question method, risking misclassification and undercounts; does promote the use of the ambiguous response category "gender diverse" in standard questions; and is not intersex inclusive. Nevertheless, the statistical standard provides a first model for other countries and international organizations, including United Nations agencies, interested in policy tools for improving transgender people's health.

  8. Gender differences in identity development: an examination of longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Streitmatter, J

    1993-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 105 junior high school students were analyzed to examine the relationship between gender and identity development over time. Analysis of variance, t tests, and analysis of covariance were employed. Taken collectively, results indicated that patterns of change over time were similar for males and females; as the students aged, they grew in psychosocial maturity regardless of gender. These results are consistent with other work using Eriksonian-based assessment instruments. Gilligan, using ethnographic methodology and a framework at odds with Erikson's, has proposed a very different interpretation of development across gender. Perhaps the two methodologies and the concomitant findings should be considered in a complementary fashion in view of the complex societal forces imposed upon females as they progress in their identity development.

  9. Ambiguous genitalia, gender-identity problems, and sex reassignment.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, R W

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses general issues with regard to gender-identity problems, sex reassignment, and clinical management in patients with ambiguous genitalia, based on a detailed case history of a patient with penile agenesis who has been followed more than 20 years. After initial uncertainty, the patient began to grow up as a boy, lived from the fourth year of life as a girl and young woman, and lived from late puberty on as a man. Over his lifetime he experienced extensive corrective surgery plus hormonal substitution therapy. Pre- and perinatal hormonal conditions, phenomenology of the genitalia, sex of rearing, timing of sex reassignment and corrective surgery, for example, appear to be important components for the development of gender-role behavior, gender identity, and sexual orientation of intersex patients. Findings and retrospective considerations for this patient suggest the need for careful differential activities in diagnostic workup, approaches to sex assignment and possible reassignment, and the clinical management of patients and families.

  10. Gender Differences in the Consistency of Middle School Students' Interest in Engineering and Science Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ing, Marsha; Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Tsai, Sherry M.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes survey responses in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade from diverse public school students (n = 482) to explore gender differences in engineering and science career preferences. Females were far more likely to express interest in a science career (31%) than an engineering career (13%), while the reverse was true for…

  11. Gender Differences in the Consistency of Middle School Students' Interest in Engineering and Science Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ing, Marsha; Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Tsai, Sherry M.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes survey responses in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade from diverse public school students (n = 482) to explore gender differences in engineering and science career preferences. Females were far more likely to express interest in a science career (31%) than an engineering career (13%), while the reverse was true for…

  12. Career Development and Gender, Race, and Class. ERIC Digest No. 199.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Many theories of career development are derived from theories of personality; however, broader perspectives on career development are being built on emerging research focused on gender, race, ethnicity, and social class. The main career development theories are as follows: trait and factor theories (which assumes the possibility of matching…

  13. Gender Differences in Career Decision Making: The Content and Structure of Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined three facets of career preferences so as to identify possible sources of the observed differences in the career choices of women and men. Analysis of the career-related preferences of 2,000 young adults revealed only small gender differences in the relative importance of the aspects. Other findings are also considered. (RJM)

  14. The gender identity/gender dysphoria questionnaire for adolescents and adults: further validity evidence.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devita; Deogracias, Joseph J; Johnson, Laurel L; Bradley, Susan J; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to provide further validity evidence for the dimensional measurement of gender identity and gender dysphoria in both adolescents and adults. Adolescents and adults with gender identity disorder (GID) were compared to clinical control (CC) adolescents and adults on the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA), a 27-item scale originally developed by Deogracias et al. (2007). In Study 1, adolescents with GID (n = 44) were compared to CC adolescents (n = 98); and in Study 2, adults with GID (n = 41) were compared to CC adults (n = 94). In both studies, clients with GID self-reported significantly more gender dysphoria than did the CCs, with excellent sensitivity and specificity rates. In both studies, degree of self-reported gender dysphoria was significantly correlated with recall of cross-gender behavior in childhood-a test of convergent validity. The research and clinical utility of the GIDYQ-AA is discussed, including directions for further research in distinct clinical populations.

  15. Gender, Sex Role, and Career Decision Making of Certified Management Accountants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, David E.

    1985-01-01

    Reports results of investigations into relationships of gender and sex role with career decision making of Certified Management Accountants (CMA). The Bem Sex Role Inventory responses from 87 women CMA's and 87 men CMA's show both gender and sex role to be significantly related to various aspects of career decision making. (Author/SA)

  16. The Problem with Women? Challenges Posed by Gender for Career Guidance Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary; Haasler, Simone; Tomassini, Massimo; Suzanne, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    Institutionalised discrimination continues to perpetuate deep rooted social divisions, with gender inequality persisting as a pervasive feature of labour markets across the world. Despite the depth and breadth of gender inequality, there is limited acknowledgement in career theory that the career support needs of women are distinctive. A…

  17. Career Development Practitioners as Advocates for Transgender Individuals: Understanding Gender Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii

    2009-01-01

    Assisting transgender individuals is a concern for career development practitioners because there is a lack of knowledge on this topic. The complexity of gender reassignment surgery brings challenges and unique needs to this population, throughout gender transition, and requires career development practitioners to understand these challenges and…

  18. The Problem with Women? Challenges Posed by Gender for Career Guidance Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary; Haasler, Simone; Tomassini, Massimo; Suzanne, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    Institutionalised discrimination continues to perpetuate deep rooted social divisions, with gender inequality persisting as a pervasive feature of labour markets across the world. Despite the depth and breadth of gender inequality, there is limited acknowledgement in career theory that the career support needs of women are distinctive. A…

  19. Career Development Practitioners as Advocates for Transgender Individuals: Understanding Gender Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii

    2009-01-01

    Assisting transgender individuals is a concern for career development practitioners because there is a lack of knowledge on this topic. The complexity of gender reassignment surgery brings challenges and unique needs to this population, throughout gender transition, and requires career development practitioners to understand these challenges and…

  20. The Effect of Gender Stereotypes on Explicit and Implicit Career Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadassi, Reuma; Gati, Itamar

    2009-01-01

    The present study compared gender differences in directly reported and indirectly derived career preferences and tested the hypothesis that individuals' implicit preferences would show less gender-biased occupational choices than their directly elicited ones. Two hundred sixty-six visitors to a career-related Internet site were asked to (a) list 5…

  1. Explaining sex differences in managerial career satisfier preferences: the role of gender self-schema.

    PubMed

    Eddleston, Kimberly A; Veiga, John F; Powell, Gary N

    2006-03-01

    Using survey data from 400 managers, the authors examined whether gender self-schema would explain sex differences in preferences for status-based and socioemotional career satisfiers. Female gender self-schema, represented by femininity and family role salience, completely mediated the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for socioemotional career satisfiers. However, male gender self-schema, represented by masculinity and career role salience, did not mediate the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for status-based career satisfiers. As expected, male managers regarded status-based career satisfiers as more important and socioemotional career satisfiers as less important than female managers did. The proposed conceptualization of male and female gender self-schemas, which was supported by the data, enhances understanding of adult self-schema and work-related attitudes and behavior.

  2. The molecular mechanisms of sexual orientation and gender identity.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Alessandra D; Ristori, Jiska; Morelli, Girolamo; Maggi, Mario

    2017-08-25

    Differences between males and females are widely represented in nature. There are gender differences in phenotypes, personality traits, behaviors and interests, cognitive performance, and proneness to specific diseases. The most marked difference in humans is represented by sexual orientation and core gender identity, the origins of which are still controversial and far from being understood. Debates continue on whether sexual behavior and gender identity are a result of biological (nature) or cultural (nurture) factors, with biology possibly playing a major role. The main goal of this review is to summarize the studies available to date on the biological factors involved in the development of both sexual orientation and gender identity. A systematic search of published evidence was performed using Medline (from January 1948 to June 2017). Review of the relevant literature was based on authors' expertise. Indeed, different studies have documented the possible role and interaction of neuroanatomic, hormonal and genetic factors. The sexual dimorphic brain is considered the anatomical substrate of psychosexual development, on which genes and gonadal hormones may have a shaping effect. In particular, growing evidence shows that prenatal and pubertal sex hormones permanently affect human behavior. In addition, heritability studies have demonstrated a role of genetic components. However, a convincing candidate gene has not been identified. Future studies (e.i. genome wide studies) are needed to better clarify the complex interaction between genes, anatomy and hormonal influences on psychosexual development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Taxometric analyses of sexual orientation and gender identity.

    PubMed

    Gangestad, S W; Bailey, J M; Martin, N G

    2000-06-01

    Taxa are nonarbitrary classes whose existence is an empirical question and not a matter of mere semantic convenience. Taxometric procedures detect whether numerical relations between purported indicators of conjectured taxa bear the hallmarks of true taxa. On the basis of theoretical considerations, the current study tested whether taxa underlie sexual orientation and related measures of gender identity. Two taxometric procedures, maximum covariance, making hits maximum (MAXCOV) and mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC), were applied to Kinsey Scales and measures of childhood gender nonconformity and adult gender identity in a sample of nearly 5,000 members of the Australian Twin Registry. Results suggest that latent taxa underlie these measures. About 12-15% of men and 5-10% of women belong to latent taxa associated with homosexual preference. These percentages are greater than those of individuals who report homosexual preference, however, and hence it appears that an appreciable proportion of individuals in these taxa have heterosexual preference. An understanding of the origins of these latent taxa may be important to understanding the development of sexual orientation and gender identity.

  4. Three quantitative studies of gender and identity in psychotherapy consultations.

    PubMed

    Langs, R; Rapp, P E; Pinto, A; Cramer, G; Badalamenti, A

    1992-04-01

    This paper details the application of three distinctive approaches to the analysis of line-by-line scores for themes of gender and identity in recorded psychotherapy consultations conducted by three male analysts with a female patient. The first method involved commonly used statistical comparisons of the frequency with which gender subthemes and allusions to identity appeared in each consultation session. The results of this study indicate three significantly different patterns of gender material in the communications from the patient with each of the analysts who interviewed her--and from each analyst and patient/analyst system as well. Therapist dominance in this area appeared to be quite strong. The second study involved measures of overall informational complexity for various aspects of the gender/identity sequence of communications. Here too, individual differences emerged. They not only add to the evidence for therapist dominance in these protocols, but also provide indications that sessions differ in respect to the extent to which the information they contain is ordered and repetitive or redundant, as compared to disordered, complex, and varied. The third study availed itself of stochastic methods in which the Box-Jenkins models were used to define mathematically and post hoc, the deeper structure of aspects of the vicissitudes of gender/identity expressions in the course of these consultations. The main finding was that change in speaker role in respect to these themes accelerated in response to random interventional shocks to the system that occurred at the time of measurement and inversely with shocks to the system sustained the previous second. This look into the deeper structure of these sequences revealed considerable sensitivity to recent shocks to the patient/therapist system, much underlying instability, and strong tendencies toward establishing stability or equilibrium when the system destabilized. Of note is the finding that all three

  5. Impact of gender and race-ethnicity on reasons for pursuing a career in veterinary medicine and career aspirations.

    PubMed

    Amass, Sandra F; Davis, Kauline S; Salisbury, S Kathleen; Weisman, James L

    2011-06-01

    To determine the impact of gender and race-ethnicity on reasons applicants to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine decided to pursue a career in veterinary medicine and their career aspirations. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Personal statements from 694 veterinary medical school applications submitted in 2008. Personal statements were read by investigators to identify the turning point for each applicant's decision to pursue a career in veterinary medicine and each applicant's intended career path. Veterinary practice experience and animal ownership were the most frequently stated reasons for pursuing a veterinary career; differences were not identified between males and females. More Caucasian applicants than underrepresented minority (URM) applicants stated veterinary practice experience and more URM applicants than Caucasian applicants cited animal ownership as a reason for pursuing a veterinary career. Many applicants did not cite a specific career path within veterinary medicine; applicants who indicated a career path most often cited veterinary practice. More females than males stated an interest in equine medicine, and more Caucasian applicants than URM applicants indicated an interest in mixed animal practice. More URM applicants than Caucasian applicants indicated a desire to pursue specialty training. Results suggested that veterinary practice experience and animal ownership were important factors influencing applicants' decision to pursue a veterinary career, but many applicants had not selected a specific career path. Opportunities exist to influence the decisions of individuals to become veterinarians and the selection of specific career paths within the veterinary profession.

  6. Psychomedical care in gender identity dysphoria during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Lorenzo, Isabel; Mora Mesa, Juan José; Oviedo de Lúcas, Olga

    In the clinical literature, the term gender dysphoria is used to define the perception of rejection that a person has to the fact of being male or female. In children and adolescents, gender identity dysphoria is a complex clinical entity. The result of entity is variable and uncertain, but in the end only a few will be transsexuals in adulthood. METHODOLOGY: RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Sustaining the Self: Implications for the Development of Career Practitioners' Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Increasing interest by national and international agencies affects the environment career practitioners work in. Market-driven systems, deregulation and technological innovation change how people access services. This article examines some of the implications of these aspects on how career practitioners build their occupational identity, finding…

  8. Sustaining the Self: Implications for the Development of Career Practitioners' Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Increasing interest by national and international agencies affects the environment career practitioners work in. Market-driven systems, deregulation and technological innovation change how people access services. This article examines some of the implications of these aspects on how career practitioners build their occupational identity, finding…

  9. Differences in Collaboration Patterns across Discipline, Career Stage, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Duch, Jordi; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in promoting research productivity and impact. What remains unclear is whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines differ in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,980 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at select U.S. research universities. We find that female faculty have significantly fewer distinct co-authors over their careers than males, but that this difference can be fully accounted for by females’ lower publication rate and shorter career lengths. Next, we find that female scientists have a lower probability of repeating previous co-authors than males, an intriguing result because prior research shows that teams involving new collaborations produce work with higher impact. Finally, we find evidence for gender segregation in some sub-disciplines in molecular biology, in particular in genomics where we find female faculty to be clearly under-represented. PMID:27814355

  10. Sibling sex ratio of boys with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Zucker, K J; Green, R; Coates, S; Zuger, B; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Zecca, G M; Lertora, V; Money, J; Hahn-Burke, S; Bradley, S J; Blanchard, R

    1997-07-01

    Sibling sex ratio (the ratio of brothers to sisters) was calculated for 444 boys with gender identity disorder (or with behaviors consistent with this diagnosis). The probands were ascertained from several researchers with expertise with this disorder and from the English language case report literature between 1938 and 1995. Among the probands with at least one sibling (N = 333), the results showed that boys with gender identity disorder had a significant excess of brothers to sisters, 131.1:100, when compared with the expected secondary sex ratio of 106:100. The excess of brothers replicated a previous study by Blanchard, Zucker, Bradley, and Hume (1995), in which the sibling sex ratio was 140.6:100. Further analyses showed that the probands were born later relative to their brothers than they were relative to their sisters. These findings are amenable to several psychosocial and biological explanations, which require further investigation.

  11. [Transexual gender identity disorders: diagnostic and legal issues].

    PubMed

    Bosinski, H A G

    2003-05-01

    The current classification systems (ICD-10, DSM-IV), epidemiology, symptoms and diagnostic features of gender identity disorders are discussed. In the best interest of the patients, and in view of the legal situation, treatment has to follow set "standards of care". The necessity of a psychotherapeutically guided real life test, lasting at least 1 year before somatic treatment can begin, is again pointed out.

  12. The experience of head injury on the impairment of gender identity and gender role.

    PubMed

    Gutman, S A; Napier-Klemic, J

    1996-01-01

    This study explored the disruption of gender identity and gender role as a result a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Four adults (two men, two women) who sustained a TBI between the ages of 18 and 30 years and were at least 1 year postinjury participated in six 1-hr interviews concerning changes in (a) perceived masculinity or femininity, (b) involvement in intimate relationships, (c) enactment of gender roles, and (d) organization of activities that support gender roles. The men expressed greater feelings of gender inadequacy postinjury than did the women and appeared to have greater difficulty resolving rites of passage (e.g., achievement of the adult work role, marriage, parenting) and developmental issues characteristic of the life stage at which they experienced their injury. The men appeared to depend more heavily on traditional gender-specific activities before and after injury to define and support gender role; the women relied more on cross-gender activities. The women appeared to be able to maintain more preinjury activities postinjury than did the men. Postinjury possession of a personally satisfying sense of gender appears to be related to the ability to maintain much of the preinjury activities that defined and supported the participants' sense of masculinity or femininity. The ability to satisfactorily resolve rites of passage or developmental issues characteristic of the life stage at which the brain injury occurred appears to be related to the ability to participate in activities that define and express gender role during that particular life stage.

  13. Problems with binary gender discourse: using context to promote flexibility and connection in gender identity.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Mel; Davidson, Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Western society recognises male and female sex from physiological attributes, such as genitals and chromosomes. 'Gender' is the social and cultural expectation of how males and females should think, behave and how they should be treated by others (Diamond, 2002). Some children and adolescents experience distress, marginalization, and abuse associated with their gender identifications, preferences and behaviours, which are inconsistent with those expected of their biological sex. Often their families and society find gender non-conformity at best difficult, at worst offensive, distressing and intolerable. There is increasing focus on how mental health professionals work with difference in gender and sexual identity and recent publications highlight the shift from pathologizing transgender to a more 'identity-based' perspective, focussing more on the stigmatizing affects of the environment and the impact on the individual (Bockting, 2009). This article describes the challenges of binary gender discourse for young people and their wider contexts and considers how clinicians may more helpfully respond to avoid unhelpful binaries and so keep the young person in mind. The therapeutic aims of the UK Gender Identity Development Service (GIDS) for children and young people are considered and examples of our work provided.

  14. Puberty suppression in gender identity disorder: the Amsterdam experience.

    PubMed

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2011-05-17

    The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) to suppress puberty in adolescents with gender dysphoria is a fairly new intervention in the field of gender identity disorders or transsexualism. GnRHa are used to give adolescents time to make balanced decisions on any further treatment steps, and to obtain improved results in the physical appearance of those who opt to continue with sex reassignment. The effects of GnRHa are reversible. However, concerns have been raised about the risk of making the wrong treatment decisions, as gender identity could fluctuate during adolescence, adolescents in general might have poor decision-making abilities, and there are potential adverse effects on health and on psychological and psychosexual functioning. Proponents of puberty suppression emphasize the beneficial effects of GnRHa on the adolescents' mental health, quality of life and of having a physical appearance that makes it possible for the patients to live unobtrusively in their desired gender role. In this Review, we discuss the evidence pertaining to the debate on the effects of GnRHa treatment. From the studies that have been published thus far, it seems that the benefits outweigh the risks. However, more systematic research in this area is needed to determine the safety of this approach.

  15. Vocational Hope and Vocational Identity: Urban Adolescents' Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Blustein, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Emancipatory communitarian perspectives advocate for theory, research, and action that address the needs of oppressed groups, such as urban adolescents. Considering the dearth of instruments sensitive to the career development needs of urban adolescents, this study examined the component structure of three indices of career development with 220…

  16. Narrative Identity: Writing the Self in Career Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengelle, Reinekke; Meijers, Frans

    2014-01-01

    We propose that writing can be employed to foster the kind of career learning required in the twenty-first century. The article offers insights into how writing exercises and approaches can be applied to help students construct their career stories in a way that allows them to engage in a dialogical learning process and work in a self-directed…

  17. Narrative Identity: Writing the Self in Career Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengelle, Reinekke; Meijers, Frans

    2014-01-01

    We propose that writing can be employed to foster the kind of career learning required in the twenty-first century. The article offers insights into how writing exercises and approaches can be applied to help students construct their career stories in a way that allows them to engage in a dialogical learning process and work in a self-directed…

  18. An Expanded Model of Careers Professional Identity: Time for Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    The careers profession is challenged significantly by government, employers and potential consumers to articulate its added value to society. Neoliberal discourses such as privatisation, deregulation, flexicurity and a self-help culture are impacting upon arrangements for the design and delivery of all-age careers provision across the UK. In this…

  19. Identity Bargaining: A Policy Systems Research Model of Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawski, Carl

    A detailed, general and comprehensive accounting scheme is presented, consisting of nine stages of career development, three major sets of elements contributing to career choice (in terms of personal, cultural and situational roles), and 20 hypotheses relating the separate elements. Implicit in the model is a novel procedure and method for…

  20. An Expanded Model of Careers Professional Identity: Time for Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    The careers profession is challenged significantly by government, employers and potential consumers to articulate its added value to society. Neoliberal discourses such as privatisation, deregulation, flexicurity and a self-help culture are impacting upon arrangements for the design and delivery of all-age careers provision across the UK. In this…

  1. Adolescent Gender-Role Identity and Mental Health: Gender Intensification Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Priess, Heather A.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Gender intensification, an increased pressure for adolescents to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles, has been posited as an explanation for the emergence of the gender difference in depression. This longitudinal study assessed whether individuals became more stereotypical in their gender-role identity across adolescence, and whether such patterns predicted depressive symptoms. Girls reported higher femininity than boys at ages 11, 13, and 15, but girls and boys did not differ in masculinity. Contrary to prevailing views, there was not evidence of intensification in femininity or masculinity. Positive trajectories in masculinity for both girls and boys predicted fewer depressive symptoms, particularly at moderate levels of stress. Findings suggest a need to reconceptualize gender intensification in ways that characterize contemporary adolescence. PMID:19765016

  2. Adolescent gender-role identity and mental health: gender intensification revisited.

    PubMed

    Priess, Heather A; Lindberg, Sara M; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    Gender intensification, an increased pressure for adolescents to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles, has been posited as an explanation for the emergence of the gender difference in depression. This longitudinal study assessed whether 410 individuals became more stereotypical in their gender-role identity across adolescence and whether such patterns predicted depressive symptoms. Girls reported higher femininity than boys at ages 11, 13, and 15, but girls and boys did not differ in masculinity. Contrary to prevailing views, there was not evidence of intensification in femininity or masculinity. Positive trajectories in masculinity for both girls and boys predicted fewer depressive symptoms, particularly at moderate levels of stress. Findings suggest a need to reconceptualize gender intensification in ways that characterize contemporary adolescence.

