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Sample records for gene clinical features

  1. Clinical features of MELAS and its relation with A3243G gene point mutation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Guo, Junhong; Fang, Wanghui; Jun, Qili; Shi, Kaili

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) mostly occur in children. The point mutation A3243G of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may work as a specific bio-marker for mitochondrial disorders. The related clinical features, however, may vary among individuals. This study therefore investigated the relation between MELAS clinical features and point mutation A3243G of mtDNA, in an attempt to provide further evidences for genetic diagnosis of MELAS. Children with MELAS-like syndromes were tested for both blood lactate level and point mutation A3243G of mtDNA. Further family study was performed by mtDNA mutation screening at the same loci for those who had positive gene mutation at A3243G loci. Those who were negative for A3243G point mutation were examined by muscle biopsy and genetic screening. Both clinical and genetic features were analyzed. In all 40 cases with positive A3243G mutation, 36 children fitted clinical diagnosis of MELAS. In other 484 cases with negative mutation, only 8 children were clinically diagnosed with MELAS. Blood lactate levels in both groups were all elevated (P>0.05). In a further genetic screening of 28 families, 10 biological mothers and 8 siblings of MELAS children had positive A3243G point mutations but without any clinical symptoms. Certain difference existed in the clinical manifestations between children who were positive and negative for A3243G mutation of mtDNA but without statistical significance. MELAS showed maternal inheritance under most circumstances.

  2. Clinical features of MELAS and its relation with A3243G gene point mutation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Guo, Junhong; Fang, Wanghui; Jun, Qili; Shi, Kaili

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) mostly occur in children. The point mutation A3243G of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may work as a specific bio-marker for mitochondrial disorders. The related clinical features, however, may vary among individuals. This study therefore investigated the relation between MELAS clinical features and point mutation A3243G of mtDNA, in an attempt to provide further evidences for genetic diagnosis of MELAS. Children with MELAS-like syndromes were tested for both blood lactate level and point mutation A3243G of mtDNA. Further family study was performed by mtDNA mutation screening at the same loci for those who had positive gene mutation at A3243G loci. Those who were negative for A3243G point mutation were examined by muscle biopsy and genetic screening. Both clinical and genetic features were analyzed. In all 40 cases with positive A3243G mutation, 36 children fitted clinical diagnosis of MELAS. In other 484 cases with negative mutation, only 8 children were clinically diagnosed with MELAS. Blood lactate levels in both groups were all elevated (P>0.05). In a further genetic screening of 28 families, 10 biological mothers and 8 silbings of MELAS children had positive A3243G point mutations but without any clinical symptoms. Certain difference existed in the clinical manifestations between children who were positive and negative for A3243G mutation of mtDNA but without statistical significance. MELAS showed maternal inheritance under most circumstances. PMID:26722549

  3. Underestimated associated features in CMT neuropathies: clinical indicators for the causative gene?

    PubMed

    Werheid, Friederike; Azzedine, Hamid; Zwerenz, Eva; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Moeller, Marcus J; Lin, Lilian; Mull, Michael; Häusler, Martin; Schulz, Jörg B; Weis, Joachim; Claeys, Kristl G

    2016-04-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT) is a genetically heterogeneous group of peripheral neuropathies. In addition to the classical clinical phenotype, additional features can occur. We studied a wide range of additional features in a cohort of 49 genetically confirmed CMT patients and performed a systematic literature revision. Patients harbored a PMP22 gene alteration (n = 28) or a mutation in MPZ (n = 11), GJB1 (n = 4), LITAF (n = 2), MFN2 (n = 2), INF2 (n = 1), NEFL (n = 1). We identified four novel mutations (3 MPZ, 1 GJB1). A total of 88% presented at least one additional feature. In MPZ patients, we detected hypertrophic nerve roots in 3/4 cases that underwent spinal MRI, and pupillary abnormalities in 27%. In our cohort, restless legs syndrome (RLS) was present in 18%. We describe for the first time RLS associated with LITAF or MFN2 and predominant upper limb involvement with LITAF. Cold-induced hand cramps occurred in 10% (PMP22,MPZ,MFN2), and autonomous nervous system involvement in 18% (PMP22,MPZ, LITAF,MFN2). RLS and respiratory insufficiency were mostly associated with severe neuropathy, and pupillary abnormalities with mild to moderate neuropathy. In CMT patients, additional features occur frequently. Some of them might be helpful in orienting genetic diagnosis. Our data broaden the clinical spectrum and genotype-phenotype associations with CMT.

  4. [Clinical features and gene mutations in epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures].

    PubMed

    Shang, K W; Zhang, Y H; Yang, X L; Liu, A J; Yang, Z X; Liu, X Y; Jiang, Y W; Wu, X R

    2016-10-02

    Objective: To summarize the clinical features and gene mutations of epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS). Method: Clinical features and electroencephalograms(EEG)of 9 patients with EIMFS of Peking University First Hospital from May 2015 to January 2016 were analyzed. Candidate gene mutations were screened by next generation sequencing. Result: Among the 9 patients, 3 were males and 6 were females. Two patients had family history. Seizure onset age was 2 days to 3 months after birth (median age 35 days). Migrating focal seizure was presented. Seizures manifested as eyes and(or)head deviation, involuntary blinking, swallowing, trembling or stiffness of limbs, hand clenching, flushing and cyanosis of lips, etc. Four patients had a history of status epilepticus. All 9 patients had psychomotor delay. EEG of all patients presented relatively slow background; during interictal phase, there were multi-focal epileptic discharges, which dominated one hemisphere or brain region; seizures were recorded in all 9 cases, which manifested eyes or(and)head deviation, stiffening or trembling of limbs, lip smacking, etc. Corresponding EEG showed low-medium-amplitude fast waves that originated from some brain regions and migrated to other regions. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was abnormal in 4 cases, which predominantly showed white matter dysplasia and enlargement of subarachnoid spaces. Two cases carried heterozygous missense mutations of SCN1A gene, while 3 cases carried heterozygous missense mutations of KCNT1 gene, all of which were de novo. One case carried compound heterozygous mutation of TBC1D24 gene(p.Gln207*, p. Ala289Va). Gene mutation was not found in 3 cases. All patients used multiple antiepileptic drugs (AED) and their seizures were not controlled. Follow-up ranged from 2 months to 5 years and 8 months, during which 4 were found dead. Two were lost to follow-up. Conclusion: EIMFS is clinically characterized by early onset, which is

  5. Clinical features of childhood-onset paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with PRRT2 gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Silveira-Moriyama, Laura; Gardiner, Alice R; Meyer, Esther; King, Mary D; Smith, Martin; Rakshi, Karl; Parker, Alasdair; Mallick, Andrew A; Brown, Richard; Vassallo, Grace; Jardine, Philip E; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Lees, Andrew J; Houlden, Henry; Kurian, Manju A

    2013-04-01

    To define better the phenotype and genotype of familial and sporadic cases of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) caused by mutations in the PRRT2 gene presenting in the paediatric age group. We report the detailed clinical and molecular genetic features of 11 patients (six females, five males) with childhood-onset PRRT2-mutation-positive PKD. Mean age at disease onset was 8 years 7.5 months (range 5-11y), and clinical presentation was characterized by daily short paroxysmal episodes of dystonia/dyskinesia. Most patients also had non-kinesigenic attacks in addition to the classical movement-induced paroxysmal episodes. One family demonstrated great phenotypic variability with PKD, infantile convulsions, and/or hemiplegic migraine affecting different family members with the same mutation. All patients in whom antiepileptics (carbamazepine/phenytoin) were tried showed a dramatic improvement with complete abolition of dyskinetic episodes. Our case series provides a detailed clinical description of patients with PRRT2-PKD, and reports a spectrum of disease-causing mutations, thereby expanding both the clinical phenotype and mutation spectrum of disease. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  6. Clinical features of the pathogenic m.5540G>A mitochondrial transfer RNA tryptophan gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yi Shiau; Hardy, Steven A; Shrier, Venice; Quaghebeur, Gerardine; Mole, David R; Daniels, Matthew J; Downes, Susan M; Freebody, Jane; Fratter, Carl; Hofer, Monika; Nemeth, Andrea H; Poulton, Joanna; Taylor, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA disease is one of the most common groups of inherited neuromuscular disorders and frequently associated with marked phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. We describe an adult patient who initially presented with childhood-onset ataxia without a family history and an unremarkable diagnostic muscle biopsy. Subsequent multi-system manifestations included basal ganglia calcification, proteinuria, cataract and retinitis pigmentosa, prompting a repeat muscle biopsy that showed features consistent with mitochondrial myopathy 13 years later. She had a stroke with restricted diffusion change in the basal ganglia and internal capsule at age 44 years. Molecular genetic testing identified a previously-reported pathogenic, heteroplasmic mutation in the mitochondrial-encoded transfer RNA tryptophan (MT-TW) gene which based on family studies was likely to have arisen de novo in our patient. Interestingly, we documented an increase in the mutant mtDNA heteroplasmy level in her second biopsy (72% compared to 56%), reflecting the progression of clinical disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical, Pathologic, and Genetic Features of Wilms Tumors With WTX Gene Mutation.

    PubMed

    Alexandrescu, Sanda; Akhavanfard, Sara; Harris, Marian H; Vargas, Sara O

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and pathologic features of patients with WTX-mutated Wilms tumor (WT) have not been studied in detail. We characterize the clinical and pathologic findings in WT with WTX abnormalities and provide comparison with WT without WTX mutation. Clinical, gross, and microscopic features in 35 patients with WT were examined. Karyotype was examined in a subset of cases. All cases had been previously analyzed for WTX, WT1, and CTNNB1 aberrations via array comparative genomic hybridization; OncoMap 4 high throughput genotyping was performed on 18 cases. Eleven tumors had WTX abnormality. No significant differences were identified between patients with mutated versus nonmutated WTX with respect to gender (45% versus 33% male), age (mean 3.9 versus 4.1 years), tumor size (mean 12.7 cm versus 12.8 cm), anaplasia (9% versus 12%), rhabdomyoblastic differentiation (18% versus 8%), cartilage differentiation (9% versus 4%), mucinous epithelial differentiation (9% versus 4%), nephrogenic rests (28% versus 21%), or relapse rate (11% versus 25%). Mutations in KRAS, MYC, and PIK3R1 were restricted to WTX-mutated WT, mutations in AKT, CKDN2A, EFGR, HRAS, MET, and RET were restricted to WT without WTX mutation, and mutations in BRAF, CTTNB1, NRAS, PDGFRA, and STK11 were seen in both groups. Our study revealed no clinical or pathologic distinctions between WT with and without WTX abnormality. This similarity lends support to the concept of a common tumorigenic pathway between WT with aberrant WTX and those without.

  8. Specific clinical and brain MRI features in mentally retarded patients with mutations in the Oligophrenin-1 gene.

    PubMed

    des Portes, Vincent; Boddaert, Nathalie; Sacco, Silvia; Briault, Sylvain; Maincent, Kim; Bahi, Nadia; Gomot, Marie; Ronce, Nathalie; Bursztyn, Joseph; Adamsbaum, Catherine; Zilbovicius, Monica; Chelly, Jamel; Moraine, Claude

    2004-02-01

    Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN-1) gene disruption is known as responsible for so called "non-specific" X-linked mental retardation (MR) Billuart et al. [1998: Nature 392:923-926]. In order to search for a possible specific clinical and radiological profile for mutation in the OPHN-1 gene, clinical and 3D brain MRI studies were performed in the two families with a known mutation in OPHN-1 reported so far: a 19-year-old female with an X;12 balanced translocation encompassing OPHN-1, and four affected males of family MRX60 sharing a frameshift mutation in OPHN-1. Clinical data shared by affected individuals were neonatal hypotonia with motor delay but no obvious ataxia, marked strabismus, early onset complex partial seizures, and moderate to severe MR. Brain MRIs performed in three individuals exhibited a specific vermian dysgenesis including an incomplete sulcation of anterior and posterior vermis with the most prominent defect in lobules VI and VII. In addition, a non-specific cerebral cortico-subcortical atrophy was also observed. These clinical and radiological features suggest a distinct clinico-radiological syndrome. These preliminary data need to be confirmed in other families and will be helpful for further targeted mutation screening of the OPHN-1 gene in male patients with similar clinico-radiological features. In addition, OPHN-1 inactivation should be considered as a relevant model of developmental vermis disorganization, leading to a better understanding of the possible role of the cerebellum in MR. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. [Analysis of clinical features and AGL gene mutations in a family with glycogen storage disease type IIIa].

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Lin, Weixia; Zhang, Zhanhui; Zhao, Xinjing; Zhang, Sui; Cai, Xiangran; Zhou, Qing; Song, Yuanzong

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the clinical features and AGL gene mutations in a family with glycogen storage disease type IIIa (GSD IIIa). Clinical data for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of a sick child with GSD III was collected and analyzed. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood samples from the patient and his parents. Polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing were utilized to analyze all of the exons of the AGL gene. The genotype of the child was found to be c.3710_3711delTA/IVS14+1G>T. The former was a maternally-inherited mutation, which has not been reported previously. The latter was an abnormal splice-site mutation inherited from the father. Based on its clinical and molecular evidences, the patient was diagnosed as GSD IIIa in conjunction with retrobular optic neuritis.

  10. Polymorphism in the IL4R gene and clinical features are associated with glioma prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tian bo; Du, Shuli; Zhu, Xi kai; Li, Gang; Ouyang, Yongri; He, Na; Zhang, Zhiying; Zhang, Yuan; Kang, Longli; Yuan, Dongya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Inflammatory gene polymorphisms may be associated with glioma risk. The purpose of this study was to analyze effects of certain inflammatory gene and some clinical factors on patient survival. The clinical information of 269 glioma patients conceived operation from September 2010 to May 2014 to decide the 1-, 3-year survival rates according to follow-up results and analyze age, gender, the WHO classification, extent of surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy factors effects on prognosis. Survival distributions were estimated by using the Kaplan–Meier method and difference in the survival was tested using the log-rank test. To estimate the association between the IL4, IL13, IL10, IL4R SNPs, and PFS and OS in glioma, the HR and 95% CI were calculated by univariate Cox proportional hazards model. Multivariate Cox model were performed to compute adjusted HR and 95% CI. All data was analyzed with SPSS17.0 package. Extent of surgical resection, chemotherapy, and age are an important factor in glioma overall survival and progression-free survival overall. Extent of surgery and chemotherapy are important factors in astrocytoma overall survival. Univariate analysis showed that IL4R rs1801275 was significantly associated with overall survival of glioma and astrocytoma patients (P < 0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that IL4R rs1801275 GG genotype could increase the death risk of glioma and astrocytoma patients (Glioma: hazard ratio [HR]: 4.897, 95% confidence limits [95% CI]: 1.962–12.222, P = 0.001; Astrocytoma: HR: 15.944, 95% CI: 4.019–63.253, P < 0.05). Our research results showed that extent of surgical resection, age, and chemotherapy affect the prognosis of glioma. The IL4R gene may affect the survival of glioma patients. PMID:27495027

  11. 1p13.2 deletion displays clinical features overlapping Noonan syndrome, likely related to NRAS gene haploinsufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Linhares, Natália Duarte; Freire, Maíra Cristina Menezes; Cardenas, Raony Guimarães Corrêa do Carmo Lisboa; Pena, Heloisa Barbosa; Lachlan, Katherine; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Bacino, Carlos; Delobel, Bruno; James, Paul; Thuresson, Ann-Charlotte; Annerén, Göran; Pena, Sérgio D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Deletion-induced hemizygosity may unmask deleterious autosomal recessive variants and be a cause of the phenotypic variability observed in microdeletion syndromes. We performed complete exome sequencing (WES) analysis to examine this possibility in a patient with 1p13.2 microdeletion. Since the patient displayed clinical features suggestive of Noonan Syndrome (NS), we also used WES to rule out the presence of pathogenic variants in any of the genes associated with the different types of NS. We concluded that the clinical findings could be attributed solely to the 1p13.2 haploinsufficiency. Retrospective analysis of other nine reported patients with 1p13.2 microdeletions showed that six of them also presented some characteristics of NS. In all these cases, the deleted segment included the NRAS gene. Gain-of-function mutations of NRAS gene are causally related to NS type 6. Thus, it is conceivable that NRAS haploinsufficiency and gain-of-function mutations may have similar clinical consequences. The same phenomenon has been described for two other genes belonging to the Ras/MAPK pathway: MAP2K2 and SHOC2. In conclusion, we here report genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with chromosome 1p13.2 microdeletions and we propose that NRAS may be a critical gene for the NS characteristics in the patients. PMID:27561113

  12. Clinical features and growth hormone receptor gene mutations of patients with Laron syndrome from a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yan-Qin; Wei, Hong; Cao, Li-Zhi; Lu, Juan-Juan; Luo, Xiao-Ping

    2007-08-01

    Laron syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene. It is characterized by severe postnatal growth retardation and characteristic facial features as well as high circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) and low levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). This report described the clinical features and GHR gene mutations in 2 siblings with Laron syndrome in a Chinese family. Their heights and weights were in the normal range at birth, but the growth was retarded after birth. When they presented to the clinic, the heights of the boy (8 years old) and his sister (11 years old) were 80.0 cm (-8.2 SDS) and 96.6 cm (-6.8 SDS) respectively. They had typical appearance features of Laron syndrome such as short stature and obesity, with protruding forehead, saddle nose, large eyes, sparse and thin silky hair and high-pitched voice. They had higher basal serum GH levels and lower serum levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) than normal controls. The peak serum GH level after colonidine and insulin stimulations in the boy was over 350 ng/mL. After one-year rhGH treatment, the boy's height increased from 80.0 cm to 83.3 cm. The gene mutation analysis revealed that two patients had same homozygous mutation of S65H (TCA -->CCA) in exon 4, which is a novel gene mutation. It was concluded that a definite diagnosis of Laron syndrome can be made based on characteristic appearance features and serum levels of GH, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and GHBP. The S65H mutation might be the cause of Laron syndrome in the two patients.

  13. Effect of beta-globin gene cluster haplotype on the hematological and clinical features of sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Rieder, R F; Safaya, S; Gillette, P; Fryd, S; Hsu, H; Adams, J G; Steinberg, M H

    1991-03-01

    In 113 black American adults with sickle cell anemia (HbSS), we examined nine polymorphic restriction sites, including the Xmnl site 5' to the G gamma gene, to see whether haplotype is related to the level of HbF and the proportion of G gamma chains or if it influences the hematological and clinical features of the disease. Seventy-five percent of the patients were homozygous or heterozygous for the Benin (no. 19) or Central African Republic (Bantu, no. 20) haplotypes; 13.3% were homozygous or heterozygous for the Senegal (no. 3) haplotype, while 11.5% had other genotypes. Of the subjects, 14.2% were either homozygous or heterozygous for the Xmnl restriction site 5' to the G gamma gene. We found no effect of haplotype on HbF levels. The level of G gamma chains was 60.5% +/- 17.0% in individuals heterozygous or homozygous for haplotype no. 3 and was 46.9% +/- 11.6% in individuals with other haplotypes. Subjects with the Xmnl site 5' to the G gamma gene had G gamma globin levels of 59.5% +/- 16.7% while those lacking that site had an average of 47.2% +/- 12.1%. There were no significant differences among these groups in hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean cell volume, or clinical indicators of vaso-occlusive severity, including crises, hospitalizations per year, aseptic bone necrosis, acute chest syndrome, or leg ulcers. While the presence of haplotype 3 and the 5' G gamma Xmnl site were associated with increased G gamma chains, there was no effect on HbF level or other hematological and clinical features that might reflect disease severity. It is likely that determinants unrelated to haplotype, linked or unlinked to the beta-globin gene cluster, are the major effectors of differences in the levels of HbF in American patients with sickle cell anemia.

  14. [Clinical-based study of ovarian cancer patients with and without BRCA1/2 genes mutation: clinical features and pedigree analysis].

    PubMed

    Tao, T; Yang, J X; Shen, K; Cao, D Y

    2017-01-25

    Objective: To compare the clinical and histological features and prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer from different genetic background, and to make further understanding of the genetic model of BRCA genes used pedigree analysis. Methods: There were 71 patients from 67 independent families enrolled in our study from Apr. 2000 to Jun. 2009 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. All exons of BRCA1/2 genes were analyzed using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography(DHPLC) followed by direct sequencing, and clinical features of patients were compared by statistical analysis. Pedigree analysis of two families with BRCA genes mutation were performed. Results: The mutation rate of BRCA genes was 28% (20/71). The frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation was 23% (16/71) and 6% (4/71), respectively (P=0.004). Histology types of patients with and without BRCA genes mutation were different. The onset age between patients with and without BRCA genes mutation was similar (52.6 versus 54.6 years old, P=0.393), and tend to be early-onset breast or ovarian cancer in high-risk group. There was no significant difference of platinum-resistant rate, disease free survival and overall survival rate between patients with and without BRCA genes mutation (all P>0.05). According to the pedigree analysis, up to 100% of female offspring inherited pathogenic mutations, and male offspring could be a mutation carrier. Conclusions: The genetic screening and clinical intervention should be performed as early as possible for the members from families at risk of hereditary ovarian cancer. Genetic consulting is important for patients with high-grade papillary serous adenocarcinoma of ovary. It is still unknown that whether the patients with BRCA gene mutations have better prognosis than sporadic ones, and further perspective, randomized controlled trial is still needed.

  15. [Clinical features and acid alpha-glucosidase gene mutation in 7 Chinese patients with glycogen storage disease type II].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Zhao-xia; Zhang, Wei; Yuan, Yun

    2013-07-02

    To explore the clinical features and acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) gene mutations of Chinese patients with glycogen storage disease typeII(GSDII). Seven patients with GSDII were diagnosed by muscle pathology examination at Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital from 2003 to 2011. One patient with infant-onset presented development retardation, generalized muscle weakness, dyspnea, cardiomegaly and hepatomegaly. Six cases were of late-onset ranging from 1 to 29 years. Their main clinical features included progressive muscle weakness. Two patients developed respiratory insufficiency. Increased serum creatine kinase was detected in all of them. Electromyography studies showed myopathic (n = 5) and neuropathic (n = 1) changes. Muscle biopsies showed basophilic vacuoles in muscle fibers containing a large amounts of glycogen on electron microscopy. GAA gene mutation was detected by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product. Novel mutations were screened in 100 normal controls. GAA gene mutations were found in all of them, including 10 point mutations and 1 frameshift deletion. Six mutations (p. P361L, p. P266S, p.R437C, p.R600C, p.W746S and p.W746*) have been reported before. And five novel mutations (p.R168Q, p.R168P, p.E521V, p.R594H and c.827_845del) were found in this study. None of these novel mutations were found in 100 normal controls except for p.R168Q mutation in two normal controls. p. P361L and p.W746* were detected in two unrelated GSDII patients while other mutations were carried by only one patient. In our study, we found several novel GAA mutations in Chinese patients with GSDII. No hot spot mutation of GAA gene existed in our patient group. However, p. P266S, p. P361L and p.R437C might be associated with late-onset GSDII.

  16. Altered Autophagy-Associated Genes Expression in T Cells of Oral Lichen Planus Correlated with Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ya-Qin; Zhang, Jing; Du, Ge-Fei; Lu, Rui; Chen, Guan-Ying; Zhou, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T cell-mediated inflammatory autoimmune disease. Autophagy has emerged as a fundamental trafficking event in mediating T cell response, which plays crucial roles in innate and adaptive immunity. The present study mainly investigated the mRNA expression of autophagy-associated genes in peripheral blood T cells of OLP patients and evaluated correlations between their expression and the clinical features of OLP. Five differentially expressed autophagy-associated genes were identified by autophagy array. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results confirmed that IGF1 expression in the peripheral blood T cells of OLP patients was significantly higher than that in controls, especially in female and middle-aged (30–50 years old) OLP patients. In addition, ATG9B mRNA levels were significantly lower in nonerosive OLP patients. However, no significant differences were found in the expression of HGS, ESR1, and SNCA between OLP patients and controls. Taken together, dysregulation of T cell autophagy may be involved in immune response of OLP and may be correlated with clinical patterns. PMID:26980945

  17. Clinical features of actinomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefond, Simon; Catroux, Mélanie; Melenotte, Cléa; Karkowski, Ludovic; Rolland, Ludivine; Trouillier, Sébastien; Raffray, Loic

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Actinomycosis is a rare heterogeneous anaerobic infection with misleading clinical presentations that delay diagnosis. A significant number of misdiagnosed cases have been reported in specific localizations, but studies including various forms of actinomycosis have rarely been published. We performed a multicenter retrospective chart review of laboratory-confirmed actinomycosis cases from January 2000 until January 2014. We described clinical characteristics, diagnostic procedures, differential diagnosis, and management of actinomycosis of clinical significance. Twenty-eight patients were included from 6 hospitals in France. Disease was diagnosed predominately in the abdomen/pelvis (n = 9), orocervicofacial (n = 5), cardiothoracic (n = 5), skeletal (n = 3), hematogenous (n = 3), soft tissue (n = 2), and intracranially (n = 1). Four patients (14%) were immunocompromised. In most cases (92 %), the diagnosis of actinomycosis was not suspected on admission, as clinical features were not specific. Diagnosis was obtained from either microbiology (50%, n = 14) or histopathology (42%, n = 12), or from both methods (7%, n = 2). Surgical biopsy was needed for definite diagnosis in 71% of cases (n = 20). Coinfection was found in 13 patients (46%), among which 3 patients were diagnosed from histologic criteria only. Two-thirds of patients were treated with amoxicillin. Median duration of antibiotics was 120 days (interquartile range 60–180), whereas the median follow-up time was 12 months (interquartile range 5.25–18). Two patients died. This study highlights the distinct and miscellaneous patterns of actinomycosis to prompt accurate diagnosis and earlier treatments, thus improving the outcome. Surgical biopsy should be performed when possible while raising histologist's and microbiologist's awareness of possible actinomycosis to enhance the chance of diagnosis and use specific molecular methods. PMID:27311002

  18. Clinical features and MUT gene mutation spectrum in Chinese patients with isolated methylmalonic acidemia: identification of ten novel allelic variants.

    PubMed

    Han, Lian-Shu; Huang, Zhuo; Han, Feng; Ye, Jun; Qiu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Hui-Wen; Wang, Yu; Gong, Zhu-Wen; Gu, Xue-Fan

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to study MUT gene mutation spectrum in Chinese patients with isolated methylmalonic academia (MMA) and their clinical features for the potential genotype-phenotype correlation. Forty-three patients were diagnosed with isolated MMA by elevated blood propionylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine to acetylcarnitine ratio, and urine methylmalonate without hyperhomocysteinemia. The MUT gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced. Those patients with at least one variant allele were included. The novel missense mutations were assessed by bioinformatic analysis and screened against alleles sequenced from 50 control participants. Among the 43 patients, 38 had typical clinical presentations, and the majority (30/38) experienced earlyonset MMA. Eight patients died and seven were lost to follow-up. Twenty patients had poor outcomes and eight showed normal development. The 43 identified MUT gene mutations had at least one variant allele, whereas 35 had two mutant alleles. Of the 33 mutations reported before, eight recurrent mutations were identified in 32 patients, and c.729_730insTT (p.D244Lfs*39) was the most common (12/78) in the mutant alleles. Of the 10 novel mutations, six were missense mutations and four were premature termination codon mutations. The six novel missense mutations seemed to be pathogenic. A total of 10 novel MUT mutations were detected in the Chinese population. c.729_730insTT (p.D244Lfs*39) was the most frequent mutation. A genotype-phenotype correlation could not be found, but the genotypic characterization indicated the need of genetic counseling for MMA patients and early prenatal diagnoses for high-risk families.

  19. Clinical features and mutations in the ENG, ACVRL1, and SMAD4 genes in Korean patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Tae; Kim, Jee-Ah; Jang, Shin-Yi; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Do, Young Soo; Suh, Gee Young; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2009-02-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an inherited disorder that is characterized by abnormal communication between the arteries and veins in the skin, mucosa, and various organs. HHT has been reported to show significant phenotypic variability and genetic heterogeneity with wide ethnic and geographic variations. Although mutations in the endoglin (ENG) and activin A receptor type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) genes have been known to cause HHT for more than 10 yr, little is known about the clinical features or genetic background of Korean patients with HHT. In addition, mutations in mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4) are also seen in patients with the combined syndrome of juvenile polyposis and HHT. This study examined five Korean patients with the typical manifestations of HHT such as frequent epistaxis and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Direct sequencing of the ENG and ACVRL1 genes revealed one known mutation, ENG c.277C>T, in one patient and two novel mutations, ENG c.992-1G>C and ACVRL1 c.81dupT in two patients, respectively. The remaining two patients with negative results were screened for SMAD4 mutations as well as gross deletions of ENG and ACVRL1 using multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification, but none was detected. Despite the small number of patients investigated, we firstly report Korean patients with genetically confirmed HHT, and show the genetic and allelic heterogeneity underlying HHT.

  20. TECRL, a new life-threatening inherited arrhythmia gene associated with overlapping clinical features of both LQTS and CPVT.

    PubMed

    Devalla, Harsha D; Gélinas, Roselle; Aburawi, Elhadi H; Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Goyette, Philippe; Freund, Christian; Chaix, Marie-A; Tadros, Rafik; Jiang, Hui; Le Béchec, Antony; Monshouwer-Kloots, Jantine J; Zwetsloot, Tom; Kosmidis, Georgios; Latour, Frédéric; Alikashani, Azadeh; Hoekstra, Maaike; Schlaepfer, Jurg; Mummery, Christine L; Stevenson, Brian; Kutalik, Zoltan; de Vries, Antoine Af; Rivard, Léna; Wilde, Arthur Am; Talajic, Mario; Verkerk, Arie O; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Rioux, John D; Bhuiyan, Zahurul A; Passier, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Genetic causes of many familial arrhythmia syndromes remain elusive. In this study, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was carried out on patients from three different families that presented with life-threatening arrhythmias and high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Two French Canadian probands carried identical homozygous rare variant in TECRL gene (p.Arg196Gln), which encodes the trans-2,3-enoyl-CoA reductase-like protein. Both patients had cardiac arrest, stress-induced atrial and ventricular tachycardia, and QT prolongation on adrenergic stimulation. A third patient from a consanguineous Sudanese family diagnosed with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) had a homozygous splice site mutation (c.331+1G>A) in TECRL Analysis of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) dynamics in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) generated from this individual (TECRLHom-hiPSCs), his heterozygous but clinically asymptomatic father (TECRLHet-hiPSCs), and a healthy individual (CTRL-hiPSCs) from the same Sudanese family, revealed smaller [Ca(2+)]i transient amplitudes as well as elevated diastolic [Ca(2+)]i in TECRLHom-hiPSC-CMs compared with CTRL-hiPSC-CMs. The [Ca(2+)]i transient also rose markedly slower and contained lower sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium stores, evidenced by the decreased magnitude of caffeine-induced [Ca(2+)]i transients. In addition, the decay phase of the [Ca(2+)]i transient was slower in TECRLHom-hiPSC-CMs due to decreased SERCA and NCX activities. Furthermore, TECRLHom-hiPSC-CMs showed prolonged action potentials (APs) compared with CTRL-hiPSC-CMs. TECRL knockdown in control human embryonic stem cell-derived CMs (hESC-CMs) also resulted in significantly longer APs. Moreover, stimulation by noradrenaline (NA) significantly increased the propensity for triggered activity based on delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) in TECRLHom-hiPSC-CMs and treatment with flecainide, a class Ic antiarrhythmic drug

  1. Wolfram Syndrome in the Japanese Population; Molecular Analysis of WFS1 Gene and Characterization of Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Okuya, Shigeru; Ohta, Yasuharu; Akiyama, Masaru; Taguchi, Akihiko; Kora, Yukari; Okayama, Naoko; Yamada, Yuichiro; Wada, Yasuhiko; Amemiya, Shin; Sugihara, Shigetaka; Nakao, Yuzo; Oka, Yoshitomo; Tanizawa, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Background Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a recessive neurologic and endocrinologic degenerative disorder, and is also known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, early-onset Diabetes Mellitus, progressive Optic Atrophy and Deafness) syndrome. Most affected individuals carry recessive mutations in the Wolfram syndrome 1 gene (WFS1). However, the phenotypic pleiomorphism, rarity and molecular complexity of this disease complicate our efforts to understand WFS. To address this limitation, we aimed to describe complications and to elucidate the contributions of WFS1 mutations to clinical manifestations in Japanese patients with WFS. Methodology The minimal ascertainment criterion for diagnosing WFS was having both early onset diabetes mellitus and bilateral optic atrophy. Genetic analysis for WFS1 was performed by direct sequencing. Principal Findings Sixty-seven patients were identified nationally for a prevalence of one per 710,000, with 33 patients (49%) having all 4 components of DIDMOAD. In 40 subjects who agreed to participate in this investigation from 30 unrelated families, the earliest manifestation was DM at a median age of 8.7 years, followed by OA at a median age of 15.8 years. However, either OA or DI was the first diagnosed feature in 6 subjects. In 10, features other than DM predated OA. Twenty-seven patients (67.5%) had a broad spectrum of recessive mutations in WFS1. Two patients had mutations in only one allele. Eleven patients (27.5%) had intact WFS1 alleles. Ages at onset of both DM and OA in patients with recessive WFS1 mutations were indistinguishable from those in patients without WFS1 mutations. In the patients with predicted complete loss-of-function mutations, ages at the onsets of both DM and OA were significantly earlier than those in patients with predicted partial-loss-of function mutations. Conclusion/Significance This study emphasizes the clinical and genetic heterogeneity in patients with WFS. Genotype-phenotype correlations may exist in patients

  2. Identification of the minimal combination of clinical features in probands for efficient mutation detection in the FBN1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Stheneur, Chantal; Collod-Béroud, Gwenaëlle; Faivre, Laurence; Buyck, Jean François; Gouya, Laurent; Le Parc, Jean-Marie; Moura, Bertrand; Muti, Christine; Grandchamp, Bernard; Sultan, Gilles; Claustres, Mireille; Aegerter, Philippe; Chevallier, Bertrand; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Mutations identified in the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene have been associated with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Molecular analysis of the gene is classically performed in probands with MFS to offer diagnosis for at-risk relatives and in children highly suspected of MFS. However, FBN1 gene mutations are found in an ill-defined group of diseases termed ‘type I fibrillinopathies', which are associated with an increased risk of aortic dilatation and dissection. Thus, there is growing awareness of the need to identify these non-MFS probands, for which FBN1 gene screening should be performed. To answer this need we compiled the molecular data obtained from the screening of the FBN1 gene in 586 probands, which had been addressed to our laboratory for molecular diagnosis. In this group, the efficacy of FBN1 gene screening was high in classical MFS probands (72.5%,), low (58%) in those referred for incomplete MFS and only slight (14.3%) for patients referred as possible MFS. Using recursive partitioning, we found that the best predictor of the identification of a mutation in the FBN1 gene was the presence of features in at least three organ systems, combining one major, and various minor criteria. We also show that our original recommendation of two systems involved with at least one with major criterion represents the minimal criteria because in probands not meeting these criteria, the yield of mutation identification drastically falls. This recommendation should help clinicians and biologists in identifying probands with a high probability of carrying a FBN1 gene mutation, and thus optimize biological resources. PMID:19293843

  3. Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated with Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusions: Clinical Features, Treatments and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Weidong; Xiong, Lei; Miao, Baolei; Chen, Xiancheng; Guo, Hongqian; Li, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics, treatments and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusions (Xp11.2 tRCC), the epidemiological features and treatment results of 34 cases of Xp11.2 tRCC, which were diagnosed by immunohistochemistry staining of TFE3 and fluorescence in situ hybridization at our center, were retrospectively reviewed. The 34 patients included 21 females and 13 males aged 3 to 64 years (median age: 27 years). Four patients were children or adolescents (<18 years of age), and 26 patients were young or middle-aged adults (18–45 years). Radical nephrectomy was performed on 25 patients. Laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery was performed on 9 patients who presented with an isolated mass with a small diameter (<7 cm) and well-defined boundary on computed tomography imaging. Postoperative staging showed that 25 cases (73.53%) were at stage I/II, while 9 cases (26.47%) were at stage III/IV. All stage I/II patients received a favorable prognosis with a three-year overall survival rate of 100%, including the patients who underwent laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery. With the exception of 2 children, the other 7 stage III/IV patients died or developed recurrence with a median follow-up of 29 months. On univariate analysis, maximum diameter, adjuvant treatment, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis and tumor boundary were identified as statistically significant factors impacting survival (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that TNM stage and inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis were independent prognostic factors (P<0.05). In conclusion, Xp11.2 tRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma that mainly occurs in young females. Nephron-sparing surgery was confirmed effective preliminarily in the treatment of small Xp11.2 tRCCs with clear rims. Advanced TNM stage and inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis were associated with poor prognosis. PMID:27893792

  4. Clinical features and ryanodine receptor type 1 gene mutation analysis in a Chinese family with central core disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xingzhi; Jin, Yiwen; Zhao, Haijuan; Huang, Qionghui; Wang, Jingmin; Yuan, Yun; Han, Ying; Qin, Jiong

    2013-03-01

    Central core disease is a rare inherited neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in ryanodine receptor type 1 gene. The clinical phenotype of the disease is highly variable. We report a Chinese pedigree with central core disease confirmed by the gene sequencing. All 3 patients in the family presented with mild proximal limb weakness. The serum level of creatine kinase was normal, and electromyography suggested myogenic changes. The histologic analysis of muscle biopsy showed identical central core lesions in almost all of the muscle fibers in the index case. Exon 90-106 in the C-terminal domain of the ryanodine receptor type 1 gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. One heterozygous missense mutation G14678A (Arg4893Gln) in exon 102 was identified in all 3 patients. This is the first report of a familial case of central core disease confirmed by molecular study in mainland China.

  5. Molecular features and clinical phenotypes in androgen insensitivity syndrome in the absence and presence of androgen receptor gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Holterhus, P M; Werner, R; Hoppe, U; Bassler, J; Korsch, E; Ranke, M B; Dörr, H G; Hiort, O

    2005-12-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is characterized by deficient or absent virilization in 46,XY individuals despite normal or even elevated androgen levels. AIS is usually caused by mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. We aimed at contrasting clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic characteristics of three patients (P1-P3) with clinically evident partial (P1) and complete (P2, P3) AIS with and without AR gene mutations. AR expression was studied in cultured genital skin fibroblasts (GSF) by Western immunoblotting, ligand binding analyses, Northern blotting, semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and RT-PCR spanning exons 1-8. AR gene DNA sequence was analyzed by single-strand conformation analysis (SSCA), and DNA sequencing. GSF revealed reduced (P1) or absent (P2, P3) ligand binding. Northern blots showed either slightly reduced hybridization of the 10.5-kb AR transcript (P3) or no hybridization (P1, P2), as confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. RT-PCR spanning exons 1-8 detected single AR mRNA bands in P1-P3 excluding splicing errors. Western analyses showed either low (P1) or no (P2, P3) AR protein. While SSCA initially did not reveal any molecular abnormality, sequencing showed a novel CAG (Gln) to TAG (stop) mutation at codon 59 (P3) and a previously described 2-bp deletion at codon 472, leading to a frameshift and premature stop in codon 499 (P2). Intriguingly, P1 showed an unaltered DNA sequence of the coding region of the AR gene including all intron-exon boundaries. In conclusion, patients with clinically evident complete AIS are likely to harbor an AR gene mutation, demanding that the two polymorphic regions must always be included in molecular analyses of the AR gene. Moreover, our data support the concept that in a subset of AIS patients, particularly those with partial AIS, molecular alterations outside the coding region of the AR gene must be presumed.

  6. Exploring internal features of 16S rRNA gene for identification of clinically relevant species of the genus Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus is an economically important genus as a number of species belonging to this genus are human and animal pathogens. The genus has been divided into different groups based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The variability observed among the members of these groups is low and it is difficult to distinguish them. The present study was taken up to explore 16S rRNA gene sequence to develop methods that can be used for preliminary identification and can supplement the existing methods for identification of clinically-relevant isolates of the genus Streptococcus. Methods 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the isolates of S. dysgalactiae, S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. bovis, S. gallolyticus, S. mutans, S. sobrinus, S. mitis, S. pneumoniae, S. thermophilus and S. anginosus were analyzed with the purpose to define genetic variability within each species to generate a phylogenetic framework, to identify species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. Results The framework based analysis was used to segregate Streptococcus spp. previously identified upto genus level. This segregation was validated using species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. 43 uncharacterized Streptococcus spp. could be identified using this approach. Conclusions The markers generated exploring 16S rRNA gene sequences provided useful tool that can be further used for identification of different species of the genus Streptococcus. PMID:21702978

  7. [Clinical features of 9 patients with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita caused by DAX1/NR0B1 gene mutations].

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong; Nie, Min; Xia, Wei-Bo; Lu, Lin; Mao, Jiang-Feng; Pan, Hui; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhao, Wei-Gang

    2010-08-10

    To study the clinical features of 9 patients with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) by gene sequencing so as to provide diagnostic rationales. The patients were 9 cases of X-linked AHC treated at our hospital from July 2007 to June 2009. The clinical manifestations were analyzed. The blood biochemistry tests and the hormone examinations including luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) stimulation tests and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) stimulation tests were conducted to evaluate the functions of gonads. And CT scans of adrenal glands and gene tests of DAX1/NR0B1 were performed. Nine AHC patients from 8 families were studied. All patients had DAX1/NR0B1 gene mutations. The main clinical features were: (1) some patients (3 families) had a family history of X-linked recessive inheritance; (2) the ages of onset were all below 10 years old (from 2 month after birth to 9 years old) and ages of being treated at our hospital were from 15 to 34 years old; (3) all patients had adrenocortical hypofunctions, but clinical situations were different, most of them had pigmentation (n = 9), nausea and vomiting (n = 8), hypotension (n = 6), Addisonian crisis (n = 4). Others were debility, hypoglycemia and cold susceptibility. Laboratory tests indicated that all patients had hyponatremia at the onset and higher blood adrenocorticotropic hormone level, lower blood 17-hydroxyprogesterone level compared to normal controls; (4) none of the patients had puberty and there was no responses to LHRH stimulation tests, 3 of them had normal responses to HCG stimulation tests; (5) small bilateral adrenal glands were displayed on CT scans. The main clinical features of X-linked AHC are adrenocortical hypofunction and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. But the phenotypes vary greatly in different patients. So male children with adrenal cortical hypofunction should be suspected of X-linked AHC and DAX1/NR0B1 gene tests should be performed. The sexual development of the patients

  8. [Identification and characterization of clinical features and gene mutation in a patient with iron refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA)].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wenrui; Li, Yang; Peng, Guangxin; Li, Yuan; Fan, Huihui; Ye, Lei; Song, Lin; Zhao, Xin; Li, Jianping; Jing, Liping; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Kang; Xu, Yidan; Zhang, Fengkui

    2014-06-01

    To report the clinical data of a case of iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA), so as to improve the understanding of IRIDA. The IRIDA patient's hematological characteristics were summarized and analyzed. The hepcidin levels were tested by ELISA kit. The TMPRSS6 gene was amplified by PCR reaction and its mutation was analyzed by sequencing. The effect of TMPRSS6 gene mutation on TMPRSS6 protein tertiary structure was predicted by Swiss-Model. The patient was characterized by typical microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation, more reduction of intracellular iron than exocellular iron. The plasma hepcidin level was 213.77 μg/L which was significantly higher than that of IDA patients [5.19(3.31-12.02) μg/L]. The patient also carried a homozygous missense mutation of K253E in exon 7 of TMPRSS6. In children and younger IDA patients with no reason for iron deficiency but unresponsiveness to routine iron treatment, the diagnosis of IRIDA needs to be considered. Serum hepcidin level and TMPRSS6 gene mutation should be detected.

  9. Mutation Profile of B-Raf Gene Analyzed by fully Automated System and Clinical Features in Japanese Melanoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Ide, Masaru; Koba, Shinichi; Sueoka-Aragane, Naoko; Sato, Akemi; Nagano, Yuri; Inoue, Takuya; Misago, Noriyuki; Narisawa, Yutaka; Kimura, Shinya; Sueoka, Eisaburo

    2017-01-01

    BRAF gene mutations have been observed in 30-50 % of malignant melanoma patients. Recent development of therapeutic intervention using BRAF inhibitors requires an accurate and rapid detection system for BRAF mutations. In addition, the clinical characteristics of the melanoma associated with BRAF mutations in Japanese patients have not been investigated on a large scale evaluation. We recently established quenching probe system (QP) for detection of an activating BRAF mutation, V600E and evaluated 113 melanoma samples diagnosed in Saga University Hospital from 1982 to 2011. The QP system includes fully automated genotyping, based on analysis of the probe DNA melting curve, which binds the target mutated site using a fluorescent guanine quenched probe. BRAF mutations were detected in 54 of 115 (47 %) including 51 of V600E and 3 of V600 K in Japanese melanoma cases. Among clinical subtypes of melanoma, nodular melanoma showed high frequency (12 of 15; 80 %) of mutation followed by superficial spreading melanoma (13 of 26; 50 %). The QP system is a simple and sensitive method to determine BRAF V600E mutation, and will be useful tool for patient-oriented therapy with BRAF inhibitors.

  10. A novel mutation in the connexin 26 gene (GJB2) in a child with clinical and histological features of keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koppelhus, U; Tranebjaerg, L; Esberg, G; Ramsing, M; Lodahl, M; Rendtorff, N D; Olesen, H V; Sommerlund, M

    2011-03-01

    Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare congenital ectodermal disorder, caused by heterozygous missense mutation in GJB2, encoding the gap junction protein connexin 26. The commonest mutation is the p.Asp50Asn mutation, and only a few other mutations have been described to date. To report the fatal clinical course and characterize the genetic background of a premature male neonate with the clinical and histological features of KID syndrome. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and used for PCR amplification of the GJB2 gene. Direct sequencing was used for mutation analysis. The clinical features included hearing impairment, ichthyosiform erythroderma with hyperkeratotic plaques, palmoplantar keratoderma, alopecia of the scalp and eyelashes, and a thick vernix caseosa-like covering of the scalp. On histological analysis, features characteristic of KID syndrome, such as acanthosis and papillomatosis of the epidermis with basket-weave hyperkeratosis, were seen. The skin symptoms were treated successfully with acitretin 0.5 mg/kg. The boy developed intraventricular and intracerebral haemorrhage, leading to hydrocephalus. His condition was further complicated by septicaemia and meningitis caused by infection with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Severe respiratory failure followed, and the child died at 46 weeks of gestational age (13 weeks postnatally). Sequencing of the GJB2 gene showed that the child was heterozygous for a novel nucleotide change, c.263C>T, in exon 2, leading to a substitution of alanine for valine at position 88 (p.Ala88Val). This study has identified a new heterozygous de novo mutation in the Cx26 gene (c.263C>T; p.Ala88Val) leading to KID syndrome. © The Author(s). CED © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Hereditary angioedema caused by missense mutations in the factor XII gene: clinical features, trigger factors, and therapy.

    PubMed

    Bork, Konrad; Wulff, Karin; Hardt, Jochen; Witzke, Günther; Staubach, Petra

    2009-07-01

    Hereditary angioedema caused by mutations in the factor XII gene is a recently described disease entity that occurs mainly in women. It differs from hereditary angioedema caused by C1 inhibitor deficiency. To assess the clinical symptoms, factors triggering acute attacks, and treatments of this disease. Thirty-five female patients with hereditary angioedema and the factor XII mutations p.Thr309Lys and p.Thr309Arg who came from 13 unrelated families were studied. The observation period was 8.4 years on average (range, 2-26 years). Patients had on average 12.7 +/- 7.9 angioedema attacks per year. Recurrent facial swellings occurred in all patients; skin swellings other than facial, abdominal pain attacks, tongue swellings, and laryngeal edema occurred less frequently. Some factors that triggered angioedema attacks were trauma, physical pressure, and emotional stress. Clinical symptoms started mainly after intake of oral contraceptives (17 women) or pregnancy (3 women). Exacerbation of the symptoms occurred after oral contraceptive use (8 women), pregnancy (7 women), hormone replacement therapy (3 women), intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (2 women), and an angiotensin 1 receptor blocker (1 woman). Effective treatments included C1 inhibitor concentrate for angioedema attacks (6 women) and, for prophylaxis, progesterone (8 women), danazol (2 women), and tranexamic acid (1 woman). No difference between mutation p.Thr309Arg and p.Thr309Lys was found. Facial swelling is a cardinal symptom of this condition. Estrogens may have a great influence, but this influence is highly variable. Various treatment options are available.

  12. Episodic Ataxias: Clinical and Genetic Features

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kwang-Dong; Choi, Jae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Episodic ataxia (EA) is a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by recurrent spells of truncal ataxia and incoordination lasting minutes to hours. Most have an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. To date, 8 subtypes have been defined according to clinical and genetic characteristics, and five genes are known to be linked to EAs. Both EA1 and EA2, which are caused by mutations in KCNA1 and CACNA1A, account for the majority of EA, but many patients with no identified mutations still exhibit EA-like clinical features. Furthermore, genetically confirmed EAs have mostly been identified in Caucasian families. In this article, we review the current knowledge on the clinical and genetic characteristics of EAs. Additionally, we summarize the phenotypic features of the genetically confirmed EA2 families in Korea. PMID:27667184

  13. Clinical and pathological features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caused by mutation in the C9ORF72 gene on chromosome 9p

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Heather; Rutherford, Nicola J.; Briemberg, Hannah; Krieger, Charles; Cashman, Neil; Fabros, Marife; Baker, Matt; Fok, Alice; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Eisen, Andrew; Rademakers, Rosa; Mackenzie, Ian R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies recently identified a GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in a non-coding region of the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 gene (C9ORF72) as the cause of chromosome 9p-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In a cohort of 231 probands with ALS, we identified the C9ORF72 mutation in 17 familial (27.4 %) and six sporadic (3.6%) cases. Patients with the mutation presented with typical motor features of ALS, although subjects with the C9ORF72 mutation had more frequent bulbar onset, compared to those without this mutation. Dementia was significantly more common in ALS patients and families with the C9ORF72 mutation and was usually early-onset FTD. There was striking clinical heterogeneity among the members of individual families with the mutation. The associated neuropathology was a combination of ALS with TDP-ir inclusions and FTLD-TDP. In addition to TDP-43-immunoreactive pathology, a consistent and specific feature of cases with the C9ORF72 mutation was the presence of ubiquitin-positive, TDP-43-negative inclusions in a variety of neuroanatomical regions, such as the cerebellar cortex. These findings support the C9ORF72 mutation as an important newly-recognized cause of ALS, provide a more detailed characterization of the associated clinical and pathological features and further demonstrate the clinical and molecular overlap between ALS and FTD. PMID:22228244

  14. Clinical and pathological features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caused by mutation in the C9ORF72 gene on chromosome 9p.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Heather; Rutherford, Nicola J; Briemberg, Hannah; Krieger, Charles; Cashman, Neil; Fabros, Marife; Baker, Matt; Fok, Alice; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Eisen, Andrew; Rademakers, Rosa; Mackenzie, Ian R A

    2012-03-01

    Two studies recently identified a GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in a non-coding region of the chromosome 9 open-reading frame 72 gene (C9ORF72) as the cause of chromosome 9p-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In a cohort of 231 probands with ALS, we identified the C9ORF72 mutation in 17 familial (27.4%) and six sporadic (3.6%) cases. Patients with the mutation presented with typical motor features of ALS, although subjects with the C9ORF72 mutation had more frequent bulbar onset, compared to those without this mutation. Dementia was significantly more common in ALS patients and families with the C9ORF72 mutation and was usually early-onset FTD. There was striking clinical heterogeneity among the members of individual families with the mutation. The associated neuropathology was a combination of ALS with TDP-ir inclusions and FTLD-TDP. In addition to TDP-43-immunoreactive pathology, a consistent and specific feature of cases with the C9ORF72 mutation was the presence of ubiquitin-positive, TDP-43-negative inclusions in a variety of neuroanatomical regions, such as the cerebellar cortex. These findings support the C9ORF72 mutation as an important newly recognized cause of ALS, provide a more detailed characterization of the associated clinical and pathological features and further demonstrate the clinical and molecular overlap between ALS and FTD.

  15. The importance of HLA DRB1 gene allele to clinical features and disability in patients with multiple sclerosis in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of HLA DRB1 alleles with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) has been consistently reported although its effect on the clinical features and disability is still unclear probably due to diversity in ethnicity and geographic location of the studied populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of HLA DRB1 alleles on the clinical features and disability of the patients with MS in Lithuania. Methods This was a prospective study of 120 patients with MS. HLA DRB1 alleles were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction. Results The first symptoms of MS in patients with HLA DRB1*15 allele manifested at younger age than in those without this allele (28.32 +/− 5.49 yrs vs. 30.94 +/− 8.43 yrs, respectively, p = 0.043). HLA DRB1*08 allele was more prevalent among relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients than among patients with progressive course of MS (25.0% vs. 8.3%, respectively, chi^2 = 6.000, p = 0.05). MS patients with this allele had lower relapse rate than those without this allele (1.00 +/− 0.97 and 1.44 +/− 0.85, respectively, p = 0.043). Degree of disability during the last visit was lower among the patients with HLA DRB1*08 allele (EDSS score 3.15 +/− 1.95 vs. 4.49 +/− 1.96, p = 0.006), and higher among those with HLA DRB1*15 allele (EDSS score 4.60 +/− 2.10 vs.4.05 +/− 1.94, p = 0.047) compared to patients without these alleles but there were no significant associations between these alleles and the duration of the disease to disability. HLA DRB1*08 allele (OR = 0.18, 95% CI 0,039-0,8, p = 0.029) was demonstradet to be independent factor to take a longer time to reach an EDSS of 6, while HLA DRB1*01 allele (OR = 5.92, 95% CI 1,30-26,8, p = 0.021) was related in a shorter time to reach and EDSS of 6. Patients with HLA DRB1*08 allele had lower IgG index compared to patients without this allele (0.58 +/− 0.17 and 0.73 +/− 0.31, respectively, p

  16. Familial cerebral cavernous angiomas: clinical and genetic features in a Chinese family with a frame-shift mutation in the CCM1 gene (krit1).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Guo, Yingjie; Feng, Xuemin; Zhang, Rensheng; Zhou, Chunkui; Li, Guibo; Liu, Jingyao

    2014-12-01

    A few cases of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) have been reported in Chinese families with different mutations during the past decade. Herein, we report a case of CCM in a proband in a Chinese family, for whom the mutation type of the CCM remains to be identified. The proband of the family presented a range of clinical symptoms and features that included paralysis, aphasia, multiple lesions in the brain, and cutaneous capillary-venous malformations. PCR was performed to amplify all of the coding exons of the three CCM genes (CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3) in the proband and revealed a heterozygous T deletion in exon 15 (c.1542delT) of CCM1 gene. Targeted mutation analysis in family members demonstrated that this mutation segregated with the disease in the family. This is the first report of a heterozygous CCM1 deletion mutation. Our findings provide a new CCM gene mutation profile in a Chinese family which will be of significance in genetic counseling for CCM.

  17. Clinical, pathological, and genetic features of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A with new calpain 3 gene mutations in seven patients from three Japanese families.

    PubMed

    Kawai, H; Akaike, M; Kunishige, M; Inui, T; Adachi, K; Kimura, C; Kawajiri, M; Nishida, Y; Endo, I; Kashiwagi, S; Nishino, H; Fujiwara, T; Okuno, S; Roudaut, C; Richard, I; Beckmann, J S; Miyoshi, K; Matsumoto, T

    1998-11-01

    We report on the clinical, pathological, and genetic features of 7 patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) from three Japanese families. The mean age of onset was 9.7+/-3.1 years (mean+/-SD), and loss of ambulance occurred at 38.5+/-2.1 years. Muscle atrophy was predominant in the pelvic and shoulder girdles, and proximal limb muscles. Muscle pathology revealed dystrophic changes. In two families, an identical G to C mutation at position 1080 the in calpain 3 gene was identified, and a frameshift mutation (1796insA) was found in the third family. The former mutation results in a W360R substitution in the proteolytic site of calpain 3, and the latter in a deletion of the Ca2+-binding domain.

  18. Screen of the IMPDH1 gene among patients with dominant retinitis pigmentosa and clinical features associated with the most common mutation, Asp226Asn.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yuko; Sandberg, Michael A; McGee, Terri L; Stillberger, Melissa A; Berson, Eliot L; Dryja, Thaddeus P

    2005-05-01

    To determine the frequency of mutations in IMPDH1 among patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP), to characterize the clinical features of patients with the Asp226Asn mutation in this gene, and to compare these features with those found among patients with selected dominant mutations in other RP genes. The coding sequence and the adjacent flanking intron sequences of all 14 coding exons were sequenced in 183 unrelated patients with dominant RP. The clinical findings evaluated included visual acuity, refractive error, visual field area measured with the Goldmann perimeter, final dark-adaptation threshold, full-field electroretinogram (ERG) amplitudes, cataract, and funduscopic bone spicule pigmentation. The mutation Asp226Asn was identified in 6 of the 183 unrelated patients with RP. One patient carried the novel, possibly pathogenic, change Lys238Glu. There was approximately a 100-fold variation in ERG amplitudes among patients of similar age with the Asp226Asn mutation. Patients had similar reductions of rod-plus-cone 0.5-Hz ERG amplitude and cone 30-Hz ERG amplitude. For a given amount of remaining visual field, there was a larger ERG amplitude in IMPDH1-carrying patients (average 0.5-Hz ERG/visual field ratio = 9.5 nV/deg(2)) compared with groups of patients with the RP1 mutation Arg677End (2.8 nV/deg(2)), the rhodopsin (RHO) mutation Pro23His (5.1 nV/deg(2)), or the RHO mutation Pro347Leu (1.7 nV/deg(2)). IMPDH1 mutations account for approximately 2% of cases of dominant RP in North America. The most frequent mutation, Asp226Asn, appears to cause at least as much loss of rod function as cone function. Patients with this form of RP retain, on average, two to five times more ERG amplitude per unit of remaining visual area than patients with three other forms of dominant RP.

  19. Acromegaly: clinical features at diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Lucio; Vilar, Clarice Freitas; Lyra, Ruy; Lyra, Raissa; Naves, Luciana A

    2017-02-01

    Acromegaly is a rare and underdiagnosed disorder caused, in more than 95% of cases, by a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. The GH hypersecretion leads to overproduction of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) which results in a multisystem disease characterized by somatic overgrowth, multiple comorbidities, physical disfigurement, and increased mortality. This article aims to review the clinical features of acromegaly at diagnosis. Acromegaly affects both males and females equally and the average age at diagnosis ranges from 40 to 50 years (up to 5% of cases < the age 20). Due to insidious onset and slow progression, acromegaly is often diagnosed five to more than ten years after its onset. The typical coarsening of facial features include furrowing of fronthead, pronounced brow protrusion, enlargement of the nose and the ears, thickening of the lips, skin wrinkles and nasolabial folds, as well as mandibular prognathism that leads to dental malocclusion and increased interdental spacing. Excessive growth of hands and feet (predominantly due to soft tissue swelling) is present in the vast majority of acromegalic patients. Gigantism accounts for up to 5% of cases and occurs when the excess of GH becomes manifest in the young, before the epiphyseal fusion. The disease also has rheumatologic, cardiovascular, respiratory, neoplastic, neurological, and metabolic manifestations which negatively impact its prognosis and patients quality of life. Less than 15% of acromegalic patients actively seek medical attention for change in appearance or enlargement of the extremities. The presentation of acromegaly is more often related to its systemic comorbidities or to local tumor effects.

  20. An update on the rotenone models of Parkinson's disease: their ability to reproduce the features of clinical disease and model gene-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michaela E; Bobrovskaya, Larisa

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by two major neuropathological hallmarks: the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and the presence of Lewy bodies in the surviving SN neurons, as well as other regions of the central and peripheral nervous system. Animal models have been invaluable tools for investigating the underlying mechanisms of the pathogenesis of PD and testing new potential symptomatic, neuroprotective and neurorestorative therapies. However, the usefulness of these models is dependent on how precisely they replicate the features of clinical PD with some studies now employing combined gene-environment models to replicate more of the affected pathways. The rotenone model of PD has become of great interest following the seminal paper by the Greenamyre group in 2000 (Betarbet et al., 2000). This paper reported for the first time that systemic rotenone was able to reproduce the two pathological hallmarks of PD as well as certain parkinsonian motor deficits. Since 2000, many research groups have actively used the rotenone model worldwide. This paper will review rotenone models, focusing upon their ability to reproduce the two pathological hallmarks of PD, motor deficits, extranigral pathology and non-motor symptoms. We will also summarize the recent advances in neuroprotective therapies, focusing on those that investigated non-motor symptoms and review rotenone models used in combination with PD genetic models to investigate gene-environment interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Features of Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jae Hak; Park, Sang Joon; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, June Hyuk; Kim, Do Jin; Uh, Soo Taek; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choon Sik

    2002-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic inflammation of the airway is usually associated with airway hyper-responsiveness in bronchial asthma. However, there is a small group of patients which has the eosinophilic inflammation in the bronchial tree with normal spirometry and no evidence of airway hyper-responsiveness, which was named eosinophilic bronchitis. The objectives of this study are 1) to investigate the incidence of eosinophilic bronchitis in the chronic cough syndrome and 2) to evaluate the clinical features and course of eosinophilic bronchitis. Methods We evaluated 92 patients who had persistent cough for 3 weeks or longer. In addition to routine diagnostic protocol, we performed differential cell count of sputum. Eosinophilic bronchitis was diagnosed when the patient had normal spirometric values, normal peak expiratory flow variability, no airway hyper-responsiveness and sputum eosinophilia (>3%). Results The causes of chronic cough were post-nasal drip in 33%, cough variant asthma in 16%, chronic bronchitis in 15% and eosinophilic bronchitis in 12% of the study subjects. Initial eosinophil percentage in the sputum of patients with eosinophilic bronchitis was 26.8±6.1% (3.8–63.7%). Treatment with inhaled steroid is related with a subjective improvement of cough severity and a significant decrease of sputum eosinophil percentage (from 29.1±8.3% to 7.4±3.3%). During the follow-up period, increase in sputum eosinophil percentage with aggravation of symptoms were found. Conclusion Eosinophilic bronchitis is one of the important cause of chronics cough. Assessment of airway inflammation by sputum examination is important in investigating the cause of chronic cough. Cough in eosinophilic bronchitis is effectively controlled by inhaled corticosteroid, but may follow a chronic course. PMID:12014210

  2. [Clinical features and ACADVL gene mutation spectrum analysis of 11 Chinese patients with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency].

    PubMed

    Jinjun, Cao; Wenjuan, Qiu; Ruinan, Zhang; Jun, Ye; Lianshu, Han; Huiwen, Zhang; Qigang, Zhang; Xuefan, Gu

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the clinical and laboratory features of very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency ( VLCADD ) and the correlations between its genotype and phenotype. Eleven patients diagnosed as VLCADD of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine seen from September 2006 to May 2014 were included. There were 9 boys and 2 girls, whose age was 2 d-17 years. Analysis was performed on clinical features, routine laboratory examination, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) , gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and genetic analysis were conducted. All cases had elevated levels of blood tetradecanoylcarnitine (C14:1) recognized as the characteristic biomarker for VLCADD. The eleven patients were classified into three groups: six cases in neonatal onset group, three in infancy onset group form patients and two in late onset group. Neonatal onset patients were characterized by hypoactivity, hypoglycemia shortly after birth. Infancy onset patients presented hepatomegaly and hypoglycemia in infancy. The two adolescent patients showed initial manifestations of exercise intolerance or rhabdomyolysis. Six of the eleven patients died at the age of 2-8 months, including four neonatal onset and two infant onset patients, with one or two null mutations. The other two neonatal onset patients were diagnosed since early birth through neonatal screening and their clinical manifestation are almost normal after treatments. Among 11 patients, seventeen different mutations in the ACADVL gene were identified, with a total mutation detection rate of 95.45% (21/22 alleles), including eleven reported mutations ( p. S22X, p. G43D, p. R511Q, p. W427X, p. A213T, p. C215R, p. G222R, p. R450H, p. R456H, c. 296-297delCA, c. 1605 + 1G > T) and six novel mutations (p. S72F, p. Q100X, p. M437T, p. D466Y, c. 1315delG insAC, IVS7 + 4 A > G). The p. R450H was the most frequent mutation identified in three alleles (13.63%, 3/22 alleles), followed by p. S22X and p. D466Y mutations which

  3. CARD14 gene polymorphism c.C2458T (p.Arg820Trp) is associated with clinical features of psoriasis vulgaris in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chunsheng; Wang, Tingting; Li, Shi-Jie; Fan, Yi-Ming; Shi, Ge; Zhu, Kun-Ju

    2016-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies have found the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.C2458T, at the caspase recruitment domain family member 14 (CARD14) gene, to be associated with psoriasis. But little is known about the association of c.C2458T and clinical features of psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) in a Chinese cohort. This study was undertaken to further explore the relationship between c.C2458T and risk of psoriasis in southern Chinese subjects and to evaluate the SNP effect on the clinical features of psoriasis. A case-control study was performed involving 345 PsV patients and 206 controls. The variant of c.C2458T was typed using a SNaPshot assay. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 13.0 software. In analysis of the basic situation of the sample, no difference was observed between cases and controls for age and sex. In the frequency distribution of genotypes and alleles in patients and controls, we found no association between the SNP and the risk of PsV. We performed a stratified analysis according to the age of onset, family history and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) subphenotypes. We found that the CC genotype was associated significantly with an increased familial history of PsV. The main finding of our study was that the CC genotype was more common in familial cases than in sporadic cases. However, there were no significant differences found in other subphenotypes of age of onset or PASI between patients positive and those negative for a particular phenotype. In conclusion, the SNP c.C2458T may have significant effects on heritability of PsV in our Chinese population.

  4. GeneClinics

    PubMed Central

    Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Shannon, Paul; Baskin, Patty; Espeseth, Miriam; Pagon, Roberta A.

    2000-01-01

    GeneClinics is an online genetic information resource consisting of descriptions of specific inherited disorders (“disease profiles”) as well as information on the role of genetic testing in the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients with these inherited conditions. GeneClinics is intended to promote the use of genetic services in medical care and personal decision making by providing health care practitioners and patients with information on genetic testing for specific inherited disorders. GeneClinics is implemented as an object-oriented database containing a combination of data and semistructured text that is rendered as HTML for publishing a given “disease profile” on the Web. Content is acquired from authors via templates, converted to an XML document reflecting the underlying database schema (with tagging of embedded data), and then loaded into the database and subjected to peer review. The initial implementation of a production system and the first phase of population of the GeneClinics database content are complete. Further expansion of the content to cover more disease, significant scaling up of rate of content creation, and evaluation redesign are under way. The ultimate goal is to have an entry in GeneClinics for each entry in the GeneTests directory of medical genetics laboratories—that is, for each disease for which clinical genetic testing is available. PMID:10833163

  5. Molecular basis of the clinical features of Holt-Oram syndrome resulting from missense and extended protein mutations of the TBX5 gene as well as TBX5 intragenic duplications.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam

    2015-04-15

    This paper reviews the molecular basis of the clinical features of Holt-Oram syndrome resulting from missense and extended protein mutations of the TBX5 gene as well as TBX5 intragenic duplications. First, we review all previously reported cases with these mutations, and then describe the pathogenesis of the clinical features in the heart and upper limb. Special emphasis is given to 'non-classic' upper limb features which are known to occur with these mutations. Finally, the molecular basis of other concurrent anomalies (chest wall, craniofacial, vertebral, and lung anomalies) is reviewed.

  6. Rosacea: clinical features and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Isabel

    2016-03-30

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that predominantly affects the central face. It is characterised by a variable range of symptoms, including erythema, telangiectasia, papules, pustules and changes in skin texture. Rosacea may be transient, recurrent or persistent. Because it affects the most visible part of the body, the psychosocial effects of this condition can be significant. This article describes the features and management of the condition.

  7. Clinical features of legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A

    1998-06-01

    Legionnaires' disease is a systemic infectious disease primarily involving the lungs, with multisystemic extrapulmonary manifestations. Any species of Legionella may cause legionnaires' disease in normal and compromised hosts. The clinical diagnosis of legionnaires' disease may be made on the basis of associated extrapulmonary clinical and laboratory findings. Although no single finding in legionnaires' disease is pathognomonic, the association of key extrapulmonary constitutes a typical pattern that is diagnostically characteristic. The syndromic approach based on a weighted point evaluation system described in the article gives physicians a system to arrive at a rapid presumptive clinical diagnosis of legionnaires' disease. Definitive diagnosis of legionnaires' disease is by direct fluorescent antibody testing of respiratory specimens, serological methods, Legionella urinary antigenuria, or culture.

  8. Clinical features of gastroenteropancreatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Czarnywojtek, Agata; Bączyk, Maciej; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Fischbach, Jakub; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Ruchała, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) endocrine tumours (carcinoids and pancreatic islet cell tumours) are composed of multipotent neuroendocrine cells that exhibit a unique ability to produce, store, and secrete biologically active substances and cause distinct clinical syndromes. The classification of GEP tumours as functioning or non-functioning is based on the presence of symptoms that accompany these syndromes secondary to the secretion of hormones, neuropeptides and/or neurotransmitters (functioning tumours). Non-functioning tumours are considered to be neoplasms of neuroendocrine differentiation that are not associated with obvious symptoms attributed to the hypersecretion of metabolically active substances. However, a number of these tumours are either capable of producing low levels of such substances, which can be detected by immunohistochemistry but are insufficient to cause symptoms related to a clinical syndrome, or alternatively, they may secrete substances that are either metabolically inactive or inappropriately processed. In some cases, GEP tumours are not associated with the production of any hormone or neurotransmitter. Both functioning and non-functioning tumours can also produce symptoms due to mass effects compressing vital surrounding structures. Gastroenteropancreatic tumours are usually classified further according to the anatomic site of origin: foregut (including respiratory tract, thymus, stomach, duodenum, and pancreas), midgut (including small intestine, appendix, and right colon), and hindgut (including transverse colon, sigmoid, and rectum). Within these subgroups the biological and clinical characteristics of the tumours vary considerably, but this classification is still in use because a significant number of previous studies, mainly observational, have used it extensively. PMID:26516377

  9. Association between expression of DNA mismatch repair genes and clinical features and prognosis of patients with radical resection of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, J B; Ma, D L; Li, J Y; Sun, Q D; Liu, Y E

    2016-08-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of the expression of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes in patients subjected to radical surgical removal of colon cancer, as well as their correlation with disease prognosis. Ninety stage II and III colon cancer patients who received laparoscopic radical resection of colon cancer at our hospital were recruited in this study. The expression of hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH6, and hPMS2 in the resected tumor tissues was examined by SP immunohistochemistry, in order to analyze the relationship between defective DNA MMR (dMMR) and the clinico-pathological features and prognosis of colon cancer. Patients were followed up over a period of 5-35 months, and the Kaplan-Meier survival curve was plotted. dMMR was confirmed in 27 subjects (30.0%), among whom recurrence with metastasis and death was reported in 5 (18.5%) and 2 (7.4%) patients, respectively. The remaining 63 subjects displayed proficient DNA MMR (pMMR); among these, 19 (30.2%) and 7 (11.1%) recurrences with metastasis and death were reported, respectively. dMMR showed no significant correlation with gender, age, or therapeutic modality (P > 0.05), but was significantly correlated with the degree of differentiation, tumor location, number of resected lymph nodes, presence of ileus, and TNM stage (P < 0.05). The prognosis of patients with dMMR was better than that of patients with pMMR. dMMR serves as a biomarker for the prognosis of stage II/III colon cancers.