  3. Let's Go Toy Shopping! Exploring Early Anticipatory Socialization for Careers and Gender Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Bodie, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Gender Communication, Communication and Careers, Organizational Communication. Objectives: At the end of the activity, students will be able: to identify and analyze the socialization of gender expectations, to recognize and describe how early this type of socialization can occur, to critique the early socialization of gendered career…

  4. Let's Go Toy Shopping! Exploring Early Anticipatory Socialization for Careers and Gender Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Bodie, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Gender Communication, Communication and Careers, Organizational Communication. Objectives: At the end of the activity, students will be able: to identify and analyze the socialization of gender expectations, to recognize and describe how early this type of socialization can occur, to critique the early socialization of gendered career…

  5. Gender difference and specialty preference in medical career choice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Woo

    2013-03-01

    We are entering a new era of medicine in which an equal number of men and women are becoming doctors. Many factors combine in complex and poorly understood ways to influence a medical student's career and choice of specialty. This study investigated the preferences of medical students with regard to specialty and examined differences between genders. We administered a survey to medical students at the end of their third- or fourth-year clinical clerkships. In addition to demographic data and specialty choice, medical students selected factors that were importance to their choice of specialty. One hundred forty-one medical students completed the survey (81 males, 57%). For medical students who had chosen a specialty, the most common specialty was internal medicine (20.5%). Significant gender differences were observed in choosing orthopedic surgery and family medicine-17 male students chose orthopedic surgery (10.5%) versus 3.3% of female students (p=0.02), and 11 females (9.2%) were drawn toward family medicine compared with 4 male students (2.5%). More female medical students chose lower workloads (19.9%) and low-risk work (14%) than male students (p<0.05). Lifestyle and income have become more important to medical students regarding their choice of specialty. There were significant gender differences concerning the choice of medical specialty. Controllable lifestyle remains an important factor for female medical students who are choosing a specialty. We must begin to make meaningful and thoughtful changes in medical center policies that affect a balance between work and home.

  6. The relationship of gender and gender identity to treatment adherence among individuals with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Sajatovic, Martha; Micula-Gondek, Weronika; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Bialko, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that 46% to 48% of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) are at least partially nonadherent with prescribed medication. Reports of whether male gender is a predictor of treatment nonadherence in BD have been inconsistent. The construct of gender may also be a matter of cultural orientation, and psychological gender, as a component of self-perception, may affect the experience of mental illness. Gender identity is the subjective experience of one's individuality as male or female. This cross-sectional study evaluated gender and gender identity among men and women with BD as they relate to self-reported medication treatment adherence. This secondary analysis of a larger study on treatment adherence evaluated men and women with BD being treated with mood-stabilizing medications in a community mental health clinic. Gender identity and treatment adherence were evaluated using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Tablets Routine Questionnaire, respectively. Other measures included assessing BD symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and mania symptoms using the Young Mania Rating Scale, as well as psychosocial support with the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List and locus of control with the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Mean age of the 70 men and 70 women with type I BD was 43.1 years for adherent patients and 40.8 years for nonadherent patients. Women with BD had mean scores on the BSRI consistent with general population norms, whereas men with BD had scores suggesting lower levels of self-perceived masculinity than population norms. There were no differences between men and women on adherence; however, men with high BSRI masculinity scores had less adherence than other men in the sample (P = 0.04). Lower scores on the "powerful others" dimension of locus of control were associated with lower adherence. For women, there was no relationship between BSRI masculinity scores and adherence. Gender identity in

  7. The relationship of gender and gender identity to treatment adherence among individuals with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sajatovic, Martha; Micula-Gondek, Weronika; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Bialko, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Aims It has been demonstrated that 46– 48% of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) are at least partially non-adherent with prescribed medication. While some reports note male gender as a predictor of treatment non-adherence in BD, findings have been inconsistent. The construct of gender may also be a matter of cultural orientation, and psychological gender, as a component of self-perception may affect the experience of mental illness. Gender identity is the subjective experience of one’s individuality as male or female. This cross-sectional study evaluated gender and gender identity among men and women with BD as it relates to self-reported medication treatment adherence. Methods This secondary analysis of a larger study on treatment adherence evaluated 70 men and 70 women with bipolar disorder, being treated with mood stabilizing medications in a public mental health setting. Gender identity and adherence were evaluated with the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and Tablets Routine Questionnaire (TRQ) respectively. Other measures included BD symptoms with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) as well as locus of control with the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC) and social support with the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL). Results Women with BD had mean scores on the BSRI consistent with general population norms while men with BD had scores suggesting lower levels of self-perceived masculinity than population norms. There were no differences between men and women on adherence, however men with high BSRI masculinity scores had less adherence compared to other men in the sample (p=.04). Lower scores on the “powerful others” dimension of locus of control was associated with lower adherence. For women there was no relationship between BSRI masculinity scores and adherence. Conclusions Gender identity in men with BD differs from general population norms and appears related to adherence

  8. Graduates' Experiences and Perceptions of Career Enactment: Identity, Transitions, Personal Agency and Emergent Career Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the contested body of work on graduate employability, employment and sustained career building. Educational establishments across the world are expected to equip students with the knowledge and skills for employability, sustainable employment and career development. The protean career concept and the boundary-less career…

  9. Graduates' Experiences and Perceptions of Career Enactment: Identity, Transitions, Personal Agency and Emergent Career Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the contested body of work on graduate employability, employment and sustained career building. Educational establishments across the world are expected to equip students with the knowledge and skills for employability, sustainable employment and career development. The protean career concept and the boundary-less career…

  10. Status of sex reassignment surgery for gender identity disorder in Japan.

    PubMed

    Masumori, Naoya

    2012-05-01

    An incongruence between one's physiological sex and the gender identity that is one's basic sense of self as a man or a woman is known as gender identity disorder. In general, the conditions of physiological men having female gender identity and physiological women having male gender identity are called male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder, respectively. Although the precise pathogenesis of gender identity disorder remains unclear, the prevalence of gender identity disorder is quite high, with the rates calculated for male-to-female to be 1:25,000 and female-to-male to be 1:12,000 in Hokkaido, Japan. The diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder in Japan are based on the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Guidelines for Patients with Gender Identity Disorder, 4th edition. Although gender identity disorder was previously thought to be a psychiatric condition, it is extremely difficult to assign gender identity to physiological sex by psychiatric and psychological treatments. To adapt the figure of the body to the native gender identity, physical treatments such as administration of cross-sex steroids and sex reassignment surgery are considered. However, there are very few institutions that routinely carry out sex reassignment surgery in Japan, even though it is mandatory for changing sex on the census register at the present time. Sex reassignment surgery for male-to-female and female-to-male patients includes orchiectomy, penectomy, clitoroplasty, vaginoplasty and vulvoplasty, and hysterectomy, ovariectomy, metoidioplasty and phalloplasty, respectively. To provide accurate information about physical treatment for patients with gender identity disorder, even urologists who are not actively involved in the diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder should understand the fundamental aspects and contemporary problems of gender identity disorder. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  11. Cross-Cultural Investigation of the Link between Identity Processing Styles and the Actual Work of Identity in the Career Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryigit, Suna; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated and compared the associations between identity processing styles and the actual work of identity formation in the career domain in two national contexts, the US and Turkey. Identity styles represent individuals' orientations to identity work, and were measured by the Identity Processing Styles Q-Sort (IPSQ). The…

  12. Cross-Cultural Investigation of the Link between Identity Processing Styles and the Actual Work of Identity in the Career Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryigit, Suna; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated and compared the associations between identity processing styles and the actual work of identity formation in the career domain in two national contexts, the US and Turkey. Identity styles represent individuals' orientations to identity work, and were measured by the Identity Processing Styles Q-Sort (IPSQ). The…

  13. Will Veterans Answer Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions?

    PubMed

    Ruben, Mollie A; Blosnich, John R; Dichter, Melissa E; Luscri, Lorry; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2017-09-01

    The Veterans Health Administration does not routinely collect and document sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data, despite existing health disparities among sexual and gender minority Veterans. Because of the legacy of previous Department of Defense (DoD) policies that prohibited disclosure of sexual or gender minority identities among active duty personnel, Veterans may be reluctant to respond to SOGI questions. This population-based study assesses item nonresponse to SOGI questions by Veteran status. This is a secondary analysis of data from a population-based sample of adults in 20 US states that elected to administer a SOGI module in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Prevalence of SOGI refusals and responses of "don't know" were compared for Veterans and non-Veterans. Veterans (n=22,587) and non-Veterans (n=146,475) were surveyed. Nearly all Veteran respondents (≥98%) completed the SOGI questions, with 95.4% identifying as heterosexual, 1.2% as gay or lesbian, 1.2% as bisexual, and 0.59% as transgender. A significantly lower proportion of Veterans than non-Veterans refuse to answer sexual orientation (1.5% vs. 1.9%). There was no difference between Veterans and non-Veterans in responses for gender identity. Veterans are just as likely as non-Veterans to complete SOGI items in survey research. Asking Veterans about SOGI is unlikely to yield significant nonresponse. These data suggest that future research should investigate Veterans' perspectives on being asked about SOGI in research settings and as part of routine clinical care.

  14. The Yearbook Photo and Graduation Speech: Intersections of Sexual Identity, Gender Identity, Gender Expression, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleig, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Only 48.6% of University Council For Educational Administration (UCEA) institutions which focus on social justice in principal preparation programs address sexual orientation, this case describes how the completion of an equity audit for an educational leadership course compelled Principal Olson to reflect on his identity as a social justice…

  15. The Yearbook Photo and Graduation Speech: Intersections of Sexual Identity, Gender Identity, Gender Expression, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleig, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Only 48.6% of University Council For Educational Administration (UCEA) institutions which focus on social justice in principal preparation programs address sexual orientation, this case describes how the completion of an equity audit for an educational leadership course compelled Principal Olson to reflect on his identity as a social justice…

  16. Core Self-Evaluations, Career Decision Self-Efficacy, and Vocational Identity among Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumoundourou, Georgia A.; Kounenou, Kalliopi; Siavara, Eftyxia

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of career decision self-efficacy between core self-evaluations (CSE), a newly established construct within the personality domain, and adolescents' vocational identity. Using a sample of 200 Greek high school students, it was found that for female adolescents CSE influenced vocational identity both directly…

  17. Socialization to Student Affairs: Early Career Experiences Associated with Professional Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschy, Amy S.; Wilson, Maureen E.; Liddell, Debora L.; Boyle, Kathleen M.; Pasquesi, Kira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors propose and test a model of professional identity development among early career student affairs professionals. Using survey data from 173 new professionals (0-5 years of experience), factor analysis revealed 3 dimensions of professional identity: commitment, values congruence, and intellectual investment. Multivariate…

  18. Socialization to Student Affairs: Early Career Experiences Associated with Professional Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschy, Amy S.; Wilson, Maureen E.; Liddell, Debora L.; Boyle, Kathleen M.; Pasquesi, Kira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors propose and test a model of professional identity development among early career student affairs professionals. Using survey data from 173 new professionals (0-5 years of experience), factor analysis revealed 3 dimensions of professional identity: commitment, values congruence, and intellectual investment. Multivariate…

  19. Core Self-Evaluations, Career Decision Self-Efficacy, and Vocational Identity among Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumoundourou, Georgia A.; Kounenou, Kalliopi; Siavara, Eftyxia

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of career decision self-efficacy between core self-evaluations (CSE), a newly established construct within the personality domain, and adolescents' vocational identity. Using a sample of 200 Greek high school students, it was found that for female adolescents CSE influenced vocational identity both directly…

  20. Quality of life and gender identity in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Moore, O; Kreitler, S; Ehrenfeld, M; Giladi, N

    2005-11-01

    We examined the correlation between gender identity (perception of masculinity or femininity) and quality of life (QoL) of 124 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients without dementia (69 men, 55 women, mean age 65.8+/-10.2 years, mean disease duration 8.5+/-5.8 years, mean Hoehn and Yahr [H&Y] stage 2.7+/-0.8). All patients underwent clinical examinations and completed the PDQ-39 and the quality of sexual life questionnaire. Their masculine or feminine stereotypes were determined by the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) modified by Dior. QoL was significantly correlated with disease duration (r=0.262, p<0.01), H&Y staging (r=0.330, p<0.001) and disease severity (UPDRS) (r=0.432, p<0.001). The QoL of androgynous men and women (i.e., with strong feminine and masculine characteristics) was significantly (p<0.05) better than the other gender groups. A significant interaction was found between the sexes to gender identity (p<0.05). Androgynous PD patients cope better with their disease in terms of QoL parameters, especially androgynous women.

  1. Gender identity and gender of rearing in 46 XY disorders of sexual development

    PubMed Central

    Gangaher, Arushi; Chauhan, Vasundhera; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Mehta, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Disorders of sexual development (DSD) may pose a challenge to live as a fully-functioning male or female. In this study, we prospectively assessed eleven 46 XY DSD patients who were being treated at our center over the last 8 months for gender dysphoria. Materials and Methods: To determine gender dysphoria, age-appropriate gender identity (GI) questionnaires were used. For patients, 12 years and below, parent report GI questionnaire for children was used and for those above 12 years of age, GI/gender dysphoria questionnaire for adolescents and adults was administered. Results: Of 11 patients with 46 XY DSD, three were diagnosed with 5 alpha reductase deficiency (5aRD), two with partial gonadal dysgenesis, three with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, one each with ovotesticular, complete gonadal dysgenesis, and complete androgen insensitivity. Gender assigned at birth was female in eight and male in three patients. Among the eight reared as female, gender had been reassigned as male in three patients well before the present study was conducted. None of the eleven patients had gender dysphoria at the time of this study. Conclusion: Early gender of rearing was seen to be a critical indicator of present GI in our patients except in cases of 5aRD. PMID:27366722

  2. Effect of an Experiential and Work-Based Learning Program on Vocational Identity, Career Decision Self-Efficacy, and Career Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Levon T.; Retallick, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the effect of an agriculturally-based experiential and work-based learning program, Science With Practice (SWP), on the vocational identity, career decision self-efficacy, and career maturity of undergraduate agriculture and life sciences students. The SWP experience helped clarify students' career interests and…

  3. The Relationship of Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Vocational Identity, and Career Exploration Behavior in African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.; Scanlan, Kolone R. L.; Pantzer, Karen M.; Clarke, Christine P.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the social cognitive construct of career decision-making self-efficacy and the outcome variables of vocational identity and career exploration behaviors in a sample of 72 urban African American high school students. The results indicate that higher levels of career decision-making self-efficacy are…

  4. Effect of an Experiential and Work-Based Learning Program on Vocational Identity, Career Decision Self-Efficacy, and Career Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Levon T.; Retallick, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the effect of an agriculturally-based experiential and work-based learning program, Science With Practice (SWP), on the vocational identity, career decision self-efficacy, and career maturity of undergraduate agriculture and life sciences students. The SWP experience helped clarify students' career interests and…

  5. Racial and gender identity among Black adolescent males: an intersectionality perspective.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Scott, Marc A; Way, Niobe

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of social identity research has focused on race and racial identity, while gender identity, particularly among Black adolescents, remains underexamined. The current study used survey data from 183 Black adolescent males (13-16 years old) to investigate the development and relation between racial and gender identity centrality and private regard, and how these identities impact adjustment over time. It was found that dimensions of racial and gender identity were strongly correlated. Levels of racial centrality increased over time while gender centrality, and racial and gender private regard declined. In addition, racial and gender identity uniquely contributed to higher levels of psychological well-being and academic adjustment. These findings are discussed within the context of existing identity theories and intersectionality theory. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Similarities or Differences in Identity Development? The Impact of Acculturation and Gender on Identity Process and Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of variations in acculturation and gender on identity processes and outcomes in a sample of 357 students at a culturally diverse university. Results indicate that the processes underlying identity development are consistent across variations in acculturation and gender. Supplemental analyses revealed effects of acculturation…

  7. Influences of gender identity on children's maltreatment of gender-nonconforming peers: a person × target analysis of aggression.

    PubMed

    Pauletti, Rachel E; Cooper, Patrick J; Perry, David G

    2014-05-01

    We investigated whether gender identity influences preadolescents' tendency to single out gender-atypical peers for abuse. Data were gathered from 195 boys and girls (M age = 10.1 years) in the fall and spring of a school year. Children self-reported multiple dimensions of gender identity (intergroup bias, felt pressure for gender differentiation, felt gender typicality, gender contentedness); peers assessed each other's social behavior (gender nonconformity, aggression toward each classmate). Using multilevel modeling, we examined how children's attacks on gender-nonconforming peers (relative to their attacks on other peers) changed over the school year depending on their gender identity. There was modest support for the hypothesis that overconfident, arrogant gender identity promotes abuse of gender-atypical peers but considerable support for the hypothesis that insecure, self-questioning gender identity fosters this tendency. Implications for issues central to contemporary personality theory (e.g., Person × Situation interaction) are discussed. New and somewhat surprising information about the cognitive and behavioral characteristics of gender-nonconforming preadolescents is provided.

  8. Gender, ethnicity, and students' perceptions about science and science-related careers in Fiji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennie, Leonie J.; Dunne, Mairead

    This study examines the relationships between gender, ethnicity, and Fijian students' attitudes and perceptions about science, attributions of success and failure in science as school, science as a career, and the career-related advice they received. Data were collected with a questionnaire administered to a stratified, random, one-sixth sample of Form 5 (16-year-old) students in Fiji. Gender and ethnicity were found to have no consistent relationship with students' perceptions, attitudes, and attributions about science. However, students, particularly males, demonstrated strong sex-stereotyping of science-related careers, and different kinds of career advice were given to students on the basis of their gender and ethnicity. These, rather than students' attitudes and performance in science, are more likely to explain the patterns linking gender and ethnicity with the science-related work force and higher education in Fiji.

  9. [Characteristics of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria referred to the Hamburg Gender Identity Clinic].

    PubMed

    Becker, Inga; Gjergji-Lama, Voltisa; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing demand for counselling in gender dysphoria in childhood in Germany, there is a definite need for empirical data on characteristics and developmental trajectories of this clinical group. This study aimed to provide a first overview by assessing demographic characteristics and developmental trajectories of a group of gender variant boys and girls referred to the specialised Gender Identity Clinic in Hamburg. Data were extracted from medical charts, transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis methods. Categories were set up by inductive-deductive reasoning based on the patients' parents' and clinicians' information in the files. Between 2006 and 2010, 45 gender variant children and adolescents were seen by clinicians; 88.9% (n = 40) of these were diagnosed with gender identity disorder (ICD-10). Within this group, the referral rates for girls were higher than for boys (1:1.5). Gender dysphoric girls were on average older than the boys and a higher percentage of girls was referred to the clinic at the beginning of adolescence (> 12 years of age). At the same time, more girls reported an early onset age. More girls made statements about their (same-sex) sexual orientation during adolescence and wishes for gender confirming medical interventions. More girls than boys revealed self-mutilation in the past or present as well as suicidal thoughts and/or attempts. Results indicate that the presentation of clinically referred gender dysphoric girls differs from the characteristics boys present in Germany; especially with respect to the most salient age differences. Therefore, these two groups require different awareness and individual treatment approaches.

  10. Management challenges in a case of gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Anubhav; Bhatia, Manjeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) is a complex disorder and can be defined as a group of disorders whose common feature is a strong and persistent preference for living as a person of the other sex. It is associated with significant impairment in social, occupational, interpersonal, and other areas of functioning. We describe the case of an adolescent, biologically male who was brought to our outpatient department primarily with symptoms of adjustment disorder with GID and the management provided. The role of a psychiatrist in the management, ethical and legal issues involved is also discussed.

  11. Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty" presents new and surprising findings about career differences between female and male full-time, tenure-track, and tenured faculty in science, engineering, and mathematics at the nation's top research universities. Much of this…

  12. Gender as a Moderator of Relation between Emotional Intelligence and Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salami, Samuel Olayinka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of emotional intelligence with career development and the moderating role of gender in the relationship. This study adopted a survey research design. Questionnaires were used to obtain data on emotional intelligence, career development and demographic factors from 485 secondary school…

  13. Stability and Volatility of STEM Career Interest in High School: A Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Hazari, Zahra; Tai, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study characterizes how interest in science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) careers changes during high school for more than 6,000 students in a representative national sample of 34 two- and four-year colleges taking mandatory college English courses. Overall, large gender differences in career plans were…

  14. Underneath It All: Gender Role Identification and Women Chemists' Career Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunert, Megan L.; Bodner, George M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes results from a study on the career choices of women earning doctorates in chemistry in the United States. Presented here are findings related to the participants' identification with traditional female gender roles and expectations for behavior in the male-dominated field of chemistry. Underlying a career decision-making model…

  15. On Motivated Role Selection: Gender Beliefs, Distant Goals, and Career Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Clifford D.; Diekman, Amanda B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread changes in occupational opportunities, men and women continue to show divergent preferences for careers. This research invoked a motivational framework to explain sex-differentiated career interest. From a role congruity perspective (Diekman & Eagly, 2008), the internalization of gender roles leads people to endorse…

  16. The Gendered Nature of Career Development of University Professors: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozbilgin, Mustafa; Healy, Geraldine

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the gendered nature of the careers of university professors in Turkey, where 23% of professors are women. This proportion is relatively high compared to Western Europe and the United States, indicating that Turkey is an important country in which to study women and men's professorial careers in academic institutions. The paper…

  17. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Equity Patterns in Illinois High School Career and Technical Education Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Asia Fuller; Malin, Joel; Hackmann, Donald

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed high school Career and Technical Education (CTE) enrollments in Illinois, with comparisons to national data when possible, by career cluster and pathway and with respect to gender and racial/ethnic makeup of students. Enrollment patterns in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) CTE programming were emphasized.…

  18. Stability and Volatility of STEM Career Interest in High School: A Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Hazari, Zahra; Tai, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study characterizes how interest in science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) careers changes during high school for more than 6,000 students in a representative national sample of 34 two- and four-year colleges taking mandatory college English courses. Overall, large gender differences in career plans were…

  19. Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty" presents new and surprising findings about career differences between female and male full-time, tenure-track, and tenured faculty in science, engineering, and mathematics at the nation's top research universities. Much of this…

  20. Middle School Children's Career Aspirations: Relationship to Adult Occupations and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuette, Christine T.; Ponton, Michael K.; Charlton, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between the career aspirations of 89 preadolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds and the actual occupations of the working adults in their homes with regard to status, job gender identification, and interest (Holland, 1997). There was a significant relationship between boys' career aspirations and the…

  1. Gender, Age, and the MBA: An Analysis of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Career Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ruth; Sturges, Jane; Woods, Adrian; Altman, Yochanan

    2005-01-01

    Against the background of an earlier study, this article presents the findings of a Canadian-based survey of career benefits from the MBA. Results indicate first that gender and age interact to influence perceptions of career outcomes and second that both men and women gain intrinsic benefits from the MBA. However, intrinsic benefits vary by…

  2. The Gender-Differential Impact of Work Values on Prospects in Research Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hüttges, Annett; Fay, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Women are strongly underrepresented at top positions in research, with some research suggesting the postdoctoral career stage is a critical stage for female researchers. Drawing on role congruity theory and social cognitive career theory, we tested the gender-differential impact of work values (extrinsic rewards-oriented work values and work-life…

  3. The Interactive Effects of Gender and Mentoring on Career Attainment: Making the Case for Female Lawyers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Aarti; Dreher, George F.; Bretz, Robert; Wiethoff, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    The moderating effects of biological gender on the relationships between mentoring and career attainment were explored among legal professionals. Research results indicated that male and female lawyers were equally likely to have senior male mentors. However, senior male mentors were associated with higher career attainment only for female…

  4. On Motivated Role Selection: Gender Beliefs, Distant Goals, and Career Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Clifford D.; Diekman, Amanda B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread changes in occupational opportunities, men and women continue to show divergent preferences for careers. This research invoked a motivational framework to explain sex-differentiated career interest. From a role congruity perspective (Diekman & Eagly, 2008), the internalization of gender roles leads people to endorse…

  5. The Gender-Differential Impact of Work Values on Prospects in Research Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hüttges, Annett; Fay, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Women are strongly underrepresented at top positions in research, with some research suggesting the postdoctoral career stage is a critical stage for female researchers. Drawing on role congruity theory and social cognitive career theory, we tested the gender-differential impact of work values (extrinsic rewards-oriented work values and work-life…

  6. Gender, Age, and the MBA: An Analysis of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Career Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ruth; Sturges, Jane; Woods, Adrian; Altman, Yochanan

    2005-01-01

    Against the background of an earlier study, this article presents the findings of a Canadian-based survey of career benefits from the MBA. Results indicate first that gender and age interact to influence perceptions of career outcomes and second that both men and women gain intrinsic benefits from the MBA. However, intrinsic benefits vary by…

  7. Math-Gender Stereotypes and Career Intentions: An Application of Expectancy-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jingjing; Zuo, Bin; Wen, Fangfang; Yan, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to negative math-gender stereotypes undermines the intentions of female college students to engage in careers in the math field, yet the mechanisms by which such stereotypes relate to girls' career intentions remain unclear. We simultaneously tested multiple mediators in a sample of 186 female students from one high school in central…

  8. Social dominance orientation and gender: the moderating role of gender identity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Marc Stewart; Liu, James H

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the claim that gender differences in levels of social dominance orientation (SDO; Pratto, Sidanius, Stallworth, & Malle, 1994), a personality variable measuring a general predisposition towards anti-egalitarianism, are essentially invariant (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999). Previous findings have indicated that (regardless of covariate) males display higher levels of SDO than females. Two studies were conducted to test the expectation (derived from social identity theory) that the gender-SDO relationship would be moderated by strength of gender group identification. Both samples (150 non-students and 163 students) completed the full SDO(6) measure, and measures of gender group identification. Consistent with predictions, strength of gender identification was found to moderate the gender-SDO relationship, such that increasing group identification was associated with increasing SDO scores for males, and decreasing SDO for females. This result raises questions concerning the theoretical basis of social dominance theory, and whether gender group membership should be accorded a different status from other 'arbitrary-set' group memberships.

  9. Identities and motives of naturalist development program attendees and their relation to professional careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mraz, Jennifer Arin

    In recent years, there has been much concern over the decline of biologists who actually identify themselves to be naturalists, which negatively impacts the field of conservation and the study of biology as a whole. This could result in a decrease in individuals who participate in naturalist-like activities, such as informal environmental education and environmental volunteerism. The purpose of my study was to determine what discourse identities were held by naturalist development program participants, how these discourse identities related to their volunteer motives in environmental settings, and how discourse identity related to professional careers. I defined identity through the lens of discourse-identity, which describes a person's identity as being conveyed through that individual's communication and actions. I conducted individual interviews or used an online questionnaire to ask questions to naturalist development program attendees about their workshop experience, relationship with nature, volunteer motives and activities, as well as professional career or career aspiration. Volunteer motives were quantitatively measured in both types of program participants using the published Volunteer Motivation Questionnaire. Overall, I found that 100 study participants had six discourse identities: naturalist (n = 27), aspiring naturalist ( n = 32), nature steward (n = 5), outreach volunteer (n = 6), casual nature observer (n = 22), and recreational nature user (n = 8). Naturalist development programs should focus on developing more naturalist-like discourse identities in their participants to help encourage participation in naturalist activities. Volunteer motives were ranked by importance to participants in the following order: helping the environment, learning, user, project organization, values and esteem, social, and career. The majority of Master Naturalist Program study participants that stated a career were in non-STEM careers; however, the majority of

  10. Social dichotomy versus gender dichotomy: a case report of gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Gupta, Manushree

    2012-04-01

    Gender identity disorder is one of the most controversial diagnoses of DSM-IV and almost incomparable in the complexity of its social, ethical and political considerations to any other diagnosis. We present a case of 30 year-old male who presented with complaints of suggestive of depressive disorder with a recent suicidal attempt. Careful history taking reveals underlying conflicts with prominent gender dysphoria and social complexities. The patient is managed primarily by pharmacotherapy and harm reduction model. Our case reflects a unique coping strategy against the present sociocultural values and ambiguity of law in this part of the world.

  11. Gender stereotypes among women engineering and technology students in the UK: lessons from career choice narratives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Abigail; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    In the UK, women remain under-represented in engineering and technology (E&T). Research has, therefore, investigated barriers and solutions to women's recruitment, retention and progression. Recruitment into the sector may be supported by exploring the career decisions of women and men who have chosen to study E&T. Triangulating quantitative and qualitative data from E&T students at a UK university, this paper examines the gendered nature of career choice narratives. It finds that women often maintain contradictory views; upholding gendered stereotypes about women's suitability for the so-called masculine work, yet also subscribing to ideals that the sector is accessible to all who wish to work in it. This is explained using an individualist framework in which women construct an autonomous sense of self, yet are also shaped by a gendered self. Women's discourse around career choice, therefore, reveals the problematic nature of gender norms for achieving gender equity in E&T.

  12. Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Gender Roles in Iranian Patients with Gender Identity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Kaveh; Eftekhar, Mehrdad; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Gender identity disorders (GID) are heterogeneous disorders that may be influenced by culture and social norms. The aim of this study was to determine masculine and feminine gender roles in a group of Iranian patients with GID and compare these roles with two control groups. Twelve male-to-female (MF) and 27 female-to-male (FM) individuals with GID referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute in Tehran, I. R. Iran were evaluated by self-report inventories and were compared with two groups of healthy controls (81 men and 89 women). Diagnoses were established based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Data analysis was done using analysis of variance and chi-squared test. Masculine and feminine gender roles were assessed by two questionnaires: (i) Gender-Masculine (GM) and Gender-Feminine (GF) scales derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2 (MMPI-2); (ii) Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). In the scales of masculinity, MF-GID individuals scored as male controls, but lower than female controls. FM-GID individuals scored similar to female controls and higher than male controls. In femininity scales, MF-GID individuals and control women seemed similar, and both scored higher than the other groups. FM-GID persons were considered less feminine than both controls in the GF scale of MMPI-2, but not in the BSRI. In both scales, FM-GID persons had higher scores than control women and MF-GID individuals. Iranian FM-GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF-GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261-268.

  13. The Vocational Significance of Black Identity: Cultural Formulation Approach to Career Assessment and Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byars-Winston, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship is emerging on intervention models that purposefully attend to cultural variables throughout the career assessment and career counseling process. One heuristic model that offers promise to advance culturally relevant vocational practice with African Americans is the Outline for Cultural Formulation (CF). This article explicates the…

  14. The Relationship between Career Competencies, Career Identity, Motivation and Quality of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijers, Frans; Kuijpers, Marinka; Gundy, Chad

    2013-01-01

    In this article we focus on the effects of career education and guidance among students (ages 12-19) enrolled in prevocational and secondary vocational education in The Netherlands. Our study included 3,499 students and 166 teachers in 226 classes in 34 schools. The results showed that career competencies positively contributed to learning…

  15. The Relationship between Career Competencies, Career Identity, Motivation and Quality of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijers, Frans; Kuijpers, Marinka; Gundy, Chad

    2013-01-01

    In this article we focus on the effects of career education and guidance among students (ages 12-19) enrolled in prevocational and secondary vocational education in The Netherlands. Our study included 3,499 students and 166 teachers in 226 classes in 34 schools. The results showed that career competencies positively contributed to learning…

  16. Career Involvement of Women in Dual-Career Families: The Influence of Sex Role Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddy, Catherine D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the influence of sex role on 70 professional women's career involvement after having children. Results showed women categorized as masculine were employed a greater proportion of time after having children. The more equalitarian the woman's marriage, the more likely she was to continue career participation after having children. (WAS)

  17. The Vocational Significance of Black Identity: Cultural Formulation Approach to Career Assessment and Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byars-Winston, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship is emerging on intervention models that purposefully attend to cultural variables throughout the career assessment and career counseling process. One heuristic model that offers promise to advance culturally relevant vocational practice with African Americans is the Outline for Cultural Formulation (CF). This article explicates the…

  18. Measuring Gender Dysphoria: A Multicenter Examination and Comparison of the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Catharina; Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo O; Briken, Peer; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; De Cuypere, Griet; Haraldsen, Ira R; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-04-01

    This study examined two instruments measuring gender dysphoria within the multicenter study of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). The Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS) and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA) were examined for their definitions of gender dysphoria and their psychometric properties, and evaluated for their congruence in assessing the construct. The sample of 318 participants consisted of 178 male-to-females (MtF) and 140 female-to-males (FtM) who were recruited from the four ENIGI gender clinics. Both instruments were significantly correlated in the group of MtFs. For the FtM group, there was a trend in the same direction but smaller. Gender dysphoria was found to be defined differently in the two instruments, which led to slightly different findings regarding the subgroups. The UGDS detected a difference between the subgroups of early and late onset of gender identity disorder in the group of MtFs, whereas the GIDYQ-AA did not. For the FtM group, no significant effect of age of onset was found. Therefore, both instruments seem to capture not only similar but also different aspects of gender dysphoria. The UGDS focusses on bodily aspects, gender identity, and gender role, while the GIDYQ-AA addresses subjective, somatic, social, and sociolegal aspects. For future research, consistency in theory and definition of gender dysphoria is needed and should be in line with the DSM-5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.

  19. Career Success: The Role of Teenage Career Aspirations, Ambition Value and Gender in Predicting Adult Social Status and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…

  20. Career Success: The Role of Teenage Career Aspirations, Ambition Value and Gender in Predicting Adult Social Status and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…

  1. Motivation toward a Graduate Career in the Physical Sciences: Gender Differences and the Impact on Science Career Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.; Almarode, John T.

    2012-01-01

    What motivates individuals to embark on graduate careers in physics and chemistry and how could these motivations impact future productivity? This study examines gender differences in such motivations and their ability to predict select future success outcomes (publications and grant funding) for physical scientists. The data were obtained as part…

  2. Motivation toward a Graduate Career in the Physical Sciences: Gender Differences and the Impact on Science Career Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.; Almarode, John T.

    2012-01-01

    What motivates individuals to embark on graduate careers in physics and chemistry and how could these motivations impact future productivity? This study examines gender differences in such motivations and their ability to predict select future success outcomes (publications and grant funding) for physical scientists. The data were obtained as part…

  3. Metacognitions as Mediators of Gender Identity-related Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Fernie, Bruce A; Wright, Talen; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2017-01-01

    Research has found that the prevalence of psychological distress is substantially higher in transgender compared to cisgender populations. This study explored the role of metacognitions as mediators of anxiety in a sample comprising of cisgender and transgender individuals. One-hundred and twenty-five individuals (19 trans-male; 24 male; 25 trans-female; 57 female) completed a series of measures that assessed metacognitions, worry and anxiety. Correlation analyses were used to identify potential mediators of the relationship between gender identity and anxiety. A mediation model indicated that beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger entirely mediated the relationship between gender identity and anxiety (b = 2.00, bias corrected and accelerated confidence interval [0.68, 3.49]). Metacognitions play an important role in anxiety in transgender individuals. -Metacognitions were found to mediate anxiety in transgender and cisgender individuals. -The exploration of metacognitions in transgender individuals experiencing psychological distress may have clinical utility. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Birth order in girls with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Zucker, K J; Lightbody, S; Pecore, K; Bradley, S J; Blanchard, R

    1998-03-01

    This study examined the birth order of girls with gender identity disorder (N = 22). Each proband was matched to 3-7 clinical control girls for age at assessment and number of siblings (the mode number of controls per proband was 7) (total N = 147). The number of older brothers, older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters was recorded. Slater's birth order index showed that the probands were significantly more likely to be early born than were the controls. A modified Slater's index also compared the birth order of the probands and the controls only to their brothers (when they had one or more) and only to their sisters (when they had one or more). Compared to the controls, the probands were born early compared to their sisters, but not to their brothers. These findings are the inverse of two previous studies of boys with gender identity disorder, who were later born relative to clinical control boys, an effect that appeared to be accounted for primarily by being born later relative to older brothers, but not to older sisters.

  5. The Construction of Male Gender Identity through Choir Singing at a Spanish Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elorriaga, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Several authors have recently investigated the psychological aspects that play a determinant role in choral singing during adolescence. One of these aspects is vocal identity, which influences the construction of gender identity according to adolescents' needs and societal gender roles. This article focuses on gender aspects of vocal identity…

  6. If "We" Can Succeed, "I" Can Too: Identity-Based Motivation and Gender in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Kristen C.; Oyserman, Daphna

    2012-01-01

    Gender matters in the classroom, but not in the way people may assume; girls are outperforming boys. Identity-based motivation (IBM) theory explains why: People prefer to act in ways that feel in-line with important social identities such as gender. If a behavior feels identity-congruent, difficulty is interpreted as meaning that the behavior is…

  7. Gender identity rather than sexual orientation impacts on facial preferences.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Cellerino, Alessandro; Fisher, Alessandra D; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Carosa, Eleonora; Mollaioli, Daniele; Valenzano, Dario R; Mennucci, Andrea; Bandini, Elisa; Di Stasi, Savino M; Maggi, Mario; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2014-10-01

    Differences in facial preferences between heterosexual men and women are well documented. It is still a matter of debate, however, how variations in sexual identity/sexual orientation may modify the facial preferences. This study aims to investigate the facial preferences of male-to-female (MtF) individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) and the influence of short-term/long-term relationships on facial preference, in comparison with healthy subjects. Eighteen untreated MtF subjects, 30 heterosexual males, 64 heterosexual females, and 42 homosexual males from university students/staff, at gay events, and in Gender Clinics were shown a composite male or female face. The sexual dimorphism of these pictures was stressed or reduced in a continuous fashion through an open-source morphing program with a sequence of 21 pictures of the same face warped from a feminized to a masculinized shape. An open-source morphing program (gtkmorph) based on the X-Morph algorithm. MtF GD subjects and heterosexual females showed the same pattern of preferences: a clear preference for less dimorphic (more feminized) faces for both short- and long-term relationships. Conversely, both heterosexual and homosexual men selected significantly much more dimorphic faces, showing a preference for hyperfeminized and hypermasculinized faces, respectively. These data show that the facial preferences of MtF GD individuals mirror those of the sex congruent with their gender identity. Conversely, heterosexual males trace the facial preferences of homosexual men, indicating that changes in sexual orientation do not substantially affect preference for the most attractive faces. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Research Priorities for Gender Nonconforming/Transgender Youth: Gender Identity Development and Biopsychosocial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Olson-Kennedy, J; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Kreukels, B.P.C; Meyer-Bahlburg, H.F.L; Garofalo, R; Meyer, W; Rosenthal, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes relevant research focused on prevalence and natural history of gender non-conforming / transgender youth, and outcomes of currently recommended clinical practice guidelines. This review identifies gaps in knowledge, and provides recommendations foci for future research. Recent findings Increasing numbers of gender nonconforming youth are presenting for care. Clinically useful information for predicting individual psychosexual development pathways is lacking. Transgender youth are at high risk for poor medical and psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal data examining the impact of early social transition and medical interventions are sparse. Existing tools to understand gender identity and quantify gender dysphoria need to be reconfigured in order to study a more diverse cohort of transgender individuals. Increasingly, biomedical data are beginning to change the trajectory of scientific investigation. Summary Extensive research is needed to improve understanding of gender dysphoria, and transgender experience, particularly among youth. Recommendations include identification of predictors of persistence of gender dysphoria from childhood into adolescence, and a thorough investigation into the impact of interventions for transgender youth. Finally, examining the social environments of transgender youth is critical for the development of appropriate interventions necessary to improve the lives of transgender people. PMID:26825472

  9. Research priorities for gender nonconforming/transgender youth: gender identity development and biopsychosocial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Olson-Kennedy, Johanna; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Garofalo, Robert; Meyer, Walter; Rosenthal, Stephen M

    2016-04-01

    The review summarizes relevant research focused on prevalence and natural history of gender nonconforming/transgender youth, and outcomes of currently recommended clinical practice guidelines. This review identifies gaps in knowledge, and provides recommendations foci for future research. Increasing numbers of gender nonconforming youth are presenting for care. Clinically useful information for predicting individual psychosexual development pathways is lacking. Transgender youth are at high risk for poor medical and psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal data examining the impact of early social transition and medical interventions are sparse. Existing tools to understand gender identity and quantify gender dysphoria need to be reconfigured to study a more diverse cohort of transgender individuals. Increasingly, biomedical data are beginning to change the trajectory of scientific investigation. Extensive research is needed to improve understanding of gender dysphoria, and transgender experience, particularly among youth. Recommendations include identification of predictors of persistence of gender dysphoria from childhood into adolescence, and a thorough investigation into the impact of interventions for transgender youth. Finally, examining the social environments of transgender youth is critical for the development of appropriate interventions necessary to improve the lives of transgender people.

  10. The Dual Impact of Gender and the Influence of Timing of Parenthood on Men's and Women's Career Development: Longitudinal Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abele, Andrea E.; Spurk, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of gender, the gender-related self-concept (agency and communion), and the timing of parenthood on objective career success of 1,015 highly educated professionals. Hypotheses derived from a dual-impact model of gender and career-related processes were tested in a 5-wave longitudinal study over a time span of 10…

  11. Ecstasy use among college undergraduates: gender, race and sexual identity.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Carol J; McCabe, Sean Esteban; d'Arcy, Hannah

    2003-04-01

    We examined a random sample (N=3606) of undergraduates at one large midwestern university and explored correlates of ecstasy use and how use varied by gender, race, and sexual identity. Approximately 10% of the sample used ecstasy in their lifetime; 7% had used within the past year and 3% within the past month. Ecstasy was the second most likely illicit drug to be used, marijuana being the first. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that while men and women were equally likely to have used ecstasy, excessive partying, sexual identity, and grade point average were strongly correlated with ecstasy use. After adjusting for several factors, the number of sexual partners increased the likelihood of ecstasy use, as did self-reported sexual identity; gay, lesbian, and bisexual students were more than two times as likely to have used ecstasy in the past year. Significant relationships existed between ecstasy use and other substance use such as binge drinking, marijuana use, and cigarette smoking. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  12. Gender role influences on Turkish adolescents' self-identity.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, A

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated gender role influences on Turkish adolescents' self-identity process as part of the International Self-Identity Research Project. A total of 154 male and 119 female adolescents ages 14 through 17 from urban and rural areas of Turkey were surveyed through a questionnaire. The results indicated that "family" was the dominant source of belongingness for both males and females, followed by "friendships" and "school." Friendships and education were valued more by females than by males. Symbolic items (e.g., relationships, happiness) influenced females' self-identity more than they did males, while males tended to place greater importance on material items (e.g., home, TV, sports equipment). Athletic activities were highly important in males' self-validation process while females were oriented more toward the artistic and creative. General affective attributes (e.g., honesty, respect, thoughtfulness) were similarly valued by males and females as important criteria for self-evaluation. Finally, males were more religious, patriotic, and felt stronger ties to ancestors while females appeared to be more altruistic and placed high importance on social relations.