  10. Costeff syndrome: clinical features and natural history.

    PubMed

    Yahalom, Gilad; Anikster, Yair; Huna-Baron, Ruth; Hoffmann, Chen; Blumkin, Lubov; Lev, Dorit; Tsabari, Rakefet; Nitsan, Zeev; Lerman, Sheera F; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Pode-Shakked, Ben; Sofer, Shira; Schweiger, Avraham; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Hassin-Baer, Sharon

    2014-12-01

    Costeff syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal-recessive neurological disorder, which is known almost exclusively in patients of Iraqi Jewish descent, manifesting in childhood with optic atrophy, ataxia, chorea and spastic paraparesis. Our aim was to study the clinical spectrum of CS and natural history using a cross-sectional study design. Consecutive patients with CS were recruited to the study. Patients were diagnosed based on clinical features, along with elevated urinary levels of methylglutaconic and methylglutaric acid, and by identification of the disease-causing mutation in the OPA3 gene in most. All patients were examined by a neurologist and signs and symptoms were rated. 28 patients with CS (16 males, 21 families, age at last observation 28.6 ± 16.1 years, range 0.5-68 years) were included. First signs of neurological deficit appeared in infancy or early childhood, with delayed motor milestones, choreiform movements, ataxia and visual disturbances. Ataxia and chorea were the dominant motor features in childhood, but varied in severity among patients and did not seem to worsen with age. Pyramidal dysfunction appeared later and progressed with age (r = 0.71, p < 0.001) leading to spastic paraparesis and marked gait impairment. The course of neurological deterioration was slow and the majority of patients could still walk beyond the fifth decade. While visual acuity seemed to deteriorate, it did not correlate with age. CS is a rare neurogenetic disorder that causes serious disability and worsens with age. Spasticity significantly increases over the years and is the most crucial determinant of neurological dysfunction.

  11. Clinical application of modified bag-of-features coupled with hybrid neural-based classifier in dengue fever classification using gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sankhadeep; Dey, Nilanjan; Shi, Fuqian; Ashour, Amira S; Fong, Simon James; Sen, Soumya

    2017-09-11

    Dengue fever detection and classification have a vital role due to the recent outbreaks of different kinds of dengue fever. Recently, the advancement in the microarray technology can be employed for such classification process. Several studies have established that the gene selection phase takes a significant role in the classifier performance. Subsequently, the current study focused on detecting two different variations, namely, dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). A modified bag-of-features method has been proposed to select the most promising genes in the classification process. Afterward, a modified cuckoo search optimization algorithm has been engaged to support the artificial neural (ANN-MCS) to classify the unknown subjects into three different classes namely, DF, DHF, and another class containing convalescent and normal cases. The proposed method has been compared with other three well-known classifiers, namely, multilayer perceptron feed-forward network (MLP-FFN), artificial neural network (ANN) trained with cuckoo search (ANN-CS), and ANN trained with PSO (ANN-PSO). Experiments have been carried out with different number of clusters for the initial bag-of-features-based feature selection phase. After obtaining the reduced dataset, the hybrid ANN-MCS model has been employed for the classification process. The results have been compared in terms of the confusion matrix-based performance measuring metrics. The experimental results indicated a highly statistically significant improvement with the proposed classifier over the traditional ANN-CS model.

  12. Update on Clinical Features and Brain Abnormalities in Neurogenetics Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Laureano, Maura Regina; Del'Aquilla, Marco Antonio; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Assuncao, Idaiane; Silva, Ivaldo; Schwartzman, Jose Salomao

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging methods represent a critical tool in efforts to join the study of the neurobiology of genes with the neurobiology of behaviour, and to understand the neurodevelopmental pathways that give rise to cognitive and behavioural impairments. This article reviews the clinical features and highlights studies with a focus on the relevant…

  13. Update on Clinical Features and Brain Abnormalities in Neurogenetics Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Laureano, Maura Regina; Del'Aquilla, Marco Antonio; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Assuncao, Idaiane; Silva, Ivaldo; Schwartzman, Jose Salomao

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging methods represent a critical tool in efforts to join the study of the neurobiology of genes with the neurobiology of behaviour, and to understand the neurodevelopmental pathways that give rise to cognitive and behavioural impairments. This article reviews the clinical features and highlights studies with a focus on the relevant…

  14. A systematic review of familial Alzheimer's disease: Differences in presentation of clinical features among three mutated genes and potential ethnic differences.

    PubMed

    Shea, Yat-Fung; Chu, Leung-Wing; Chan, Angel On-Kei; Ha, Joyce; Li, Yan; Song, You-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    There are great diversities of clinical phenotypes among the various familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) families. We aimed to systematically review all the previously reported cases of FAD and to perform comparisons between Asian and white patients. In this regard, we collected individual-level data from 658 pedigrees. We found that patients with presenilin 1 (PSEN1) mutations had the earliest age of onset (AOO; 43.3 ± 8.6 years, p < 0.001) and were more commonly affected by seizures, spastic paraparesis, myoclonus, and cerebellar signs (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.002, respectively). Patients with PSEN2 mutations have a delayed AOO with longest disease duration and presented more frequently with disorientation (p = 0.03). Patients with amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutations presented more frequently with aggression (p = 0.02) and those with APP duplication presented more frequently with apraxia (p = 0.03). PSEN1 mutations before codon 200 had an earlier AOO than those having mutations after codon 200 (41.4 ± 8.0 years vs. 44.7 ± 8.7 years, p < 0.001). Because 42.9% of the mutations reported are novel, the mutation spectrum and clinical features in Asian FAD families could be different from that of whites. Asian patients with PSEN1 mutations presented more frequently with disorientation (p = 0.02) and personality change (p = 0.01) but less frequently with atypical clinical features. Asian patients with APP mutations presented less frequently with aphasia (p = 0.02). Thus, clinical features could be modified by underlying mutations, and Asian FAD patients may have different clinical features when compared with whites. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Systematic feature evaluation for gene name recognition.

    PubMed

    Hakenberg, Jörg; Bickel, Steffen; Plake, Conrad; Brefeld, Ulf; Zahn, Hagen; Faulstich, Lukas; Leser, Ulf; Scheffer, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    In task 1A of the BioCreAtIvE evaluation, systems had to be devised that recognize words and phrases forming gene or protein names in natural language sentences. We approach this problem by building a word classification system based on a sliding window approach with a Support Vector Machine, combined with a pattern-based post-processing for the recognition of phrases. The performance of such a system crucially depends on the type of features chosen for consideration by the classification method, such as pre- or postfixes, character n-grams, patterns of capitalization, or classification of preceding or following words. We present a systematic approach to evaluate the performance of different feature sets based on recursive feature elimination, RFE. Based on a systematic reduction of the number of features used by the system, we can quantify the impact of different feature sets on the results of the word classification problem. This helps us to identify descriptive features, to learn about the structure of the problem, and to design systems that are faster and easier to understand. We observe that the SVM is robust to redundant features. RFE improves the performance by 0.7%, compared to using the complete set of attributes. Moreover, a performance that is only 2.3% below this maximum can be obtained using fewer than 5% of the features.

  16. Mitochondrial disorders: clinical and genetic features.

    PubMed

    Simon, D K; Johns, D R

    1999-01-01

    Virtually all cells in humans depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to generate energy, accounting for the remarkable diversity of clinical disorders associated with mitochondrial DNA mutations. However, certain tissues are particularly susceptible to mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in recognizable clinical syndromes. Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been linked to seizures, strokes, optic atrophy, neuropathy, myopathy, cardiomyopathy, sensorineural hearing loss, diabetes mellitus, and other clinical features. Mitochondrial DNA mutations also may play an important role in aging, as well as in common age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important for clinicians to recognize the clinical syndromes suggestive of a mitochondrial disorder, and to understand the unique features of mitochondrial genetics that complicate diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  17. [Clinical features of hypokalemic periodic paralysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Chun-yun; Gao, Yan-ming

    2009-12-18

    To explore the clinical features of hypokalemic periodic paralysis, and compare clinical features of primary group with those of thyrotoxicosis secondary group. Clinical data of 44 patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis in Peking University First Hospital from 1996 December to 2008 December were retrospectively analyzed. There were 22 patients in primary group, and 22 in thyrotoxicosis group. Identical clinical features of both the groups: (1)It had a predilection in young men. (2)Main symptoms were limb movement disorder and fatigue, and paralysis recurrent attacked in most patients. (3) 40.9% to 68.2% patients had obvious incentives, and the common ones were a heavy meal, sweet drinks, or strenuous exercise. (4) Serum potassium levels of the two groups were obviously lower than the normal range. (5)In 20% patients of primary group and 25% patients of thyrotoxicosis secondary group, CK levels were higher than normal, while LDH and HBDH levels were normal. (6)The doses of potassium replishment were not correlated to serum potassium levels at the onset. Different clinical features of the two groups: (1) Patients of thyrotoxicosis group had hypermetabolism symptoms and thyroid dysfunction. Patients of primary group had no hypermetabolism symptoms, and all of them were euthyroid. (2)Serum potassium levels of thyrotoxicosis secondary group were lower than those of primary group significantly [(2.25 +/- 0.67) vs (2.78 +/- 0.49) mmol/L, P=0.007]. (3) Hyperkalemia is easier than primary group to rebound in thyrotoxicosis secondary group, after replenishment of potassium. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis has its clinical features, and patients with early diagnosis and replenishment of potassium in time have good prognosis. The doses of potassium replenishment are not determined by serum potassium levels at the onset. Hyperkalemia is easier to rebound in thyrotoxicosis secondary group after replenishment of potassium, serum potassium levels should be monitored closely

  18. Clinical and imaging features of fludarabine neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael S; McKinney, Alexander M; Brace, Jeffrey R; Santacruz, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Neurotoxicity from intravenous fludarabine is a rare but recognized clinical entity. Its brain imaging features have not been extensively described. Three patients received 38.5 mg or 40 mg/m per day fludarabine in a 5-day intravenous infusion before bone marrow transplantation in treatment of hematopoietic malignancies. Several weeks later, each patient developed progressive neurologic decline, including retrogeniculate blindness, leading to coma and death. Brain MRI showed progressively enlarging but mild T2/FLAIR hyperintensities in the periventricular white matter. The lesions demonstrated restricted diffusion but did not enhance. Because the neurotoxicity of fludarabine appears long after exposure, neurologic decline in this setting is likely to be attributed to opportunistic disease. However, the imaging features are distinctive in their latency and in being mild relative to the profound clinical features. The safe dose of fludarabine in this context remains controversial.

  19. Polymorphism in the IL4R gene and clinical features are associated with glioma prognosis: Analyses of case-cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tian Bo; Du, Shuli; Zhu, Xi Kai; Li, Gang; Ouyang, Yongri; He, Na; Zhang, Zhiying; Zhang, Yuan; Kang, Longli; Yuan, Dongya

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory gene polymorphisms may be associated with glioma risk. The purpose of this study was to analyze effects of certain inflammatory gene and some clinical factors on patient survival.The clinical information of 269 glioma patients conceived operation from September 2010 to May 2014 to decide the 1-, 3-year survival rates according to follow-up results and analyze age, gender, the WHO classification, extent of surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy factors effects on prognosis. Survival distributions were estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and difference in the survival was tested using the log-rank test. To estimate the association between the IL4, IL13, IL10, IL4R SNPs, and PFS and OS in glioma, the HR and 95% CI were calculated by univariate Cox proportional hazards model. Multivariate Cox model were performed to compute adjusted HR and 95% CI. All data was analyzed with SPSS17.0 package. Extent of surgical resection, chemotherapy, and age are an important factor in glioma overall survival and progression-free survival overall. Extent of surgery and chemotherapy are important factors in astrocytoma overall survival. Univariate analysis showed that IL4R rs1801275 was significantly associated with overall survival of glioma and astrocytoma patients (P < 0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that IL4R rs1801275 GG genotype could increase the death risk of glioma and astrocytoma patients (Glioma: hazard ratio [HR]: 4.897, 95% confidence limits [95% CI]: 1.962-12.222, P = 0.001; Astrocytoma: HR: 15.944, 95% CI: 4.019-63.253, P < 0.05).Our research results showed that extent of surgical resection, age, and chemotherapy affect the prognosis of glioma. The IL4R gene may affect the survival of glioma patients.

  20. Clinical and radiographic maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Nilton; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review of the literature to determine the radiographic and clinical maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis emphasizing the main aspects of interest to the dentist in order to make them fit for the proper treatment of this population. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible in order to plan the treatment more suitable to provide a better life’s quality to the patients. The most frequent clinical maxillofacial features were: grooved palate, midfacial hypoplasia, mandibular hypoplasia and enamel hypoplasia. The most common radiographic maxillofacial features were: obtuse mandibular angle, frontal/parietal/occiptal bossing, open fontanels and sutures, multiple impacted teeth. The earlier diagnostic of pycnodysostosis has a fundamental role in general health of the patients. We consider that is very important that the dentist know recognize the radiographic and clinical maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis, which allows correct treatment planning avoiding risks and ensuring better life’s quality to the patients. PMID:24753741

  1. Clinical features and prognosis for intraventricular liponeurocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nini; Cai, Jinxiu; Du, Jiang; Yang, Rong; Zhu, Huachen; Gao, Peiyi; Zhou, Jian; Li, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Cerebellar liponeurocytoma is a rare central nervous system tumor, we investigate its biological behaviors and clinical prognosis to improve the understanding of this tumor. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical, radiological and histopathological findings as well as follow-up data of two patients with intraventricular liponeurocytomas in Beijing Tiantan Hospital between July 2000 and July 2016. The main clinical manifestations of the two patients were headache. The supratentorial intraventricular liponeurocytoma appeared as isodense to slight hyperdense on CT scan and heterogeneous intensity on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). The plaque-like hypodense on CT images and hyperintensity on T1WI resembling fat could be seen inside the tumor. The liponeurocytoma located in the fourth ventricle showed isointensity on T1 and T2WI as well as slight enhancement on contrast. Two patients accepted gross total resection of tumors. Two intraventricular tumors demonstrated similarly histopathological features, such as isomorphic small tumor cells with clear cytoplasm, sheets of monomorphic round cells and focal lipomatous differentiation. In addition, expression of synaptophysin, neuron specific enolase, microtubule-associated protein 2 and S-100 were found. No radiological or clinical evidence of recurrence of the tumors was observed in their follow-up surveys. In conclusion, intraventricular liponeurocytoma has a favorable clinical course, radiological features may be useful in the diagnosis of this rare tumor before surgery. PMID:28977976

  2. Clinical features and prognosis for intraventricular liponeurocytoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nini; Cai, Jinxiu; Du, Jiang; Yang, Rong; Zhu, Huachen; Gao, Peiyi; Zhou, Jian; Li, Xiaofeng

    2017-09-22

    Cerebellar liponeurocytoma is a rare central nervous system tumor, we investigate its biological behaviors and clinical prognosis to improve the understanding of this tumor. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical, radiological and histopathological findings as well as follow-up data of two patients with intraventricular liponeurocytomas in Beijing Tiantan Hospital between July 2000 and July 2016. The main clinical manifestations of the two patients were headache. The supratentorial intraventricular liponeurocytoma appeared as isodense to slight hyperdense on CT scan and heterogeneous intensity on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). The plaque-like hypodense on CT images and hyperintensity on T1WI resembling fat could be seen inside the tumor. The liponeurocytoma located in the fourth ventricle showed isointensity on T1 and T2WI as well as slight enhancement on contrast. Two patients accepted gross total resection of tumors. Two intraventricular tumors demonstrated similarly histopathological features, such as isomorphic small tumor cells with clear cytoplasm, sheets of monomorphic round cells and focal lipomatous differentiation. In addition, expression of synaptophysin, neuron specific enolase, microtubule-associated protein 2 and S-100 were found. No radiological or clinical evidence of recurrence of the tumors was observed in their follow-up surveys. In conclusion, intraventricular liponeurocytoma has a favorable clinical course, radiological features may be useful in the diagnosis of this rare tumor before surgery.

  3. Spinal infections: clinical and imaging features.

    PubMed

    Arbelaez, Andres; Restrepo, Feliza; Castillo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Spinal infections represent a group of rare conditions affecting vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, paraspinal soft tissues, epidural space, meninges, and spinal cord. The causal factors, clinical presentations, and imaging features are a challenge because the difficulty to differentiate them from other conditions, such as degenerative and inflammatory disorders and spinal neoplasm. They require early recognition because delay diagnosis, imaging, and intervention may have devastating consequences especially in children and the elderly. This article reviews the most common spinal infections, their pathophysiologic, clinical manifestation, and their imaging findings.

  4. The clinical and genetic features of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Sturrock, Aaron; Leavitt, Blair R

    2010-12-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder that usually presents in adulthood with characteristic motor and cognitive features and with variable and diverse psychiatric disturbances. Following the discovery of the causative defect in the HTT gene in 1993, great advances in understanding the pathogenesis of HD have been made, yet no effective disease-modifying therapy has been identified. In this new era of HD research, we have seen the emergence of a number of large clinical trials, the systematic search for novel biomarkers and the recent initiation of the first pre-manifest HD clinical studies. In this review, we seek to provide an overview of the clinical and genetic features of HD together with a summary of clinical research at this time.

  5. Cellulitis: definition, etiology, and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Craig G

    2011-12-01

    Cellulitis is a common condition seen by physicians. Over the past decade, skin and soft tissue infections from community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have become increasingly common. In this article, the definition, etiology, and clinical features of cellulitis are reviewed, and the importance of differentiating cellulitis from necrotizing soft tissue infections is emphasized. Empiric antimicrobial recommendations are suggested, including the most recent recommendations from the Infectious Disease Society of America.

  6. Clinical and neuropathological features of X-linked spinal muscular atrophy (SMAX2) associated with a novel mutation in the UBA1 gene.

    PubMed

    Dlamini, Nomazulu; Josifova, Dragana J; Paine, Simon M L; Wraige, Elizabeth; Pitt, Matthew; Murphy, Amanda J; King, Andrew; Buk, Stefan; Smith, Frances; Abbs, Stephen; Sewry, Caroline; Jacques, Thomas S; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2013-05-01

    Infantile-onset X-linked spinal muscular atrophy (SMAX2) is a rare lethal disorder linked to mutations in the UBA1 (previously UBE1) gene, encoding ubiquitin-activating enzyme 1 that has an important role in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Published pathological reports are scarce. Here we report a male infant who presented from birth with predominantly truncal hypotonia following an antenatal history of reduced fetal movements. He had a myopathic face, profound weakness, multiple contractures and areflexia. Creatine kinase was moderately raised. Brain MRI showed non-specific symmetrical periventricular white matter changes. Neurophysiology revealed evidence of motor and sensory involvement and muscle biopsy showed marked inflammatory changes with subtle features suggestive of acute denervation. UBA1 sequencing revealed a novel hemizygous missense mutation (c.1670A>T; p.Glu557Val). He died from progressive respiratory failure at 4 months. On post mortem assessment, in addition to severe ventral motor neuron pathology, there was widespread involvement of the sensory system, as well as developmental and degenerative cerebellar abnormalities. In contrast to typical SMN1-associated SMA, the thalamus was unaffected. These findings indicate that SMAX2 is more accurately classified as a motor sensory neuronopathy rather than a pure anterior horn cell disorder. Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway defects may not only cause neurodegeneration but also affect normal neuronal development.

  7. Clinical features of neuromyelitis optica in children

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Jayne; Krupp, Lauren; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Hunt, Tyler; Olsen, Cody S.; Rodriguez, Moses; Lotze, Tim; Gorman, Mark; Benson, Leslie; Belman, Anita; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Aaen, Greg; Graves, Jennifer; Patterson, Marc; Rose, John W.; Casper, T. Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare clinical features of pediatric neuromyelitis optica (NMO) to other pediatric demyelinating diseases. Methods: Review of a prospective multicenter database on children with demyelinating diseases. Case summaries documenting clinical and laboratory features were reviewed by an adjudication panel. Diagnoses were assigned in the following categories: multiple sclerosis (MS), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, NMO, and recurrent demyelinating disease not otherwise specified. Results: Thirty-eight cases of NMO were identified by review panel, 97% of which met the revised International Panel on NMO Diagnosis NMO-SD 2014 criteria, but only 49% met 2006 Wingerchuk criteria. Serum or CSF NMO immunoglobulin G (IgG) was positive in 65% of NMO cases that were tested; however, some patients became seropositive more than 3 years after onset despite serial testing. No patient had positive CSF NMO IgG and negative serum NMO IgG in contemporaneous samples. Other than race (p = 0.02) and borderline findings for sex (p = 0.07), NMO IgG seropositive patients did not differ in demographic, clinical, or laboratory features from seronegatives. Visual, motor, and constitutional symptoms (including vomiting, fever, and seizures) were the most common presenting features of NMO. Initiation of disease-modifying treatment was delayed in NMO vs MS. Two years after onset, patients with NMO had higher attack rates, greater disability accrual measured by overall Expanded Disability Status Scale score, and visual scores than did patients with MS. Conclusion: The new criteria for NMO spectrum disorders apply well to the pediatric setting, and given significant delay in treatment of NMO compared to pediatric MS and worse short-term outcomes, it is imperative to apply these to improve access to treatment. PMID:26683648

  8. The zinc finger gene ZIC2 has features of an oncogene and its over- expression correlates strongly with the clinical course of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marchini, Sergio; Poynor, Elizabeth; Barakat, Richard R; Clivio, Luca; Cinquini, Michela; Fruscio, Robert; Porcu, Luca; Bussani, Cecilia; D’Incalci, Maurizio; Erba, Eugenio; Romano, Michela; Cattoretti, Giorgio; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Koff, Andrew; Luzzatto, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epithelial ovarian tumors (EOTs) are amongst the most lethal of malignancies in women. We have previously identified ZIC2 as expressed at a higher level in samples of a malignant form (MAL) of EOT than in samples of a form with low malignant potential (LMP). We have now investigated the role of ZIC2 in driving tumor growth and its association with clinical outcomes. Experimental Design ZIC2 expression levels were analysed in two independent tumor tissue collections of LMP and MAL. In vitro experiments aimed to test the role of ZIC2 as a transforming gene. Cox models were used to correlate ZIC2 expression with clinical endpoints. Results ZIC2 expression was about 40-fold in terms of mRNA and about 17-fold in terms of protein in MAL (n = 193) versus LMP (n = 39) tumors. ZIC2 mRNA levels were high in MAL cell lines, but undetectable in LMP cell lines. Over-expression of ZIC2 was localized to the nucleus. ZIC2 over-expression increases the growth rate and foci formation of NIH 3T3 cells, and stimulates anchorage-independent colony formation; down-regulation of ZIC2 decreases the growth rate of MAL cell lines. Zinc finger domains 1 and 2 are required for transforming activity. In stage I MAL ZIC2 expression was significantly associated with overall survival in both univariate (p = 0.046), and multivariate model (p = 0.049). Conclusions ZIC2, a transcription factor related to the sonic hedgehog pathway, is a strong discriminant between MAL and LMP tumors: it may be a major determinant of outcome of EOT. PMID:22733541

  9. Primary Sjogren syndrome: clinical and immunopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Fox, R I; Howell, F V; Bone, R C; Michelson, P

    1984-11-01

    Primary Sjogren syndrome is an autoimmune condition in which dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) and dry mouth (xerostomia) result from lymphocytic infiltration of lacrimal and salivary glands. Clinical and laboratory features of 60 primary Sjogren syndrome patients seen at our clinic during the past three years are presented. These patients illustrate the wide spectrum of extraglandular features that may occur as a result of lymphoid infiltration of lung, kidney, skin, stomach, liver, and muscle. They further emphasize the difficulty in classifying a patient as primary or secondary Sjogren syndrome (ie, sicca symptoms associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, or scleroderma), particularly early in the disease course. As an initial step in understanding the pathogenesis, the lymphocytes that infiltrate the salivary glands and lymph nodes were characterized by using monoclonal antibodies that recognize distinct lymphocyte subsets and by using in vitro functional assays. These studies have demonstrated that affected tissues have infiltrates of T cells with helper/inducer activity and with a high frequency of "activation antigens." The immunohistologic techniques are useful in differentiating "benign" and "pseudolymphoma" lesions (both due predominantly to T cells) from non-Hodgkin lymphoma (usually due to B-cell infiltrates). Although there is no "cure" for primary Sjogren syndrome patient's symptoms may be significantly improved by measures aimed at prevention of ocular and dental complications and by the recognition of extraglandular features that may be amenable to specific treatment.

  10. Skeletal Muscle Laminopathies: A Review of Clinical and Molecular Features

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Lorenzo; Carboni, Nicola; Bernasconi, Pia

    2016-01-01

    LMNA-related disorders are caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes for the nuclear envelope proteins, lamin A and C, via alternative splicing. Laminopathies are associated with a wide range of disease phenotypes, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic disorders and premature aging syndromes. The most frequent diseases associated with mutations in the LMNA gene are characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement. This review will focus on genetics and clinical features of laminopathies affecting primarily skeletal muscle. Although only symptomatic treatment is available for these patients, many achievements have been made in clarifying the pathogenesis and improving the management of these diseases. PMID:27529282

  11. Epidemiological and clinical features of Minamata disease.

    PubMed

    Igata, A

    1993-10-01

    Minamata disease is methyl mercury intoxication from fish contaminated by a chemical factory in Minamata city. Based on the results of our regional survey, cardinal clinical features of the disease were clarified by a multivariant analysis of all symptoms in inhabitants in the polluted area. The clinical features were found to be essentially the same as those of Hunter Russell syndrome; however, some additional symptoms were also found. Those symptoms are influenced by many factors, such as degree of exposure and duration of pollution. The disposition of each inhabitant also plays a role in clinical manifestation. This analysis contributes to a correct individual diagnosis and to the correct estimation of patients in polluted areas. Long-term studies also uncovered a few inhabitants who claimed to have begun to experience some neurological symptoms after pollution ceased. These symptoms were attributed mainly to aging. As many inhabitants with mild neurological complaints were not easily diagnosed, a questionable borderline group should be postulated for social settlement of Minamata disease. The characteristics of Minamata disease are discussed and compared to cases of methyl mercury poisoning in other parts of the world.

  12. Basal cell carcinoma: clinical and pathological features.

    PubMed

    Di Stefani, A; Chimenti, S

    2015-08-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a slow-growing, locally invasive malignant epidermal skin neoplasm that represents the most common malignancy in Caucasians. The clinical presentation of BCC can be extremely variable: nodular, ulcerative, superficial, morpheiform, pigmented, and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus are the main clinical variants described. Clinical factors influencing negatively prognosis of BCC are: anatomic location, recurrence and/or persistance at site after treatment, and tumor size. A precise correlations between clinical and histopathological variants is not always possible, especially in biopsy samples. From a histopathological point of view various subtypes has been described: nodular, superficial, infiltrating, morpheiform, micronodular, fibroepithelial BCC and basosquamous carcinoma. A classification system based by growth pattern allows the identification of high-risk subtypes with potential tumor recurrence and aggressive biologic behavior such as infiltrating, morpheiform, micronodular and basosquamous subtypes. Further histopathological aspects determining high risk clinical morbidity are the level of invasion, perineural and lymphovascular invasion, involved surgical margins. The awareness of these clinicopathological features is helpful to better select the appropriate treatment management.

  13. Neuromyelitis optica: clinical features, immunopathogenesis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jarius, S; Wildemann, B; Paul, F

    2014-01-01

    The term ‘neuromyelitis optica’ (‘Devic's syndrome’, NMO) refers to a syndrome characterized by optic neuritis and myelitis. In recent years, the condition has raised enormous interest among scientists and clinical neurologists, fuelled by the detection of a specific serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G reactivity (NMO-IgG) in up to 80% of patients with NMO. These autoantibodies were later shown to target aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the most abundant water channel in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we give an up-to-date overview of the clinical and paraclinical features, immunopathogenesis and treatment of NMO. We discuss the widening clinical spectrum of AQP4-related autoimmunity, the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and new diagnostic means such as optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of NMO, the role of NMO-IgG, T cells and granulocytes in the pathophysiology of NMO, and outline prospects for new and emerging therapies for this rare, but often devastating condition. Other Articles published in this series Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014, 175: 336–48. Disease-modifying therapy in multiple sclerosis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: common and divergent current and future strategies. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014, 175: 359–72. Monoclonal antibodies in treatment of multiple sclerosis. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014, 175: 373–84. CLIPPERS: chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids. Review of an increasingly recognized entity within the spectrum of inflammatory central nervous system disorders. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014, 175: 385–96. Requirement for safety monitoring for approved multiple sclerosis therapies: an overview. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014, 175: 397–407. Myasthenia gravis: an update for the clinician. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014, 175: 408

  14. [Clinical and hematologic features of pediatric leukemias].

    PubMed

    Hasanbegović, Edo

    2006-01-01

    to present main clinical and hematologic features of pediatric leukemias treated at Hematooncologic department of Pediatric Clinic in Sarajevo during last 7 years. In retrospective study we followed up children with leukemia aged 0-15 who were treated during period of 01.01.1997-31.12.2003. at Hematooncologic department on Pediatric Clinic in Sarajevo. A total number of patient with leukemia was 130 of them 112 (83.2%) had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 16 (12.3%) of them had acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 2 (1.5%) patients had chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). There were 84 (64.6%) boys and 46 (35.4%) girls. Median age of newly diagnosed patients was 6 years and 4 months. Dominant clinical signs were: high temperature-72.9%, fatigue and paleness-74.8% and bone pain-87.9%. Most of the children had leucocitosis (51.5%), anemia (56.1%) and trombocitopenia (57.5%). Most frequent signs at the beginning of the illness are general symptoms like fatigue, unclear febrile state and accented bone pains. Those united signs with complete blood picture finding should be enough reason for suspicion under possible leukemia.

  15. Biochemical and clinical features of hereditary hyperprolinemia.

    PubMed

    Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Endo, Fumio

    2014-08-01

    There are two classifications of hereditary hyperprolinemia: type I (HPI) and type II (HPII). Each type is caused by an autosomal recessive inborn error of the proline metabolic pathway. HPI is caused by an abnormality in the proline-oxidizing enzyme (POX). HPII is caused by a deficiency of Δ-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase (P5CDh). The clinical features of HPI are unclear. Nephropathy, uncontrolled seizures, mental retardation or schizophrenia have been reported in HPI, but a benign phenotype without neurological problems has also been reported. The clinical features of HPII are also unclear. In addition, the precise incidences of HPI and HPII are unknown. Only two cases of HPI and one case of HPII have been identified in Japan through a questionnaire survey and by a study of previous reports. This suggests that hyperprolinemia is a very rare disease in Japan, consistent with earlier reports in Western countries. The one case of HPII found in Japan was diagnosed in an individual with influenza-associated encephalopathy. This suggests that HPII might reduce the threshold for convulsions, thereby increasing the sensitivity of individuals with influenza-associated encephalopathy. The current study presents diagnostic criteria for HPI and HPII, based on plasma proline level, with or without measurements of urinary P5C. In the future, screening for HPI and HPII in healthy individuals, or patients with relatively common diseases such as developmental disabilities, epilepsy, schizophrenia or behavioral problems will be important.

  16. Clinical features of elderly chronic urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Ga-Young; Kim, Mi-Yea; Yoo, Hye-Soo; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Ye, Young-Min; Shin, Yoo-Seob

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Chronic urticaria (CU) is defined as itchy wheals lasting 6 weeks or more. As the aged population increases worldwide, it is essential to identify the specific features of this disease in the elderly population. Methods We investigated the prevalence and clinical features of CU in elderly patients. Medical records of 837 CU patients from the outpatient Allergy Clinic of Ajou University Hospital, Korea were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria according to the EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/WAO guidelines were included. Patients older than 60 years were defined as elderly. Results Of the 837 patients, 37 (4.5%) were elderly. In elderly versus nonelderly CU patients, the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) was significantly higher (37.8% vs. 21.7%, respectively; p = 0.022), while that of aspirin intolerance was lower (18.9% vs. 43.6%, respectively; p = 0.003) in terms of comorbid conditions. The prevalences of serum specific immunoglobulin E antibodies to staphylococcal enterotoxin A and staphylococcal enterotoxin B were considerably higher in elderly CU patients with AD than in those without AD (37.5% vs. 0%, respectively). Conclusions Elderly patients with CU had a higher prevalence of AD. Therefore, there is a need to recognize the existence of AD in elderly CU patients. PMID:25378979

  17. Ossified spinal meningiomas: Clinical and surgical features.

    PubMed

    Alafaci, Concetta; Grasso, Giovanni; Granata, Francesca; Salpietro, Francesco M; Tomasello, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Meningiomas constitute 25% of primary spinal tumors and predominantly involve the thoracic spinal cord. Although calcifications are commonly seen in intracranial meningiomas, gross calcifications are observed in only 1-5% of all spinal meningiomas. We report the clinical findings, surgical strategy and histological features of 9 patients with ossified spinal meningiomas (OSMs). Clinical and surgical features of 9 patients with ossified spinal meningiomas were retrospectively reviewed. There were 8 women and 1 man with a mean age of 59 years. In 7 patients, the lesions were localized in the thoracic segment of the spine while in 2 patients in the lower cervical segment. All patients presented with weakness of the lower limbs and hypoesthesia below the site level of the lesion. Only 2 patients presented with urinary incontinence. Gross-total resection of the tumor was achieved in 6 patients while in 3 a subtotal removal of the meningioma was obtained. In all patients the postoperative course was uneventful. Six patients presented with a significant neurological improvement while in 3 patients a mild improvement was observed. Microscopically, all tumors showed typical histological pattern of ossified meningioma. OSMs are amenable to surgery if the complete removal can be achieved. Because of their hard-rock consistency complete resection can be challenging. In difficult cases, subtotal removal can be advised and follow-up imaging is mandatory. Overall, the risk of long-term recurrence of the lesions is low, and a good clinical outcome after total or subtotal removal can be expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical features of congenital retinal folds.

    PubMed

    Nishina, Sachiko; Suzuki, Yumi; Yokoi, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Yuri; Noda, Eiichiro; Azuma, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the clinical features and prognosis of congenital retinal folds without systemic associations. Retrospective observational case series. The characteristics, clinical course, ocular complications, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of eyes with congenital retinal folds were studied during the follow-up periods. The affected and fellow eyes were examined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, and fundus fluorescein angiography. The parents and siblings of each patient also underwent ophthalmoscopic examinations. The BCVA was measured using a Landolt ring VA chart. One hundred forty-seven eyes of 121 patients with congenital retinal folds were examined. Fifty-five patients (45.5%) were female. The fold was unilateral in 95 patients (78.5%), and 69 of those patients (72.6%) had retinal abnormalities in the fellow eye. The meridional distribution of folds was temporal in 136 eyes (92.5%). The family history was positive in 32 patients (26.4%). Secondary fundus complications, including fibrovascular proliferation and tractional, rhegmatogenous, and exudative retinal detachments, developed in 44 eyes (29.9%). The BCVAs could be measured in 119 eyes and ranged from 20/100 to 20/20 in 5 eyes (4.2%), 2/100 to 20/200 in 45 eyes (37.8%), and 2/200 or worse in 69 eyes (58.0%). The follow-up periods ranged from 4 to 243 months (mean, 79.7 ± 58.9 months). These clinical features suggested that most congenital retinal folds may result from insufficient retinal vascular development, as in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, rather than persistent fetal vasculature. Adequate management of active retinopathy and late-onset complications, especially retinal detachment, is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Autoimmune uveitis: clinical, pathogenetic, and therapeutic features.

    PubMed

    Prete, Marcella; Dammacco, Rosanna; Fatone, Maria Celeste; Racanelli, Vito

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune uveitis (AU), an inflammatory non-infectious process of the vascular layer of the eye, can lead to visual impairment and, in the absence of a timely diagnosis and suitable therapy, can even result in total blindness. The majority of AU cases are idiopathic, whereas fewer than 20 % are associated with systemic diseases. The clinical severity of AU depends on whether the anterior, intermediate, or posterior part of the uvea is involved and may range from almost asymptomatic to rapidly sight-threatening forms. Race, genetic background, and environmental factors can also influence the clinical picture. The pathogenetic mechanism of AU is still poorly defined, given its remarkable heterogeneity and the many discrepancies between experimental and human uveitis. Even so, the onset of AU is thought to be related to an aberrant T cell-mediated immune response, triggered by inflammation and directed against retinal or cross-reactive antigens. B cells may also play a role in uveal antigen presentation and in the subsequent activation of T cells. The management of AU remains a challenge for clinicians, especially because of the paucity of randomized clinical trials that have systematically evaluated the effectiveness of different drugs. In addition to topical treatment, several different therapeutic options are available, although a standardized regimen is thus far lacking. Current guidelines recommend corticosteroids as the first-line therapy for patients with active AU. Immunosuppressive drugs may be subsequently required to treat steroid-resistant AU and for steroid-sparing purposes. The recent introduction of biological agents, such as those targeting tumor necrosis factor-α, is expected to remarkably increase the percentages of responders and to prevent irreversible sight impairment. This paper reviews the clinical features of AU and its crucial pathogenetic targets in relation to the current therapeutic perspectives. Also, the largest clinical trials

  20. Electroencephalographic and clinical features of cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, J; Smith, S; Muthinji, P; Marsh, K; Kirkham, F

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Seizures are a prominent feature of childhood cerebral malaria, and are associated with an increased risk of death and neurological sequelae. We present the electroencephalographic (EEG) findings from a detailed clinical and electrophysiological study.
METHODS—Children with cerebral malaria had EEGs recorded within six hours of admission, and at 12 hourly intervals until recovery of consciousness. Ten deeply comatose children underwent intracranial pressure monitoring. Children were not mechanically ventilated, which made it possible to directly correlate the clinical and EEG findings.
RESULTS—Of 65 children aged 9 months and above, 40 had one or more seizures, and 18 had an episode of status epilepticus. Most seizures were partial motor, and spike wave activity consistently arose from the posterior temporo-parietal region, a border zone area lying between territories supplied by the carotid and vertebrobasilar circulations. Fifteen children had seizures that were clinically subtle or electrographic. Clinical seizures were associated with an abrupt rise in intracranial pressure. Fifty children recovered fully, seven died, and eight had persistent neurological sequelae. Initial EEG recordings of very slow frequency, or with background asymmetry, burst suppression, or interictal discharges, were associated with an adverse outcome.
CONCLUSIONS—Serial EEG recording has uncovered a range of clinical, subtle, and electrographic seizures complicating childhood cerebral malaria, and has emphasised their importance in the pathogenesis of coma. Further work is required to determine the most appropriate regimen for the prophylaxis and treatment of seizures in cerebral malaria, in order to improve outcome.

 PMID:11207176

  1. Clinical and pathological features of pachyonychia congenita.

    PubMed

    Leachman, Sancy A; Kaspar, Roger L; Fleckman, Philip; Florell, Scott R; Smith, Frances J D; McLean, W H Irwin; Lunny, Declan P; Milstone, Leonard M; van Steensel, Maurice A M; Munro, Colin S; O'Toole, Edel A; Celebi, Julide T; Kansky, Aleksej; Lane, E Birgitte

    2005-10-01

    Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare genodermatosis affecting the nails, skin, oral mucosae, larynx, hair, and teeth. Pathogenic mutations in keratins K6a or K16 are associated with the PC-1 phenotype whereas K6b and K17 mutations are associated with the PC-2 phenotype. Analysis of clinical, pathological, and genetic data from the literature and two research registries reveal that >97% of PC cases exhibit fingernail and toenail thickening, and painful plantar keratoderma. Prospective evaluation of 57 PC patients from 41 families revealed variable clinical findings: hyperhidrosis (79%), oral leukokeratosis (75%), follicular keratosis (65%), palmar keratoderma (60%), cutaneous cysts (35%), hoarseness or laryngeal involvement (16%), coarse or twisted hair (26%), early primary tooth loss (14%), and presence of natal or prenatal teeth (2%). Stratification of these data by keratin mutation confirmed the increased incidence of cyst formation and natal teeth among PC-2 patients, although cysts were more commonly seen in PC-1 than previously reported (25%-33%). Previously unreported clinical features of PC include development of painful oral and nipple lesions during breastfeeding, copious production of waxy material in ears, and inability to walk without an ambulatory aid (50%). Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed with respect to the clinicopathologic and genetic correlations observed.

  2. Clinical Features of Ulcerative Colitis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon Mee; Han, Dong Soo; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Hong, Weon-Seon; Min, Young Il

    1996-01-01

    Objectives : This study was conducted to investigate the clinical features of ulcerative colitis in Korea and to evaluate the clinical course after medical therapy. Methods : Symptoms, signs and results of the treatment were retrospectively analyzed in 66 patients (male 32, female 34) diagnosed to have ulcerative colitis at the Asan Medical Center. Results : The median age of the beginning of symptoms was 36 years (range, 14–72). Diarrhea and rectal bleeding were observed in 95.1 and 91.4%, respectively, at the time of diagnosis, while extra-colonic manifestations were observed in 24.1%. In 41 patients (62.1%), colitis developed in the rectum and sigmoid colon, while left colitis and extensive colitis developed in 11 (16.7%) and 14 patients (21.2%), respectively. The severity of disease was determined according to the clinical criteria, resulting in 22 (33.3%) mild, 21 (31.8%) moderate and 23 (34.8%) severe diseases. The seventy was also classified as 1, 2 and 3 by sigmoido-colonoscopic findings: 1;17 patients(25.8%), 2;27(40.9%) and 22(33.3%). Among 23 patients with severe disease, 5 patients (7.6%) received total colectomy due to toxic megacolon, intractability to medical therapy, ileocolic fistula and intestinal stenosis. The severity determined by colonoscopic findings was well correlated with that determined clinically and was closely related to the severity of symptoms, levels of albumin, hemoglobin and the count of leukocyte. The median duration of symptoms before treatment was 4 weeks (range. 11–300). All patients were treated with sulfasalazine and prednisolone. All patients with medical therapy, except 2 patients (96. 7%), obtained clinical remission. The median days required for remission was 14 (range, 3–70). Relapse rates at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after the initiation of treatment were 19.7, 34.1 and 49.3%, respectively. The median disease-free interval from the time of remission was 10 months (range, 2–60). After remission, the

  3. [Genotypic and clinical features of spinal muscular atrophy type 3].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-yun; Feng, Shan-wei; Cao, Ji-qing; Yang, Juan; Li, Ya-qin; Li, Jin; Zhang, Cheng

    2012-04-01

    To explore the genotypic and clinical features and laboratory examinations of spinal muscular atrophy type 3 (SMA III). Results of genetic testing and laboratory exams of 18 SMA III patients were collected and analyzed. The average age of onset of patients was 6.1 years, with the course of disease lasting from 13 months to 28 years. All patients became symptomatic with lower extremity muscle weakness. The symptoms gradually aggregated, with proximal lower limb muscle becoming atrophic and proximal upper limb muscle becoming weak. Genetic testing indicated that all subjects possessed homozygous deletions of SMN1 gene. Electromyography (EMG) of 15 subjects indicated neurogenic damage. Whilst younger patients had normal level of creatine kinase (CK), elder patients had higher level of CK, though no linear correlation was found. Full understanding of Clinical, especially the growth features of SMA III, in combination with genetic testing, can facilitate diagnosis and early intervention of the disease.

  4. Clinical Features and Treatment of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the infection with Toxoplasma gondii through congenital or acquired routes. Once the parasite reaches the retina, it proliferates within host cells followed by rupture of the host cells and invasion into neighboring cells to make primary lesions. Sometimes the restricted parasite by the host immunity in the first scar is activated to infect another lesion nearby the scar. Blurred vision is the main complaint of ocular toxoplasmic patients and can be diagnosed by detection of antibodies or parasite DNA. Ocular toxoplasmosis needs therapy with several combinations of drugs to eliminate the parasite and accompanying inflammation; if not treated it sometimes leads to loss of vision. We describe here clinical features and currently available chemotherapy of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:24039281

  5. Sporotrichosis arthritis: clinical features in seven patients.

    PubMed

    Crout, J E; Brewer, N S; Tompkins, R B

    1977-03-01

    A review of the clinical features of seven patients with sporotrichosis arthritis showed that six had joint infection without previous skin or lung involvement and that one with myelofibrosis had joint and skin infection. The average time from onset of joint symptoms to diagnosis was 25 months, resulting in joint damage that required arthrodesis in four patients. Tissue from open synovial biopsy was superior to synovial fluid for obtaining a positive culture; concomitant synovial fluid and synovial tissue cultures were superior to either one alone. Granulomatous inflammation was seen in synovial tissue in six patients biopsied. Amphotericin B with surgical debridement of the affected joint was successful treatment in four patients. Although an uncommon cause of joint disease, sporotrichosis arthritis may go unrecognized and mimic other forms of arthritis, resulting in irreparable damage in an otherwise curable form of arthritis.

  6. Unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia with different clinical features.

    PubMed

    Benbir, Gulcin; Kara, Simay; Yalcinkaya, Beyza Citci; Karhkaya, Geysu; Tuysuz, Beyhan; Kocer, Naci; Yalcinkaya, Cengiz

    2011-03-01

    Unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia (UCH) is a rare pathological condition characterized by the loss of volume in cerebellar hemispheres ranging from mild asymptomatic to severe symptomatic cases. As the designation of UCH remains problematic, the underlying etiopathogenesis also lacks explanation. We investigated the patients admitted to Departments of Child Neurology, Neurology, and Genetics between the years 1992 and 2010 and detected 12 patients with unilateral cerebellar volume loss, with the exclusion of all other cerebellar pathologies. The ages of patients ranged between 6 months to 55 years. Five patients had a delay in developmental milestones, and one of these was diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1. Two patients had epileptic seizures, one patient had peripheral facial paralysis as a component of Moebius syndrome, and four patients were incidentally diagnosed during etiological work-up for headache. The clinical outcomes of patients varied from healthy subjects to marked developmental impairment. Radiologically, five patients had severe disproportionate UCH, six had moderate disproportionate, and one had mild proportionate UCH. Cerebellar peduncles were affected in all, and vermis was partly hypoplastic in eight patients. Brainstem was involved in four patients, and seven patients showed involvement of white matter and/or corpus callosum. Imaging features supported that patients with severe disproportionate UCH also displayed additional cerebral and commissural changes, which were related to ischemic or vascular injuries, implying a prenatally acquired disruption. In the presence of such a wide spectrum of clinical and radiological features, a prenatally acquired lesion and, thus, a disruption seem to be more explanatory rather than a primary developmental process or malformation in the etiopathogenesis of unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia.

  7. [Clinical features of strabismus in psychomotor retardation].

    PubMed

    Arias-Cabello, Belina; Arroyo-Yllanes, María Estela; Pérez-Pérez, José Fernando; Fonte-Vázquez, Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    In psychomotor retardation there is an abnormal development of mental, sensory and motor skills associated with ocular manifestations. There are biological and psychosocial risk factors that predispose an individual to neurological damage. From 50% to 80% of patients with strabismus retardation have special features that differentiate it from the rest of strabismus in healthy patients. To determine the most common type of strabismus in patients with psychomotor retardation and their clinical features. Patients with psychomotor retardation and strabismus were included. An ophthalmological examination was performed, as well as an evaluation of the characteristics of strabismus, including perinatal and post-natal history. Esotropia was the most frequent squint with 65.3%, followed by exotropia with 32.7%. The variability in the squint magnitude was 60% in both types, and 6 patients had dissociated vertical deviation. Most of the patients started to present strabismus since they were born. The most frequent perinatal risk factors were threatened miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, foetal distress, and hypoxia. Esotropia is the most common type of strabismus in psychomotor retardation. The variability of squint magnitude is a characteristic in these patients. The moderate variability is the most frequent in both esotropia and exotropia. The most common refractive error is hyperopic astigmatism in esotropia and the myopic kind in exotropia. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Discretization of continuous features in clinical datasets

    PubMed Central

    Maslove, David M; Podchiyska, Tanya; Lowe, Henry J

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing availability of clinical data from electronic medical records (EMRs) has created opportunities for secondary uses of health information. When used in machine learning classification, many data features must first be transformed by discretization. Objective To evaluate six discretization strategies, both supervised and unsupervised, using EMR data. Materials and methods We classified laboratory data (arterial blood gas (ABG) measurements) and physiologic data (cardiac output (CO) measurements) derived from adult patients in the intensive care unit using decision trees and naïve Bayes classifiers. Continuous features were partitioned using two supervised, and four unsupervised discretization strategies. The resulting classification accuracy was compared with that obtained with the original, continuous data. Results Supervised methods were more accurate and consistent than unsupervised, but tended to produce larger decision trees. Among the unsupervised methods, equal frequency and k-means performed well overall, while equal width was significantly less accurate. Discussion This is, we believe, the first dedicated evaluation of discretization strategies using EMR data. It is unlikely that any one discretization method applies universally to EMR data. Performance was influenced by the choice of class labels and, in the case of unsupervised methods, the number of intervals. In selecting the number of intervals there is generally a trade-off between greater accuracy and greater consistency. Conclusions In general, supervised methods yield higher accuracy, but are constrained to a single specific application. Unsupervised methods do not require class labels and can produce discretized data that can be used for multiple purposes. PMID:23059731

  9. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: Clinical and Imaging Features.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Akram M; Rezvani, Maryam; Haroun, Reham R; Kennedy, Anne M; Elsayes, Khaled M; Olpin, Jeffrey D; Salama, Mohamed E; Foster, Bryan R; Menias, Christine O

    2017-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a spectrum of both benign and malignant gestational tumors, including hydatidiform mole (complete and partial), invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. The latter four entities are referred to as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). These conditions are aggressive with a propensity to widely metastasize. GTN can result in significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Early diagnosis of GTD is essential for prompt and successful management while preserving fertility. Initial diagnosis of GTD is based on a multifactorial approach consisting of clinical features, serial quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) titers, and imaging findings. Ultrasonography (US) is the modality of choice for initial diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole and can provide an invaluable means of local surveillance after treatment. The performance of US in diagnosing all molar pregnancies is surprisingly poor, predominantly due to the difficulty in differentiating partial hydatidiform mole from nonmolar abortion and retained products of conception. While GTN after a molar pregnancy is usually diagnosed with serial β-hCG titers, imaging plays an important role in evaluation of local extent of disease and systemic surveillance. Imaging also plays a crucial role in detection and management of complications, such as uterine and pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas. Familiarity with the pathogenesis, classification, imaging features, and treatment of these tumors can aid in radiologic diagnosis and guide appropriate management. (©)RSNA, 2017.

  10. Clinical features and molecular bases of neuroacanthocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rampoldi, Luca; Danek, Adrian; Monaco, Anthony P

    2002-08-01

    The term acanthocytosis is derived from the Greek for "thorn" and is used to describe a peculiar spiky appearance of erythrocytes. Acanthocytosis is found to be associated with at least three hereditary neurological disorders that are generally referred to as neuroacanthocytosis. Abetalipoproteinaemia is an autosomal recessive condition, characterised by absence of serum apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins leading to fat intolerance and fat-soluble vitamin deficiency. This results in a progressive spinocerebellar ataxia with peripheral neuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa. Chorea-acanthocytosis is also an autosomal recessive condition and is characterised by chorea, orofaciolingual dyskinesia, dysphagia, dysarthria, areflexia, seizures and dementia. Some of its features, including choreic movements, peripheral neuropathy with areflexia, elevated serum creatine kinase levels and myopathy are shared by another form of neuroacanthocytosis, McLeod syndrome. Patients affected by this X-linked disorder also show abnormal expression of Kell blood group antigens and a permanent haemolytic state. In addition to these cases, acanthocytosis is occasionally associated with other neurological disorders, such as Hallervorden-Spatz disease. For each of the neuroacanthocytosis syndromes we review the main clinical features and their molecular bases. The recent molecular genetics findings are the first step towards the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms and eventually the search for effective treatments.

  11. Moyamoya Disease: Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong S.

    2016-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic, occlusive cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive stenosis at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. Although its etiology remains unknown, recent genetic studies identified RNF213 in the 17q25-ter region as an important susceptibility gene of MMD among East Asian populations. Possibly because of genetic differences, MMD is relatively common in people living in East Asian countries such as Korea and Japan, compared to those in the Western Hemisphere. The prevalence of MMD appears to be slightly lower among Chinese, compared to Koreans or Japanese. There are two peaks of incidence with different clinical presentations, at around 10 years and 30-40 years. The peak appears to occur later in women than men. In children, ischemic symptoms, especially transient ischemic attacks, are predominant. Intellectual decline, seizures, and involuntary movements are also more common in this age group. In contrast, adult patients present with intracranial hemorrhage more often than pediatric patients. In patients with MMD, intracerebral hemorrhage is more often accompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage than in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. These different age peaks and different clinical presentations in each age group are also observed in MMD patients in the USA. Catheter angiography is the diagnostic method of choice. Magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and computed tomographic angiography are noninvasive diagnostic methods. High-resolution vessel wall MR imaging also helps diagnose MMD by revealing concentric vessel wall narrowing with basal collaterals. PMID:26846755

  12. [Corneal macular dystrophy: clinical, histopathologic and ultrastructural features].

    PubMed

    Gulias-Cañizo, R; Castañeda-Díez, R; Gómez-Leal, A; Klintworth, G K; Rodríguez-Reyes, A A

    2006-06-01

    To assess the main clinical, genetic, histopathological and ultrastructural features of Mexican patients with macular corneal dystrophy, and to compare the results with those previously reported. We analyzed six cases where a histopathologic diagnosis of macular corneal dystrophy had been made between 1957 and 2004. Clinically, all corneas showed focal grayish-white stromal opacities with diffuse edges. Histopathologically, intrastromal granules stained strongly positive with Alcian blue and colloidal iron. Transmission electron microscopy showed enlargement of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the presence of intracytoplasmic vacuoles that corresponded to glycosaminoglycans. Genetic analysis showed novel mutations in the CHST6 gene in 2 of the patients. Females were more affected than males and the mean age at the time of diagnosis was older than that reported previously, however the clinical, histopathological and ultrastructural features were similar to those of previous reports. As described in other cases in the literature, in some instances a disorder is found in CHST6 gene as a basis for this condition.

  13. Uncovering Clinical Features of De Novo Philadelphia Positive Myelodysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Armas, Aristides; Chen, Chen; Mims, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is cytogenetically heterogeneous and retains variable risk for acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Though not yet fully understood, there is an association between genetic abnormalities and defects in gene expression. The functional role for infrequent cytogenetic alteration remains unclear. An uncommon chromosomic abnormality is the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. Here, we report a patient with Ph+ MDS treated with low dose Dasatinib who achieved hematologic response for 7 months. In addition, we also examined the English literature on all de novo Ph + MDS cases between 1996 and 2015 to gain insight into clinical features and outcome. PMID:28321349

  14. Uncovering Clinical Features of De Novo Philadelphia Positive Myelodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Armas, Aristides; Chen, Chen; Mims, Martha; Rivero, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is cytogenetically heterogeneous and retains variable risk for acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Though not yet fully understood, there is an association between genetic abnormalities and defects in gene expression. The functional role for infrequent cytogenetic alteration remains unclear. An uncommon chromosomic abnormality is the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. Here, we report a patient with Ph+ MDS treated with low dose Dasatinib who achieved hematologic response for 7 months. In addition, we also examined the English literature on all de novo Ph + MDS cases between 1996 and 2015 to gain insight into clinical features and outcome.

  15. Clinical features of pediatric hereditary angioedema.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Maya K; Elenburg, Shelby; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Assa'ad, Amal H

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of data that describe the clinical course of hereditary angioedema (HAE) in children. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical features of children with HAE. Electronic medical records from the past 10 years at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and an outpatient allergy community practice were searched for ICD-9 code 277.6 (Other deficiencies of circulating enzyme). Exclusion criteria included laboratory data not supportive of type I or II HAE diagnosis or age at diagnosis greater than 18 years. Chart review was performed and missing data were collected by telephone interviews with patient families. Descriptive statistics were performed using SAS version 9.4. Twenty-one children were identified. The median age was 13.2 years (interquartile range [IQR], 9.1-18.8), 71% were male, 86% had an HAE family history, and 95% were Caucasian. The median age of symptom onset and diagnosis was 5.7 (IQR, 5-9 years) and 5.0 (IQR, 4-8 years), respectively. Five children diagnosed were asymptomatic. Three children without a family history had a 6.0-year delay in diagnosis. The most common angioedema attack sites were abdominal, peripheral, and laryngeal, which occurred at least once in 93%, 73%, and 27%, respectively. Of the 15 children with onset of symptoms, only 6 children received on-demand therapy for an acute attack, whereas 13 children were administered either short-term or long-term prophylaxis therapy. In this pediatric HAE population, symptom onset and diagnosis occurred at a median age of 5 years with a delay in diagnosis in those without a family history. Abdominal attacks were more common than peripheral attacks in this population. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the relationship between fractal features and bacterial essential genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong-Ming, Yu; Li-Cai, Yang; Qian, Zhou; Lu-Lu, Zhao; Zhi-Ping, Liu

    2016-06-01

    Essential genes are indispensable for the survival of an organism in optimal conditions. Rapid and accurate identifications of new essential genes are of great theoretical and practical significance. Exploring features with predictive power is fundamental for this. Here, we calculate six fractal features from primary gene and protein sequences and then explore their relationship with gene essentiality by statistical analysis and machine learning-based methods. The models are applied to all the currently available identified genes in 27 bacteria from the database of essential genes (DEG). It is found that the fractal features of essential genes generally differ from those of non-essential genes. The fractal features are used to ascertain the parameters of two machine learning classifiers: Naïve Bayes and Random Forest. The area under the curve (AUC) of both classifiers show that each fractal feature is satisfactorily discriminative between essential genes and non-essential genes individually. And, although significant correlations exist among fractal features, gene essentiality can also be reliably predicted by various combinations of them. Thus, the fractal features analyzed in our study can be used not only to construct a good essentiality classifier alone, but also to be significant contributors for computational tools identifying essential genes. Project supported by the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. ZR2014FM022).

  17. [Clinical features of 233 cases of keratoconus].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-wei; Li, Zhao-xia; Shi, Wei-yun; Zeng, Qing-yan; Jin, Xiu-ming

    2005-07-01

    To analyze clinical features of keratoconus. The case history of keratoconus patients who underwent penetrating keratoplasty, epikeratophakia or deep lamellar keratoplasty in our hospital during January 1993 to March 2002 was reviewed, and inquiry form was sent to those who without complete data. Patients were followed during January 2000 to March 2002. Two hundred and thirty three cases of keratoconus were enrolled in this study with 216 males and 17 females. Patient's family history, systemic complications, refractive status, progress of disease, eye axial length and anterior chamber depth were recorded. The clinical natural history of these patients followed the model of "myopia-astigmatism-poor spectacle correction-acute corneal hydrops or stromal scar". The presenting age of myopia ranged from 6 to 29 years, with a mean age of 13.8 years, 10.1% (22/219) of the patients were younger than 10 years, 67.1% (147/219) were between 11 and 15 years. The interval time between emerging myopia and poor spectacle correction (best corrected visual acuity less than 20/200) was ranged from 1 to 20 years, of which 85.2% (161/189) were shorter than 6 years. Twenty percent (47/233) of the patients had acute corneal hydrops in one eye at the age of 12 to 31 years, and 4.3% of them (2/47) resulted in corneal perforation. Thirty-four patients had corneal stromal scars 1 to 13 years after keratoconus developed, and 94.1% of them (32/34) were within 8 years. Topography examination demonstrated a tendency of the cone base position progress: first, paracentral-enlargement following dominant astigmatism axis, then, enlargement along smaller astigmatism axis, and finally, the cone base moving centrally. The eye axial length averaged at (25.9 +/- 1.4) mm, the depth of anterior chamber (AC) were (4.3 +/- 0.3) mm, 89.7% (279/311) eyes had an axial length longer than 24 mm. All cases had an asymmetry clinical progress course. Two cases had Down syndrome, 2 with intelligence defect. No

  18. Anaphylaxis in children: clinical and allergologic features.

    PubMed

    Novembre, E; Cianferoni, A; Bernardini, R; Mugnaini, L; Caffarelli, C; Cavagni, G; Giovane, A; Vierucci, A

    1998-04-01

    Despite the importance of anaphylaxis, little information is available on its clinical features. To evaluate the clinical and allergologic features of anaphylaxis in children referred to the allergology and immunology unit of A. Meyer Children's Hospital (Florence, Italy) from 1994 to 1996. Ninety-five episodes of anaphylaxis occurred in 76 children (50 boys and 26 girls). Sixty-six children (87%) had only one episode of anaphylaxis, while 10 (13%) had two or more episodes. Sixty-two (82%) of the 76 patients had a personal history of atopic symptoms, although 14 (18%) did not. Sixty (79%) of the 76 children studied had at least one positive skin prick test to one or more of the common inhalant and/or food allergens. Children with venom-induced anaphylaxis usually had negative skin tests to the allergens tested. A younger age and eczema were more frequent among children with food-dependent anaphylaxis, whereas an older age together with urticaria-angioedema were common among those with exercise-induced anaphylaxis. The mean latent period (+/-SD) of the anaphylaxis episodes was 15.4 +/- 27.5 minutes. Skin and respiratory manifestations had an earlier onset and were more common than the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular ones. The most frequent clinical manifestation in children with food anaphylaxis was gastrointestinal symptoms, whereas cardiovascular symptoms were rare. The most probable causative agents in the 95 episodes described were foods (57%), drugs (11%), hymenoptera venom (12%), exercise (9%), additives (1%), specific immunotherapy (1%), latex (1%), and vaccines (2%), but in 6 cases (6%) the agent was never determined. Among the foods, seafood and milk were the most frequently involved. As for location, 57% of the anaphylactic events occurred in the home (54/95), 12% outdoors (11/95); 5% in restaurants (5/95); 3% in the doctor's office (3/95); 3% in hospitals (3/95); 3% on football fields (3/95); 2% on the beach (2/95); 1% in the gym (1/95); 1% at school

  19. The Role of −786T/C Polymorphism in the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene in Males with Clinical and Biochemical Features of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Misiak, Blazej; Krolik, Marta; Kukowka, Anna; Lewera, Anna; Leszczynski, Przemyslaw; Stankiewicz-Olczyk, Joanna; Slezak, Ryszard

    2011-01-01

    Background. Extensive evidence, arising from models of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3)-knockout mice supports the role of endothelial malfunction in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of −786T/C polymorphism in the etiology of MS and assess previously reported interaction with cigarette smoking. Methods. Based on International Diabetes Federation 2005 criteria, we recruited randomly 152 subjects with MS and 75 subjects without MS. Results. Allelic and genotype frequencies did not differ significantly between both groups. Total cholesterol level (CHOLT) and intima-media thickness of carotid arteries were significantly higher in −786CC homozygotes, in comparison with −786TC and −786TT patients. Regarding current smoking status, −786C allele was associated with higher CHOLT than −786T allele. Conclusion. Our study indicates the putative role of −786T/C polymorphism in the development of hypercholesterolemia, in patients with MS, which might be enhanced by cigarette smoking. PMID:22164159

  20. Clinical Features and Treatments of Odontogenic Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate how clinical features such as sex, age, etiologic factors, and presenting symptoms of odontogenic sinusitis are differentiated from other types of sinusitis. Also, this study was designed to find methods for reducing the incidence of odontogenic sinusitis. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart analysis was completed on twenty-seven patients with odontogenic sinusitis. They were all treated at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital between February 2006 and August 2008. The study protocol and informed consent forms were approved by the institutional review boards for human beings at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Results Ten patients (37.0%) had dental implant related complications and 8 (29.6%) had dental extraction related complications. Unilateral purulent nasal discharge was the most common symptom (66.7%). The therapeutic modality included transnasal endoscopic sinus surgery in 19 (70.4%) patients, and a Caldwell-Luc operation in two (7.4%) patients. Conclusion In our study, there was no significant difference in the incidence between genders. The average age of the patients was 42.9 years. The incidence was highest in the fourth decade. There were no significant differences between the symptoms of odontogenic sinusitis and that of other types of sinusitis. However, almost all of the patients with odontogenic sinusitis had unilateral symptoms. Iatrogenic causes, which include dental implants and dental extractions, were the most common etiologic factors related to the development of odontogenic sinusitis. Therefore, a preoperative consultation between a rhinologist and a dentist prior to the dental procedure should be able to reduce the incidence of odontogenic sinusitis. PMID:20879062

  1. Vertebral osteomyelitis: clinical features and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Eren Gök, S; Kaptanoğlu, E; Celikbaş, A; Ergönül, O; Baykam, N; Eroğlu, M; Dokuzoğuz, B

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to describe clinical and diagnostic features of vertebral osteomyelitis for differential diagnosis and treatment. This is a prospective observational study performed between 2002 and 2012 in Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey. All the patients with vertebral osteomyelitis were followed for from 6 months to 3 years. In total, 214 patients were included in the study, 113 out of 214 (53%) were female. Out of 214 patients, 96 (45%) had brucellar vertebral osteomyelitis (BVO), 63 (29%) had tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis (TVO), and 55 (26%) had pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO). Mean number of days between onset of symptoms and establishment of diagnosis was greater with the patients with TVO (266 days) than BVO (115 days) or PVO (151 days, p <0.001). In blood cultures, Brucella spp. were isolated from 35 of 96 BVO patients (35%). Among 55 PVO patients, the aetiological agent was isolated in 11 (20%) patients. For tuberculin skin test >15 mm, sensitivity was 0.66, specificity was 0.97, positive predictive value was 0.89, negative predictive value was 0.88, and receiver operating characteristics area was 0.8. Tuberculous and brucellar vertebral osteomyelitis remained the leading causes of vertebral osteomyelitis with delayed diagnosis. In differential diagnosis of vertebral osteomyelitis, consumption of unpasteurized cheese, dealing with husbandry, sweating, arthralgia, hepatomegaly, elevated alanine transaminase, and lumbar involvement in magnetic resonance imaging were found to be predictors of BVO, thoracic involvement in magnetic resonance imaging and tuberculin skin test > 15 mm were found to be predictors of TVO, and history of spinal surgery and leucocytosis were found to be predictors of PVO.

  2. Clinical features and treatments of odontogenic sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Chul; Lee, Sung Jin

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how clinical features such as sex, age, etiologic factors, and presenting symptoms of odontogenic sinusitis are differentiated from other types of sinusitis. Also, this study was designed to find methods for reducing the incidence of odontogenic sinusitis. A retrospective chart analysis was completed on twenty-seven patients with odontogenic sinusitis. They were all treated at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital between February 2006 and August 2008. The study protocol and informed consent forms were approved by the institutional review boards for human beings at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Ten patients (37.0%) had dental implant related complications and 8 (29.6%) had dental extraction related complications. Unilateral purulent nasal discharge was the most common symptom (66.7%). The therapeutic modality included transnasal endoscopic sinus surgery in 19 (70.4%) patients, and a Caldwell-Luc operation in two (7.4%) patients. In our study, there was no significant difference in the incidence between genders. The average age of the patients was 42.9 years. The incidence was highest in the fourth decade. There were no significant differences between the symptoms of odontogenic sinusitis and that of other types of sinusitis. However, almost all of the patients with odontogenic sinusitis had unilateral symptoms. Iatrogenic causes, which include dental implants and dental extractions, were the most common etiologic factors related to the development of odontogenic sinusitis. Therefore, a preoperative consultation between a rhinologist and a dentist prior to the dental procedure should be able to reduce the incidence of odontogenic sinusitis.

  3. Polymorphisms in the 18S rDNA gene of Cystoisospora belli and clinical features of cystoisosporosis in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Resende, Deisy V; Pedrosa, André L; Correia, Dalmo; Cabrine-Santos, Marlene; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Meira, Wendell S F; Oliveira-Silva, Márcia B

    2011-03-01

    Intraspecific variability among Cystoisospora belli isolates and its clinical implications in human cystoisosporosis have not been established. In this study, the restriction fragment length polymorphisms in a 1.8-kb amplicon of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) of the parasite was investigated in 20 C. belli-positive stool samples obtained from 15 HIV-infected patients. Diarrheic syndrome was observed in all patients with cystoisosporosis and the number of diarrheic episodes per patient during hospitalization ranged from 1 to 26 (mean of 9.64 ± 9.30), with a mean duration of 2 to 12 days (mean of 5.90 ± 3 days). Three restriction profiles (RF) were generated with MboII digestion, which were named RFI, RFII, and RFIII. Two isolates obtained from a patient with extraintestinal cystoisosporosis showed distinct restriction profiles with MboII. This study demonstrates that patients can be infected with different C. belli genotypes, and this information may be useful for identifying new C. belli genotypes infecting humans.