  13. Gender, Career and Technical Education (CTE) Nontraditional Coursetaking, and Wage Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluhr, Stephanie A.; Choi, Namok; Herd, Ann; Woo, Hongryun; Alagaraja, Meera

    2017-01-01

    The two main objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between high school student (9th-12th) gender and nontraditional career and technical education (CTE) course taking, and the combined effects of gender and program area on estimated future wage earnings for male and female CTE completers. A Midwestern state CTE database…

  14. The Role of Culture and Gender in the Choice of a Career in Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malach-Pines, Ayala; Kaspi-Baruch, Oshrit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper addresses the influence of culture and gender on the choice of a management career among men and women MBA students in Israel, the USA, the UK, Turkey, Cyprus, Hungary and India. The culture by gender comparison enabled an examination of five theories: two that focused on culture (Hofstede's and an application of Schneider's ASA…

  15. Does Gender Inequality Influence Interest in Pursuing a Career in Science or Mathematics Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Marie Paz E.; Avilla, Ruel A.; Espinosa, Allen A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored gender inequality in K to 12 basic education, based on the experiences of first year pre-service science and mathematics teachers. It also determined if pre-service teachers' pursuit of a career in science or mathematics teaching was related to gender influences. A survey instrument was used to gather data for the study.…

  16. Career Aspirations of Youth: Untangling Race/Ethnicity, SES, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Katz, Andrew D.; Chew, Aaronson Y.; Ray, G. Christopher; Laine, Lia; Caulum, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity on the career aspirations of over 22,000 8th and 10th grade youth. The top five occupations identified by youth as aspirations included artist, lawyer, musician, FBI agent, and actor/actress. Top occupations were also reported for each gender x socioeconomic…

  17. The Gendered Context of Life: Implications for Women's and Men's Career-Life Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1993-01-01

    Discusses recent perspectives on gender differences in life and career planning, focusing on gendered context of women's and men's lives. Notes that men and women develop different orientations regarding occupational achievement and interpersonal relationships that interact with broader sociocultural norms for sexes' behavior to produce different…

  18. The Gendered Context of Life: Implications for Women's and Men's Career-Life Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1993-01-01

    Discusses recent perspectives on gender differences in life and career planning, focusing on gendered context of women's and men's lives. Notes that men and women develop different orientations regarding occupational achievement and interpersonal relationships that interact with broader sociocultural norms for sexes' behavior to produce different…

  19. Does Gender Inequality Influence Interest in Pursuing a Career in Science or Mathematics Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Marie Paz E.; Avilla, Ruel A.; Espinosa, Allen A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored gender inequality in K to 12 basic education, based on the experiences of first year pre-service science and mathematics teachers. It also determined if pre-service teachers' pursuit of a career in science or mathematics teaching was related to gender influences. A survey instrument was used to gather data for the study.…

  20. Career Aspirations of Youth: Untangling Race/Ethnicity, SES, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Katz, Andrew D.; Chew, Aaronson Y.; Ray, G. Christopher; Laine, Lia; Caulum, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity on the career aspirations of over 22,000 8th and 10th grade youth. The top five occupations identified by youth as aspirations included artist, lawyer, musician, FBI agent, and actor/actress. Top occupations were also reported for each gender x socioeconomic…

  1. Do Gender-Science Stereotypes Predict Science Identification and Science Career Aspirations among Undergraduate Science Majors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, Jessica L.; Vescio, Theresa K.; Loken, Eric; Lo, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined whether gender-science stereotypes were associated with science identification and, in turn, science career aspirations among women and men undergraduate science majors. More than 1,700 students enrolled in introductory science courses completed measures of gender-science stereotypes (implicit associations and…

  2. The Role of Culture and Gender in the Choice of a Career in Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malach-Pines, Ayala; Kaspi-Baruch, Oshrit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper addresses the influence of culture and gender on the choice of a management career among men and women MBA students in Israel, the USA, the UK, Turkey, Cyprus, Hungary and India. The culture by gender comparison enabled an examination of five theories: two that focused on culture (Hofstede's and an application of Schneider's ASA…

  3. Do Gender-Science Stereotypes Predict Science Identification and Science Career Aspirations among Undergraduate Science Majors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, Jessica L.; Vescio, Theresa K.; Loken, Eric; Lo, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined whether gender-science stereotypes were associated with science identification and, in turn, science career aspirations among women and men undergraduate science majors. More than 1,700 students enrolled in introductory science courses completed measures of gender-science stereotypes (implicit associations and…

  4. Demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual characteristics of adolescents with gender identity disorder or transvestic fetishism.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Bradley, Susan J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Choi, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study provided a descriptive and quantitative comparative analysis of data from an assessment protocol for adolescents referred clinically for gender identity disorder (n = 192; 105 boys, 87 girls) or transvestic fetishism (n = 137, all boys). The protocol included information on demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual measures. Gender identity disorder and transvestic fetishism youth had high rates of general behavior problems and poor peer relations. On the psychosexual measures, gender identity disorder patients had considerably greater cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did transvestic fetishism youth and other control youth. Male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a nonhomosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex) reported more indicators of transvestic fetishism than did male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a homosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex). The percentage of transvestic fetishism youth and male gender identity disorder patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation self-reported similar degrees of behaviors pertaining to transvestic fetishism. Last, male and female gender identity disorder patients with a homosexual sexual orientation had more recalled cross-gender behavior during childhood and more concurrent cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation. The authors discuss the clinical utility of their assessment protocol.

  5. Dissecting a Gendered Organization: Implications for Career Trajectories for Mid-Career Faculty Women in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Jeni

    2016-01-01

    This paper traces the workplace practices within which mid-career women faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) carry out their careers. Findings from this case study of 25 faculty at one research university revealed three institutional processes that constrained their careers: (a) access to and integration into career…

  6. Dissecting a Gendered Organization: Implications for Career Trajectories for Mid-Career Faculty Women in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Jeni

    2016-01-01

    This paper traces the workplace practices within which mid-career women faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) carry out their careers. Findings from this case study of 25 faculty at one research university revealed three institutional processes that constrained their careers: (a) access to and integration into career…

  7. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Rosa, Katemari Diogo

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the…

  8. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Rosa, Katemari Diogo

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the…

  9. Effects of Academic Ability and Gender on Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kevin R.; Colangelo, Nicholas

    1990-01-01

    When groups of junior-high gifted, regular curriculum, and special learning needs students (N=265) were compared on attitudes toward career decision making, students' level of academic ability appeared to exert a strong positive effect on career maturity. Scores for male and female groups were almost equal. (Author/JDD)

  10. Gender, Salaries, and Career: American Teachers, 1900-1910.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rury, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews Lotus Coffman's 1911 survey showing surprising parity in men and women teachers' salaries. Women's inability or unwillingness to work after marriage resulted in distinctive male and female career paths in education. Women, relegated to their "real" careers as wives and mothers, did not remain teachers long enough to compete for…

  11. Women (Do Not) Belong Here: Gender-Work Identity Conflict among Female Police Officers.

    PubMed

    Veldman, Jenny; Meeussen, Loes; Van Laar, Colette; Phalet, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees' perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (in)compatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes.

  12. Women (Do Not) Belong Here: Gender-Work Identity Conflict among Female Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Veldman, Jenny; Meeussen, Loes; Van Laar, Colette; Phalet, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees’ perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (in)compatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes. PMID:28220097

  13. Swiss residents' speciality choices – impact of gender, personality traits, career motivation and life goals

    PubMed Central

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Klaghofer, Richard; Abel, Thomas; Buddeberg, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Background The medical specialities chosen by doctors for their careers play an important part in the development of health-care services. This study aimed to investigate the influence of gender, personality traits, career motivation and life goal aspirations on the choice of medical speciality. Methods As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 522 fourth-year residents were asked in what speciality they wanted to qualify. They also assessed their career motivation and life goal aspirations. Data concerning personality traits such as sense of coherence, self-esteem, and gender role orientation were collected at the first assessment, four years earlier, in their final year of medical school. Data analyses were conducted by univariate and multivariate analyses of variance and covariance. Results In their fourth year of residency 439 (84.1%) participants had made their speciality choice. Of these, 45 (8.6%) subjects aspired to primary care, 126 (24.1%) to internal medicine, 68 (13.0%) to surgical specialities, 31 (5.9%) to gynaecology & obstetrics (G&O), 40 (7.7%) to anaesthesiology/intensive care, 44 (8.4%) to paediatrics, 25 (4.8%) to psychiatry and 60 (11.5%) to other specialities. Female residents tended to choose G&O, paediatrics, and anaesthesiology, males more often surgical specialities; the other specialities did not show gender-relevant differences of frequency distribution. Gender had the strongest significant influence on speciality choice, followed by career motivation, personality traits, and life goals. Multivariate analyses of covariance indicated that career motivation and life goals mediated the influence of personality on career choice. Personality traits were no longer significant after controlling for career motivation and life goals as covariates. The effect of gender remained significant after controlling for personality traits, career motivation and life goals. Conclusion Gender had the

  14. Swiss residents' speciality choices--impact of gender, personality traits, career motivation and life goals.

    PubMed

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Klaghofer, Richard; Abel, Thomas; Buddeberg, Claus

    2006-10-23

    The medical specialties chosen by doctors for their careers play an important part in the development of health-care services. This study aimed to investigate the influence of gender, personality traits, career motivation and life goal aspirations on the choice of medical specialty. As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 522 fourth-year residents were asked in what specialty they wanted to qualify. They also assessed their career motivation and life goal aspirations. Data concerning personality traits such as sense of coherence, self-esteem, and gender role orientation were collected at the first assessment, four years earlier, in their final year of medical school. Data analyses were conducted by univariate and multivariate analyses of variance and covariance. In their fourth year of residency 439 (84.1%) participants had made their specialty choice. Of these, 45 (8.6%) subjects aspired to primary care, 126 (24.1%) to internal medicine, 68 (13.0%) to surgical specialties, 31 (5.9%) to gynaecology & obstetrics (G&O), 40 (7.7%) to anaesthesiology/intensive care, 44 (8.4%) to paediatrics, 25 (4.8%) to psychiatry and 60 (11.5%) to other specialties. Female residents tended to choose G&O, paediatrics, and anaesthesiology, males more often surgical specialties; the other specialties did not show gender-relevant differences of frequency distribution. Gender had the strongest significant influence on specialty choice, followed by career motivation, personality traits, and life goals. Multivariate analyses of covariance indicated that career motivation and life goals mediated the influence of personality on career choice. Personality traits were no longer significant after controlling for career motivation and life goals as covariates. The effect of gender remained significant after controlling for personality traits, career motivation and life goals. Gender had the greatest impact on specialty and career choice, but

  15. Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Gender Roles in Iranian Patients with Gender Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Kaveh; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Gender identity disorders (GID) are heterogeneous disorders that may be influenced by culture and social norms. Aim The aim of this study was to determine masculine and feminine gender roles in a group of Iranian patients with GID and compare these roles with two control groups. Methods Twelve male‐to‐female (MF) and 27 female‐to‐male (FM) individuals with GID referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute in Tehran, I. R. Iran were evaluated by self‐report inventories and were compared with two groups of healthy controls (81 men and 89 women). Diagnoses were established based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM‐IV) criteria. Data analysis was done using analysis of variance and chi‐squared test. Main Outcome Measures Masculine and feminine gender roles were assessed by two questionnaires: (i) Gender‐Masculine (GM) and Gender‐Feminine (GF) scales derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory‐2 (MMPI‐2); (ii) Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Results In the scales of masculinity, MF‐GID individuals scored as male controls, but lower than female controls. FM‐GID individuals scored similar to female controls and higher than male controls. In femininity scales, MF‐GID individuals and control women seemed similar, and both scored higher than the other groups. FM‐GID persons were considered less feminine than both controls in the GF scale of MMPI‐2, but not in the BSRI. In both scales, FM‐GID persons had higher scores than control women and MF‐GID individuals. Conclusion Iranian FM‐GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF‐GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261–268. PMID:26797060

  16. Attitudes toward homosexuality among young adults: connections to gender role identity, gender-typed activities, and religiosity.

    PubMed

    Harbaugh, Evan; Lindsey, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality have been linked to numerous personality and demographic variables. This study investigated the influence that gender role identity, involvement in gender-typed activities, and religiosity plays in this relationship. The sample included 194 undergraduate students from a Northeastern university. Analyses revealed that both males and females who held a more masculine gender role identity and individual commitment to religion scored higher on measures of homophobia and heteronormativity, whereas there was no association between spiritual meaning in life and attitudes toward homosexuality. Among males, but not females, more masculine gender identity and less spiritual meaning in life was associated with greater homophobia. The importance of the findings for research on the origins of attitudes toward individuals with a homosexual orientation are discussed, as well as the potential directions for future research on connections between gender role identity, religious affiliation, and attitudes toward gays and lesbians.

  17. Dysfunctional Career Thoughts and Attitudes as Predictors of Vocational Identity among Young Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipeolu, Abiola; Sniatecki, Jessica L.; Storlie, Cassandra A.; Hargrave, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes as predictors of vocational identity among high school students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Regression analysis results indicated that dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes were significant predictors of vocational identity, accounting for 42% of the…

  18. Dysfunctional Career Thoughts and Attitudes as Predictors of Vocational Identity among Young Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipeolu, Abiola; Sniatecki, Jessica L.; Storlie, Cassandra A.; Hargrave, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes as predictors of vocational identity among high school students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Regression analysis results indicated that dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes were significant predictors of vocational identity, accounting for 42% of the…

  19. Exploring the diversity of gender and sexual orientation identities in an online sample of transgender individuals.

    PubMed

    Kuper, Laura E; Nussbaum, Robin; Mustanski, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Although the term transgender is increasingly used to refer to those whose gender identity or expression diverges from culturally defined categories of sex and gender, less is known about the self-identities of those who fall within this category. Historically, recruitment of transgender populations has also been limited to specialized clinics and support groups. This study was conducted online, with the aim of exploring the gender identities, sexual orientation identities, and surgery and hormonal statuses of those who identify with a gender identity other than, or in addition to, that associated with their birth sex (n = 292). Genderqueer was the most commonly endorsed gender identity, and pansexual and queer were the most commonly endorsed sexual orientation identities. Participants indentified with a mean of 2.5 current gender identities, 1.4 past gender identities, and 2 past sexual orientation identities. The majority of participants either did not desire or were unsure of their desire to take hormones or undergo sexual reassignment surgery. However, birth sex and age were significant predictors of "bottom" surgery and hormone status/desire, along with several identities and orientations. This study explores explanations and implications for these patterns of identification, along with the potential distinctiveness of this sample.

  20. From Athletes to Astrophysicists: Gender Differences in Patterns and Predictors of Career Aspirations in Pre-Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Brea L.; Morris, Edward W.; Link, Tanja C.; Leukefeld, Carl

    2017-01-01

    This paper adds to research on girls’ growing educational advantage by examining gender differences in career paths. Using baseline data from an intervention study (TRY-IT!) targeting 265 sixth-graders in Title I schools, our research traces adolescent career aspirations by gender, race and class. Additionally, we investigate whether girls and boys exhibit differential sensitivity to environmental risk and protective factors that shape career and educational aspirations. We find that the career choices of boys vary more widely by social context, including socioeconomic status, race, and academic resources. Specifically, among youth with fewer social and academic advantages, girls aspire to more practical careers and careers which require higher levels of educational attainment relative to boys. The findings reveal how sources of inequality such as race and class shape gendered aspirations and complicate gender inequality. We reason that boys’ choices are more volatile and socially contingent because of the emphasis on high-status careers as a signifier of masculinity. PMID:28540079

  1. From Athletes to Astrophysicists: Gender Differences in Patterns and Predictors of Career Aspirations in Pre-Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Perry, Brea L; Morris, Edward W; Link, Tanja C; Leukefeld, Carl

    2016-03-01

    This paper adds to research on girls' growing educational advantage by examining gender differences in career paths. Using baseline data from an intervention study (TRY-IT!) targeting 265 sixth-graders in Title I schools, our research traces adolescent career aspirations by gender, race and class. Additionally, we investigate whether girls and boys exhibit differential sensitivity to environmental risk and protective factors that shape career and educational aspirations. We find that the career choices of boys vary more widely by social context, including socioeconomic status, race, and academic resources. Specifically, among youth with fewer social and academic advantages, girls aspire to more practical careers and careers which require higher levels of educational attainment relative to boys. The findings reveal how sources of inequality such as race and class shape gendered aspirations and complicate gender inequality. We reason that boys' choices are more volatile and socially contingent because of the emphasis on high-status careers as a signifier of masculinity.

  2. Chi Sigma Iota Chapter Leadership and Professional Identity Development in Early Career Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Melissa; Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2010-01-01

    As the academic and professional honor society of counseling, Chi Sigma Iota (CSI) has been recognized in developing advocacy, leadership, and professional identity in student and professional members. A qualitative, grounded theory study was conducted to investigate experiences of 15 early career counselors who were CSI chapter leaders as…

  3. Reclaiming Professional Identity through Postgraduate Professional Development: Careers Practitioners Reclaiming their Professional Selves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Careers advisers in the UK have experienced significant change and upheaval within their professional practice. This research explores the role of postgraduate-level professional development in contributing to professional identity. The research utilises a case study approach and adopts multiple tools to provide an in-depth examination of…

  4. Employability during Unemployment: Adaptability, Career Identity and Human and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Sarah; Waters, Lea; Briscoe, Jon P.; Hall, Douglas T.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Fugate et al. [Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Ashforth, B. E. (2004). Employability: A psycho-social construct, its dimensions, and applications. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65"(1), 14] defined employability as a psycho-social construct comprised of three dimensions: (i) adaptability; (ii) career identity; and (iii)…

  5. Employability during Unemployment: Adaptability, Career Identity and Human and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Sarah; Waters, Lea; Briscoe, Jon P.; Hall, Douglas T.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Fugate et al. [Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Ashforth, B. E. (2004). Employability: A psycho-social construct, its dimensions, and applications. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65"(1), 14] defined employability as a psycho-social construct comprised of three dimensions: (i) adaptability; (ii) career identity; and (iii)…

  6. Racism-Related Stress and Ethnic Identity as Determinants of African American College Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar-Murray, Darrick; Jenifer, Ericka S.; Andrusyk, Jara; D'Angelo, Ryan; King, Tia

    2012-01-01

    Drawing primarily on the construct of psychological buffer, the purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which racism-related stress and ethnic identity are determinants of career aspirations. A total of 163 African American college students from a predominately White Midwestern university participated in the study. A moderation…

  7. Picturing an Occupational Identity: Images of Teachers in Careers and Trade Union Publications 1940-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Visual sources in the form of teachers' journals and careers literature constitute an important part of the material culture of the teaching profession, and demand examination for their impact on occupational identity. The material allows for a range of interpretations and the approach taken here is speculative, in both methodologies and analysis.…

  8. The 1978 U.S. Medical School Graduates: Career Plans by Racial/Ethnic Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuca, Janet Melei

    1980-01-01

    Career plans, based on responses to the Association of American Medical Colleges' first annual graduation questionnaire concerning the racial/ethnic identity of 1978 U.S. medical graduates, are reported. The data show that the six racial/ethnic groups follow similar general trends, though group differences do appear. (MLW)

  9. The Impact of Membership of a Virtual Learning Community on Individual Learning Careers and Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Barbara; Lewis, Dina

    2006-01-01

    This study takes a relatively new direction in researching virtual learning communities (VLCs) as it explores the ways in which VLC membership can support lifelong learning and impact on individual learning careers and professional identities beyond the life of the community. The case study spans 4 years. The findings suggest that through the…

  10. The Competence To Act: Chicana Teacher Role Identity in Life and Career Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindo, Rene; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The life and career narratives of two Chicana teachers are examined to identify the influences of biographical experiences on how they define their teacher role identities. Competence to act, the product of experiences, is based on the connections teachers make between family socialization and their roles as professional educators. (SLD)

  11. Developing Students' Multiple Identities: How Career Services Practitioners Can Put Theory into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    To better serve the needs of a pluralistic student population, Mount Holyoke College's Career Development Center shifted the focus of its programs and services. This article discusses the dynamic, multidimensional nature of identity and how practitioners might create more effective interventions to support their diverse students. (Contains 13…

  12. Teacher Identity in the Early Career Phase: Trajectories that Explain and Influence Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Chad M.

    2013-01-01

    Early career teaching is a difficult phase to navigate with many newly qualified teachers choosing to leave the profession within the first few years. The professional identities of these and other teachers are shaped by challenging and unanticipated experiences. The schools where this teaching takes place also have profound influence on these…

  13. Family Interaction Patterns as Predictors of Vocational Identity and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Byron K.; Creagh, Maureen G.; Burgess, Brian L.

    2002-01-01

    Vocational identity scores of 210 college students varied by family achievement orientation. Career decision-making self-efficacy was influenced by family differences in achievement, intellectual-cultural, and moral-religious 'orientation; conflict; and expressiveness. Family interaction patterns thus may play a small but significant role in…

  14. Racism-Related Stress and Ethnic Identity as Determinants of African American College Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar-Murray, Darrick; Jenifer, Ericka S.; Andrusyk, Jara; D'Angelo, Ryan; King, Tia

    2012-01-01

    Drawing primarily on the construct of psychological buffer, the purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which racism-related stress and ethnic identity are determinants of career aspirations. A total of 163 African American college students from a predominately White Midwestern university participated in the study. A moderation…

  15. Family Interaction Patterns, Career Planning Attitudes, and Vocational Identity of High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and…

  16. Reclaiming Professional Identity through Postgraduate Professional Development: Careers Practitioners Reclaiming their Professional Selves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Careers advisers in the UK have experienced significant change and upheaval within their professional practice. This research explores the role of postgraduate-level professional development in contributing to professional identity. The research utilises a case study approach and adopts multiple tools to provide an in-depth examination of…

  17. Early Career Teachers' Emotion and Emerging Teacher Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Schutz, Paul A.; Rodgers, Kelly; Bilica, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    The goal of our project was to develop an understanding of the connections among emotional episodes and emerging professional teacher identities of first year teachers. We interviewed eight first year mathematics and science teachers. We asked them to reflect on emotional episodes and talk about how those emotions informed their teaching…

  18. It is complicated: gender and sexual orientation identity in LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Jordon D; Chiodo, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    To explore the variations of sexual orientation and gender identity as well as the intersections of those identities in a sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning youth. Identity development is a key task of adolescence. Among the multiple identities that young people navigate are sexual orientation and gender identity. Challenges with solidifying and integrating aspects of one's identity can contribute to poor physical and mental health outcomes. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. A convenience sample was recruited via collaborations with community organisations and Internet groups who provide information and services for LGBTQ youth under the age of 25. Of the 175 respondents, one-third of the sample reported a gender identity that was not congruent with their sex assigned at birth. Those assigned female sex at birth reported noncongruent gender identities as well as fluid and nonbinary identities such as genderqueer and agender more frequently that respondents assigned male at birth. Individuals with noncongruent gender identities were more likely to identify with a sexual orientation other than lesbian, gay or bisexual than individuals with gender identities congruent with their sex assigned at birth. Adolescent sexual orientation and gender identity are complex and nuanced. Nurse scientists and clinical nurses can contribute to understanding of these identities, their meaning to the young person and the unique health implications by regularly inquiring about sexual orientation and gender identity in their practice. Nurses in clinical practice need to be aware of the sometimes complicated nature of adolescent identity and its related terminology so that they can ask relevant questions and provide culturally safe care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Characteristics of Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria Referred to the Gender Identity Treatment Unit].