  4. Diagnosis of Fanconi anemia in children with atypical clinical features: a primary study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Hu, Tao; Li, Jun-hui; Liang, Chao; Gu, Wei-yue; Shi, Xiao-dong; Wang, Hong-xing

    2013-12-01

    Fanconi anemia is a severe congenital disorder associated with mutations in a cluster of genes responsible for DNA repair. Arriving at an accurate and timely diagnosis can be difficult in cases of Fanconi anemia with atypical clinical features. It is very important to increase the rate of accurate diagnosis for such cases in a clinical setting. The purpose of this study is to explore the clinical diagnosis of Fanconi anemia in children with atypical clinical features. Six cases of Fanconi anemia with atypical clinical features were enrolled in the study, and their clinical features were recorded, their FANCA gene transcription was assessed by RT-PCR, and FANCA mutations and the ubiquitination of FANCD2 protein were analyzed using DNA sequencing and western blotting respectively. All six cases showed atypical clinical features including no apparent deformities, lack of response to immune therapy, and progressively increasing bone marrow failure. They also have significantly increased fetal hemoglobin, negative mitomycin-induced fracture test results, and carry a FANCA gene missense mutation. Single protein ubiquitination of FANCD2 was not observed in those patients. The combination of clinical features, FANCA pathogenic gene mutation genotype and the absence of FANCD2 protein ubiquitination are helpful in the accurate and timely diagnosis of Fanconi anemia in children.

  5. Classification, clinical features, and genetics of neural tube defects

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Murshid, Waleed R.; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z.

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) constitute a major health burden (0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide), and remain a preventable cause of still birth, neonatal, and infant death, or significant lifelong handicaps. The malformations result from failure of the neural folds to fuse in the midline, and form the neural tube between the third and the fourth week of embryonic development. This review article discusses their classification, clinical features, and genetics. Most NTDs are sporadic and both genetic, and non-genetic environmental factors are involved in its etiology. Consanguinity was suggested to contribute to the high incidence of NTDs in several countries, including Saudi Arabia. Syndromes, often associated with chromosomal anomalies, account for <10% of all NTDs; but a higher proportion (20%) has been documented in Saudi Arabia. Genetic predisposition constitutes the major underlying risk factor, with a strong implication of genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity. PMID:25551113

  6. Classification, clinical features, and genetics of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Salih, Mustafa A; Murshid, Waleed R; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z

    2014-12-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) constitute a major health burden (0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide), and remain a preventable cause of still birth, neonatal, and infant death, or significant lifelong handicaps. The malformations result from failure of the neural folds to fuse in the midline, and form the neural tube between the third and the fourth week of embryonic development. This review article discusses their classification, clinical features, and genetics. Most NTDs are sporadic and both genetic, and non-genetic environmental factors are involved in its etiology. Consanguinity was suggested to contribute to the high incidence of NTDs in several countries, including Saudi Arabia. Syndromes, often associated with chromosomal anomalies, account for <10% of all NTDs; but a higher proportion (20%) has been documented in Saudi Arabia. Genetic predisposition constitutes the major underlying risk factor, with a strong implication of genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity.

  7. Cachexia: clinical features when inflammation drives malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Laviano, Alessandro; Koverech, Angela; Mari, Alessia

    2015-11-01

    Cachexia is a clinically relevant syndrome which impacts on quality of life, morbidity and mortality of patients suffering from acute and chronic diseases. The hallmark of cachexia is muscle loss, which is triggered by disease-associated inflammatory response. Cachexia is a continuum and therefore a staging system is needed. Initially, a three-stage system (i.e. pre-cachexia, cachexia and refractory cachexia) was proposed. More recent evidence supports the use of a five-stage classification system, based on patient's BMI and severity of weight loss, to better predict clinical outcome. Also, large clinical trials in cancer patients demonstrated that cachexia emerging during chemotherapy has greater influence on survival than weight loss at baseline. Therefore, becoming widely accepted is the importance of routinely monitoring patients' nutritional status to detect early changes and diagnose cachexia in its early phases. Although cachexia is associated with the presence of anabolic resistance, it has been shown that sustained yet physiological hyperaminoacidaemia, as well as the use of specific nutrients, is able to overcome impaired protein synthesis and revert catabolism. More importantly, clinical evidence demonstrates that preservation of nutritional status during chemotherapy or improvement of body weight after weight loss is associated with longer survival in cancer patients.

  8. Metabolic myopathies: clinical features and diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edward C; El-Gharbawy, Areeg; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2011-05-01

    The rheumatologist is frequently called on to evaluate patients with complaints of myalgia, muscle cramps, and fatigue. The evaluation of these patients presents a diagnostic challenge given the nonspecific and intermittent nature of their complaints, often leading to inappropriate diagnostic testing. When these symptoms are associated with physical exertion, a metabolic myopathy should be suspected Although inflammatory myopathies may present with similar features, such a pattern should prompt a thorough evaluation for an underlying metabolic myopathy. This review discusses the most common causes of metabolic myopathies and reviews the current diagnostic options available to the clinician.

  9. Genetic Epidemiology, Hematological and Clinical Features of Hemoglobinopathies in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the β-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran) and Kermanshah (western Iran) provinces, respectively. Also, α-chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iranians due to the presence of multiethnic groups in the country. β-Thalassemia is more prevalent in northern and southern Iran. Among 52 different β-thalassemia mutations that have been identified among Iranian populations, IVSII-1 G:A is the most frequent mutation in most parts of the country. The presence of IVS I-5 G:C mutation with high frequency in southeastern Iran might reflect gene flow from neighboring countries. A wide spectrum of α-thalassemia alleles has been detected among Iranians with −α 3.7 kb as the most prevalent α-thalassemia mutation. The prevention program of thalassemia birth in Iran has reduced the birth rate of homozygous β-thalassemia since the implementation of the program in 1997. In this review genetic epidemiology, clinical and hematological aspects of hemoglobinopathies, and the prevention programs of β-thalassemia in Iran will be discussed. PMID:23853772

  10. Genetic epidemiology, hematological and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the β-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran) and Kermanshah (western Iran) provinces, respectively. Also, α-chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iranians due to the presence of multiethnic groups in the country. β-Thalassemia is more prevalent in northern and southern Iran. Among 52 different β-thalassemia mutations that have been identified among Iranian populations, IVSII-1 G:A is the most frequent mutation in most parts of the country. The presence of IVS I-5 G:C mutation with high frequency in southeastern Iran might reflect gene flow from neighboring countries. A wide spectrum of α-thalassemia alleles has been detected among Iranians with -α(3.7 kb) as the most prevalent α-thalassemia mutation. The prevention program of thalassemia birth in Iran has reduced the birth rate of homozygous β-thalassemia since the implementation of the program in 1997. In this review genetic epidemiology, clinical and hematological aspects of hemoglobinopathies, and the prevention programs of β-thalassemia in Iran will be discussed.

  11. Parasomnias: clinical features and forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Bornemann, Michel A Cramer; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H

    2006-08-01

    Parasomnias are undesirable behavioral or experiential phenomena arising from the sleep period. Once felt to be a unitary phenomenon, it is now clear that a wide variety of sleep disorders are capable of resulting in complex behaviors arising during sleep. The most common are disorders of arousal and rapid eye movement sleep disorder. Less common conditions include nocturnal seizures and psychogenic dissociative states. Malingering and Munchausen syndrome by proxy, while they are not actually parasomnias, may masquerade as parasomnias. Careful clinical and sleep laboratory evaluation can usually provide an accurate diagnosis with effective therapeutic implications. Due to the potential forensic implications, sleep medicine specialists may be asked to participate in legal proceedings resulting from sleep-related violence. An awareness of the spectrum of such behaviors, and their clinical and legal evaluation, is becoming more important in the practice of sleep medicine.

  12. Gene essentiality prediction based on fractal features and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongming; Yang, Licai; Liu, Zhiping; Zhu, Chuansheng

    2017-02-28

    Essential genes are required for the viability of an organism. Accurate and rapid identification of new essential genes is of substantial theoretical interest to synthetic biology and has practical applications in biomedicine. Fractals provide facilitated access to genetic structure analysis on a different scale. In this study, machine learning-based methods using solely fractal features are presented and the problem of predicting essential genes in bacterial genomes is evaluated. Six fractal features were investigated to learn the parameters of five supervised classification methods for the binary classification task. The optimal parameters of these classifiers are determined via grid-based searching technique. All the currently available identified genes from the database of essential genes were utilized to build the classifiers. The fractal features were proven to be more robust and powerful in the prediction performance. In a statistical sense, the ELM method shows superiority in predicting the essential genes. Non-parameter tests of the average AUC and ACC showed that the fractal feature is much better than other five compared features sets. Our approach is promising and convenient to identify new bacterial essential genes.

  13. Novel clinical features of recurrent human respiratory syncytial virus infections.

    PubMed

    Yui, Ikuko; Fujino, Motoko; Sawada, Akihito; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2014-09-01

    Children and elderly individuals are often infected easily and repeatedly with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV); however, the features of recurrent infection in the same individual are defined poorly. To clarify the clinical significance of repeated HRSV infections in relation to subgroup epidemiology, this study performed prospective and longitudinal analyses in children with lower respiratory tract infections over 20 consecutive epidemics between 1985 and 2005 at a pediatric outpatient clinic in Kawasaki, Japan. HRSV infections were confirmed by 2 types of reverse-transcription PCR. Samples obtained from patients with repeated infections were subjected to sequence analysis and cloning analysis. A total of 1,312 lower respiratory tract infections observed in 1,010 patients were diagnosed as HRSV infections. Repeated HRSV infections occurred in 208 of the 1,010 patients. Analysis of the patients with repeated infections revealed that children were often infected multiple times even within a single short epidemic. Some patients were re-infected with strains having the same or virtually identical N gene sequences. In patients infected more than 4 times, cloning analysis revealed more frequent dual infections with both subgroups (23.8%). The HRSV-A subgroup caused subsequent homologous infections more frequently than did HRSV-B; furthermore, HRSV-A infections provided no protection from a second homologous infection. In contrast, HRSV-B infections offered significant protection against a second homologous infection. Statistical analysis revealed alleviation of symptoms with a reduced rate of dyspnoeic attacks only in the group re-infected with homologous HRSV-A strains. Thus, this study elucidates new clinical features of recurrent HRSV infection.

  14. Cortical auditory disorders: clinical and psychoacoustic features.

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, M F; Geehan, G R

    1988-01-01

    The symptoms of two patients with bilateral cortical auditory lesions evolved from cortical deafness to other auditory syndromes: generalised auditory agnosia, amusia and/or pure word deafness, and a residual impairment of temporal sequencing. On investigation, both had dysacusis, absent middle latency evoked responses, acoustic errors in sound recognition and matching, inconsistent auditory behaviours, and similarly disturbed psychoacoustic discrimination tasks. These findings indicate that the different clinical syndromes caused by cortical auditory lesions form a spectrum of related auditory processing disorders. Differences between syndromes may depend on the degree of involvement of a primary cortical processing system, the more diffuse accessory system, and possibly the efferent auditory system. Images PMID:2450968

  15. Clinical and laboratory features of Nocardia nova.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, R J; Brown, B A; Tsukamura, M; Brown, J M; Onyi, G O

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Nocardia asteroides isolates have five major antibiotic resistance patterns; one of these patterns identifies isolates of Nocardia farcinica. In the current study, we investigated a second pattern characterized by susceptibility to ampicillin and erythromycin. This pattern was seen in 17% of 223 clinical isolates identified by standard techniques as N. asteroides and associated with diseases typical for nocardiae. Biochemically, isolates with this drug pattern were relatively homogeneous and identical to the type strain and previous descriptions of Nocardia nova. The strains studied were unique among nocardiae in having both alpha- and beta-esterase activity (85 and 95%, respectively). However, the arylsulfatase activity at 14 days (75%) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, including susceptibility to erythromycin (100%), were the only routinely available methods that would separate N. nova strains from other members of N. asteroides. N. asteroides should be considered a complex because current clinical identification schemes include isolates of N. farcinica and N. nova and may well include additional species. This is the first detailed description of N. nova as a pathogen in humans. PMID:1774244

  16. Clinical Features and Outcome of Mucormycosis

    PubMed Central

    Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos Rodrigo; González-Moreno, Emmanuel Irineo; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Rendón-Ramírez, Erick Joel; Ayala-Cortés, Ana Sofía; Fraga-Hernández, Martha Lizeth; García-Labastida, Laura; Galarza-Delgado, Dionicio Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Mucormycosis (MCM) is a life-threatening infection that carries high mortality rates despite recent advances in its diagnosis and treatment. The objective was to report 14 cases of mucormycosis infection and review the relevant literature. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and clinical data of 14 consecutive patients that presented with MCM in a tertiary-care teaching hospital in northern Mexico. The mean age of the patients was 39.9 (range 5–65). Nine of the patients were male. Ten patients had diabetes mellitus as the underlying disease, and 6 patients had a hematological malignancy (acute leukemia). Of the diabetic patients, 3 had chronic renal failure and 4 presented with diabetic ketoacidosis. All patients had rhinocerebral involvement. In-hospital mortality was 50%. All patients received medical therapy with polyene antifungals and 11 patients underwent surgical therapy. Survivors were significantly younger and less likely to have diabetes than nonsurvivors, and had higher levels of serum albumin on admission. The clinical outcome of patients with MCM is poor. Uncontrolled diabetes and age are negative prognostic factors. PMID:25210515

  17. Partial biotinidase deficiency: clinical and biochemical features.

    PubMed

    McVoy, J R; Levy, H L; Lawler, M; Schmidt, M A; Ebers, D D; Hart, P S; Pettit, D D; Blitzer, M G; Wolf, B

    1990-01-01

    Neonatal screening for profound biotinidase deficiency (less than 10% of the mean normal activity level) has identified a group of children with partial biotinidase deficiency (10% to 30% of mean normal activity). Because partial biotinidase deficiency may result in clinical consequences that may be prevented by treatment with biotin, we evaluated such individuals and their family members (1) to determine whether partial biotinidase deficiency is associated with symptoms and (2) to determine the inheritance pattern. We quantified serum biotinidase activity levels and obtained medical histories of probands, their parents and siblings, and additional family members. All children with partial deficiency were healthy at the time of diagnosis. One child, who was not initially treated with biotin, later developed hypotonia, hair loss, and skin rash, which resolved with biotin therapy. Four adults and three children with partial biotinidase deficiency were identified among family members of infants identified by neonatal screening. All these individuals were healthy, although one sibling had elevated urinary lactate excretion. A fifth adult with partial deficiency, found among clinically normal adult volunteers, later showed minor symptoms that resolved after biotin therapy. Like children with profound biotinidase deficiency, children with partial biotinidase deficiency are symptoms free at birth. However, the subsequent occurrence of symptoms of profound biotinidase deficiency in some persons with partial deficiency suggests that biotin therapy for this condition may be warranted.

  18. Punctate follicular porokeratosis: clinical and pathologic features.

    PubMed

    Trikha, Ritika; Wile, Anna; King, Joy; Ward, Kimberley H M; Brodell, Robert T

    2015-11-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of keratinization characterized by an abnormal cornoid lamella surrounding an annular, scaly plaque with an atrophic center. A histologic variant of this condition has been proposed, termed follicular porokeratosis, in cases where follicular involvement was contiguous with an annular cornoid lamella. There has been only 1 report of punctate follicular porokeratosis, in which cornoid lamellae originated exclusively from hair follicles with no associated annular plaque. The authors present the second case of punctate follicular porokeratosis, further supporting the contention that this entity is a unique form of porokeratosis rather than a histologic variant. A 56-year-old African American female presented to the dermatology clinic with a 3-month history of keratotic lesions localized on the right posterior shoulder. Examination revealed an area of perifollicular keratotic papules, each surrounded by an erythematous rim. Histopathology revealed a cornoid lamella originating within a hair follicle, with the parakeratotic column protruding through the follicular orifice. The static nature of the condition along with exclusive involvement of hair follicles supports the notion of punctate follicular porokeratosis as a distinct clinical entity. The diagnosis of this condition relies heavily on proper histopathologic sampling revealing punctate follicular cornoid lamellae.

  19. [Clinical features of malignant hyperthermia crisis].

    PubMed

    Cornet, C; Moeller, R; Laxenaire, M C

    1989-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder. It is classically described as a hypermetabolic state triggered by halogenated anaesthetics and/or depolarizing muscle relaxants. In fact, since Denborough and Lovel's case, it has been shown that MH has a great number of clinical forms. The overwhelming picture of muscular hypercatabolism with fulminating hyperthermia and generalized rigidity is becoming rare. A better knowledge of the first symptoms explains in part the better prognosis: masseter spasm after suxamethonium, an increase in expired CO2 concentration, unexplained tachycardia, ventricular arrhythmias. The use of dantrolene reduced the mortality of MH. The different types of clinical manifestations are due to genetic differences, the concentration of the anaesthetic agent, and the length of time of exposure to the drug. The severity of the episode is linked to environmental factors such as stress, physical exercise, ambient temperature, concomitant use of other drugs. Masseter spasm after suxamethonium is specific for MH, but not pathognomonic. It occurs in 1% of cases in children when using halothane with suxamethonium. However, in those patients who displayed such a spasm, more than 50% had a positive contracture test. Masseter spasm is often associated with severe rhabdomyolysis in patients with muscle dystrophy, especially Duchenne's dystrophy. In the latter case, major cardiac problems may occur at the time of anaesthetic induction. Even if there are no other signs of MH, all patients who have had a masseter spasm must be considered as open to doubt, and should be further explored. MH is often difficult to diagnose in medium severity types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Benign Occipital Epilepsies of Childhood: Clinical Features and Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Isabella; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Kivity, Sara; Scheffer, Ingrid E.

    2008-01-01

    The early and late benign occipital epilepsies of childhood (BOEC) are described as two discrete electro-clinical syndromes, eponymously known as Panayiotopoulos and Gastaut syndromes. Our aim was to explore the clinical features, classification and clinical genetics of these syndromes using twin and multiplex family studies to determine whether…

  1. Benign Occipital Epilepsies of Childhood: Clinical Features and Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Isabella; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Kivity, Sara; Scheffer, Ingrid E.

    2008-01-01

    The early and late benign occipital epilepsies of childhood (BOEC) are described as two discrete electro-clinical syndromes, eponymously known as Panayiotopoulos and Gastaut syndromes. Our aim was to explore the clinical features, classification and clinical genetics of these syndromes using twin and multiplex family studies to determine whether…

  2. Clinical features, epidemiology, and therapy of lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Moss, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a multisystem disease of women, characterized by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells, leading to the formation of lung cysts, fluid-filled cystic structures in the axial lymphatics (eg, lymphangioleiomyomas), and renal angiomyolipomas. LAM is caused by mutations of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which encode, respectively, hamartin and tuberin, two proteins with a major role in control of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex, an autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by widespread hamartomatous lesions. LAM may present with progressive dyspnea, recurrent pneumothorax, or chylothorax. Pulmonary function tests show reduced flow rates (forced expiratory volume in the first second) and diffusion capacity. Exercise testing may reveal gas exchange abnormalities, ventilatory limitation, and hypoxemia. The severity and progression of disease may be assessed by lung histology scores, quantification of computed tomography, pulmonary function testing, 6-minute walk tests, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and measurement of serum vascular endothelial growth factor D levels. Sirolimus and everolimus, two mTOR inhibitors, are effective in stabilizing lung function and reducing the size of chylous effusions, lymphangioleiomyo-mas, and angiomyolipomas. However, inhibition of mTOR complex 1 increases autophagy, possibly enhancing LAM cell survival. Inhibition of autophagy with hydroxychloroquine, in combination with sirolimus, has been proposed as a possible treatment for LAM. Deficiency of tuberin results in increased RhoA GTPase activity and cell survival, an effect that is mediated through mTOR complex 2 signaling. Because sirolimus and everolimus only affect the activity of mTOR complex 1, therapies targeting RhoA GTPases with simvastatin, which inhibits Rho GTPases and promotes apoptosis, are being investigated. As in the case of

  3. Which ante mortem clinical features predict progressive supranuclear palsy pathology?

    PubMed

    Respondek, Gesine; Kurz, Carolin; Arzberger, Thomas; Compta, Yaroslau; Englund, Elisabet; Ferguson, Leslie W; Gelpi, Ellen; Giese, Armin; Irwin, David J; Meissner, Wassilios G; Nilsson, Christer; Pantelyat, Alexander; Rajput, Alex; van Swieten, John C; Troakes, Claire; Josephs, Keith A; Lang, Anthony E; Mollenhauer, Brit; Müller, Ulrich; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Antonini, Angelo; Bhatia, Kailash P; Bordelon, Yvette; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Colosimo, Carlo; Dodel, Richard; Grossman, Murray; Kassubek, Jan; Krismer, Florian; Levin, Johannes; Lorenzl, Stefan; Morris, Huw; Nestor, Peter; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rowe, James B; van Eimeren, Thilo; Wenning, Gregor K; Boxer, Adam; Golbe, Lawrence I; Litvan, Irene; Stamelou, Maria; Höglinger, Günter U

    2017-07-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neuropathologically defined disease presenting with a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. To identify clinical features and investigations that predict or exclude PSP pathology during life, aiming at an optimization of the clinical diagnostic criteria for PSP. We performed a systematic review of the literature published since 1996 to identify clinical features and investigations that may predict or exclude PSP pathology. We then extracted standardized data from clinical charts of patients with pathologically diagnosed PSP and relevant disease controls and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of key clinical features for PSP in this cohort. Of 4166 articles identified by the database inquiry, 269 met predefined standards. The literature review identified clinical features predictive of PSP, including features of the following 4 functional domains: ocular motor dysfunction, postural instability, akinesia, and cognitive dysfunction. No biomarker or genetic feature was found reliably validated to predict definite PSP. High-quality original natural history data were available from 206 patients with pathologically diagnosed PSP and from 231 pathologically diagnosed disease controls (54 corticobasal degeneration, 51 multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonism, 53 Parkinson's disease, 73 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia). We identified clinical features that predicted PSP pathology, including phenotypes other than Richardson's syndrome, with varying sensitivity and specificity. Our results highlight the clinical variability of PSP and the high prevalence of phenotypes other than Richardson's syndrome. The features of variant phenotypes with high specificity and sensitivity should serve to optimize clinical diagnosis of PSP. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  4. [Clinical Features and Treatment of Hashimoto Encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Maki, Yoshimitsu; Takashima, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) is characterized by heterogeneous neurological symptoms. HE is diagnosed based on three criteria-the presence of antithyroid antibodies, neurological symptoms from the cerebrum and/or cerebellum, and a positive response to immunotherapy. We clinically analyzed 18 patients (3 men, 15 women; age range, 38-81years) diagnosed with HE in our hospital from May 2013 to January 2016. Eleven patients showed sensory abnormalities such as strong pain, deep muscle pain, dysesthesia, paresthesia, or neuralgia. Surprisingly, the majority of the pain was distributed in a manner that was not explainable anatomically. Seventeen patients showed motor disturbances, such as weakness, paresis of extremities, or dexterity movement disorder, and eight patients showed give-way weakness, which is disruption of continuous muscle contraction. Other symptoms indicative of brain-related anomalies such as tremor, dystonia, involuntary movements, cerebellar ataxia, parkinsonism, memory loss, and chronic fatigue were also seen. In most patients, such motor, sensory, or higher brain functions were markedly improved with immunosuppressive therapies such as prednisolone, azathioprine, or immunoadsorption therapy. Although give-way weakness and anatomically unexplainable pain are typically considered as being psychogenic in origin, the presence of these symptoms is indicative of HE. HE exhibits diffuse involvement of the entire brain and thus, these symptoms are explainable. We propose that physicians should not diagnose somatoform disorders without first excluding autoimmune encephalopathy.

  5. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: Clinical features and outcome.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Amy; Ness, Jayne; Pohl, Daniela; Simone, Isabella Laura; Anlar, Banu; Amato, Maria Pia; Ghezzi, Angelo

    2016-08-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) in children manifests with a relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) disease course. Acute relapses consist of new neurologic deficits persisting greater than 24 hours, in the absence of intercurrent illness, and occur with a higher frequency early in the disease as compared to adult-onset RRMS. Most pediatric patients with MS recover well from these early relapses, and cumulative physical disability is rare in the first 10 years of disease. Brainstem attacks, poor recovery from a single attack, and a higher frequency of attacks portend a greater likelihood of future disability. Although prospective pediatric-onset MS cohorts have been established in recent years, there remains very limited prospective data detailing the longer-term clinical outcome of pediatric-onset MS into adulthood. Whether the advent of MS therapies, and the largely off-label access to such therapies in pediatric MS, has improved prognosis is unknown. MS onset during the key formative academic years, concurrent with active cognitive maturation, is an important determinant of long-term outcome, and is discussed in detail in another article in this supplement. Finally, increasing recognition of pediatric MS worldwide, recent launch of phase III trials for new agents in the pediatric MS population, and the clear imperative to more fully appreciate health-related quality of life in pediatric MS through adulthood highlight the need for standardized, validated, and robust outcome measures.

  6. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended.

  7. Porphyria cutanea tarda: clinical and laboratory features.

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, G. D.; Jones, K. G.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven patients with porphyria cutanea tarda were studied. Biochemical confirmation of the clinical diagnosis required only determination of the total urine porphyrin concentration in a sample of urine voided on rising in the morning. The patients were divided for convenience of discussion into four groups differing in age, sex and etiologic factors. Of the six patients in whom a liver biopsy was done one was shown to have micronodular cirrhosis. Except for a modest elevation in the serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase values when the patients were first seen, no evidence was found for liver disease apart from the presence of porphyria cutanea tarda. One patient recovered solely by abstaining from alcohol consumption. Five patients underwent phlebotomy; their iron stores had been found to be between 2 and 3 g. Decreasing urine porphyrin values correlated well with decreasing serum ferritin values during the course of phlebotomy. Porphyria cutanea tarda, which is due to a deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, is manifested in association with alcohol abuse, estrogen therapy, exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons or increased tissue iron stores, or a combination of these factors. Although relatively uncommon, this condition raises important and unresolved issues regarding the hepatotoxicity of alcohol, estrogens, chlorinated hydrocarbons and iron. PMID:427687

  8. Clinical features of Lassa fever in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Frame, J D

    1989-01-01

    Two hundred thirteen cases of Lassa fever (LF) were diagnosed by virus isolation and seroconversion at Curran Lutheran Hospital in Zorzor, Liberia, between July 1980 and April 1986. An additional 40 cases of probable and presumptive LF were diagnosed on the basis of single serum samples. Of the 246 assessable patients, 23 (9%) died; no data were available for seven patients. Five (16%) of 32 pregnant women and three (43%) of seven immediately postpartum women died. Four (26%) of 15 children less than 12 years died. Case-fatality rates among 125 nonpregnant women and 67 men were approximately 6%. Among 150 patients studied in detail, the case-fatality rate was also 9%. Seventeen (11%) of these patients had abnormal bleeding; of these, six (35%) died. Most platelet counts were at low normal to mildly depressed levels. However, serial counts in seven patients suggested a decrease on about days 10-12 of illness. The symptoms of LF in Liberia are those of a viral syndrome. Edema, sometimes marked, is noted in seriously ill patients. A great variation in mortality and incidence of abnormal bleeding is recorded in reported series of LF; it appears that hemorrhage is a marker for cases with a high mortality. The incidence and severity of hearing defects in LF outbreaks vary. Elucidation of a number of clinical problems in LF requires more information on how strain differences affect the pattern of illness.

  9. [Pathogenesis and clinical features of polypous rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Trofimenko, S L

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents recommendations of the current European and Russian documents concerning pathogenesis of polypous rhinosinusitis (International Consensus Conference on Nasal Polyposis (2006), European documents EAACI - EP3OS (2007), and Summit of the Russian Society of Rhinologists "Nasal polyposis and inflammation" (2009)). The bilateral polypous process in the nasal cavity is considered to be a "special form of rhinosinusitis" in which bacterial superantigens or fungal infection induce chronic eosinophilic inflammation. Researchers of the ENT Department, Rostov State Medical University, undertook analysis of the results of long-term comprehensive examination of patients with polypous rhinosinusitis that included clinical, bacteriological, histomorphological, and allergological studies as well as evaluation of local and systemic immunity. The data obtained allowed to describe one of the forms of polypous rhinosinusitis as chronic infection-dependent allergic rhinosinusitis with the manifestation of all four types of allergic reactions, formation of the autoimmune component, and development of persistent immune inflammation leading to remodeling of endonasal mucosa. In all these cases, the process progressed parallel to the development of combined secondary immune deficiency (SID). A hypothetical scheme of pathogenesis of chronic polypous allergic rhinosinusitis is proposed.

  10. Clinical features and pathophysiology of belching disorders.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaomin; Ke, Meiyun; Wang, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    The symptomatic characteristics and psychosocial factors of belching were analyzed through questionnaire, and the pathophysiology of belch was studied with the combined methods of high-resolution manometry and impedance (HRM-IMP). 21 consecutively-enrolled patients with repeated belching, were conducted a questionnaire survey, and the data were analyzed with Pearson correlation analysis and exact propability method. 10 patients were performed HRM-IMP. 20 patients met the diagnostic criteria of belch, among who 17 cases had overlapped symptoms, and the functional dyspepsia was the most common, followed by gastroesophageal reflux disease; 16 patients experienced mental stimulation or negative events; 12 cases existed anxiety and (or) depression; 8 cases had neurotic personality. The number of the overlapped symptoms was associated with the anxiety status, while the belch severity had nothing to do with the anxiety/depression status. Among the 10 patients who accepted HRM-IMP, 9 existed the esophageal motility dysfunction, and 9 had supra-gastric belching. Belch had a variety of clinical manifestations, related to the mood changes and the environmental stress, and normally was combined with the abnormalities of psychology and personality traits. The belch patients normally experienced the esophageal motility disorders, among which the typical pattern was supra-gastric belching.

  11. Clinical Features of Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Barbara K.; Deegan, Patrick B.; Enns, Gregory M.; Guardamagna, Ornella; Horslen, Simon; Hovingh, Gerard K.; Lobritto, Steve J.; Malinova, Vera; McLin, Valerie A.; Raiman, Julian; Di Rocco, Maja; Santra, Saikat; Sharma, Reena; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Whitley, Chester B.; Eckert, Stephen; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Quinn, Anthony G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize key clinical manifestations of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL D) in children and adults. Methods: Investigators reviewed medical records of LAL D patients ages ≥5 years, extracted historical data, and obtained prospective laboratory and imaging data on living patients to develop a longitudinal dataset. Results: A total of 49 patients were enrolled; 48 had confirmed LAL D. Mean age at first disease-related abnormality was 9.0 years (range 0–42); mean age at diagnosis was 15.2 years (range 1–46). Twenty-nine (60%) were male patients, and 27 (56%) were <20 years of age at the time of consent/assent. Serum transaminases were elevated in most patients with 458 of 499 (92%) of alanine aminotransferase values and 265 of 448 (59%) of aspartate aminotransferase values above the upper limit of normal. Most patients had elevated low-density lipoprotein (64% patients) and total cholesterol (63%) at baseline despite most being on lipid-lowering therapies, and 44% had high-density lipoprotein levels below the lower limit of normal. More than half of the patients with liver biopsies (n = 31, mean age 13 years) had documented evidence of steatosis (87%) and/or fibrosis (52%). Imaging assessments revealed that the median liver volume was ∼1.15 multiples of normal (MN) and median spleen volume was ∼2.2 MN. Six (13%) patients had undergone a liver transplant (ages 9–43.5 years). Conclusion: This study provides the largest longitudinal case review of patients with LAL D and confirms that LAL D is predominantly a pediatric disease causing early and progressive hepatic dysfunction associated with dyslipidemia that often leads to liver failure and transplantation. PMID:26252914

  12. [Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

    2013-12-01

    Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland

  13. Clinical Features of Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Burton, Barbara K; Deegan, Patrick B; Enns, Gregory M; Guardamagna, Ornella; Horslen, Simon; Hovingh, Gerard K; Lobritto, Steve J; Malinova, Vera; McLin, Valerie A; Raiman, Julian; Di Rocco, Maja; Santra, Saikat; Sharma, Reena; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Whitley, Chester B; Eckert, Stephen; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Quinn, Anthony G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize key clinical manifestations of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL D) in children and adults. Investigators reviewed medical records of LAL D patients ages ≥5 years, extracted historical data, and obtained prospective laboratory and imaging data on living patients to develop a longitudinal dataset. A total of 49 patients were enrolled; 48 had confirmed LAL D. Mean age at first disease-related abnormality was 9.0 years (range 0-42); mean age at diagnosis was 15.2 years (range 1-46). Twenty-nine (60%) were male patients, and 27 (56%) were <20 years of age at the time of consent/assent. Serum transaminases were elevated in most patients with 458 of 499 (92%) of alanine aminotransferase values and 265 of 448 (59%) of aspartate aminotransferase values above the upper limit of normal. Most patients had elevated low-density lipoprotein (64% patients) and total cholesterol (63%) at baseline despite most being on lipid-lowering therapies, and 44% had high-density lipoprotein levels below the lower limit of normal. More than half of the patients with liver biopsies (n = 31, mean age 13 years) had documented evidence of steatosis (87%) and/or fibrosis (52%). Imaging assessments revealed that the median liver volume was ∼1.15 multiples of normal (MN) and median spleen volume was ∼2.2 MN. Six (13%) patients had undergone a liver transplant (ages 9-43.5 years). This study provides the largest longitudinal case review of patients with LAL D and confirms that LAL D is predominantly a pediatric disease causing early and progressive hepatic dysfunction associated with dyslipidemia that often leads to liver failure and transplantation.

  14. Polymicrobial Infective Endocarditis: Clinical Features and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    García-Granja, Pablo Elpidio; López, Javier; Vilacosta, Isidre; Ortiz-Bautista, Carlos; Sevilla, Teresa; Olmos, Carmen; Sarriá, Cristina; Ferrera, Carlos; Gómez, Itziar; Román, José Alberto San

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To describe the profile of left-sided polymicrobial endocarditis (PE) and to compare it with monomicrobial endocarditis (ME). Among 1011 episodes of left-sided endocarditis consecutively diagnosed in 3 tertiary centers, between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2014, 60 were polymicrobial (5.9%), 821 monomicrobial (81.7%), and in 123 no microorganism was detected (12.2%). Seven patients (0.7%) were excluded from the analysis because contamination of biologic tissue could not be discarded. The authors described the clinical, microbiologic, echocardiographic, and outcome of patients with PE and compared it with ME. Mean age was 64 years SD 16 years, 67% were men and 30% nosocomial. Diabetes mellitus (35%) were the most frequent comorbidities, fever (67%) and heart failure (43%) the most common symptoms at admission. Prosthetic valves (50%) were the most frequent infection location and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (48%) and enterococci (37%) the leading etiologies. The most repeated combination was coagulase-negative Staphylococci with enterococci (n = 9). Polymicrobial endocarditis appeared more frequently in patients with underlying disease (70% versus 56%, P = 0.036), mostly diabetics (35% versus 24%, P = 0.044) with previous cardiac surgery (15% versus 8% P = 0.049) and prosthetic valves (50% versus 37%, P = 0.038). Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, enterococci, Gram-negative bacilli, anaerobes, and fungi were more frequent in PE. No differences on age, sex, symptoms, need of surgery, and in-hospital mortality were detected. Polymicrobial endocarditis represents 5.9% of episodes of left-sided endocarditis in our series. Despite relevant demographic and microbiologic differences between PE and ME, short-term outcome is similar. PMID:26656328

  15. Clinical features and pathobiology of Ebolavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Aftab A

    2014-12-01

    mechanisms in the body facilitates the ability of the virus to replicate in an uncontrolled fashion leading to the rapidity by which the virus can cause lethality. Various laboratories have been working on defining such mechanisms utilizing in vitro culture systems, a variety of animal models including inbred strains of normal and select gene knock out mice, guinea pigs and nonhuman primates that have led to a better understanding of the potential mechanisms involved. There have also been some major advances made in the identification of therapies from the very simple (major supportive type of therapy), to the identification of a number of highly effective chemotherapeutic agents, a variety of highly effective preventive (demonstrating 100% effectiveness in nonhuman primate models) recombinant formulations (adenovirus based, VSV-based, rabies virus based), therapeutic candidate vaccines (cocktail of monoclonal antibodies such as ZMAPP) and alternate approaches (RNAi-based such as TKM-Ebola and antisense based such as AVI-7537) that show great promise and at an unprecedented rate of discovery that speaks well for the scientific research community at large. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of feature genes for smoking-related lung adenocarcinoma based on gene expression profile data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Ni, Ran; Zhang, Hui; Miao, Lijun; Wang, Jing; Jia, Wenqing; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the genes and pathways associated with smoking-related lung adenocarcinoma. Three lung adenocarcinoma associated datasets (GSE43458, GSE10072, and GSE50081), the subjects of which included smokers and nonsmokers, were downloaded to screen the differentially expressed feature genes between smokers and nonsmokers. Based on the identified feature genes, we constructed the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network and optimized feature genes using closeness centrality (CC) algorithm. Then, the support vector machine (SVM) classification model was constructed based on the feature genes with higher CC values. Finally, pathway enrichment analysis of the feature genes was performed. A total of 213 down-regulated and 83 up-regulated differentially expressed genes were identified. In the constructed PPI network, the top ten nodes with higher degrees and CC values included ANK3, EPHA4, FGFR2, etc. The SVM classifier was constructed with 27 feature genes, which could accurately identify smokers and nonsmokers. Pathways enrichment analysis for the 27 feature genes revealed that they were significantly enriched in five pathways, including proteoglycans in cancer (EGFR, SDC4, SDC2, etc.), and Ras signaling pathway (FGFR2, PLA2G1B, EGFR, etc.). The 27 feature genes, such as EPHA4, FGFR2, and EGFR for SVM classifier construction and cancer-related pathways of Ras signaling pathway and proteoglycans in cancer may play key roles in the progression and development of smoking-related lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27994470

  17. Features of Gene Expression of Bacillus pumilus Metalloendopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Rudakova, N L; Sabirova, A R; Balaban, N P; Tikhonova, A O; Sharipova, M R

    2016-08-01

    Features of gene expression of the secreted Bacillus pumilus metalloendopeptidase belonging to the adamalysin/reprolysin family were investigated. In the regulatory region of the gene, we identified hypothetical binding sites for transcription factors CcpA and TnrA. We found that the expression of the metalloendopeptidase gene is controlled by mechanisms of carbon and nitrogen catabolite repression. In experiments involving nitrogen metabolism regulatory protein mutant strains, we found that the control of the metalloendopeptidase gene expression involves proteins of ammonium transport GlnK and AmtB interacting with the TnrA-regulator.

  18. Mechanisms of Disease and Clinical Features of Mutations of the Gene for Mitofusin 2: An Important Cause of Hereditary Peripheral Neuropathy with Striking Clinical Variability in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouvrier, Robert; Grew, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Mitofusin 2, a large transmembrane GTPase located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, promotes membrane fusion and is involved in the maintenance of the morphology of axonal mitochondria. Mutations of the gene encoding mitofusin 2 ("MFN2") have recently been identified as the cause of approximately one-third of dominantly inherited cases of the…

  19. Mechanisms of Disease and Clinical Features of Mutations of the Gene for Mitofusin 2: An Important Cause of Hereditary Peripheral Neuropathy with Striking Clinical Variability in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouvrier, Robert; Grew, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Mitofusin 2, a large transmembrane GTPase located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, promotes membrane fusion and is involved in the maintenance of the morphology of axonal mitochondria. Mutations of the gene encoding mitofusin 2 ("MFN2") have recently been identified as the cause of approximately one-third of dominantly inherited cases of the…

  20. Clinical features and diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Quest, Graeme R; Johnston, James B

    2015-12-01

    Significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) have recently been made. Improved distinction of HCL from its mimics though clinical presentations, morphologic and immunophenotypic features, and more recently molecular biology, has highlighted marked differences in treatment response and overall prognosis between these disorders. As our understanding of the unique pathobiology of HCL has grown, exciting new avenues of treatment as well as insight into immune function have been obtained. This review provides an overview of the clinical features and diagnostic attributes of HCL, with contrast to other mature B cell lymphoproliferative disorders with overlapping features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Features of Community-Acquired Helicobacter cinaedi Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Uwamino, Yoshifumi; Muranaka, Kiyoharu; Hase, Ryota; Otsuka, Yoshihito; Hosokawa, Naoto

    2016-02-01

    There are growing numbers of reports concerning the clinical and pathological features of Helicobacter cinaedi (H. cinaedi) bacteremia; however, few reports have discussed the features of this condition in healthy individuals. A retrospective observational study was conducted at a Japanese tertiary care hospital to assess the clinical features of community-acquired H. cinaedi. All patients in whom H. cinaedi was isolated between January 2009 and March 2014 were identified from the hospital database. Of the 28 patients included in the study, 12 had community-acquired H. cinaedi bacteremia. The most common clinical feature was cellulitis (n = 17). However, nearly half of the patients with healthcare-associated or nosocomial-associated bacteremia displayed no symptoms with the exception of fever. Most patients were successfully treated with a 14-day regime of third-generation cephalosporins or tetracycline. Our results show that H. cinaedi infections are quite common in immunocompetent community-dwelling individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Clustering clinical trials with similar eligibility criteria features.

    PubMed

    Hao, Tianyong; Rusanov, Alexander; Boland, Mary Regina; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-12-01

    To automatically identify and cluster clinical trials with similar eligibility features. Using the public repository ClinicalTrials.gov as the data source, we extracted semantic features from the eligibility criteria text of all clinical trials and constructed a trial-feature matrix. We calculated the pairwise similarities for all clinical trials based on their eligibility features. For all trials, by selecting one trial as the center each time, we identified trials whose similarities to the central trial were greater than or equal to a predefined threshold and constructed center-based clusters. Then we identified unique trial sets with distinctive trial membership compositions from center-based clusters by disregarding their structural information. From the 145,745 clinical trials on ClinicalTrials.gov, we extracted 5,508,491 semantic features. Of these, 459,936 were unique and 160,951 were shared by at least one pair of trials. Crowdsourcing the cluster evaluation using Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), we identified the optimal similarity threshold, 0.9. Using this threshold, we generated 8806 center-based clusters. Evaluation of a sample of the clusters by MTurk resulted in a mean score 4.331±0.796 on a scale of 1-5 (5 indicating "strongly agree that the trials in the cluster are similar"). We contribute an automated approach to clustering clinical trials with similar eligibility features. This approach can be potentially useful for investigating knowledge reuse patterns in clinical trial eligibility criteria designs and for improving clinical trial recruitment. We also contribute an effective crowdsourcing method for evaluating informatics interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Mutation analysis of FGFR3 gene in a family featuring hereditary dwarfism].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiong; Jiang, Hai-ou; Quan, Qing-li; Li, Jun; He, Ting; Huang, Xue-shuang

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the clinical symptoms and potential mutation in FGFR3 gene for a family featuring hereditary dwarfism in order to attain diagnosis and provide prenatal diagnosis. Five patients and two unaffected relatives from the family, in addition with 100 healthy controls, were recruited. Genome DNA was extracted. Exons 10 and 13 of the FGFR3 gene were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products were sequenced in both directions. All patients had similar features including short stature, short limbs, lumbar hyperlordosis but normal craniofacial features. A heterozygous mutation G1620T (N540K) was identified in the cDNA from all patients but not in the unaffected relatives and 100 control subjects. A heterozygous G380R mutation was excluded. The hereditary dwarfism featured by this family has been caused by hypochondroplasia (HCH) due to a N540K mutation in the FGFR3 gene.

  4. Visual Aggregate Analysis of Eligibility Features of Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhe; Carini, Simona; Sim, Ida; Weng, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a method for profiling the collective populations targeted for recruitment by multiple clinical studies addressing the same medical condition using one eligibility feature each time. Methods Using a previously published database COMPACT as the backend, we designed a scalable method for visual aggregate analysis of clinical trial eligibility features. This method consists of four modules for eligibility feature frequency analysis, query builder, distribution analysis, and visualization, respectively. This method is capable of analyzing (1) frequently used qualitative and quantitative features for recruiting subjects for a selected medical condition, (2) distribution of study enrollment on consecutive value points or value intervals of each quantitative feature, and (3) distribution of studies on the boundary values, permissible value ranges, and value range widths of each feature. All analysis results were visualized using Google Charts API. Five recruited potential users assessed the usefulness of this method for identifying common patterns in any selected eligibility feature for clinical trial participant selection. Results We implemented this method as a Web-based analytical system called VITTA (Visual Analysis Tool of Clinical Study Target Populations). We illustrated the functionality of VITTA using two sample queries involving quantitative features BMI and HbA1c for conditions “hypertension” and “Type 2 diabetes”, respectively. The recruited potential users rated the user-perceived usefulness of VITTA with an average score of 86.4/100. Conclusions We contributed a novel aggregate analysis method to enable the interrogation of common patterns in quantitative eligibility criteria and the collective target populations of multiple related clinical studies. A larger-scale study is warranted to formally assess the usefulness of VITTA among clinical investigators and sponsors in various therapeutic areas. PMID:25615940

  5. Psoriasis: Epidemiology, clinical features, co-morbidities, and clinical scoring

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Sunil; Mahajan, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of current evidence derived from hospital-based studies, mostly from North India, the prevalence of psoriasis in adults varies from 0.44 to 2.8%, with a much lower prevalence in children. The peak age at onset in adults is in the third and fourth decade of life, with a slight male preponderance. It is recommended that population-based large epidemiologic studies should be undertaken in different parts of the country for estimating the correct prevalence of psoriasis in general population. Chronic plaque-type psoriasis is the most common morphologic presentation of psoriasis, accounting for more than 90% of all cases. Other morphologic variants that deserve special mention include palmoplantar psoriasis, pustular psoriasis, and recalcitrant psoriasis. For epidemiologic purposes, psoriasis can be classified into early and late onset psoriasis. Psoriasis can be classified on the basis of morphology and extent of involvement into localized and widespread disease. For the purpose of clinical trials, psoriasis may be classified as mild psoriasis, moderate psoriasis, and severe psoriasis. The literature shows that there is a significant risk of psoriatic arthritis (7–48%) in patients with plaque-type psoriasis. Hence, it is recommended to evaluate for its presence by detailed history taking and clinical examination, and if necessary, by appropriate radiological investigations. Evidence on the association between plaque-type psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors and ischemic heart disease isinconsistent. On the basis ofavailable evidence, it is prudent to proactively look for metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and obesity, especially in patientswith severe psoriasis (Level 1+ evidence based on systematic reviews and meta-analysis). Based on the current evidence, the psoriasis area severity index appears to be the most valid and reproducible clinical severity score in the management of adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis. PMID:27990381

  6. A gene feature enumeration approach for describing HLA allele polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Mack, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    HLA genotyping via next generation sequencing (NGS) poses challenges for the use of HLA allele names to analyze and discuss sequence polymorphism. NGS will identify many new synonymous and non-coding HLA sequence variants. Allele names identify the types of nucleotide polymorphism that define an allele (non-synonymous, synonymous and non-coding changes), but do not describe how polymorphism is distributed among the individual features (the flanking untranslated regions, exons and introns) of a gene. Further, HLA alleles cannot be named in the absence of antigen-recognition domain (ARD) encoding exons. Here, a system for describing HLA polymorphism in terms of HLA gene features (GFs) is proposed. This system enumerates the unique nucleotide sequences for each GF in an HLA gene, and records these in a GF enumeration notation that allows both more granular dissection of allele-level HLA polymorphism and the discussion and analysis of GFs in the absence of ARD-encoding exon sequences.

  7. Variability of clinical features in attacks of migraine with aura.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jakob M; Goadsby, Peter J; Charles, Andrew C

    2016-03-01

    There is significant variability in the clinical presentation of migraine, both among patients, and between attacks in an individual patient. We examined clinical features of migraine with aura in a large group of patients enrolled in a clinical trial, and compared retrospective migraine attack characteristics reported upon enrollment in the trial with those recorded prospectively in the trial. Patients with migraine (n = 267) with typical visual aura in more than 30% of their attacks were enrolled from 16 centers for a clinical trial. Upon enrollment, patients provided a detailed retrospective description of the clinical features of their attacks of migraine. During the trial, clinical symptoms in migraine attacks starting with aura were recorded prospectively in 861 attacks. Retrospectively reported visual aura symptoms were variable and often overlapping; the most common symptoms were dots or flashing lights, wavy or jagged lines, blind spots, and tunnel vision. Multiple patients reported more than one visual phenomenon. Approximately half of the patients reported nonvisual aura symptoms, the most common were numbness and tingling, followed by difficulty in recalling or speaking words. A significant percentage of patients also reported a change in olfaction. There were several inconsistencies between the features of prospectively recorded and retrospectively reported attacks. Headache, nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia were all less common in prospectively recorded attacks as compared with retrospective reporting. Nausea was prospectively recorded in only 51% of attacks and mostly with mild intensity. The occurrence and severity of nausea was reduced with advancing patient age. Phonophobia was not consistently recorded in conjunction with photophobia. These findings are consistent with variable involvement of different brain regions during a migraine attack. The variable occurrence of nausea, and phonophobia in conjunction with photophobia, both defining

  8. Oral candidosis. Clinical, historical, and therapeutic features of 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Vincent, S D; Hellstein, J W

    1992-07-01

    Oral candidosis is an increasingly important disease that affects a significant percentage of the population. Traditionally known as an opportunistic pathogen, the broader clinical scope of oropharyngeal candidal infections is now being recognized. The clinical and historical features of 100 patients referred for diagnosis and management of candidosis have been reviewed. The age, gender, chief complaint, medical history, medications, and clinical findings have been noted. A wide range of clinical signs and symptoms, and the rationale behind the topical and systemic antifungal therapies provided to this patient population, are discussed.

  9. Regulatory Features for Odorant Receptor Genes in the Mouse Genome.

    PubMed

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea; D'Errico, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The odorant receptor genes, seven transmembrane receptor genes constituting the vastest mammalian gene multifamily, are expressed monogenically and monoallelicaly in each sensory neuron in the olfactory epithelium. This characteristic, often referred to as the one neuron-one receptor rule, is driven by mostly uncharacterized molecular dynamics, generally named odorant receptor gene choice. Much attention has been paid by the scientific community to the identification of sequences regulating the expression of odorant receptor genes within their loci, where related genes are usually arranged in genomic clusters. A number of studies identified transcription factor binding sites on odorant receptor promoter sequences. Similar binding sites were also found on a number of enhancers that regulate in cis their transcription, but have been proposed to form interchromosomal networks. Odorant receptor gene choice seems to occur via the local removal of strongly repressive epigenetic markings, put in place during the maturation of the sensory neuron on each odorant receptor locus. Here we review the fast-changing state of art for the study of regulatory features for odorant receptor genes.

  10. Regulatory Features for Odorant Receptor Genes in the Mouse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Degl’Innocenti, Andrea; D’Errico, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The odorant receptor genes, seven transmembrane receptor genes constituting the vastest mammalian gene multifamily, are expressed monogenically and monoallelicaly in each sensory neuron in the olfactory epithelium. This characteristic, often referred to as the one neuron–one receptor rule, is driven by mostly uncharacterized molecular dynamics, generally named odorant receptor gene choice. Much attention has been paid by the scientific community to the identification of sequences regulating the expression of odorant receptor genes within their loci, where related genes are usually arranged in genomic clusters. A number of studies identified transcription factor binding sites on odorant receptor promoter sequences. Similar binding sites were also found on a number of enhancers that regulate in cis their transcription, but have been proposed to form interchromosomal networks. Odorant receptor gene choice seems to occur via the local removal of strongly repressive epigenetic markings, put in place during the maturation of the sensory neuron on each odorant receptor locus. Here we review the fast-changing state of art for the study of regulatory features for odorant receptor genes. PMID:28270833

  11. The pathogenesis of the clinical features of oral-facial-digital syndrome type I

    PubMed Central

    AlKattan, Wael M.; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M.; Bafaqeeh, Sameer A.

    2015-01-01

    Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFDI) is an X-linked syndrome, which has several craniofacial and limb features; and hence, patients frequently present to craniofacial and plastic surgeons. Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I is caused by mutations in the CXORF5 gene. The gene product is one of the basal body proteins of a slim microtubule-based organelle called the “primary cilium”. Most of the clinical features of OFDI patients are related to dysfunctions of the primary cilium leading to abnormal Hedgehog signal transduction, depressed planar cell polarity pathway, and errors in cell cycle control. PMID:26593159

  12. Basic clinical and laboratory features of filoviral hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Kortepeter, Mark G; Bausch, Daniel G; Bray, Mike

    2011-11-01

    The filoviruses Marburg and Ebola cause severe hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans. Beginning with the 1967 Marburg outbreak, 30 epidemics, isolated cases, and accidental laboratory infections have been described in the medical literature. We reviewed those reports to determine the basic clinical and laboratory features of filoviral HF. The most detailed information was found in descriptions of patients treated in industrialized countries; except for the 2000 outbreak of Ebola Sudan HF in Uganda, reports of epidemics in central Africa provided little controlled or objective clinical data. Other than the case fatality rate, there were no clear differences in the features of the various filovirus infections. This compilation will be of value to medical workers responding to epidemics and to investigators attempting to develop animal models of filoviral HF. By identifying key unanswered questions and gaps in clinical data, it will help guide clinical research in future outbreaks.

  13. Clinical and genetic features of Huntington disease in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sumathipala, Dulika S; Jayasekara, Rohan W; Dissanayake, Vajira H W

    2013-12-05

    Huntington disease was one of the first neurological hereditary diseases for which genetic testing was made possible as early as 1993. The study describes the clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with Huntington disease in Sri Lanka. Data of 35 consecutive patients tested from 2007 to 2012 at the Human Genetics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo was analyzed retrospectively. Clinical data and genetic diagnostic results were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Thirty patients had fully penetrant (FP) CAG repeat mutations and 5 had reduced penetrant (RP) CAG repeat mutations. In the FP group mean ages of onset and diagnosis were 37.5 and 40.4 years, while in the RP group it was 63.0 and 64.8 years respectively. The age of diagnosis ranged from 15 to 72 years, with 2 patients with Juvenile onset (<20 years) and 3 with late onset (>60 years) Huntington disease. The symptoms at diagnosis were predominantly motor (32/35 -91%). Three patients had psychiatric and behavioral disorders. The age difference between onset and genetic diagnosis showed significant delay in females compared to males (p < 0.05). Twenty two (62.8%) had a positive family history, with 13/22 (59.1%) showing a paternal inheritance of the disease. In both groups, those with a family history had a significantly lower age of presentation (p < 0.05). The mean CAG repeat length in patients with FP alleles was 44.6 ± 5 and RP alleles was 37.2 ± 1.1. Age of onset and CAG repeat length of the HTT gene showed significant inverse correlation (p < 0.0005, R2 = 0.727). The clinical and genetic features seen in patients with Huntington disease in the Sri Lankan study population were similar to that previously reported in literature.

  14. Genetic and clinical features of primary torsion dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Ozelius, Laurie J.; Bressman, Susan B.

    2011-01-01

    Primary torsion dystonia (PTD) is defined as a syndrome in which dystonia is the only clinical sign (except for tremor), and there is no evidence of neuronal degeneration or an acquired cause by history or routine laboratory assessment. Seven different loci have been recognized for PTD but only two of the genes have been identified. In this review we will described the phenotypes associated with these loci and discuss the responsible gene. PMID:21168499

  15. GSDS 2.0: an upgraded gene feature visualization server.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Jin, Jinpu; Guo, An-Yuan; Zhang, He; Luo, Jingchu; Gao, Ge

    2015-04-15

    : Visualizing genes' structure and annotated features helps biologists to investigate their function and evolution intuitively. The Gene Structure Display Server (GSDS) has been widely used by more than 60 000 users since its first publication in 2007. Here, we reported the upgraded GSDS 2.0 with a newly designed interface, supports for more types of annotation features and formats, as well as an integrated visual editor for editing the generated figure. Moreover, a user-specified phylogenetic tree can be added to facilitate further evolutionary analysis. The full source code is also available for downloading. Web server and source code are freely available at http://gsds.cbi.pku.edu.cn. gaog@mail.cbi.pku.edu.cn or gsds@mail.cbi.pku.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Multiple sclerosis with clinical and radiological features of cerebral tumour

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, HJ; Warlow, CP; Sheldon, PWE; Esiri, MM

    1982-01-01

    Three cases of multiple sclerosis, all confirmed pathologically, are described in whom both the unusual clinical features and the CT scan appearances suggested cerebral tumours. The failure of mass effect reliably to differentiate plaques and tumours on a CT scan is stressed and the literature relating to CT scanning in multiple sclerosis is reviewed. Images PMID:7131013

  17. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism: Relationships with Associated Clinical Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Hill, Dina E.; Ivers, Bonnie J.; Goldson, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between repetitive behaviors (RBs) and associated clinical features (i.e., cognitive and adaptive functioning levels, sleep problems, medication use, and other behavioral problems) were examined in two groups (High nonverbal IQ greater than or equal to 97 versus Low nonverbal IQ less than or equal to 56) of children with autism…

  18. A simulation to analyze feature selection methods utilizing gene ontology for gene expression classification.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Christopher E; Siadat, Mohammad-Reza; Patel, Nilesh V; Wilson, George D

    2013-12-01

    Gene expression profile classification is a pivotal research domain assisting in the transformation from traditional to personalized medicine. A major challenge associated with gene expression data classification is the small number of samples relative to the large number of genes. To address this problem, researchers have devised various feature selection algorithms to reduce the number of genes. Recent studies have been experimenting with the use of semantic similarity between genes in Gene Ontology (GO) as a method to improve feature selection. While there are few studies that discuss how to use GO for feature selection, there is no simulation study that addresses when to use GO-based feature selection. To investigate this, we developed a novel simulation, which generates binary class datasets, where the differentially expressed genes between two classes have some underlying relationship in GO. This allows us to investigate the effects of various factors such as the relative connectedness of the underlying genes in GO, the mean magnitude of separation between differentially expressed genes denoted by δ, and the number of training samples. Our simulation results suggest that the connectedness in GO of the differentially expressed genes for a biological condition is the primary factor for determining the efficacy of GO-based feature selection. In particular, as the connectedness of differentially expressed genes increases, the classification accuracy improvement increases. To quantify this notion of connectedness, we defined a measure called Biological Condition Annotation Level BCAL(G), where G is a graph of differentially expressed genes. Our main conclusions with respect to GO-based feature selection are the following: (1) it increases classification accuracy when BCAL(G) ≥ 0.696; (2) it decreases classification accuracy when BCAL(G) ≤ 0.389; (3) it provides marginal accuracy improvement when 0.389genes in a

  19. The clinical features of ankle syndesmosis injuries: a general review.

    PubMed

    Kellett, John J

    2011-11-01

    To review the research conclusions relating to clinical aspects of syndesmosis, the incidence and prognosis of syndesmosis injuries, and the effectiveness of the history and clinical examination to reliably diagnose ankle syndesmosis injury. Google Scholar search: Syndesmosis paired with incidence, prognosis, history, and examination in turn. There was no time limit for the search. Articles were selected by reading titles, abstracts, and the full article, if indicated, seeking original articles determining these clinical aspects of syndesmosis injuries. Further articles were derived from the references of the primary articles. The prognosis for isolated syndesmosis injuries, including the time to functional recovery, is unknown. The incidence of acute syndesmosis injury in moderate to severe ankle injuries requiring imaging is of the order of 5%. Historical features and special clinical tests of syndesmosis injury have not been proven reliable by clinical studies using evidence-based diagnostic criteria. Acute local tenderness of the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament will indicate significant syndesmosis injury in only approximately half of nonspecific ankle injuries. There is limited, evidence-based, standard, published literature from which to draw conclusions regarding the validity or reliability of various clinical special tests for syndesmosis injury. Literature assessing the incidence, prognosis, and clinical features is generally not based on definitively confirmed syndesmosis injuries, which is a critical aspect of evidence-based medicine before valid conclusions can be drawn.

  20. [Clinical features of pediatric multiple sclerosis: epidemiology and treatment].

    PubMed

    Torisu, Hiroyuki; Hara, Toshiro

    2014-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) in children is essentially not different from MS in adults; however, in children, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish MS from other demyelinating diseases. The main reason for this is that acute encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with infectious diseases, especially acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), often causes demyelinating events in the central nervous system in childhood, and that the demyelinating episodes of MS in younger children clinically resemble ADEM events. Therefore, a number of studies on pediatric demyelinating diseases have been conducted to elucidate the clinical features of pediatric MS. In this article, the clinical features of pediatric MS in Japan were reviewed on the basis of the results of a nationwide survey as well as those in other countries.

  1. Key Clinical Features to Identify Girls with "CDKL5" Mutations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Nectoux, Juliette; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Milh, Mathieu; Boddaert, Nathalie; Girard, Benoit; Cances, Claude; Ville, Dorothee; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rio, Marlene; Heron, Delphine; Morel, Marie Ange N'Guyen; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Philippe, Christophe; Jonveaux, Philippe; Chelly, Jamel; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 ("CDKL5") gene have been shown to cause infantile spasms as well as Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. To date, less than 25 different mutations have been reported. So far, there are still little data on the key clinical diagnosis criteria and on the natural history of…

  2. Key Clinical Features to Identify Girls with "CDKL5" Mutations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Nectoux, Juliette; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Milh, Mathieu; Boddaert, Nathalie; Girard, Benoit; Cances, Claude; Ville, Dorothee; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rio, Marlene; Heron, Delphine; Morel, Marie Ange N'Guyen; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Philippe, Christophe; Jonveaux, Philippe; Chelly, Jamel; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 ("CDKL5") gene have been shown to cause infantile spasms as well as Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. To date, less than 25 different mutations have been reported. So far, there are still little data on the key clinical diagnosis criteria and on the natural history of…

  3. Clinical features distinguishing grief from depressive episodes: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Parker, Gordon; McCraw, Stacey; Paterson, Amelia

    2015-05-01

    The independence or interdependence of grief and major depression has been keenly argued in relation to recent DSM definitions and encouraged the current study. We report a phenomenological study seeking to identify the experiential and phenomenological differences between depression and grief as judged qualitatively by those who had experienced clinical (n=125) or non-clinical depressive states (n=28). Analyses involving the whole sample indicated that, in contrast to grief, depression involved feelings of hopelessness and helplessness, being endless and was associated with a lack of control, having an internal self-focus impacting on self-esteem, being more severe and stressful, being marked by physical symptoms and often lacking a justifiable cause. Grief was distinguished from depression by the individual viewing their experience as natural and to be expected, a consequence of a loss, and with an external focus (i.e. the loss of the other). Some identified differences may have reflected the impact of depressive "type" (e.g. melancholia) rather than depression per se, and argue for a two-tiered model differentiating normative depressive and grief states at their base level and then "clinical" depressive and 'pathological' grief states by their associated clinical features. Comparative analyses between the clinical and non-clinical groups were limited by the latter sub-set being few in number. The provision of definitions may have shaped subjects׳ nominated differentiating features. The study identified a distinct number of phenomenological and clinical differences between grief and depression and few shared features, but more importantly, argued for the development of a two-tiered model defining both base states and clinical expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Parkinson disease: insights in clinical, genetic and pathological features of monogenic disease subtypes.

    PubMed

    Crosiers, David; Theuns, Jessie; Cras, Patrick; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2011-10-01

    In the past 15 years, insights in clinical and genetic characteristics of Parkinson disease (PD) have increased substantially. Sequence or copy number variants in at least six genes (SNCA, LRRK2, PARK2, PINK1, DJ-1 and ATP13A2) have been identified to cause monogenic forms of PD. Routine clinical testing for mutations in these genes is feasible and available, but overlapping phenotypes in monogenic and sporadic PD complicate straightforward diagnostic screening. Primarily, a positive familial history and an early onset age should prompt clinicians to consider genetic testing. Based on a literature review on clinical and neuropathological features of PD patients carrying a pathogenic mutation we propose guidelines for genetic diagnostic testing in clinical practice. However, the absence of disease-modifying therapies and the variable penetrance of most known mutations currently limit the usefulness of genetic diagnostic testing for PD in clinical practice.

  5. Clinical and diagnostic features and treatment of giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Begaydorova, R Kh; Nasakaeva, G E; Tabagari, S I; Iukhnevich, E A; Alshinbekova, G K

    2014-11-01

    Giardia is the most common causes of protozoan diarrhea that lead to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Giardiasis can be cause of disturbance of host immune response. The treatment of Giardiasis is unsuccessful in some cases. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical features and the content of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) among adults and to evaluate efficiency of new plant preparation "Sausalin". The clinical studies were conducted in Karaganda Regional Infection Hospital (Kazakhstan). 250 patients with giardiasis were randomly assigned to receive sausalin at a dose 720 mg/day or ornidazole at 1500 mg/day. Clinical symptoms of giardisis and efficiency of treatment were evaluated. Protozoal clearance rate and clinical symptoms were assessed. Stool samples were collected from 40 patients and examined the content of sIgA. Our study found the prevalence of abdominal pain, dyspeptic syndrome and the symptoms of intoxication in patients with giardiasis. The increase the level of sIgA was detected, especially in females (88 mg/l). Sausalin was more effectiveness than ornidazole. After the treatment, the clearance rate of giardia (85.71% vs. 42.19%; P<0.05) and the clinical efficacy were significantly higher in the sausalin-treated group than in the ornidazole-treated group. The features of clinic manifestations of giardiasis were identified in population of Kazakhstan. Our data suggest the higher level of sIgA was significantly associated with features of clinic manifestations that the participant had. Treatment with sausalin was more effective than treatment with ornidazole. Further research is needed to explain the existence relationship between Giardia infection and host immune response.

  6. Dementia pugilistica with clinical features of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Areza-Fegyveres, Renata; Rosemberg, Sergio; Castro, Rosa Maria R P S; Porto, Claudia Sellitto; Bahia, Valéria Santoro; Caramelli, Paulo; Nitrini, Ricardo

    2007-09-01

    A 61-year-old ex-boxer presented with a three-year history of progressive memory decline. During a seven-year follow-up period, there was a continuous cognitive decline, very similar to that usually observed in Alzheimer's disease. Parkinsonian, pyramidal or cerebellar signs were conspicuously absent. Neuropathological examination revealed the typical features of dementia pugilistica: cavum septi pellucidi with multiple fenestrations, numerous neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral isocortex and hippocampus (and rare senile plaques). Immunohistochemistry disclosed a high number of tau protein deposits and scarce beta-amyloid staining. This case shows that dementia pugilistica may present with clinical features practically undistinguishable from Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Clinical and dermatoscopic features of porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris

    PubMed Central

    Udare, Satish; Hemmady, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    A dermatoscope is an important tool in a dermatologist's armamentarium as it can eliminate the need for a biopsy in a wide array of conditions. Porokeratosis was described by Mibelli and Respighi in 1893, as a disorder of keratinization which on the basis of distribution patterns was described as five clinical variants that portrayed a coronoid lamella on histopathology. We describe a case of asymptomatic, long-standing palmar and plantar pits, which on dermatoscopy showed features suggestive of porokeratosis, which was later reconfirmed by histopathologic sections. This report depicts diagnostic features of porokeratosis and obviates the need for invasive procedures for its diagnosis. PMID:27559506

  8. Improved integrative framework combining association data with gene expression features to prioritize Crohn's disease genes.

    PubMed

    Ning, Kaida; Gettler, Kyle; Zhang, Wei; Ng, Sok Meng; Bowen, B Monica; Hyams, Jeffrey; Stephens, Michael C; Kugathasan, Subra; Denson, Lee A; Schadt, Eric E; Hoffman, Gabriel E; Cho, Judy H

    2015-07-15

    Genome-wide association studies in Crohn's disease (CD) have identified 140 genome-wide significant loci. However, identification of genes driving association signals remains challenging. Furthermore, genome-wide significant thresholds limit false positives at the expense of decreased sensitivity. In this study, we explored gene features contributing to CD pathogenicity, including gene-based association data from CD and autoimmune (AI) diseases, as well as gene expression features (eQTLs, epigenetic markers of expression and intestinal gene expression data). We developed an integrative model based on a CD reference gene set. This integrative approach outperformed gene-based association signals alone in identifying CD-related genes based on statistical validation, gene ontology enrichment, differential expression between M1 and M2 macrophages and a validation using genes causing monogenic forms of inflammatory bowel disease as a reference. Besides gene-level CD association P-values, association with AI diseases was the strongest predictor, highlighting generalized mechanisms of inflammation, and the interferon-γ pathway particularly. Within the 140 high-confidence CD regions, 598 of 1328 genes had low prioritization scores, highlighting genes unlikely to contribute to CD pathogenesis. For select regions, comparably high integrative model scores were observed for multiple genes. This is particularly evident for regions having extensive linkage disequilibrium such as the IBD5 locus. Our analyses provide a standardized reference for prioritizing potential CD-related genes, in regions with both highly significant and nominally significant gene-level association P-values. Our integrative model may be particularly valuable in prioritizing rare, potentially private, missense variants for which genome-wide evidence for association may be unattainable.

  9. Improved integrative framework combining association data with gene expression features to prioritize Crohn's disease genes

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Kaida; Gettler, Kyle; Zhang, Wei; Ng, Sok Meng; Bowen, B. Monica; Hyams, Jeffrey; Stephens, Michael C.; Kugathasan, Subra; Denson, Lee A.; Schadt, Eric E.; Hoffman, Gabriel E.; Cho, Judy H.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies in Crohn's disease (CD) have identified 140 genome-wide significant loci. However, identification of genes driving association signals remains challenging. Furthermore, genome-wide significant thresholds limit false positives at the expense of decreased sensitivity. In this study, we explored gene features contributing to CD pathogenicity, including gene-based association data from CD and autoimmune (AI) diseases, as well as gene expression features (eQTLs, epigenetic markers of expression and intestinal gene expression data). We developed an integrative model based on a CD reference gene set. This integrative approach outperformed gene-based association signals alone in identifying CD-related genes based on statistical validation, gene ontology enrichment, differential expression between M1 and M2 macrophages and a validation using genes causing monogenic forms of inflammatory bowel disease as a reference. Besides gene-level CD association P-values, association with AI diseases was the strongest predictor, highlighting generalized mechanisms of inflammation, and the interferon-γ pathway particularly. Within the 140 high-confidence CD regions, 598 of 1328 genes had low prioritization scores, highlighting genes unlikely to contribute to CD pathogenesis. For select regions, comparably high integrative model scores were observed for multiple genes. This is particularly evident for regions having extensive linkage disequilibrium such as the IBD5 locus. Our analyses provide a standardized reference for prioritizing potential CD-related genes, in regions with both highly significant and nominally significant gene-level association P-values. Our integrative model may be particularly valuable in prioritizing rare, potentially private, missense variants for which genome-wide evidence for association may be unattainable. PMID:25935003

  10. Cryptogenic NORSE: Its distinctive clinical features and response to immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Takahiro; Kanazawa, Naomi; Kaneko, Juntaro; Tominaga, Naomi; Nonoda, Yutaka; Hara, Atsuko; Onozawa, Yuya; Asari, Hiroki; Hata, Takashi; Kaneko, Junya; Yoshida, Kenji; Sugiura, Yoshihiro; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Masashi; Tomita, Hitomi; Kosakai, Arifumi; Kaneko, Atsushi; Ishima, Daisuke; Kitamura, Eiji; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi

    2017-11-01

    To report the distinctive clinical features of cryptogenic new-onset refractory status epilepticus (C-NORSE) and the C-NORSE score based on initial clinical assessments. A retrospective study was conducted for 136 patients with clinically suspected autoimmune encephalitis who underwent testing for autoantibodies to neuronal surface antigens between January 1, 2007, and August 31, 2016. Eleven patients with C-NORSE were identified. Their clinical features were compared with those of 32 patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis (NMDARE). The clinical outcome of 11 patients (median age, 27 years; 7 [64%] women) with C-NORSE was evaluated after a median follow-up of 11 months (range, 6-111 months). Status epilepticus was frequently preceded by fever (10/11 [91%]). Brain MRIs showed symmetric T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensities (8/11 [73%]) and brain atrophy (9/11 [82%]). Only 2 of the 10 treated patients responded to the first-line immunotherapy, and 4 of the 5 patients treated with IV cyclophosphamide responded to the therapy. The long-term outcome was poor in 8 patients (73%). Compared with 32 patients with NMDARE (median age, 27 years; 24 [75%] women), those with C-NORSE had more frequent prodromal fever, status epilepticus, ventilatory support, and symmetric brain MRI abnormalities, had less frequent involuntary movements, absent psychobehavioral symptoms, CSF oligoclonal bands, or tumor association, and had a worse outcome. The C-NORSE score was higher in patients with C-NORSE than those with NMDARE. Patients with C-NORSE have a spectrum of clinical-immunological features different from those with NMDARE. The C-NORSE score may be useful for discrimination between them. Some patients could respond to immunotherapy.

  11. Clinical and Virological Features of Dengue in Vietnamese Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bich Chau, Tran Nguyen; Anders, Katherine L.; Lien, Le Bich; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Minh Hieu, Lu Thi; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Thuy, Tran Thi; Phuong, Le Thi; Hong Tham, Nguyen Thi; Lanh, Mai Ngoc; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Whitehead, Stephen S.; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Infants account for a small proportion of the overall dengue case burden in endemic countries but can be clinically more difficult to manage. The clinical and laboratory features in infants with dengue have not been extensively characterised. Methodology/Principal Findings This prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study of infants hospitalized with dengue was conducted in Vietnam from November 2004 to December 2007. More than two-thirds of 303 infants enrolled on clinical suspicion of dengue had a serologically confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infection. Almost all were primary dengue infections and 80% of the infants developed DHF/DSS. At the time of presentation and during hospitalization, the clinical signs and symptoms in infants with dengue were difficult to distinguish from those with other febrile illnesses, suggesting that in infants early laboratory confirmation could assist appropriate management. Detection of plasma NS1 antigen was found to be a sensitive marker of acute dengue in infants with primary infection, especially in the first few days of illness. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, these results provide a systematic description of the clinical features of dengue in infants and highlight the value of NS1 detection for diagnosis. PMID:20405057

  12. [Clinical features and comorbidities of Asperger syndrome in children].

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao-Yan; Xie, Xiao-Tian; Mei, Zhu; Cheng, Wen-Hong

    2013-09-01

    To investigate and summarize the clinical features and comorbidities of Asperger syndrome (AS) in children and to provide a theoretical basis for improving the understanding and diagnosis of AS. Inquiry of medical history, physical examination, behavioral observation, psychiatric examination, questionnaire survey, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale were used to summarize and analyse the clinical data of 95 children with AS, including chief complaint, symptoms, perinatal and familial conditions, family genetic history, and common comorbidities. AS was more common in male children, with hyperactivity, inattention, and social withdrawal as frequent chief complaints. The main clinical manifestations included poor communication skills (95%), restricted interest (82%), repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior (77%), semantic comprehension deficit (74%), and indiscipline (68%). Verbal IQ was higher than performance IQ in most patients. The comorbidities of AS included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (39%), emotional disorder (18%), and schizophrenia (2%); emotional disorder was more common in patients aged 13-16 years, while ADHD was more common in patients aged 7-16 years. Among these patients, 61% had fathers with introverted personality, 43% had mothers with introverted personality, and 19% had a family history of mental illness. AS has specific clinical manifestations. It is essential to know more about the clinical features and comorbidities of AS, which is helpful for early identification and diagnosis of AS.

  13. Confetti-like Sparing: A Diagnostic Clinical Feature of Melasma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Douglas C; Fitzpatrick, Richard E; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2016-02-01

    Diagnostic uncertainty when a patient presents with melasma-like Undings can lead to suboptimal treatment and inaccurate prognostic expectations. In this study, the authors present a unique clinical feature of melasma that they term the "Fitzpatrick macule" and test its Utility in establishing diagnostic certainty. The "Fitzpatrick macule" is a confetti-like macule of regularly pigmented skin located within a larger patch of melasma hyperpigmentation. To test its diagnostic Utility, the authors compared clinical photography of known cases of melasma with common mimickers, such as poikiloderma of Civatte and solar lentiginosis, and determined the positivity rate of the Fitzpatrick macule in each scenario. Their results show that 89.1 percent of clinical photographs of melasma were positive for the presence of Fitzpatrick macules compared to 1.1 percent that were negative. In contrast, 37.5 and 56.3 percent of clinical photographs of poikiloderma of Civatte were positive and negative for Fitzpatrick macules, respectively. Solar lentiginosis showed a 5.6 percent positivity and a 77.8 percent negativity for Fitzpatrick macules. The sensitivity and specificity of Fitzpatrick macules for melasma was 99 and 83 percent, respectively. In summary, the authors report a highly sensitive and specific clinical feature of melasma. In cases of diagnostic uncertainty, the presence of Fitzpatrick macules may aid in establishing a diagnosis of melasma.

  14. Clinical features of trisomy 12 mosaicism-Report and review.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bo; Zunich, Janice; Openshaw, Amanda; M Toydemir, Reha

    2017-03-27

    Trisomy 12 mosaicism is a rare condition. Herein, we report a patient with mosaic trisomy 12 who was conceived by in vitro fertilization. She presented with mild dysmorphic features at birth, including down-slanting palpebral fissures, a depressed and creased nasal bridge, and mild rhizomelic shortening of the limbs. She had age-appropriate development at 6 months of age, but displayed slightly more dysmorphic features than at birth. Chromosome analysis on peripheral blood revealed a normal female karyotype in 50 metaphases. A concurrent genomic microarray analysis showed trisomy 12 in about 25% of the specimen, which was also confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with the CEP12 probe. Our findings further delineate the clinical features in trisomy 12 mosaicism in liveborns and demonstrate the utility of genomic microarray analysis in identification of mosaic aneuploidies.

  15. Acute hepatitis E presenting with clinical feature of autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ishan; Companioni, Rafael Ching; Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Catalano, Carmine; Aron, Joshua; Walfish, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    A 32-year-old immigrant man presented with new onset jaundice. His past medical history was significant for type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. His initial laboratory finding and liver biopsy were suggestive of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The plan was to start steroids pending negative results for viral serology, but it came back positive for hepatitis E virus. The patient's liver function test and clinical condition improved significantly on conservative management over a period of 1 month. Therefore, we suggest testing for hepatitis E especially in immigrants or recent travelers to endemic areas who presents with clinical features suggestive of AIH. PMID:27987286

  16. Psoriasis: epidemiology, clinical features, and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Langley, R; Krueger, G; Griffiths, C

    2005-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic, recurrent, immune mediated disease of the skin and joints. It can have a significant negative impact on the physical, emotional, and, psychosocial wellbeing of affected patients. Psoriasis is found worldwide but the prevalence varies among different ethnic groups. It has a strong genetic component but environmental factors such as infections can play an important role in the presentation of disease. There are several clinical cutaneous manifestations of psoriasis but most commonly the disease presents as chronic, symmetrical, erythematous, scaling papules and plaques. The epidemiology, clinical features, and impact on quality of life of psoriasis are reviewed. PMID:15708928

  17. [Clinical, hormonal and histological features in ovarian stromal hyperthecosis].

    PubMed

    Abuladze, M V; Sharabidze, N G

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate clinical, hormonal and histological features of ovarian stromal hyperthecosis We have studied 104 patients with a histological diagnosis of ovarian stromal hyperthecosis and hyperplasia. Analyzing the results we can conclude that clinical features of ovarian stromal hyperthecosis and hyperplasia with polycystic ovarian disease and without it were identical and characterised by virilization syndrome, disorders of menstrual cycle and reproductive function; metabolic and vegeto-vascular disorders; breast and endometrial hyperplasias, high blood level of testosterone . The histological study of ovarian stromal hyperthecosis has showed that superficial part of ovarian cortex is hypocellular and fibrotic, contains scattered follicles with few granulosa cells, luteinized internal theca cells, hyperplasia of deep cortex and medulla, corpus luteus is absent.

  18. Clinical applications of retinal gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Lipinski, Daniel M; Thake, Miriam; MacLaren, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Many currently incurable forms of blindness affecting the retina have a genetic etiology and several others, such as those resulting from retinal vascular disturbances, respond to repeated, potentially indefinite administration of molecular based treatments. The recent clinical advances in retinal gene therapy have shown that viral vectors can deliver genes safely to the retina and the promising initial results from a number of clinical trials suggest that certain diseases may potentially be treatable. Gene therapy provides a means of expressing proteins within directly transduced cells with far greater efficacy than might be achieved by traditional systemic pharmacological approaches. Recent developments have demonstrated how vector gene expression may be regulated and further improvements to vector design have limited side effects and improved safety profiles. These recent steps have been most significant in bringing gene therapy into the mainstream of ophthalmology. Nevertheless translating retinal gene therapy from animal research into clinical trials is still a lengthy process, including complexities in human retinal diseases that have been difficult to model in the laboratory. The focus of this review is to summarize the genetic background of the most common retinal diseases, highlight current concepts of gene delivery technology, and relate those technologies to pre-clinical and clinical gene therapy studies.

  19. Clinical and Laboratory Features Distinguishing Juvenile Polymyositis and Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    MAMYROVA, GULNARA; KATZ, JAMES D.; JONES, ROBERT V.; TARGOFF, IRA N.; LACHENBRUCH, PETER A.; JONES, OLCAY Y.; MILLER, FREDERICK W.; RIDER, LISA G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To differentiate juvenile polymyositis (PM) and muscular dystrophy, both of which may present with chronic muscle weakness and inflammation. Methods We studied 39 patients with probable or definite juvenile PM and 9 patients with muscular dystrophies who were initially misdiagnosed as having juvenile PM. Differences in demographic, clinical, and laboratory results; outcomes; and treatment responses were evaluated by Fisher’s exact and rank sum tests. Random forests classification analysis and logistic regression were performed to examine significant differences in multivariable models. Results Clinical features and serum muscle enzyme levels were similar between juvenile PM and dystrophy patients, except 89% of dystrophy patients had muscle atrophy compared with 46% of juvenile PM patients. Dystrophy patients had a longer delay to diagnosis (median 12 versus 4 months) and were less frequently hospitalized than juvenile PM patients (22% versus 74%). No dystrophy patients, but 54% of juvenile PM patients, had a myositis autoantibody. Dystrophy patients more frequently had myopathic features on muscle biopsy, including diffuse variation of myofiber size, fiber hypertrophy, and myofiber fibrosis (44–100% versus 8–53%). Juvenile PM patients more frequently had complex repetitive discharges on electromyography and a complete response to treatment with prednisone or other immunosuppressive agents than dystrophy patients (44% versus 0%). Random forests analysis revealed that the most important features in distinguishing juvenile PM from dystrophies were myositis autoantibodies, clinical muscle atrophy, and myofiber size variation on biopsy. Logistic regression confirmed muscle atrophy, myofiber fibrosis, and hospitalization as significant predictors. Conclusion Muscular dystrophy can present similarly to juvenile PM. Selected clinical and laboratory features are helpful in combination in distinguishing these conditions. PMID:23925923

  20. Pineal cyst: a review of clinical and radiological features.

    PubMed

    Choy, Winward; Kim, Won; Spasic, Marko; Voth, Brittany; Yew, Andrew; Yang, Isaac

    2011-07-01

    Pineal cysts (PCs) are benign and often asymptomatic lesions of the pineal region that are typically small and do not change in size over time. PCs appear as small, well circumscribed, unilocular masses that either reside within or completely replace the pineal gland. This article reviews and discusses the characteristic features of PCs-clinical, histological, and identifiable by various imaging modalities-which assist clinicians in narrowing the differential diagnosis for pineal lesions.

  1. [Clinical features of NMO according to brain MRI findings].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuko

    2010-09-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory, demyelinating disease, and its clinical characteristics include recurrent optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. The NMO-immunoglobulin (Ig) G auto-antibody (Ab), which binds to the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel protein, is a marker for NMO. These clinical and immunological features have been used to distinguish NMO from multiple sclerosis (MS). In 1999, Wingerchuk et al. broadened the clinical criteria for diagnosing NMO to include "negative brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at onset." However, after NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab became a supportive criterion for diagnosing NMO, patients with NMO were frequently found to have symptomatic or asymptomatic brain lesions. In 2006, Pittock et al. reported that asymptomatic brain lesions were common in NMO, and that NMO brain lesions characteristically occurred in the hypothalamus and periventricular areas, which correspond to brain regions with high levels of AQP4 expression. Furthermore, Nakashima et al. detected abnormalities on brain MRI in 71% of NMO-IgG-positive Japanese patients. Patients with NMO have unique brain lesions that are clearly different from the lesions of patients with MS. In patients with NMO, involvement of the dorsal portion of the medulla oblongata causes intractable hiccups and nausea. Some studies described a hypothalamic lesion, and hypothalamic dysfunction could cause symptomatic hypersomnia, narcolepsy, and endocrinopathies. In some patients with NMO and NMO spectrum disorder who experience blood pressure fluctuations, vasogenic edema, manifesting as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, may occur. In a recent report highlighting brain MRI with contrast enhancement, the most prominent feature that appeared to be a specific finding in NMO was "cloud-like enhancement" with multiple patchy enhancing lesions with a blurred margin. Another report showed that acute, large, edematous callosal lesions with

  2. Systemic lupus erythematosus in Asturias, Spain: clinical and serologic features.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Jesús; Suárez, Ana; López, Patricia; Mozo, Lourdes; Díaz, José Bernardino; Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2006-05-01

    Asturias is an autonomous region in the north of Spain with historical and anthropologic peculiarities. In the current report, we examine the main clinical and immunologic features of 363 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), virtually the entire population of SLE patients in Asturias. We constructed a database with the clinical and immunologic features of all patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology criteria, based on the review of hospital records corresponding to blood samples received for antinuclear antibodies testing since 1992. Arthritis was the most frequently observed main clinical feature and neuropathy was the rarest. Male patients had a disease more frequently characterized by serositis (p<0.05) and neurologic disorder (p<0.01) than females, while children presented malar rash (p<0.05), fever (p<0.05), and kidney involvement (p<0.01) more often than adults. Late-onset patients were characterized by lower frequencies of malar rash (p<0.01), neurologic disorder (p<0.05), alopecia (p<0.01), and lymphadenopathy (p<0.05) than young adults. Numerous direct and inverse significant associations were found among clinical and immunologic features. The most relevant significant associations were neurologic disorder with lupus anticoagulant (p<0.01); kidney involvement with serositis (p<0.01) and DNA antibodies (p<0.05); and thrombosis with DNA antibodies (p<0.05), cardiolipin antibodies (p<0.01), and lupus anticoagulant (p<0.01). A low mortality was found in our series, although kidney involvement (p<0.05) and cardiolipin antibodies (p<0.05) are factors associated with poor survival.

  3. Clinical features of 405 Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Endo, Hirahito; Kondo, Hirobumi; Hirohata, Shunsei

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to clarify the clinical features of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), especially with reference to organ involvement and autoantibodies. A cohort of 405 patients with SSc who attended our institution from 1973 to 2008 was identified retrospectively. Data on clinical features, including autoantibodies, organ involvement, and overlap of other connective tissue diseases, were obtained by following the medical records until 2009. The percentage of male patients during or after 1990 was greater than that before 1990 (3.9 vs. 10.6%, respectively). Limited cutaneous SSc (lSSc) was twice as frequent as diffuse cutaneous SSc (dSSc). About half of the patients had lung involvement (50.4%), while only 3.2% had scleroderma renal crisis. Male gender was associated with lung involvement, and dSSc was associated with most organ involvements except for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Anti-Scl-70 antibody was associated with lung or heart involvement, while anti-U1-RNP antibody was only associated with PAH. Conversely, patients with anti-centromere antibody had less organ involvement. SSc-Sjögren overlap syndrome was related to lSSc, further overlapping systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and less lung or heart involvement. In conclusion, these results not only confirmed previous reports but revealed several other findings, such as the increased proportion of male patients in recent years and the relationships between clinical features.

  4. Clinical and Echographic Features of Retinochoroidal and Optic Nerve Colobomas

    PubMed Central

    Venincasa, Vincent D.; Modi, Yasha S.; Aziz, Hassan A.; Ayres, Bernadette; Zehetner, Claus; Shi, Wei; Murray, Timothy G.; Flynn, Harry W.; Berrocal, Audina M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We reported the clinical and echographic features of colobomas, prevalence of retinal detachment, and associated visual acuity in these patients Methods. The study is a nonrandomized consecutive case series of 140 colobomatous eyes in 98 patients (age range, 0–83 years). Coloboma depth, width, volume, and relative coloboma excavation (coloboma depth/axial length) were measured using standardized echographic images. The presence of structural and other ocular abnormalities was noted. The clinical and echographic findings present were correlated with visual acuity of the patient. In addition, these features were correlated with the presence or absence of retinal detachment. Results. Increased relative coloboma excavation was significantly associated with an increased risk of retinal detachment. A relative coloboma excavation (ratio of coloboma depth to axial length) greater than 0.15 was associated with an increased risk of retinal detachment (52%), compared to those with a relative coloboma excavation less than 0.15 (23%, P = 0.014). The presence of any structural abnormality and the presence of a retrobulbar cyst were associated with increased risk of retinal detachment and severe visual impairment (worse than 20/200). Increased coloboma depth, width, volume, and relative coloboma excavation were not associated with increased risk of severe visual impairment. Conclusions. Clinical and echographic features of colobomas may be used in predicting the risk of retinal detachment. Measuring relative coloboma excavation upon presentation may alter follow-up and assist in the diagnosis of retinal detachment. PMID:26047048

  5. Clinical features associated with ictal osmophobia in migraine.

    PubMed

    Baldacci, Filippo; Lucchesi, Cinzia; Ulivi, Martina; Cafalli, Martina; Vedovello, Marcella; Vergallo, Andrea; Prete, Eleonora Del; Nuti, Angelo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Gori, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory hypersensitivity may occur during migraine attacks and has been found to be very specific for this form of headache. Aim of this study was to investigate if migraineurs with ictal osmophobia have particular clinical features comparing to patients without ictal osmophobia. We recruited 200 consecutive migraineurs. Other primary headaches comorbidity and migraine prophylaxis were exclusion criteria. Each patient was interviewed following a structured questionnaire including general features about migraine, depression and anxiety symptoms. Migraine triggers both spontaneously and selecting from a specific list. Allodynia during the migraine attack was measured using the Allodynia symptoms check-list 12 (ASC-12). Eighty four (42 %) patients are non-osmophobic vs. 116 patients (58 %) who are osmophobic. After a logistic regression analysis, pain intensity (OR 1.391; p = 0.008) and anxiety (OR 1.099; p = 0.047) were significantly higher while aura (OR 0.421; p = 0.028) is less frequent in osmophobic migraineurs. We found significant differences in clinical features of osmophobic patients in respect to non-osmophobic ones. Ictal osmophobia seems being related to a broader sensorial hypersensitivity that could lead to a more florid clinical presentation.

  6. Progress and prospects: hurdles to cardiovascular gene therapy clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hedman, M; Hartikainen, J; Ylä-Herttuala, S

    2011-08-01

    Several gene therapy approaches have been designed for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. A positive finding is that the safety of cardiovascular gene therapy has been excellent even in long-term follow-up. However, several hurdles to this field are still present. A major disappointing feature of the trials is that while preclinical and uncontrolled phase-I gene therapy trials have been positive, none of the randomized controlled phase-II/III cardiovascular gene therapy trials have shown clinically relevant positive effects. Low gene transfer efficiency seems to be associated with several trials. A sophisticated efficient delivery method for cardiovascular applications is still lacking and only low concentrations of the gene product are produced in the target tissues. Only a few gene therapy vectors can be produced in large scale. In addition, inflammatory reactions against vectors and inability to regulate gene expression are still present. Furthermore, a strong placebo effect is affecting the results in gene therapy trials, and long-term trials have become more difficult to conduct because of the multiplicity of therapies applied simultaneously on the patients. This review summarizes advances and obstacles of current cardiovascular clinical gene therapy trials.

  7. Systems Medicine: from molecular features and models to the clinic in COPD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and hypothesis Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients are characterized by heterogeneous clinical manifestations and patterns of disease progression. Two major factors that can be used to identify COPD subtypes are muscle dysfunction/wasting and co-morbidity patterns. We hypothesized that COPD heterogeneity is in part the result of complex interactions between several genes and pathways. We explored the possibility of using a Systems Medicine approach to identify such pathways, as well as to generate predictive computational models that may be used in clinic practice. Objective and method Our overarching goal is to generate clinically applicable predictive models that characterize COPD heterogeneity through a Systems Medicine approach. To this end we have developed a general framework, consisting of three steps/objectives: (1) feature identification, (2) model generation and statistical validation, and (3) application and validation of the predictive models in the clinical scenario. We used muscle dysfunction and co-morbidity as test cases for this framework. Results In the study of muscle wasting we identified relevant features (genes) by a network analysis and generated predictive models that integrate mechanistic and probabilistic models. This allowed us to characterize muscle wasting as a general de-regulation of pathway interactions. In the co-morbidity analysis we identified relevant features (genes/pathways) by the integration of gene-disease and disease-disease associations. We further present a detailed characterization of co-morbidities in COPD patients that was implemented into a predictive model. In both use cases we were able to achieve predictive modeling but we also identified several key challenges, the most pressing being the validation and implementation into actual clinical practice. Conclusions The results confirm the potential of the Systems Medicine approach to study complex diseases and generate clinically relevant

  8. Gene therapy for human osteoarthritis: principles and clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Madry, Henning; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent chronic joint disease. Its key feature is a progressive articular cartilage loss. Gene therapy for OA aims at delivering gene-based therapeutic agents to the osteoarthritic cartilage, resulting in a controlled, site-specific, long-term presence to rebuild the damaged cartilage. An overview is provided of the principles of gene therapy for OA based on a PubMed literature search. Gene transfer to normal and osteoarthritic cartilage in vitro and in animal models in vivo is reviewed. Results from recent clinical gene therapy trials for OA are discussed and placed into perspective. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors enable to directly transfer candidate sequences in human articular chondrocytes in situ, providing a potent tool to modulate the structure of osteoarthritic cartilage. However, few preclinical animal studies in OA models have been performed thus far. Noteworthy, several gene therapy clinical trials have been carried out in patients with end-stage knee OA based on the intraarticular injection of human juvenile allogeneic chondrocytes overexpressing a cDNA encoding transforming growth factor-beta-1 via retroviral vectors. In a recent placebo-controlled randomized trial, clinical scores were improved compared with placebo. These translational results provide sufficient reason to proceed with further clinical testing of gene transfer protocols for the treatment of OA.

  9. Clinical features of early onset, familial Alzheimer`s disease linked to chromosome 14

    SciTech Connect

    Mullan, M.; Bennett, C.; Figueredo, C.; Crawford, F.

    1995-02-27

    Early onset familial Alzheimer`s disease (AD) has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Two genes are responsible for the majority of cases of this subtype of AD. Mutations in the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein ({beta}APP) gene on chromosome 21 have been shown to completely cosegregate with the disease. We and others have previously described the clinical features of families with {beta}APP mutations at the codon 717 locus in an attempt to define the phenotype associated with a valine to isoleucine (Val {r_arrow} Ile) or a valine to glycine (Val {r_arrow} Gly) change. More recently, a second locus for very early onset disease has been localized to chromosome 14. The results of linkage studies in some families suggesting linkage to both chromosomes have been explained by the suggestion of a second (centromeric) locus on chromosome 21. Here we report the clinical features and genetic analysis of a British pedigree (F74) with early onset AD in which neither the {beta}APP locus nor any other chromosome 21 locus segregates with the disease, but in which good evidence is seen for linkage on the long arm of chromosome 14. In particular we report marker data suggesting that the chromosome 14 disease locus is close to D14S43 and D14S77. Given the likelihood that F74 represents a chromosome 14 linked family, we describe the clinical features and make a limited clinical comparison with the {beta}APP717 Val {r_arrow} Ile and {beta}APP717 Val {r_arrow} Gly encoded families that have been previously described. We conclude that although several previously reported clinical features occur to excess in early onset familial AD, no single clinical feature demarcates either the chromosome 14 or {beta}APP codon 717 mutated families except mean age of onset. 52 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Clinical features of drug abuse that reflect genetic risk

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Ohlsson, H.; Sundquist, K.; Sundquist, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug abuse (DA) is a clinically heterogeneous syndrome. Can we, in a large epidemiological sample, identify clinical features of DA cases that index genetic risk? Method Using registration in medical, legal or pharmacy records, we identified four kinds of relative pairs (n =935854) starting with a proband with DA: monozygotic co-twins; full siblings; half-siblings; and cousins. Using linear hazard regression, we examined the interaction between three clinical features of DA in the proband and risk for DA in these four relative pairs, ordered by degree of genetic relationship. Results Increased risk for DA in relatives was robustly predicted by early age at first registration, total number of registrations, and ascertainment in the criminal versus the medical or pharmacy registry. In multivariate models, all three of these variables remained significant and in aggregate strongly predicted DA risk in relatives. The risk for DA in siblings of DA probands in the highest decile of genetic risk predicted by our three indices was more than twice as great as that predicted in siblings of probands in the lowest decile of risk. Conclusions In an epidemiological sample, genetic risk for DA can be substantially indexed by simple clinical and historical variables. PMID:24461082

  11. Prevalence and Clinical Features of Atopic Dermatitis in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Da-yu; Shen, Yi-wei

    2016-01-01

    Background. The epidemiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Chinese outpatients is yet to be clarified. Objectives. To investigate population-based prevalence and clinical features of AD in Chinese outpatients. Methods. A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in outpatients with eczema or dermatitis from 39 tertiary hospitals in 15 provinces. Results. This study included 682 patients diagnosed with AD, with the mean age of 28.8 ± 20.1 years and the median course of 5.3 ± 6.9 years. AD patients had more severe itching (30.4% versus 13.8%, p < 0.001) and clinically suspected bacterial infection (21.7% versus 16.1%, p < 0.001) than those of other types of dermatitis. Older patients were more susceptible to have a history of flexion dermatitis (p < 0.001), bacterial infection (p = 0.005), and severe itching (p < 0.001). Outpatients with clinically suspected bacterial infection had 3.53-fold increased risk of AD than those without it (p < 0.001). The morbidity rate of AD in the (20–25°N) region is 2.86 times higher than that in the (40–45°N) region [OR (95% CI): 0.352 (0.241–0.514), p < 0.001]. Conclusions. AD is characterized by unique clinical/demographic features. Bacterial infection and latitude region may have an impact on the incidence of AD in China. PMID:27957490

  12. Clinical and pathological features of patients with nemaline myopathy.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xi; Pu, Chuan Qiang; Wang, Qian; Liu, Jie Xiao; Mao, Yan Ling

    2014-07-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a rare congenital myopathy of great heterogeneity, characterized by the presence of rods in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers. This study aimed to summarize and analyze retrospectively the clinicopathological features of 28 patients with NM. Among the 28 patients, 15 were classified as of the typical congenital type, manifested as lower- or four-limb weakness as the first symptom and slowly progressive course. Six patients were classified as of childhood onset type, with lower-limb weakness and progressive course. Seven patients were classified as of the adult onset type, with rapidly progressive course and obvious muscle atrophy. Patient's 1, 16 and 23 had rapid clinical progression. On follow up, the three patients showed respiratory failure. Limb weakness in all patients was proximal‑dominant. Hypotonia was observed in most patients. High arched feet were also observed as dysmorfic features. In all patients, the creatine kinase (CK) level was normal or mildly elevated, and electromyography revealed myogenic changes. Nemaline bodies were observed under a light microscope in more than half of the patients' muscle fibers, and especially in type I fibers. All patients showed fiber type I predominance and atrophy. Modified Gömöri trichrome staining showed characteristic purple‑colored rods. Muscle electron microscopy revealed the presence of high electron‑dense nemaline bodies around the nucleus, and of a disorganized myofibrillar apparatus, with broken myofilaments and irregular myofibrils and Z lines. The 28 patients with NM shared a number of clinical features, such as proximal limb weakness, reduced deep tendon reflex and dysmorfic features. Differences were also observed between the three types of patients, with regards to course progression, disease severity and respiratory failure. In conclusion, patients with NM showed great clinical heterogeneity. The diagnosis of NM was mainly based on the muscle biopsy.

  13. Clinicopathologic Features and Clinical Outcomes of Esophageal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Fan; Tian, Yangzi; Liu, Zhen; Xu, Guanghui; Liu, Shushang; Guo, Man; Lian, Xiao; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in esophagus are limited, because of the relatively rare incidence of esophageal GISTs. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes of esophageal GISTs, and to investigate the potential factors that may predict prognosis. Esophageal GIST cases were obtained from our center and from case reports and clinical studies extracted from MEDLINE. Clinicopathologic features and survivals were analyzed and compared with gastric GISTs from our center. The most common location was lower esophagus (86.84%), followed by middle and upper esophagus (11.40% and 1.76%). The majority of esophageal GISTs were classified as high-risk category (70.83%). Mitotic index was correlated with histologic type, mutational status, and tumor size. The 5-year disease-free survival and disease-specific survival were 65.1% and 65.9%, respectively. Tumor size, mitotic index, and National Institutes of Health risk classification were associated with prognosis of esophageal GISTs. Only tumor size, however, was the independent risk factor for the prognosis of esophageal GISTs. In comparison to gastric GISTs, the distribution of tumor size, histologic type, and National Institutes of Health risk classification were significantly different between esophageal GISTs and gastric GISTs. The disease-free survival and disease-specific survival of esophageal GISTs were significantly lower than that of gastric GISTs. The most common location for esophageal GISTs was lower esophagus, and most of the esophageal GISTs are high-risk category. Tumor size was the independent risk factor for the prognosis of esophageal GISTs. Esophageal GISTs differ significantly from gastric GISTs in respect to clinicopathologic features. The prognosis of esophageal GISTs was worse than that of gastric GISTs. PMID:26765432

  14. Association of multiparametric MRI quantitative imaging features with prostate cancer gene expression in MRI-targeted prostate biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanova, Radka; Pollack, Alan; Takhar, Mandeep; Lynne, Charles; Parra, Nestor; Lam, Lucia L.C.; Alshalalfa, Mohammed; Buerki, Christine; Castillo, Rosa; Jorda, Merce; Ashab, Hussam Al-deen; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Punnen, Sanoj; Parekh, Dipen J.; Abramowitz, Matthew C.; Gillies, Robert J.; Davicioni, Elai; Erho, Nicholas; Ishkanian, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Standard clinicopathological variables are inadequate for optimal management of prostate cancer patients. While genomic classifiers have improved patient risk classification, the multifocality and heterogeneity of prostate cancer can confound pre-treatment assessment. The objective was to investigate the association of multiparametric (mp)MRI quantitative features with prostate cancer risk gene expression profiles in mpMRI-guided biopsies tissues. Global gene expression profiles were generated from 17 mpMRI-directed diagnostic prostate biopsies using an Affimetrix platform. Spatially distinct imaging areas (‘habitats’) were identified on MRI/3D-Ultrasound fusion. Radiomic features were extracted from biopsy regions and normal appearing tissues. We correlated 49 radiomic features with three clinically available gene signatures associated with adverse outcome. The signatures contain genes that are over-expressed in aggressive prostate cancers and genes that are under-expressed in aggressive prostate cancers. There were significant correlations between these genes and quantitative imaging features, indicating the presence of prostate cancer prognostic signal in the radiomic features. Strong associations were also found between the radiomic features and significantly expressed genes. Gene ontology analysis identified specific radiomic features associated with immune/inflammatory response, metabolism, cell and biological adhesion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate radiogenomic parameters with prostate cancer in men with MRI-guided biopsy. PMID:27438142

  15. Clinical features and course of ocular toxocariasis in adults.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seong Joon; Woo, Se Joon; Jin, Yan; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Tae Wan; Ahn, Jeeyun; Heo, Jang Won; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Chung, Hum; Park, Kyu Hyung; Hong, Sung Tae

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the clinical features, clinical course of granuloma, serologic findings, treatment outcome, and probable infection sources in adult patients with ocular toxocariasis (OT). In this retrospective cohort study, we examined 101 adult patients diagnosed clinically and serologically with OT. Serial fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography images of all the patients were reviewed. A clinic-based case-control study on pet ownership, occupation, and raw meat ingestion history was performed to investigate the possible infection sources. Among the patients diagnosed clinically and serologically with OT, 69.6% showed elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Granuloma in OT involved all retinal layers and several vitreoretinal comorbidities were noted depending on the location of granuloma: posterior pole granuloma was associated with epiretinal membrane and retinal nerve fiber layer defects, whereas peripheral granuloma was associated with vitreous opacity. Intraocular migration of granuloma was observed in 15 of 93 patients (16.1%). Treatment with albendazole (400 mg twice a day for 2 weeks) and corticosteroids (oral prednisolone; 0.5-1 mg/kg/day) resulted in comparable outcomes to patients on corticosteroid monotherapy; however, the 6-month recurrence rate in patients treated with combined therapy (17.4%) was significantly lower than that in patients treated with corticosteroid monotherapy (54.5%, P=0.045). Ingestion of raw cow liver (80.8%) or meat (71.2%) was significantly more common in OT patients than healthy controls. Our study discusses the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies for OT. Evaluation of total IgE, in addition to anti-toxocara antibody, can assist in the serologic diagnosis of OT. Combined albendazole and corticosteroid therapy may reduce intraocular inflammation and recurrence. Migrating feature of granuloma is clinically important and may further suggest the diagnosis of OT. Clinicians need to carefully

  16. Mutations in epilepsy and intellectual disability genes in patients with features of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Olson, Heather E; Tambunan, Dimira; LaCoursiere, Christopher; Goldenberg, Marti; Pinsky, Rebecca; Martin, Emilie; Ho, Eugenia; Khwaja, Omar; Kaufmann, Walter E; Poduri, Annapurna

    2015-09-01

    Rett syndrome and neurodevelopmental disorders with features overlapping this syndrome frequently remain unexplained in patients without clinically identified MECP2 mutations. We recruited a cohort of 11 patients with features of Rett syndrome and negative initial clinical testing for mutations in MECP2. We analyzed their phenotypes to determine whether patients met formal criteria for Rett syndrome, reviewed repeat clinical genetic testing, and performed exome sequencing of the probands. Using 2010 diagnostic criteria, three patients had classical Rett syndrome, including two for whom repeat MECP2 gene testing had identified mutations. In a patient with neonatal onset epilepsy with atypical Rett syndrome, we identified a frameshift deletion in STXBP1. Among seven patients with features of Rett syndrome not fulfilling formal diagnostic criteria, four had suspected pathogenic mutations, one each in MECP2, FOXG1, SCN8A, and IQSEC2. MECP2 mutations are highly correlated with classical Rett syndrome. Genes associated with atypical Rett syndrome, epilepsy, or intellectual disability should be considered in patients with features overlapping with Rett syndrome and negative MECP2 testing. While most of the identified mutations were apparently de novo, the SCN8A variant was inherited from an unaffected parent mosaic for the mutation, which is important to note for counseling regarding recurrence risks.

  17. Clinical features of avian vacuolar myelinopathy in American coots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, R.S.; Nutter, F.B.; Augspurger, T.; Rocke, T.E.; Tomlinson, L.; Thomas, N.J.; Stoskopf, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    Objectivea??To characterize clinical features of avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) in American coots. Designa??Case-control study. Animalsa??26 AVM-affected American coots and 12 unaffected coots. Proceduresa??Complete physical, neurologic, hematologic, and plasma biochemical evaluations were performed. Affected coots received supportive care. All coots died or were euthanatized, and AVM status was confirmed via histopathologic findings. Resultsa??3 severely affected coots were euthanatized immediately after examination. Seventeen affected coots were found dead within 7 days of admission, but 5 affected coots survived > 21 days and had signs of clinical recovery. Abnormal physical examination findings appeared to be related to general debilitation. Ataxia (88%), decreased withdrawal reflexes (88%), proprioceptive deficits (81%), decreased vent responses (69%), beak or tongue weakness (42%), and head tremors (31%), as well as absent pupillary light responses (46%), anisocoria (15%), apparent blindness (4%), nystagmus (4%), and strabismus (4%) were detected. Few gross abnormalities were detected at necropsy, but histologically, all AVM-affected coots had severe vacuolation of white matter of the brain. None of the control coots had vacuolation. Conclusions and Clinical Relevancea??Although there was considerable variability in form and severity of clinical neurologic abnormalities, clinical signs common in AVM-affected birds were identified. Clinical recovery of some AVM-affected coots can occur when supportive care is administered. Until the etiology is identified, caution should be exercised when rehabilitating and releasing coots thought to be affected by AVM.

  18. [The clinical-radiologic-pathologic features of imported pulmonary histoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Gong, Pihua; Cao, Zhaolong; Mu, Xinlin; Dong, Xiaosong; Wang, Keqiang; Feng, Rui'e; Sun, Kunkun; Wang, Hui; Gao, Zhancheng

    2015-01-01

    To describe the clinical features and treatment of imported pulmonary histoplasmosis and therefore to improve the recognition and differential diagnosis of this disease. The clinical data of 3 patients with imported pulmonary histoplasmosis in our hospital were collected and analyzed. Literatures published since 1989 were retrieved with 'pulmonary histoplasmosis' from PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data and VIP data, of which all the literatures about imported pulmonary histoplasmosis were reviewed. The clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods and treatment were summarized. All the 3 cases of imported pulmonary histoplasmosis were immunocompetent hosts, all were males, age were from 44-67 years, and had a history of exploring the cave or tunnel inhabited by bats in the epidemic areas. All of them developed influenza-like symptoms varying in severity after the onset of the disease. Pulmonary multiple nodules and mediastinal lymphadenopathy were found on chest images. One patient underwent percutaneous lung biopsy and the other two received video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy. All the 3 patients showed consistent histopathological findings, such as granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Pathogen culture with lung biopsy in the first case was identified as histoplasma. All the 3 cases were treated with itraconazole, and recovered with good prognosis. Thirteen literatures in English were obtained, which reported 60 cases with imported pulmonary histoplasmosis. Forty-two of them were males, 16 were females and 2 undefined. The range of their age was from 17-64 years. No imported pulmonary histoplasmosis was reported so far in Chinese literature. Common features of imported pulmonary histoplasmosis were consistent with our patients, including epidemiology, influenza-like symptoms and bilateral pulmonary nodules, recovery with or without antifungal therapy. The epidemiologic history, influenza-like symptoms and bilateral

  19. Arthrogryposis-renal dysfunction-cholestasis (ARC) syndrome: from molecular genetics to clinical features.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yaoyao; Zhang, Junfeng

    2014-09-20

    Arthrogryposis-renal dysfunction-cholestasis (ARC) syndrome is a rare but fatal autosomal recessive multisystem disorder caused by mutations in the VPS33B or VIPAR gene. The classical presentation of ARC includes congenital joint contractures, renal tubular dysfunction, and cholestasis. Additional features include ichthyosis, central nervous system malformation, platelet anomalies, and severe failure to thrive. Diagnosis of ARC syndrome relies on clinical features, organ biopsy, and mutational analysis. However, no specific treatment currently exists for this syndrome. This is an overview of the latest knowledge regarding the genetic features and clinical manifestations of ARC syndrome. Greater awareness and understanding of this syndrome should allow more timely intervention with potential for improving long-term outcome.

  20. Intrinsic features of Aedes aegypti genes affect transcriptional responsiveness of mosquito genes to dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Behura, Susanta K; Severson, David W

    2012-10-01

    Dengue virus infection causes significant morbidity and mortality in humans world-wide. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the major vector that spreads dengue virus to humans. Interaction between dengue viruses and A. aegypti is a multi-factorial phenomena that is determined by both virus and mosquito genotypes. Although, studies have suggested significant association of mosquito vectorial capacity with population variation of dengue virus, specifications of the vector factors that may influence vector-virus compatibility are very limited in the literature. Recently, we have shown that a large number of genes are differentially expressed between MOYO-S (susceptible) and MOYO-R (refractory) A. aegypti strains upon infection with dengue virus (JAM-1409 genotype). In the current study, we show that specific intrinsic features of A. aegypti genes are significantly associated with 'responsiveness' of mosquito genes to dengue infection. Binomial logistic regression analysis further reveals differential marginal effects of these features on gene responsiveness of mosquitoes to the viral infection. Thus, our result shows that intrinsic features of genes significantly affect differential expression of A. aegypti genes to dengue infection. The information will benefit further investigations on evolution of genes among natural populations of A. aegypti conferring differential susceptibility to dengue virus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Intramedullary gangliogliomas: clinical features, surgical outcomes, and neuropathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenlong; Li, Guang; Fang, Jingyi; Wu, Liang; Yang, Tao; Deng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Yulun

    2014-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord gangliogliomas are rare tumors composed of glial components and ganglion cells. These gangliogliomas are generally considered as slow-growing tumors, corresponding histologically to WHO grade I or II. There are few reports of large case series of intramedullary spinal cord gangliogliomas from a single center. We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of 18 patients with pathologically diagnosed ganglioglioma. Clinical manifestations, radiological features, treatment and follow-up data, and concomitant scoliosis were investigated. The mean age at diagnosis was 27.5 years, with a slight female predominance. The primary clinical symptoms were sensorimotor deficits. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging manifestations varied considerably. Some associated, but not necessary, features were found, such as young age at onset, large tumor dimension, and bony changes. Scoliosis was observed in seven patients. Remnant tumor progression was observed in five patients during the follow-up period, and no deaths occurred. The last neurological evaluation showed functional improvement from preoperative status in five patients. Differential diagnosis of ganglioglioma based on MR images alone is challenging, but the combination of some characteristic features can be helpful. An accurate diagnosis of ganglioglioma depends on pathological criteria. Despite the benign course of ganglioglioma, considerable growth may affect its resectability and prognosis. The extent of resection should be meticulously planned, and the potential risk of recurrence and neurological deterioration should be evaluated. The concomitant scoliosis is noteworthy.

  2. Genomic Features of Environmental and Clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates Lacking Recognized Virulence Factors Are Dissimilar.

    PubMed

    Ronholm, J; Petronella, N; Chew Leung, C; Pightling, A W; Banerjee, S K

    2015-12-04

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a bacterial pathogen that can cause illness after the consumption or handling of contaminated seafood. The primary virulence factors associated with V. parahaemolyticus illness are thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and Tdh-related hemolysin (TRH). However, clinical strains lacking tdh and trh have recently been isolated, and these clinical isolates are poorly understood. To help understand the emergence of clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates, a genomic approach was used to comprehensively compare 4 clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates with 16 environmental tdh- and trh-negative isolates and 34 clinical isolates positive for tdh or trh, or both, with the objective of identifying genomic features that are unique to clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates. The prevalence of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) common to clinical isolates was thoroughly examined in each of the clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates. The tdh PAI was not present in any clinical or environmental tdh- and trh-negative isolates. The trh PAI was not present in any environmental isolates; however, in clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolate 10-4238, the majority of the trh PAI including a partial trh1 gene was present, which resulted in reclassification of this isolate as a tdh-negative and trh-positive isolate. In the other clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates, neither the trh gene nor the trh PAI was present. We identified 862 genes in clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates but not in environmental tdh- and trh-negative isolates. Many of these genes are highly homologous to genes found in common enteric bacteria and included genes encoding a number of chemotaxis proteins and a novel putative type VI secretion system (T6SS) effector and immunity protein (T6SS1). The availability of genome sequences from clinical V. parahaemolyticus tdh- and trh-negative isolates and the comparative analysis may help provide an understanding of how this pathotype is able to

  3. Genomic Features of Environmental and Clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates Lacking Recognized Virulence Factors Are Dissimilar

    PubMed Central

    Petronella, N.; Chew Leung, C.; Pightling, A. W.; Banerjee, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a bacterial pathogen that can cause illness after the consumption or handling of contaminated seafood. The primary virulence factors associated with V. parahaemolyticus illness are thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and Tdh-related hemolysin (TRH). However, clinical strains lacking tdh and trh have recently been isolated, and these clinical isolates are poorly understood. To help understand the emergence of clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates, a genomic approach was used to comprehensively compare 4 clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates with 16 environmental tdh- and trh-negative isolates and 34 clinical isolates positive for tdh or trh, or both, with the objective of identifying genomic features that are unique to clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates. The prevalence of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) common to clinical isolates was thoroughly examined in each of the clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates. The tdh PAI was not present in any clinical or environmental tdh- and trh-negative isolates. The trh PAI was not present in any environmental isolates; however, in clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolate 10-4238, the majority of the trh PAI including a partial trh1 gene was present, which resulted in reclassification of this isolate as a tdh-negative and trh-positive isolate. In the other clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates, neither the trh gene nor the trh PAI was present. We identified 862 genes in clinical tdh- and trh-negative isolates but not in environmental tdh- and trh-negative isolates. Many of these genes are highly homologous to genes found in common enteric bacteria and included genes encoding a number of chemotaxis proteins and a novel putative type VI secretion system (T6SS) effector and immunity protein (T6SS1). The availability of genome sequences from clinical V. parahaemolyticus tdh- and trh-negative isolates and the comparative analysis may help provide an understanding of how this pathotype is able to

  4. Clinical and genetic features of acute encephalopathy in children taking theophylline.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Makiko; Shinohara, Mayu; Ishii, Atsushi; Ihara, Yukiko; Hirose, Shinichi; Shiomi, Masashi; Kawawaki, Hisashi; Kubota, Masaya; Yamagata, Takanori; Miyamoto, Akie; Yamanaka, Gaku; Amemiya, Kaoru; Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Kamei, Atsushi; Akasaka, Manami; Anzai, Yuki; Mizuguchi, Masashi

    2015-05-01

    Theophylline has recently been suspected as a risk factor of acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD), although there has been no systematic study on the relationship between acute encephalopathy in children taking theophylline (AET) and AESD. We recruited 16 Japanese patients (11 male and 5 female, median age of 2 years and 7 months) with AET from 2008 to 2013. We evaluated their clinical features, such as the duration of first seizure, biphasic clinical course and cranial CT/MRI imaging and compared them with those of AESD. We analyzed the polymorphisms or mutations of genes which are associated with AESD. Clinically, 12 patients had neurological and/or radiological features of AESD. Only one patient died, whereas all 15 surviving patients were left with motor and/or intellectual deficits. Genetically, 14 patients had at least one of the following polymorphisms or mutations associated with AESD: thermolabile variation of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2) gene, polymorphism causing high expression of the adenosine receptor A2A (ADORA2A) gene, and heterozygous missense mutation of the voltage gated sodium channel 1A (SCN1A) and 2A (SCN2A) gene. Our results demonstrate that AET overlaps with AESD, and that AET is a multifactorial disorder sharing a genetic background with AESD. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pituitary apoplexy: an update on clinical and imaging features.

    PubMed

    Boellis, Alessandro; di Napoli, Alberto; Romano, Andrea; Bozzao, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Pituitary apoplexy (PA) is a rare and potentially fatal clinical condition presenting acute headache, vomiting, visual impairment, ophthalmoplegia, altered mental state and possible panhypopituitarism. It mostly occurs in patients with haemorrhagic infarction of the pituitary gland due to a pre-existing macroadenoma. Although there are pathological and physiological conditions that may share similar imaging characteristics, both clinical and imaging features can guide the radiologist towards the correct diagnosis, especially using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this review, we will describe the main clinical and epidemiological features of PA, illustrating CT and MRI findings and discussing the role of imaging in the differential diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up. Teaching points • Headache, ophtalmoplegia and visual impairment are frequent symptoms of pituitary apoplexy. • CT is often the first imaging tool in PA, showing areas of hyperdensity within the sellar region. • MRI could confirm haemorrhage within the pituitary gland and compression on the optic chiasm. • Frequent simulating conditions are aneurysms, Rathke cleft cysts, craniopharingioma and mucocele. • The role of imaging is still debated and needs more studies.

  6. Clinical and polysomnographic features of patients with Restless Legs Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mungan, Semra; Ozcan, Murat; Orhan, Gurdal; Titiz, Ayse; Arli, Berna; Koseoglu, Sabri; Ak, Fikri; Dere, Haci Huseyin

    2016-05-01

    To reveal clinical and polysomnographic features in patients treated for restless leg syndrome, and to examine the compatibility of sleep data and clinical features. The study was conducted at the Department of Neurology, Ankara Numune Training and Education Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, and comprised patients who presented to the outpatient clinic between January and July 2014 who were diagnosed with restless leg syndrome based on the International RestIess Leg Syndrome Study Group criteria. Patients underwent polysomnography test in spontaneous sleep in a single room. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analyses. Of the 18 patients, 13(72%)were females and 5(28%)were males. Overall mean age was 51.56±11.57years (range: 23-66 years). Fourteen (77.8%) patients reported insomnia; 10(55.5%) patients had excessive daytime sleepiness; 13(72.2%) reported snoring; and 3(17%) had apnoea. Mean International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale score was 26.11±7.9 (range: 16-40).Mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was 9.17±5.1 (range: 0-20). Restless leg syndrome was more common in women and the most common complaint was insomnia.

  7. Clinical features and teratogenic mechanisms of congenital absence of digits.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Toshihiko

    2007-08-01

    To have a better understanding of classification of congenital hand anomalies, clinical features and teratogenic mechanisms of congenital absence of digits including ulnar and radial deficiencies, cleft hand, symbrachydactyly and constriction band were reviewed. There seemed to be four different teratogenic mechanisms of congenital absence of digits. Ulnar and radial deficiencies have the same clinical features and the cause of these deficiencies is closely related to a deficit of mesenchymal cells in the limb-bud due to impairment before the formation of the limb-bud. Cleft hand, central polydactyly and osseous syndactyly were induced by the same treatment at the same developmental stage in rats. Roentgenograms of the clinical cases and skeletal changes of the anomalies in rats appear to demonstrate that cleft hand formation proceeds from osseous syndactylies and central polydactylies. The teratogenic mechanism of a cleft hand seemed to be failure of induction of digital rays in the hand plate. The sequence of anomalies from brachysyndactyly, or the atypical cleft hand, to the congenital amputation, can be regarded as equivalent to the category of transverse deficiency that is bony dysplasia of the hand. Congenital constriction ring syndrome appears after the formation of the digital rays.

  8. Clinical features and prognosis of intracranial artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Sikkema, Tineke; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; van Dijk, J Marc C; Groen, Rob J M; Metzemaekers, Jan D M; Eshghi, Omid; Mazuri, Aryan; Bakker, Nicolaas A; Luijckx, Gert-Jan

    2015-06-01

    Intracranial artery dissections (IADs) are an important cause of stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Outcome of IAD in the anterior circulation or presentation without SAH is rarely investigated and might be different. To evaluate the clinical features and prognosis of patients with IAD, with special emphasis on the location (anterior vs posterior circulation) and clinical presentation (SAH or cerebral ischemia). Between January 1998 and May 2012, 60 patients with IAD were included in this single-center cohort study. Clinical features, functional outcome, mortality, and prognostic factors were evaluated. Unfavorable functional outcome was defined as a modified Rankin scale score of 3 to 6. In 18 patients (30%), IAD was located in the anterior circulation. At a median follow-up of 6.4 months, 35.3% of patients with IAD in the anterior circulation had an unfavorable functional outcome vs 39.0% in patients with IAD in the posterior circulation (P = .79). Forty-two patients (70%) presented with SAH. Clinical presentation with SAH was not significantly associated with poor functional outcome (41.5% vs 29.4%, P = .39). Low Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission (odds ratio, 0.72, P = .003) and older age (odds ratio, 1.04, P = .04) were independent predictors of unfavorable functional outcome. Mortality rate was 13% and did not significantly differ with location or clinical presentation. Low Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission and older age were independent predictors of unfavorable functional outcome. IAD presenting with SAH was not significantly associated with poor functional outcome.

  9. The Clinical Features of Myositis-Associated Autoantibodies: a Review.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Harsha

    2017-02-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a group of autoimmune diseases traditionally defined by clinical manifestations including skeletal muscle weakness, skin rashes, elevated skeletal muscle enzymes, and neurophysiological and/or histological evidence of muscle inflammation. Patients with myositis overlap can develop other features including parenchymal lung disease, inflammatory arthritis, gastrointestinal manifestations and marked constitutional symptoms. Although patients may be diagnosed as having polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM) under the IIM spectrum, it is quite clear that disease course between subgroups of patients is different. For example, interstitial lung disease may predominate in some, whereas cutaneous complications, cancer risk, or severe refractory myopathy may be a significant feature in others. Therefore, tools that facilitate diagnosis and indicate which patients require more detailed investigation for disease complications are invaluable in clinical practice. The expanding field of autoantibodies (autoAbs) associated with connective tissue disease (CTD)-myositis overlap has generated considerable interest over the last few years. Using an immunological diagnostic approach, this group of heterogeneous conditions can be separated into a number of distinct clinical phenotypes. Rather than diagnose a patient as simply having PM, DM or overlap CTD, we can define syndromes to differentiate disease subsets that emphasise clinical outcomes and guide management. There are now over 15 CTD-myositis overlap autoAbs found in patients with a range of clinical manifestations including interstitial pneumonia, cutaneous disease, cancer-associated myositis and autoimmune-mediated necrotising myopathy. This review describes their diagnostic utility, potential role in disease monitoring and response to treatment. In the future, routine use of these autoAb will allow a stratified approach to managing this complex set of conditions.

  10. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Myocardial Feature Tracking: Concepts and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Andreas; Hor, Kan N; Kowallick, Johannes T; Beerbaum, Philipp; Kutty, Shelby

    2016-04-01

    Heart failure-induced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality constitute a major health problem worldwide and result from diverse pathogeneses, including coronary artery disease, nonischemic cardiomyopathies, and arrhythmias. Assessment of cardiovascular performance is important for early diagnosis and accurate management of patients at risk of heart failure. During the past decade, cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking has emerged as a useful tool for the quantitative evaluation of cardiovascular function. The method allows quantification of biatrial and biventricular mechanics from measures of deformation: strain, torsion, and dyssynchrony. The purpose of this article is to review the basic principles, clinical applications, accuracy, and reproducibility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking, highlighting the prognostic implications. It will also provide an outlook on how this field might evolve in the future.

  11. Clinical features for diagnosis and management of patients with PRDM12 congenital insensitivity to pain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Stella; Malik Sharif, Saghira; Chen, Ya-Chun; Valente, Enza-Maria; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Sheridan, Eamonn; Bennett, Christopher; Woods, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) is a rare extreme phenotype characterised by an inability to perceive pain present from birth due to lack of, or malfunction of, nociceptors. PRDM12 has recently been identified as a new gene that can cause CIP. The full phenotype and natural history have not yet been reported. Methods We have ascertained five adult patients and report their clinical features. Results Based on our findings, and those of previous patients, we describe the natural history of the PRDM12-CIP disorder, and derive diagnostic and management features to guide the clinical management of patients. Conclusions PRDM12-CIP is a distinct and diagnosable disorder, and requires specific clinical management to minimise predictable complications. PMID:26975306

  12. Obesity, age, ethnicity, and clinical features of prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Victor J; Pang, Darren; Tang, Wendell W; Zhang, Xin; Li, Li; You, Zongbing

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 36.5% of the U.S. adults (≥ 20 years old) are obese. Obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and several types of cancer. The present study included 1788 prostate cancer patients who were treated with radical prostatectomy at the Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, Louisiana, from January, 2001 to March, 2016. The patient’s medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Body mass index (BMI), age, ethnicity (Caucasians versus African Americans), clinical stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were retrieved. The relative risk of the patients was stratified into low risk and high risk groups. Associative analyses found that BMI was associated with age, clinical stage, Gleason score, but not ethnicity, PSA levels, or the relative risk in this cohort. Age was associated with ethnicity, clinical stage, Gleason score, and PSA levels, as well as the relative risk. Ethnicity was associated with Gleason score and PSA levels as well as the relative risk, but not clinical stage. These findings suggest that obesity is associated with advanced prostate cancer with stage T3 or Gleason score ≥ 7 diseases, and age and ethnicity are important factors that are associated with the clinical features of prostate cancer patients. PMID:28337464

  13. Clinical and Ultrasonographic Features of Secondary Intussusception in Children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Dong, Qian; Li, Shi-Xing; Ren, Wei-Dong; Shi, Bo; Bai, Yu-Zuo; Zhang, Shu-Cheng; Zheng, Li-Qiang

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review the ultrasonographic features of secondary intussusception (SI) in children and assess the value of ultrasound in the diagnosis of pediatric SI. The authors performed a retrospective analysis on the ultrasound findings of 1977 cases of primary intussusception (PI) and 37 cases of SI in children. The SI cases were diagnosed by ultrasonography and confirmed by laparotomy or histopathologic diagnosis. The clinical and ultrasonographic features were analyzed and compared between these two groups. The age, no flatus or defecation, position, diameter and length of intussusception, the presence of free intraperitoneal liquid, and intestinal dialation at the proximal end present, all contributed to the differentiation between PI and SI (all P < 0.05). Ultrasound was able to demonstrate the pathological lead point (PLP) shadows in all of the 37 SI cases, either in the cervical part or intussusceptum of the intussusception. Among the 37 SI patients, 21 cases (56.8 %) were accurately categorized with lesions, including intestinal polyps, cystic intestinal duplication, intestinal wall lymphoma, and a small part of Meckel's diverticulum. Ultrasound can be used as a feasible and effective method to discriminate PI from SI. Once the PLP is detected, a definite diagnosis can be made. • The clinical and ultrasonographic features were compared between SI and PI. • The age, location, diameter and length of intussusception, and intestinal dilation were distinguishing features. • The causes of SI were found to be polyps, intestinal duplication, lymphoma, and Meckel's diverticulum. • Ultrasound can be used as an important method to diagnose SI. • Demonstration and confirmation of PLP are vital to diagnosing SI.

  14. Clinical and microbiologic features of dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Wladis, Edward J; Shinder, Roman; LeFebvre, Daniel R; Sokol, Jason A; Boyce, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis is a relatively rare condition, and large case series of this clinical entity have been reported. This study was undertaken to identify a larger cohort of patients with this ailment, with the intent of defining its clinical and microbiologic features. Case logs from four institutions were reviewed to identify patients that suffered from dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis. A retrospective chart review was then performed to identify clinical features, management strategies, microbiologic features, and outcomes. A dedicated statistical software package was utilized to identify correlations between these variables. 13 patients (7 females, 6 males; mean age = 57.2 years, range = 7-89 years) were identified. One patient carried a diagnosis of immunosuppressive disease. All patients underwent emergent surgical drainage and received intravenous antibiotics. Primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction was found to be the underlying etiology in nine cases (69.2%), whereas four patients suffered from specific causes of their obstructions. An average of 1.07 organisms/patient (standard deviation = 0.49 organisms/patient) were recovered from microbiologic cultures, and Gram-positive bacteria represented the majority of cultured organisms. All patients experienced either stable or improved vision upon discharge. The relationships between a specific etiology and the possibility of vision loss or the number of organisms cultured, between the number of organisms cultured and vision loss, and immunosuppression and vision loss or the number of organisms cultured were all not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis most commonly occurs in adult patients who do not carry immunosuppressive diagnoses and suffer from primary obstructions. Multiple microbiologic species may cause this problem, although Gram-positive organisms are most common. With appropriate management, stable or improved vision

  15. Clinical and Biological Features of Interval Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu Mi; Huh, Kyu Chan

    2017-01-01

    Interval colorectal cancer (I-CRC) is defined as a CRC diagnosed within 60 months after a negative colonoscopy, taking into account that 5 years is the “mean sojourn time.” It is important to prevent the development of interval cancer. The development of interval colon cancer is associated with female sex, old age, family history of CRC, comorbidities, diverticulosis, and the skill of the endoscopist. During carcinogenesis, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) share many genomic and colonic site characteristics with I-CRCs. The clinical and biological features of I-CRC should be elucidated to prevent the development of interval colon cancer. PMID:28320200

  16. [Clinical radiographic features of basilar impression (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Scotti, G; Redaelli, M R

    1978-09-01

    After a review of the literature and an analysis of the clinical and radiographic features of basilar impression (b.i.) the authors describe 27 personal cases. In 6 b.i. was present in its pure form and in 21 it was associated with other anomalies at the cranio-vertebral junction. Because of the frequent misdiagnosis with multiple sclerosis or other chronic neurologic diseases and because of the possible improvement of symptoms following decompressive occipital craniectomy and cervical laminectomy, the importance of a correct and complete radiographic study of the cranio-vertebral junction in these cases is stressed.

  17. Genital chlamydial infection: association between clinical features, organism genotype and load.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hamid; Verlander, Neville Q; Kumar, Navin; Bentley, Neil; Carne, Christopher; Sonnex, Christopher

    2011-07-01

    The association between the clinical features of genital chlamydial infection and organism genotype and load was evaluated. Chlamydial DNA was detected and quantified in genital swabs from 233 (7 %) of 3384 consecutive patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. The chlamydia-positive subcohort comprised 132 (57 %) females and 101 (43 %) males. Clinical features were present in 33 % women and 72 % men. The chlamydial load was found to be higher in women (median load: 5.6 log) than men (median load: 3.5 log). Single variable analysis failed to show a significant association between chlamydial load and clinical features (P value = 0.3). Owing to the limited amount of clinical material, information on chlamydial genotypes was available for 70 % (n = 162) of chlamydia-positive patients. However, multivariable analysis of these samples did show a significant association between chlamydial load and clinical features (P value = 0.02). This discrepancy is most probably due to the difference in the amount of data analysed by single variable (data from 233 patients) and multivariable (data from 162 patients) analysis. The distribution of chlamydia genotypes was as follows: type E (46 %), F (22 %), D (8 %), K (8 %), G (7 %), J (4 %), I (1 %) and H (0.6 %). No statistically significant association was observed between chlamydial genotype and clinical features in either single variable (P value = 0.6) or multivariable (P value = 0.4) analysis. These findings suggest that chlamydial load and diversity in the ompA gene plays little, if any, role in the pathogenesis of genital chlamydial infection.

  18. Stargardt disease: clinical features, molecular genetics, animal models and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Tanna, Preena; Strauss, Rupert W; Fujinami, Kaoru; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1; MIM 248200) is the most prevalent inherited macular dystrophy and is associated with disease-causing sequence variants in the gene ABCA4. Significant advances have been made over the last 10 years in our understanding of both the clinical and molecular features of STGD1, and also the underlying pathophysiology, which has culminated in ongoing and planned human clinical trials of novel therapies. The aims of this review are to describe the detailed phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the disease, conventional and novel imaging findings, current knowledge of animal models and pathogenesis, and the multiple avenues of intervention being explored. PMID:27491360

  19. Clinical features of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia: report of 24 cases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Li, Jianing; Zhu, Yulan; Yan, Xiaobo; Wang, Weizhi

    2012-12-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is the most common type of paroxysmal dyskinesia and is characterized by involuntary, intermittent movements induced by sudden movements. Here, we describe 24 patients with PKD, whose clinical data were analyzed. The attacks of involuntary movements were all short lasting, and could involve extremities, trunk, neck, or face without alteration of consciousness. The motor function was normal between attacks, and in some cases, attacks could be evoked during examination. Most patients had normal electroencephalogram (EEG) and neuroimaging results, but 2 cases had abnormal EEGs, and another 2 cases had bilateral calcification of basal ganglion on brain computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous history of misdiagnosis was a predominant feature, while treatments based on misdiagnosis sometimes did lead to improvement. Here, we discuss the clinical characteristics, especially the abnormalities of investigations and misdiagnosis, and recent insights into the pathophysiology of PKD.

  20. Clinical features of infections and colonization by Acinetobacter genospecies 3.

    PubMed

    Molina, José; Cisneros, José Miguel; Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Ribera, Anna; Beceiro, Alejandro; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Pascual, Álvaro; Bou, Germán; Vila, Jordi; Pachón, Jerónimo

    2010-12-01

    Two hundred twenty-one isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and 15 of Acinetobacter genospecies 3 (AG3) were consecutively collected in a 30-day period during the nationwide project GEIH-Ab2000. Nosocomial acquisition (P=0.01), intensive care unit admission (P=0.02), and antibiotic pressure (P = 0.03) were observed to be lower in the AG3 group. AG3 isolates were more frequently implied in wound infections (P=0.05), while A. baumannii tended to be recovered from respiratory samples (P=0.08). To our knowledge, this is the first report analyzing the clinical differences among Acinetobacter genospecies, with our findings suggesting that clinical features of AG3 may not be equivalent to those traditionally described for A. baumannii.

  1. [Clinical features and molecular diagnosis of three patients with DiGeorge anomaly].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-qiao; Wang, Lai-shuan; Qi, Chun-hua; Ying, Wen-jing; Guo, Xiao-hong; Liu, Dan-ru; Hui, Xiao-ying; Liu, Fang; Cao, Yun; Luo, Fei-hong; Wang, Xiao-chuan

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the clinical features and molecular diagnostic methods of three patients with DiGeorge anomaly. The clinical manifestations and immunological features of the three cases with DiGeorge anomaly were analyzed. We detected the chromosome 22q11.2 gene deletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). (1) CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS: All three cases had varying degrees of infection, congenital heart disease and small thymus by imaging; two cases had significant hypocalcemia (1.11 mmol/L and 1.22 mmol/L, respectively), accompanied by convulsions; only 1 case had cleft palate and all had no significant facial deformity. (2) Immunological characteristics: All three cases had varying degrees of T-cell immune function defects (percentage of T lymphocytes was 24% - 43%, absolute count was 309 - 803/µl), and levels of immunoglobulin G, A, M, and percent of B lymphocytes and absolute count were normal. (3) Detection of the chromosome 22q11.2 gene deletion: 400 cells of each case were detected. All cells showed two green and one red hybridization signal, indicating the presence of gene deletions in chromosome 22q11.2. (4) OUTCOME: All three cases were treated with thymosin, and appropriate clinical intervention for cardiac malformations, hypocalcemia, and were followed-up for 4 - 18 months, the prognosis was good. DiGeorge anomaly showed diverse clinical manifestations. We should consider the disease if patients had congenital heart disease, thymic hypoplasia, hypocalcemia and/or impaired immune function. FISH for detecting chromosome 22q11.2 gene deletion can be used as accurate and rapid diagnostic method. Thymosin treatment and other clinical intervention may help to improve the prognosis of patients with partial DiGeorge anomaly.

  2. Radiological and clinical features of vein of Galen malformations.

    PubMed

    Chow, Maggie L; Cooke, Daniel L; Fullerton, Heather J; Amans, Matthew R; Narvid, Jared; Dowd, Christopher F; Higashida, Randall T; Halbach, Van V; Hetts, Steven W

    2015-06-01

    Vein of Galen malformations (VOGMs) are rare and complex congenital arteriovenous fistulas. The clinical and radiological features of VOGMs and their relation to clinical outcomes are not fully characterized. To examine the clinical and radiological features of VOGMs and the predictors of outcome in patients. We retrospectively reviewed the available imaging and medical records of all patients with VOGMs treated at the University of California, San Francisco between 1986 and 2013. Radiological and clinical features were identified. We applied the modified Rankin Scale to determine functional outcome by chart review. Predictors of outcome were assessed by χ(2) analyses. Forty-one cases were confirmed as VOGM. Most patients (78%) had been diagnosed with VOGM in the first year of life. Age at treatment was bimodally distributed, with predominantly urgent embolization at <10 days of age and elective embolization after 1 year of age. Patients commonly presented with hydrocephalus (65.9%) and congestive heart failure (61.0%). Mixed-type (31.7%) VOGM was more common in our cohort than purely mural (29.3%) or choroidal (26.8%) types. The most common feeding arteries were the choroidal and posterior cerebral arteries. Transarterial embolization with coils was the most common technique used to treat VOGMs at our institution. Functional outcome was normal or only mildly disabled in 50% of the cases at last follow-up (median=3 years, range=0-23 years). Younger age at first diagnosis, congestive heart failure, and seizures were predictive of adverse clinical outcome. The survival rate in our sample was 78.0% and complete thrombosis of the VOGM was achieved in 62.5% of patients. VOGMs continue to be challenging to treat and manage. Nonetheless, endovascular approaches to treatment are continuing to be refined and improved, with increasing success. The neurodevelopmental outcomes of affected children whose VOGMs are treated may be good in many cases. Published by the BMJ

  3. Clinical Features and Extraintestinal Manifestations of Crohn Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Ah; Chun, Peter; Hwang, Eun Ha; Mun, Sang Wook; Lee, Yeoun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) of Crohn disease (CD) in Korean pediatric patients. Methods The medical records of 73 children diagnosed with CD were retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, including CD phenotype at diagnosis based on the Montreal classification, and clinical features and course of EIMs were investigated. Results Fifty-two (71.2%) of the patients were males. The mean age of the patients was 12.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. The disease location was ileal in 3 (4.1%) of the patients, colonic in 13 (17.8%), ileocolonic in 56 (76.7%). The clinical behavior was inflammatory in 62 (84.9%) of the patients, stricturing in 8 (11.0%), and penetrating in 3 (4.1%). Perianal abscesses or fistulas were found in 37 (50.7%) of the patients. EIMs observed during the study period were anal skin tag in 25 patients (34.2%), hypertransaminasemia in 20 (27.4%), peripheral arthritis in 2 (2.7%), erythema nodosum in 2 (2.7%), vulvitis in 1 (1.4%), uveitis in 1 (1.4%), and pulmonary thromboembolism in 1 (1.4%). Conclusion Perianal diseases and manifestations were present in more than half of Korean pediatric CD patients at diagnosis. Inspection of the anus should be mandatory in Korean children with suspicious CD, as perianal fistulas, abscesses, and anal skin tags may be the first clue to the diagnosis of CD. PMID:28090468

  4. Hemorrhage in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: imaging and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Hefzy, H M; Bartynski, W S; Boardman, J F; Lacomis, D

    2009-08-01

    Hemorrhage is known to occur in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), but the characteristics have not been analyzed in detail. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the imaging and clinical features of hemorrhage in PRES. Retrospective assessment of 151 patients with PRES was performed, and 23 patients were identified who had intracranial hemorrhage at toxicity. Hemorrhage types were identified and tabulated, including minute focal hemorrhages (<5 mm), sulcal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and focal hematoma. Clinical features of hemorrhage and nonhemorrhage PRES groups were evaluated, including toxicity blood pressure, coagulation profile/platelet counts, coagulation-altering medication, and clinical conditions associated with PRES. Toxicity mean arterial pressure (MAP) groups were defined as normal (<106 mm Hg), mildly hypertensive (106-116 mm Hg), or severely hypertensive (>116 mm Hg). The overall incidence of hemorrhage was 15.2%, with borderline statistical significance noted between the observed clinical associations (P = .07). Hemorrhage was significantly more common (P = .02) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) than after solid-organ transplantation. The 3 hemorrhage types were noted with equal frequency. A single hemorrhage type was found in 16 patients, with multiple types noted in 7. Patients undergoing therapeutic anticoagulation were statistically more likely to develop hemorrhage (P = .04). No difference in hemorrhage incidence was found among the 3 blood pressure subgroups (range, 14.9%-15.9%). Three distinct types of hemorrhage (minute hemorrhage, sulcal subarachnoid hemorrhage, hematoma) were identified in PRES with equal frequency. The greatest hemorrhage frequency was seen after allo-BMT and in patients undergoing therapeutic anticoagulation. Hemorrhage rate was independent of the toxicity blood pressure.