    PubMed

    Fernández Rodríguez, María; Guerra Mora, Patricia; Martín Sánchez, Eloya

    2017-02-01

    The demand for treatment among people with gender dys-phoria has increased during the last years. The aim of the present research was to carry out an analysis of the demand of the teenagers that requested consultation at the UTIGPA (Gender Identity Treatment Unit of Principality of Asturias) as they presented complains of gender dysphoria. The sample included 20 minors that were treated between March 2007 and December 2015. The clinical history was made to collect informa-tion. It was made descriptive analysis and the reason sex/gender was used. The 20 teenagers represented the 14,6% of the whole sample (of 137 demands). The age average was 15,20 years (SD=1,473) and the range of years was between 12-17. The reason sex/gender was 1/1 (10 into the man to woman group and 10 into the woman to man group). At the arrival at the Treatment Unit, 100% of the individuals lived with their nuclear or extended family and in the 60% of the cases, their parents were separated. 70% of the cases were referred from mental health services. 10% hadn´t got any past medical history and 35% had never received any prescription for a psychopharmacological treatment. 95% hadn't done any hormonal self-treatment. 100% defined themselves as heterosexual. 25% requested exclusively for psychological interventions and 75% asked for medical treatments. The profile of the minor was a teenager of approximately 15 years old that was referred from mental health services. Contrary to the fin-dings of other national and international researches, the rate sex/gender was equated in our research. The minor had got a past medical history and their prio-rity request was for medical treatments, both hormonal and surgical therapies.

  20. Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1-S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for S3 and S4, respectively). In controls, the percentages of femininity findings were significantly higher when compared to DSD females (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for S5 and S6 respectively). There was no significant difference between 46 XX DSD patients and 46 XY DSD patients with respect to the percentage of any of the seven findings. Two patients requested gender change to male; only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions (S7). In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients.

  1. Gender typicality in children's speech: A comparison of boys with and without gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Munson, Benjamin; Crocker, Laura; Pierrehumbert, Janet B; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether boys with gender identity disorder (GID) produced less prototypically male speech than control boys without GID, a possibility that has been suggested by clinical observations. Two groups of listeners participated in tasks where they rated the gender typicality of single words (group 1) or sentences (group 2) produced by 15 5-13 year old boys with GID and 15 age-matched boys without GID. Detailed acoustic analyses of the stimuli were also conducted. Boys with GID were rated as less boy-like than boys without GID. In the experiment using sentence stimuli, these group differences were larger than in the experiment using single-word stimuli. Listeners' ratings were predicted by a variety of acoustic parameters, including ones that differ between the two groups and ones that are stereotypically associated with adult men's and women's speech. Future research should examine how these variants are acquired.

  2. Thoughts on the nature of identity: how disorders of sex development inform clinical research about gender identity disorders.

    PubMed

    Reiner, William G; Reiner, D Townsend

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD), like gender dysphoria, are conditions with major effects on child sexuality and identity, as well as sexual orientation. Each may in some cases lead to change of gender from that assigned neonatally. These similarities-and the conditions' differences-provide a context for reviewing the articles in this issue about clinical approaches to children with gender dysphoria, in relation to assessment, intervention, and ethics.

  3. Gender differences in financial risk aversion and career choices are affected by testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi; Maestripieri, Dario

    2009-01-01

    Women are generally more risk averse than men. We investigated whether between- and within-gender variation in financial risk aversion was accounted for by variation in salivary concentrations of testosterone and in markers of prenatal testosterone exposure in a sample of >500 MBA students. Higher levels of circulating testosterone were associated with lower risk aversion among women, but not among men. At comparably low concentrations of salivary testosterone, however, the gender difference in risk aversion disappeared, suggesting that testosterone has nonlinear effects on risk aversion regardless of gender. A similar relationship between risk aversion and testosterone was also found using markers of prenatal testosterone exposure. Finally, both testosterone levels and risk aversion predicted career choices after graduation: Individuals high in testosterone and low in risk aversion were more likely to choose risky careers in finance. These results suggest that testosterone has both organizational and activational effects on risk-sensitive financial decisions and long-term career choices. PMID:19706398

  4. The influence of gender and personality traits on the career planning of Swiss medical students.

    PubMed

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Klaghofer, Richard; Abel, Thomas; Buddeberg, Claus

    2003-10-11

    Since the 1990s, as many women as men have been entering and graduating from medical schools in Western countries. Up to date, prospective studies of physicians' career paths are lacking. This paper presents the data of the first assessment of a longitudinal survey of a cohort of Swiss medical school graduates, evaluated with regard to how gender and personality traits contribute to their academic achievement and further career planning. In 2001, 719 graduate students (52.9% females, 47.1% males) returned a postal questionnaire comprising sections on personality traits, career motivation, and career planning. Female graduates scored higher on traits such as helpfulness, relationship consciousness, empathy, family responsibility, and job security. Male students scored higher on traits such as independence, decisiveness, self-confidence, activity, income, and prestige. Women were further advanced in the writing of their thesis (p = 0.04), chose different topics (p <0.001), and had more often decided in which field they wished to specialise (p =.02). Women preferred fields with intensive patient contact (p <0.01), men tended to specialise more in instrumentally oriented and high-technology medicine (p <.001). The regression model revealed that, apart from gender (being female), instrumentality and extrinsic career motivation predict advanced academic achievement, whereas self-esteem and intrinsic career motivation influence the choice of speciality. The results indicate that women plan their career more purposefully than men, and that not only gender but also personality traits and career motivation play an important role in academic achievement and career planning.

  5. The Relationship among Support, Ethnic Identity, Career Decision Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations in African American High School Students: Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.; Whitson, Melissa L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the influence of two potential sources of strength (i.e., ethnic identity and parent/teacher support) on the cognitive variables of career decision self-efficacy and outcome expectations in a sample of 104 African American ninth-grade students. The results indicate that parental support is positively related to career decision…

  6. The Relationship among Support, Ethnic Identity, Career Decision Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations in African American High School Students: Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.; Whitson, Melissa L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the influence of two potential sources of strength (i.e., ethnic identity and parent/teacher support) on the cognitive variables of career decision self-efficacy and outcome expectations in a sample of 104 African American ninth-grade students. The results indicate that parental support is positively related to career decision…

  7. Young, southern women's perceptions of STEM careers: Examining science, technology, engineering & mathematics as a gendered construct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth

    Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in

  8. Processes and Content of Narrative Identity Development in Adolescence: Gender and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Kate C.; Breen, Andrea V.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined narrative identity in adolescence (14-18 years) in terms of narrative content and processes of identity development. Age- and gender-related differences in narrative patterns in turning point memories and gender differences in the content and functions for sharing those memories were examined, as was the relationship…

  9. Sex or Gender Identity? Understanding Children's Reading Choices and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which children's reading choices could be predicted by their motivation and gender identity was examined. Two hundred and twenty-three children (average age 9 years 11 months) completed questionnaires measuring book reading choices, reading motivation, gender identity (identification with masculine and feminine traits) and a…

  10. A Follow-Up Study of Girls with Gender Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Kelley D.; Bradley, Susan J.; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3-12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15-36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60%…

  11. What Do We Do with Alberto? Providing a Safe Haven for Youngsters with Gender Identity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Thomas; Von Ornsteiner, Joel

    2001-01-01

    Teachers and administrators must ensure that youth with gender identity disorder receive the same psychological and physical protection offered to other students. This article uses a case study to provide information regarding assessment of, and intervention with, youngsters who have gender identity disorder. (MKA)

  12. Sex or Gender Identity? Understanding Children's Reading Choices and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which children's reading choices could be predicted by their motivation and gender identity was examined. Two hundred and twenty-three children (average age 9 years 11 months) completed questionnaires measuring book reading choices, reading motivation, gender identity (identification with masculine and feminine traits) and a…

  13. A Follow-Up Study of Girls with Gender Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Kelley D.; Bradley, Susan J.; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3-12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15-36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60%…

  14. Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ressler, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to…

  15. Gender Identity, Ethnicity, Acculturation, and Drug Use: Exploring Differences among Adolescents in the Southwest.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Hurdle, Donna

    2003-03-01

    This article presents the findings of a survey completed by 1351 predominantly Mexican American middle school students residing in a large urban center in the U.S. Southwest. The study explores possible associations between drug use attitudes and behaviors and gender (biological sex), gender identity, ethnicity, and acculturation status. Based on the concepts of "machismo" and "marianismo" that have been used to describe Mexican populations, four dimensions of gender identity were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity, and submissive femininity. In explaining a variety of indicators of drug use behaviors and anti-drug norms, gender alone had limited explanatory power, while gender identity-often regardless of gender-was a better predictor. Aggressive masculinity was generally associated with higher risk of drug use, while the other three gender identity measures had selected protective effects. However, the impact of gender identity was strongly mediated by acculturation. Less acculturated Mexican American students reported lower aggressive masculinity scores than non-Latinos. Less acculturated Mexican American girls reported both the lowest aggressive masculinity scores and the highest submissive femininity scores. More acculturated Mexican American students, along with the less acculturated Mexican American boys, did not appear to be following a polarized approach to gender identity (machismo and marianismo) as was expected. The findings suggest that some aspects of culturally prescribed gender roles can have a protective effect against drug use behaviors and attitudes, possibly for both girls and boys.

  16. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  17. Portrait of an outsider: class, gender, and the scientific career of Ida M. Mellen.

    PubMed

    Muka, Samantha K

    2014-01-01

    In 1916, a 41 years old woman with little formal scientific education became the secretary of the New York Aquarium (NYA). In becoming the Aquarium's first female officer, Ida M. Mellen realized her lifelong dream of successfully pursuing a career in the biological sciences and broke with the limitations and low expectations surrounding her sex and class backgrounds. By 1930, Mellen left the NYA and pursued a career in popular hobbyist writing, becoming the foremost expert on aquarium fishes and domesticated cats in the United States. Margaret Rossiter and other historians of science have illuminated women's common career paths in the sciences, but little work has been done on individuals whose gender and class impacted their career. Building on Rossiter's framework, this case study suggests that class, as much as gender, structured the scientific career of women. Through the narrative of the outsider scientific practitioner, we can more fully illuminate the social structure of scientific work. Examining the struggles of Mellen to enter and maintain a scientific career sheds light, not just on her own career path, but those alternately closed to her. If we wish to understand science in the early twentieth century, especially questions of inclusion and exclusion in the scientific process, we must examine those individuals who operated on the periphery of the "traditional" scientific path.

  18. The birth of modern criminology and gendered constructions of homosexual criminal identity.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jordan Blair

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of engagement with LGBTQ populations, and sexual orientation and gender identity more broadly, in the field of criminology. This article analyzes the treatment of sexual orientation and gender identity at the birth of the discipline around the 1870 s. Through an analysis of Cesare Lombroso's writings, the article argues that a multifaceted stigma of deviance attached to homosexuality and gender nonconformity in early criminological theory. The article explains this multifaceted stigma in terms of broader political, social, cultural, and legal developments before and during the late nineteenth century that shaped modern Western conceptions of sexual orientation and gender identity.

  19. Anorexia nervosa and gender identity disorder in biologic males: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Winston, Anthony P; Acharya, Sudha; Chaudhuri, Shreemantee; Fellowes, Lynette

    2004-07-01

    Gender identity disorder is a rare disorder of uncertain etiology. The emphasis on body shape in this disorder suggests that there may be an association with anorexia nervosa. We report two cases of anorexia nervosa and gender identity disorder in biologic males who presented to an eating disorders service. One was treated successfully as an outpatient and subsequently underwent gender reassignment surgery. The other patient required admission and prolonged psychotherapy. Differences between the two cases are discussed. Issues of gender identity should be considered in the assessment of male patients presenting with anorexia nervosa. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The gender identity of pedophiles: what does the outcome data tell us?.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Monique; Van Gijseghem, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pedophiles have a different gender identity profile compared with non-sexual offenders. Participants were 87 male adult subjects, divided into three groups: (a) 27 pedophiles who abused male victims, (b) 30 pedophiles who abused female victims, and (c) 30 non-sexual offenders. The gender identity factor was measured with the Mf scale of the MMPI and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Results indicated no significant inter-group differences in terms of gender identity. However, the order of the three groups regarding scores on the Bem-Masculinity and the Mf scale was as predicted. Conceptual and empirical elements related to gender identity are addressed in order to shed light on potential disturbances in the gender identity of pedophiles.

  1. A "ton of feathers": gender discrimination in academic medical careers and how to manage it.

    PubMed

    Carr, Phyllis L; Szalacha, Laura; Barnett, Rosalind; Caswell, Cheryl; Inui, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the experience of gender discrimination among a limited sample of women in academic medicine, specifically, the role of discrimination in hindering careers, coping mechanisms, and perceptions of what institutions and leaders of academic medicine can do to improve the professional workplace climate for women. In-depth, semistructured telephonic individual interviews of 18 women faculty who experienced or may have experienced discrimination in the course of their professional academic medical careers from 13 of the 24 institutions of the National Faculty Survey. A consensus taxonomy for classifying content evolved from comparisons of coding. Themes expressed by multiple faculty were studied for patterns of connection and grouped into broader categories. Forty percent of respondents ranked gender discrimination first out of 11 possible choices for hindering their career in academic medicine. Thirty-five percent ranked gender discrimination second to either "limited time for professional work" or "lack of mentoring." Respondents rated themselves as poorly prepared to deal with gender discrimination and noted effects on professional self-confidence, self-esteem, collegiality, isolation, and career satisfaction. The hierarchical structure in academe is perceived to work against women, as there are few women at the top. Women faculty who have experienced gender discrimination perceive that little can be done to directly address this issue. Institutions need to be proactive and recurrently evaluate the gender climate, as well as provide transparent information and fair scrutiny of promotion and salary decisions. According to this subset of women who perceive that they have been discriminated against based on gender, sexual bias and discrimination are subtly pervasive and powerful. Such environments may have consequences for both women faculty and academic medicine, affecting morale and dissuading younger trainees from entering academic careers. Medical schools

  2. Gender identity, gender assignment and reassignment in individuals with disorders of sex development: a major of dilemma.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A D; Ristori, J; Fanni, E; Castellini, G; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2016-11-01

    Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) are a wide range of congenital conditions characterized by an incongruence of components involved in sexual differentiation, including gender psychosexual development. The management of such disorders is complex, and one of the most crucial decision is represented by gender assignment. In fact, the primary goal in DSD is to have a gender assignment consistent with the underlying gender identity in order to prevent the distress related to a forthcoming Gender Dysphoria. Historically, gender assignment was based essentially on surgical outcomes, assuming the neutrality of gender identity at birth. This policy has been challenged in the past decade refocusing on the importance of prenatal and postnatal hormonal and genetic influences on psychosexual development. (1) to update the main psychological and medical issues that surround DSD, in particular regarding gender identity and gender assignment; (2) to report specific clinical recommendations according to the different diagnosis. A systematic search of published evidence was performed using Medline (from 1972 to March 2016). Review of the relevant literature and recommendations was based on authors' expertise. A review of gender identity and assignment in DSD is provided as well as clinical recommendations for the management of individuals with DSD. Given the complexity of this management, DSD individuals and their families need to be supported by a specialized multidisciplinary team, which has been universally recognized as the best practice for intersexual conditions. In case of juvenile GD in DSD, the prescription of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues, following the World Professional Association for Transgender Health and the Endocrine Society guidelines, should be considered. It should always be taken into account that every DSD person is unique and has to be treated with individualized care. In this perspective, international registries are crucial to improve the

  3. 'THEY LIGHT THE CHRISTMAS TREE IN OUR TOWN': Reflections on Identity, Gender, and Adolescent Sports.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kathleen E

    2009-12-01

    Sport occupies a prominent space in the public lives and private identities of US adolescents. Using the retrospective reflections of college students, this analysis explores two questions about sport-related identities during high school: Are 'athletes' and 'jocks' distinctly separate identities? Are these identities explicitly gendered? In four gender-segregated focus groups conducted in early 2005, 32 student-athletes from two upstate New York colleges discussed their high school experiences of sport, status, gender, and identity. Three primary themes developed with regard to differences between the 'jock' and 'athlete' archetypes: academic focus, teamwork, and cockiness/aggression. Examining the intersection of gender, high-status/high-profile sport, and identity in both popular cultural imagery and the personal experiences of the focus group discussants provided support for the thesis of a 'toxic jock' phenomenon.

  4. Race, gender, and sexual orientation in hate crime victimization: identity politics or identity risk?

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Edward

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the impact of hate crimes upon gay and lesbian victims, reviewing 1538 hate crimes committed in Los Angeles County. Differences between sexual orientation and other hate crime categories were considered for offense severity, reportage to law enforcement, and victim impact. The type of offense varied between crimes classified for sexual orientation (n=551) and other bias-motivated crimes (n=987). Assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and stalking were predictive of sexual orientation hate crimes. Sexual orientation bias crimes evidenced greater severity of violence to the person and impact upon victim level of functioning. More violent forms of aggression were predictive of gay and lesbian victim's underreportage to law enforcement. For sexual orientation offenses, victim gender and race/ethnicity differences were predictive of the base rates of crime reportage as well. These findings are considered in terms of a group-risk hypothesis, encountered by multiple outgroup persons, that influences help-seeking behavior and ingroup identity.

  5. Why "Gender" Disappeared from the Gender Gap: (Re-)Introducing Gender Identity Theory to Educational Gender Gap Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Vermeersch, Hans; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Educational gender gap research tries to explain the differential achievement of boys and girls at secondary school, which manifests in many western countries. Several explanatory frameworks are used for this purpose, such as masculinities theory. In this review article, the history of educational gender gap research in Anglo-Saxon literature and…

  6. Why "Gender" Disappeared from the Gender Gap: (Re-)Introducing Gender Identity Theory to Educational Gender Gap Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Vermeersch, Hans; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Educational gender gap research tries to explain the differential achievement of boys and girls at secondary school, which manifests in many western countries. Several explanatory frameworks are used for this purpose, such as masculinities theory. In this review article, the history of educational gender gap research in Anglo-Saxon literature and…

  7. Children's Gender Identity Development: The Dynamic Negotiation Process between Conformity and Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Britney G; Rabenstein, Kelly L.; Rosén, Lee A.; Zimmerman, Toni S.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 45 girls and 41 boys participated in focus groups following a program designed to teach them about social justice. The children articulated the discrepancy between their own gender identity and gender role stereotypes and discussed potential problems with conforming to gender role expectations as well as consequences of…

  8. Children's Gender Identity Development: The Dynamic Negotiation Process between Conformity and Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Britney G; Rabenstein, Kelly L.; Rosén, Lee A.; Zimmerman, Toni S.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 45 girls and 41 boys participated in focus groups following a program designed to teach them about social justice. The children articulated the discrepancy between their own gender identity and gender role stereotypes and discussed potential problems with conforming to gender role expectations as well as consequences of…

  9. Recalled and current gender role behavior, gender identity and sexual orientation in adults with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development.

    PubMed

    Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B

    2016-11-01

    The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our

  10. Familiality of gender identity disorder in non-twin siblings.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gil, Esther; Esteva, Isabel; Almaraz, M Cruz; Pasaro, Eduardo; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Familial studies and reports of co-occurrence of gender identity disorder (GID) within a family may help to clarify the question of whether transsexualism is a familial phenomenon. In a sample of 995 consecutive transsexual probands (677 male-to-female [MF] and 318 female-to-male [FM]), we report 12 pairs of transsexual non-twin siblings (nine pairs of MF siblings, two pairs of MF-FM siblings, and one pair of FM siblings). The present study doubles the number of case reports of co-occurrence of transsexualism in non-twin siblings available in the literature. According to our data, the probability that a sibling of a transsexual will also be transsexual was 4.48 times higher for siblings of MF than for siblings of FM transsexual probands, and 3.88 times higher for the brothers than for the sisters of transsexual probands. Moreover, the prevalence of transsexualism in siblings of transsexuals (1/211 siblings) was much higher than the range expected according to the prevalence data of transsexualism in Spain. The study suggests that siblings of transsexuals may have a higher risk of being transsexual than the general population, and that the risk is higher for brothers than sisters of transsexuals, and for siblings of MF than FM transsexuals. Nevertheless, the risk is low.

  11. Suicidal ideation among patients with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Terada, Seishi; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Sato, Toshiki; Okabe, Nobuyuki; Kishimoto, Yuki; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2011-11-30

    In this study, we tried to clarify the prevalence of suicidal ideation and self-mutilation including suicide attempts among patients with gender identity disorder (GID) and the relationship of those behaviors to demographic characteristics. A total of 500 consecutive Japanese GID patients without any other psychiatric comorbidity were evaluated at the outpatient GID Clinic of Okayama University Hospital. The lifetime rate of suicidal ideation was 72.0% of the total sample. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of suicidal ideation among groups divided by sex, age, age at onset or education. The lifetime prevalence of self-mutilation including suicide attempts was 31.8% of the total sample. Low level of education was significantly related to self-mutilation among both male-to-female and female-to-male GID patients. Younger age at onset was a significant factor affecting self-mutilation only among MTF GID patients. A lack of strategies to cope with severe distress among persons with lower education might induce a high frequency of self-mutilation including suicidal attempt. GID patients with a low level education might be at high risk of self-mutilation and should be watched with special attention to self-mutilation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. School refusal by patients with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Terada, Seishi; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Sato, Toshiki; Okabe, Nobuyuki; Kishimoto, Yuki; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2012-01-01

    The accumulating evidence suggests that school refusal behavior is associated with severe negative outcomes. However, previous research has not addressed school refusal by patients with gender identity disorder (GID). In this study, we tried to clarify the prevalence of school refusal among GID patients and the relationship of school refusal to demographic characteristics. A total of 579 consecutive Japanese GID patients at the outpatient GID Clinic of Okayama University Hospital between April 1997 and October 2005 were evaluated. The prevalence of school refusal was 29.2% of the total sample. School refusal was more frequent among GID patients with divorced parents than those with intact families. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that younger age at consultation and divorce of parents were significantly associated with school refusal among the male-to-female GID patients. The rate of school refusal among GID patients is high, and school refusal is closely related with a low level of education and current unemployment. We should pay more attention to GID patients of school age to prevent their school refusal, which results in low educational achievement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender Identity and Sex Role of Patients Operated on for Bladder Exstrophy-Epispadias.

    PubMed

    Taskinen, Seppo; Suominen, Janne S; Mattila, Aino K

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated whether genital deformity has an impact on gender identity and sex role in patients operated on for bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex. A total of 62 adolescents and adults operated on for bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex were mailed questionnaires evaluating gender identity (Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults) and sex role (Bem Sex Role Inventory). Of the patients 33 responded and the results were compared with 99 gender matched controls. On the gender identity questionnaire female patients had median scores similar to those of their gender matched controls (4.93 vs 4.89, p = 0.412) but in males the score was lower compared to controls (4.87 vs 4.96, p = 0.023), indicating somewhat more conflicted gender identity. However, no patient had gender dysphoria. Female sex role index was higher in female patients vs controls (5.9 vs 5.3, p = 0.003) but was comparable between male patients and controls (5.2 vs 5.0, p = 0.459). Masculine sex role indices were comparable between female patients and controls as well as between male patients and controls. Of 32 patients 17 were considered to have androgynous sex role, as were 24 of 97 controls (p = 0.004). The exact diagnosis (bladder exstrophy or epispadias) or dissatisfaction with appearance of the genitals had no impact on gender identity or on sex role indices. Male patients had lower gender identity scores compared to controls and female sex role was enhanced among female patients. Androgynous sex role was more common in patients vs controls. Gender dysphoria was not noted in any patient. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1–S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3–S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5–S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for S3 and S4, respectively). In controls, the percentages of femininity findings were significantly higher when compared to DSD females (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for S5 and S6 respectively). There was no significant difference between 46 XX DSD patients and 46 XY DSD patients with respect to the percentage of any of the seven findings. Two patients requested gender change to male; only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions (S7). In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients. PMID:23874323

  15. Gender differences in career preferences from 1990 to 2010: gaps reduced but not eliminated.

    PubMed

    Gati, Itamar; Perez, Maya

    2014-01-01

    The present research focused on gender differences in career preferences, comparing those in 2010 with those in 1990 (as reported by Gati, Osipow, & Givon, 1995). The tested hypothesis was that gender differences in aspect-based career preferences (e.g., income, teamwork, professional advancement, length of training) would have decreased over the past 20 years. The career preferences of 21,767 young adult women and 15,532 men-who used an Internet-based career guidance system in 2010 to assist them in making a career decision-were analyzed and compared with the respective preferences of 1,252 young adult women and 751 young adult men who used a previous version of the system in 1990. As hypothesized, gender differences were attenuated in most aspects (e.g., professional advancement, management); however, these differences increased in a few aspects (e.g., community service and counseling are increasingly preferred by women). The findings and their implications are discussed. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Career Development and Emerging Managerial Career Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzeda, Maurice

    1999-01-01

    Career-motivation theory provides a new framework for managerial careers in the context of contemporary career patterns. The framework includes the concepts of career resilience, career insight, and career identity. (SK)

  17. 'You're Not Able to Breathe': Conceptualizing the Intersectionality of Early Career, Gender and Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiaszek, Lauren Ila

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on data from nine focus groups in four countries, I argue for the need to develop a research agenda around the intersectionality of early career, gender and crisis. I first give a brief explanation of the background, methodology and limitations of the study. Second, I lay out some key conceptualizations and their own limitations and then…

  18. Two Careers/One Family. The Promise of Gender Equality. Sage Series on Close Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino

    This book describes the frontier of close relationships, where traditional gender roles are being reevaluated in light of what is both functional and optimal for persons in dual-career partnerships. Because social environments are crucial to understanding personal relationships and individual behavior, the three chapters in part 1 describe the…

  19. The Domestic Basis of the Scientific Career: Gender Inequalities in Ecology in France and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loison, Anne; Paye, Simon; Schermann, Agnes; Bry, Clementine; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Pelabon, Christophe; Bråthen, Kari-Anne

    2017-01-01

    Gender-related inequalities in scientific careers are widespread, evidenced by the attrition of women along the different stages of the promotion ladder. We studied the interwoven personal and professional trajectories of researchers in ecology and compared these trajectories between France and Norway. Given their differing welfare state policies…

  20. Early Career Experiences of UW Doctorates as a Function of Degree Field and Gender. EAC Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    Early career experiences of a sample of 233 University of Washington doctorates were studied. Doctorates were initially grouped into seven degree areas (physical science, biological science, social science, humanities, education, engineering, and other). As hypothesized, significant differences were found between the genders in their distribution…

  1. Two Careers/One Family. The Promise of Gender Equality. Sage Series on Close Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino

    This book describes the frontier of close relationships, where traditional gender roles are being reevaluated in light of what is both functional and optimal for persons in dual-career partnerships. Because social environments are crucial to understanding personal relationships and individual behavior, the three chapters in part 1 describe the…

  2. Gender and Ethnic Differences in the Perception of Barriers to Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzzo, Darrell Anthony

    The present study examined: (1) the relationship between the number and types of occupational barriers perceived by college students and their current levels of career development; and (2) gender and ethnic differences in the types of barriers perceived. Participants (129 women and 59 men) responded to open-ended questions about perceived barriers…

  3. 'You're Not Able to Breathe': Conceptualizing the Intersectionality of Early Career, Gender and Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiaszek, Lauren Ila

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on data from nine focus groups in four countries, I argue for the need to develop a research agenda around the intersectionality of early career, gender and crisis. I first give a brief explanation of the background, methodology and limitations of the study. Second, I lay out some key conceptualizations and their own limitations and then…

  4. The Different Effects of Family on Objective Career Success across Gender: A Test of Alternative Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchmeyer, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Gender gaps in achieved rank and salary, common indicators of objective success, often are attributed to the different family roles and responsibilities of men and women. This study tested three explanations for the different effects of family on careers: that is, choice, performance, and signaling explanations. In a sample of American doctoral…

  5. Navigating into Nursing School and the Gender Gap: Second Choices, Second Careers and Second Incomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gransee, Lynn J.

    2005-01-01

    Nursing is a care giving career, and one that has been numerically dominated by women. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine whether the current social requirements of masculinity and femininity enhance or diminish entry into nursing. This study looks at gender through an analysis of the similarities and differences in the narratives…

  6. Factors That Influence Student Pursuit of Science Careers; the Role of Gender, Ethnicity, Family and Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Susan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Snape, Jonathan B.

    2011-01-01

    This study adds to a body of research reporting on pupils' choices and outcomes in relation to science. The article reports on 536 Scottish pupils' perceptions regarding reported intention to choose careers in science, with further analysis in terms of family, friends, gender and ethnicity. The pupils, aged 14-15, from 5 schools in one Scottish…

  7. Psychological well-being: its relation to work personality, vocational identity, and career thoughts.

    PubMed

    Strauser, David R; Lustig, Daniel C; Ciftçi, Ayşe

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of the 6 dimensions of psychological well-being on participants' career thoughts, vocational identity, and developmental work personality. Undergraduates (N = 91) completed 4 measures: (a) C. D. Ryff's (1989, 1995) Scales of Psychological Well-Being (SPWB), (b) J. P. Sampson, G. W. Peterson, J. G. Lenz, R. C. Reardon, and D. E. Saunders's (1996) Career Thoughts Inventory (CTI), (c) the Vocational Identity (VI) subscale of J. L. Holland, D. C. Daiger, and G. Power's (1980) My Vocational Situation, and (d) D. R. Strauser and J. M. Keim's (2002) Developmental Work Personality Scale (DWPS). The authors then conducted multiple regression analyses to examine the relations between psychological well-being and the 3 career variables. Results indicated the following: (a) Psychological well-being accounted for a significant portion of the variance in all 3 career variables; (b) scores on the Purpose in Life subscale of the SPWB made a unique contribution to scores on the Commitment Anxiety subscale of the CTI (CTI-CA) and to VI; (c) scores on the Personal Growth subscale of the SPWB made a unique contribution to CTI-CA scores; and (d) scores on the Self-Acceptance and Environmental Mastery subscales of the SPWB each made a unique contribution to DWPS scores.

  8. A Multicase Study of the Impact of Perceived Gender Roles on the Career Decisions of Women in Science-Related Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hren, Stephen Frank

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how perceived gender roles developed throughout childhood and early adulthood impacted the career decisions of women in science-related career fields. An additional purpose was to determine if my experiences as I analyzed the data and the propositions discovered in the study would become a transformative…

  9. A Multicase Study of the Impact of Perceived Gender Roles on the Career Decisions of Women in Science-Related Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hren, Stephen Frank

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how perceived gender roles developed throughout childhood and early adulthood impacted the career decisions of women in science-related career fields. An additional purpose was to determine if my experiences as I analyzed the data and the propositions discovered in the study would become a transformative…

  10. Gender identity and substance use among students in two high schools in Monterrey, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Lingard, Erin Chase; Nieri, Tanya; Nagoshi, Julieann

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relationships between several hypothesized dimensions of gender identity and substance use outcomes within a non-probability sample of adolescents in Monterrey, Mexico. Based on Mexican concepts of machismo and marianismo, four gender identity constructs were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity and submissive femininity. The study assessed how well these gender identity measures predicted substance use behaviors, substance use intentions, expectancies, and normative approval, and exposure and vulnerability to substance offers. Data were drawn from questionnaires completed by 327 students from 2 Monterrey secondary schools. Multivariate ordered logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for school level effects, indicated that aggressive masculinity was associated with higher risk of drug use on most outcomes, while affective femininity was associated with lower risk on selected outcomes. Assertive masculinity was associated with only one of the outcomes examined and submissive femininity with none of them. Most gender identity effects persisted after controlling for biological sex, academic performance, age, and other gender identity measures. For two of the outcomes, the gender identity measures had significantly stronger effects for males than for females. The findings are interpreted in light of males’ higher risk for drug use and changes in gender roles and gendered behavior that are now occurring in Mexico as in the U.S. PMID:18329826

  11. Gender identity and substance use among students in two high schools in Monterrey, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Lingard, Erin Chase; Nieri, Tanya; Nagoshi, Julieann

    2008-06-01

    This study explored relationships between several hypothesized dimensions of gender identity and substance use outcomes within a non-probability sample of adolescents in Monterrey, Mexico. Based on Mexican concepts of machismo and marianismo, four gender identity constructs were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity and submissive femininity. The study assessed how well these gender identity measures predicted substance use behaviors, substance use intentions, expectancies, and normative approval, and exposure and vulnerability to substance offers. Data were drawn from questionnaires completed by 327 students from 2 Monterrey secondary schools. Multivariate ordered logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for school level effects, indicated that aggressive masculinity was associated with higher risk of drug use on most outcomes, while affective femininity was associated with lower risk on selected outcomes. Assertive masculinity was associated with only one of the outcomes examined and submissive femininity with none of them. Most gender identity effects persisted after controlling for biological sex, academic performance, age, and other gender identity measures. For two of the outcomes, the gender identity measures had significantly stronger effects for males than for females. The findings are interpreted in light of males' higher risk for drug use and changes in gender roles and gendered behavior that are now occurring in Mexico as in the U.S.

  12. Gender Identity, Ethnicity, Acculturation, and Drug Use: Exploring Differences among Adolescents in the Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Hurdle, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a survey completed by 1351 predominantly Mexican American middle school students residing in a large urban center in the U.S. Southwest. The study explores possible associations between drug use attitudes and behaviors and gender (biological sex), gender identity, ethnicity, and acculturation status. Based on the concepts of “machismo” and “marianismo” that have been used to describe Mexican populations, four dimensions of gender identity were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity, and submissive femininity. In explaining a variety of indicators of drug use behaviors and anti-drug norms, gender alone had limited explanatory power, while gender identity—often regardless of gender—was a better predictor. Aggressive masculinity was generally associated with higher risk of drug use, while the other three gender identity measures had selected protective effects. However, the impact of gender identity was strongly mediated by acculturation. Less acculturated Mexican American students reported lower aggressive masculinity scores than non-Latinos. Less acculturated Mexican American girls reported both the lowest aggressive masculinity scores and the highest submissive femininity scores. More acculturated Mexican American students, along with the less acculturated Mexican American boys, did not appear to be following a polarized approach to gender identity (machismo and marianismo) as was expected. The findings suggest that some aspects of culturally prescribed gender roles can have a protective effect against drug use behaviors and attitudes, possibly for both girls and boys. PMID:21359134

  13. Ideologies of self, suffering, and gender nonconformity at work in a US gender identity clinic.

    PubMed

    van Eijk, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    Health care institutions are often severely criticized for regulating the lives of individuals who deviate from socially sanctioned norms. In teaching people where they fit in the conventional scheme of things, institutions often reproduce socially dominant ideologies of normality, health, and self. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted at a university-based gender identity clinic in the United States, I demonstrate that while some institutions adopt dominant cultural frameworks, others critically assess these. To understand the intricacies of the clinic's psychotherapeutic practices, I analyze the clinicians' constructions of health and suffering. Instead of viewing transgenderism as a psychiatric condition, these clinicians approach it as a normal human condition that is marginalized by society's heteronormative values. The analysis, attentive to the interaction among social context, institutional work, and psychotherapeutic ideologies, shows that while some institutions reproduce hegemonic cultural frameworks, others, in their attempts to alleviate people's suffering, do challenge dominant social norms.

  14. Gender identity and adjustment: understanding the impact of individual and normative differences in sex typing.

    PubMed

    Lurye, Leah E; Zosuls, Kristina M; Ruble, Diane N

    2008-01-01

    The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment.

  15. Gender Identity and Adjustment: Understanding the Impact of Individual and Normative Differences in Sex Typing

    PubMed Central

    Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861

  16. Enhancing masculinity by slandering homosexuals: the role of homophobic epithets in heterosexual gender identity.

    PubMed

    Carnaghi, Andrea; Maass, Anne; Fasoli, Fabio

    2011-12-01

    The current studies investigate the effects of homophobic labels on the self-perception of heterosexual males, hypothesizing that when exposed to homophobic epithets, they are motivated to underline their masculinity and claim a distinctly heterosexual identity by taking distance from homosexuals and, to a lesser degree, from women. Heterosexual male participants were subliminally (Study 1) and supraliminally (Study 2) primed either by a homophobic epithet or by a category label, and completed the Traditional Beliefs About Gender and Gender Identity scale. Participants stressed their heterosexual identity, but not their gender distinctiveness, when exposed to homophobic epithets, compared to category labels. Study 2 demonstrated that the relation between the homophobic label and the participants' heterosexual identity was mediated by how negatively they reacted to the antigay label. Heterosexual identity was enhanced in reaction to homophobic labels but not to an equally derogatory label referring to regional identity. Results are discussed within an intergroup framework.

  17. How Women in Biomedical PhD Programs Manage Gender Consciousness as They Persist Toward Academic Research Careers.

    PubMed

    Remich, Robin; Jones, Remi; Wood, Christine V; Campbell, Patricia B; McGee, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Women remain underrepresented as biomedical faculty and are more likely than white and Asian men to lose interest in faculty careers in graduate school. However, some women maintain interest in academic research careers during PhD training and are the most likely candidates for faculty positions. This study explored how these women described and interpreted gender issues at early stages in their training. Annual interviews from 2009 to 2014 with 22 female PhD students aspiring to research faculty careers were analyzed using an iterative, content analysis approach rooted in the interview data. Focusing on career intentions and experiences with gender, race, and ethnicity, authors arrived at 11 themes which describe a range of gendered experiences and strategies. Of the 22 women, 19 (86%) acknowl edged systemic gender inequities in science and/or reported instances of bias, while 15 of them also said they had not yet experienced unequal treatment. All 22 described using at least one "gender-explicit strategy," where they based decisions on gender or in response to perceived biases. "Gender-agnostic strategies" emerged for 12 (55%) who doubted that gender will affect their career. Findings show that women biomedical PhD students continue to face conditions that can lead to unequal treatment; gender biases continue to persist. Students displayed a range of perceptions and strategies in response to these conditions at this early training stage. Following these students over time will determine whether these or other strategies are required and sufficient to enable persistence toward academic careers.

  18. 76 FR 4193 - Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs-Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    .... Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs--Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity; Proposed... Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs--Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity AGENCY... orientation or gender identity. DATES: Comment Due Date: March 25, 2011. ADDRESSES: Interested persons are...

  19. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Female Sexual Orientation, Childhood Gender Typicality and Adult Gender Identity

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Andrea; Cherkas, Lynn; Spector, Timothy; Rahman, Qazi

    2011-01-01

    Background Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates – childhood gender typicality (CGT) and adult gender identity (AGI). However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426) who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%), AGI (11%) and CGT (31%). For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. Conclusions/Significance This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation. PMID:21760939

  20. Acculturation, Enculturation, Ethnic Identity, and Conscientiousness as Predictors of Latino Boys' and Girls' Career Decision Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojeda, Lizette; Pina-Watson, Brandy; Castillo, Linda G.; Castillo, Rosalinda; Khan, Noshaba; Leigh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of culture and personality on the career decision self-efficacy of 338 Latino seventh-grade public middle school students. Specifically, we examined the role of acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity, and conscientiousness on career decision self-efficacy. Findings indicated Latina girls were more acculturated…

  1. Acculturation, Enculturation, Ethnic Identity, and Conscientiousness as Predictors of Latino Boys' and Girls' Career Decision Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojeda, Lizette; Pina-Watson, Brandy; Castillo, Linda G.; Castillo, Rosalinda; Khan, Noshaba; Leigh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of culture and personality on the career decision self-efficacy of 338 Latino seventh-grade public middle school students. Specifically, we examined the role of acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity, and conscientiousness on career decision self-efficacy. Findings indicated Latina girls were more acculturated…

  2. Self-Efficacy, Perceptions of Barriers, Vocational Identity, and the Career Exploration Behavior of Latino/a High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.; Clarke, Christine P.; Pantzer, Karen M.; Scanlan, Kolone R. L.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the potential relationship between the social cognitive variables of career decision making self-efficacy and perceptions of barriers and the outcome variables of vocational identity and career exploration behaviors in a sample of 128 urban Latino/a high school students. The results indicated that higher levels of career…

  3. Separation-Individuation, Exploration, and Identity Diffusion as Mediators of the Relationship between Attachment and Career Indecision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Haley M.; Nauta, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the fit of a theoretical model in which separation-individuation, career exploration, and identity diffusion were specified as mediators of the relationship between attachment functioning (anxious and avoidant) and career indecision (informational and personal-emotional). Structural equation modeling (SEM)…

  4. Separation-Individuation, Exploration, and Identity Diffusion as Mediators of the Relationship between Attachment and Career Indecision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Haley M.; Nauta, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the fit of a theoretical model in which separation-individuation, career exploration, and identity diffusion were specified as mediators of the relationship between attachment functioning (anxious and avoidant) and career indecision (informational and personal-emotional). Structural equation modeling (SEM)…

  5. Schooling girls in a rural community: An examination of female science identity and science career choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Melisa Diane Creasy

    There is a gap in existence between the number of males and females entering science careers. Research has begun to focus largely on how identity impacts the selection of such careers. While much research has been done to examine the factors that impact student identity, little work has been done to examine what happens to female students who have been successful in science in a rural K-12 school once they leave high school and enter the world of academia. Thus, this study examined the following questions: (1) How do three recent female high school graduates from rural K-12 high schools narrate their identity? (2) How do the females narrate their experiences in a rural community and high school in relation to their science identity? (3) What do the participants describe as influencing their academic and career choices as they transition into the life of a college student? This study involved three female participants from a small rural community in a southeastern state. Each female has lived their entire life in the community and has attended only one K-12 school. All three females ranked in the top ten of their senior class and excelled in their science coursework. Additionally, each female elected to attend college locally and to live at home. The study utilized the qualitative methodology of interpretive biography. The researcher used a guided interview protocol with participants which served as the basis for the creation of their narrative biographies. The biographies were then analyzed for emergent themes. Sociocultural theory, identity theory, and critical feminism provided the theoretical frameworks utilized in data analysis. Findings from this study suggested that there were many differing factors influencing the science identity and career choices of the females under study. However, the most salient factor impacting their choices was their desire to remain in their hometown. Directions for future research suggestions involve exploring female students who

  6. Gender Identities and Female Students' Learning Experiences in Studying English as Second Language at a Pakistani University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rind, Irfan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how female students' roles as learners are influenced by their socially constructed gender identities and gender roles in studying English as Second Language (ESL) at a public sector university of Pakistan. The aim is to understand how female students' gender identities and gender roles affect their learning. With an…

  7. Gender Identities and Female Students' Learning Experiences in Studying English as Second Language at a Pakistani University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rind, Irfan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how female students' roles as learners are influenced by their socially constructed gender identities and gender roles in studying English as Second Language (ESL) at a public sector university of Pakistan. The aim is to understand how female students' gender identities and gender roles affect their learning. With an…

  8. Ethnicity and gender in late childhood and early adolescence: group identity and awareness of bias.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Alabi, Basirat O; Huynh, Virginia W; Masten, Carrie L

    2011-03-01

    The current study examined awareness of gender and ethnic bias and gender and ethnic identity in 350 African American, White/European American, and Latino/Hispanic students (Mage = 11.21 years, SD = 1.59) from the 4th, 6th, and 8th grades of diverse middle and elementary schools. The study collected (a) qualitative data to best capture the types of bias that were most salient to children and (b) daily diaries and individual measures to examine the multiple components of children's gender and ethnic identities. Results revealed ethnic, gender, and grade-level differences in awareness of ethnic and gender bias. Overall, more children were aware of gender bias than ethnic bias. This effect was most pronounced among White/European American youths. Among those in 4th grade, African American and Latino youths were more likely to be aware of ethnic bias than were White/European American youths. Analyses also examined how awareness of bias was related to gender and ethnic identity. For example, children who had a salient and important gender identity, and a devalued ethnic identity, were less likely than other children to be aware of ethnic bias. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Gender Orientation and Career Maturation among Rural Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guss, Thomas O.; Adams, Lyndel

    The attitudes and beliefs regarding gender, achievement and self-concept of sixth-grade students from a rural Kansas elementary school were assessed. Research consistently demonstrates females' superior verbal ability over males and males' stronger quantitative skills when compared to females. Explores the development of these differences in rural…

  10. The Gendered Nature of Career Related Learning Experiences: A Social Cognitive Career Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christine M.; Subich, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    The learning experiences questionnaire (LEQ; Schaub & Tokar, 2005) was used to examine learning experiences as they relate to SCCT (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) across the Holland (1997) RIASEC typology. In particular, differences in men's and women's career related learning experiences were examined. A sample of 319 undergraduates at a public…

  11. Gender in School-to-School Transitions: How Students Choose Career Programs in Technical Colleges in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kithyo, Isaac Mattemu; Petrina, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    A study of 39 technical college students in Kenya found the majority enrolled in gender-traditional programs. Although school facilities, guidance, and labor market orientation played a part, gender was the most persuasive factor in career choice. Parental pressure and stereotypical guidance reinforced gender norms, but some students were able to…

  12. Gender in School-to-School Transitions: How Students Choose Career Programs in Technical Colleges in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kithyo, Isaac Mattemu; Petrina, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    A study of 39 technical college students in Kenya found the majority enrolled in gender-traditional programs. Although school facilities, guidance, and labor market orientation played a part, gender was the most persuasive factor in career choice. Parental pressure and stereotypical guidance reinforced gender norms, but some students were able to…

  13. Gender identity outcomes in children with disorders/differences of sex development: Predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Bakula, Dana M; Mullins, Alexandria J; Sharkey, Christina M; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Mullins, Larry L; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2017-06-01

    Disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) comprise multiple congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, and/or anatomical sex are discordant. The prediction of future gender identity (i.e., self-identifying as male, female, or other) in children with DSD can be imprecise, and current knowledge about the development of gender identity in people with, and without DSD, is limited. However, sex of rearing is the strongest predictor of gender identity for the majority of individuals with various DSD conditions. When making decisions regarding sex of rearing biological factors (e.g., possession of a Y chromosome, degree and duration of pre- and postnatal androgen exposure, phenotypic presentation of the external genitalia, and fertility potential), social and cultural factors, as well as quality of life should be considered. Information on gender identity outcomes across a range of DSD diagnoses is presented to aid in sex of rearing assignment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Masculinities Go to Community College: Understanding Male Identity Socialization and Gender Role Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank, III; Harper, Shaun R.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has neglected to explore identities and development among male students at community colleges. This chapter provides some insight into who these men are, their precollege gender socialization experiences, and conflicts that impede the development of productive masculinities.