  5. [The clinical features of migraine-associated vertigo].

    PubMed

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Tsutsumi, Tomoko; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2013-08-01

    Migraine-associated vertigo (MAV) is proposed as a new clinical entity on the basis of the assumption that the typical migraine and vertigo or dizziness have a common pathophysiology. Some of the patients with recurrent vertigo syndromes with unknown pathology may have MAV. We performed a retrospective study to clarify the clinical characteristics of MAV in the Japanese population. The following were considered as diagnostic criteria: (1) recurrent vestibular symptoms, (2) migraine headache as defined by the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria, (3) at least one instance of synchronization of a vertiginous attack with a migraine headache, (4) no associated unilateral hearing loss, and (5) absence of other diseases that may have caused vertiginous attacks. Of 552 patients with dizziness or vertigo, 46 (8.3%) were diagnosed as having MAV. A typical feature of this clinical entity is that migraine occurs before the onset of vertigo in women aged 30-40 years. Usually the attacks occur once in a year for 1 to 10 years. An attack lasts for 1-24 h and presents as vertigo and unsteadiness with simultaneous headache. The presence of hearing loss presents an important clinical dilemma. Whether the condition in patients experiencing hearing loss should be defined as MAV or not is still a matter for discussion.

  6. Clinical features and neuropsychological profile in vascular parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Rivero, Sonia; Lama, María J; Huertas-Fernández, Ismael; Alvarez de Toledo, Paloma; Cáceres-Redondo, María T; Martín-Rodríguez, Juan F; Carrillo, Fátima; Carballo, Manuel; Palomar, Francisco J; Mir, Pablo

    2014-10-15

    The clinical profile in vascular parkinsonism (VP) patients is well described in the literature, but little is known about the neuropsychological features of this disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and the profile of cognitive impairment in patients with VP. We prospectively evaluated 12 patients with VP, 15 with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 13 healthy controls (HC) with similar age and sex distribution. Different clinical and demographic details were collected. All subjects underwent detailed neurological and neuropsychological examinations. The neuropsychological tests included analysis of global efficiency, executive function, verbal memory, language and visuospatial function. VP patients exhibited lower disease duration, older age at onset and higher frequency of cardiovascular risk factors. Non-motor symptoms were found to be more frequent in PD. We found that VP patients developed cognitive impairment with a significantly higher frequency than HC of a similar age. Additionally, we found that these patients had a global pattern of cognitive impairment, including executive function, verbal memory and language. Only visuospatial function was more impaired in PD than in HC. Our data contribute to clarify the pattern of neuropsychological impairment in VP. Therefore, in the clinical evaluation, besides assessing the motor status of the patient, given that these symptoms are frequently found not to be self-reported complaints, the neurologist should evaluate them routinely as a comprehensive assessment of this disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonautistic motor stereotypies: clinical features and longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kendra M; Mahone, E Mark; Singer, Harvey S

    2008-04-01

    To characterize further the clinical features and long-term outcomes among children with motor stereotypies who do not manifest mental retardation or pervasive developmental disorders, a review of clinical records and semistructured telephone interviews were undertaken. The identified clinical cohort consisted of 100 typically developing children with motor stereotypies. The mean length of follow-up was 6.8 +/- 4.6 years. At most recent follow-up, movements had continued in 94% of the sample (62% for >5 years). Only six children reported complete cessation of movements, with four (3 of 4 with head nodding) doing so >1 year after their initial diagnosis. Thus the course of motor stereotypies, especially in children with arm/hand movements, appears chronic. Nearly half the children in this cohort exhibit other comorbidities, including attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (30%), tics (18%), and obsessive-compulsive behaviors/obsessive-compulsive disorder (10%). Twenty-five percent of children with motor stereotypies reported positive family histories of motor stereotypies, suggesting an underlying genetic abnormality. Finally, evidence is emerging that the clinical course of children who exhibit head nodding may differ from those whose motor stereotypy predominantly involves the hands and arms.

  8. [Risk factors and clinical features of ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Escobar-Padilla, Beatriz; Perez-López, Carlos A; Martínez-Puon, Horacio

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the most frequent cause of maternal death in the first trimester of pregnancy. The objective was to establish the clinical features and risk factors associated with EP. Observational, retrospective, transversal and analytic case-control study. Two groups were included: the cases group (28 patients) and the control group (56 postpartum patients). Univariate and bivariate descriptive statistical analysis were carried out using the Pearson chi-square test, p < 0.05, with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Statistically significant values (OR) were: smoking: 18.33, history of EP: 11.96, IUD use: 11.9, abdominal surgery: 5.87, being multigravid: 3.80, and having two or more sexual partners: 2. The most common clinical symptom was pelvic pain with 57.1% (16), right ruptured EP 53.6%, tubal pregnancy 82.1% (23), unruptured EP 60.7% (17), hemoperitoneum 60.7% (17). Gestational age for EP was of 4-8 weeks (75%) and surgical treatment 96.4%. The frequency of EP found in our population was 1 in every 122 live births. Risk factors associated with ectopic pregnancy with statistically higher values were: smoking, being multigravid, having a clinical record of EP, IUD use before conception, abdominal surgery. The more frequent clinical characteristics were pelvic pain, right EP, tubal pregnancy, EP with no ruptures, hemoperitoneum < 750 ml, a gestational age between four and eight weeks.

  9. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in infants: clinical features and natural history

    SciTech Connect

    Maron, B.J.; Tajik, A.J.; Ruttenberg, H.D.; Graham, T.P.; Atwood, G.F.; Victorica, B.E.; Lie, J.T.; Roberts, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical and morphologic features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 20 patients recognized as having cardiac disease in the first year of life are described. Fourteen of these 20 infants were initially suspected of having heart disease solely because a heart murmur was identified. However, the infants showed a variety of clinical findings, including signs of marked congestive heart failure (in the presence of nondilated ventricular cavities and normal or increased left ventricular contractility) and substantial cardiac enlargement on chest radiograph. Other findings were markedly different from those usually present in older children and adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (e.g., right ventricular hypertrophy on the ECG and cyanosis). Consequently, in 14 infants, the initial clinical diagnosis was congenital cardiac malformation other than hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The clinical course was variable in these patients, but the onset of marked congestive heart failure in the first year of life appeared to be an unfavorable prognostic sign; nine of the 11 infants with congestive heart failure died within the first year of life. In infants with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, unlike older children and adults with this condition, sudden death was less common (two patients) than death due to progressive congestive heart failure.

  10. Clinical, biological, and imaging features of monogenic Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Andrea; Padovani, Alessandro; Borroni, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of monogenic forms of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) associated with mutations within PSEN1, PSEN2, and APP genes is giving a big contribution in the understanding of the underpinning mechanisms of this complex disorder. Compared with sporadic form, the phenotype associated with monogenic cases is somewhat broader including behavioural disturbances, epilepsy, myoclonus, and focal presentations. Structural and functional imaging show typical early changes also in presymptomatic monogenic carriers. Amyloid imaging and CSF tau/A β ratio may be useful in the differential diagnosis with other neurodegenerative dementias, especially, in early onset cases. However, to date any specific biomarkers of different monogenic cases have been identified. Thus, in clinical practice, the early identification is often difficult, but the copresence of different elements could help in recognition. This review will focus on the clinical and instrumental markers useful for the very early identification of AD monogenic cases, pivotal in the development, and evaluation of disease-modifying therapy.

  11. The clinical features of the piriformis syndrome: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fujian; Riera, Ricardo; Sambandan, Sidha

    2010-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome, sciatica caused by compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle, has been described for over 70 years; yet, it remains controversial. The literature consists mainly of case series and narrative reviews. The objectives of the study were: first, to make the best use of existing evidence to estimate the frequencies of clinical features in patients reported to have PS; second, to identify future research questions. A systematic review was conducted of any study type that reported extractable data relevant to diagnosis. The search included all studies up to 1 March 2008 in four databases: AMED, CINAHL, Embase and Medline. Screening, data extraction and analysis were all performed independently by two reviewers. A total of 55 studies were included: 51 individual and 3 aggregated data studies, and 1 combined study. The most common features found were: buttock pain, external tenderness over the greater sciatic notch, aggravation of the pain through sitting and augmentation of the pain with manoeuvres that increase piriformis muscle tension. Future research could start with comparing the frequencies of these features in sciatica patients with and without disc herniation or spinal stenosis. PMID:20596735

  12. Clinical features and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed Central

    Kimoff, R J; Cosio, M G; McGregor, M

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical features and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DATA SOURCE AND SELECTION: All articles on OSA published in French and English between 1970 and 1990 and indexed in Index Medicus were reviewed. Studies addressing the epidemiologic features and clinical aspects of OSA were selected, and special emphasis was given to articles reporting the effects of treatment on morbidity and mortality rates. MAIN RESULTS: OSA is characterized by episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep that result in repetitive hypoxemia and sleep disruption. OSA leads to various neuropsychologic and cardiovascular complications, including daytime hypersomnolence, cognitive impairment, systemic and pulmonary hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias. There is suggestive evidence that the death rate among affected people is increased. The true incidence of OSA is unknown, but estimates have varied from 1% upwards among men. The current treatment with the greatest overall effectiveness and acceptability is nasal continuous positive airway pressure. CONCLUSION: This common, readily treatable disorder is associated with serious complications and therefore must be widely recognized by health professionals. PMID:1998928

  13. Hereditary and Clinical Features of Retinitis Pigmentosa in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Ho; Seo, Jong Mo; Moon, Sang Woong; Moon, Jun Woong; Kim, Sang Jin; Chung, Hum

    2010-01-01

    There has been no report about hereditary and clinical features of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in Koreans. To evaluate these, data were collected from 365 RP patients including age, gender, visual acuity (VA), spherical equivalent (SE) of refractive errors, funduscopic findings, color vision test, visual field score (VFS) obtained from Goldmann perimetry, and the inheritance patterns from pedigrees. Simplex RP was the most common inheritance pattern (61.9%); followed by autosomal recessive RP (17.3%), autosomal dominant RP (12.1%) and X-linked recessive RP (8.8%). Myopia was the most common refractive errors (77.5%) including 16.1% of high myopia. The most common cataract type was posterior subcapsular cataract (25.8%). Observed retinal findings included changes of retinal pigment epithelium (88.8%), bony spicule-like pigmentation (79.7%), attenuation of retinal vessel (76.2%), waxy disc pallor (12.6%), golden ring around optic disc (2.2%), epiretinal membrane (0.8%) and cystoid macular edema (0.5%). Corrected VA and refractive errors did not show any significant difference between the inheritance patterns. VFS was significantly worse in autosomal recessive RP than in autosomal dominant RP. Color vision defect was noted in 66.1% on Hardy-Rand-Rittlers color vision test. In conclusion, Korean RP patients have the indigenous hereditary and clinical features as well as the ordinary ones. PMID:20514315

  14. Hereditary and clinical features of retinitis pigmentosa in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Ho; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Seo, Jong Mo; Moon, Sang Woong; Moon, Jun Woong; Kim, Sang Jin; Chung, Hum

    2010-06-01

    There has been no report about hereditary and clinical features of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in Koreans. To evaluate these, data were collected from 365 RP patients including age, gender, visual acuity (VA), spherical equivalent (SE) of refractive errors, funduscopic findings, color vision test, visual field score (VFS) obtained from Goldmann perimetry, and the inheritance patterns from pedigrees. Simplex RP was the most common inheritance pattern (61.9%); followed by autosomal recessive RP (17.3%), autosomal dominant RP (12.1%) and X-linked recessive RP (8.8%). Myopia was the most common refractive errors (77.5%) including 16.1% of high myopia. The most common cataract type was posterior subcapsular cataract (25.8%). Observed retinal findings included changes of retinal pigment epithelium (88.8%), bony spicule-like pigmentation (79.7%), attenuation of retinal vessel (76.2%), waxy disc pallor (12.6%), golden ring around optic disc (2.2%), epiretinal membrane (0.8%) and cystoid macular edema (0.5%). Corrected VA and refractive errors did not show any significant difference between the inheritance patterns. VFS was significantly worse in autosomal recessive RP than in autosomal dominant RP. Color vision defect was noted in 66.1% on Hardy-Rand-Rittlers color vision test. In conclusion, Korean RP patients have the indigenous hereditary and clinical features as well as the ordinary ones.

  15. Prevalence and Clinical Features of Focal Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ken; Kitahara, Hideki; Fujimoto, Yoshihide; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Ishibashi, Iwao; Himi, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2016-07-25

    Because it is difficult to distinguish between focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy and aborted myocardial infarction, there is little information about the prevalence and clinical features of focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Our cardiac catheterization databases were queried to identify patients with focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy and other types of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We defined focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy as hypo-, a- or dyskinesis in both anterolateral and septal segments without obstructive coronary artery disease explaining the wall motion abnormality. A total of 10 patients were diagnosed with focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The control group comprised patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy with apical, mid-ventricular, or basal ballooning. Clinical features and in-hospital outcomes were compared between patients with focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy and those with other types of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Among the 144 patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, the apical, mid-ventricular, basal, and focal types occurred in 85 (59.0%), 49 (34.0%), 0 (0%), and 10 patients (6.9%), respectively. The left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in the focal group compared with the apical and mid-ventricular group (56±13 vs. 45±13 vs. 46±12%, P=0.03). In-hospital outcome was not significantly different among the 3 groups. Focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy is not rare. Biplane left ventriculography is useful for its diagnosis. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1824-1829).

  16. Cockayne syndrome: Clinical features, model systems and pathways.

    PubMed

    Karikkineth, Ajoy C; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Fivenson, Elayne; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2017-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a disorder characterized by a variety of clinical features including cachectic dwarfism, severe neurological manifestations including microcephaly and cognitive deficits, pigmentary retinopathy, cataracts, sensorineural deafness, and ambulatory and feeding difficulties, leading to death by 12 years of age on average. It is an autosomal recessive disorder, with a prevalence of approximately 2.5 per million. There are several phenotypes (1-3) and two complementation groups (CSA and CSB), and CS overlaps with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). It has been considered a progeria, and many of the clinical features resemble accelerated aging. As such, the study of CS affords an opportunity to better understand the underlying mechanisms of aging. The molecular basis of CS has traditionally been ascribed to defects in transcription and transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). However, recent work suggests that defects in base excision DNA repair and mitochondrial functions may also play key roles. This opens up the possibility for molecular interventions in CS, and by extrapolation, possibly in aging. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Clinical and Mutational Features of Three Chinese Children with Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xueying; Lin, Ruizhu; Huang, Yonglan; Sheng, Huiying; Li, Xiaofei; Ting, Tzer Hwu; Liu, Li; Li, Xiuzhen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical and molecular features of congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) in three Chinese patients with various typical manifestations. Methods: Data on clinical symptoms, results of laboratory analyses, and previous treatments in three Chinese patients were collected by a retrospective review of medical records. All coding regions and adjacent exon–intron junction regions of AGPAT2 and BSCL2 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Results: Generalized lipodystrophy, acanthosis nigricans, muscular hypertrophy, severe hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatomegaly were features in all three patients. Patient 1 developed diabetes mellitus at the early age of 2 months and he was the youngest CGL patient reported with overt diabetes. Patient 2 was found to have cardiomyopathy when she was aged 6 months. All of the patients were found to have mutations in the BSCL2 gene, but none of these was a novel mutation. We did not find any AGPAT2 mutation in our patients. Conclusion: All of our patients exhibited characteristic features of CGL due to mutations in the BSCL2 gene. PMID:27612026

  18. Clinical Features and Course of Ocular Toxocariasis in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Seong Joon; Woo, Se Joon; Jin, Yan; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Tae Wan; Ahn, Jeeyun; Heo, Jang Won; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Chung, Hum; Park, Kyu Hyung; Hong, Sung Tae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical features, clinical course of granuloma, serologic findings, treatment outcome, and probable infection sources in adult patients with ocular toxocariasis (OT). Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we examined 101 adult patients diagnosed clinically and serologically with OT. Serial fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography images of all the patients were reviewed. A clinic-based case-control study on pet ownership, occupation, and raw meat ingestion history was performed to investigate the possible infection sources. Results Among the patients diagnosed clinically and serologically with OT, 69.6% showed elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Granuloma in OT involved all retinal layers and several vitreoretinal comorbidities were noted depending on the location of granuloma: posterior pole granuloma was associated with epiretinal membrane and retinal nerve fiber layer defects, whereas peripheral granuloma was associated with vitreous opacity. Intraocular migration of granuloma was observed in 15 of 93 patients (16.1%). Treatment with albendazole (400 mg twice a day for 2 weeks) and corticosteroids (oral prednisolone; 0.5–1 mg/kg/day) resulted in comparable outcomes to patients on corticosteroid monotherapy; however, the 6-month recurrence rate in patients treated with combined therapy (17.4%) was significantly lower than that in patients treated with corticosteroid monotherapy (54.5%, P = 0.045). Ingestion of raw cow liver (80.8%) or meat (71.2%) was significantly more common in OT patients than healthy controls. Conclusions Our study discusses the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies for OT. Evaluation of total IgE, in addition to anti-toxocara antibody, can assist in the serologic diagnosis of OT. Combined albendazole and corticosteroid therapy may reduce intraocular inflammation and recurrence. Migrating feature of granuloma is clinically important and may further suggest the

  19. Leber congenital amaurosis/early-onset severe retinal dystrophy: clinical features, molecular genetics and therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Neruban; Moore, Anthony T; Weleber, Richard G; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-09-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and early-onset severe retinal dystrophy (EOSRD) are both genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous, and characterised clinically by severe congenital/early infancy visual loss, nystagmus, amaurotic pupils and markedly reduced/absent full-field electroretinograms. The vast genetic heterogeneity of inherited retinal disease has been established over the last 10 - 20 years, with disease-causing variants identified in 25 genes to date associated with LCA/EOSRD, accounting for 70-80% of cases, with thereby more genes yet to be identified. There is now far greater understanding of the structural and functional associations seen in the various LCA/EOSRD genotypes. Subsequent development/characterisation of LCA/EOSRD animal models has shed light on the underlying pathogenesis and allowed the demonstration of successful rescue with gene replacement therapy and pharmacological intervention in multiple models. These advancements have culminated in more than 12 completed, ongoing and anticipated phase I/II and phase III gene therapy and pharmacological human clinical trials. This review describes the clinical and genetic characteristics of LCA/EOSRD and the differential diagnoses to be considered. We discuss in further detail the diagnostic clinical features, pathophysiology, animal models and human treatment studies and trials, in the more common genetic subtypes and/or those closest to intervention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Leber congenital amaurosis/early-onset severe retinal dystrophy: clinical features, molecular genetics and therapeutic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, Neruban; Moore, Anthony T; Weleber, Richard G; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and early-onset severe retinal dystrophy (EOSRD) are both genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous, and characterised clinically by severe congenital/early infancy visual loss, nystagmus, amaurotic pupils and markedly reduced/absent full-field electroretinograms. The vast genetic heterogeneity of inherited retinal disease has been established over the last 10 - 20 years, with disease-causing variants identified in 25 genes to date associated with LCA/EOSRD, accounting for 70–80% of cases, with thereby more genes yet to be identified. There is now far greater understanding of the structural and functional associations seen in the various LCA/EOSRD genotypes. Subsequent development/characterisation of LCA/EOSRD animal models has shed light on the underlying pathogenesis and allowed the demonstration of successful rescue with gene replacement therapy and pharmacological intervention in multiple models. These advancements have culminated in more than 12 completed, ongoing and anticipated phase I/II and phase III gene therapy and pharmacological human clinical trials. This review describes the clinical and genetic characteristics of LCA/EOSRD and the differential diagnoses to be considered. We discuss in further detail the diagnostic clinical features, pathophysiology, animal models and human treatment studies and trials, in the more common genetic subtypes and/or those closest to intervention. PMID:28689169

  1. Clinical and molecular genetic features of hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Laura; Chung, Wendy K

    2011-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder that may be hereditary (HPAH), idiopathic (IPAH), or associated with either drug-toxin exposures or other medical conditions. Familial cases have long been recognised and are usually due to mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 gene (BMPR2), or, much less commonly, two other members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, activin-like kinase-type 1 (ALK1), and endoglin (ENG), which are associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. In addition, approximately 20% of patients with IPAH carry mutations in BMPR2. Clinical testing for BMPR2 mutations is available and may be offered to HPAH and IPAH patients but should be preceded by genetic counselling, since lifetime penetrance is only 10% to 20%, and there are currently no known effective preventative measures. Identification of a familial mutation can be valuable in reproductive planning and identifying family members who are not mutation carriers and thus will not require lifelong surveillance. With advances in genomic technology and with international collaborative efforts, genome-wide association studies will be conducted to identify additional genes for HPAH, genetic modifiers for BMPR2 penetrance, and genetic susceptibility to IPAH. In addition, collaborative studies of BMPR2 mutation carriers should enable identification of environmental modifiers, biomarkers for disease development and progression, and surrogate markers for efficacy end points in clinical drug development, thereby providing an invaluable resource for trials of PAH prevention.

  2. Headache associated with sexual activity: demography, clinical features, and comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Frese, A; Eikermann, A; Frese, K; Schwaag, S; Husstedt, I-W; Evers, S

    2003-09-23

    S: To provide data on the demography, clinical features, and comorbidity of headache associated with sexual activity (HSA). Between 1996 and 2001, 51 patients with the diagnosis of HSA were questioned using a structured interview. The mean age at onset was 39.2 (+/-11.1) years. There was a clear male preponderance (2.9:1). The age at onset had two peaks, with a first peak between the 20th and 24th (n = 13) years of life and a second peak between the 35th and 44th (n = 20) years of life. Eleven patients had HSA type 1 (dull subtype), which gradually increased with increasing sexual excitement. The remaining (n = 40) had HSA type 2 (explosive subtype). The pain was predominantly bilateral (67%), and diffuse or occipital (76%). The quality was nearly equally distributed among dull, throbbing, and stabbing. HSA was not dependent on specific sexual habits and most often occurred during sexual activity with the usual partner (94%) and during masturbation (35%). There was a high comorbidity with migraine (25%), benign exertional headache (29%), and tension-type headache (45%). HSA types 1 and 2 did not significantly differ in demography, clinical features, or comorbidity, except for a higher probability of stopping the attack by breaking off sexual activity in HSA type 1. There were no cases with HSA type 3 (postural subtype). Mean age at onset, a male preponderance, a predominantly bilateral and occipital pain, and a high comorbidity with other primary headaches are in concordance with case reports in the literature. The authors found two peaks for the age at onset, however. There was no clinical evidence proving subtypes 1 and 2 to be distinct disorders. HSA types 1 and 2 may be different manifestations of the same disease rather than distinct entities.

  3. Clinical and metabolic features of urolithiasis and microlithiasis in children.

    PubMed

    Alpay, Harika; Ozen, Ahmet; Gokce, Ibrahim; Biyikli, Nese

    2009-11-01

    We evaluated the clinical, radiological and metabolic features of 162 children with urolithiasis or microlithiasis who had been referred to our pediatric nephrology clinics between 1998 and 2008 with suspected urolithiasis. The medical histories of these children (78 girls, 84 boys), who ranged in age from 2 months to 16 years (mean age 5.59 +/- 0.35 years), were reviewed retrospectively for clinical and metabolic features of urinary tract calculi. Urinary tract infections (UTI) were present in 45.9% of the cases. The most common presenting symptoms were flank pain or restlessness (25.3%) and hematuria (21.6%), followed by UTI (16%), whereas 23.5% of the cases were detected incidentally during evaluation for other medical conditions. Other symptoms at presentation included dysuria, passing stones, penile edema, enuresis, vomiting and anorexia. Urine analysis revealed metabolic abnormalities in 87% of the cases, including hypercalciuria (33.8%), hypocitraturia (33.1%), hyperoxaluria (26.5%), hyperuricosuria (25.4%), hypocitraturia + hypercalciuria (21.1%), hyperphosphaturia (20.8%) and cystinuria (5.7%). Almost 50% of the patients had a positive family history for urolithiasis. The most frequently involved site was in the kidneys (86%). Ureters and bladder were involved in 12 and 2% of the cases, respectively. A family history of urolithiasis, presenting symptoms and underlying metabolic abnormalities were similar for microlithiasis and the patients with larger stones. However, in our study population, microlithiasis was mainly a disease of young infants, with a greater chance for remission and often not associated with structural changes. The presenting symptoms of urolithiasis show a wide spectrum, so that a high index of suspicion is important for early detection. A metabolic abnormality can be identified in 87% of cases of urolithiasis. Detection of microlithiasis may explain a number of symptoms, thus reducing invasive diagnostic procedures and allowing early

  4. Cardioembolic Stroke: Clinical Features, Specific Cardiac Disorders and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià; Alió, Josefina

    2010-01-01

    This article provides the reader with an overview and up-date of clinical features, specific cardiac disorders and prognosis of cardioembolic stroke. Cardioembolic stroke accounts for 14-30% of ischemic strokes and, in general, is a severe condition; patients with cardioembolic infarction are prone to early and long-term stroke recurrence, although recurrences may be preventable by appropriate treatment during the acute phase and strict control at follow-up. Certain clinical features are suggestive of cardioembolic infarction, including sudden onset to maximal deficit, decreased level of consciousness at onset, Wernicke’s aphasia or global aphasia without hemiparesis, a Valsalva manoeuvre at the time of stroke onset, and co-occurrence of cerebral and systemic emboli. Lacunar clinical presentations, a lacunar infarct and especially multiple lacunar infarcts, make cardioembolic origin unlikely. The more common high risk cardioembolic conditions are atrial fibrillation, recent myocardial infarction, mechanical prosthetic valve, dilated myocardiopathy, and mitral rheumatic stenosis. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram can disclose structural heart diseases. Paroxysmal atrial dysrhyhtmia can be detected by Holter monitoring. In-hospital mortality in cardioembolic stroke (27.3%, in our series) is the highest as compared with other subtypes of cerebral infarction. In our experience, in-hospital mortality in patients with early embolic recurrence (within the first 7 days) was 77%. Patients with alcohol abuse, hypertension, valvular heart disease, nausea and vomiting, and previous cerebral infarction are at increased risk of early recurrent systemic embolization. Secondary prevention with anticoagulants should be started immediately if possible in patients at high risk for recurrent cardioembolic stroke in which contraindications, such as falls, poor compliance, uncontrolled epilepsy or gastrointestinal bleeding are absent. PMID:21804774

  5. Clinical features of headache at altitude: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Silber, E; Sonnenberg, P; Collier, D J; Pollard, A J; Murdoch, D R; Goadsby, P J

    2003-04-08

    Headache is the most common nervous system complication at altitude; however, there have been few attempts to characterize clinical features of high-altitude headaches (HAH). To measure prospectively the incidence of HAH and to determine its risk factors and characteristics. Members of an expedition to Kanchenjunga base camp in Nepal (5,100 m) were prospectively studied. Subjects were interviewed prior to the trip and while trekking recorded headaches experienced at >3,000 m using a structured questionnaire incorporating International Headache Society (IHS) and acute mountain sickness (AMS) criteria. In addition, clinical features of headaches in 19 trekkers in other groups above 3,000 m were recorded using the same questionnaire. Eighty-three percent (50/60) reported at least 1 HAH (median 2, range 0 to 10). Those who developed HAH were younger (p = 0.04); women and persons with headaches in daily life were more likely to report severe headaches (p = 0.03 and p = 0.07). One hundred thirty-eight HAH, experienced by 69 persons, are described. The mean altitude at which headaches occurred was 4,723 m. Twenty-six percent of headaches woke subjects at night or occurred upon awakening. HAH reported by migraineurs were accompanied by more phonophobia (p = 0.008). There were no IHS accompanying symptoms in 44% of headaches or symptoms of AMS in 52% of headaches. Headaches are a frequent complication of ascent to altitude. Older age appears to offer some protection, whereas headaches were more severe in women and persons with headaches in daily life. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with some suggesting intracranial hypertension. There is a need for evidence-based diagnostic criteria for headaches at altitude.

  6. Pediatric surface osteosarcoma: clinical, pathologic, and radiologic features.

    PubMed

    Kaste, Sue C; Fuller, Christine E; Saharia, Ashish; Neel, Michael D; Rao, Bhaskar N; Daw, Najat C

    2006-08-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) arising from the surface of bone is far less common than its intramedullary counterpart. Although surface OSs share some radiographic and clinical features, they can be divided into three distinct histologic subtypes. We reviewed the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of 14 cases of pediatric surface OS treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1970 and 2003. Seven patients had parosteal, five had periosteal, and two had high-grade surface OS. The median age at diagnosis was 16.2 years (range, 13.6-18.5 years). Nine patients were male; 11 were Caucasian. None had metastatic disease at diagnosis. Primary tumor sites included distal femur (n = 6), mid to proximal femur (n = 4), and mid to proximal tibia (n = 4). All 14 patients were treated with surgery, and 7 (1 with parosteal, 4 with periosteal, 2 with high-grade tumors) received chemotherapy. One patient experienced pulmonary metastasis of periosteal OS 16 months and 43 months after diagnosis; long-term disease-free survival followed resection of the metastatic tumors. Twelve patients remained alive and disease-free a median of 10 years (range, 1.5-25.4 years) after diagnosis. One patient died of high-grade surface OS 1.8 years after diagnosis, and one patient with periosteal OS died of gastric cancer 18.2 years after diagnosis of OS. The histologic grade predicts the clinical behavior of pediatric surface OS. Complete resection is the treatment of choice regardless of tumor subtype. Whereas chemotherapy is not indicated for parosteal OS, its role in periosteal OS remains controversial.

  7. Primary dystonias and genetic disorders with dystonia as clinical feature of the disease.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Narges; Jabbari, Bahman; Szekely, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Dystonia is probably the most common form of movement disorder encountered in the clinical practice. It is characterized by sustained muscle contractions, usually producing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures or positions. Dystonias can be classified in several ways, including primarily by the clinical phenomenology or by the underlining etiology, in particular to understand if the presentation is genetically determined. By advances of genetics, including contemporary genomic technologies, there is a growing understanding of the molecular underpinnings of genetically determined dystonias. The intricacy of information requires a user friendly, novel database that may efficiently serve clinicians to inform of advances of the field and to diagnose and manage these often complex cases. Here we present an up to date, comprehensive review - in tabulated formats - of genetically determined primary dystonias and complex Mendelian disorders with dystonia as central feature. The detailed search up to December 24, 2012, identified 24 hereditary primary dystonias (DYT1 to DYT 25) that are mostly monogenic disorders, and a larger group (>70) of genetic syndromes in which dystonia is one of the characteristic clinical features. We organized the findings not only by individual information (name of the conditions, pattern of inheritance, chromosome and gene abnormality, clinical features, relevant ancillary tests and key references), but also provide symptom-oriented organization of the clinical entities for efficient inquiries.

  8. Clinical features and course of generalized pustular psoriasis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyunju; Cho, Hyun-Ho; Kim, Won-Jeong; Mun, Je-Ho; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Hyojin; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-07-01

    The clinical course of generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is variable and unpredictable. Sufficient data on the clinical course of the disease has not been reported due to its rarity. To investigate the clinical features and course of GPP according to its subtypes, medical records of patients diagnosed with GPP from 2002 to 2012 at two tertiary hospitals were reviewed. The data included patient demographics, associated symptoms, aggravating factors, patterns of relapse and prognosis. Thirty-three patients with GPP were included in our study, with a mean age of 45.6 years and a male : female ratio of 1:1.2. Patients were categorized based on the following subtypes: acute GPP, 21 (63.6%); GPP of pregnancy, two (6.1%); juvenile GPP, three (9.1%); and annular GPP, seven (21.2%). In the acute GPP population, skin lesions cleared within 2 months in 11 (73.3%) patients, and six (40.0%) of these had no relapse. Severe complications, abortion or death, were observed in two patients (100.0%) with GPP of pregnancy. Nineteen (76.0%) of the GPP patients experienced persistence or relapse of skin lesions. The patterns of skin lesions upon relapse included plaques in six patients (31.6%), pustules in eight patients (42.1%), and plaques and pustules in five patients (26.3%). Among acute GPP patients, 16.7% of patients with no relapse had a history of plaque psoriasis. However, 77.8% of patients with persistence and relapse in their clinical course had a history of plaque psoriasis. In conclusion, our study presents the detailed clinical course of GPP by subtype in Korean patients. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. Clinical features of idiopathic inflammatory polymyopathy in the Hungarian Vizsla.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Anna; Addicott, Diane; Foale, Rob D; Bowman, Chloe; Hahn, Caroline; Long, Sam; Massey, Jonathan; Haley, Allison C; Knowler, Susan P; Day, Michael J; Kennedy, Lorna J; Rusbridge, Clare

    2015-04-21

    A retrospective study of the clinicopathological features of presumed and confirmed cases of idiopathic inflammatory polymyopathy in the Hungarian Vizsla dog and guidelines for breeding. 369 medical records were reviewed (1992-2013) and 77 Hungarian Vizslas were identified with a case history consistent with idiopathic inflammatory polymyopathy. Inclusion criteria were: group 1 (confirmed diagnosis); histopathology and clinical findings compatible with an inflammatory polymyopathy and group 2 (probable diagnosis); clinical findings compatible with a polymyopathy including dysphagia, sialorrhea, temporal muscle atrophy, elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, and sufficient clinical history to suggest that other neuromuscular disorders could be ruled out. Some group 2 dogs had muscle biopsy, which suggested muscle disease but did not reveal an inflammatory process. The mean age of onset was 2.4 years; male dogs were slightly overrepresented. Common presenting signs were dysphagia, sialorrhea, masticatory muscle atrophy, and regurgitation. Common muscle histopathological findings included degenerative and regenerative changes, with multifocal mononuclear cell infiltration with lymphoplasmacytic myositis of variable severity. A positive response to immunosuppressive treatment supported an immune-mediated aetiology. The mean age at death and survival time were 6.4 and 3.9 years, respectively. Recurrence of clinical signs and aspiration pneumonia were common reasons for euthanasia. Diagnosis of Vizsla idiopathic inflammatory polymyopathy can be challenging due to lack of specific tests, however the presence of dysphagia, regurgitation and masticatory muscle atrophy in this breed with negative serological tests for masticatory muscle myositis and myasthenia gravis, along with muscle biopsies suggesting an inflammatory process, support the diagnosis. However, there is an urgent need for a more specific diagnostic test. The average of inbreeding coefficient (Co

  10. Primary breast sarcoma: prevalence, clinical signs, and radiological features.

    PubMed

    Surov, Alexey; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Ruschke, Kathrin; Spielmann, Rolf Peter

    2011-07-01

    Primary breast sarcoma is very rare. Most reports regarding sarcoma of the breast are clinical observations or pathological series and provide either no or inconstant radiological information. Radiological publications consist predominantly of isolated case reports or small series. To determine the prevalence, clinical signs, and radiological features of primary breast sarcoma. This is a retrospective review of 21 patients with breast sarcoma. All patients were female and their median age was 66 years (range 27-86). In all patients the diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically. The prevalence of breast sarcoma was 0.1% of all identified cases with breast malignancies. Clinically, all patients presented with solitary painless breast lumps. There was no uni- or bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. On mammography (n = 19), two mammographic patterns could be identified: breast masses (68%), and architectural distortion (32%). On ultrasound (n = 8), most lesions were homogeneously hypoechoic, lobular or oval in shape with microlobulated or indistinct margins. On magnetic resonance imaging (n = 3), marked inhomogeneous contrast enhancement was seen in all investigated cases. The imaging findings of primary breast sarcoma are not pathognomonic. However, they should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions.

  11. Prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and pathological features of duodenitis in children

    PubMed Central

    Alper, Arik; Hardee, Steven; Rojas-velasquez, Danilo; Escalera, Sandra; Morotti, Raffaella A; Pashankar, Dinesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While gastritis and esophagitis are well studied in children, there is very limited literature on duodenitis in children. We aimed to assess the prevalence, etiology, clinical, endoscopic, and pathological features in a large cohort of unselected children with duodenitis. Methods We reviewed the pathology reports of all upper endoscopies performed at our institution over 5 years to identify children with duodenitis. Biopsy sections were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of duodenitis. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic data and presence of associated gastritis and esophagitis were noted in all children with duodenitis. Etiology of duodenitis was correlated with the patient's clinical diagnosis. Results Out of 2772 children who had endoscopy, 352 had duodenitis with the prevalence rate of 12.7%. Gastritis was seen in 64% of children with duodenitis compared with 46% of children without duodenitis (P < 0.001). Common indications for endoscopy in children with duodenitis were abdominal pain, positive celiac serology and diarrhea. The most common etiology was celiac disease (32%), followed by Crohn's disease (13%), ulcerative colitis (3%), and Helicobacter pylori infection (6%). In 63% of cases, endoscopic appearance of duodenum was normal. Cryptitis, villous changes and cellular infiltration were noted on histology. Conclusions Prevalence of duodenitis is 12.7% in children undergoing endoscopy. Celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease are common causes of duodenitis. Associated gastritis is common in children with duodenitis and correlation of endoscopic appearance with histology is poor. PMID:26252915

  12. Clinical Features of Severe or Fatal Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Izumikawa, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia in children and young adults. The incidence of fulminant M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is relatively rare despite the high prevalence of M. pneumoniae infection. This literature review highlights the clinical features of fulminant MPP by examining the most recent data in epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and treatment. Fulminant MPP accounts for 0.5–2% of all MPP cases and primarily affects young adults with no underlying disease. Key clinical findings include a cough, fever, and dyspnea along with diffuse abnormal findings in radiological examinations. Levels of inflammatory markers such as white blood cells and C-reactive protein are elevated, as well as levels of lactate dehydrogenase, IL-18, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. The exact pathogenesis of fulminant MPP remains unclear, but theories include a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to M. pneumoniae and the contribution of delayed antibiotic administration to disease progression. Treatment options involve pairing the appropriate anti-mycoplasma agent with a corticosteroid that will downregulate the hypersensitivity response, and mortality rates are quite low in this treatment group. Further research is necessary to determine the exact pathogenesis of severe and fulminant types of MPP. PMID:27313568

  13. [Clinical features of reversed halo sign in cryptogenic organizing pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yukihisa; Yoshimura, Nobuyuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Saito, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Kyouko; Kurata, Kiyoko; Kobayashi, Akiko; Yamazaki, Keiichi; Jin, Yasuto; Inase, Naohiko

    2011-02-01

    Reversed halo sign (RHS) is often seen in computed tomography (CT) scans of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). To investigate its clinical features, we retrospectively reviewed 30 cases of COP in 13 men and 17 women, whose age range 28 to 73, with a mean of 58.4 years. All diagnoses were made with transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB), but it took an average of 24.8 days from the first visit until the diagnosis of COP. RHS was seen in 7 cases (23%) and multiple RHSs were seen in 3 cases. We treated 5 cases (71%) with steroids. Their CT images showed parenchymal abnormalities which started as nodular lesions, then enlarged, and then the central lesion changed into ground-glass opacities, until finally, RHS was formed. The presence of RHS does not necessarily indicate a marked difference in the clinical course of COP. In conclusion, in the present series RHS was a phase of the clinical course of COP, and was useful to diagnose COP.

  14. The clinical features of the overlap between COPD and asthma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The coexistence of COPD and asthma is widely recognized but has not been well described. This study characterizes clinical features, spirometry, and chest CT scans of smoking subjects with both COPD and asthma. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study comparing subjects with COPD and asthma to subjects with COPD alone in the COPDGene Study. Results 119 (13%) of 915 subjects with COPD reported a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These subjects were younger (61.3 vs 64.7 years old, p = 0.0001) with lower lifetime smoking intensity (43.7 vs 55.1 pack years, p = 0.0001). More African-Americans reported a history of asthma (33.6% vs 15.6%, p < 0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated worse disease-related quality of life, were more likely to have had a severe COPD exacerbation in the past year, and were more likely to experience frequent exacerbations (OR 3.55 [2.19, 5.75], p < 0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated greater gas-trapping on chest CT. There were no differences in spirometry or CT measurements of emphysema or airway wall thickness. Conclusion Subjects with COPD and asthma represent a relevant clinical population, with worse health-related quality of life. They experience more frequent and severe respiratory exacerbations despite younger age and reduced lifetime smoking history. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00608764 PMID:21951550

  15. Extraocular muscle cysticercosis: clinical features and management outcome.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Ramesh; Samant, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Extraocular muscle cysticercosis is rare and can be classified based on the stage of evolution as viable, degenerating, and inactive. A tailored approach to therapy using a combination of albendazole and steroids has been proposed. In this study, we have evaluated the clinical features and response of "viable" extraocular muscle cysticercosis to a tailored therapy with oral albendazole and steroids. A retrospective review of 32 patients with viable extraocular muscle cysticercosis was performed over a 3-year period. Ultrasound examination was performed at 3 weeks and 6 weeks for resolution of the cyst and clinical signs following treatment with oral albendazole and prednisolone. The clinical presentation, ocular alignment, motility restriction, and ultrasound examination details were recorded on serial visits. The mean age was 19.5 years. The most common presenting signs included limitation of ocular motility in 75%, conjunctival mass in 37.5%, diplopia in 28.1%, and proptosis in 28.1% of the patients, respectively. Ocular alignment evaluation revealed esotropia in 3.1%, exotropia in 12.5%, and hypertropia in 6.25%. Restriction of abduction and abduction in elevation was present in two patients each. The average time for complete resolution was 65.9 days. All the patients had resolution, except four, who had residual motility limitation but were asymptomatic. Combination therapy with oral albendazole and steroids is effective in the management of viable extraocular muscle cysticercosis. However, residual motility restriction may persist despite treatment.

  16. Clinical features and course of bacterial meningitis in children.

    PubMed

    Juganariu, Gabriela; Miftode, Egidia; Teodor, Danuţ; Leca, Daniela; Dorobăţ, Carmen-Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the clinical features and course of and to define the risk factors for bacterial meningitis in children. Retrospective study of 100 cases of bacterial meningitis in patients aged 0-18 years admitted to the Iasi Infectious Diseases Hospital between 2005 and 2010. We found a clear prevalence in male children (58%) from rural area (67%), with the highest incidence in the age group 2-5 years. A significant percentage of patients (43%) had previous hospitalization, condition which is known as predisposing factor for bacterial meningitis, the most common being ear infections (20%) and height and weight deficit (9%). 71% of patients were admitted within the first 48 h. The most common onset clinical manifestations were fever (84%), vomiting (70%), signs of meningeal irritation (59%), somnolence (23%), loss of appetite (19%), and coma in 5% of patients. In 36% of cases CSF was opalescent with moderate pleocytosis (35%); in 29% of patients CSF albumin level ranged between 0.7-1.0 g, the majority presenting normal glycorahia (71%). In only 21% of cases the microbial agent was identified (pneumococcal and meningococcal etiology, 8% and 6%, respectively). The course was generally favorable, and mortality rate was low (5%). Complications occurred in 3% of patients consisting in hydrocephalus and brain abscess. Bacterial meningitis remains a disease with potentially severe course. Clinical onset, most commonly atypical in children, requires differential diagnosis at the time of admission in order to initiate the most appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  17. The clinical features of the overlap between COPD and asthma.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Megan; Silverman, Edwin K; Barr, R Graham; Hansel, Nadia N; Schroeder, Joyce D; Make, Barry J; Crapo, James D; Hersh, Craig P

    2011-09-27

    The coexistence of COPD and asthma is widely recognized but has not been well described. This study characterizes clinical features, spirometry, and chest CT scans of smoking subjects with both COPD and asthma. We performed a cross-sectional study comparing subjects with COPD and asthma to subjects with COPD alone in the COPDGene Study. 119 (13%) of 915 subjects with COPD reported a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These subjects were younger (61.3 vs 64.7 years old, p=0.0001) with lower lifetime smoking intensity (43.7 vs 55.1 pack years, p=0.0001). More African-Americans reported a history of asthma (33.6% vs 15.6%, p<0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated worse disease-related quality of life, were more likely to have had a severe COPD exacerbation in the past year, and were more likely to experience frequent exacerbations (OR 3.55 [2.19, 5.75], p<0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated greater gas-trapping on chest CT. There were no differences in spirometry or CT measurements of emphysema or airway wall thickness. Subjects with COPD and asthma represent a relevant clinical population, with worse health-related quality of life. They experience more frequent and severe respiratory exacerbations despite younger age and reduced lifetime smoking history. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00608764.

  18. Meningioangiomatosis. A comprehensive analysis of clinical and laboratory features.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, S; Munoz, D G; Smith, S; Lee, D H

    1999-04-01

    Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare, benign, focal lesion of the leptomeninges and underlying cerebral cortex characterized by leptomeningeal and meningovascular proliferation. It may occur sporadically or in association with neurofibromatosis type 2. Previous reports have emphasized histological and imaging features. Data on the management of these patients are sparse, and electrophysiological features of MA lesions have not been published. We assessed the clinical, electrophysiological, histopathological and imaging features as well as the surgical outcome in MA, and compared MA with and without neurofibromatosis. Seven patients with MA at our centre were investigated and their outcome was assessed. A review of the literature is included. MA exhibits a wide range of clinical, imaging, histopathological and electrophysiological features, making the diagnosis difficult. Sporadic MA cases are not associated with neurofibromatosis and the two disorders are genetically distinct. Medically refractory, localization-related epilepsy is the commonest presentation in sporadic cases, but atypical presentations also occur. Unlike sporadic cases, MA with neurofibromatosis is often found incidentally, does not produce seizures, occurs less frequently (ratio of 1:4), and is multifocal. MRI findings in MA correspond to the histological picture. However, the appearance on imaging is non-specific and may suggest cystic atrophy, angioma and tumours. Several abnormalities have been found in close proximity to MA lesions, i.e. meningioma, oligodendroglioma, arteriovenous malformation, encephalocoel and orbital erosion. In spite of histopathological diversity, MA lesions are either predominantly cellular or vascular. Immunohistochemical results are inconsistent among cases, add little to the diagnosis, and do not support a meningeal origin. Electrocorticographic recordings from the surface and within MA lesions revealed a spectrum of electrophysiological expressions. Intrinsic

  19. Lung Cancer Gene Signatures and Clinical Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kuner, Ruprecht

    2013-01-01

    Microarrays have been used for more than two decades in preclinical research. The tumor transcriptional profiles were analyzed to select cancer-associated genes for in-deep functional characterization, to stratify tumor subgroups according to the histopathology or diverse clinical courses, and to assess biological and cellular functions behind these gene sets. In lung cancer—the main type of cancer causing mortality worldwide—biomarker research focuses on different objectives: the early diagnosis of curable tumor diseases, the stratification of patients with prognostic unfavorable operable tumors to assess the need for further therapy regimens, or the selection of patients for the most efficient therapies at early and late stages. In non-small cell lung cancer, gene and miRNA signatures are valuable to differentiate between the two main subtypes’ squamous and non-squamous tumors, a discrimination which has further implications for therapeutic schemes. Further subclassification within adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma has been done to correlate histopathological phenotype with disease outcome. Those tumor subgroups were assigned by diverse transcriptional patterns including potential biomarkers and therapy targets for future diagnostic and clinical applications. In lung cancer, none of these signatures have entered clinical routine for testing so far. In this review, the status quo of lung cancer gene signatures in preclinical and clinical research will be presented in the context of future clinical perspectives. PMID:27605195

  20. Clinical features of catheter-related candidemia at disease onset

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Yusuke; Wakabayashi, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Satoshi; Seo, Kazunori; Koga, Ichiro; Kitazawa, Takatoshi; Okugawa, Shu; Ota, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Early detection of catheter-related candidemia is necessary to ensure that patients receive prompt and appropriate treatment. The aim of the present case-control study is to investigate the clinical features of catheter-related candidemia at disease onset, so as to determine the clinical indications for empiric antifungal therapy. METHODS All 41 cases of catheter-related candidemia from September 2009 to August 2011 at a teaching hospital were included in the present study. To determine the characteristics that were risk factors for developing catheter-related candidemia, we compared all cases of catheter-related candidemia with all 107 cases of catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) caused by non-Candida spp. RESULTS In comparison with CRBSI due to non-Candida spp., the duration of catheter use was significantly longer in cases of catheter-related candidemia (13.9 ± 9.0 days vs. 23.2 ± 25.2 days). There was also a significant difference in the frequency of pre-antibiotic treatment between catheter-related candidemia and CRBSI due to non-Candida spp. (97.6% [40/41 cases] vs. 44.9% [48/107 cases]). Patients with catheter-related candidemia also had significantly more severe clinical statuses (measured using the Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score) than patients with CRBSI due to non-Candida spp. (7.63 ± 3.65 vs. 5.92 ± 2.81). CONCLUSION When compared to patients with CRBSI caused by non-Candida spp., patients with catheter-related candidemia had significantly more severe clinical backgrounds, longer duration of catheter use and more frequent prior administration of antibiotic agents. PMID:25631968

  1. Clinical and microbiological features of maternal sepsis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Abir, G; Akdagli, S; Butwick, A; Carvalho, B

    2017-02-01

    Identifying pregnant women with sepsis is challenging because diagnostic clinical and laboratory criteria overlap with normal pregnant physiologic indices. Our primary study aim was to describe clinical and laboratory characteristics of women diagnosed with sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. Our secondary aim was to determine positive predictive values for International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 billing codes for sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. After gaining Institutional Review Board approval, we identified women with ICD-9 codes for sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock who were admitted to a single tertiary obstetric center from 2007-2013. Diagnoses were confirmed using criteria from the International Sepsis Definitions Conference report. Demographic, obstetric, vital signs and laboratory data were abstracted by medical chart review. We identified 190 women with sepsis-related ICD-9 codes: of these, 35 (18%) women met the criteria for a clinical diagnosis of sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock. Twenty (57%) women had a sepsis-related diagnosis after cesarean delivery. Twenty-one (60%) women had one or more pre-existing medical conditions and 19 (54%) women had one or more obstetric-related conditions. The genital tract was the most common site of infection. We observed considerable heterogeneity in maternal vital signs and laboratory indices for women with ICD-9 codes for sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. The positive predictive value for each sepsis-related ICD-9 code was low: 16% (95% CI 10 to 24%) for sepsis, 10% (95% CI 3 to 25%) for severe sepsis and 24% (95% CI 10 to 46%) for septic shock. We identified marked heterogeneity in patient characteristics, clinical features, laboratory indices and microbiological findings among cohorts of women diagnosed with maternal sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock. Based on our findings, the incidence of maternal sepsis using ICD-9 codes may be significantly overestimated. Copyright

  2. Clinical features and management of Hadronyche envenomation in man.

    PubMed

    Miller, M K; Whyte, I M; White, J; Keir, P M

    2000-03-01

    Using case reports and a review of the literature, the clinical features of envenomation by the genus of Australian funnel web spiders known as Hadronyche, are characterised. Five cases are reported here, including the first life-threatening envenomation by Hadronyche species 14 (the Port Macquarie funnel web). Two severe envenomations by Hadronyche cerberea (the Southern Tree funnel web) and one each by Hadronyche formidabilis (the Northern Tree funnel web) and Hadronyche infensa (the Darling Downs funnel web) are also described. The clinical experience of the authors' provided the five cases described in detail one of which has previously been reported in brief. Eight cases of Hadronyche envenomation from the literature (Medline 1966-1998 and Embase 1980-1998) were analysed in order to draw comparisons between this syndrome and the well described envenomation syndrome of Atrax robustus (the Sydney funnel web). Reports of funnel web spider antivenom use to Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL) between 1995 and June 1998 were also examined. The biology of these dangerous spiders, their geographic distribution, venom characteristics and management issues are addressed. It is concluded that bites from at least six Hadronyche species have produced a life-threatening envenomation syndrome clinically indistinguishable from that of Atrax robustus. Atrax robustus derived antivenom is effective although antivenom requirements may be greater than for Atrax envenomation. Antivenom supplies are limited and sufficient stocks to treat a severe envenomation are unlikely to be found in any one institution. Pressure-immobilisation first aid is effective in delaying onset of envenomation, may enhance local inactivation of venom and early removal can result in rapid clinical deterioration.

  3. Clinical features of acute corpus callosum infarction patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Li; Huang, Yi-Ning; Cui, Zhi-Tang

    2014-01-01

    The clinical manifestation of acute corpus callosum (CC) infarction is lack of specificity and complex, so it is easily missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis in the early stage. The present study aims to describe the clinical features of the acute CC infarction. In this study, 25 patients with corpus callosum infarction confirmed by the brain MRI/DWI and the risk factors were summarized. Patients were classified into genu infarction (3 cases), body infarction (4cases), body and genu infarction (4 cases), body and splenium infarction (1 case), splenium infarction (13 cases) according to lesion location. Clinical manifestation and prognosis were analyzed among groups. The results indicated that CC infarction in patients with high-risk group accounted for 72%, moderate-risk group accounted for 20%, low-risk group (8%). The main risk factors are carotid intimal thickening or plaque formation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cerebral artery stenosis, and so on. The CC infarction often merged with other parts infarction, and splenium infarction had the highest incidence, the clinical symptoms in the body infarction which can appear typical signs and symptoms, but in other parts infarction which always merged many nerve defect symptoms. The body infarction prognosis is poor; the rest parts of infarction are more favorable prognosis. In conclusion, CC infarction has the highest incidence in the stroke of high-risk group; neck color Doppler and TCD examination can be found as early as possible to explore the pathogenic factors. Prognosis is usually much better by treatment according to the location and risk factors. PMID:25197390

  4. Clinical features of soft bipolarity in major depressive inpatients.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takeshi; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Shimada, Iwao; Mabuchi, Mayuko; Motonaga, Takuro; Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Tochigi, Mamoru; Kato, Nobumasa; Nanko, Shinichiro

    2006-10-01

    Because of the difficulties of ascertaining episode of hypomania by past history of the patients, it is of clinical value to find variables which predict the development of bipolar II disorder in depressive patients. Taking advantage of relatively long hospitalization, the authors tried to elucidate fine clinical features of the soft bipolarity. The subjects were 39 patients with Major Depressive Episode, diagnosed according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual criteria. Among them, 15 patients were diagnosed as bipolar II disorder (BPII), whereas 24 patients were with unipolar depression (UP), using a structured clinical interview to assess the mood spectrum (SCI-MOODS). In addition to ordinary clinical and demographic variables, the authors studied fine symptomatology of depression, premorbid personality, and interpersonal relationship. Continuous variables were analyzed by t-test. Categorical variables were tested by chi2 analysis. In terms of premorbid personality, manic type (Zerssen) was found more frequently in BPII (UP 2/24, BPII 9/15, P < 0.05). Patients with BPII tended to show apparently quick disappearance of depressive symptoms (UP 2/24, BPII 9/15, P = 0.01). The most prominent result was a high prevalence of comorbidity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) among BPII (UP 0/24, BPII 6/15, P = 0.02). As Akiskal indicated that mood lability represents the most powerful predictor of hypomanias, patients with BPII showed quick response in mood to admission. The current subjects with BPII had high frequency of manic type of premorbid personality, indicating the usefulness of this variable for the prediction of hypomanias. Finally, the authors could observe development of BPD during hospitalization exclusively among BPII, to support the possibility of BPD as a state effect of BPII.

  5. Male patient with non-mosaic deleted Y-chromosome and clinical features of Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Graham, B H; Bacino, C A

    2003-06-01

    Turner syndrome is hypothesized to result from haplo-insufficiency of a gene or perhaps multiple genes present on the sex chromosomes; however, the frequent association of mosaicism with deletions of the sex chromosomes prevents establishing useful genotype/phenotype correlations. In this clinical report, we present a male with a de novo, non-mosaic deletion of the Y-chromosome. The phenotype of this patient is unlike any similar cases previously reported in the literature. This patient exhibits many classical clinical features of Turner syndrome including short stature, characteristic facial anomalies, and webbed neck with low posterior hairline, aortic valve abnormality, and hearing impairment. Detailed molecular characterization of this deleted Y-chromosome could provide important information towards establishing genotype/phenotype correlations in Turner syndrome.

  6. Radiological and clinical features of adult non-puerperal mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, H; Li, R; Liu, H; Gu, Y; Shen, X

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the radiological and clinical features of adult non-puerperal mastitis and to determine the most accurate method of preventing unnecessary surgical procedures. Methods: Clinical and imaging findings were retrospectively reviewed in 51 females with non-puerperal mastitis, which was confirmed by biopsy/surgical pathology. All 51 patients had pre-operative MRI; 45 patients also had sonograms and 25 also had mammograms, pre-operatively. Results: Of the 51 cases with non-puerperal mastitis, 94.1% (48/51) were confirmed as having acute or chronic inflammation, and the other 3 had plasma cell mastitis; areola papillaris inflammation was found in 39.2% (20/51) of the cases. Overall, 6 of the 25 cases that were examined with mammography and 2 of the 45 cases that were examined with sonography appeared normal, but all 51 lesions were positively identified on MRI. Asymmetrical density (12/25) on mammograms and solitary or separated/contiguous, clustered, hypoechoic mass-like lesions (31/45) on ultrasound were the most common signs of non-puerperal mastitis. On enhanced MRI, 90.2% (46/51) of patients showed non-mass-like enhanced lesions. Multiple regional enhancements in the pattern of distribution (32/46) and separated or contiguous, clustered, rim-like enhancements in the pattern of internal enhancement (29/46) were the most common manifestations in non-mass-like enhanced lesions. Of the 51 patients, mastitis Type 1 and Type 2 in the time–signal intensity curve were detected in 47.1% and 51.0% of the patients, respectively. The breast imaging reporting and data system categories with the highest number of patients were Category 0 (9/25) on mammography, Category 4a on sonography (18/45) and Category 4a on MRI (29/51). Conclusion: The findings from mammography and ultrasound are non-specific; therefore, using MR can be helpful in the diagnosis, especially in the presence of non-mass-like enhancements that are multiple, regional, separated, or

  7. [Analysis of six cases concerning clinical features of rhinolith].

    PubMed

    Ran, Xiangqun; Zhao, Xingyu; Tong, Hongxia

    2014-11-01

    To analyze six cases concerning clinical features, the treatment process and curative effect of Rhinolith. The six patients had unilateral nasal obstruction, three of them were accompanied with purulent nasal discharge, two had blood with them, one patient had repeated hemorrhage of nasal cavity and two patients had developed headache. By using endoscopic, four irregular stones which are yellow, gray and brown were found in the middle and back end. Because of the severe nasal septum deviation and inferior turbinate polypoid, the stone could not be seen clearly but could be touched by aspirator. In sinus CT examination of 6 cases, it showed incomplete irregular shapes and had high density unilateral nasal cavity in the posterior segment. 4 patients had nasal deviation, 3 patients had ipsilateral sinusitis. 4 patients removed their stone by using endoscopy, 2 patients took the stone away after correction of nasal septum. Pathologic diagnosis: rhinolith. Two patients also had exogenous foreign matters which were considered as pseudo nasal stones.

  8. Myhre syndrome: Clinical features and restrictive cardiopulmonary complications.

    PubMed

    Starr, Lois J; Grange, Dorothy K; Delaney, Jeffrey W; Yetman, Anji T; Hammel, James M; Sanmann, Jennifer N; Perry, Deborah A; Schaefer, G Bradley; Olney, Ann Haskins

    2015-12-01

    Myhre syndrome, a connective tissue disorder characterized by deafness, restricted joint movement, compact body habitus, and distinctive craniofacial and skeletal features, is caused by heterozygous mutations in SMAD4. Cardiac manifestations reported to date have included patent ductus arteriosus, septal defects, aortic coarctation and pericarditis. We present five previously unreported patients with Myhre syndrome. Despite varied clinical phenotypes all had significant cardiac and/or pulmonary pathology and abnormal wound healing. Included herein is the first report of cardiac transplantation in patients with Myhre syndrome. A progressive and markedly abnormal fibroproliferative response to surgical intervention is a newly delineated complication that occurred in all patients and contributes to our understanding of the natural history of this disorder. We recommend routine cardiopulmonary surveillance for patients with Myhre syndrome. Surgical intervention should be approached with extreme caution and with as little invasion as possible as the propensity to develop fibrosis/scar tissue is dramatic and can cause significant morbidity and mortality.

  9. Diffuse Lewy body disease: clinical features in 15 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, E J; Lennox, G; Lowe, J; Godwin-Austen, R B

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen cases of diffuse Lewy body disease were diagnosed on pathological grounds during a single year in one health district. The range and frequency of clinical features contrast strikingly with previous reports. The majority of cases presented with classical levodopa-responsive Parkinson's disease either alone (6 cases) or with mild cognitive impairment (3 cases); the remaining 6 cases presented with cognitive impairment alone. In time almost all patients developed both dementia and Parkinsonism. The dementia was cortical in type, but unusual in that most (12 cases) showed day-to-day fluctuation in severity at some point in their illness. These findings suggest that diffuse Lewy body disease is not rare, and that it presents in a range of ways from dementia with subsequent Parkinsonism to Parkinson's disease with subsequent dementia. The latter mode of presentation suggests that it should be considered as a significant pathological substrate of dementia in Parkinson's disease. Images PMID:2545827

  10. Clinical features of cystic fibrosis patients with rare genotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Castaldo, G; Rippa, E; Raia, V; Salvatore, D; Massa, C; de Ritis, G; Salvatore, F

    1996-01-01

    We describe the clinical features of seven cystic fibrosis patients from southern Italy who bear rare genotypes: (1) a patient homozygous for the 2183 AA-->G mutation who was affected by a very early pulmonary form of cystic fibrosis, and five patients who were compound heterozygotes either for the 2183 AA-->G mutation or for the I148T mutation, in both instances with the delta F508 mutation; and (2) a patient homozygous for the early nonsense R553X mutation who showed only a moderately severe form of cystic fibrosis. Our results confirm that environmental or genetic factors unrelated to the CF disease contribute significantly to the development of the phenotype. Images PMID:8825054

  11. [Clinical features of sleep disorders in older adults].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shigeru; Tamura, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    There are three major neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the sleep-waking cycle: the sleep system, the waking system, and the system that determines sleep-waking timing. Sleep dlisorders of older adults seem to be caused by functional or organic changes in one or more of the three systems, and are roughly classified into two categories: (i) normal age-related, and (ii) pathological. The former includes decreased amplitude and advanced phase of circadian rhythms (body temperature, melatonin secretion, and sleep-waking), as well as reduced sleep duration, sleep fragmentation, and a decrease of slow-wave sleep in sleep architecture. Pathological sleep disorders include medical and psychiatric diseases (e.g., lifestyle-related diseases, dementia, delirium, and depression) and primary age-related sleep disorders (e.g., REM sleep behavior disorder and periodic limb move- ment disorders). This mini-review delineates the clinical features of sleep disorders in older adults.

  12. Idiopathic photosensitive occipital epilepsy: clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) features.

    PubMed

    Politi-Elishkevich, Keren; Kivity, Sara; Shuper, Avinoam; Levine, Hagit; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa

    2014-03-01

    Idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy is a reflex, age- and localization-related syndrome. We describe the clinical and electroencephalographic features, therapy, and outcome of 16 children/adolescents with this syndrome. The cohort included 2 sets of siblings and 7 patients with other first- or second-degree relatives with a seizure history. All patients had occipital onset seizures and 15 had secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Seizure frequency was relatively low in all patients but one. Myoclonic seizures later developed in 2 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Eight patients achieved full seizure control with monotherapy, and 5 required a second drug; 3 patients had rare seizures and were not treated with antiepileptics. Seven patients required special education or developmental assistance. This interesting syndrome sheds light on the pathophysiology and genetic etiology of common phenomena such as photosensitivity and headache. Further large prospective studies are required to better define this unique syndrome and its implications.

  13. Pachydermoperiostosis, a unique entity with distinctive clinical features.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Fragoso, Fátima; Méndez-Flores, Silvia; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith

    2015-05-18

    Pachydermoperiostosis, which occurs more frequently in men, is a rare entity with distinctive clinical features and an insidious onset.. We report the case of a 30-year-old man with a one-year history of acropachy, arthralgias, hiperhidrosis, and progressive skin thickening of the face and scalp. The radiological findings were consistent with periostosis and the histopathological analysis from a facial skin biopsy showed a pandermal increase in the thickness and number of collagen bundles. The pathogenesis of PDP is currently unknown, although an increased secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which stimulates the overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has been suggested as a major factor. No specific treatment exists; however, in most cases, the disease tends to stabilize over time.

  14. [Clinical and microbiological features of Salmonella gastroenteritis in children].

    PubMed

    Saporito, Laura; Colomba, Claudia; Scarlata, Francesco; Li Vecchi, Vatentina; Mammina, Caterina; Titone, Lucina

    2007-03-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of Salmonella spp in children hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis, and to study clinical and microbiological features of paediatric salmonellosis in our geographical area. In all, 540 patients admitted from March to September 2003 with symptoms of acute enteritis to the Infectious Diseases department of the "G. Di Cristina" hospital in Palermo were enrolled. Stool samples were collected within 48 hours of admission and tested for intestinal pathogens (bacterial, viral, parasites). Salmonella spp was detected in 18.5% of samples. The median age of infected children was 4.5 years. Salmonella enteritidis (49%) and Salmonella typhimurium (37%) were the most commonly identified genotypes. S. enteritidis infection was more frequently characterized by vomiting (65.3%) and dehydration (61.2%). Bloody diarrhoea was more common in S. typhimurium infection (40.5%). All strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone, while 40% of strains were resistant to tetracyclines and 37% to ampicillin.