  15. Masculinities Go to Community College: Understanding Male Identity Socialization and Gender Role Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank, III; Harper, Shaun R.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has neglected to explore identities and development among male students at community colleges. This chapter provides some insight into who these men are, their precollege gender socialization experiences, and conflicts that impede the development of productive masculinities.

  16. Gender identity of children and young adults with 5alpha-reductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Praveen, E P; Desai, Ankush K; Khurana, M L; Philip, Jim; Eunice, Marumudi; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Kucheria, Kiran; Gupta, Devendra K; Seith, Ashu; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2008-02-01

    Male pseudohermaphroditism (46,XY DSD) due to 5alpha-reductase deficiency has been recognized for the last few decades. There is scant literature on this entity in India. We compiled data on five patients with this disorder. Four of our five patients were reared as females. Our assessment of these children reveals that they had male gender identity from childhood. Three of the four reared as females chose to change gender role at adolescence, while the fourth is still prepubertal. We conclude that all these patients had male gender identity from early childhood. The parents took note of this only after the appearance of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty, thereby giving an impression of change in gender identity and gender role.

  17. Gender Identity Disorder and Schizophrenia: Neurodevelopmental Disorders with Common Causal Mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed. PMID:25548672

  18. Cross-national replication of the gender identity interview for children.

    PubMed

    Wallien, Madeleine S C; Quilty, Lena C; Steensma, Thomas D; Singh, Devita; Lambert, Susan L; Leroux, Annie; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Bradley, Susan J; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2009-11-01

    We administered the Gender Identity Interview for Children, a 12-item child-informant measure, to children referred clinically for gender identity problems in Toronto, Ontario, Canada (N = 329) and Amsterdam, The Netherlands (N = 228) and 173 control children. Confirmatory factor analysis identified a Cognitive Gender Confusion factor (4 items) and an Affective Gender Confusion factor (8 items). Patients from both clinics had a significantly higher deviant total score than the controls, and the Dutch patients had a significantly higher deviant score than the Toronto patients. In this cross-national study, we are the first to report on the validity of this measure to discriminate children with gender identity disorder from controls outside of North America.

  19. Gender identity disorder and schizophrenia: neurodevelopmental disorders with common causal mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed.

  20. The Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations Among Latino/a High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the relation of ethnic identity to two determinants of career interests identified by social-cognitive career theory (SCCT): self-efficacy and outcome expectations. For a sample of 128 Latino/a ninth graders, the results indicated that ethnic identity had a direct and positive relationship to career decision-making…

  1. Gender and Ethnic Effects in the 1990 Army Career Satisfaction Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    Technical Report 963 AD-A25 7 778 Gender and Ethnic Effects in the 1990 Army Career Satisfaction Survey Mary Sue Hay U.S. Army Research Institute...62785A Satisfaction Survey 791 2105 6. AUTHOR(S) H01 Hay, Mary Sue 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION U.S...1990 Army Career Satisfaction Survey (ACSS) was developed to determine the attitudes of the Army’s active duty force toward downsizing the U.S. Army

  2. The case for the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health to address gender identity.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Veale, Jaimie F

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the case of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which did not address gender identity in their final report. We argue that gender identity is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health (SDH) that results in health inequities. We identify right to health mechanisms, such as established human rights instruments, as suitable policy tools for addressing gender identity as an SDH to improve health equity. We urge the World Health Organization to add gender identity as an SDH in its conceptual framework for action on the SDHs and to develop and implement specific recommendations for addressing gender identity as an SDH.

  3. "Brains before "Beauty"?" High Achieving Girls, School and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in…

  4. "Brains before "Beauty"?" High Achieving Girls, School and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in…

  5. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.

  6. The influence of physics teacher gender on college students' pursuit of careers in the physical sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    In science disciplines, students develop career goals based in part on their high school experiences. Science teachers and their personal characteristics are a part of this experience. In the case of physics, teacher gender is believed to modulate the interplay between student's own gender and their gender-related perceptions of physics. Using national data from college students (PRiSE Project, N=7505), we analyze the physics teacher gender effects on the choice of a career in the physical sciences by both male and female students. We examine three sub-samples of the data: students who have not taken any high school physics courses (about 60 percent of the total), those who have taken one physics course (teacher female or male), and those who have taken two physics courses (two female, two male, or one female and one male teacher). A correspondence analysis reveals an exploratory picture of the association between primary and confounding factors. Subsequently, a linear regression on students' physical science career choices is used as a confirmatory analysis of this picture.

  7. Transgender Identities and Gender Variance in Vocational Psychology: Recommendations for Practice, Social Advocacy, and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Maya Elin; McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; Cerezo, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Effective practices for career counseling with gender variant individuals have yet to be identified for reasons that may include perceptions that the population is too small to warrant in-depth research, lack of funding for such efforts, and practitioners' lack of training and experience with transgender concerns. In this article, we describe the…

  8. Self-characterizations of adult female informal caregivers: gender identity and the bearing of burden.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Maeona K

    2005-01-01

    Gender identity is a powerful aspect of self that shapes values, attitudes, and conduct. Family caregivers, particularly women, tend to forgo institutionalization of care recipients even when care demands are overwhelming. The reluctance of women to relinquish care raises questions about the relationship between gender identity and the bearing of burden. To illuminate the relationship between gender and burden, 36 adult women caring for highly dependent adults were asked to describe the nature of "self"; that is, how they characterized themselves as a person. Results were tabulated and critically examined in relation to stereotypical gender traits, as well as social and political processes that create gender dichotomies. Overall, self-characterizations indicated caregivers had internalized stereotypical female gender traits that support and facilitate the enduring of burden.

  9. What will I be when I grow up? The impact of gender identity threat on adolescents' occupational preferences.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Samantha; Carlsson, Rickard

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the impact of gender identity threat on adolescents' occupational preferences. Two hundred and ninety-seven adolescents (45% girls, M age = 14.4, SD = .54) participated in the experiment. There were substantial differences between boys' and girls' occupational preferences. Importantly, adolescents who received a threat to their gender identity became more stereotypical in job preferences, suggesting a causal link between threatened gender identity and stereotypical preferences. A comparison threat to one's capability did not have this effect, indicating a unique effect of gender identity threat. Further, individual differences in gender identity concerns predicted gender stereotypical preferences, and this finding was replicated with an independent sample (N = 242). In conclusion, the results suggest that threats to adolescents' gender identity may contribute to the large gender segregation on the labor market.

  10. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  11. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  12. Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Romantic Relationships in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with…

  13. The Gender Identity of Pedophiles: What Does the Outcome Data Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardif, Monique; Van Gijseghem, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pedophiles have a different gender identity profile compared with non-sexual offenders. Participants were 87 male adult subjects, divided into three groups: (a) 27 pedophiles who abused male victims, (b) 30 pedophiles who abused female victims, and (c) 30 non-sexual offenders. The gender identity…

  14. Constructing Gender Identities through Responses to Female-Centered Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Feng-ming

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, social identity has been recognized as a salient factor in second/foreign language learning, since literacy practice is not simply a matter of acquiring pre-given knowledge and sets of strategies, but involves a complex process of negotiating identities, cultures or even power relations. This study reports how a Taiwanese…

  15. A Discriminant Analysis of Gender and Counselor Professional Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Amanda C.; Hays, Danica G.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined professional identity development and orientation for 489 counseling practitioners, educators, and trainees as predicted by participant-identified sex and engagement in professional activities. Differences between male and female participants regarding aspects of professional identity were evaluated. Discriminant…

  16. Constructing Gender Identities through Responses to Female-Centered Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Feng-ming

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, social identity has been recognized as a salient factor in second/foreign language learning, since literacy practice is not simply a matter of acquiring pre-given knowledge and sets of strategies, but involves a complex process of negotiating identities, cultures or even power relations. This study reports how a Taiwanese…

  17. Biomedical Science Ph.D. Career Interest Patterns by Race/Ethnicity and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Kenneth D.; McGready, John; Bennett, Jessica C.; Griffin, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Increasing biomedical workforce diversity remains a persistent challenge. Recent reports have shown that biomedical sciences (BMS) graduate students become less interested in faculty careers as training progresses; however, it is unclear whether or how the career preferences of women and underrepresented minority (URM) scientists change in manners distinct from their better-represented peers. We report results from a survey of 1500 recent American BMS Ph.D. graduates (including 276 URMs) that examined career preferences over the course of their graduate training experiences. On average, scientists from all social backgrounds showed significantly decreased interest in faculty careers at research universities, and significantly increased interest in non-research careers at Ph.D. completion relative to entry. However, group differences emerged in overall levels of interest (at Ph.D. entry and completion), and the magnitude of change in interest in these careers. Multiple logistic regression showed that when controlling for career pathway interest at Ph.D. entry, first-author publication rate, faculty support, research self-efficacy, and graduate training experiences, differences in career pathway interest between social identity groups persisted. All groups were less likely than men from well-represented (WR) racial/ethnic backgrounds to report high interest in faculty careers at research-intensive universities (URM men: OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36–0.98, p = 0.04; WR women: OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47–0.89, p = 0.008; URM women: OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30–0.71, p<0.001), and URM women were more likely than all other groups to report high interest in non-research careers (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.28–2.90, p = 0.002). The persistence of disparities in the career interests of Ph.D. recipients suggests that a supply-side (or “pipeline”) framing of biomedical workforce diversity challenges may limit the effectiveness of efforts to attract and retain the best and most

  18. Biomedical Science Ph.D. Career Interest Patterns by Race/Ethnicity and Gender.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Kenneth D; McGready, John; Bennett, Jessica C; Griffin, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Increasing biomedical workforce diversity remains a persistent challenge. Recent reports have shown that biomedical sciences (BMS) graduate students become less interested in faculty careers as training progresses; however, it is unclear whether or how the career preferences of women and underrepresented minority (URM) scientists change in manners distinct from their better-represented peers. We report results from a survey of 1500 recent American BMS Ph.D. graduates (including 276 URMs) that examined career preferences over the course of their graduate training experiences. On average, scientists from all social backgrounds showed significantly decreased interest in faculty careers at research universities, and significantly increased interest in non-research careers at Ph.D. completion relative to entry. However, group differences emerged in overall levels of interest (at Ph.D. entry and completion), and the magnitude of change in interest in these careers. Multiple logistic regression showed that when controlling for career pathway interest at Ph.D. entry, first-author publication rate, faculty support, research self-efficacy, and graduate training experiences, differences in career pathway interest between social identity groups persisted. All groups were less likely than men from well-represented (WR) racial/ethnic backgrounds to report high interest in faculty careers at research-intensive universities (URM men: OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98, p = 0.04; WR women: OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.89, p = 0.008; URM women: OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.71, p<0.001), and URM women were more likely than all other groups to report high interest in non-research careers (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.28-2.90, p = 0.002). The persistence of disparities in the career interests of Ph.D. recipients suggests that a supply-side (or "pipeline") framing of biomedical workforce diversity challenges may limit the effectiveness of efforts to attract and retain the best and most diverse

  19. Learning Gender in Primary School Playgrounds: Findings from the Tomboy Identities Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie; Clark, Sheryl

    2007-01-01

    This paper starts from the idea that children learn and construct gendered identities within local communities of masculinity and femininity practice, including peer communities. The data presented come from an ESRC-funded study of tomboy identities, which investigated the enabling and constraining factors for girls in taking up and maintaining…

  20. Learning Gender in Primary School Playgrounds: Findings from the Tomboy Identities Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie; Clark, Sheryl

    2007-01-01

    This paper starts from the idea that children learn and construct gendered identities within local communities of masculinity and femininity practice, including peer communities. The data presented come from an ESRC-funded study of tomboy identities, which investigated the enabling and constraining factors for girls in taking up and maintaining…

  1. The Family as a Site for Gendered Ethnic Identity Work among Asian Indian Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Meeta; Calasanti, Toni M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on immigrants often points to the family as a source of support and a location for oppression. Using in-depth interviews with 38 first-generation immigrant Indians, this study adds to this literature by exploring families as sites of identity work where first-generation immigrants manage their gendered ethnic identities. Relocation into a…

  2. African American Men, Gender Role Conflict, and Psychological Distress: The Role of Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Stephen R.; Vogel, David L.; Wei, Meifen; McLain, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    Little research exists exploring the intersection of male gender role conflict (GRC), racial identity, and psychological distress. Accordingly, using a sample of 130 self-identified African American male participants, this study explored which aspects of racial identity mediated the relationship between GRC and psychological distress. Results…

  3. Engagement with a Teaching Career--How a Group of Finnish University Teachers Experience Teacher Identity and Professional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korhonen, Vesa; Törmä, Sirpa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to identify teachers' ways of experiencing their identity and development challenges as teachers in the social and professional context of university. Identity and development as a teacher were examined based on interviews and drawings of career paths collected from a group of university teachers representing…

  4. Gender differences in academic productivity and academic career choice among urology residents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Glen; Villalta, Jacqueline D; Weiss, Dana A; Carroll, Peter R; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2012-10-01

    Gender disparities have long existed in medicine but they have not been well examined in urology. We analyzed a large cohort of graduating urology residents to investigate gender disparities in academic productivity, as measured by peer reviewed publications and academic career choice. We assembled a list of urology residents who graduated from 2002 through 2008 who were affiliated with the top 50 urology hospitals, as ranked by 2009 U.S. News & World Report. PubMed® was queried to determine the publication output of each resident during the last 3 years of residency. We used an Internet search to determine the fellowship training, career choice and academic rank of each subject. Gender effects on each factor were evaluated. A total of 459 male (84.5%) and 84 female (15.5%) residents were included in analysis. During residency women produced fewer total publications (average 3.0 vs 4.8, p = 0.01) and fewer as first author (average 1.8 vs 2.5, p = 0.03) than men. A higher proportion of women than men underwent fellowship training (54.8% vs 48.5%, p = 0.29) and ultimately chose an academic career (40.5% vs 33.3%, p = 0.20), although these differences were not statistically significant. Of residents who chose an academic career a higher proportion of men than women (24.7% vs 2.9%, p = 0.01) obtained associate vs assistant professor rank. Women produced fewer peer reviewed publications than men during residency but they were equally likely to undergo fellowship training and choose an academic career. During the study period a higher proportion of men achieved associate professor rank. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender Differences in Academic Productivity and Academic Career Choice Among Urology Residents

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Glen; Villalta, Jacqueline D.; Weiss, Dana A.; Carroll, Peter R.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Gender disparities have long existed in medicine but they have not been well examined in urology. We analyzed a large cohort of graduating urology residents to investigate gender disparities in academic productivity, as measured by peer reviewed publications and academic career choice. Materials and Methods We assembled a list of urology residents who graduated from 2002 through 2008 who were affiliated with the top 50 urology hospitals, as ranked by 2009 U.S. News & World Report. PubMed® was queried to determine the publication output of each resident during the last 3 years of residency. We used an Internet search to determine the fellowship training, career choice and academic rank of each subject. Gender effects on each factor were evaluated. Results A total of 459 male (84.5%) and 84 female (15.5%) residents were included in analysis. During residency women produced fewer total publications (average 3.0 vs 4.8, p = 0.01) and fewer as first author (average 1.8 vs 2.5, p = 0.03) than men. A higher proportion of women than men underwent fellowship training (54.8% vs 48.5%, p =0.29) and ultimately chose an academic career (40.5% vs 33.3%, p = 0.20), although these differences were not statistically significant. Of residents who chose an academic career a higher proportion of men than women (24.7% vs 2.9%, p = 0.01) obtained associate vs assistant professor rank. Conclusions Women produced fewer peer reviewed publications than men during residency but they were equally likely to undergo fellowship training and choose an academic career. During the study period a higher proportion of men achieved associate professor rank. PMID:22902027

  6. Gender identity and recalled gender related childhood play-behaviour in adult individuals with different forms of intersexuality.

    PubMed

    Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Discher, Christine; Gedrose, Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    The concept of intersexuality subsumes a wide variety of phenomena with very specific underlying causes. In all these cases, an untypical development takes place during the prenatal sex differentiation process becoming clinically manifest, either at, or soon after birth or at the time of puberty. It subsumes conditions in which biological sexual characteristics (e.g. chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, hormonal sex, morphological sex) differ from each other and one person cannot easily be assigned to one sex. One of the main goals of medical treatment of persons with intersex-syndroms is the development of a stable gender identity. Over the last few years, sex (and gender) assignment of persons with different forms of intersexuality has become a much discussed topic. An interesting--and very obviously observable--variable that was brought in connection with sex assignment is gender related childhood play behaviour. The purpose of the presented study is to examine 37 persons with different forms of intersexuality (disturbances of androgen biosynthesis, partial and complete androgen insensitivity, gonadal dysgenesis with 46,XY and congenital adrenal hyperplasia with 46,XX) with regard to gender identity and gender role behaviour in childhood. Not all subjects in the study group had developed a clear female or male gender identity. In contrast to previous studies, some persons with CAIS did not recall distinguished female childhood play behaviour and these persons did not show a clear female gender identity. In contrast to results from other studies, the CAH-affected girls in this study did not seem to recall masculinized behaviour. Further research is needed to guarantee better psychosexual development with good quality of life in individuals with intersexuality.

  7. Effects of gay identity, gender and explicitness of advertising imagery on gay responses to advertising.

    PubMed

    Oakenfull, Gillian

    2007-01-01

    The present research draws from literature relating to gay identity in psychology and sociology and feminist theory to consider the effect of gay identity and gender on gays' and lesbians' attitudes toward various types of advertising content that are most commonly used to target gay consumers. As such, this study empirically tests whether gay males' and lesbians' responses to gay-oriented advertising content are moderated by individual characteristics: (1) the degree to which they identify as gay, and (2) their gender, and by the explicitness and gender of the gay-oriented advertising imagery.

  8. Impact of gender-based career obstacles on the working status of women physicians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kyoko; Gohchi, Kengo

    2012-11-01

    Research has shown that women physicians work fewer hours and are more likely to become inactive professionally and to switch to part-time labor, compared with their male counterparts. The published literature suggests that a gender disparity still exists in medicine which may decrease work motivation among women physicians. The authors investigated whether the experience and the perception of gender-based career obstacles among women physicians in Japan are associated with their working status (i.e., full-time vs. part-time). The present cross-sectional study is based on surveys of alumnae from 13 private medical schools in Japan conducted between June 2009 and May 2011. Of those who agreed to participate in this study, 1684 completed a self-administered questionnaire (overall response rate 83%). Experience of gender-based obstacles was considered affirmative if a woman physician had been overlooked for opportunities of professional advancement based on gender. Perception of gender-based obstacles referred to the self-reported degree of difficulty of promotion and opportunities for a position in higher education. Approximately 20% of the study participants responded that they experienced gender-based obstacles while 24% answered that they were not sure. The scores for perception of gender-based career obstacles were statistically higher among part-time workers compared with full-time workers (mean difference = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.39-2.00). Adjusting for age, marital status, the presence of children, workplace, board certification, holding a PhD degree, overall satisfaction of being a physician, and household income, stepwise logistic regression models revealed that physicians with the strongest perception of gender-based career obstacles were more likely to work part-time rather than full-time (OR, 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Although the experience of gender-based obstacles was not associated with working status among women physicians, the results demonstrated that a

  9. Gender differences in research performance and its impact on careers: a longitudinal case study.

    PubMed

    van den Besselaar, Peter; Sandström, Ulf

    We take up the issue of performance differences between male and female researchers, and investigate the change of performance differences during the early career. In a previous paper it was shown that among starting researchers gendered performance differences seem small to non-existent (Van Arensbergen et al. 2012). If the differences do not occur in the early career anymore, they may emerge in a later period, or may remain absent. In this paper we use the same sample of male and female researchers, but now compare performance levels about 10 years later. We use various performance indicators: full/fractional counted productivity, citation impact, and relative citation impact in terms of the share of papers in the top 10 % highly cited papers. After the 10 years period, productivity of male researchers has grown faster than of female researcher, but the field normalized (relative) citation impact indicators of male and female researchers remain about equal. Furthermore, performance data do explain to a certain extent why male careers in our sample develop much faster than female researchers' careers; but controlling for performance differences, we find that gender is an important determinant too. Consequently, the process of hiring academic staff still remains biased.

  10. Sexual and gender minority identity disclosure during undergraduate medical education: "in the closet" in medical school.

    PubMed

    Mansh, Matthew; White, William; Gee-Tong, Lea; Lunn, Mitchell R; Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Stewart, Leslie; Goldsmith, Elizabeth; Brenman, Stephanie; Tran, Eric; Wells, Maggie; Fetterman, David; Garcia, Gabriel

    2015-05-01

    To assess identity disclosure among sexual and gender minority (SGM) students pursuing undergraduate medical training in the United States and Canada. From 2009 to 2010, a survey was made available to all medical students enrolled in the 176 MD- and DO-granting medical schools in the United States and Canada. Respondents were asked about their sexual and gender identity, whether they were "out" (i.e., had publicly disclosed their identity), and, if they were not, their reasons for concealing their identity. The authors used a mixed-methods approach and analyzed quantitative and qualitative survey data. Of 5,812 completed responses (of 101,473 eligible respondents; response rate 5.7%), 920 (15.8%) students from 152 (of 176; 86.4%) institutions identified as SGMs. Of the 912 sexual minorities, 269 (29.5%) concealed their sexual identity in medical school. Factors associated with sexual identity concealment included sexual minority identity other than lesbian or gay, male gender, East Asian race, and medical school enrollment in the South or Central regions of North America. The most common reasons for concealing one's sexual identity were "nobody's business" (165/269; 61.3%), fear of discrimination in medical school (117/269; 43.5%), and social or cultural norms (110/269; 40.9%). Of the 35 gender minorities, 21 (60.0%) concealed their gender identity, citing fear of discrimination in medical school (9/21; 42.9%) and lack of support (9/21; 42.9%). SGM students continue to conceal their identity during undergraduate medical training. Medical institutions should adopt targeted policies and programs to better support these individuals.

  11. Domain-specific gender comparisons in identity development among college youth: ideology and relationships.

    PubMed

    Pastorino, E; Dunham, R M; Kidwell, J; Bacho, R; Lamborn, S D

    1997-01-01

    Gender comparisons were conducted in six social domains of identity development on 210 college students: occupation, religion, politics, dating, sex roles, and friendship. The identity research literature often combines domains to create more global estimates of identity development. Such an approach may obscure differences among the domains, each of which may have different implications for different societal contexts, and for males and females. Analyses were made for each domain, and for the combined ideological, interpersonal, and overall domain scores. Several gender differences were apparent when domain-specific analyses were examined. Males were more likely to explore and commit in politics, whereas females were more likely to explore in sex roles and to commit in religion and dating. In politics, fewer males were in the diffused status; in contrast, for dating and sex roles, there were fewer females in the diffused status. However, when combined scores were examined, there were no gender differences in identity status. The results suggest that some gender differences still remain in specific domains. The utility of including domain-specific analyses is suggested when gender comparisons are examined. Regardless of gender, more youth were diffused in political identity than in any other domain, suggesting political apathy among today's college youth.

  12. The Call of the Sirens? The Influence of Gender in the Decision To Choose Teaching as a Career Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freidus, Helen

    Social feminists insist on the relevance of personal experience and believe that, for changes to occur, it is essential to understand the dynamics of how and why gender roles are perpetuated. Social feminists view the career course of second-career teachers as vulnerable to the covert structures and curriculum of the schools. The social feminist…

  13. Who Gets Ahead?: The Effect of Age, Disability, Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Careers and Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…

  14. Who Gets Ahead?: The Effect of Age, Disability, Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Careers and Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…

  15. Professional Identity Formation and the Clinician-Scientist: A Paradigm for a Clinical Career Combining Two Distinct Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Norman D; Kluijtmans, Manon; Ten Cate, Olle

    2016-05-31

    The clinician-scientist role is critical to the future of health care, and in 2010, the Carnegie Report on Educating Physicians focused attention on the professional identity of practicing clinicians. Although limited in number, published studies on the topic suggest that professional identity is likely a critical factor that determines career sustainability. In contrast to clinicians with a singular focus on clinical practice, clinician-scientists combine two major disciplines, clinical medicine and scientific research, to bridge discovery and clinical care. Despite its importance to advancing medical practice, the clinician-scientist career faced a variety of threats, which have been identified recently by the 2014 National Institutes of Health Physician Scientist Workforce. Yet, professional identity development in this career pathway is poorly understood. This Perspective focuses on the challenges to the clinician-scientist's professional identity and its development. First, the authors identify the particular challenges that arise from the different cultures of clinical care and science and the implications for clinician-scientist professional identity formation. Next, the authors synthesize insights about professional identity development within a dual-discipline career and apply their analysis to a discussion about the implications for clinician-scientist identity formation. Although not purposely developed to address identity formation, the authors highlight those elements within clinician-scientist training and career development programs that may implicitly support identity development. Finally, the authors highlight a need to identify empirically the elements that compose and determine clinician-scientist professional identity and the processes that shape its formation and sustainability.

  16. Harassment Due to Gender Nonconformity Mediates the Association Between Sexual Minority Identity and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; August, Elana G

    2016-01-01

    The visibility of a stigmatized identity is central in determining how individuals experience that identity. Sexual minority status (e.g., identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) has traditionally been identified as a concealable stigma, compared with race/ethnicity or physical disability status. This conceptualization fails to recognize, however, the strong link between sexual minority status and a visible stigma: gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity, or the perception that an individual fails to conform to gendered norms of behavior and appearance, is strongly stigmatized, and is popularly associated with sexual minority status. The hypothesis that harassment due to gender nonconformity mediates the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms was tested. Heterosexual and sexual minority-identified college and university students (N = 251) completed questionnaires regarding their sexual minority identity, experiences of harassment due to gender nonconformity, harassment due to sexual minority status, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was supported, in which the association between sexual minority identity and depressive symptoms occurred via harassment due to gender nonconformity. Findings highlight harassment due to gender nonconformity as a possible mechanism for exploring variability in depressive symptoms among sexual minorities.

  17. Men, Women, and Money: Exploring the Role of Gender, Gender-Linkage of College Major and Career-Information Sources in Salary Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Kenneth E.; Brown, Theresa J.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the role that sources of career information (e.g., professors, family) play in shaping college students' salary expectations. Results suggest differences in entry level salary expectations were associated with gender and gender-linkage of college major; women gathered more information from female sources than did men; and career…

  18. Linking Prenatal Androgens to Gender-Related Attitudes, Identity, and Activities: Evidence From Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Beltz, Adriene M; McHale, Susan M; Bryk, Kristina; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2016-10-01

    Key questions for developmentalists concern the origins of gender attitudes and their implications for behavior. We examined whether prenatal androgen exposure was related to gender attitudes, and whether and how the links between attitudes and gendered activity interest and participation were mediated by gender identity and moderated by hormones. Gender attitudes (i.e., gender-role attitudes and attitudes about being a girl), gender identity, and gender-typed activities were reported by 54 girls aged 10-13 years varying in degree of prenatal androgen exposure, including 40 girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (C-CAH) exposed to high prenatal androgens and 14 girls with non-classical (NC) CAH exposed to low, female-typical, prenatal androgens. Both girls with C-CAH and NC-CAH reported positive attitudes about being a girl and egalitarian gender attitudes, consistent with their female-typical gender identity. In contrast, girls with C-CAH had more male-typed activity interest and participation than girls with NC-CAH. Gender attitudes were linked to activities in both groups, with gender identity mediating the links. Specifically, gender-role attitudes and positive attitudes about being a girl were associated with feminine gender identity, which in turn was associated with decreased male-typed activity interests and participation, and increased female-typed activity interests. Our results are consistent with schema theories, with attitudes more closely associated with gender identity than with prenatal androgens.

  19. Effects of Engineering Design-Based Science on Elementary School Science Students' Engineering Identity Development across Gender and Grade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Yu, Ji H.; French, Brian F.

    2015-04-01

    The integration of engineering concepts and practices into elementary science education has become an emerging concern for science educators and practitioners, alike. Moreover, how children, specifically preadolescents (grades 1-5), engage in engineering design-based learning activities may help science educators and researchers learn more about children's earliest identification with engineering. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which engineering identity differed among preadolescents across gender and grade, when exposing students to engineering design-based science learning activities. Five hundred fifty preadolescent participants completed the Engineering Identity Development Scale (EIDS), a recently developed measure with validity evidence that characterizes children's conceptions of engineering and potential career aspirations. Data analyses of variance among four factors (i.e., gender, grade, and group) indicated that elementary school students who engaged in the engineering design-based science learning activities demonstrated greater improvements on the EIDS subscales compared to those in the comparison group. Specifically, students in the lower grade levels showed substantial increases, while students in the higher grade levels showed decreases. Girls, regardless of grade level and participation in the engineering learning activities, showed higher scores in the academic subscale compared to boys. These findings suggest that the integration of engineering practices in the science classroom as early as grade one shows potential in fostering and sustaining student interest, participation, and self-concept in engineering and science.

  20. How queer!--the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in LGBTQ-headed families.

    PubMed

    Istar Lev, Arlene

    2010-09-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of heteronormativity on research and clinical theory, utilizing the case of a lesbian couple with a young gender dysphoric child as a backdrop to discuss the contextual unfolding of gender development within a lesbian parented family. The extant research on LGBTQ-headed families has minimized the complexity of children's developing gender identity and sexual orientation living in queer families, and has been guided by heteronormative assumptions that presume a less optimal outcome if the children of LGBTQ parents are gay or transgender themselves. This article challenges family therapists to recognize the enormous societal pressure on LGBTQ parents to produce heterosexual, gender-normative children, and the expectations on their children, especially those questioning their own sex or gender identities. 2010 © FPI, Inc.

  1. Sexual orientation and gender identity: review of concepts, controversies and their relation to psychopathology classification systems.

    PubMed

    Moleiro, Carla; Pinto, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems) with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i) to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii) to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii) to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity.

  2. Sexual orientation and gender identity: review of concepts, controversies and their relation to psychopathology classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Moleiro, Carla; Pinto, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems) with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i) to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii) to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii) to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity. PMID:26483748

  3. Factor structure of a multidimensional gender identity scale in a sample of Chinese elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Xie, Dong; Shek, Daniel T L

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001) in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to "Felt Pressure" and "Intergroup Bias" in the original model. The third factor "Gender Compatibility" appeared to be a combination of "Gender Typicality" and "Gender Contentment" in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity.

  4. Factor Structure of a Multidimensional Gender Identity Scale in a Sample of Chinese Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lu; Xie, Dong; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001) in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to “Felt Pressure” and “Intergroup Bias” in the original model. The third factor “Gender Compatibility” appeared to be a combination of “Gender Typicality” and “Gender Contentment” in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity. PMID:22701363

  5. Evolving Nature of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jourian, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the historical and evolving terminology, constructs, and ideologies that inform the language used by those who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and same-gender loving, who may identify as queer, as well as those who are members of trans* communities from multiple and intersectional perspectives.

  6. Sex-Role Concepts and Gender Identity in Children's Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hope; And Others

    The expression of children's concepts of sex-roles was explored by examining changes in the masculinity and femininity of human figure drawings of males and females. A total of 106 sixth-grade students participated in two Draw-a-Person sessions. In the drawing task, persons to be drawn were either specified in terms of gender or unspecified as to…

  7. Gender Identity and the Overexcitability Profiles of Gifted College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Nancy B.; Falk, R. Frank; Huang, Yinmei

    2009-01-01

    Traditional sex-based categories are giving way to more expanded notions of gender among young men and women today. Along with feminine and masculine personalities, some individuals combine both for a more androgynous persona, whereas others exhibit few distinctly feminine or masculine characteristics. In a study of 118 gifted college students,…

  8. Modern Schoolmarms and the Struggle for Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Boys and girls are enculturated into an adult life where men hold more power, make more money, and have higher self-esteem. Society, including the institutional practices of schooling, teaches and sustains inequitable gender roles. Extending "women's work," female teachers are instrumental in this reproductive process, unconsciously perpetuating…

  9. Sexism Exposed: Films about Gender Identity, Discrimination, and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Paul C.; Alimo, Craig; Brimhall-Vargas, Mark; Clark, Christone; Harewood, Gia; Horton, Julie; O'Neill, Nancy; Subbaraman, Sivagami

    2002-01-01

    Reviews documentary and ethnographic films that examine gender-related issues, summarizing each film and analyzing its relevance to multicultural and social justice education. The films are: "The Fairer Sex?"; "Macho, 2000"; "The Pill"; "Step by Step: Building a Feminist Movement"; "I am a Man";…

  10. Evolving Nature of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jourian, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the historical and evolving terminology, constructs, and ideologies that inform the language used by those who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and same-gender loving, who may identify as queer, as well as those who are members of trans* communities from multiple and intersectional perspectives.

  11. Preadolescents' Gendered Spiritual Identities and Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne; Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Park-Saltzman, Jeeseon

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that self-control or self-regulation may play a role in the connections among spirituality, health, well-being, and social behavior. Within the framework of social-cognitive developmental theory, we explore the question of how do children and adolescents learn to think of themselves as gendered and spiritual beings within the…

  12. Gender Identity and the Overexcitability Profiles of Gifted College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Nancy B.; Falk, R. Frank; Huang, Yinmei

    2009-01-01

    Traditional sex-based categories are giving way to more expanded notions of gender among young men and women today. Along with feminine and masculine personalities, some individuals combine both for a more androgynous persona, whereas others exhibit few distinctly feminine or masculine characteristics. In a study of 118 gifted college students,…

  13. Preadolescents' Gendered Spiritual Identities and Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne; Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Park-Saltzman, Jeeseon

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that self-control or self-regulation may play a role in the connections among spirituality, health, well-being, and social behavior. Within the framework of social-cognitive developmental theory, we explore the question of how do children and adolescents learn to think of themselves as gendered and spiritual beings within the…

  14. Relationship Between Career Aspirations and Measures of Motivation Toward Biology and Physics, and the Influence of Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Chantara, Soontornpathai

    2011-12-01

    A student's motivational orientation is considered to be a predictor of a range of related education decisions, from attending classes to choosing a particular course or a profession. This survey study conducted with student volunteers (males = 519; females = 904) enrolled in secondary school science-math academic stream in Thailand investigated the relationship between measures of motivation (achievement goal orientation and physics and biology classroom anxiety) and aspirations for high earning science and math related careers. Results of multiple discriminant analyses showed gender differences in the motivational factors that influence career aspirations. Our interpretation of the findings highlights the significance of cultural beliefs about gender in decision making for careers.

  15. A Multiple Identity Approach to Gender: Identification with Women, Identification with Feminists, and Their Interaction.

    PubMed

    van Breen, Jolien A; Spears, Russell; Kuppens, Toon; de Lemus, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Across four studies, we examine multiple identities in the context of gender and propose that women's attitudes toward gender group membership are governed by two largely orthogonal dimensions of gender identity: identification with women and identification with feminists. We argue that identification with women reflects attitudes toward the content society gives to group membership: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of group characteristics, interests and values? Identification with feminists, on the other hand, is a politicized identity dimension reflecting attitudes toward the social position of the group: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of disadvantage, inequality, and relative status? We examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in four studies. Study 1 showed that identification with women reflects attitudes toward group characteristics, such as femininity and self-stereotyping, while identification with feminists reflects attitudes toward the group's social position, such as perceived sexism. The two dimensions are shown to be largely independent, and as such provide support for the multiple identity approach. In Studies 2-4, we examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in predicting qualitative differences in gender attitudes. Results show that specific combinations of identification with women and feminists predicted attitudes toward collective action and gender stereotypes. Higher identification with feminists led to endorsement of radical collective action (Study 2) and critical attitudes toward gender stereotypes (Studies 3-4), especially at lower levels of identification with women. The different combinations of high vs. low identification with women and feminists can be thought of as reflecting four theoretical identity "types." A woman can be (1) strongly identified with neither women nor feminists ("low identifier"), (2) strongly identified with women but less so with feminists ("traditional identifier"), (3

  16. A Multiple Identity Approach to Gender: Identification with Women, Identification with Feminists, and Their Interaction

    PubMed Central

    van Breen, Jolien A.; Spears, Russell; Kuppens, Toon; de Lemus, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Across four studies, we examine multiple identities in the context of gender and propose that women's attitudes toward gender group membership are governed by two largely orthogonal dimensions of gender identity: identification with women and identification with feminists. We argue that identification with women reflects attitudes toward the content society gives to group membership: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of group characteristics, interests and values? Identification with feminists, on the other hand, is a politicized identity dimension reflecting attitudes toward the social position of the group: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of disadvantage, inequality, and relative status? We examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in four studies. Study 1 showed that identification with women reflects attitudes toward group characteristics, such as femininity and self-stereotyping, while identification with feminists reflects attitudes toward the group's social position, such as perceived sexism. The two dimensions are shown to be largely independent, and as such provide support for the multiple identity approach. In Studies 2–4, we examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in predicting qualitative differences in gender attitudes. Results show that specific combinations of identification with women and feminists predicted attitudes toward collective action and gender stereotypes. Higher identification with feminists led to endorsement of radical collective action (Study 2) and critical attitudes toward gender stereotypes (Studies 3–4), especially at lower levels of identification with women. The different combinations of high vs. low identification with women and feminists can be thought of as reflecting four theoretical identity “types.” A woman can be (1) strongly identified with neither women nor feminists (“low identifier”), (2) strongly identified with women but less so with feminists (

  17. If 'we' can succeed, 'I' can too: Identity-based motivation and gender in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Kristen C; Oyserman, Daphna

    2012-07-01

    Gender matters in the classroom, but not in the way people may assume; girls are outperforming boys. Identity-Based Motivation (IBM) theory explains why: People prefer to act in ways that feel in-line with important social identities such as gender. If a behavior feels identity-congruent, difficulty is interpreted as meaning that the behavior is important, not impossible, but what feels identity-congruent is context-dependent. IBM implies that boys (and girls) scan the classroom for clues about how to be male (or female); school effort will feel worthwhile if successful engagement with school feels gender-congruent, not otherwise. A between-subjects experimental design tested this prediction, manipulating whether gender and success felt congruent, incongruent, or not linked (control). Students in the success is gender-congruent condition described more school-focused possible identities, rated their likely future academic and occupational success higher, and tried harder on an academic task (this latter effect was significant only for boys).

  18. Towards full citizenship: correlates of engagement with the gender identity law among transwomen in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Socías, María Eugenia; Marshall, Brandon D L; Arístegui, Inés; Zalazar, Virginia; Romero, Marcela; Sued, Omar; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In May 2012, Argentina passed its "Gender Identity" Law, which aimed to address the legal invisibility, discrimination and marginalization that transgender individuals have historically faced. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with engagement with the Gender Identity Law among transwomen living in Argentina. Data were derived from a 2013 nationwide, cross-sectional study involving transwomen in Argentina. Using multivariate logistic regression, we assessed the prevalence and factors associated with acquiring a gender-congruent identity card within the first 18 months of enactment of the Gender Identity Law. Among 452 transwomen, 260 (57.5%) reported that they had obtained a new gender-congruent identity card. In multivariate analysis, factors positively associated with acquiring a new ID were: previously experiencing discrimination by healthcare workers (adjusted odd ratio [aOR] = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.27-3.20); having engaged in transition procedures (aOR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.58-5.93); and having a job other than sex work (aOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.06-3.10). Foreign born transwomen were less likely to have obtained a new ID (aOR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06-0.33). More than half of transwomen in our sample acquired a new gender-congruent ID within the first 18 months of enactment of the Gender Identity Law. However, access to and uptake of this right has been heterogeneous. In particular, our findings suggest that the most empowered transwomen may have been among the first to take advantage of this right. Although educational level, housing conditions, HIV status and sex work were not associated with the outcome, foreign-born status was a strong negative correlate of new ID acquisition. Therefore, additional efforts should be made in order to ensure that benefits of this founding policy reach all transwomen in Argentina.

  19. Residents' reasons for specialty choice: influence of gender, time, patient and career.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael; Orlow, Pascale; Giger, Max

    2010-06-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined reasons for specialty choice among Swiss residents (post graduate doctors training in specialties). METHODS In 2006, a questionnaire was sent to 8626 Swiss residents registered in postgraduate medical training programmes to obtain specialist qualifications. The response rate was 65% (n = 5631). As residents are allowed to decide on the specialty they want to acquire later in the training process, only residents who had already chosen a specific specialty were included (n = 5038). In responding, residents rated the importance of 19 factors in making their choice of specialty. Categorical principal component analysis was conducted to obtain underlying dimensions within the reasons for choice. A two-way analysis of variance was performed for each dimension to compare the mean object scores for the 10 specialties chosen by the most residents and to examine possible interactions by gender and year of graduation. Contrasts between the specialties were analysed with Scheffe post hoc tests. RESULTS Categorical principal component analyses yielded three factors underlying residents' choice of specialty, which explained 40.8% of the variance in responses: work and time-related aspects; career-related aspects, and patient orientation. Women considered work and time-related aspects and patient orientation to be more important factors in their choice, and career-related aspects to be less important, than did men. Career-related aspects became less important with advancing training status. CONCLUSIONS This study showed that reasons for specialty choice differ according to gender, year of graduation and specialty. With progressing training status, gender differences in reasons for choice and specialty choice may become more pronounced, especially regarding career aspects, which may lead to a change in preferred specialty. Therefore, a modular constructed postgraduate training programme might give residents the flexibility to change from one specialty

  20. Race, Gender, and Leadership Identity: An Autoethnography of Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    This article is an autoethnography of the author's journey researching Black men. She highlights two critical incidents during the research process that aided in the formation of her identity as a leader. Drawing on Hill Collins' "Black Feminist Thought" the author also identifies key women leaders whose examples fueled her commitment to…