  15. Clinical and Histopathologic Features of Fluoroquinolone-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Orman, Eric S.; Conjeevaram, Hari S.; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Freston, James W.; Rochon, James; Kleiner, David E.; Hayashi, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Fluoroquinolone-induced liver injury is rare; no prospective studies of well-characterized case series have been published. We studied patients with fluoroquinolone-induced hepatoxicity, using data from the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) to characterize injury patterns, outcomes, and associated features. Methods We identified subjects with fluoroquinolone hepatotoxicity who enrolled in the DILIN from September 2004 to January 2010. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods. Results Of the 679 registrants in the DILIN prospective study, 12 had hepatoxicity from fluoroquinolones (6 ciprofloxacin, 4 moxifloxacin, 1 levofloxacin, and 1 gatifloxacin). Seven were women; the median age was 57 years (range 23–80 years), and the median time from the start of fluoroquinolone therapy to symptoms was only 4 days (range 1–39 days). Nine cases developed symptoms on medication (2, 8, and 32 days after they stopped the medication, 3 patients each). Cases were equally distributed among hepatocellular injury (predominantly increased levels of alanine aminotransferase), cholestatic injury (predominantly increased levels of alkaline phosphatase [AP]), and both. Seven cases had immunoallergic features. Patients with mixed hepatocellular and cholestatic injury had mild disease without jaundice—all recovered. In contrast, 2 of 4 patients with hepatocellular injury and jaundice died, 1 of acute liver failure. One patient with cholestatic injury developed vanishing bile duct syndrome and required liver transplantation; another had a persistently increased serum level of AP. Conclusions Fluoroquinolone liver injury is rapid in onset and often has immunoallergic features, indicating a hypersensitivity reaction. The pattern of injury is can be hepatocellular, cholestatic, or mixed—mixed cases are the least severe. Acute and chronic liver failure can occur. PMID:21356330

  16. Extraocular retinoblastoma in Indian children: clinical, imaging and histopathological features

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sumita; Pushker, Neelam; Kashyap, Seema; Sharma, Sanjay; Mehta, Mridula; Bakhshi, Sameer; Khurana, Saurbhi; Ghose, Supriyo

    2013-01-01

    AIM To study eyes with extraocular dissemination (EORB), with the following aims: first to establish the mean lag period and to understand various reasons for delayed presentation, second to study their imaging profiles and third to analyze histopathological features of eyes enucleated after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS Prospective study of clinical and imaging features of EORBs (stage III and IV International Retinoblastoma Staging System) presenting to a tertiary eye care centre. Histopathological features of eyes enucleated after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. A pictorial illustration of the varied imaging profile of EORB was also presented. RESULTS Over a period of one year, 97 eyes were diagnosed with retinoblastoma; 32 children (36 eyes) (37.1%) had EORB. Mean age 3.6±1.9 years, 71.9% males, 71.9% unilateral, 3.1% with positive family history and 40.6% with metastasis. On imaging, there was extrascleral involvement in 22.2%, involvement of orbital part of optic nerve in 33.3%, involvement of central nervous system in 27.8% and orbital wall involvement in 2.9% eyes. On histopathological analysis of eyes enucleated after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 25.0% had no residual viable tumour tissue and rest all tumours were poorly differentiated. CONCLUSION There are very few human malignancies where definitive treatment is started without any confirmed histopathological diagnosis and imaging plays an important role in diagnosis and appropriate staging of the disease. Chemotherapy has a variable effect on EORB, 75.0% of eyes with EORB had residual viable tumour tissue when enucleated after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:23991383

  17. Extraocular retinoblastoma in Indian children: clinical, imaging and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sumita; Pushker, Neelam; Kashyap, Seema; Sharma, Sanjay; Mehta, Mridula; Bakhshi, Sameer; Khurana, Saurbhi; Ghose, Supriyo

    2013-01-01

    TO STUDY EYES WITH EXTRAOCULAR DISSEMINATION (EORB), WITH THE FOLLOWING AIMS: first to establish the mean lag period and to understand various reasons for delayed presentation, second to study their imaging profiles and third to analyze histopathological features of eyes enucleated after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Prospective study of clinical and imaging features of EORBs (stage III and IV International Retinoblastoma Staging System) presenting to a tertiary eye care centre. Histopathological features of eyes enucleated after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. A pictorial illustration of the varied imaging profile of EORB was also presented. Over a period of one year, 97 eyes were diagnosed with retinoblastoma; 32 children (36 eyes) (37.1%) had EORB. Mean age 3.6±1.9 years, 71.9% males, 71.9% unilateral, 3.1% with positive family history and 40.6% with metastasis. On imaging, there was extrascleral involvement in 22.2%, involvement of orbital part of optic nerve in 33.3%, involvement of central nervous system in 27.8% and orbital wall involvement in 2.9% eyes. On histopathological analysis of eyes enucleated after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 25.0% had no residual viable tumour tissue and rest all tumours were poorly differentiated. There are very few human malignancies where definitive treatment is started without any confirmed histopathological diagnosis and imaging plays an important role in diagnosis and appropriate staging of the disease. Chemotherapy has a variable effect on EORB, 75.0% of eyes with EORB had residual viable tumour tissue when enucleated after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  18. Factors Associated with Clinical and Topographical Features of Laryngeal Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Reis, João Gustavo Corrêa; Reis, Clarissa Souza Mota; da Costa, Daniel César Silva; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Rolla, Valéria Cavalcanti; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Laryngeal tuberculosis (LTB) is the most frequent granulomatous disease of the larynx and represents less than 2% of extrapulmonary TB cases. There are no pathognomonic clinical and endoscopic features of this disease and studies on LTB that can assist in its diagnostic characterization are lacking. Objective To identify factors associated with clinical and topographical features of LTB. Method a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from the medical records of 36 patients with confirmed LTB diagnosis. Results Dysphonia and cough were the main symptoms presented by patients and the true vocal folds the most frequently affected site. The average of the duration of the disease evolution was significantly higher in patients with dysphonia than in patients without this symptom. We observed association between dysphonia and true vocal fold lesions and between odynophagia and lesions in the epiglottis, arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds. Odynophagia was more frequent in individuals with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites. Weight loss equal or above 10% of the body weight was more frequent in patients with odynophagia as first symptom and in patients with ulcerated lesion. Dyspnea on exertion was more frequent in individuals with more extensive laryngeal lesions. The percentage of smokers with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites was greater than that found in non-smokers. Laryngeal tissue fragment bacilloscopy and culture examinations were less positive than sputum ones. Conclusions Smoking appears to be associated with the development of more extensive LTB lesions, and LTB with dyspnea on exertion and odynophagia with consequent impairment of nutritional status. We emphasize the need for histopathologic confirmation, once positive sputum bacteriological examinations seem not to necessarily reflect laryngeal involvement. PMID:27077734

  19. Clinical Features and Awareness of Hand Eczema in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Seung Ho; Kim, Kea Jeung; Lee, Ga-Young; Yang, Jun-Mo; Kim, Do Won; Lee, Seok Jong; Lee, Cheol Heon; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kyu Han; Eun, Hee Chul; Chang, Sung Eun; Moon, Kee Chan; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kim, Seong Jin; Kim, Byung-Soo; Lee, Jun Young; Kim, Hyung-Ok; Kang, Hoon; Lee, Min Geol; Kim, Soo-Chan; Ro, Young Suck; Ko, Joo Yeon; Park, Mi Youn; Kim, Myung Hwa; Shin, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Hae Young; Hong, Chang Kwun; Lee, Sung Yul; Bak, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand eczema is one of the most common skin disorders and negatively affects quality of life. However, a large-scale multicenter study investigating the clinical features of patients with hand eczema has not yet been conducted in Korea. Objective To identify the prevalence of various hand diseases, which is defined as all cutaneous disease occurring in hands, and to investigate the clinical features of patients with hand eczema and the awareness about hand eczema in the general population and to compare the prevalence of hand eczema between health care providers and non-health care providers. Methods To estimate the prevalence of hand diseases, we analyzed the medical records of patients from 24 medical centers. Patients were assessed by online and offline questionnaires. A 1,000 from general population and 913 hand eczema patients answered the questionnaire, for a total of 1,913 subjects. Results The most common hand disease was irritant contact dermatitis. In an online survey, the lifetime prevalence of hand eczema was 31.2%. Hand eczema was more likely to occur in females (66.0%) and younger (20~39 years, 53.9%). Health care providers and housewives were the occupations most frequently associated with hand eczema. Winter (33.6%) was the most common season which people experienced aggravation. The 63.0% and 67.0% answered that hand eczema hinders their personal relationship and negatively affects daily living activities, respectively. Conclusion Hand eczema is a very common disease and hinders the quality of life. The appropriate identification of hand eczema is necessary to implement effective and efficient treatment. PMID:27274632

  20. Idiopathic Hypersomnia: Clinical Features and Response to Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohsin; Auger, R. Robert; Slocumb, Nancy L.; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A recent American Academy of Sleep Medicine publication identified a need for research regarding idiopathic hypersomnia. We describe various clinical and polysomnographic features of patients with idiopathic hypersomnia, with an emphasis on response to pharmacotherapy. Methods: A retrospective review of our database initially identified 997 patients, utilizing “idiopathic hypersomnia,” “hypersomnia NOS,” and “primary hypersomnia” as keywords. The charts of eligible patients were examined in detail, and data were abstracted and analyzed. Response to treatment was graded utilizing an internally developed scale. Results: Eighty-five patients were ultimately identified (65% female). Median (interquartile range) ages of onset and diagnosis were 19.6 (15.5) and 33.7 (15.5), respectively. During a median follow-up duration of 2.4 (4.7) years, 65% of patients demonstrated a “complete response” to pharmacotherapy as assessed by the authors' grading schema. Methylphenidate was most commonly used as a first-line agent prior to December 1998, but subsequently, modafinil became the most common first drug. At the last recorded follow-up visit, 92% of patients were on monotherapy, with greater representation of methylphenidate versus modafinil (51% vs. 32%). Among these patients, methylphenidate produced a higher percentage of “complete” or “partial” responses than modafinil, although statistical significance was not reached (38/40 [ 95%] vs 22/25 [88%], respectively, p = 0.291). Conclusions: The majority of patients with idiopathic hypersomnia respond well to treatment. Methylphenidate is chosen more often than modafinil as final monotherapy in the treatment of idiopathic hypersomnia, despite the fact that it is less commonly used initially. Further prospective comparisons of medications should be explored. Citation: Ali M; Auger RR; Slocumb NL; Morgenthaler TI. Idiopathic hypersomnia: clinical features and response to treatment. J Clin Sleep

  1. Mercury-Induced Membranous Nephropathy: Clinical and Pathological Features

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Su-Hua; Chen, Hui-Ping; Zeng, Cai-Hong; Zheng, Chun-Xia; Li, Lei-Shi

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Long-term contact with mercury may induce membranous nephropathy (MN); however, the clinical pathologic features and pathogenesis of mercury-induced MN have not been investigated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The present study retrospectively evaluated 11 cases of mercury-induced MN to analyze its causes and its clinical and pathologic features. Results: A total of 10 women and 1 man ages 15 to 45 years were enrolled in the present study. Mercury exposure was caused by mercury-containing pills (five patients), skin lightening cream (four patients), hair-dyeing agents (one patient), and mercury vapor (one patient). The duration of contact with mercury ranged from 2 to 60 months, and the urinary mercury concentrations were 1.5 to 50 times higher than reference values. All patients presented with proteinuria and normal renal function; three had nephrotic syndrome. Light microscopy revealed thickened glomerular basement membrane and mildly proliferative mesangial cells. Acute tubulointerstitial injury occurred in three patients. The immunofluorescence findings showed granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the glomerular capillary wall, mostly accompanied by deposits of C4 and C1q. IgG1 and IgG4 (predominantly IgG1) deposits were observed along the glomerular capillary loops. Nine patients reached complete remission in follow-up after withdrawal from mercury exposure. Conclusions: Deposits of IgG1 subclasses in renal tissues indicated that the pathogenesis of mercury-induced MN differs from that of idiopathic MN. It is important that clinicians are aware that mercury exposure should be considered a possible cause of membranous nephropathy. PMID:20089494

  2. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: clinical features, diagnosis and medical treatment: advances

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Jensen, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) comprise with gastrointestinal carcinoids, the main groups of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs). Although these two groups of GI-NETs share many features including histological aspects; over-/ectopic expression of somatostatin receptors; the ability to ectopically secrete hormones/peptides/amines which can result in distinct functional syndromes; similar approaches used for tumor localization and some aspects of treatment, it is now generally agreed they should be considered separate. They differ in their pathogenesis, hormonal syndromes produced, many aspects of biological behavior and most important, in their response to certain anti-tumor treatment (chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapies). In this chapter the clinical features of the different types of pNETs will be considered as well as aspects of their diagnosis and medical treatment of the hormone-excess state. Emphasis will be on controversial areas or recent advances. The other aspects of the management of these tumors (surgery, treatment of advanced disease, tumor localization) are not dealt with here, because they are covered in other chapters in this volume. PMID:23582916

  3. Biotinidase deficiency: initial clinical features and rapid diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B; Heard, G S; Weissbecker, K A; McVoy, J R; Grier, R E; Leshner, R T

    1985-11-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is the primary defect in most individuals with late-onset multiple carboxylase deficiency. We have reviewed the presenting clinical features of 31 children with the disorder. Seizures, either alone or with other neurological or cutaneous findings, are the most frequent initial symptom observed. Other neurological symptoms, such as hypotonia, ataxia, hearing loss, optic atrophy, and developmental delay, are seen, in addition to skin rash and alopecia. The disorder is also characterized by ketolactic acidosis and organic aciduria. Biotinidase activity may be diagnosed using a simple, rapid, semiquantitative colorimetric procedure. Samples of whole blood spotted on the same filter paper used by most states to screen for phenylketonuria and other inborn errors of metabolism may be sent to an appropriate reference laboratory. None of the common anticonvulsants or sedatives used to treat newborns and children interfere with the test. Because biotinidase deficiency can be treated readily with biotin, this disorder should be considered in children with infantile seizures, especially in the presence of other characteristic neurological or cutaneous features.

  4. Atypical depression among psychiatric inpatients: clinical features and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Derecho, C N; Wetzler, S; McGinn, L K; Sanderson, W C; Asnis, G M

    1996-06-20

    This study investigates the frequency and characteristics of Atypical Depression (AD) among depressed inpatients. Twenty-one depressed inpatients received DSM-IV diagnoses, were rated on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and assessed for AD using the Atypical Depressive Disorder Scale. AD was defined as the presence of mood reactivity and two of four associated features: hyperphagia, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, rejection sensitivity. Mood reactivity was defined as the ability to reach 50% of a non-depressed mood. All subjects completed the SCL-90, MCMI-II, and a suicide survey. Seven patients (33%) met criteria for AD. AD and non-AD patients did not differ in terms of severity of depression, history of suicide attempts, levels of clinical symptomatology, age of onset of depression, prior hospitalizations, and most personality characteristics. However, AD patients scored significantly higher than non-AD patients on the SCL-90 Interpersonal Sensitivity and MCMI-II Avoidant scales, and were more likely to be single. AD is fairly prevalent on an inpatient service, comparable to the frequency found in outpatient settings. AD is not a milder form of depression. The only differences between AD and non-AD patients reflect the personality trait of rejection sensitivity which is a defining feature of AD.

  5. The neuromuscular features of acromegaly: a clinical and pathological study.

    PubMed Central

    Khaleeli, A A; Levy, R D; Edwards, R H; McPhail, G; Mills, K R; Round, J M; Betteridge, D J

    1984-01-01

    A study of the neuromuscular features of acromegaly was performed in six patients. Clinical assessment was supplemented by quadriceps force measurements, plasma creatine kinase (CK) activities, electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies. Muscle mass was measured by urinary creatinine/height indices (CHI) and cross sectional area (CSA) of thighs and calves on computed tomography. Quadriceps force/unit cross sectional area was derived. Needle biopsies of vastus lateralis were studied by histochemical and ultrastructural methods. Mean fibre area (MFA) and fibre type proportions were measured. Most of the subjects studied had muscle pain and proximal muscle weakness confirmed by quadriceps force measurements. This occurred in the absence of muscle wasting, as shown by cross sectional area measurements and normal or raised creatinine/height indices. "Myopathic" features were demonstrated by needle biopsy in half the patients and occasionally by electromyography and raised plasma creatine kinase activity. Abnormalities on needle biopsy included variation in fibre size, type 2 fibre atrophy and large type 1 MFA relative to type 2 MFA. Electronmicroscopy showed the non-specific findings of increased glycogen accumulation, excess lipofuscin pigment and myofilament loss. Images PMID:6481369

  6. Toxoplasma gondii infection in schizophrenia and associated clinical features.

    PubMed

    Esshili, Awatef; Thabet, Sihem; Jemli, Achraf; Trifa, Fatma; Mechri, Anouar; Zaafrane, Ferid; Gaha, Lotfi; Juckel, Georg; Babba, Hamouda; Bel Hadj Jrad, Besma

    2016-11-30

    The belief that latent toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic has been questioned, in particular due to the repeated highlighted link between the Toxoplasma gondii infection and an increased incidence of schizophrenia. However, to understand this relationship, the effect of infection with Toxoplasma gondii on the severity of schizophrenia has been poorly studied. Our work focused on comparing the prevalence of Toxoplasma infection between schizophrenic patients and healthy controls, as well as comparing the clinical features and the demographic characteristics between Toxoplasma-seronegative and Toxoplasma-seropositive patients with schizophrenia. The rate of IgG antibody in the schizophrenia patients was 74.8% compared 53.8% in controls. Patients with schizophrenia had a significantly higher mean of serum IgG antibodies to T. gondii compared to controls. The seropositive male patients had a higher age of disease onset, a higher BPRS score, a greater negative PANSS score and a lower GAF score than the seronegative male patients. These results suggest a higher severity of clinical symptoms in the male patients with schizophrenia. This study provides further evidence to the hypothesis that exposure to Toxoplasma may be a risk factor for schizophrenia. Moreover, toxoplasmosis in men with schizophrenia may lead to more severe negative and cognitive symptoms and a less favorable course of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ebola in children: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Ebola virus disease is caused by a highly contagious and pathogenic threadlike RNA virus of the Filoviridae family. The index human case is usually a zoonosis that launches human-to-human transmission interface with varying levels of sustainability of the epidemic depending on the level of public health preparedness of the affected country and the Ebola virus strain. The disease affects all age groups in the population. Clinical diagnosis is challenging in index cases especially in the early stages of the disease when the presenting features are usually nonspecific and only similar to a flu-like illness. However, in the agonal stages, hemorrhage frequently occurs in a high proportion of cases. The diagnostic gold standard is by detecting the antigen using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mortality rates in the past 28 outbreaks since 1976 have ranged from 30% to 100% in different settings among adults, but lower mortality rates have been documented in children. This review aims to describe Ebola virus infection, clinical presentation, diagnosis and outcomes in children.

  8. A unified concept of idiopathic orofacial pain: clinical features.

    PubMed

    Woda, A; Pionchon, P

    1999-01-01

    The main features of atypical facial pain, stomatodynia, atypical odontalgia, and masticatory muscle and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders are compared in this article, which included a search of articles indexed in MEDLINE. The fact that their terminology has been the subject of many debates can be considered a consequence of taxonomic difficulties and uncertainties. Epidemiologic studies indicate marked female predominance for all types of idiopathic orofacial pain. There is also a difference in the age of maximal prevalence between masticatory muscle and TMJ disorders and the other entities. The clinical presentations display several symptoms in common. Pain is oral, perioral, or facial and does not follow a nervous pathway. It has been present for the last 4 to 6 months or has returned periodically in the same form over a period of several months or years. The pain is continuous, has no major paroxysmal character, and is present throughout all or part of the day. It is generally absent during sleep. Clinical, radiographic, or laboratory examination does not reveal any obvious organic cause of pain. There is also a frequent presence of certain psychologic factors, personality traits, or life events. Based on these shared characteristics, a unified concept is proposed. Each of these entities belongs to a group of idiopathic orofacial pain and could be expressed in either the jaws, the buccal mucosa, the teeth, the masticatory muscles, or the TMJ.

  9. [Incidence and clinical features of anaphylaxis during general anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Nabatame, Maki; Mori, Masanobu; Ikeda, Yoshikazu; Matsushita, Mitsuji; Tsujimura, Shigehisa

    2010-02-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute life-threatening systematic reaction, and it requires early diagnosis and correct management to save the patients. The true incidence of anaphylaxis during general anesthesia is unknown. Although anaphylaxis is a rare intraoperative complication, most drugs used in the perioperative period can lead to anaphylaxis. All patients who had received operations under general anesthesia in our hospital were covered in this study during the 5-year period. We searched for the incidence and clinical features of anaphylaxis retrospectively. Seven cases in 9,844 patients were recognized. Various drugs were suspected as causal agents, but they were all nonanesthesia related drugs. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis relied on the history and clinical course of each patient. There was no reliable diagnostic testing such as serum tryptase and skin test. So we could not determine whether the reaction was IgE-mediated or not. Immediate discontinuation of causal drugs and early administration of epinephrine are cornerstones of treatment. More specific diagnostic tests are required for correct identification of causal drugs. To reduce the risk of anaphylaxis during anesthesia, we hope practical data bases and guidelines for anaphylaxis related to anesthesia will be published in the future.

  10. Cystinosis distal myopathy, novel clinical, pathological and genetic features.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Serrano, Macarena; Junckerstorff, Reimar C; Alisheri, Ali; Pestronk, Alan; Laing, Nigel G; Weihl, Conrad C; Lamont, Phillipa J

    2017-09-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disease in which cystine cannot exit the lysosome to complete its degradation in the cytoplasm, thus accumulating in tissues. Some patients develop a distal myopathy involving mainly hand muscles. Myopathology descriptions from only 5 patients are available in the literature. We present a comprehensive clinical, pathological and genetic description of 3 patients from 2 families with nephropathic cystinosis. Intrafamiliar variability was detected in one family in which one sibling developed a severe distal myopathy while the other sibling did not show any signs of skeletal muscle involvement. One of the patients was on treatment with Cysteamine for over 12 years but still developed the usual complications of nephropathic cystinosis in his twenties. Novel pathological findings consisting in sarcoplasmic deposits reactive for slow myosin were identified. Three previously known and one novel mutation are reported. Nephropathic cystinosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of distal myopathies in those with early renal failure. Novel clinical and pathological features are reported here contributing to the characterization of the muscle involvement in nephropathic cystinosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical presentation and metabolic features of overt and occult urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Polito, Cesare; Apicella, Andrea; Marte, Antonio; Signoriello, Giuseppe; La Manna, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Although pediatricians are frequently confronted with patients presenting urolithiasis symptoms without obvious stones, the syndrome of occult urolithiasis may be still viewed with some skepticism. We have compared the clinical and metabolic features of 197 children with obvious calculi, 189 with microcalculi (diameter ≤ 3 mm based on renal sonography), and 114 with symptoms of urolithiasis and normal renal sonography findings. Only microcalculi and normal sonography subjects with a urinary abnormality potentially leading to urolithiasis were included in the study. Age at presentation increased significantly (p = 0.0001) in the groups in the order normal sonography to microcalculi to calculi groups. There was no significant difference among the three groups in terms of family history of urolithiasis, gender distribution, and degree of hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria, hyperoxaluria, or hypocitraturia. The average frequency of pain attacks of patients with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) ranged from 3.6 to 4.6 days of pain per month among the three groups, which is four to ninefold lower than that reported for children with functional or organic gastrointestinal RAP. The consistency of many clinical and urinary metabolic characteristics indicates a common underlying disorder in overt and occult urolithiasis. The increase of age at presentation from the normal sonography to microcalculi and calculi groups may reflect progressive crystal accretion leading ultimately to overt stone formation.

  12. Clinical features of schizophrenia with enhanced carbonyl stress.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Mitsuhiro; Arai, Makoto; Kobori, Akiko; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Toriumi, Kazuya; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Oshima, Kenichi; Okazaki, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Amano, Naoji; Miyata, Toshio; Itokawa, Masanari

    2014-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that advanced glycation end products, generated as a consequence of facilitated carbonyl stress, are implicated in the development of a variety of diseases. These diseases include neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Alzheimer disease. Pyridoxamine is one of the 3 forms of vitamin B6, and it acts by combating carbonyl stress and inhibiting the formation of AGEs. Depletion of pyridoxamine due to enhanced carbonyl stress eventually leads to a decrease in the other forms of vitamin B6, namely pyridoxal and pyridoxine. We previously reported that higher levels of plasma pentosidine, a well-known biomarker for advanced glycation end products, and decreased serum pyridoxal levels were found in a subpopulation of schizophrenic patients. However, there is as yet no clinical characterization of this subset of schizophrenia. In this study, we found that these patients shared many clinical features with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. These include a higher proportion of inpatients, low educational status, longer durations of hospitalization, and higher doses of antipsychotic medication, compared with patients without carbonyl stress. Interestingly, psychopathological symptoms showed a tendency towards negative association with serum vitamin B6 levels. Our results support the idea that treatment regimes reducing carbonyl stress, such as supplementation of pyridoxamine, could provide novel therapeutic benefits for this subgroup of patients.

  13. Eruptive Facial Postinflammatory Lentigo: Clinical and Dermatoscopic Features.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Raul; Puig, Susana; Larrondo, Jorge; Castro, Alex; Valenzuela, Karen; Sabatini, Natalia

    2016-11-01

    The face has not been considered a common site of fixed drug eruption, and the authors lack dermatoscopic studies of this condition on the subject. The authors sought to characterize clinical and dermatoscopic features of 8 cases of an eruptive facial postinflammatory lentigo. The authors conducted a retrospective review of 8 cases with similar clinical and dermatoscopic findings seen from 2 medical centers in 2 countries during 2010-2014. A total of 8 patients (2 males and 6 females) with ages that ranged from 34 to 62 years (mean: 48) presented an abrupt onset of a single facial brown-pink macule, generally asymmetrical, with an average size of 1.9 cm. after ingestion of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs that lasted for several months. Dermatoscopy mainly showed a pseudonetwork or uniform areas of brown pigmentation, brown or blue-gray dots, red dots and/or telangiectatic vessels. In the epidermis, histopathology showed a mild hydropic degeneration and focal melanin hyperpigmentation. Melanin can be found freely in the dermis or laden in macrophages along with a mild perivascular mononuclear infiltrate. The authors describe eruptive facial postinflammatory lentigo as a new variant of a fixed drug eruption on the face.

  14. Body dysmorphic disorder among dermatologic patients: Prevalence and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Conrado, Luciana Archetti; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Fossaluza, Victor; Torres, Albina Rodrigues; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Rivitti, Evandro Ararigboia

    2010-08-01

    An impairing preoccupation with a nonexistent or slight defect in appearance is the core symptom of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a psychiatric condition common in dermatology settings. We sought to determine the prevalence of BDD in dermatologic patients, comparing general and cosmetic settings, and describing some demographic and clinical characteristics. In all, 300 patients were consecutively assessed. Screening and diagnoses were performed with validated instruments plus a best estimate diagnosis procedure. The final sample comprised 150 patients in the cosmetic group, 150 patients in the general dermatology group, and 50 control subjects. Standard statistical analyses were performed (chi(2), nonparametric tests, logistic regression). The current prevalence was higher in the cosmetic group (14.0%) compared with general (6.7%) and control (2.0%) groups. No patient had a previous diagnosis. Frequently the reason for seeking dermatologic treatment was not the main BDD preoccupation. Patients with BDD from the cosmetic group were in general unsatisfied with the results of dermatologic treatments. Cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital is a limitation. It is uncertain if the findings can be generalized. Retrospective data regarding previous treatments are not free from bias. BDD is relatively common in a dermatologic setting, especially among patients seeking cosmetic treatments. These patients have some different features compared with general dermatology patients. Dermatologists should be aware of the clinical characteristics of BDD to identify and refer these patients to mental health professionals. Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Substantia nigra echogenicity correlated with clinical features of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai-Yan; Sun, Qian; Tan, Yu-Yan; Hu, Yun-Yun; Zhan, Wei-Wei; Li, Dun-Hui; Wang, Ying; Xiao, Qin; Liu, Jun; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2016-03-01

    Transcranial sonography can display structural alterations in the substantia nigra (SN) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and is considered to be a potential useful tool for the diagnosis of PD. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between SN echogenicity and clinical features in Chinese patients with PD. A total of 420 subjects including 290 patients with PD and 130 controls were recruited from the neurological clinic or the community. Transcranial sonographic evaluations of the SN were performed in all subjects, and motor and non-motor symptoms were thoroughly assessed by a series of rating scales in PD patients. Two hundred and one patients were successfully assessed by transcranial sonography. SN hyperechogenicity was found to be associated with male sex (p = 0.004), higher scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part II (p = 0.001) and autonomic symptoms scores (p = 0.003). Moreover, regression analysis revealed that UPDRS part II scores (odds ratio = 1.141, p < 0.001) and gender (odds ratio = 2.409, p = 0.007) could be the independent predictors for SN hyperechogenicity; in addition, among all items of UPDRS part II, speech, dressing, hygiene, and turning in bed and adjusting bed clothes significantly correlated with SN hyperechogenicity. This is the first report suggesting the correlation between SN echogenicity and UPDRS part II, and we conclude that increased SN echogenicity might reflect more severe disease disability or poorer medical response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical features and prognostic factors of Churg-Strauss syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Yeong; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare systemic necrotizing small-vessel vasculitis, with accompanying bronchial asthma, eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of various tissues. The purposes of our study were to characterize the clinical features of CSS and to identify factors associated with CSS prognosis in Koreans. Methods Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for all physician-diagnosed CSS patients in the Seoul National University Hospital between January 1990 and March 2011. Results Data from 52 CSS patients were analyzed. The respiratory tract was the most commonly involved organ (90.4%). Renal involvement was less frequent in antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)(-) patients than in ANCA(+) patients (p = 0.048). Clinical remission occurred in 95.3% of patients, but 16.3% of them relapsed. Patients who maintained remission for more than 6 months were relatively older (median, 51 years) at diagnosis (p = 0.004), had been diagnosed in earlier stages (p = 0.027), showed more frequent respiratory involvement (p = 0.024) and generalized symptoms (p = 0.039), and showed less frequent cutaneous involvement (p = 0.030) than those who did not achieve persistent (> 6 months) remission. Patients who achieved persistent remission also showed higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (p = 0.031) than those who did not. Conclusions ANCA(-) CSS patients showed less frequent renal involvement. Characteristics of good responders were older age, diagnosis at earlier stages, less cutaneous involvement, more respiratory involvement, high CRP values, and more generalized symptoms. PMID:24574837

  17. Clinical features and treatment of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Li, Z H

    2015-06-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and treatment results of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Five patients with endophthalmitis after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation were enrolled in this study. The pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, and surgical outcomes of 5 patients were compared. Three patients were surgically treated with anterior chamber irrigation and vitrectomy with intravitreal injection. The remaining two patients were medically treated with an intravitreal injection of vancomycin and ceftazidime. Treatment results of the five patients were analyzed. Four patients had positive cultures for bacteria (two cases Staphylococcus epidermidis, one case Enterococcus faecalis, and one case head-like Staphylococcus). The culture of the fifth patient did not have bacterial growth. One year following treatment, four patients had restored visual acuity and a clear vitreous cavity. Retinal detachment and other complications were not observed. The remaining patient had a visual acuity of index at 30 cm one year following treatment. For patients with endophthalmitis after cataract surgery, a biochemical laboratory examination should be promptly performed and should include a bacterial culture and drug sensitivity test. When necessary, vitrectomy combined with an intravitreal injection of vancomycin should be performed to treat the infection early and to help retain useful vision.

  18. Clinical features of inpatients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis.

    PubMed

    Fasihpour, Bahareh; Molavi, Siamak; Shariat, Seyed Vahid

    2013-08-01

    An epidemic of methamphetamine use has begun in Iran in recent years and psychiatric emergency services are overloaded with patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis (MIP). To define the clinical features of inpatients with MIP in a psychiatric hospital. The files of all MIP patients admitted to Iran Psychiatric Hospital located in Tehran from April 2008 to April 2010 were assessed. Data related to psychotic episode, substance use, previous psychiatric history and demographic data of 111 MIP patients were extracted and analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. The most prevalent psychotic symptoms were persecutory delusion (82%), auditory hallucination (70.3%), reference delusion (57.7%), visual hallucination (44.1%), grandiosity delusion (39.6%) and jealousy delusion (26.1%). The mean duration of admission and psychotic episode was 21.43 and 17.37 days, respectively. In seven cases (8.75%), symptoms continued for more than one month. Frequency of psychotic symptoms in this study is relatively similar to previous studies. However, some clinical determinants such as latency of psychosis from first use and the course of psychosis are more similar to the first epidemic of methamphetamine in Japan than to more recent epidemics; which could be due to the short history of methamphetamine use in Iran.

  19. Clinical features of Crohn disease concomitant with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Song; Ding, Jie; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Wanqing; Feng, Min; Guan, Wenxian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) cause increased morbidity and decreased quality of life in Crohn disease (CD). Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) belongs to EIMs. Very little is known on the clinical features of CD concomitant with AS. This study is to investigate the clinical features of CD patients with AS. We retrospectively collected all CD patients with AS in our hospital, and established a comparison group (CD without AS) with age, sex, and duration of Crohn disease matched. Clinical information was retrieved for comparison. Eight CD + AS patients were identified from 195 CD patients. Sixteen CD patients were randomly selected into comparison group. All CD + AS patients were male, HLA-B27 (+), and rheumatoid factor (−) with an average age of 40.8 ± 4.52 years. Significant correlation between disease activity of CD and AS was revealed (r = 0.857, P = 0.011). Significant correlation between disease activity of CD and functional limitation associated with AS was identified (r = 0.881, P < 0.01). C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and globulin were positively correlated to Crohn disease activity index (CDAI), Bath AS disease activity index, and Bath AS functional index(BASFI) scores (r = 0.73–0.93, P < 0.05). Albumin was negatively associated with CDAI and BASFI (r = −0.73 to −0.91, P < 0.05). The ratio of albumin to globulin (Alb/Glo) was significantly related to all 3 scores (r = −0.81 to −0.91, P < 0.05). Male predominance with a 4.12% concomitant incidence of AS is observed in CD patients. Disease activity of CD correlates with disease activity of AS and functional limitation caused by AS. CRP, ESR, and Alb/Glo may serve as biomarkers for disease activity and functional limitation in CD patients concomitant with AS, although future studies are expected. PMID:27428240

  20. Xenoestrogenic gene expression: structural features of active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Schultz, T Wayne; Sinks, Glendon D

    2002-04-01

    Estrogenicity was assessed using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based Lac-Z reporter assay and was reported as the logarithm of the inverse of the 50% molar beta-galactosidase activity (log[EC50(-1)]). In an effort to quantify the relationship between molecular structure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and estrogenic gene expression, a series of PAHs were evaluated. With noted exceptions, the results of these studies indicate that the initial two-dimensional structural warning for estrogenicity, the superpositioning of a hydroxylated aromatic system on the phenolic A-ring of 17-beta-estradiol, can be extended to the PAHs. This two-dimensional-alignment criterion correctly identified estrogenicity of 22 of the 29 PAHs evaluated. Moreover, the estrogenic potency of these compounds was directly related to the size of the hydrophobic backbone. The seven compounds classified incorrectly by this structural feature were either dihydroxylated naphthalenes or aromatic nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds; all such compounds were false positives. Results with dihydroxylated naphthalenes reveal derivatives that were nonestrogenic when superimposed on the phenolic A-ring of 17-beta-estradiol had the second hydroxyl group in the position of the C-ring or were catechol-like in structure. Structural alerts for nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds must take into account the position of the hydroxyl group and the in-ring nitrogen atom; compounds with the hydroxyl group and nitrogen atom involved with the same ring were observed to be nonactive.

  1. [Features of Clinical Register of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy Based on ClinicalTrials.gov. (USA)].

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng-fei; Liao, Xing; Xie, Yan-ming; Wang, Zhi-guo

    2015-11-01

    In recent 10 years, clinical trials of Chinese medicine and pharmacy (cMP) at clinicalTrials.gov.(USA) are gradually increasing. In order to analyze features of CMP clinical register, ClinicalTrials.gov register database were comprehensively retrieved in this study. Included clinical trials were input one item after another using EXCEL. A final of 348 CMP clinical trials were included. Results showed that China occupied the first place in CMP clinical register, followed by USA. CMP clinical trials, sponsored mainly by colleges/universities and hospitals, mostly covered interventional studies on evaluating safety/effectiveness of CMP. The proportions of studies, sponsored by mainland China and companies, recruitment trials and multi-center clinical trials in interventional trials were increasing. The proportions of studies sponsored by Hong Kong and Taiwan, research completed trials, unclear research status, phase III clinical trials, and published research trials in interventional trials were decreasing. Published ratios of CMP clinical trials were quite low. There were more missing types and higher proportions in trial register information.

  2. [Clinical features and comprehensive treatment of skull base osteosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ke; Wan, Jinghai; Ni, Song; Li, Xueji; Liu, Shaoyan; Meng, Xiaoli; Qian, Haipeng

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the clinical features and treatment of skull base osteosarcoma. The clinical data of 18 patients with skull base osteosarcoma, who were admitted to the CAMS Cancer Hospital from January 2005 to November 2013, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were followed up by telephone, outpatient review and other means. Fifteen patients were followed up, 4 cases received surgery only, and 11 cases received surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis was used to analyze the clinical data and Log rank method was used for verification. Nine patients died among the 15 patients who were followed up for 3-103 months (mean 25.0 months): seven patients died of local recurrence, and two patients died of distant metastasis, and six patients were still alive. Four patients received surgery only, with a median survival time of 25.0 months, and 11 patients received comprehensive treatment, with a median survival time of 47.0 months (P = 0.02). Five patients received sub-total resection, with a mean survival time of 47.0 months, and 10 patients received total resection, with a mean survival time of 45.0 months (P = 0.37). The 1- and 2-year recurrence rates were 46.6% and 68.9%, respectively. The overall 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 82.4%, 61.8%, 36.0% and 36.0%, respectively, with a median survival time of 30.0 months. To compare the long bone and head and neck osteosarcoma with skull base osteosarcoma, the skull base osteosarcoma has a lower total resection rate, a higher recurrence rate, and a poorer prognosis. Radical surgery and comprehensive treatment are appropriate for skull base osteosarcoma.

  3. [Clinical features of protracted bacterial bronchitis in children].

    PubMed

    Chi, Fanfan; Wang, Yuqing; Hao, Chuangli; Sun, Huiquan; Fan, Liping; Huang, Li; Yu, Xingmei; Yang, Xiaoyun; Lu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jing; Lu, Quan

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics of protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) in children. The clinical data of patients seen from October, 2010 to March, 2014 in Department of Respiratory Diseases of our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Inclusion criteria were over 4 weeks cough, receiving fiberoptic bronchoscopy, positive bacterial culture and (or) the increased percentage of neutral granulocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Twenty eight patients were involved, 26 were male (93%) and two were female (7%). The median age of patients was 8.5 months. The median duration of cough was four weeks. The average length of hospital stay was (8.3 ± 3.9)days. The main clinical feature was wet cough in 28 cases, wet cough with wheezing was seen in 21 cases. The wet cough phase distribution was irregular in 21 cases. The crackles with wheeze (in 21 cases) was main signs of PBB. The percentage of CD3⁻ CD16⁺ 56⁺ cells increased in peripheral blood. The fiberoptic bronchoscopic manifestations of PBB were luminal mucosal edema. Eleven patients also had airway malacia. The neutrophil median in BALF was 0.2. The positive rate of bacterial culture of BALF was 36%. The main bacteria were Streptococcus pneumoniae (50%) and Haemophilus influenzae (30%). The main treatment for PBB patients included amoxycillin/clavulanate potassium and second-generation cephalosporins. The average duration of treatment was (17.3 ± 3.2)days, the prognosis was good. PBB is common in male infants. Persistent wet cough with wheezing was the main characteristic of PBB. PBB is commonly accompanied by immune dysfunction and airway malacia, and the pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.

  4. Clinical features of childhood granulomatosis with polyangiitis (wegener's granulomatosis).

    PubMed

    Bohm, Marek; Gonzalez Fernandez, Maria Isabel; Ozen, Seza; Pistorio, Angela; Dolezalova, Pavla; Brogan, Paul; Barbano, Giancarlo; Sengler, Claudia; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa; Quartier, Pierre; Fasth, Anders; Herlin, Troels; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Nielsen, Susan; van Rossum, Marion A J; Avcin, Tadej; Castell, Esteban Rodolfo; Foeldvari, Ivan; Foell, Dirk; Kondi, Anuela; Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Kuester, Rolf-Michael; Michels, Hartmut; Wulffraat, Nico; Amer, Halima Ben; Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto; Ruperto, Nicolino

    2014-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), belongs to the group of ANCA-associated necrotizing vasculitides. This study describes the clinical picture of the disease in a large cohort of GPA paediatric patients. Children with age at diagnosis ≤ 18 years, fulfilling the EULAR/PRINTO/PRES GPA/WG classification criteria were extracted from the PRINTO vasculitis database. The clinical signs/symptoms and laboratory features were analysed before or at the time of diagnosis and at least 3 months thereafter and compared with other paediatric and adult case series (>50 patients) derived from the literature. The 56 children with GPA/WG were predominantly females (68%) and Caucasians (82%) with a median age at disease onset of 11.7 years, and a median delay in diagnosis of 4.2 months. The most frequent organ systems involved before/at the time of diagnosis were ears, nose, throat (91%), constitutional (malaise, fever, weight loss) (89%), respiratory (79%), mucosa and skin (64%), musculoskeletal (59%), and eye (35%), 67% were ANCA-PR3 positive, while haematuria/proteinuria was present in > 50% of the children. In adult series, the frequency of female involvement ranged from 29% to 50% with lower frequencies of constitutional (fever, weight loss), ears, nose, throat (oral/nasal ulceration, otitis/aural discharge), respiratory (tracheal/endobronchial stenosis/obstruction), laboratory involvement and higher frequency of conductive hearing loss than in this paediatric series. Paediatric patients compared to adults with GPA/WG have similar pattern of clinical manifestations but different frequencies of organ involvement.

  5. Clinical Features and Patient Management of Lujo Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Sewlall, Nivesh H.; Richards, Guy; Duse, Adriano; Swanepoel, Robert; Paweska, Janusz; Blumberg, Lucille; Dinh, Thu Ha; Bausch, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008 a nosocomial outbreak of five cases of viral hemorrhagic fever due to a novel arenavirus, Lujo virus, occurred in Johannesburg, South Africa. Lujo virus is only the second pathogenic arenavirus, after Lassa virus, to be recognized in Africa and the first in over 40 years. Because of the remote, resource-poor, and often politically unstable regions where Lassa fever and other viral hemorrhagic fevers typically occur, there have been few opportunities to undertake in-depth study of their clinical manifestations, transmission dynamics, pathogenesis, or response to treatment options typically available in industrialized countries. Methods and Findings We describe the clinical features of five cases of Lujo hemorrhagic fever and summarize their clinical management, as well as providing additional epidemiologic detail regarding the 2008 outbreak. Illness typically began with the abrupt onset of fever, malaise, headache, and myalgias followed successively by sore throat, chest pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, minor hemorrhage, subconjunctival injection, and neck and facial swelling over the first week of illness. No major hemorrhage was noted. Neurological signs were sometimes seen in the late stages. Shock and multi-organ system failure, often with evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, ensued in the second week, with death in four of the five cases. Distinctive treatment components of the one surviving patient included rapid commencement of the antiviral drug ribavirin and administration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), N-acetylcysteine, and recombinant factor VIIa. Conclusions Lujo virus causes a clinical syndrome remarkably similar to Lassa fever. Considering the high case-fatality and significant logistical impediments to controlled treatment efficacy trials for viral hemorrhagic fever, it is both logical and ethical to explore the use of the various compounds used in the treatment of the surviving case reported here

  6. Clinical Applications Involving CNS Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Boris; McCown, Thomas; Leone, Paola; Gray, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) have traditionally been the most difficult to treat by traditional pharmacological methods, due mostly to the blood–brain barrier and the difficulties associated with repeated drug administration targeting the CNS. Viral vector gene transfer represents a way to permanently provide a therapeutic protein within the nervous system after a single administration, whether this be a gene replacement strategy for an inherited disorder or a disease-modifying protein for a disease such as Parkinson's. Gene therapy approaches for CNS disorders has evolved considerably over the last two decades. Although a breakthrough treatment has remained elusive, current strategies are now considerably safer and potentially much more effective. This chapter will explore the past, current, and future status of CNS gene therapy, focusing on clinical trials utilizing adeno-associated virus and lentiviral vectors. PMID:25311921

  7. Severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (Dravet syndrome): Clinical and genetic features of nine Turkish patients

    PubMed Central

    Özmen, Meral; Dilber, Cengiz; Tatlı, Burak; Aydınlı, Nur; Çalışkan, Mine; Ekici, Barış

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Mutations of the α-1 subunit sodium channel gene (SCN1A) cause severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI). To date, over 300 mutations related to SMEI have been described. In the present study, we report new SCN1A mutations and the clinical features of SMEI cases. Materials and Methods: We studied the clinical and genetic features of nine patients diagnosed with SMEI at the Pediatric Neurology Department of Istanbul Medical Faculty. Results: Five patients had nonsense mutations, two had missense mutations, one had a splice site mutation and one had a deletion mutation of the SCN1A gene. Mutations at c.3705+5G splice site, p.trip153X nonsense mutation and deletion at c.2416_2946 have not been previously described. The seizures started following whole cell pertussis vaccination in all patients. The seizures ceased in one patient and continued in the other eight patients. Developmental regression was severe in three patients, with frequent status epilepticus. The type of mutation was not predictive for the severity of the disease. Two of the three patients with severe regression had nonsense and missense mutations. Conclusions: Dravet syndrome can be result of several different types of mutation in SCN1A gene. Onset of the seizures after pertussis vaccination is an important clue for the diagnosis and neuro- developmental delay should be expected in all patients. PMID:22028529

  8. [Antipsychotic-drug-induced hyperprolactinemia: physiopathology, clinical features and guidance].

    PubMed

    Besnard, I; Auclair, V; Callery, G; Gabriel-Bordenave, C; Roberge, C

    2014-02-01

    prevalence. In the long-term, hypogonadism involves a premature bone loss in men and women. Klibanski and colleagues showed that this loss is significant only in women with hyperprolactinemia associated with amenorrhea. That suggests that prolactin is not directly responsible for this clinical feature. Nevertheless, prolactin seems to be involved in the development of breast cancer, but its role is unclear for prostate cancer. Our review promotes a check-up before beginning a treatment with antipsychotic agents. First, a baseline prolactin level should be measured. It should also include the research on previous treatment with antipsychotic-drugs and the assessment of adverse effects suggestive of hyperprolactinemia. Questioning should finally look for any contra-indication to antipsychotics. Monitoring during antipsychotic treatment has been studied by a group of international experts in psychiatry, medicine, toxicology and pharmacy who made a critical review of clinical guidance on hyperprolactinemia. Experts notify that it is important to check whether patients have any sexual dysfunction, such as loss of libido or menstrual irregularity, and galactorrhoea. Prolactin level should also be controlled after three months of stable dose treatment, or if any clinical feature of hyperprolactinemia appears. If a patient prescribed antipsychotic-drugs has a confirmed prolactin level above the normal range, it is necessary to exclude other causes of hyperprolactinemia. If antipsychotics are really involved, the management should be adapted with the prolactin level and the patient him/herself. To summarize, clinicians can decrease the dose of the antipsychotic or switch to a prolactin-sparing drug. Oral contraceptives can be added whether to prevent pregnancy or to prevent bone loss and osteoporosis. Finally, experts recommend reserving dopamine agonists to treat antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia in very exceptional circumstances as it can worsen the mental illness. Copyright

  9. Developing Key-Feature Problems and Examinations to Assess Clinical Decision-Making Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Gordon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An approach to testing medical students' clinical decision-making skills identifies key features (critical steps in resolution of a clinical problem) and presents a clinical case scenario followed by questions focusing on those key features. Key-feature problems provide flexibility on issues of question format, multiple responses to questions, and…

  10. [Clinical features of traumatic optic neuropathy in 265 cases].

    PubMed

    Chen, M; Jiang, Y; Wen, J F; Li, N; Qiu, J; Zhang, N K; Ju, J B

    2017-09-07

    Objective: To analyze the clinical features and the pathogenetic law of traumatic optic neuropathy through epidemiologic study. Methods: 265 cases (275 eyes) with TON treated in Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from April 1999 to August 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate potential prognostic factors on visual acuity. Results: TON occured mostly in young (194/265, 73.21%) man (235/265, 88.68%), the majority of patients came from villages and towns (209/265, 78.87%). Traffic accident (197/265, 74.34%) remained the main etiology, with strike (36/265, 13.58%) and fall (17/265, 6.42%) as the common etiology. Most patients had head injuries. The effective rate of vision improvement was 53.45%(147/275). Multiple logistic regression analyses identified that initial visual acuity with light perception or better vision, optic canal fracture and orbital wall fracture were visual acuity key factors of TON (χ(2) value was 24.674, 19.755, 9.175, respectively, all P<0.01), initial visual acuity with light perception or better vision was the protective factor on visual acuity recovery (OR=5.008, P<0.001), the presence of optic canal fracture and orbital wall fracture were the risk factors on visual acuity recovery (OR value was 0.110, 0.329, respectively, all P<0.01). Conclusions: Ton occurs mostly in young man because of traffic accident. Visual impairment of TON is severe. The suitable preventive measures should be carried out according to its epidemiological features.

  11. Correlation of clinical and molecular features in spinal bulbar muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Nirmalananthan, Niranjanan; Masset, Luc; Skorupinska, Iwona; Collins, Toby; Cortese, Andrea; Pemble, Sally; Malaspina, Andrea; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Greensmith, Linda; Hanna, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize the clinical and genetic features of spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the first exon of the androgen receptor gene, in the United Kingdom. Methods: We created a national register for SBMA in the United Kingdom and recruited 61 patients between 2005 and 2013. In our cross-sectional study, we assessed, by direct questioning, impairment of activities of daily living (ADL) milestones, functional rating, and subjective disease impact, and performed correlations with both CAG repeat size and degree of somatic mosaicism. Ten patients were deceased, 46 patients participated in the study, and 5 declined. Results: Subjects had an average age at onset of 43.4 years, and weakness onset most frequently occurred in the lower limbs (87%). Impaired mobility was the most frequently reported problem by patients, followed by bulbar dysfunction. Age distribution of the impairment of ADL milestones showed remarkable overlap with a Japanese study. We have identified a significant correlation between the number of CAG repeats and both age at onset and ADL milestones. Somatic mosaicism also showed a correlation with CAG expansion size and age at onset. Conclusions: Clinical features in SBMA show a substantial overlap when comparing populations with different genetic backgrounds. This finding has major implications, because multicenter trials will be necessary to obtain sufficient power in future clinical trials. Clinical-genetic correlations are strong in SBMA and should inform any clinical research strategy in this condition. PMID:24814851

  12. Clinical adenoviral gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Ellen; Essand, Magnus; Bangma, Chris H; Barber, Chris; Behr, Jean-Paul; Briggs, Simon; Carlisle, Robert; Cheng, Wing-Shing; Danielsson, Angelika; Dautzenberg, Iris J C; Dzojic, Helena; Erbacher, Patrick; Fisher, Kerry; Frazier, April; Georgopoulos, Lindsay J; Hoeben, Rob; Kochanek, Stefan; Koppers-Lalic, Daniela; Kraaij, Robert; Kreppel, Florian; Lindholm, Leif; Magnusson, Maria; Maitland, Norman; Neuberg, Patrick; Nilsson, Berith; Ogris, Manfred; Remy, Jean-Serge; Scaife, Michelle; Schooten, Erik; Seymour, Len; Totterman, Thomas; Uil, Taco G; Ulbrich, Karel; Veldhoven-Zweistra, Joke L M; de Vrij, Jeroen; van Weerden, Wytske; Wagner, Ernst; Willemsen, Ralph

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is at present the most common malignancy in men in the Western world. When localized to the prostate, this disease can be treated by curative therapy such as surgery and radiotherapy. However, a substantial number of patients experience a recurrence, resulting in spreading of tumor cells to other parts of the body. In this advanced stage of the disease only palliative treatment is available. Therefore, there is a clear clinical need for new treatment modalities that can, on the one hand, enhance the cure rate of primary therapy for localized prostate cancer and, on the other hand, improve the treatment of metastasized disease. Gene therapy is now being explored in the clinic as a treatment option for the various stages of prostate cancer. Current clinical experiences are based predominantly on trials with adenoviral vectors. As the first of a trilogy of reviews on the state of the art and future prospects of gene therapy in prostate cancer, this review focuses on the clinical experiences and progress of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy for this disease.

  13. Clinical and molecular features of a TSH-secreting pituitary microadenoma.

    PubMed

    Usui, Takeshi; Izawa, Shoichiro; Sano, Toshiaki; Tagami, Tetsuya; Nagata, Daisuke; Shimatsu, Akira; Takahashi, Jun A; Naruse, Mitsuhide

    2005-01-01

    We describe a case of a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary microadenoma, and report the systematic gene expression profile of the surgically- removed tumor. A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because she had high TSH, free-T4, and free-T3 levels, and a pituitary tumor that was visualized with magnetic resonance imaging. Her basal TSH level was high even after a high T3 loading dose, and increased following administration of thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) even after administration of a high dose of exogenous T3. Her clinical symptoms and peripheral markers for T3 were responsive to exogenous T3. There was no thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta gene mutation. The patient was diagnosed with a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, and trans-sphenoid surgery was performed. The histologic features and immunophenotype were consistent with a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of pituitary hormones, pituitary-specific transcription factors, receptors, and transcriptional cofactors of clinical significance was performed on the removed tumor. The tumor expressed TSH, growth hormone, prolactin, alpha-subunit, pituitary transcription factor-1 (pit-1) but not proopiomelanocortin (POMC), prophet of pit-1 (prop-1) and pituitary cell-restricted T box factor (Tpit). TRbeta and TRH-receptor gene expression was normal. Three steroid receptor coactivators (SRC)-1, SRC-2, and SRC-3 were expressed. Nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR)2 was absent in the tumor, whereas nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR1) was expressed. Somatostatin receptor type 1 expression was significantly decreased, whereas type 4 receptor was expressed, which are unusual characteristics for pituitary tumors. The gene expression pattern in the tumor might have a role in the clinical features of this case.

  14. Clinical features of delusional jealousy in elderly patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Ikeda, Manabu

    2015-06-01

    Delusional jealousy is a psychotic syndrome characterized by a belief in the infidelity of one's spouse that reaches delusional intensity. Although delusional jealousy has been described in relation to organic psychosis, little is known concerning the actual role of delusional jealousy in dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical features of delusional jealousy and possible mechanisms whereby delusional jealousy arises in patients with dementia. We studied 208 consecutive outpatients with dementia (diagnosis based on DSM-III-R criteria; mean [SD] age of 77.0 [8.0] years; study period: September 2011-August 2012). Delusional jealousy was defined as a false belief derived from a pathological jealousy that makes the patient believe that his or her spouse is unfaithful. The prevalence of delusional jealousy was compared between Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and vascular dementia. Patients with and without delusional jealousy were compared in terms of general characteristics. In addition, each patient with delusional jealousy and their primary caregivers were interviewed about the clinical features of the syndrome. Of the 208 patients with dementia, 18 (8.7%) showed delusional jealousy. The prevalence of delusional jealousy in patients who had dementia with Lewy bodies (26.3%) was significantly higher than that in patients with Alzheimer's disease (5.5%) (P < .01). There were no significant differences between patients with and without delusional jealousy in regard to gender (P = 1.00), age (P = .81), educational attainment (P = .29), presence of other persons living with the couple (P = .22), and Mini-Mental State Examination score (P = .47). On the other hand, delusional jealousy was preceded by the onset of serious physical diseases in nearly half of the patients. Delusional jealousy resolved within 12 months after treatment in 15 of 18 patients (83%). Although delusional jealousy is a considerable problem in dementia

  15. Childhood Ataxia: Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, Key Unanswered Questions, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Claire N.; Hoang, Kelly D.; Lynch, David R.; Perlman, Susan L.; Maria, Bernard L.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood ataxia is characterized by impaired balance and coordination primarily due to cerebellar dysfunction. Friedreich ataxia, a form of childhood ataxia, is the most common multisystem autosomal recessive disease. Most of these patients are homozygous for the GAA repeat expansion located on the first intron of the frataxin gene on chromosome 9. Mutations in the frataxin gene impair mitochondrial function, increase reactive oxygen species, and trigger redistribution of iron in the mitochondria and cytosol. Targeted therapies for Friedreich ataxia are undergoing testing. In addition, a centralized database, patient registry, and natural history study have been launched to support clinical trials in Friedreich ataxia. The 2011 Neurobiology of Disease in Children symposium, held in conjunction with the 40th annual Child Neurology Society meeting, aimed to (1) describe clinical features surrounding Friedreich ataxia, including cardiomyopathy and genetics; (2) discuss recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of Friedreich ataxia and developments of clinical trials; (3) review new investigations of characteristic symptoms; (4) establish clinical and biochemical overlaps in neurodegenerative diseases and possible directions for future basic, translational, and clinical studies. PMID:22859693

  16. Clinical and radiographic features of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Alves, Daniel Berretta; Silva, Juliana Melo; Menezes, Tatiany Oliveira; Cavaleiro, Rosely Santos; Tuji, Fabrício Mesquita; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto; Coletta, Ricardo Della

    2014-03-16

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare dysmorphic syndrome characterized by several features of premature aging with clinical involvement of the skin, bones, and cardiovascular system. HGPS has an estimated incidence of one in four million to one in eight million births. The main clinical features of HGPS include short stature, craniofacial dimorphism, alopecia, bone fragility, and cardiovascular disorders. The most frequent cause of death is myocardial infarction at a mean age of 13 years old. Dental manifestations include delayed development and eruption of teeth, discoloration, crowding and rotation of teeth, and displaced teeth. Cone beam computed tomography images revealed the absence of the sphenoid, frontal, and maxillary sinus, flattening of the condyles and glenoid fossa, and bilateral hypoplasia of the mandibular condyles. The disease is caused by mutations in lamin A/C (LMNA). Here, we present a case report of an 11-year-old boy with classical features of HGPS, which was caused by a de novo germ-line mutation (C1824T, G608G) in exon 11 of the LMNA gene. Some uncommon HGPS-associated features in our patient, such as alterations in the facial sinuses and hypoplasia of the condyles, contributed to the expansion of the phenotypic spectrum of this syndrome from a dentomaxillofacial perspective.

  17. Clinical Features of Newly Diagnosed Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Ausayakhun, Somsanguan; Keenan, Jeremy D; Ausayakhun, Sakarin; Jirawison, Choeng; Khouri, Claire M; Skalet, Alison H; Heiden, David; Holland, Gary N; Margolis, Todd P

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the clinical manifestations of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in northern Thailand. Design Prospective, observational cross-sectional study. Methods We recorded characteristics of 52 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with CMV retinitis at a tertiary university-based medical center in northern Thailand. Indirect ophthalmoscopy by experienced ophthalmologists was supplemented with fundus photography to determine the proportion of eyes with various clinical features of CMV retinitis. Results Of the 52 patients with CMV retinitis, 55.8% were female. All were HIV-positive. The vast majority (90.4%) had started antiretroviral therapy. CMV retinitis was bilateral in 46.2% of patients. Bilateral visual acuity worse than 20/60 was observed in 23.1% of patients. Of 76 eyes with CMV retinitis, 61.8% had zone I disease and 21.6% had lesions involving the fovea. Lesions larger than 25% of the retinal area were observed in 57.5% of affected eyes. CMV retinitis lesions commonly had marked or severe border opacity (47.4% of eyes). Vitreous haze was often present (46.1% of eyes). Visual impairment was more common in eyes with larger retinitis lesions. Retinitis lesion size, used as a proxy for duration of disease, was associated with fulminant appearance (OR 1.24 [1.01 – 1.51]), and marked or severe border opacity (OR 1.36 [1.11 – 1.67]). Based on lesion size, retinitis preceded antiretroviral treatment in each patient. Conclusions Patients presenting to a tertiary medical center in northern Thailand have advanced CMV retinitis, possibly due to delayed diagnosis. Earlier screening and treatment of CMV retinitis may limit progression of disease and prevent visual impairment in this population. PMID:22265148

  18. Age-related distance esotropia: Clinical features and therapeutic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gómez de Liaño Sánchez, P; Olavarri González, G; Merino Sanz, P; Escribano Villafruela, J C

    2016-12-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of a group of patients with age-related distance esotropia (ARDE). A retrospective study was conducted on a consecutive case series of 16 adult patients diagnosed with ARDE between 2008 and 2015. The clinical features evaluated included mean age and gender, primary position deviations at distance and near, measured in prism dioptres (pd), treatment offered in each case, and post-surgical deviations. Ductions and versions were full, with no evidence of lateral rectus paresis. None of these patients had any obvious underlying neurological disorder, such as, high myopia or thyroid disease. A good result is considered to be the disappearance of diplopia in all positions of gaze. A total of 16 patients (11 females [68.8%]) were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 78.19±6.77 years. The mean initial esodeviation was 2.25±3.08 pd at near (-4 to +8 pd) and 9.5±4.18 pd at distance (2 to 18 pd). Treatment was not necessary in 5 cases because the symptoms were intermittent or well-tolerated. Of the 11 patients with symptoms, one was corrected with an external base therapeutic prism. Botulinum toxin was administered in another patient, without satisfactory results. Unilateral medial rectus muscle recession was performed on one patient, and unilateral lateral rectus plication on 7 patients, indicating prisms before surgery. One patient refused surgery despite continuous diplopia in far vision. After a mean follow-up of 16.5 months, all operated patients were asymptomatic. Not all patients with ARDE require treatment, as the tolerance to diplopia varies from one subject to another. Both medial rectus weakening and lateral rectus strengthening provides excellent results. Crown Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical, serologic, and histologic features of gluten sensitivity in children.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, Ruggiero; Cristofori, Fernanda; Castellaneta, Stefania; Polloni, Carlo; Albano, Veronica; Dellatte, Stefania; Indrio, Flavia; Cavallo, Luciano; Catassi, Carlo

    2014-03-01

    To describe the clinical, serologic, and histologic characteristics of children with gluten sensitivity (GS). We studied 15 children (10 males and 5 females; mean age, 9.6 ± 3.9 years) with GS who were diagnosed based on a clear-cut relationship between wheat consumption and development of symptoms, after excluding celiac disease (CD) and wheat allergy, along with 15 children with active CD (5 males and 10 females; mean age, 9.1 ± 3.1 years) and 15 controls with a functional gastrointestinal disorder (6 males and 9 females; mean age, 8.6 ± 2.7 years). All children underwent CD panel testing (native antigliadin antibodies IgG and IgA, anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody IgA and IgG, and anti-endomysial antibody IgA), hematologic assessment (hemoglobin, iron, ferritin, aspartate aminotransferase, erythrocyte sedimentation rate), HLA typing, and small intestinal biopsy (on a voluntary basis in the children with GS). Abdominal pain was the most prevalent symptom in the children with GS (80%), followed by chronic diarrhea in (73%), tiredness (33%), bloating (26%), limb pain, vomiting, constipation, headache (20%), and failure to thrive (13%). Native antigliadin antibodies IgG was positive in 66% of the children with GS. No differences in nutritional, biochemical, or inflammatory markers were found between the children with GS and controls. HLA-DQ2 was found in 7 children with GS. Histology revealed normal to mildly inflamed mucosa (Marsh stage 0-1) in the children with GS. Our findings support the existence of GS in children across all ages with clinical, serologic, genetic, and histologic features similar to those of adults. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic, hypothalamic and endocrine features of clinical and experimental obesity.

    PubMed

    Bray, G A

    1992-01-01

    Obesity occurs in both clinical and animal forms in a variety of specific models which allow study of its underlining endocrine and mechanistic features. Among the neuroendocrine varieties of obesity, polycystic ovaries are probably the most common. The importance of the gonadal feedback system for regulation of food intake and obesity is indicated by the effects of castration in experimental animals which is a widely used mechanism for producing experimental obesity. Cushing syndrome and hypothalamic obesity are rare clinical syndromes. The current evidence suggests that there are two types of hypothalamic obesity from a mechanistic point of view--one associated with hyperphagia as a necessary and sufficient cause and a disturbance of the autonomic nervous system without hyperphagia as a second mechanism. Although genetic factors underlie most types of human obesity, there are several dymorphic forms of obesity including the Prader-Willy syndrome, Cohen's syndrome, Carpenter's syndrome, Ahlstrom's syndrome and the Bardet-Biedel syndrome. The Prader-Willi syndrome is characterized by obesity hypotonia hypogonadism and mental retardation. In animals, a dominant form of inheritance of obesity is seen in the yellow mouse. Current evidence suggests that this syndrome can be explained by reduced acetylation of MSH in the pituitary and/or hypothalamus. Several recessively inherited forms of obesity exist including the obese mouse, the diabetes mouse, fatty rat, the fat mouse, tubby mouse and the corpulent rat. In addition, there are a number of polygenic types of experimental obesity. The final mechanistic classification of obesity are those due to dietary manipulation. For both human beings and animals, a highly fat diet appears to be particularly problematic for the development of obesity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Pasteurella multocida Infection

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Antonio; Dincman, Toros; Clyburn, Benjamin E.; Steed, Lisa L.; Rockey, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pasteurella multocida, a zoonotic infectious organism, has most often been described in patients after an animal bite. Here, we characterize the clinical features and outcomes of P multocida infection in a large cohort of patients according to the presence or absence of an animal bite. We retrospectively searched MUSC's laboratory information system for all patients with positive P multocida cultures from 2000 to 2014. Extensive data were abstracted, including clinical and outcome data. The Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was used to assess comorbidities among patients. We identified 44 patients with P multocida infections, including 25 with an animal bite. The average age was 64 years and the majority of patients were women (N = 30). There was no difference in age and sex distribution among those with and without a bite (P = 0.38 and 0.75, respectively). A CCI ≥1 was significantly associated with the absence of a bite (P = 0.006). Patients presenting without a bite were more frequently bacteremic (37% vs 4%, respectively, P = 0.001), and were hospitalized more often (84% vs 44%, respectively, P = 0.012). Of the 8 patients who required intensive care unit (ICU)-based care, 7 were non-bite-related. There were 4 deaths, all occurring in patients not bitten. P multocida infections not associated with an animal bite were often associated with bacteremia, severe comorbidity(ies), immune-incompetent states, the need for ICU management, and were associated with substantial mortality. PMID:26356688

  2. [Clinical features of acute hepatitis A in recent two years].

    PubMed

    Lee, Eung Jun; Kwon, So Young; Seo, Tae Ho; Yun, Hyun Sung; Cho, Han Su; Kim, Byung Kook; Choe, Won Hyeok; Lee, Chang Hong; Kim, Jin Nam; Yim, Hyung Joon

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical features of acute hepatitis A in Seoul and Gyeonggi province during the recent 2 years. We reviewed the medical records of 222 patients who were diagnosed as acute hepatitis A between August 2005 and March 2007 at the Konkuk University Hospital and Korea University, Ansan Hospital. The clinical manifestation, serological tests, and image findings were analyzed. Median age of the patients was 28.1 years and the age groups of highest incidence were the second and third decade. The frequent symptoms were anorexia (66.4%), fatigue (49.2%), fever (47.7%), and abdominal discomfort (42.5%). Fourteen cases (6.3%) showed renal insufficiency, and hemodialysis was performed in one. Cholestatic hepatitis in 2 cases, relapsing hepatitis in 4 cases and prolonged hepatitis in 13 cases were observed. However, there was no case of fulminant hepatitis or death. The underlying diseases including chronic hepatitis B, diabetes mellitus and thyroid disorder did not affect the disease severity of hepatitis A. IgM anti-HAV was not detected initially in 6.7% of the patients. Anti-HEV (IgM) was detected simultaneously in 3 of 150 patients. The age of patients with acute hepatitis A has been increased in the recent years. Most patients recovered uneventfully. However, unusual patterns of severe hepatitis and renal insufficiency occurred in considerable number of cases. Follow-up serologic test for IgM anti-HAV is needed in seronegative cases with hepatitis A.

  3. Cerebral proliferative angiopathy: Clinical, angiographic features and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Lv, Xianli; Lv, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Here we present our experience with five cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA) patients to better delineate the clinical and angiographic features as well as the treatment selection of this disease. Methods Between October 2008 and October 2012, five consecutive patients diagnosed with CPA were admitted to our department in our hospital. All the five patients received magnetic resonance imaging, digital subtraction angiography, and positron emission computed tomography (PET) to definitively confirm this disease. We also collected 15 previously published instances of CPA to analyze the characteristics of this rare entity. Results As to the five patients, three were female and two were male, between the ages of 4 and 52 years with a mean age of 24.8 ± 20.6 years. The PET results showed that perfusion was decreased over the affected hemispheres in all five patients. As to the treatment, only one patient received encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) revascularization surgery. The other four patients were conservatively observed. During the follow-up period (range 3–6 years, mean 4 ± 1.9 years), the patient who underwent EDAS surgery manifested relief of clinical symptoms. In the conservative series, the symptoms in two patients aggravated and suffered permanent neurologic deficits. Conclusion CPA is a rare entity. Natural history has showed this disease is not stable and may progress at a certain time point. The EDAS procedure may be a treatment for CPA-related oligemia since there is currently little data and follow-up available. PMID:26472638

  4. Clinical Features of Cluster Headache Patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Cluster headache (CH) is a rare underdiagnosed primary headache disorder with very severe unilateral pain and autonomic symptoms. Clinical characteristics of Korean patients with CH have not yet been reported. We analyzed the clinical features of CH patients from 11 university hospitals in Korea. Among a total of 200 patients with CH, only 1 patient had chronic CH. The average age of CH patients was 38.1 ± 8.9 years (range 19–60 years) and the average age of onset was 30.7 ± 10.3 years (range 10–57 years). The male-to-female ratio was 7:1 (2.9:1 among teen-onset and 11.7:1 among twenties-onset). Pain was very severe at 9.3 ± 1.0 on the visual analogue scale. The average duration of each attack was 100.6 ± 55.6 minutes and a bout of CH lasted 6.5 ± 4.5 weeks. Autonomic symptoms were present in 93.5% and restlessness or agitation was present in 43.5% of patients. Patients suffered 3.0 ± 3.5 (range 1–25) bouts over 7.3 ± 6.7 (range 1–30) years. Diurnal periodicity and season propensity were present in 68.5% and 44.0% of patients, respectively. There were no sex differences in associated symptoms or diurnal and seasonal periodicity. Korean CH patients had a high male-to-female ratio, relatively short bout duration, and low proportion of chronic CH, unlike CH patients in Western countries. PMID:28145655

  5. Clinical features of celiac disease: a prospective birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Agardh, Daniel; Lee, Hye-Seung; Kurppa, Kalle; Simell, Ville; Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Jörneus, Ola; Hummel, Michael; Liu, Edwin; Koletzko, Sibylle

    2015-04-01

    To investigate clinical features of celiac disease (CD) and their association with risk factors for CD in a genetic risk birth cohort. Children from 6 clinical centers in 4 countries positive for HLA-DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 were annually screened for tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTGA) and assessed for symptoms by questionnaires. Associations of symptoms with anthropometrics, known risk factors for CD, tTGA levels, and mucosal lesions in those biopsied were examined. Of 6706 screened children, 914 developed persistent positive tTGA, 406 underwent biopsies, and 340 had CD. Compared with age-matched tTGA-negative children, those with persistent tTGA were more likely to have symptoms at 2 (34% vs 19%, P < .001) and 3 years of age (28% vs 19%, P = .009) but not at 4 years (27% vs 21%, NS). Z-scores for height, weight, and BMI did not differ between groups. In children with persistent tTGA, having ≥ 1 symptom was associated with family history of CD (odds ratio = 2.59, 95% confidence interval, 1.21-5.57) but not with age, gender, or HLA-DR3-DQ2 homozygosity. At seroconversion, tTGA levels were higher in symptomatic than asymptomatic children (P < .001), in those from CD families (P < .001), and in US participants (P < .001) but not associated with age, gender, or HLA genotype. tTGA levels correlated with severity of mucosal lesions both in symptomatic (r = 0.53, P < .001) and asymptomatic children (r = 0.22, P = .01). A majority of children detected with persistent tTGA in screenings are asymptomatic and have normal growth by age 4 years. tTGA levels correlate more strongly with severity of mucosal lesions in symptomatic as compared with asymptomatic children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Clinical, radiologic, and genetic features of Korean patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na Hee; Cho, Sung Yoon; Maeng, Se Hyun; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Sohn, Young Bae; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Hyung-Doo; Jin, Dong Kyu

    2012-11-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) deficiency. Only a few MPS IVA cases have been reported in the Korean literature; there is a paucity of research about clinical or radiologic findings for this disorder. Therefore, we studied clinical findings, radiological features, and genetic data of Korean MPS IVA patients for determining factors that may allow early diagnosis and that may thus improve the patients' quality of life. MPS IVA was confirmed via assay for enzymatic activity of leukocytes in 10 patients. The GALNS gene was analyzed. Patients' charts were retrospectively reviewed for obtaining clinical features and evaluated for radiological skeletal surveys, echocardiography, pulmonary function test, and ophthalmologic test results. Nine patients had severe clinical phenotype, and 1 had an intermediate phenotype, on the basis of clinical phenotype criteria. Radiologic findings indicated skeletal abnormalities in all patients, especially in the hips and extremities. Eight patients had an odontoid hypoplasia, and 1 showed mild atlantoaxial subluxation and cord myelopathy. Genetic analysis indicated 10 different GALNS mutations. Two mutations, c.451C>A and c.1000C>T, account for 37.5% (6/16) and 25% (4/16) of all mutations in this samples, respectively. An understanding of the clinical and radiological features involved in MPS IVA may allow early diagnosis of MPS IVA. Adequate evaluations and therapy in the early stages may improve the quality of life of patients suffering from skeletal abnormalities and may reduce life-threatening effects of atlantoaxial subluxation.

  7. Varicella zoster virus vasculopathy: clinical features and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A

    2014-04-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy is caused by productive virus infection of cerebral arteries, leading to inflammation, pathological vascular remodeling, and ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. VZV vasculopathy occurs in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals and involves both large and small vessels. MRI abnormalities include more deep-seated than superficial lesions, particularly at gray-white matter junctions, and lesions may enhance. Diagnosis is challenging, since stroke can occur months after zoster rash and in the absence of rash or CSF pleocytosis. The best virological test for diagnosis is detection of anti-VZV IgG antibody in the CSF. Pathological studies of VZV-infected arteries from patients with VZV vasculopathy reveal that the arterial adventitia is the initial site of infection, after which virus spreads transmuraly towards the lumen. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of VZV-infected arteries show a thickened intima, disrupted internal elastic lamina, and loss of smooth muscle cells, that likely contribute to weakening of the vessel wall and occlusion. Early in disease, VZV-infected arteries contain CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and rare B cells, in addition to abundant neutrophils in early disease. Importantly, perivascular inflammatory cells underlie the areas of thickened intima, raising the possibility that soluble factors secreted by these cells contribute to arterial remodeling. This review discusses the clinical features of VZV vasculopathy and potential mechanisms of VZV-induced cerebrovascular remodeling and stroke.

  8. Varicella zoster virus vasculopathy: clinical features and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy is caused by productive virus infection of cerebral arteries, leading to inflammation, pathological vascular remodeling and ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. VZV vasculopathy occurs in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals and involves both large and small vessels. MRI abnormalities include more deep-seated than superficial lesions, particularly at grey-white matter junctions and lesions may enhance. Diagnosis is challenging since stroke can occur months after zoster rash and in the absence of rash or CSF pleocytosis. The best virological test for diagnosis is detection of anti-VZV IgG antibody in the CSF. Pathological studies of VZV-infected arteries from patients with VZV vasculopathy reveal that the arterial adventitia is the initial site of infection, after which virus spreads transmuraly towards the lumen. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of VZV-infected arteries show a thickened intima, disrupted internal elastic lamina and loss of smooth muscle cells, that likely contribute to weakening of the vessel wall and occlusion. Early in disease, VZV-infected arteries contain CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, macrophages and rare B-cells, in addition to abundant neutrophils in early disease. Importantly, perivascular inflammatory cells underlie the areas of thickened intima, raising the possibility that soluble factors secreted by these cells contribute to arterial remodeling. This review discusses the clinical features of VZV vasculopathy and potential mechanisms of VZV-induced cerebrovascular remodeling and stroke. PMID:23918503

  9. Pigmented lesions of the nail unit: clinical and histopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Ruben, Beth S

    2010-09-01

    Probably the most common reason to perform biopsy of the nail unit is for the evaluation of irregular pigmentation, especially longitudinal melanonychia or pigmented bands. When narrow and solitary, these are usually the product of melanocytic activation/hypermelanosis, lentigines, or melanocytic nevi. Multiple pigmented bands are generally a benign finding, the result of melanocytic activation, as seen in racial pigmentation in darker-skinned patients, for example. In the context of an irregular, broad, heterogeneous or "streaky" band, the chief concern is the exclusion of subungual melanoma. Before assessing the histologic features of any such entities, it is important to understand the normal nail anatomy and melanocytic density of nail unit epithelium, as well as the type of specimen submitted, and whether it is adequate to undertake a proper histologic evaluation. The criteria for diagnosis and prognosis of melanoma of the nail unit are still evolving, and a variety of factors must be weighed in the balance to make a correct diagnosis. The importance of the clinical context cannot be overemphasized. There are also nonmelanocytic conditions to be considered that may produce worrisome nail discoloration, such as subungual hemorrhage, squamous cell carcinoma, and pigmented onychomycosis.

  10. Eosinophilic colitis: epidemiology, clinical features, and current management

    PubMed Central

    Alfadda, Abdulrahman A.; Storr, Martin A.; Shaffer, Eldon A.

    2011-01-01

    Primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) represent a spectrum of inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders in which eosinophils infiltrate the gut in the absence of known causes for such tissue eosinophilia. EGIDs can be subgrouped as eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG), and eosinophilic colitis (EC). The least frequent manifestation of EGIDs is EC. EC is a heterogeneous entity with a bimodal age distribution, presenting with either an acute self-limited bloody diarrhea in otherwise healthy infants or as a more chronic relapsing colitis in young adults. The pathophysiology of primary EC appears related to altered hypersensitivity, principally as a food allergy in infants and T lymphocyte-mediated (i.e. non-IgE associated) in young adults. In adults, symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Endoscopic changes are generally modest, featuring edema and patchy granularity. Although standardized criteria are not yet established, the diagnosis of EC depends on histopathology that identifies an excess of eosinophils. Therapeutic approaches are based on case reports and small case series, as prospective randomized controlled trials are lacking. Eosinophilic colitis in infants is a rather benign, frequently food-related entity and dietary elimination of the aggressor often resolves the disorder within days. Adolescent or older patients require more aggressive medical management including: glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, leukotriene receptors antagonists as well as novel approaches employing biologics that target interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IgE. This review article summarizes the current knowledge of EC, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:21922029

  11. Clinical features and outcome of severe malaria in Gambian children.

    PubMed

    Waller, D; Krishna, S; Crawley, J; Miller, K; Nosten, F; Chapman, D; ter Kuile, F O; Craddock, C; Berry, C; Holloway, P A

    1995-09-01

    The clinical and laboratory features of severe falciparum malaria in 180 Gambian children were studied between 1985 and 1989. Of the 180 children, 118 (66%) presented with seizures, 77 (43%) had cerebral malaria, 35 (20%) had witnessed seizures after admission, 29 (16%) were hypoglycemic, and 27 (15%) died. Respiratory distress was a common harbinger of a fatal outcome. The differences in admission parasite counts in the blood, hematocrit, and opening cerebrospinal pressures for patients who died and survivors were not significant. A multiple logistic regression model identified neurological status (coma, particularly if associated with extensor posturing), stage of parasite development on the peripheral blood film, pulse rate of > 150 or respiratory rate of > 50, hypoglycemia, and hyperlactatemia (plasma lactate level, > 5 mmol/L) as independent indicators of a fatal outcome. Biochemical evidence of hepatic and renal dysfunction was an additional marker of a poor prognosis, but, in contrast to severe malaria in adults, none of these children with severe malaria had acute renal failure.

  12. Clinical features of serum sickness after Australian snake antivenom.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicole M; Downes, Michael A; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2015-12-15

    Serum sickness is a delayed immune reaction in which the immune system responds to a protein in antiserum as a potentially harmful substance and mounts an IgG-mediated antibody response. A 32 year-old female patient had systemic envenoming following a bite by a red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus). She was treated with Tiger snake antivenom and recovered over 24 h and did not develop myotoxicity. She then presented with local pain, itching and swelling, which was partially treated with antihistamines. Eleven days after the bite she presented again with symptoms of worsening serum sickness including rash on the upper legs, joint and muscle pain in arms, ankles and knees, and nausea. The patient was prescribed five days of prednisone 50 mg/day, antihistamine 10 mg/day and analgesia 1000 mg/day and improved over 2 days. She had no further problems on follow up at 4 months. This case highlights that serum sickness can cause significant effects after the treatment of snake envenoming. It develops 5-14 days after antivenom administration and has characteristic clinical and laboratory features. Severe cases of serum sickness can result in morbidity but it appears to respond well to corticosteroid treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors and clinical features of text message injuries.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Deepak; Ajeesh, P S

    2012-01-01

    Use of mobile phone and sending text message is a very common in today's life. While sending a text message the users need to use their thumb and other palm muscles extensively. The thumb most of the time adducted on the key pad of the mobile and use high force to type the letters. Studies in literature showed that text messaging has an adverse effect on musculoskeletal system of hand. But the extensive study on the type of disorders set in among the users who extensively use mobile phone for texting. This study aims at to evaluate risk factor and clinical feature of the MSD due to hand held devices. Twenty seven subjects participated in this study. Predefined protocols were used to evaluate type of MSD occurred among the subjects. The study revealed that development of tendinitis in extensor pollicis longus, myofascial pain syndrome (70.37%) of adductor pollicis, 1st interossei and extensor digitorum communis . Other associated problems diagnosed were thoracic outlet syndrome (51.85%), fibromyalgia syndrome (25.93%), hypothyroidism (7.41%), wrist tendinitis (14.81%) and De Quervain's syndrome (7.41%). It has been observed that the pathology were tendinitis of extensor pollicis longus, myofascial pain syndrome of thenar muscles and 1st interossei, extensor digitorum communis.

  14. Delta hepatitis: molecular biology and clinical and epidemiological features.

    PubMed Central

    Polish, L B; Gallagher, M; Fields, H A; Hadler, S C

    1993-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus, discovered in 1977, requires the help of hepatitis B virus to replicate in hepatocytes and is an important cause of acute, fulminant, and chronic liver disease in many regions of the world. Because of the helper function of hepatitis delta virus, infection with it occurs either as a coinfection with hepatitis B or as a superinfection of a carrier of hepatitis B surface antigen. Although the mechanisms of transmission are similar to those of hepatitis B virus, the patterns of transmission of delta virus vary widely around the world. In regions of the world in which hepatitis delta virus infection is not endemic, the disease is confined to groups at high risk of acquiring hepatitis B infection and high-risk hepatitis B carriers. Because of the propensity of this viral infection to cause fulminant as well as chronic liver disease, continued incursion of hepatitis delta virus into areas of the world where persistent hepatitis B infection is endemic will have serious implications. Prevention depends on the widespread use of hepatitis B vaccine. This review focuses on the molecular biology and the clinical and epidemiologic features of this important viral infection. PMID:8358704

  15. Cytogenetics and clinical features of pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome in Japan.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Koichi; Manabe, Atsushi; Taketani, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Akira; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Hayashi, Yasuhide

    2014-11-01

    We analyzed the cytogenetics and clinical features of pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in Japan. Data on patients (<16 years) diagnosed with MDS from 1990 to 2000 were retrospectively collected from pediatric hematologists in 234 institutions. Chromosome analysis was successfully performed in 255 of 277 MDS patients. The numbers of patients with refractory anemia, refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts, refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB), refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation (RAEBt), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia were 67 (24%), 51 (18%), 51 (18%), 20 (7%), and 65 (23%), respectively. The other 23 patients (8%) could not be classified specifically. The distribution of childhood MDS in Japan according to the French-American-British subclassification was similar to that in other countries. However, we identified a higher incidence of therapy-related cases. As for relationship between cytogenetics and prognoses, abnormal karyotypes were related to poorer prognoses than normal karyotype (P < 0.01). However, patients with trisomy 8 had prognoses comparable to those with normal karyotypes. Complex karyotypes were associated with poorer prognoses among RAEB and RAEBt patients. In conclusion, prognosis of pediatric MDS is related to cytogenetics. A more precise diagnosis and classification system is needed for childhood MDS.

  16. Congenital Aural Stenosis: Clinical Features and Long-term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen-long; Chen, Ying; Chen, Yong-zheng; Fu, Yao-yao; Zhang, Tian-yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate the clinical features and long-term outcomes of congenital aural stenosis (CAS). This study presents a retrospective review of patients who underwent meatoplasty for CAS at a tertiary referral hospital from 2008 to 2015. A total of 246 meatoplasty procedures were performed on 232 patients in the present study. We performed multivariate regression analysis. Except in the age < 6 years group, no significant difference was observed among different age groups for cholesteatoma formation, p > 0.05. Except for the stenosis of the external auditory canal (EAC) (>4 mm) group, the other stenosis of EAC groups were not associated with cholesteatoma formation, p > 0.05. Postoperative air-bone gaps (ABG) less than 30 dB occurred in 77.3% (99/128) of the patients, and the Jahrsdoerfer score was associated with postoperative ABG, p < 0.001. The complication rate of CAS was 13.8% (20/144), and males showed a higher risk for postoperative complications (OR, 6.563; 95% CI, 1.268–33.966, p = 0.025). These results indicate that meatoplasty was an effective surgical intervention for CAS, showing a stable hearing outcome with prolonged follow-up. There was no significant difference between the cholesteatoma and no cholesteatoma groups for hearing outcomes, p > 0.05. PMID:27257165

  17. [The clinical features of indium-related lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Guo, Kongrong; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Daoyuan

    2015-08-01

    To discuss the clinical features of Indium-related lung diseases. We searched database of Chinese and Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science to collect research data of indium-related lung diseases from Jan. 1998 to Aprl. 2014. Case reports, exposure histories and lab results were analysed and summarized. 1998 to Mar 2010, ten cases of indium-related lung diseases were published. Seven cases of interstitial pneumonia were reported in Japan, two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) were reported in the USA and one case of PAP reported in China. Chest computer tomography (CT) showed diffuse or local ground glass appearance (GGA) in 8 cases, 3 of which also showed centrilobular nodules; Pulmonary function test were normal only in one out of 8 cases. Cholesterol clefts were found in 4 cases of interstitial pneumonia. 3 cases died among 6 cases who were followed-up. Occupational exposure to indium compounds are contributory to different pulmonary diseases, which are composed of interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. The relationships between In-C, In-S and these pulmonary diseases are unclear.

  18. Cytokine profiles in localized scleroderma and relationship to clinical features.

    PubMed

    Kurzinski, Katherine; Torok, Kathryn S

    2011-08-01

    Localized scleroderma (LS) is a disfiguring autoimmune disease of the skin and underlying tissue that mainly affects the pediatric population. Inflammation of the tissue leads to fibrosis and atrophy, causing physical and psychological disability that can continue throughout childhood into adulthood. Available therapies for LS have had variable effects and are associated with morbidity themselves. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of LS, especially during the active inflammatory phase, would lead to more directed and efficacious therapies. As in systemic sclerosis (SSc), the other form of scleroderma, T-helper (Th) cells and their associated cytokines have been suggested to contribute significantly to the pathophysiology of LS supported by the presence of cytokines from these lineages in the sera and tissue of LS patients. It is postulated that the imbalance between Th1/Th2/Th17 cell subsets drives inflammation in the early stages of disease (Th1 and Th17 predominant) and fibrosis in the later stages of scleroderma (Th2 predominant). We review the available experimental data regarding cytokines in LS and compare them to available clinical disease severity and activity features. This provides the platform to launch further investigations into the role of select cytokines in the pathogenesis of LS and to provide directed therapeutic options in the future. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: clinical features, diagnosis, and therapy.

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, Roberto; Cogliandro, Rosanna F; Barbara, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2011-12-01

    CIPO is the very “tip of the iceberg” of functional gastrointestinal disorders, being a rare and frequently misdiagnosed condition characterized by an overall poor outcome. Diagnosis should be based on clinical features, natural history and radiologic findings. There is no cure for CIPO and management strategies include a wide array of nutritional, pharmacologic, and surgical options which are directed to minimize malnutrition, promote gut motility and reduce complications of stasis (ie, bacterial overgrowth). Pain may become so severe to necessitate major analgesic drugs. Underlying causes of secondary CIPO should be thoroughly investigated and, if detected, treated accordingly. Surgery should be indicated only in a highly selected, well characterized subset of patients, while isolated intestinal or multivisceral transplantation is a rescue therapy only in those patients with intestinal failure unsuitable for or unable to continue with TPN/HPN. Future perspectives in CIPO will be directed toward an accurate genomic/proteomic phenotying of these rare, challenging patients. Unveiling causative mechanisms of neuro-ICC-muscular abnormalities will pave the way for targeted therapeutic options for patients with CIPO.

  20. Clinical and Immunological Features of Common Variable Immunodeficiency in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lian-Jun; Wang, Yu-Chuan; Liu, Xin-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency syndromes. The purpose of this article was to broaden our knowledge about CVID for better diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Clinical and immunological features of 40 Chinese patients with CVID were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The median age at onset was 11-year-old (range 4–51 years). The median age at diagnosis was 14.5-year-old (range 5–66 years). The average time of delay in diagnosis was 5.3 years (range 1–41 years). The most common main complaint was fever due to infections (35 cases, 87.5%). Pneumonia (28 cases, 70%) was the most common type of infections. Bronchiectasis was present in 6 patients (15%). Autoimmune disease was detected in 6 cases of CVID, and malignancy in 2 cases. The median total serum levels of IgG, IgA, and IgM at diagnosis were 1.07 g/L, 0.07 g/L, and 0.28 g/L, respectively. The percentages of CD3−/CD10+ B-cells were 1%–3.14%. Conclusions: Infection is the most frequent presentation of CVID. Patients with unexplainable infections should receive further examination including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) and lymphocyte subset analysis. Regular and sufficient substitution with Ig is recommended. PMID:25635425

  1. [Intermittent priapism as a clinical feature of lumbar spinal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Rojas, J I; Zurrú-Ganen, M C; Romano, M; Patrucco, L; Cristiano, E

    Lumbar spinal stenosis is defined as a narrowing of the neural canal and foramina that result in compression of the lumbosacral nerve roots or cauda equina. Patients with lumbar spinal stenosis may present a variety of signs and symptoms. One such syndrome is neurogenic intermittent claudication, characterized by radicular symptoms exacerbated by walking or standing and relieved by rest. Infrequently, lumbar spinal stenosis produces a cauda equina compression, characterized by intermittent urinary or fecal incontinence, impotence and in rare cases priapism. A 50 year-aged male, presented with spontaneous intermittent priapism and few months later weakness, numbness and pain of his legs provoked by bipedestation or physical exertion that completely disappeared by sitting or lying down. A computed tomographic scan showed a lumbar canal narrowing of L4 through L5. A diagnosis of neurogenic intermittent claudication with dysfunction of the cauda equina roots secondary to the presence of lumbar spinal stenosis was carried out. The symptoms completely resolved after descompressive lumbar laminectomy of L4 and L5. Causal interpretation of neurogenic intermittent claudication still remains obscure. An inadequate blood supply provoked by increased intra-raquid pressure among the roots may act as a dynamic factor. This mechanism could cause stagnant anoxia during the exercise resulting in clinical symptoms. Lumbar spinal stenosis should be kept in mind when autonomic features appear.

  2. Clinical and histological features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Hossein; Daryani, Nasser Ebrahimi; Mirmomen, Shahram; Kamangar, Farin; Haghpanah, Babak; Djalili, Mehdi

    2003-01-01

    Background Although several studies have been performed on risk factors and natural course of NASH, it seems that NASH tends to be more than a disease confined to strict boundaries. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical and paraclinical features and risk factors for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients in an Iranian population Methods Patients with histologically confirmed NASH who had elevated liver aminotransaminases, negative serologic markers of viral or autoimmune hepatitis and no findings in favor of metabolic liver disease were enrolled. A careful history was taken regarding alcohol intake. Results 53 patients consisting of 32 male and 21 female entered the study. The mean age was 37.8 ± 11.3 years. Twenty-six patients (55.3%) were overweight, 15 (31.9%) obese, 40 (75.5%) dyslipidemic, and three patients (5.7%) were diabetic. Liver biopsy showed mild steatosis in 35.7%, moderate steatosis in 53.6%, and severe forms in 10.7%. In 80.2% of patients, portal inflammation was present, and 9.4% had cirrhosis. The amount of increase in liver enzymes bore no relationship with fibrosis, portal inflammation, and degree of steatosis. Conclusions The patients in our study showed a male predominancy and were somewhat younger than other studies. PMID:14561231

  3. The clinical features and treatment of pediatric intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiantao; Bao, Yuhai; Zhang, Hongqi; Wrede, Karsten Henning; Zhi, Xinglong; Li, Meng; Ling, Feng

    2009-03-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are relatively rare in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to highlight the clinical and radiological features and the therapeutic outcome and clarify the choice of therapeutic strategies for pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Twenty-four consecutive children (age

  4. Epidemiology and clinical features of pediatric psoriasis in tertiary referral psoriasis clinic.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Na, Sun Jae; Jo, Seoung Jin; Youn, Jai Il

    2012-03-01

    Few epidemiological studies of pediatric patients with moderate to severe psoriasis have been available despite there being no approved systemic therapy for these patients. The aim of the present study was to elucidate clinical features of pediatric psoriasis in a tertiary referral psoriasis clinic. We analyzed the clinical data of 358 patients under 18 years of age referred to our clinic from other private clinics and medical centers. Our data showed a male :female ratio of 1.06:1 and a peak age of onset of 10-11 years. Of the patients, 32.4% had a positive family history. The most prevalent phenotype was plaque type (67.3%) and the mean Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score was 17.2 ± 12.7. The most frequently affected body part was the trunk (69.5%), followed by the legs (65.3%). Exposure to sunlight and summer season improved psoriatic lesions, while stress and winter season aggravated the clinical course. Only 26.0% of patients received systemic therapy or phototherapy during the therapeutic course. Oral acitretin (11.2%) was most frequently used followed by ultraviolet B phototherapy (7.3%). The childhood group (<13 years) showed higher prevalence of guttate and generalized pustular phenotypes and more severe clinical course compared with the adolescent group (13-18 years). In conclusion, our patients showed distinctive features in clinical phenotypes, disease severity and affected body parts compared with previous reports. We also found that clinical application of systemic therapies were limited considering the severe disease state of our patients, demanding a need for more research on treatment of pediatric psoriasis.

  5. Clinical, Epidemiologic, Histopathologic and Molecular Features of an Unexplained Dermopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Michele L.; Selby, Joseph V.; Katz, Kenneth A.; Cantrell, Virginia; Braden, Christopher R.; Parise, Monica E.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Lewin-Smith, Michael R.; Kalasinsky, Victor F.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Hightower, Allen W.; Papier, Arthur; Lewis, Brian; Motipara, Sarita; Eberhard, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Morgellons is a poorly characterized constellation of symptoms, with the primary manifestations involving the skin. We conducted an investigation of this unexplained dermopathy to characterize the clinical and epidemiologic features and explore potential etiologies. Methods A descriptive study was conducted among persons at least 13 years of age and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) during 2006–2008. A case was defined as the self-reported emergence of fibers or materials from the skin accompanied by skin lesions and/or disturbing skin sensations. We collected detailed epidemiologic data, performed clinical evaluations and geospatial analyses and analyzed materials collected from participants' skin. Results We identified 115 case-patients. The prevalence was 3.65 (95% CI = 2.98, 4.40) cases per 100,000 enrollees. There was no clustering of cases within the 13-county KPNC catchment area (p = .113). Case-patients had a median age of 52 years (range: 17–93) and were primarily female (77%) and Caucasian (77%). Multi-system complaints were common; 70% reported chronic fatigue and 54% rated their overall health as fair or poor with mean Physical Component Scores and Mental Component Scores of 36.63 (SD = 12.9) and 35.45 (SD = 12.89), respectively. Cognitive deficits were detected in 59% of case-patients and 63% had evidence of clinically significant somatic complaints; 50% had drugs detected in hair samples and 78% reported exposure to solvents. Solar elastosis was the most common histopathologic abnormality (51% of biopsies); skin lesions were most consistent with arthropod bites or chronic excoriations. No parasites or mycobacteria were detected. Most materials collected from participants' skin were composed of cellulose, likely of cotton origin. Conclusions This unexplained dermopathy was rare among this population of Northern California residents, but associated with significantly reduced health-related quality of

  6. Clinical, epidemiologic, histopathologic and molecular features of an unexplained dermopathy.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Michele L; Selby, Joseph V; Katz, Kenneth A; Cantrell, Virginia; Braden, Christopher R; Parise, Monica E; Paddock, Christopher D; Lewin-Smith, Michael R; Kalasinsky, Victor F; Goldstein, Felicia C; Hightower, Allen W; Papier, Arthur; Lewis, Brian; Motipara, Sarita; Eberhard, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Morgellons is a poorly characterized constellation of symptoms, with the primary manifestations involving the skin. We conducted an investigation of this unexplained dermopathy to characterize the clinical and epidemiologic features and explore potential etiologies. A descriptive study was conducted among persons at least 13 years of age and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) during 2006-2008. A case was defined as the self-reported emergence of fibers or materials from the skin accompanied by skin lesions and/or disturbing skin sensations. We collected detailed epidemiologic data, performed clinical evaluations and geospatial analyses and analyzed materials collected from participants' skin. We identified 115 case-patients. The prevalence was 3.65 (95% CI = 2.98, 4.40) cases per 100,000 enrollees. There was no clustering of cases within the 13-county KPNC catchment area (p = .113). Case-patients had a median age of 52 years (range: 17-93) and were primarily female (77%) and Caucasian (77%). Multi-system complaints were common; 70% reported chronic fatigue and 54% rated their overall health as fair or poor with mean Physical Component Scores and Mental Component Scores of 36.63 (SD = 12.9) and 35.45 (SD = 12.89), respectively. Cognitive deficits were detected in 59% of case-patients and 63% had evidence of clinically significant somatic complaints; 50% had drugs detected in hair samples and 78% reported exposure to solvents. Solar elastosis was the most common histopathologic abnormality (51% of biopsies); skin lesions were most consistent with arthropod bites or chronic excoriations. No parasites or mycobacteria were detected. Most materials collected from participants' skin were composed of cellulose, likely of cotton origin. This unexplained dermopathy was rare among this population of Northern California residents, but associated with significantly reduced health-related quality of life. No common underlying medical

  7. [Clinical and myopathological features of Jo-1 syndrome].

    PubMed

    Meng, L C; Li, Y; Zhang, W; Hao, H J; Gao, F; Yuan, Y

    2016-08-02

    To report the clinical and myopathological features of 16 patients with Jo-1 syndrome. Sixteen patients were recruited in this study, who were diagnosed as Jo-1 syndrome in Department of Neurology of Peking University First Hospital from January, 2011 to July, 2015. The clinical data and myopathological data were analyzed. The mean onset age was 41±14 (21-68) years old. 87.5% was female. The median duration was 9.5 months (1-192 months). The main clinical manifestations were weakness in 13 cases (81.2%), arthritis in 10 cases (62.5%), interstitial lung diseases in 8 cases (50%), dermatomyositis-like skin lesions in 5 cases (31.2%), fever in 3 cases (18.8%), Raynaud's phenomenon in 2 cases (12.5%) and mechanic's hands in 2 cases (12.5%). There were 3 cases with other connective tissue diseases and 1 case with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mean serum CK was 3 054±2 058(470-5 222) U/L. All patients had anti-Jo-1antibody, combined with anti- Mi-2 antibody in 1 case, anti-Ro-52 antibody in 5 cases, and anti-nuclear antibody in 5 cases. 4/5 cases showed myopathic changes for electromyography (EMG) tests. Myopathological changes included edema, fragmentation and inflammatory infiltration in perimysium in 14 cases (87.5%), muscle atrophy in 13 cases including 7 cases(43.8%) predominantly in perifascicular field. Muscle fiber necrosis appeared in 8 cases with predominantly in perifascicular area in 4 cases (25%). Muscle fiber regeneration occurred in 11 cases with predominantly in perifascicular field in 5 cases (31.2%). CD8 positive T-lymphocytes, CD20 positive B-lymphocytes and CD68 positive macrophages infiltrated in various degrees, most of which were located in perimysium. MHC-Ⅰ were expressed on muscle fiber membranes in different degrees, including 7 cases (43.8%) predominantly in the cytoplasm of perifascicular muscle fibers. C5b-9 deposited in perifascicular muscle fiber membranes in 7 cases (43.8%) and perifascicular capillaries in 2 cases (12.5%). The main

  8. Prevalent role of gene features in determining evolutionary fates of whole-genome duplication duplicated genes in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-kai; Liu, Yun-long; Xia, En-hua; Gao, Li-zhi

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of genes and genomes after polyploidization has been the subject of extensive studies in evolutionary biology and plant sciences. While a significant number of duplicated genes are rapidly removed during a process called fractionation, which operates after the whole-genome duplication (WGD), another considerable number of genes are retained preferentially, leading to the phenomenon of biased gene retention. However, the evolutionary mechanisms underlying gene retention after WGD remain largely unknown. Through genome-wide analyses of sequence and functional data, we comprehensively investigated the relationships between gene features and the retention probability of duplicated genes after WGDs in six plant genomes, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), poplar (Populus trichocarpa), soybean (Glycine max), rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and maize (Zea mays). The results showed that multiple gene features were correlated with the probability of gene retention. Using a logistic regression model based on principal component analysis, we resolved evolutionary rate, structural complexity, and GC3 content as the three major contributors to gene retention. Cluster analysis of these features further classified retained genes into three distinct groups in terms of gene features and evolutionary behaviors. Type I genes are more prone to be selected by dosage balance; type II genes are possibly subject to subfunctionalization; and type III genes may serve as potential targets for neofunctionalization. This study highlights that gene features are able to act jointly as primary forces when determining the retention and evolution of WGD-derived duplicated genes in flowering plants. These findings thus may help to provide a resolution to the debate on different evolutionary models of gene fates after WGDs.

  9. The clinical features, outcomes and genetic characteristics of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with severe right ventricular hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiying; Fan, Chaomei; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Xiuling; Zhao, Xing; Wang, Fengqi; Zhu, Hongguang; Lin, Aiqing; Wu, Xia; Li, Yishi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Severe right ventricular hypertrophy (SRVH) is a rare phenotype in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) for which limited information is available. This study was undertaken to investigate the clinical, prognostic and genetic characteristics of HCM patients with SRVH. Methods HCM with SRVH was defined as HCM with a maximum right ventricular wall thickness ≥10 mm. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed in HCM patients with SRVH. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify risk factors for cardiac death and events in HCM with SRVH. Patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM) were selected as a comparison group. The clinical features and outcomes of 34 HCM patients with SRVH and 273 ApHCM patients were compared. Results Compared with the ApHCM group, the HCM with SRVH group included younger patients and a higher proportion of female patients and also displayed higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models identified 2 independent predictors of cardiovascular death in HCM patients with SRVH, a New York Heart Association class ≥III (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43-52.87, p = 0.019) and an age at the time of HCM diagnosis ≤18 (HR = 5.5, 95% CI: 1.24-28.36, p = 0.026). Among the 11 HCM patients with SRVH who underwent WGS, 10 (90.9%) were identified as carriers of at least one specific sarcomere gene mutation. MYH7 and TTN mutations were the most common sarcomere mutations noted in this study. Two or more HCM-related gene mutations were observed in 9 (82%) patients, and mutations in either other cardiomyopathy-related genes or ion-channel disease-related genes were found in 8 (73%) patients. Conclusions HCM patients with SRVH were characterized by poor clinical outcomes and the presentation of multiple gene mutations. PMID:28323875

  10. Hemizygosity at the elastin locus and clinical features of Williams syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, Y; Kuwano, A.; Kuwajima, K.

    1994-09-01

    Williams syndrome is a recognizable syndrome characterized by distinctive facial appearance, gregarious personality, mental retardation, congenital heart defect, particularly supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS), and joint limitation. SVAS is an autosomal vascular disorder and the elastin gene was disrupted in patients with SVAS. Ewat et al. reported that hemizygosity at the elastin locus was detected in four familial and five sporadic cases of Williams syndrome. However, three patients did not have SVAS. We reconfirmed hemizygosity at the elastin locus in five patients with typical clinical features of Williams syndrome. Hemizygosity was detected in four cases with SVAS. However, one patient with distinctive facial appearance and typical Williams syndrome personality had two alleles of the elastin gene, but he did not have the congenital heart anomaly. Williams syndrome is thought to be a contiguous gene disorder. Thus, our data suggest that the elastin gene is responsible for the vascular defect in patients with Williams syndrome, and flanking genes are responsible for characteristic facial appearance and personality.

  11. Clinical features and genetic analysis of three patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Amanda J; Kurtkoti, Jagadeesh; Hamilton-Craig, Ian; Burnett, John R

    2014-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridaemia is a common biochemical abnormality that can be due to primary causes or, more commonly, secondary causes. Moderate hypertriglyceridaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and can develop into severe hypertriglyceridaemia which is a risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Familial chylomicronaemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, usually diagnosed in childhood and is characterized by marked hypertriglyceridaemia and biochemical deficiency of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), apolipoprotein (apo) C-II, homozygous (or compound heterozygous) gene mutations in LPL or more rarely, APOC2. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in the APOA5 gene have been reported in patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia in whom LPL or APOC2 mutations were not found. We describe the clinical features and genetic analysis of three patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia including novel mutations LPL c.464T>C (p.Leu155Pro) and APOA5 c.823C>T (p.Gln275*).

  12. Lupus Nephritis in Asia: Clinical Features and Management.

    PubMed

    Yap, Desmond Y H; Chan, Tak Mao

    2015-09-01

    outcomes in Asian patients with LN compare favorably with patients from other parts of the world. The prevention and treatment of infective complications remain significant challenges in managing LN in Asia. (1) The prevalence of SLE is lower among Caucasians than other ethnicities. A higher prevalence is observed among Asians and African Americans, while the highest prevalence is found in Caribbean people. The prevalence of LN in Asian SLE patients is much higher than in Caucasians as well. However, the 10-year renal outcome and renal survival rate appear to be better in Asians. (2) Polymorphisms of genes involved in the immune response, such as Fcγ receptor, integrin alpha M, TNF superfamily 4, myotubularin-related protein 3 and many others, might be partly responsible for the differences in prevalence between the different ethnic groups. European ancestry was shown to be associated with a decrease in the risk of LN even after adjustment for genes most associated with renal disease. (3) Access to health care is a key determinant of disease progression, treatment outcome and the management of complications such as infections, particularly in South Asia, and might also explain disparities between clinical outcomes. (4) The efficacy of low-dose CYC combined with corticosteroids for induction treatment of LN was proved in European Caucasian patients. This treatment is also used in Asia, although no formal evaluation of efficacy and safety in comparison with other treatment regimens exists in this population. The efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is similar to that of CYC, and similar between Asians and Caucasians. MMF may be more effective than CYC in inducing response in high-risk populations such as African American or Hispanic patients. MMF might cause less infection-related events in Asians, but its high cost prevents broader usage at present. (5) For maintenance therapy, corticosteroid combined with AZA or MMF is used worldwide, with a broadly similar efficacy of

  13. Lupus Nephritis in Asia: Clinical Features and Management

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Desmond Y.H.; Chan, Tak Mao

    2015-01-01

    Treatment responses and clinical outcomes in Asian patients with LN compare favorably with patients from other parts of the world. The prevention and treatment of infective complications remain significant challenges in managing LN in Asia. Facts from East and West (1) The prevalence of SLE is lower among Caucasians than other ethnicities. A higher prevalence is observed among Asians and African Americans, while the highest prevalence is found in Caribbean people. The prevalence of LN in Asian SLE patients is much higher than in Caucasians as well. However, the 10-year renal outcome and renal survival rate appear to be better in Asians. (2) Polymorphisms of genes involved in the immune response, such as Fcγ receptor, integrin alpha M, TNF superfamily 4, myotubularin-related protein 3 and many others, might be partly responsible for the differences in prevalence between the different ethnic groups. European ancestry was shown to be associated with a decrease in the risk of LN even after adjustment for genes most associated with renal disease. (3) Access to health care is a key determinant of disease progression, treatment outcome and the management of complications such as infections, particularly in South Asia, and might also explain disparities between clinical outcomes. (4) The efficacy of low-dose CYC combined with corticosteroids for induction treatment of LN was proved in European Caucasian patients. This treatment is also used in Asia, although no formal evaluation of efficacy and safety in comparison with other treatment regimens exists in this population. The efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is similar to that of CYC, and similar between Asians and Caucasians. MMF may be more effective than CYC in inducing response in high-risk populations such as African American or Hispanic patients. MMF might cause less infection-related events in Asians, but its high cost prevents broader usage at present. (5) For maintenance therapy, corticosteroid combined with AZA or

  14. Clinical and molecular features and therapeutic perspectives of spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1.

    PubMed

    Vanoli, Fiammetta; Rinchetti, Paola; Porro, Francesca; Parente, Valeria; Corti, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress (SMARD1) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease caused by mutations in the IGHMBP2 gene, encoding the immunoglobulin μ-binding protein 2, leading to motor neuron degeneration. It is a rare and fatal disease with an early onset in infancy in the majority of the cases. The main clinical features are muscular atrophy and diaphragmatic palsy, which requires prompt and permanent supportive ventilation. The human disease is recapitulated in the neuromuscular degeneration (nmd) mouse. No effective treatment is available yet, but novel therapeutical approaches tested on the nmd mouse, such as the use of neurotrophic factors and stem cell therapy, have shown positive effects. Gene therapy demonstrated effectiveness in SMA, being now at the stage of clinical trial in patients and therefore representing a possible treatment for SMARD1 as well. The significant advancement in understanding of both SMARD1 clinical spectrum and molecular mechanisms makes ground for a rapid translation of pre-clinical therapeutic strategies in humans. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  15. [Clinical and morphological features of different types of Castleman's disease].

    PubMed

    Melikyan, A L; Egorova, E K; Kovrigina, А М; Subortseva, I N; Gilyazitdinova, E A; Karagyulyan, S R; Silaev, M A; Gemdzhian, E G; Savchenko, V G

    2015-01-01

    To study the clinical features of Castleman's disease (CD) and to elaborate therapeutic approaches in its different morphological types. The clinical and laboratory data were studied in 59 prospectively examined patients and 17 retrospectively examined ones with CD who had been treated at the Outpatient Department, Hematology Research Centre, in 1996 to 2014. There were a total of 37 men (median age, 36 years) and 39 women (median age, 34 years). The diagnosis was established from the results of histological and immunohistochemical examinations of removed lymph nodes (LN) or tumors in all the cases. A hyaline vascular variant (HVV) with local LN involvement was diagnosed in 38 (50%) patients; a plasma cell variant (PCV) was in 38 (50%); among the latter, 17 (22%) patients were found to have local involvement and 21 (28%) had generalized (multicentriC) involvement (multicentric Castleman's diseases (MCD)). Five (24%) patients with MCD were established to be infected with human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8). HVV was more frequently diagnosed in women (4%) than in men (29%); PCV was equally common in both men (47%) and women (53%); MCD was statistically significantly more frequently encountered in men (86%) than in women (14%) (p=0.05). The basic involvement areas in local HVV and PCV were peripheral (38%), mediastinal (29), retroperitoneal (18%), abdominal (9%), and small pelvic (6%) LNs. HVV and local PCV were benign and these were cured by surgical removal of LNs involved in the pathological process. MCD took its aggressive course with obvious constitutional symptoms, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinemia, autoimmune hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and involvement of extranodal foci in the pathological process. MCD transformation to plasmablastic lymphoma was observed in 4 of the 5 HHV8-positive patients and followed by a poor outcome. The prognosis of untreated MCD was unfavorable. In a number of cases prednisolone monotherapy worsened

  16. Clinical features of IgG4-related rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Machiko; Kammisawa, Terumi; Koizumi, Satomi; Kuruma, Sawako; Chiba, Kazuro; Kikuyama, Masataka; Shirakura, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Taro; Hishima, Tsunekazu

    2017-05-30

    IgG4-related disease is a systemic disease that affects various organs of the body. Aim of this study is to elucidate the clinical characteristics of IgG4-related rhinosinusitis. Clinical features, laboratory findings, radiological and endoscopic findings, associated disease, treatment and prognosis were retrospectively examined in 10 patients with IgG4-related rhinosinusitis. The age was 59.1±11.3 years old and male-to-female ratio was 1:1. The chief nasal complaints were hyposmia (n=4), nasal obstruction (n=3), and nothing (n=3). Serum IgG4 levels were elevated in all patients and the value was 740.4±472.4mg/dl. Other IgG4-related diseases were associated in all 10 patients, including IgG4-related sialadenitis (n=6), IgG4-related dacryoadenitis (n=5), and autoimmune pancreatitis (n=5). Imaging findings on CT/MRI were obstruction of the way of elimination (n=10), thickening of the sinus mucous membrane (n=10), and fluid in the sinus (n=6). All of the cases had bilateral findings. Nasal endoscopic findings were chiefly deviated nasal septum (n=5), polyps (n=4), edema of the mucous membrane (n=3). Histologically, abundant infiltration of IgG4 positive plasma cell and lymphocyte and an elevated IgG4+/IgG+ cell ration was detected in all 8 patients and 5 patients, respectively. Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in 8 patients. Eight patients were treated with steroid therapy for other associated IgG4-related diseases. Symptoms improved in all 6 patients after an initial treatment (endoscopic surgery (n=5) and steroids (n=1)), but one patient suffered relapse. IgG4-related rhinosinusitis is a distinct entity of IgG4-related disease, and is associated in patients with multiple IgG4-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical, Pathological, and Molecular Features of Lung Adenocarcinomas with AXL Expression

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Kenichi; Shimizu, Shigeki; Sakai, Kazuko; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Tomizawa, Kenji; Takemoto, Toshiki; Nishio, Kazuto; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. AXL affects several cellular functions, including growth and migration. AXL aberration is reportedly a marker for poor prognosis and treatment resistance in various cancers. In this study, we analyzed clinical, pathological, and molecular features of AXL expression in lung adenocarcinomas (LADs). We examined 161 LAD specimens from patients who underwent pulmonary resections. When AXL protein expression was quantified (0, 1+, 2+, 3+) according to immunohistochemical staining intensity, results were 0: 35%; 1+: 20%; 2+: 37%; and 3+: 7% for the 161 samples. AXL expression status did not correlate with clinical features, including smoking status and pathological stage. However, patients whose specimens showed strong AXL expression (3+) had markedly poorer prognoses than other groups (P = 0.0033). Strong AXL expression was also significantly associated with downregulation of E-cadherin (P = 0.025) and CD44 (P = 0.0010). In addition, 9 of 12 specimens with strong AXL expression had driver gene mutations (6 with EGFR, 2 with KRAS, 1 with ALK). In conclusion, we found that strong AXL expression in surgically resected LADs was a predictor of poor prognosis. LADs with strong AXL expression were characterized by mesenchymal status, higher expression of stem-cell-like markers, and frequent driver gene mutations. PMID:27100677

  18. Bullous X linked retinoschisis: clinical features and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Anne-Marie; Fahim, Abigail; Moore, Anthony T; Wong, Sui Chien; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-08-28

    A subset of patients with X linked retinoschisis (XLRS) have bullous schisis cavities in the peripheral retina. This study describes the characteristics and prognosis of the bullous form of XLRS. A retrospective case series was performed of nine patients with molecularly proven bullous XLRS seen at a single tertiary centre. All cases of bullous peripheral schisis were bilateral, with one unilateral case at presentation which developed into bilateral bullous schisis over time. The mean age of onset was 1.9 years (range: 1 month-7 years, SD: 2.1 years) and at clinical diagnosis was 5.9 years (range: 1 month-27 years, SD: 9.0 years). Mean follow-up was 11 years (range: 6 months-36 years, SD: 10.8 years). Strabismus was the most common presentation (n=7). Other presenting complaints included decreased vision, floaters and an irregularly shaped pupil. The most frequently associated ocular features were strabismus (100%), vitreous haemorrhage (4/18 eyes, 22%), nystagmus (2/9, 22%) and persistent fetal vasculature (1/18, 6%). Localised tractional detachment was seen in 2/18 (11%) eyes, total detachment that underwent surgical repair in 1/18 (6%) and pigmented demarcation lines in a further 22% of the eyes. There was one eye with exudative retinal detachment. In XLRS, bullous schisis may be congenital or develop soon after birth and most commonly presents with strabismus. Cases may be complicated by some form of retinal detachment, which may be tractional or a Coats-like exudative detachment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Clinical features of polyhydramnios associated with fetal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kikue; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Miyachi, Keiko; Sunagawa, Sorahiro; Takagi, Kimiyo

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical features of pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios associated with fetal anomalies. Sixty-nine patients with a singleton pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios were retrospectively analyzed. Based on prenatal ultrasonographic findings, 13 cases were considered to have idiopathic polyhydramnios and the remaining 56 cases were associated with fetal anomalies. Between these two groups, no significant difference was found in the gestational weeks when polyhydramnios developed. However, significant difference was noted in the maximum amniotic fluid index (AFI) values during the pregnancy period; 25.4 +/- 2.7 cm in the former, and 30.6 +/- 8.9 cm in the latter (P = 0.0004). In all of 13 cases with idiopathic polyhydramnios, AFI values remained less than 30 cm until delivery. Twenty-two patients (39%) with fetal anomalies required a prenatal treatment such as amnioreduction and tocolysis, whereas only one patient (7.7%) with idiopathic polyhydramnios needed tocolysis therapy (P = 0.03). There was a significant risk of premature delivery with fetal anomalies (35.6 +/- 3.9 weeks' gestation vs. 38.8 +/- 1.5 weeks' gestation, P = 0.004) because of refractory polyhydramnios, rupture of membranes, non-reassuring fetal status, and intrauterine fetal death, and although most infants with idiopathic polyhydramnios were appropriate-for-dates, many of the infants with congenital anomalies were small-for-dates. Significant risk of fetal anomalies should be considered in pregnant women with severe polyhydramnios (AFI > or = 30 cm), an increased trend of amniotic fluid during the pregnancy period, polyhydramnios requiring a prenatal treatment, or fetal growth restriction. On the other hand, based on our experience, a fetus without these conditions seems to have a low risk of congenital anomalies even if polyhydramnios is noted.

  20. Clinical features and prognostic factors in solitary plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Finsinger, Paola; Grammatico, Sara; Chisini, Marta; Piciocchi, Alfonso; Foà, Robin; Petrucci, Maria T

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to review the clinical features and outcome of 53 patients with solitary plasmacytoma managed at our Institution between 1976 and 2012. Thirty-five patients had bone solitary plasmacytoma and 18 extramedullary solitary plasmacytoma. Tumour sizes were larger in patients with bone involvement (P = 0·003). Treatment consisted of local radiotherapy (n = 26), radiotherapy + chemotherapy (n = 15), surgery (n = 4) and chemotherapy (n = 8); the local control rate was 94·3%. Progression to multiple myeloma was recorded in 20/35 (57·1%) patients with bone involvement and in 1/18 (5·5%) patients with extramedullary disease (P = 0·0003). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 78·4%; bone solitary plasmacytoma patients had a significantly worse OS (71·9% vs. 88·2%, respectively; P = 0·029) and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS; 53·0% vs. 88·5%; P = 0·0003) compared to extramedullary solitary plasmacytoma patients. On univariate analysis, bone disease and size (≥5 cm) impacted negatively on PFS (P = 0·0027 and P = 0·04, respectively). Bone disease also affected OS (P = 0·04). In multivariate analysis bone location was the only independent prognostic factor for PFS (P = 0·0041) and OS (P = 0·021). Patients with bone solitary plasmacytoma have a significantly worse prognosis than extramedullary solitary plasmacytoma cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Characteristic clinical features associated with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Y J; Hong, K E; Yum, H R; Lee, J H; Kim, K S; Youn, Y A; Park, S H

    2017-02-24

    PurposeTo identify the risk factors for, and clinical features and treatment outcomes of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP) in Korean infants.MethodsAmong 770 premature infants who underwent screening, 105 infants (198 eyes, 13.63%) received treatment for ROP. A total of 24 infants (48 eyes, 3.12%) developed APROP while 81 infants (150 eyes, 10.52%) developed non-APROP treatment-requiring type. The medical records of ROP-treated infants were reviewed retrospectively. The associated systemic and maternal risk factors were analyzed and anatomical outcomes were compared according to the severity of ROP and treatment modalities.ResultsThe mean gestational age and birth weight at birth in the APROP group were significantly lower than those in the non-APROP group (P=0.019, P<0.001, respectively). Infants who were born small for their GA developed APROP more frequently than non-APROP patients (P<0.001). Chorioamnionitis-positive infants also showed higher incidence rate of APROP (APROP vs non-APROP; P<0.001 and zone I APROP vs posterior zone II APROP; P=0.036, respectively). Infants with APROP required heavier laser treatment with a higher retreatment rate compared to infants with non-APROP. Favorable anatomical outcomes were achieved in 95.3% from treatment-requiring non-APROP group, 85.7% from zone I APROP and 84.6% from posterior zone II APROP group.ConclusionIntrauterine growth restriction and chorioamnionitis were associated with development of APROP. These findings suggest that perinatal maternal environment inhibiting normal retinal vascular growth in utero may contribute to increasing the risk of APROP in premature infants.Eye advance online publication, 24 February 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.18.

  2. Fecal incontinence in men: Causes and clinical and manometric features

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Ciriza de los Ríos, Constanza; Muñoz-Garrido, Francisco; Vara, Jesús; Solís-Herruzo, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the causes and characteristics of fecal incontinence in men and to compare these features with those presented by a group of women with the same problem. METHODS: We analyzed the medical history, clinical and manometric data from 119 men with fecal incontinence studied in our unit and compared these data with those obtained from 645 women studied for the same problem. Response to treatment was evaluated after 6 mo of follow-up. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of patients studied in our unit for fecal incontinence were male. Men took longer than women before asking for medical help. Ano-rectal surgery was the most common risk factor for men related to fecal incontinence. Chronic diarrhea was present in more than 40% of patients in both groups. Decreased resting and external anal sphincter pressures were more frequent in women. No significant differences existed between the sexes regarding rectal sensitivity and recto-anal inhibitory reflex. In 17.8% of men, all presenting soiling, manometric findings did not justify fecal incontinence. Response to treatment was good in both groups, as 80.4% of patients improved and fecal incontinence disappeared in 13.2% of them. CONCLUSION: In our series, it was common that men waited longer in seeking medical help for fecal incontinence. Ano-rectal surgery was the major cause of this problem. Chronic diarrhea was a predisposing factor in both sexes. Manometric differences between groups were limited to an increased frequency of hypotony of the external anal sphincter in women. Fecal incontinence was controllable in most patients. PMID:24976729

  3. Pseudotumour cerebri in children: Aetiology, clinical features, and progression.

    PubMed

    Mosquera Gorostidi, A; Iridoy Zulet, M; Azcona Ganuza, G; Gembero Esarte, E; Yoldi Petri, M E; Aguilera Albesa, S

    2017-01-09

    The definition, associated aetiologies, diagnosis, and treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension, or pseudotumour cerebri (PTC), are constantly being revised in the paediatric population. Our study included children younger than 15 years old with PTC and attended at a reference hospital in the past 12 years. We analysed the clinical and epidemiological features of our sample and the diagnostic and treatment approaches. PTC was defined as presence of intracranial hypertension (CSF opening pressure>25cmH2O) and absence of space-occupying lesions in brain MR images. A total of 12 children with PTC were included; mean age was 10 years and 90% were girls. Weight was normal in all patients. Eighty-two percent of the patients had symptoms: headache (66%), diplopia (8%), and visual loss (8%). All of them displayed papilloedema (17% unilaterally). Lumbar puncture (LP) provided the diagnosis in all cases and 91% showed no relevant MRI findings. A potential cause of PTC was identified in 5 cases: pharmacological treatment in 2 and infection (Mycoplasma pneumoniae [M. pneumoniae]) in 3. Ninety-one per cent of the patients received treatment: 75% underwent several LPs and 42% received acetazolamide and/or prednisone. Outcomes were favourable in all cases. The incidence of PTC was estimated at approximately 1 case per 100 000 children/years, in line with data reported by previous studies. Overweight was not found to be a risk factor for PTC in this population. M. pneumoniae infection may trigger PTC and cause recurrences at later stages. The absence of symptoms seems to be independent from the degree of intracranial hypertension. Acetazolamide treatment is effective in most cases, and it represents a viable alternative to repeated LP. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Production and clinical development of nanoparticles for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Guo, Zhaopei; Tian, Huayu; Chen, Xuesi

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising strategy for specific treatment of numerous gene-associated human diseases by intentionally altering the gene expression in pathological cells. A successful clinical application of gene-based therapy depends on an efficient gene delivery system. Many efforts have been attempted to improve the safety and efficiency of gene-based therapies. Nanoparticles have been proved to be the most promising vehicles for clinical gene therapy due to their tunable size, shape, surface, and biological behaviors. In this review, the clinical development of nanoparticles for gene delivery will be particularly highlighted. Several promising candidates, which are closest to clinical applications, will be briefly reviewed. Then, the recent developments of nanoparticles for clinical gene therapy will be identified and summarized. Finally, the development of nanoparticles for clinical gene delivery in future will be prospected. PMID:27088105

  5. Glucocorticoid action and the clinical features of Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, J A; Cutler, G B

    1994-09-01

    Glucocorticoids mainly act through binding to cytosolic receptors that translocate to the nucleus after ligand binding, and dimerize to affect gene transcription in multiple fashions. The liganded receptors may interact with DNA at specific glucocorticoid responsive-elements, may physically hinder the ability of other transcription-regulating proteins to interact with their own DNA response-elements, and may form intranuclear complexes with the transcription factor c-jun, thus changing the number of c-jun/c-fos heterodimers that bind at AP-1 sites. By these, and perhaps other, mechanisms, physiologic concentrations of glucocorticoids regulate normal tissue metabolism, and supraphysiologic concentrations cause Cushing's syndrome. Cushing's syndrome leaves virtually no body tissue untouched. Left untreated, it results in progressive adiposity, myopathy, dermopathy (atrophy, stria, purpura, and hirsutism), psychopathy, glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, immunosuppression, and, ultimately, death. The physiology underlying each of these effects of hypercortisolism has been reviewed. The differences in the presentation of Cushing's syndrome in children and adults have also been discussed. The goal of the clinician must be to identify individuals with Cushing's syndrome as early in the course of the disease as possible so as to avoid the devastating complications that result from prolonged hypercortisolism. In patients for whom screening tests are equivocal, or only intermittently elevated, it may be necessary to re-evaluate the patient over time to establish that the patient has hypercortisolism. Some clinical guidelines for which patients to screen for hypercortisolism have been presented. Once hypercortisolism is established, patients with mild hypercortisolism (urine free cortisol less than four-fold above the upper limit of normal) should undergo tests to differentiate true Cushing's syndrome from a pseudo-Cushing state.

  6. Clinical, genetic, and neuroimaging features of Early Onset Alzheimer Disease: the challenges of diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Alberici, Antonella; Benussi, Alberto; Premi, Enrico; Borroni, Barbara; Padovani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Early Onset Alzheimer Disease (EOAD) is a rare condition, frequently associated with genetic causes. The dissemination of genetic testing along with biomarker determinations have prompted a wider recognition of EOAD in experienced clinical settings. However, despite the great efforts in establishing the contribution of causative genes to EOAD, atypical disease presentation and clinical features still makes its diagnosis and treatment a challenge for the clinicians. This review aims to provide an extensive evaluation of literature data on EOAD, in order to improve understanding and knowledge of EOAD, underscore its significant impact on patients and their caregivers and influence public policies. This would be crucial to define the urgency of evidence-based treatment approaches.

  7. Joint analysis of histopathology image features and gene expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Popovici, Vlad; Budinská, Eva; Čápková, Lenka; Schwarz, Daniel; Dušek, Ladislav; Feit, Josef; Jaggi, Rolf

    2016-05-11

    Genomics and proteomics are nowadays the dominant techniques for novel biomarker discovery. However, histopathology images contain a wealth of information related to the tumor histology, morphology and tumor-host interactions that is not accessible through these techniques. Thus, integrating the histopathology images in the biomarker discovery workflow could potentially lead to the identification of new image-based biomarkers and the refinement or even replacement of the existing genomic and proteomic signatures. However, extracting meaningful and robust image features to be mined jointly with genomic (and clinical, etc.) data represents a real challenge due to the complexity of the images. We developed a framework for integrating the histopathology images in the biomarker discovery workflow based on the bag-of-features approach - a method that has the advantage of being assumption-free and data-driven. The images were reduced to a set of salient patterns and additional measurements of their spatial distribution, with the resulting features being directly used in a standard biomarker discovery application. We demonstrated this framework in a search for prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer which resulted in the identification of several prognostic image features and a promising multimodal (imaging and genomic) prognostic signature. The source code for the image analysis procedures is freely available. The framework proposed allows for a joint analysis of images and gene expression data. Its application to a set of breast cancer cases resulted in image-based and combined (image and genomic) prognostic scores for relapse-free survival.

  8. [Clinical features in DLBCL and translocation BCL2/c-MYC "double hit" lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Škunca, Željka; Domimis, Mara; Plninc-Peraica, Ana; Jakšić, Branimir

    2014-06-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is classified as lymphoma and various entities using the gene expression of proteins are classified into three groups. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical, biological, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic features of DLBCL with translocation t (14; 18) and 8q24/c-MYC. Eleven DLBCL patients with dual translation were monitored during the 2000-2009 period. The characteristics of these patients included morphological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic analysis. Study results showed that all patients had aggressive characteristics, presence of B symptoms (64%), general patient condition according to ECOG scale ≥ 2 (55%), elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase activity (73%), clinical stage III and IV (82%), extranodal involvement of the disease (73%), and IPI ≥ 2 (73%). Partial remission was achieved in 73% of all patients and all patients (73%) died within a short time. Patients were treated with CHOP and similar protocols (COP, CVP, CNOP), with the addition of MabThera. Immunophenotyping was performed and determined expression of the CD20, CD3, CD10, BCL6 and MUM1 markers. The cytogenetic analysis/fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed complex karyotype changes. Thus, we analyzed the presence of BCL2, BCL6 and c-MYC genes and found eight patients to have BCL2 and c-MYC translocation genes, while three had translocation of the BCL6 and c-MYC genes. Despite appropriate therapy, the patient prognosis is poor. The median survival in these patients was 1.85 years. DLBCL with BCL2 and c-MYC rearrangement of the subgroups of lymphoma is associated with very poor survival. The presence of these two translocations has an aggressive clinical course.

  9. The clinical and genetic features of the COPD asthma overlap syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Megan; Cho, Michael; McDonald, Merry-Lynn; Beaty, Terri; Ramsdell, Joe; Bhatt, Surya; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Make, Barry J.; Crapo, James D.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Hersh, Craig P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with COPD and asthma are an important but poorly characterized group. The genetic determinants of COPD-asthma overlap have not been studied. Objective Identify clinical features and genetic risk factors for COPD-asthma overlap. Methods Subjects were current or former smoking non-Hispanic whites (NHW) or African-Americans (AA) with COPD. Overlap subjects reported a history of physician-diagnosed asthma before the age of 40. We compared clinical and radiographic features between COPD and overlap subjects. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in the NHW and AA populations, and combined these results in a meta-analysis. Results More women and African Americans reported a history of asthma. Overlap subjects had more severe and more frequent respiratory exacerbations, less emphysema, and greater airway wall thickness compared to subjects with COPD alone. The NHW GWAS identified SNPs in CSMD1 (rs11779254, P=1.57×10−6) and SOX5(rs59569785, P=1.61×10−6) and the meta-analysis identified SNPs in the gene GPR65 (rs6574978, P=1.18×10−7) associated with COPD-asthma overlap. Conclusions Overlap subjects have more exacerbations, less emphysema and more airway disease for any degree of lung function impairment compared to COPD alone. We identified novel genetic variants associated with this syndrome. COPD-asthma overlap is an important syndrome and may require distinct clinical management. PMID:24876173

  10. Association of Genotyping of Bacillus cereus with Clinical Features of Post-Traumatic Endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Meng; Wang, Qian; Tang, Zhide; Wang, Youpei; Gu, Yunfeng; Lou, Yongliang; Zheng, Meiqin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is the second most frequent cause of post-traumatic bacterial endophthalmitis. Although genotyping of B. cereus associated with gastrointestinal infections has been reported, little is known about the B. cereus clinical isolates associated with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. This is largely due to the limited number of clinical strains available isolated from infected tissues of patients with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. In this study, we report successful isolation of twenty-four B. cereus strains from individual patients with different disease severity of post-traumatic endophthalmitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all strains could be categorized into three genotypes (GTI, GTII and GTIII) and the clinical score showed significant differences among these groups. We then further performed genotyping using the vrrA gene, and evaluated possible correlation of genotype with the clinical features of B. cereus–caused post-traumatic endophthalmitis, and with the prognosis of infection by conducting follow-up with patients for up to 2 months. We found that the disease of onset and final vision acuity were significantly different among the three groups. These results suggested that the vrrA gene may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of endophthalmitis, and genotyping of B. cereus has the potential for predicting clinical manifestation and prognosis of endophthalmitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of large numbers of clinical isolates of B. cereus from patients with endophthalmitis. This work sets the foundation for future investigation of the pathogenesis endophthalmitis caused by B. cereus infection. PMID:26886446

  11. Association of Genotyping of Bacillus cereus with Clinical Features of Post-Traumatic Endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Meng; Wang, Qian; Tang, Zhide; Wang, Youpei; Gu, Yunfeng; Lou, Yongliang; Zheng, Meiqin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is the second most frequent cause of post-traumatic bacterial endophthalmitis. Although genotyping of B. cereus associated with gastrointestinal infections has been reported, little is known about the B. cereus clinical isolates associated with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. This is largely due to the limited number of clinical strains available isolated from infected tissues of patients with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. In this study, we report successful isolation of twenty-four B. cereus strains from individual patients with different disease severity of post-traumatic endophthalmitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all strains could be categorized into three genotypes (GTI, GTII and GTIII) and the clinical score showed significant differences among these groups. We then further performed genotyping using the vrrA gene, and evaluated possible correlation of genotype with the clinical features of B. cereus-caused post-traumatic endophthalmitis, and with the prognosis of infection by conducting follow-up with patients for up to 2 months. We found that the disease of onset and final vision acuity were significantly different among the three groups. These results suggested that the vrrA gene may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of endophthalmitis, and genotyping of B. cereus has the potential for predicting clinical manifestation and prognosis of endophthalmitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of large numbers of clinical isolates of B. cereus from patients with endophthalmitis. This work sets the foundation for future investigation of the pathogenesis endophthalmitis caused by B. cereus infection.

  12. Clinical features of a paediatric asthma population in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Matthew, Jason; Bekele, Isaac; Pinto Pereira, Lexley Maureen

    2013-04-01

    Clinical features and management of paediatric asthma, highly prevalent in the Caribbean, was explored in Trinidadian children. Children (2-16 years) with acute [visiting Accident and Emergency (A&E) in the past 12 months (50.2%, 120)] or stable asthma [controlled during the previous 3 months (49.8%, 119)] were studied. There were more (P < 0.001) boys (71.5%) than girls. Asthma was associated with asthmatic mothers (48.5%), fathers (19.2%) and both parents (15.1%) (P < 0.001). Children's average age of first wheeze was 2.5 (standard deviation = 1.3) years; 30.1% were nebulized before 1 year. In the past 12 months, frequencies of A&E visits were once (20.6%), >1 (61.9%) and >3 times (26.4%) (P < 0.001). Sufferers of exacerbations showed negative logistic regression for age (-0.129, standard error = 0.039, P < 0.001) independent of gender. Acute asthmatics who suffered cough, fever and sore throat in the preceding week were respectively 15.2 [odds ratio (OR) = 15.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.8-34.0], 13.7 (OR = 13.7, 95% CI = 6.7-28.2) and 3.4 (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.7-6.7) times more likely to suffer wheeze exacerbations than stable children. Most stable children (76.5%) inhaled corticosteroids with salbutamol reliever compared with 22.5% of acute asthmatics, whereas 40.8% of the latter group used salbutamol alone compared with 19.3% of stable children (P < 0.001). Childhood wheeze occurs before 3 years and is associated with maternal asthma. Cough, fever and sore throat in the previous week are strongly associated with exacerbations. Defining these associations could enhance preventive approaches to combat childhood asthma. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Psychopathy: clinical features, developmental basis and therapeutic challenges.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D F; Ramos, C L; Willett, J K

    2014-10-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by deficits in personality and behaviour. Personality deficits are marked by interpersonal and affective facets, including pathological lying, grandiose sense of self-worth, lack of remorse and callousness. Behavioural deficits are defined by lifestyle and antisocial deficits, including impulsivity, parasitic lifestyle and poor behavioural controls. The objective of this review is to provide clinicians with (i) an appreciation of the clinical features of psychopathy, (ii) an understanding of the structural and functional derangements and the genetic and environmental factors which serve as the basis for the development of psychopathy and (iii) a summary of published reports of pharmacological approaches to the management of this disorder. A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed (1966-present) was conducted using the MeSH search terms psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder alone and in combination with the subheading drug therapy. Additional databases included Web of Science (1945-present) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-present) using the text words psychopath and antisocial personality were searched. A search of Amazon books using the search terms psychopathy and sociopathy was also performed. Bibliographies of relevant articles were searched for additional citations. All data sources in English were considered for inclusion. For background information, broad subject headings were searched for review articles first. Human and animal drug therapy articles were evaluated giving preference to those papers using a controlled trial methodology. Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of conscience, pathologic lying, manipulative behaviour and often superficial charm. The incidence of psychopathy in the general population is generally considered to be 0·6-4% with a higher proportion of males to females. Brain imaging studies of psychopaths suggest a smaller and less active

  14. Clinical diagnostic gene expression thyroid testing.

    PubMed

    Steward, David L; Kloos, Richard T

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies are cytologically indeterminate in 15% to 30% of cases. When cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules undergo diagnostic surgery, approximately three-quarters prove to be histologically benign. A negative predictive value of more than or equal to 94% for the Afirma Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) is achieved for indeterminate nodules. Most Afirma GEC benign nodules can be clinically observed, as suggested by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Thyroid Carcinoma Guideline. More than half of the benign nodules with indeterminate cytology (Bethesda categories III/IV) can be identified as GEC benign and removed from the surgical pool to prevent unnecessary diagnostic surgery.

  15. A Review of Feature Extraction Software for Microarray Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ching Siang; Ting, Wai Soon; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Chan, Weng Howe; Deris, Safaai; Ali Shah, Zuraini

    2014-01-01

    When gene expression data are too large to be processed, they are transformed into a reduced representation set of genes. Transforming large-scale gene expression data into a set of genes is called feature extraction. If the genes extracted are carefully chosen, this gene set can extract the relevant information from the large-scale gene expression data, allowing further analysis by using this reduced representation instead of the full size data. In this paper, we review numerous software applications that can be used for feature extraction. The software reviewed is mainly for Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Partial Least Squares (PLS), and Local Linear Embedding (LLE). A summary and sources of the software are provided in the last section for each feature extraction method. PMID:25250315

  16. Genes and Pathways Involved in Adult Onset Disorders Featuring Muscle Mitochondrial DNA Instability.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Naghia; Ronchi, Dario; Comi, Giacomo Pietro

    2015-08-05

    Replication and maintenance of mtDNA entirely relies on a set of proteins encoded by the nuclear genome, which include members of the core replicative machinery, proteins involved in the homeostasis of mitochondrial dNTPs pools or deputed to the control of mitochondrial dynamics and morphology. Mutations in their coding genes have been observed in familial and sporadic forms of pediatric and adult-onset clinical phenotypes featuring mtDNA instability. The list of defects involved in these disorders has recently expanded, including mutations in the exo-/endo-nuclease flap-processing proteins MGME1 and DNA2, supporting the notion that an enzymatic DNA repair system actively takes place in mitochondria. The results obtained in the last few years acknowledge the contribution of next-generation sequencing methods in the identification of new disease loci in small groups of patients and even single probands. Although heterogeneous, these genes can be conveniently classified according to the pathway to which they belong. The definition of the molecular and biochemical features of these pathways might be helpful for fundamental knowledge of these disorders, to accelerate genetic diagnosis of patients and the development of rational therapies. In this review, we discuss the molecular findings disclosed in adult patients with muscle pathology hallmarked by mtDNA instability.

  17. Genes and Pathways Involved in Adult Onset Disorders Featuring Muscle Mitochondrial DNA Instability

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Naghia; Ronchi, Dario; Comi, Giacomo Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Replication and maintenance of mtDNA entirely relies on a set of proteins encoded by the nuclear genome, which include members of the core replicative machinery, proteins involved in the homeostasis of mitochondrial dNTPs pools or deputed to the control of mitochondrial dynamics and morphology. Mutations in their coding genes have been observed in familial and sporadic forms of pediatric and adult-onset clinical phenotypes featuring mtDNA instability. The list of defects involved in these disorders has recently expanded, including mutations in the exo-/endo-nuclease flap-processing proteins MGME1 and DNA2, supporting the notion that an enzymatic DNA repair system actively takes place in mitochondria. The results obtained in the last few years acknowledge the contribution of next-generation sequencing methods in the identification of new disease loci in small groups of patients and even single probands. Although heterogeneous, these genes can be conveniently classified according to the pathway to which they belong. The definition of the molecular and biochemical features of these pathways might be helpful for fundamental knowledge of these disorders, to accelerate genetic diagnosis of patients and the development of rational therapies. In this review, we discuss the molecular findings disclosed in adult patients with muscle pathology hallmarked by mtDNA instability. PMID:26251896

  18. The clinical and genetic features of COPD-asthma overlap syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Megan; Cho, Michael; McDonald, Merry-Lynn; Beaty, Terri; Ramsdell, Joe; Bhatt, Surya; van Beek, Edwin J R; Make, Barry J; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K; Hersh, Craig P

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are an important but poorly characterised group. The genetic determinants of COPD and asthma overlap have not been studied. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features and genetic risk factors for COPD and asthma overlap. Subjects were current or former smoking non-Hispanic whites or African-Americans with COPD. Overlap subjects reported a history of physician-diagnosed asthma before the age of 40 years. We compared clinical and radiographic features between COPD and overlap subjects. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in the non-Hispanic whites and African-American populations, and combined these results in a meta-analysis. More females and African-Americans reported a history of asthma. Overlap subjects had more severe and more frequent respiratory exacerbations, less emphysema and greater airway wall thickness compared to subjects with COPD alone. The non-Hispanic white GWAS identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes CSMD1 (rs11779254, p=1.57 × 10(-6)) and SOX5 (rs59569785, p=1.61 × 10(-6)) and the meta-analysis identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene GPR65 (rs6574978, p=1.18 × 10(-7)) associated with COPD and asthma overlap. Overlap subjects have more exacerbations, less emphysema and more airway disease for any degree of lung function impairment compared to COPD alone. We identified novel genetic variants associated with this syndrome. COPD and asthma overlap is an important syndrome and may require distinct clinical management.

  19. Clinical and genetic features of Australian families with long QT syndrome: A registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Burns, Charlotte; Ingles, Jodie; Davis, Andrew M; Connell, Vanessa; Gray, Belinda; Hunt, Lauren; McGaughran, Julie; Semsarian, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Familial long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a primary arrhythmogenic disorder caused by mutations in ion channel genes. The phenotype ranges from asymptomatic individuals to sudden cardiac arrest and death. LQTS is a rare but significant health problem for which global data should exist. This study sought to provide the first clinical and genetic description of Australian families with LQTS. We performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate clinical and genetic features of families with LQTS. We recruited individuals from the Australian Genetic Heart Disease Registry and Genetic Heart Disease Clinic, in Sydney, Australia, and included those with a diagnosis of LQTS according to the most recent consensus statement. Among 108 families with LQTS, 173 individuals were affected. Twenty-five (32%) probands had a sudden cardiac death (SCD) event (including appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator [ICD] therapy, or resuscitated cardiac arrest). There were 64 (82%) probands who underwent genetic testing, and 34 (53%) had a pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation in. Having a family history of LQTS was significantly associated with identification of a pathogenic result (79% versus 14%, p<0.0001). There were 16 (9%) participants who experienced delay to diagnosis of at least 12 months. This is the first clinical and genetic study in a large cohort of Australian families with LQTS. Findings from this study suggest that the clinical and genetic features in this population are not dissimilar to those described in North American, European, and Asian cohorts. Global-scale information about families with LQTS is an important initiative to ensure diagnostic and management approaches are applicable to different populations and ethnicities.

  20. A Combination of Molecular Markers and Clinical Features Improve the Classification of Pancreatic Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Simeon; Wang, Yuxuan; Molin, Marco Dal; Masica, David L.; Jiao, Yuchen; Kinde, Isaac; Blackford, Amanda; Raman, Siva P.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Tomita, Tyler; Niknafs, Noushin; Douville, Christopher; Ptak, Janine; Dobbyn, Lisa; Allen, Peter J.; Klimstra, David S.; Schattner, Mark A.; Schmidt, C. Max; Yip-Schneider, Michele; Cummings, Oscar W.; Brand, Randall E.; Zeh, Herbert J.; Singhi, Aatur D.; Scarpa, Aldo; Salvia, Roberto; Malleo, Giuseppe; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Falconi, Massimo; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun-Whe; Kwon, Wooil; Hong, Seung-Mo; Song, Ki-Byung; Kim, Song Cheol; Swan, Niall; Murphy, Jean; Geoghegan, Justin; Brugge, William; Fernandez-Del Castillo, Carlos; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Schulick, Richard; Edil, Barish H.; Adsay, Volkan; Paulino, Jorge; van Hooft, Jeanin; Yachida, Shinichi; Nara, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Yamao, Kenji; Hijioka, Susuma; van der Merwe, Schalk; Goggins, Michael; Canto, Marcia Irene; Ahuja, Nita; Hirose, Kenzo; Makary, Martin; Weiss, Matthew J.; Cameron, John; Pittman, Meredith; Eshleman, James R.; Diaz, Luis A.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Karchin, Rachel; Hruban, Ralph H.; Vogelstein, Bert; Lennon, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims The management of pancreatic cysts poses challenges to both patients and their physicians. We investigated whether a combination of molecular markers and clinical information could improve the classification of pancreatic cysts and management of patients. Methods We performed a multi-center, retrospective study of 130 patients with resected pancreatic cystic neoplasms (12 serous cystadenomas, 10 solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms, 12 mucinous cystic neoplasms, and 96 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms). Cyst fluid was analyzed to identify subtle mutations in genes known to be mutated in pancreatic cysts (BRAF, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, GNAS, KRAS, NRAS, PIK3CA, RNF43, SMAD4, TP53 and VHL); to identify loss of heterozygozity at CDKN2A, RNF43, SMAD4, TP53, and VHL tumor suppressor loci; and to identify aneuploidy. The analyses were performed using specialized technologies for implementing and interpreting massively parallel sequencing data acquisition. An algorithm was used to select markers that could classify cyst type and grade. The accuracy of the molecular markers were compared with that of clinical markers, and a combination of molecular and clinical markers. Results We identified molecular markers and clinical features that classified cyst type with 90%–100% sensitivity and 92%–98% specificity. The molecular marker panel correctly identified 67 of the 74 patients who did not require surgery, and could therefore reduce the number of unnecessary operations by 91%. Conclusions We identified a panel of molecular markers and clinical features that show promise for the accurate classification of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas and identification of cysts that require surgery. PMID:26253305

  1. Growth factors from genes to clinical application

    SciTech Connect

    Sara, V.R. ); Hall, K.; Low, H. )

    1990-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosion in the identification of growth factors and their receptors. This has been greatly facilitated by recombinant DNA technology, which has provided the tools not only to identify these proteins at the gene level but also to produce recombinant proteins for evaluating their biological activities. With the help of such techniques, we are moving toward an understanding of the biosynthesis of growth factors and their receptors, structure-function relationships, as well as mechanisms for intracellular signal transmission. The possibility of modifying these factors has opened new fields of clinical application. In this paper, four major areas of growth factor research are presented: the characterization of growth factor genes and their protein products, growth factor receptors and signal transduction by the receptors to mediate biological action, the biological actions of the various growth factors, and the role of growth factors in health and disease and their possible clinical application. Some of the topics covered include: structure of the IGFs and their variants; isoforms of PDGF receptor types; tyrosine kinase activation; structure of G-proteins in biological membranes; possible therapeutic application of NGF in the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases; PDGF's possible role in the development of several fibroproliferative diseases and its therapeutic application in wound healing; and the possible use of angiogenic inhibitors in tumor treatment.

  2. Statistical methods for detecting differentially abundant features in clinical metagenomic samples.

    PubMed

    White, James Robert; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Pop, Mihai

    2009-04-01

    Numerous studies are currently underway to characterize the microbial communities inhabiting our world. These studies aim to dramatically expand our understanding of the microbial biosphere and, more importantly, hope to reveal the secrets of the complex symbiotic relationship between us and our commensal bacterial microflora. An important prerequisite for such discoveries are computational tools that are able to rapidly and accurately compare large datasets generated from complex bacterial communities to identify features that distinguish them.We present a statistical method for comparing clinical metagenomic samples from two treatment populations on the basis of count data (e.g. as obtained through sequencing) to detect differentially abundant features. Our method, Metastats, employs the false discovery rate to improve specificity in high-complexity environments, and separately handles sparsely-sampled features using Fisher's exact test. Under a variety of simulations, we show that Metastats performs well compared to previously used methods, and significantly outperforms other methods for features with sparse counts. We demonstrate the utility of our method on several datasets including a 16S rRNA survey of obese and lean human gut microbiomes, COG functional profiles of infant and mature gut microbiomes, and bacterial and viral metabolic subsystem data inferred from random sequencing of 85 metagenomes. The application of our method to the obesity dataset reveals differences between obese and lean subjects not reported in the original study. For the COG and subsystem datasets, we provide the first statistically rigorous assessment of the differences between these populations. The methods described in this paper are the first to address clinical metagenomic datasets comprising samples from multiple subjects. Our methods are robust across datasets of varied complexity and sampling level. While designed for metagenomic applications, our software can also be applied

  3. Assessment of Correlation between Sweat Chloride Levels and Clinical Features of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Manzoor A.; Khan, Mosin S.; Malik, Showkat A.; Raina, AB Hameed; Makhdoomi, Mudassir J.; Bhat, Javed I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder and the incidence of this disease is undermined in Northern India. The distinguishable salty character of the sweat belonging to individuals suffering from CF makes sweat chloride estimation essential for diagnosis of CF disease. Aim The aim of this prospective study was to elucidate the relationship of sweat chloride levels with clinical features and pattern of CF. Materials and Methods A total of 182 patients, with clinical features of CF were included in this study for quantitative measurement of sweat chloride. Sweat stimulation and collection involved pilocarpine iontophoresis based on the Gibson and Cooks methodology. The quantitative estimation of chloride was done by Schales and Schales method with some modifications. Cystic Fibrosis Trans Membrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutation status was recorded in case of patients with borderline sweat chloride levels to correlate the results and for follow-up. Results Out of 182 patients having clinical features consistent with CF, borderline and elevated sweat chloride levels were present in 9 (5%) and 41 (22.5%) subjects respectively. Elevated sweat chloride levels were significantly associated with wheeze, Failure To Thrive (FTT), history of CF in Siblings, product of Consanguineous Marriage (CM), digital clubbing and steatorrhoea on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis only wheeze, FTT and steatorrhoea were found to be significantly associated with elevated sweat chloride levels (p<0.05). Among the nine borderline cases six cases were positive for at least two CFTR mutations and rest of the three cases were not having any mutation in CFTR gene. Conclusion The diagnosis is often delayed and the disease is advanced in most patients at the time of diagnosis. Sweat testing is a gold standard for diagnosis of CF patients as genetic mutation profile being heterozygous and unlikely to become diagnostic test. PMID:28208841

  4. Clinical features, histology, and histogenesis of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gera, Shweta; Ettel, Mark; Acosta-Gonzalez, Gabriel; Xu, Ruliang

    2017-01-01

    Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) is a rare tumor with poor prognosis, with incidence ranging from 1.0%-4.7% of all primary hepatic tumors. This entity will be soon renamed as hepato-cholangiocarcinoma. The known risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been implicated for CHC including viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. It is difficult to diagnose this tumor pre-operatively. The predominant histologic component within the tumor largely determines the predominant radiographic features making it a difficult distinction. Heterogeneous and overlapping imaging features of HCC and cholangiocarcinoma should raise the suspicion for CHC and multiple core biopsies (from different areas of tumor) are recommended before administering treatment. Serum tumor markers CA19-9 and alpha-fetoprotein can aid in the diagnosis, but it remains a challenging diagnosis prior to resection. There is sufficient data to support bipotent hepatic progenitor cells as the cell of origin for CHC. The current World Health Organization classification categorizes two main types of CHC based on histo-morphological features: Classical type and CHC with stem cell features. Liver transplant is one of the available treatment modalities with other management options including transarterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, and percutaneous ethanol injection. We present a review paper on CHC highlighting the risk factors, origin, histological classification and therapeutic modalities. PMID:28293379

  5. Clinical and pathologic features of young endometrial cancer patients with loss of mismatch repair expression.

    PubMed

    Grzankowski, Kassondra S; Shimizu, David M; Kimata, Chieko; Black, Michael; Terada, Keith Y

    2012-09-01

    This study examines premenopausal and early menopause patients in a unique population with endometrial cancer and loss of mismatch repair (MMR) gene expression. The purpose is to compare clinical and pathologic differences in patients with loss of expression (LOE) to those with normal expression (NE). Endometrial cancer patients under age 60 in-between 1998 and 2008 were identified from a single tumor registry. Clinical and pathologic data were abstracted from records. Staining for expression of MSH6, MSH2, MLH1, and PMS2 were performed on archived tissue blocks. Statistical analysis was performed. 158 patients were analyzed; 58% Asian, 34% Pacific Islander, and 8% Caucasian. 31 demonstrated LOE of at least one MMR gene; 127 retained NE. 50% Caucasian, 21.9% Asian, and 12.5% Pacific Island populations had LOE of one or more MMR genes. LOE was found to have a higher incidence of Grade III (p=0.0013) and stage 3-4 tumors (p=0.0079), mean depth of myometrial invasion (p=0.0019), lymphovascular space invasion (p=0.0020), nodal metastases (p=0.0157), and a lower incidence of Grade I (p=0.0020) and stage 1A tumors (p=0.0085). LOE had a significantly lower mean BMI (p=0.0001). 35% of patients in the NE vs zero in the LOE group had a BMI greater than 40. Younger patients with LOE endometrial cancer appear to represent a clinically significant subgroup of patients without features characteristically found in classic type 1 endometrial cancer generally demonstrating lower BMI and tumors associated with poor prognostic characteristics. It is unclear if the distinctive ethnicity found in Hawaii has a significant impact on outcome. Further investigation is necessary to identify appropriate treatment strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PML-RARalpha fusion gene transcripts and biological features in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Melo, R A M; de Vasconcellos, J F; Melo, F C B C; Machado, C G F; Lacerda, T M S; Souto, F R

    2006-04-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the presence of rearrangements involving the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) gene and a variable incidence in different populations. The hybrid gene PML-RARalpha, present in 98% of cases, encodes a fusion protein essential to the pathogenesis of the disease. Depending of the PML's gene breakpoint in chromosome 15, the transcript subtypes bcr1, bcr2 and bcr3 may be formed. The correlation between these transcript subtypes and clinical parameters is still controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of the PML-RARalpha transcripts and subtypes in a series of 32 APL patients from Northeast Brazil and to evaluate the association of these subtypes to different parameters. The method used was RT-PCR. The frequency of our APL cases is approximately 28% of the acute leukemias. The results showed the presence of PML-RARalpha isoform in all patients and a higher frequency of the bcr1/2 subtype. No significant statistical association was found between molecular subtypes and age, sex, French-American-British (FAB) classification, leukocyte and platelet count, hemoglobin level or coagulation tests. In conclusion, these data suggest similar molecular and biological features for our APL patients at diagnosis in comparison with those reported in current scientific literature.

  7. Clinical features, spectrum of causal genetic mutations and outcome of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in South Africans

    PubMed Central

    Ntusi, Ntobeko AB; Shaboodien, Gasnat; Badri, Motasim; Mayosi, Bongani M; Badri, Motasim; Gumedze, Freedom

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Little is known about the clinical characteristics, spectrum of causal genetic mutations and outcome of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in Africans. The objective of this study was to delineate the clinical and genetic features and outcome of HCM in African patients. Methods Information on clinical presentation, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings, and outcome of cases with HCM was collected from the Cardiac Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital over a mean duration of follow up of 9.1 ± 3.4 years. Genomic DNA was screened for mutations in 15 genes that cause HCM, i.e. cardiac myosinbinding protein C (MYBPC3), cardiac β-myosin heavy chain (MYH7), cardiac troponin T2 (TNNT2), cardiac troponin I (TNNI3), regulatory light chain of myosin (MYL2), essential light chain of myosin (MYL3), tropomyosin 1 (TPM1), phospholamban (PLN), α-actin (ACTC1), cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3), AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKAG2), α-galactosidase (GLA), four-and-a-half LIM domains 1 (FHL1), lamin A/C (LMNA) and lysosomeassociated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2). Survival and its predictors were analysed using the Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression methods, respectively. Results Forty-three consecutive patients [mean age 38.5 ± 14.3 years; 25 (58.1%) male; and 13 (30.2%) black African] were prospectively enrolled in the study from January 1996 to December 2012. Clinical presentation was similar to that reported in other studies. The South African founder mutations that cause HCM were not found in the 42 probands. Ten of 35 index cases (28.6%) tested for mutations in 15 genes had disease-causing mutations in MYH7 (six cases or 60%) and MYBPC3 (four cases or 40%). No disease-causing mutation was found in the other 13 genes screened. The annual mortality rate was 2.9% per annum and overall survival was 74% at 10 years, which was similar to the general South African population. Cox’s proportional hazards regression showed

  8. Cardio-Facio-Cutaneous Syndrome: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Management Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Magoulas, Pilar L.; Adi, Saleh; Kavamura, Maria Ines; Neri, Giovanni; Noonan, Jacqueline; Pierpont, Elizabeth I.; Reinker, Kent; Roberts, Amy E.; Shankar, Suma; Sullivan, Joseph; Wolford, Melinda; Conger, Brenda; Santa Cruz, Molly; Rauen, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) is one of the RASopathies that bears many clinical features in common with the other syndromes in this group, most notably Noonan syndrome and Costello syndrome. CFC is genetically heterogeneous and caused by gene mutations in the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. The major features of CFC include characteristic craniofacial dysmorphology, congenital heart disease, dermatologic abnormalities, growth retardation, and intellectual disability. It is essential that this condition be differentiated from other RASopathies, as a correct diagnosis is important for appropriate medical management and determining recurrence risk. Children and adults with CFC require multidisciplinary care from specialists, and the need for comprehensive management has been apparent to families and health care professionals caring for affected individuals. To address this need, CFC International, a nonprofit family support organization that provides a forum for information, support, and facilitation of research in basic medical and social issues affecting individuals with CFC, organized a consensus conference. Experts in multiple medical specialties provided clinical management guidelines for pediatricians and other care providers. These guidelines will assist in an accurate diagnosis of individuals with CFC, provide best practice recommendations, and facilitate long-term medical care. PMID:25180280

  9. Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome: clinical features, diagnosis, and management guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pierpont, Mary Ella M; Magoulas, Pilar L; Adi, Saleh; Kavamura, Maria Ines; Neri, Giovanni; Noonan, Jacqueline; Pierpont, Elizabeth I; Reinker, Kent; Roberts, Amy E; Shankar, Suma; Sullivan, Joseph; Wolford, Melinda; Conger, Brenda; Santa Cruz, Molly; Rauen, Katherine A

    2014-10-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) is one of the RASopathies that bears many clinical features in common with the other syndromes in this group, most notably Noonan syndrome and Costello syndrome. CFC is genetically heterogeneous and caused by gene mutations in the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. The major features of CFC include characteristic craniofacial dysmorphology, congenital heart disease, dermatologic abnormalities, growth retardation, and intellectual disability. It is essential that this condition be differentiated from other RASopathies, as a correct diagnosis is important for appropriate medical management and determining recurrence risk. Children and adults with CFC require multidisciplinary care from specialists, and the need for comprehensive management has been apparent to families and health care professionals caring for affected individuals. To address this need, CFC International, a nonprofit family support organization that provides a forum for information, support, and facilitation of research in basic medical and social issues affecting individuals with CFC, organized a consensus conference. Experts in multiple medical specialties provided clinical management guidelines for pediatricians and other care providers. These guidelines will assist in an accurate diagnosis of individuals with CFC, provide best practice recommendations, and facilitate long-term medical care.

  10. Clinical features, molecular genetics, and pathophysiology of dominant optic atrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, M; Moore, A T; Bhattacharya, S S

    1998-01-01

    Inherited optic neuropathies are a significant cause of childhood and adult blindness and dominant optic atrophy (DOA) is the most common form of autosomally inherited (non-glaucomatous) optic neuropathy. Patients with DOA present with an insidious onset of bilateral visual loss and they characteristically have temporal optic nerve pallor, centrocaecal visual field scotoma, and a colour vision deficit, which is frequently blue-yellow. Evidence from histological and electrophysiological studies suggests that the pathology is confined to the retinal ganglion cell. A gene for dominant optic atrophy (OPA1) has been mapped to chromosome 3q28-qter, and studies are under way to refine the genetic interval in which the gene lies, to map the region physically, and hence to clone the gene. A second locus for dominant optic atrophy has recently been shown to map to chromosome 18q12.2-12.3 near the Kidd blood group locus. The cloning of genes for dominant optic atrophy will provide important insights into the pathophysiology of the retinal ganglion cell in health and disease. These insights may prove to be of great value in the understanding of other primary ganglion cell diseases, such as the mitochondrially inherited Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and other diseases associated with ganglion cell loss, such as glaucoma. Images PMID:9783700

  11. Primary osteoporosis without features of OI in children and adolescents: clinical and genetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christine M; Koltin, Dror; Susic, Miki; Varley, Talia L; Daneman, Alan; Moineddin, Rahim; Cole, William G; Mäkitie, Outi; Sochett, Etienne

    2012-06-01

    Our aim was to characterize clinical findings and familial associations, and to examine candidate genes for disease-causing mutations in a cohort of children suffering from primary osteoporosis without features of osteogenesis imperfecta. Patients with osteoporosis and their nuclear families were studied. Medical history was reviewed. Calcium homeostasis parameters were measured and spinal radiographs obtained. BMD was determined by DXA for patients, parents and siblings. LRP5, LRP6, and PTHLH genes were sequenced. Twenty-seven patients (14 males) from 24 families were recruited. Median age at presentation was 10.1 years (range 3.3-15.6 years). One-third of the children had at least one parent with a BMD below the expected range for age. LRP5, LRP6, and PTHLH showed no causative mutations. Four polymorphisms in LRP5 were overrepresented in patients; the minor allele frequency of Q89R, V667M, N740N, and A1330V was significantly higher than in controls. Age of onset, clinical severity, and inheritance patterns are variable in children with primary osteoporosis. Several patients had evidence suggestive of familial transmission. The underlying genetic factors remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Correlation between CAG Repeat Length and Clinical Features in Machado-Joseph Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Patrícia; Gaspar, Claudia; DeStefano, Anita L.; Silveira, Isabel; Coutinho, Paula; Radvany, João; Dawson, David M.; Sudarsky, Lewis; Guimarães, João; Loureiro, Jose E. L.; Nezarati, Marjan M.; Corwin, Lee I.; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Rooke, Karen; Rosenberg, Roger; MacLeod, Patrick; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Sequeiros, Jorge; Rouleau, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is associated with the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in a novel gene on 14q32.1. We confirmed the presence of this expansion in 156 MJD patients from 33 families of different geographic origins: 15 Portuguese Azorean, 2 Brazilian, and 16 North American of Portuguese Azorean descent. Normal chromosomes contain between 12 and 37 CAG repeats in the MJD gene, whereas MJD gene carriers have alleles within the expanded range of 62–84 CAG units. The distribution of expanded alleles and the gap between normal and expanded allele sizes is either inconsistent with a premutation hypothesis or most (if not all) of the alleles we studied descend from a common ancestor. There is a strong correlation between the expanded repeat size and the age at onset of the disease as well as the clinical presentation. There is mild instability of the CAG tract length with transmission of the expanded alleles; both increase and decrease in size between parents and progeny occur, with larger variations in male than in female transmissions. Together, these effects can partly explain the variability of age at onset and of phenotypic features in MJD; however, other modifying factors must exist. ImagesFigure 3 PMID:7611296

  13. Molecular characterization of an 11q interstitial deletion in a patient with the clinical features of Jacobsen syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Sharon L; Grossfeld, Paul D; Siu, Benjamin L; Coad, James E; Keller, Frank G; Hummel, Marybeth

    2006-04-01

    The 11q terminal deletion disorder or Jacobsen syndrome is a contiguous gene disorder. It is characterized by psychomotor retardation, cardiac defects, blood dyscrasias (Paris-Trousseau syndrome) and craniofacial anomalies. We report on a female patient with an approximately 10 Mb interstitial deletion with many of the features of Jacobsen syndrome: A congenital heart defect, dysmorphic features, developmental delay, and Paris-Trousseau syndrome. The karyotype of the patient is 46,XX,del(11)(q24.1q24.3). The interstitial deletion was confirmed using FISH probes for distal 11q, and the breakpoints were characterized by microarray analysis. This is the first molecularly characterized interstitial deletion in a patient with the clinical features of Jacobsen syndrome. The deletion includes FLI-1, but not JAM-3, which will help to determine the critical genes involved in this syndrome.

  14. A systematic heuristic approach for feature selection for melanoma discrimination using clinical images

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ying; Stanley, R. Joe; Moss, Randy H.; Van Stoecker, William

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous features are derived from the asymmetry, border irregularity, color variegation, and diameter of the skin lesion of dermatology for diagnosing malignant melanoma. Feature selection for the development of automated skin lesion discrimination systems is an important consideration. Methods In this research, a systematic heuristic approach is investigated for feature selection and lesion classification. The approach integrates statistical-, correlation-, histogram-, and expert system-based components. Using statistical and correlation measures, interrelationships among features are determined. Expert system analysis is performed to identify redundant features. The feature selection process is applied to 19 shape and color features for a clinical image data set containing 355 malignant melanomas, 125 basal cell carcinomas, 177 dysplastic nevi, 199 nevocellular nevi, 139 seborrheic keratoses, and 45 vascular lesions. Results Experimental results show reduced lesion classification error rates based on condensing the shape and color feature set from 19 features to 13 features using the feature selection process. Specifically, average test lesion classification error rates for discriminating malignant melanoma from non-melanoma lesions were reduced from 26.6% for 19 features to 23.2% for 13 features over five randomly generated training and test sets. Conclusions The experimental results show that the systematic heuristic approach for feature reduction can be successfully applied to achieve improved lesion discrimination. The feature reduction technique facilitates the elimination of redundant information that may inhibit lesion classification performance. The clinical application of this result is that automated skin lesion classification algorithm development can be fostered with systematic feature selection techniques. PMID:15998327

  15. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors: unique features awaiting clinical application.

    PubMed

    Boublikova, Ludmila; Buchler, Tomas; Stary, Jan; Abrahamova, Jitka; Trka, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men characterized by distinct biologic features and clinical behavior. Both genetic predispositions and environmental factors probably play a substantial role in their etiology. TGTCs arise from a malignant transformation of primordial germ cells in a process that starts prenatally, is often associated with a certain degree of gonadal dysgenesis, and involves the acquirement of several specific aberrations, including activation of SCF-CKIT, amplification of 12p with up-regulation of stem cell genes, and subsequent genetic and epigenetic alterations. Their embryonic and germ origin determines the unique sensitivity of TGCTs to platinum-based chemotherapy. Contrary to the vast majority of other malignancies, no molecular prognostic/predictive factors nor targeted therapy is available for patients with these tumors. This review summarizes the principal molecular characteristics of TGCTs that could represent a potential basis for development of novel diagnostic and treatment approaches.

  16. [Androgen insensitivity syndrome. Clinical features and molecular genetics].

    PubMed

    Sólyom, J; Scheiber, D; Fekete, G

    2001-08-05

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an X-linked hereditary disorder caused by the mutation of the androgen receptor gene leading to variable phenotypes according to the depth of the hormonal resistance. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the criteria used to decide the management of infants with partial AIS, particularly with respect to sex of rearing. Therefore a national survey of patients with AIS in Hungary has been decided to compose a database for analyzing current practice. Preliminary results of the analysis for the mutations in the androgen receptor gene of Hungarian patients with AIS has been presented. The authors suggest that guidelines for clinicians on appropriate diagnostic and management strategies for AIS patients, particularly in the case of suspected partial AIS, would be helpful.

  17. Improving clinical practice using clinical decision support systems: a systematic review of trials to identify features critical to success

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Houlihan, Caitlin A; Balas, E Andrew; Lobach, David F

    2005-01-01

    Objective To identify features of clinical decision support systems critical for improving clinical practice. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Literature searches via Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to 2003; and searches of reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews. Study selection Studies had to evaluate the ability of decision support systems to improve clinical practice. Data extraction Studies were assessed for statistically and clinically significant improvement in clinical practice and for the presence of 15 decision support system features whose importance had been repeatedly suggested in the literature. Results Seventy studies were included. Decision support systems significantly improved clinical practice in 68% of trials. Univariate analyses revealed that, for five of the system features, interventions possessing the feature were significantly more likely to improve clinical practice than interventions lacking the feature. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified four features as independent predictors of improved clinical practice: automatic provision of decision support as part of clinician workflow (P < 0.00001), provision of recommendations rather than just assessments (P = 0.0187), provision of decision support at the time and location of decision making (P = 0.0263), and computer based decision support (P = 0.0294). Of 32 systems possessing all four features, 30 (94%) significantly improved clinical practice. Furthermore, direct experimental justification was found for providing periodic performance feedback, sharing recommendations with patients, and requesting documentation of reasons for not following recommendations. Conclusions Several features were closely correlated with decision support systems' ability to improve patient care significantly. Clinicians and other stakeholders should implement clinical decision support systems that incorporate these

  18. "Wild type" GIST: Clinicopathological features and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Wada, Ryuichi; Arai, Hiroki; Kure, Shoko; Peng, Wei-Xia; Naito, Zenya

    2016-08-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. Mutation of KIT and PDGFRA genes is implicated in the tumorigenesis. Approximately 10% of GISTs do not harbor mutation of these genes, and they are designated as "wild type" GIST. They are classified into succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient and non-SDH-deficient groups. SDH-deficient group includes Carney triad and Carney Stratakis syndrome. The patients are young women. Tumors occur in the antrum of the stomach, and tumor cells are epithelioid. Lymph node metastasis is frequent. The non-SDH-deficient group includes neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 and GISTs with mutations of BRAF, KRAS, and PIK3CA and with the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. GIST in NF occurs in the small intestine, and tumor cells are spindle shaped. GIST with BRAF mutation arises in the small intestine. Attention to the age, gender, family history and other neoplasms may raise the prediction of syndromic disease. Location of the tumor, morphology, and pleomorphism of the tumor cells are further informative. Lymphovascular invasion should be carefully evaluated. The determination of KIT expression is essential for the diagnosis. When wild type GIST is suspected, intensive genetic analysis is required. Further, a careful and long-time observation is recommended.

  19. Early-Onset Psychoses: Comparison of Clinical Features and Adult Outcome in 3 Diagnostic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledda, Maria Giuseppina; Fratta, Anna Lisa; Pintor, Manuela; Zuddas, Alessandro; Cianchetti, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of clinical features and adult outcome in adolescents with three types of psychotic disorders: schizophrenic (SPh), schizoaffective (SA) and bipolar with psychotic features (BPP). Subjects (n = 41) were finally diagnosed (DSM-IV criteria) with SPh (n = 17), SA (n = 11) or BPP (n = 13). Clinical evaluation took place at onset and at a…

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of four contextual features in classifying annotated clinical conditions in emergency department reports.

    PubMed

    Chu, David; Dowling, John N; Chapman, Wendy W

    2006-01-01

    Determine how four contextual features (Validity, Certainty, Directionality, and Temporality) contribute to classification of respiratory syndrome-related clinical conditions as acute, chronic, or absent from manual annotations in Emergency Department Reports. Based on the results, we will direct our research towards automatic identification of the contextual features found to be discriminating. A physician annotated all instances of 56 clinical conditions in 120 ED reports and encoded four contextual features for every annotation. We classified clinical conditions using the contextual features and measured agreement to reference standard classifications made by the physician using a weighted kappa (Kw). Kw was 0.518 when not using any of the features and 0.953 when using all of the features. Validity, Directionality, and Temporality all improved accuracy. Negation(Directionality) was the most important feature for improving accuracy. Using Certainty made the classification worse.

  1. Pine nut allergy: clinical features and major allergens characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pine nuts, the seeds of pine trees, are widely used for human consumption in Europe, America, and Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to pine nut in a large number of patients with details of clinical reactions, and to characterize major pine nut allergens. Th...

  2. Clinical features of multiple primary carcinomas of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya-Dong; Ma, Xin; Han, Yao-Lun; Peng, Li-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the clinical characteristics of multiple primary carcinomas of the oral cavity. The clinical records of 1,024 patients who were treated during follow-up for oral cancer at the Department of Stomatology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, between March 2013 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical characteristics of 961 patients who developed single primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) during follow-up and 54 patients who subsequently developed multiple primary carcinomas in the oral cavity were compared. Multiple primary carcinomas exhibited a female predilection, were most prevalent in the gingiva, and tended to show earlier tumor and nodal stages, as compared with single primary carcinomas. The local recurrence rate was higher for multiple primary carcinomas, as compared with single primary carcinomas, and was demonstrated to increase with the number of multiple primary occurrences. The cumulative incidence rates for metachronous second primary carcinomas following the onset of the first carcinoma at 10 years was 8.0%. Recurrence of multiple primary carcinomas did not decrease the survival rates of the patients assessed in the present study. Furthermore, differences were detected in the clinical characteristics between patients with single oral SCC and those with multiple primary oral carcinomas. The results of the present study indicated that early diagnosis and treatment and close long-term follow-up are required for patients with multiple primary oral carcinomas. PMID:28352343

  3. The ritual abuse of children: clinical features and diagnostic reasoning.

    PubMed

    Nurcombe, B; Unützer, J

    1991-03-01

    A case of alleged ritual sexual abuse is presented. Clinical recognition and diagnostic reasoning are discussed. After a brief account of modern satanism, it is concluded that, although the evidence for the occurrence of ritual abuse is sketchy, a high index of suspicion is appropriate.

  4. Acute hepatitis E in Montenegro: epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features.

    PubMed

    Terzic, Dragica; Dupanovic, Brankica; Mugosa, Boban; Draskovic, Nenad; Svirtlih, Neda

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence, demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with acute viral hepatitis E in Montenegro. A total of 400 patients with acute viral hepatitis from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2007 were enrolled in the study. Serological tests for hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E viruses, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex viruses were performed. Standard laboratory tests for liver function were analyzed. The results are presented as absolute numbers, mean +/- SD, range of values, and percent. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Twenty-four (6%) patients had clinically and/or serologically confirmed acute hepatitis E. The mean age of the patients was 25 +/- 6 years; 62.5% were males. The majority of the patients (66%) belonged to the 20 to 40 yrs age group (P < 0.05). Seven patients were asymptomatic. Foremost symptoms were loss of appetite (100%), fatigue (94%) and vomiting (75%). The most frequent clinical sign was mild to moderate liver enlargement (94%). Jaundice had 12/17 symptomatic patients. Elevation of alanine aminotransferase was found in 19 patients including two patients without symptoms. The enzyme, gamma glutamyltranspeptidase was increased in all patients. Acute hepatitis E in Montenegro emerges as an autochthonous infection with a low incidence. Sub-clinical and anicteric infections may occur. Elevation of gamma glutamyltranspeptidase is an important parameter of the biochemical profile of the disease.

  5. Clinical Features and Management of Congenital Fibrinogen Deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Casini, Alessandro; de Moerloose, Philippe; Neerman-Arbez, Marguerite

    2016-06-01

    Congenital fibrinogen disorders are rare diseases affecting either the quantity (afibrinogenemia and hypofibrinogenemia) or the quality (dysfibrinogenemia) or both (hypodysfibrinogenemia) of plasmatic fibrinogen. Afibrinogenemia is often diagnosed at birth following prolonged umbilical cord bleeding and is characterized by spontaneous bleeding in all tissues, while hypofibrinogenemic patients are more often asymptomatic. Spontaneous spleen ruptures, painful bone cysts, cardiovascular events, and intrahepatic inclusions can complicate the clinical course of patients with quantitative fibrinogen disorders. Clinical manifestations of dysfibrinogenemia are very heterogeneous, from absence of symptoms to major bleeding or thrombosis, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and renal amyloidosis. Hypodysfibrinogenemic patients can suffer from both major bleeding and recurrent thrombosis. Pregnancy of women with congenital fibrinogen disorders is a high-risk situation. Owing to the absence of controlled randomized studies, clinical management is mainly based on expert consensus. For the treatment and/or the prevention of bleeding, plasma-derived fibrinogen concentrates are the optimal choice. Treatment of thrombosis may be challenging. More specifically, management strategies should be tailored to each patient, taking the personal and familial history of bleeding and thrombosis, the genotype, and the specific clinical situation into account. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Clinical features and multidisciplinary approaches to dementia care

    PubMed Central

    Grand, Jacob HG; Caspar, Sienna; MacDonald, Stuart WS

    2011-01-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome of widespread progressive deterioration of cognitive abilities and normal daily functioning. These cognitive and behavioral impairments pose considerable challenges to individuals with dementia, along with their family members and caregivers. Four primary dementia classifications have been defined according to clinical and research criteria: 1) Alzheimer’s disease; 2) vascular dementias; 3) frontotemporal dementias; and 4) dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson’s disease dementia. The cumulative efforts of multidisciplinary healthcare teams have advanced our understanding of dementia beyond basic descriptions, towards a more complete elucidation of risk factors, clinical symptoms, and neuropathological correlates. The characterization of disease subtypes has facilitated targeted management strategies, advanced treatments, and symptomatic care for individuals affected by dementia. This review briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge and directions of dementia research and clinical practice. We provide a description of the risk factors, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis of dementia. A summary of multidisciplinary team approaches to dementia care is outlined, including management strategies for the treatment of cognitive impairments, functional deficits, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. The needs of individuals with dementia are extensive, often requiring care beyond traditional bounds of medical practice, including pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management interventions. Finally, advanced research on the early prodromal phase of dementia is reviewed, with a focus on change-point models, trajectories of cognitive change, and threshold models of pathological burden. Future research goals are outlined, with a call to action for social policy initiatives that promote preventive lifestyle behaviors, and healthcare programs that will support the growing number of individuals affected by

  7. Clinical features and surgical outcomes of primary canaliculitis with concretions.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Shengjin; Lin, Bin; Pan, Qintuo; Zheng, Meiqin; Qin, Xiaoyi; Wang, Youpei; Zhang, Zongduan

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of our study is to analyze the clinical, ultrasonic, microbiologic, and histopathologic characteristics, management, and outcomes in a series of primary canaliculitis with concretions patients who underwent canaliculotomy with curettage.Thirty-six patients were reviewed for age, sex, location and laterality, duration of symptoms, clinical symptoms, ultrasonic signs, result of microbiologic culture and histopathologic examination, treatment, and outcomes. Main outcomes were the clinical, ultrasonic, and microbiological characteristics of the canalicular concretions; the histopathologic profiles; and the treatment effect.Thirty-six patients were identified with concretions in all 37 cases of the patients with canaliculitis. There were 30 (83.3%) female patients with a mean age of 54.2 years. Twenty-eight (77.8%) patients were misdiagnosed or delayed diagnosed, and the mean duration was 17.1 months. The common most clinical presentations were discharge (100%), epiphora (66.7%), erythema (52.8%), and swelling (47.2%), and concretions were found in 31 of 37 patients by typical clinical manifestations and in 5 of 6 patients by ultrasonic. Actinomyces was found in 8 of 13 histopathologic specimens, and microbiological cultures were positive in 13 of 24 patients. All patients underwent canaliculotomy with curettage to completely remove all concretions and contents; 35 of 36 patients' symptoms improved and 1 recurred after treatment at a median of 21.7 months follow-up according to the telephonic questionnaires.Canalicular concretions play an important role in primary canaliculitis. Canaliculotomy with curettage is a standard therapy with canalicular concretions, and the surgical removal of all possible concretions is essential for cure.

  8. Clinical and laboratory features of viral hepatitis A in children.

    PubMed

    Blechová, Zuzana; Trojánek, Milan; Kynčl, Jan; Cástková, Jitka; John, Jerry; Malý, Marek; Herrmannová, Kristýna; Marešová, Vilma

    2013-02-01

    Recent outbreaks of viral hepatitis A in non-endemic European countries and the potential outbreak risk in susceptible populations has led us to evaluate the clinical characteristics of children hospitalised with hepatitis A. Retrospective study included 118 children (68 boys and 50 girls) with the mean age of 8.5 years hospitalised at Hospital Na Bulovce in Prague from June 2008 to June 2009. The clinical course was symptomatic icteric in 57 (48.3 %) children, symptomatic anicteric in 23 (19.5 %), subclinical in 22 (18.6 %) and asymptomatic inapparent in 16 (13.6 %). The relapse of the disease occurred in three patients. There were no cases of fulminant hepatitis. The most frequent symptoms included jaundice (57 cases), abdominal pain/discomfort (38), vomiting (38), dark urine (37), subfebrility (29) and fever (25). Hepatic injury markers were substantially elevated in icteric patients, but moderate elevations were identified in anicteric and subclinical cases as well. Lower white blood cell and lymphocyte counts were independently associated with symptomatic and more severe clinical course. Active immunisation was provided to 22 patients, and as a post-exposure prophylaxis to 19 of them. The clinical course and laboratory parameters in vaccinated children were not significantly different from non-vaccinated children. The clinical course of hepatitis A was largely self-limiting and benign. Asymptomatic infections are frequent, representing risk for disease spread; however, they are associated with elevations of hepatic injury markers. The inclusion of significant proportion of asymptomatic cases that were identified and investigated only because of active epidemiological surveillance in the outbreak focus represents the particular asset of this study.

  9. Clinical features and surgical outcomes of primary canaliculitis with concretions

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Shengjin; Lin, Bin; Pan, Qintuo; Zheng, Meiqin; Qin, Xiaoyi; Wang, Youpei; Zhang, Zongduan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of our study is to analyze the clinical, ultrasonic, microbiologic, and histopathologic characteristics, management, and outcomes in a series of primary canaliculitis with concretions patients who underwent canaliculotomy with curettage. Thirty-six patients were reviewed for age, sex, location and laterality, duration of symptoms, clinical symptoms, ultrasonic signs, result of microbiologic culture and histopathologic examination, treatment, and outcomes. Main outcomes were the clinical, ultrasonic, and microbiological characteristics of the canalicular concretions; the histopathologic profiles; and the treatment effect. Thirty-six patients were identified with concretions in all 37 cases of the patients with canaliculitis. There were 30 (83.3%) female patients with a mean age of 54.2 years. Twenty-eight (77.8%) patients were misdiagnosed or delayed diagnosed, and the mean duration was 17.1 months. The common most clinical presentations were discharge (100%), epiphora (66.7%), erythema (52.8%), and swelling (47.2%), and concretions were found in 31 of 37 patients by typical clinical manifestations and in 5 of 6 patients by ultrasonic. Actinomyces was found in 8 of 13 histopathologic specimens, and microbiological cultures were positive in 13 of 24 patients. All patients underwent canaliculotomy with curettage to completely remove all concretions and contents; 35 of 36 patients’ symptoms improved and 1 recurred after treatment at a median of 21.7 months follow-up according to the telephonic questionnaires. Canalicular concretions play an important role in primary canaliculitis. Canaliculotomy with curettage is a standard therapy with canalicular concretions, and the surgical removal of all possible concretions is essential for cure. PMID:28248874

  10. [Clinical features, mutation of the GNAS1 and pathogenesis of progressive osseous heteroplasia].

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng-qi; Wang, Li; Zou, Ji-zhen; Huang, Xiao-lan; Yuan, Xin-yu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the clinical features, mutation of the GNAS1 and pathogenesis of progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH). The typical clinical, pathological and radiographic features of a boy with POH were collected and summarized following family survey. The GNAS1 gene sequence of all family members were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the products were sequenced directly to identify the mutations. A literature review and long-term follow up were also conducted. The patient was an 11-year-old boy who had the onset in infancy, which indicates a chronic progressive cause of disease. The clinical features include the unsmooth local skin of the right shank where spread many rigid rice-like or irregular slabby uplifts, slabby bone-like sclerosis on the left lower mandible, left masticatory muscles, in lateral subcutaneous site of left hip joint and deep tissue, accompanied by gradually progressive difficulty in opening mouth. Histopathology showed that there were loosened hyperplasia of fibroblast and interstitial edema with punctiformed ossification. Radiographs showed flocculence hyperdense image in the subcutaneous tissues and muscles around left lower mandible, and the left masticatory muscles were obviously involved. The 3-dimensional computed tomography showed dislocations of the left temporomandibular joint. Sheeted hyperdense image with inequable density could be noted in lateral muscles of the left hip. And lamellar hyperdense image parallel to the long axis of the bone could be seen in the subcutaneous dorsum of the left foot and achilles tendon. Macro-thumb and of brachydactylia of the hands and feet were not present. The level of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in the blood were normal. Brother of same father but different mothers was free of the disease and no patient of the same disease was found in maternal line and paternal lines. A mutated allele in exon 7 and a polymorphism in exon 5 were found in GNAS1 gene in both of the

  11. Prospective study of POLG mutations presenting in children with intractable epilepsy: prevalence and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Uusimaa, Johanna; Gowda, Vasantha; McShane, Anthony; Smith, Conrad; Evans, Julie; Shrier, Annie; Narasimhan, Manisha; O'Rourke, Anthony; Rajabally, Yusuf; Hedderly, Tammy; Cowan, Frances; Fratter, Carl; Poulton, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    To assess the frequency and clinical features of childhood-onset intractable epilepsy caused by the most common mutations in the POLG gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. Children presenting with nonsyndromic intractable epilepsy of unknown etiology but without documented liver dysfunction at presentation were eligible for this prospective, population-based study. Blood samples were analyzed for the three most common POLG mutations. If any of the three tested mutations were found, all the exons and the exon-intron boundaries of the POLG gene were sequenced. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed the notes of patients presenting with intractable epilepsy in which we had found POLG mutations. All available clinical data were collected by questionnaire and by reviewing the medical records. We analyzed 213 blood DNA samples from patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria of the prospective study. Among these, five patients (2.3%) were found with one of the three common POLG mutations as homozygous or compound heterozygous states. In addition, three patients were retrospectively identified. Seven of the eight patients had either raised cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate (n = 3) or brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes (n = 4) at presentation with intractable epilepsy. Three patients later developed liver dysfunction, progressing to fatal liver failure in two without previous treatment with sodium valproate (VPA). Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that one patient presented first with an autism spectrum disorder before seizures emerged. Mutations in POLG are an important cause of early and juvenile onset nonsyndromic intractable epilepsy with highly variable associated manifestations including autistic features. This study emphasizes that genetic testing for POLG mutations in patients with nonsyndromic intractable epilepsies is very important for clinical diagnostics, genetic counseling, and treatment decisions

  12. Prospective study of POLG mutations presenting in children with intractable epilepsy: Prevalence and clinical features

    PubMed Central

    Uusimaa, Johanna; Gowda, Vasantha; McShane, Anthony; Smith, Conrad; Evans, Julie; Shrier, Annie; Narasimhan, Manisha; O'Rourke, Anthony; Rajabally, Yusuf; Hedderly, Tammy; Cowan, Frances; Fratter, Carl; Poulton, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the frequency and clinical features of childhood-onset intractable epilepsy caused by the most common mutations in the POLG gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. Methods Children presenting with nonsyndromic intractable epilepsy of unknown etiology but without documented liver dysfunction at presentation were eligible for this prospective, population-based study. Blood samples were analyzed for the three most common POLG mutations. If any of the three tested mutations were found, all the exons and the exon–intron boundaries of the POLG gene were sequenced. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed the notes of patients presenting with intractable epilepsy in which we had found POLG mutations. All available clinical data were collected by questionnaire and by reviewing the medical records. Key Findings We analyzed 213 blood DNA samples from patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria of the prospective study. Among these, five patients (2.3%) were found with one of the three common POLG mutations as homozygous or compound heterozygous states. In addition, three patients were retrospectively identified. Seven of the eight patients had either raised cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate (n = 3) or brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes (n = 4) at presentation with intractable epilepsy. Three patients later developed liver dysfunction, progressing to fatal liver failure in two without previous treatment with sodium valproate (VPA). Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that one patient presented first with an autism spectrum disorder before seizures emerged. Significance Mutations in POLG are an important cause of early and juvenile onset nonsyndromic intractable epilepsy with highly variable associated manifestations including autistic features. This study emphasizes that genetic testing for POLG mutations in patients with nonsyndromic intractable epilepsies is very important for clinical diagnostics

  13. The feature selection bias problem in relation to high-dimensional gene data.

    PubMed

    Krawczuk, Jerzy; Łukaszuk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection is a technique widely used in data mining. The aim is to select the best subset of features relevant to the problem being considered. In this paper, we consider feature selection for the classification of gene datasets. Gene data is usually composed of just a few dozen objects described by thousands of features. For this kind of data, it is easy to find a model that fits the learning data. However, it is not easy to find one that will simultaneously evaluate new data equally well as learning data. This overfitting issue is well known as regards classification and regression, but it also applies to feature selection. We address this problem and investigate its importance in an empirical study of four feature selection methods applied to seven high-dimensional gene datasets. We chose datasets that are well studied in the literature-colon cancer, leukemia and breast cancer. All the datasets are characterized by a significant number of features and the presence of exactly two decision classes. The feature selection methods used are ReliefF, minimum redundancy maximum relevance, support vector machine-recursive feature elimination and relaxed linear separability. Our main result reveals the existence of positive feature selection bias in all 28 experiments (7 datasets and 4 feature selection methods). Bias was calculated as the difference between validation and test accuracies and ranges from 2.6% to as much as 41.67%. The validation accuracy (biased accuracy) was calculated on the same dataset on which the feature selection was performed. The test accuracy was calculated for data that was not used for feature selection (by so called external cross-validation). This work provides evidence that using the same dataset for feature selection and learning is not appropriate. We recommend using cross-validation for feature selection in order to reduce selection bias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical Features of Spontaneous Partial Healing During Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marion, Estelle; Chauty, Annick; Kempf, Marie; Le Corre, Yannick; Delneste, Yves; Croue, Anne; Marsollier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Background. Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a necrotizing skin disease leading to extensive cutaneous and subcutaneous destruction and functional limitations. Spontaneous healing in the absence of medical treatment occurs in rare cases, but this has not been well described in the literature. Methods. In a retrospective case study in an area of Benin where this disease is highly endemic, we selected 26 Buruli ulcer patients presenting features of spontaneous healing from a cohort of 545 Buruli ulcer patients treated between 2010 and 2013. Results. The 26 patients studied had a median age of 13.5 years and were predominantly male (1.4:1). Three groups of patients were defined on the basis of their spontaneous healing characteristics. The first group (12 patients) consisted of patients with an ulcer of more than 1 year′s duration showing signs of healing. The second (13 patients) group contained patients with an active Buruli ulcer lesion some distance away from a first lesion that had healed spontaneously. Finally, the third group contained a single patient displaying complete healing of lesions from a nodule, without treatment and with no relapse. Conclusions. We defined several features of spontaneous healing in Buruli ulcer patients and highlighted the difficulties associated with diagnosis and medical management. Delays in consultation contributed to the high proportion of patients with permanent sequelae and a risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Early detection and antibiotic treatment are the best ways to reduce impairments. PMID:26925431

  15. Clinical and molecular features of young-onset colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Veroushka; Rashtak, Shahrooz; Boardman, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. Although young-onset CRC raises the possibility of a hereditary component, hereditary CRC syndromes only explain a minority of young-onset CRC cases. There is evidence to suggest that young-onset CRC have a different molecular profile than late-onset CRC. While the pathogenesis of young-onset CRC is well characterized in individuals with an inherited CRC syndrome, knowledge regarding the molecular features of sporadic young-onset CRC is limited. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of young-onset CRC can help us tailor specific screening and management strategies. While the incidence of late-onset CRC has been decreasing, mainly attributed to an increase in CRC screening, the incidence of young-onset CRC is increasing. Differences in the molecular biology of these tumors and low suspicion of CRC in young symptomatic individuals, may be possible explanations. Currently there is no evidence that supports that screening of average risk individuals less than 50 years of age will translate into early detection or increased survival. However, increasing understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of young-onset CRC could help us tailor specific screening and management strategies. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current knowledge about young-onset CRC, its clinicopathologic features, and the newly recognized molecular alterations involved in tumor progression. PMID:26855533

  16. Hypertrophic scar in a dog: histological and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Avallone, Giancarlo; Bonaldi, Martina; Caniatti, Mario; Lombardo, Rocco

    2011-08-01

    An adult male bullmastiff dog was treated for paraparesis and ataxia due to discospondylitis and disc herniation. At this time, the dog had a nonhealing ulcer between the pads of the left hindfoot. At re-evaluation, the dog had developed a large exophitic mass in the previously ulcerated area. Cytological examination revealed occasional spindle cells with mild atypia, and a soft tissue tumour was suspected. The mass was excised and submitted for histology. The lesion was characterized by superficial ulceration, an intermediate layer of granulation tissue and a deep portion containing vertically orientated capillaries and perpendicularly arranged fibroblasts and collagen. The histological features led to a diagnosis of hypertrophic scar. Eight weeks after surgery, the lesion recurred and was treated with an intralesional injection of methylprednisolone acetate. The lesion regressed in 10 days, but recurred after 3 months following severe self-trauma. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are two types of exuberant scarring reported in human beings, the pathogenesis of which is still unclear but seems to involve several cytokines, growth factors and inflammatory cells. The histological features identified in this case paralleled those reported in hypertrophic scars in humans. In this case, intralesional corticosteroid therapy was useful in the management of the lesion, but the severe self-trauma could have influenced the recurrence. Even if uncommon, hypertrophic scar should be included among the differential diagnoses of spindle cell tumours in dogs. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2011 ESVD and ACVD.

  17. LEPROSY NEPHROPATHY: A REVIEW OF CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; Pires, Roberto da Justa; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Meneses, Gdayllon Cavalcante; Araújo, Sônia Maria Holanda Almeida; Barros, Elvino José Guardão

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, highly incapacitating, and with systemic involvement in some cases. Renal involvement has been reported in all forms of the disease, and it is more frequent in multibacillary forms. The clinical presentation is variable and is determined by the host immunologic system reaction to the bacilli. During the course of the disease there are the so called reactional states, in which the immune system reacts against the bacilli, exacerbating the clinical manifestations. Different renal lesions have been described in leprosy, including acute and chronic glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, secondary amyloidosis and pyelonephritis. The exact mechanism that leads to glomerulonephritis in leprosy is not completely understood. Leprosy treatment includes rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine. Prednisone and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be used to control acute immunological episodes. PMID:25651321

  18. Gluteal Tendinopathy: Integrating Pathomechanics and Clinical Features in Its Management.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Alison; Fearon, Angela

    2015-11-01

    Synopsis Gluteal tendinopathy is now believed to be the primary local source of lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, previously referred to as trochanteric bursitis. This condition is prevalent, particularly among postmenopausal women, and has a considerable negative influence on quality of life. Improved prognosis and outcomes in the future for those with gluteal tendinopathy will be underpinned by advances in diagnostic testing, a clearer understanding of risk factors and comorbidities, and evidence-based management programs. High-quality studies that meet these requirements are still lacking. This clinical commentary provides direction to assist the clinician with assessment and management of the patient with gluteal tendinopathy, based on currently limited available evidence on this condition and the wider tendon literature and on the combined clinical experience of the authors. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):910-922. Epub 17 Sep 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5829.

  19. Myelofibrosis: Review of clinical and pathological features in fourteen dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Brent; Lumsden, John H.; Valli, Victor E.O.; Kruth, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    A clinicopathological study was performed on 14 dogs with myelofibrosis (MF), in order to correlate clinical, laboratory, and histomorphological parameters and investigate factors of prognostic significance. The clinical signs included fatigue, weight loss, anorexia, and diarrhea. Physical findings included pale mucous membranes and wasting/emaciation. The major laboratory observations were moderate to severe, poorly-responsive anemia with various degrees of marrow cellularity and fibrosis. All dogs with severe, non-responsive anemia should have a bone marrow core biopsy, stained for connective tissue, in order to detect myelofibrosis. Myelofibrosis regressed in six dogs. ImagesFigure 1aFigure 1bFigure 1cFigure 1d PMID:17423803

  20. Epidemiological Features of Bronchiolitis in the Pediatric Clinic of Clinical center of Sarajevo University

    PubMed Central

    Bakalovic, Ganimeta; Dzinovic, Amra; Baljic, Rusmir; Dizdar, Selma; Selimovic, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present the epidemiological features of bronchiolitis in a one-year period in patients of Pediatric Clinic, Clinical Centre of Sarajevo University. Introduction: Bronchiolitis is the most common respiratory infection of early infant age. The disease is one the most common reason for hospitalization of children under the age of six months. The disease is characterized by occurrences in the winter season November–March. For daily diagnosing of severe forms of bronchiolitis as a clinical syndrome, often sufficient are the knowledge of the epidemiological data, age of the patient, clinical examination and insight into the risk factors. Patients and methods: The history of the disease in 155 infant patients, who were clinically treated because of bronchiolitis in the period from February 2013 to February 2014 in the Department of Pediatric Pulmonary Clinic in Sarajevo was retrospectively analyzed. Results: The majority of patients were aged less than 6 months (87.7%). The monthly distribution of bronchiolitis had a peak in January and February. Almost 50% of patients had a risk factors for the development of severe forms of bronchiolitis out of which the most common were artificial diet (53.5%), low birth weight below 2500g (17%), prematurity (16.1%), congenital heart anomalies (14.2%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (1.9%). 46,5% of patients were on natural nutrition. 46 patients (29.6%) were serologically or by respi-strip test in nasopharyngeal lavage positive on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). There were no patients who required mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: During the one-year period, bronchiolitis was the most common diagnose in the early infantile period up to 6 months, with a peak incidence in January and February. Risk factors such as prematurity, low birth weight, congenital heart anomalies and bronchopulmonary dysplasia have been less present in the studied period compared to the period before the introduction of RSV chemoprophylaxis. The

  1. Lichenoid sarcoidosis: a case with clinical and histopathological lichenoid features.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Ruiz, Maria C; Enguita-Valls, Ana B; de Arriba, Marta González; Vanaclocha, Francisco; Peralto, Jose Luis Rodriguez

    2008-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas in the involved organs. Cutaneous involvement is about 25% with different clinical expressions, the lichenoid pattern being one of the rarest types of cutaneous sarcoidosis. Lichenoid sarcoidosis clinically manifests with multiple scale papules involving extensive skin areas, especially the trunk, limbs, and face mimicking a lichen planus. Although diverse histologic patterns have been previously related, a lichenoid granulomatous infiltrate involving the dermo-epidermal junction has never been reported in lichenoid sarcoidosis. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman presenting with skin-colored pruritic papules, slightly scaling in trunk, extremities, and ears. These symptoms condition continued to expand and worsen for several years. The patient was otherwise in good health with no lymphadenopathies. Histopathologic examination of a skin biopsy showed an upper dermal granulomatous infiltrate of epithelioid cells, without necrosis, distributed in a lichenoid pattern with many cytoid bodies. We consider this may be the first case presenting a characteristic microscopic granulomatous lichen-like pattern in the setting of a clinically lichenoid type of sarcoidosis.

  2. Clinical features and diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

    PubMed

    Vorobyev, Artem; Ludwig, Ralf J; Schmidt, Enno

    2017-02-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a rare autoimmune blistering disease of skin and mucous membranes. EBA is caused by autoantibodies against type VII collagen, which is a major component of anchoring fibrils, attaching epidermis to dermis. Binding of autoantibodies to type VII collagen leads to skin fragility and, finally, blister formation. The clinical picture of EBA is polymorphic, with several distinct phenotypes being described. Despite recent progress in understanding the pathophysiology of EBA, its diagnosis is still challenging. Areas covered: This review provides an update on the clinical manifestations and diagnostic methods of EBA. We searched PubMed using the terms 'epidermolysis bullosa acquisita' covering articles in English between 1 January 2005 and 31 May 2016. Relevant older publications were retrieved form cited literature. Expert commentary: While the clinical picture is highly variable, diagnosis relies on direct immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy of a perilesional skin biopsy. Linear deposits of IgG, IgA and/or C3 along the dermal-epidermal junction with an u-serrated pattern are diagnostic for EBA alike the detection of serum autoantibodies against type VII collagen. Several test systems for the serological diagnosis of EBA have recently become widely available. In some patients, sophisticated diagnostic approaches only available in specialized centers are required.

  3. Spontaneous Primary Intraventricular Hemorrhage: Clinical Features and Early Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià; García-Eroles, Luis; Vicens, Adela; Oliveres, Montserrat; Massons, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Primary hemorrhage in the ventricular system without a recognizable parenchymal component is very rare. This single-center retrospective study aimed to further characterize the clinical characteristics and early outcome of this stroke subtype. Methods. All patients with primary intraventricular hemorrhage included in a prospective hospital-based stroke registry over a 19-year period were assessed. A standardized protocol with 161 items, including demographics, risk factors, clinical data, neuroimaging findings, and outcome, was used for data collection. A comparison was made between the groups of primary intraventricular hemorrhage and subcortical intracerebral hemorrhage. Predictors of primary intraventricular hemorrhage were identified by logistic regression analysis. Results. There were 12 patients with primary intraventricular hemorrhage (0.31% of all cases of stroke included in the database) and 133 in the cohort of subcortical hemorrhage. Very old age (≥85 years) (odds ratio (OR) 9.89), atrial fibrillation (OR 8.92), headache (OR 6.89), and altered consciousness (OR 4.36) were independent predictors of intraventricular hemorrhage. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 41.7% (5/12) but increased to 60% (3/5) in patients aged 85 years or older. Conclusion. Although primary intraventricular hemorrhage is uncommon, it is a severe clinical condition with a high early mortality. The prognosis is particularly poor in very old patients. PMID:22966468

  4. [Scabies: epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features in Bangui].

    PubMed

    Kobangué, L; Guéréndo, P; Abéyé, J; Namdito, P; Mballa, M D; Gresenguet, G

    2014-02-01

    The scabies infects about 300 million people worldwide. Its spread is linked to living conditions especially in economically poor countries. In Central African Republic (CAR) we do not have data on this disease often causes morbidity and expenses, and the disease is often confused and poorly treated. The authors' goal was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic characteristics of scabies in Bangui. This was a cross-sectional study by counting records of cases of scabies observed in the dermatology and venereology department of Bangui from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2010. The diagnosis was based mainly on the combination of a concept of pruritus predominantly night with the notion of contagion and preferential localization of lesions. Three hundred and seventy six cases of scabies were identified from a total of 6391 patients (a hospital prevalence of 5.88%) with high frequency among the population aged 0 to 9 years (33%), an important achievement of the disadvantaged classes (preschool age and pupils / students respectively 25.5% and 26.3%), a prevalence of scabies nodules as type of clinical lesion, localization predominantly on buttocks and the most common complication of eczema-type (19.9 %). Benzyl benzoate solution at 25% applied for 2 consecutive days yielded very satisfactory results (96.7% on day 28) in all forms. The scabies is present in CAR with classical clinical and epidemiological aspects. We recommend first-line benzyl benzoate in two days of application.

  5. Suicide attempts and clinical features of bipolar patients.

    PubMed

    Berkol, Tonguç D; İslam, Serkan; Kırlı, Ebru; Pınarbaşı, Rasim; Özyıldırım, İlker

    2016-06-01

    To identify clinical predictors of suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. This study included bipolar patients who were treated in the Psychiatry Department, Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, between 2013 and 2014; an informed consent was obtained from the participants. Two  hundred and eighteen bipolar patients were assessed by using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) Axis-I (SCID-I) in order to detect all possible psychiatric comorbid diagnoses. Clinical predictors of suicide attempts were examined in attempters and non-attempters. The study design was retrospective. The lifetime suicide attempt rate for the entire sample was 19.2%. Suicide attempters with bipolar disorder had more lifetime comorbidity of eating disorder. Female gender and family history of mood disorder were significant predictors for suicide attempts. There was no difference between groups in terms of bipolar disorder subtype, onset age of bipolar disorder, total number of episodes, first and predominant episode type, suicide history in first degree relatives, severity of episodes, and hospitalization and being psychotic. Our study revealed that female gender, family history of mood disorder, and eating disorder are more frequent in bipolar patients with at least one suicide attempt.

  6. Geographic atrophy: clinical features and potential therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Holz, Frank G; Strauss, Erich C; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; van Lookeren Campagne, Menno

    2014-05-01

    In contrast to wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), where loss of vision is typically acute and treatment leads to a relatively rapid reduction in retinal fluid and subsequent improvements in visual acuity (VA), disease progression and vision loss in geographic atrophy (GA) owing to AMD are gradual processes. Although GA can result in significant visual function deficits in reading, night vision, and dark adaptation, and produce dense, irreversible scotomas in the visual field, the initial decline in VA may be relatively minor if the fovea is spared. Because best-corrected VA does not correlate well with GA lesions or progression, alternative clinical endpoints are being sought. These include reduction in drusen burden, slowing the enlargement rate of GA lesion area, and slowing or eliminating the progression of intermediate to advanced AMD. Among these considerations, slowing the expansion of the GA lesion area seems to be a clinically suitable primary efficacy endpoint. Because GA lesion growth is characterized by loss of photoreceptors, it is considered a surrogate endpoint for vision loss. Detection of GA can be achieved with a number of different imaging techniques, including color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), near-infrared reflectance, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Previous studies have identified predictive characteristics for progression rates including abnormal patterns of FAF in the perilesional retina. Although there is currently no approved or effective treatment to prevent the onset and progression of GA, potential therapies are being evaluated in clinical studies.

  7. Clinical features, comorbidity, and cognitive impairment in elderly bipolar patients

    PubMed Central

    Rise, Ida Vikan; Haro, Josep Maria; Gjervan, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Data specific to late-life bipolar disorder (BD) are limited. Current research is sparse and present guidelines are not adapted to this group of patients. Objectives We present a literature review on clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and cognitive impairment in patients with late-life BD. This review discusses common comorbidities that affect BD elders and how aging might affect cognition and treatment. Methods Eligible studies were identified in MedLine by the Medical Subject Headings terms “bipolar disorder” and “aged”. We only included original research reports published in English between 2012 and 2015. Results From 414 articles extracted, 16 studies were included in the review. Cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, type II diabetes, and endocrinological abnormalities were observed as highly prevalent. BD is associated with a high suicide risk. Bipolar elderly had an increased risk of dementia and performed worse on cognitive screening tests compared to age-matched controls across different levels of cognition. Despite high rates of medical comorbidity among bipolar elderly, a systematic under-recognition and undertreatment of cardiovascular disease have been suggested. Conclusion There was a high burden of physical comorbidities and cognitive impairment in late-life BD. Bipolar elderly might be under-recorded and undertreated in primary medical care, indicating that this group needs an adapted clinical assessment and specific clinical guidelines need to be established. PMID:27274256

  8. Clinical and pathological features of alcohol-related brain damage.

    PubMed

    Zahr, Natalie M; Kaufman, Kimberley L; Harper, Clive G

    2011-05-01

    One of the sequelae of chronic alcohol abuse is malnutrition. Importantly, a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B(1)) can result in the acute, potentially reversible neurological disorder Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). When WE is recognized, thiamine treatment can elicit a rapid clinical recovery. If WE is left untreated, however, patients can develop Korsakoff syndrome (KS), a severe neurological disorder characterized by anterograde amnesia. Alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD) describes the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on human brain structure and function in the absence of more discrete and well-characterized neurological concomitants of alcoholism such as WE and KS. Through knowledge of both the well-described changes in brain structure and function that are evident in alcohol-related disorders such as WE and KS and the clinical outcomes associated with these changes, researchers have begun to gain a better understanding of ARBD. This Review examines ARBD from the perspective of WE and KS, exploring the clinical presentations, postmortem brain pathology, in vivo MRI findings and potential molecular mechanisms associated with these conditions. An awareness of the consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on human behavior and brain structure can enable clinicians to improve detection and treatment of ARBD.

  9. Tuberculous spondylodiscitis: epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Trecarichi, E M; Di Meco, E; Mazzotta, V; Fantoni, M

    2012-04-01

    Tuberculous spondylodiscitis (TS) is a rare but serious clinical condition which may lead to severe deformity and early or late neurological complications. To discuss certain aspects of the approach to TSs, focusing upon epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment outcome. For the purpose of this review, a literature search was performed using the Pubmed database through to 19th October 2011 to identify studies published in the last 20 years, concerned in epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutical aspects of TS in adults. Only studies drafted in English language and reporting case series of more than 20 patients have been included. TS has been reported to accounts for 1-5% of all TB cases, and for about 50% of the cases of articulo-skeletal TB infections. Despite the actual availability of more effective diagnostic tools, early recognition of TS remains difficult and a high index of suspicion is needed due to the chronic nature of the disease and its insidious and variable clinical presentation. A prompt diagnosis is required to improve long term outcome, and a microbiological confirmation is recommended to enable appropriate choice of anti-mycobacterial agents. Surgery has an important role in alleviating pain, correcting deformities and neurological impairment, and restoring function. Further studies are required to assess the appropriate duration of anti-microbial treatment, also in regarding of a combined surgical approach.

  10. [Dengue with unusual clinical features in an infant. Case report].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Domínguez, Nina; Achach-Medina, Kikey; Morales-Gual, Yareni María; Gómez-Carro, Salvador

    2016-07-01

    The state of Yucatan, in Mexico, is an endemic area for dengue. During 2015, there was an unpredicted increase in the number of expected cases of dengue fever. To describe and analyse the clinical presentation, progress, and management of a case of dengue infection with non-specific clinical manifestations in an infant which resulted in a dengue shock syndrome. One month old infant admitted to hospital with a generalised rash and a history of being bitten by an insect. He was diagnosed with anaphylaxis based on clinical manifestations and anamnesis. While in hospital, he developed hypotension, tachycardia, anaemia, and respiratory distress. He was transferred to the intensive care unit, but died on the fifth day. He tested positive to dengue virus in the PCR test and for IgG antibodies using Elisa. The basic cause of death was dengue shock syndrome. Dengue fever in young infant infections may be afebrile, so it is important to suspect them appropriately in the presence of a generalised rash, tachycardia, and hypotension, in order to avoid the deadly consequences of dengue shock. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Central Neurocytoma: A Review of Clinical Management and Histopathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung J; Bui, Timothy T; Chen, Cheng Hao Jacky; Lagman, Carlito; Chung, Lawrance K; Sidhu, Sabrin; Seo, David J; Yong, William H; Siegal, Todd L; Kim, Minsu; Yang, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    Central neurocytoma (CN) is a rare, benign brain tumor often located in the lateral ventricles. CN may cause obstructive hydrocephalus and manifest as signs of increased intracranial pressure. The goal of treatment for CN is a gross total resection (GTR), which often yields excellent prognosis with a very high rate of tumor control and survival. Adjuvant radiosurgery and radiotherapy may be considered to improve tumor control when GTR cannot be achieved. Chemotherapy is also not considered a primary treatment, but has been used as a salvage therapy. The radiological features of CN are indistinguishable from those of other brain tumors; therefore, many histological markers, such as synaptophysin, can be very useful for diagnosing CNs. Furthermore, the MIB-1 Labeling Index seems to be correlated with the prognosis of CN. We also discuss oncogenes associated with these elusive tumors. Further studies may improve our ability to accurately diagnose CNs and to design the optimal treatment regimens for patients with CNs.

  12. Clinical feasibility of rapid confocal melanoma feature detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessy, Ricky; Jacques, Steve; Pellacani, Giovanni; Gareau, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy shows promise for the early detection of malignant melanoma. One diagnostic trait of malignancy is the presence of pagetoid melanocytes in the epidermis. For automated detection of MM, this feature must be identified quantitatively through software. Beginning with in vivo, noninvasive confocal images from 10 unequivocal MMs and benign nevi, we developed a pattern recognition algorithm that automatically identified pagetoid melanocytes in all four MMs and identified none in five benign nevi. One data set was discarded due to artifacts caused by patient movement. With future work to bring the performance of this pattern recognition technique to the level of the clinicians on difficult lesions, melanoma diagnosis could be brought to primary care facilities and save many lives by improving early diagnosis.

  13. Cutaneous invasion from sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma: clinical and dermatopathologic features*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; de Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves; Pires, Andréa Rodriguez Cordovil; Lupi, Omar; Neves, Daniel Gama das; da Cruz, Margareth Fernandes; Kac, Bernard Kawa

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, without considering the non-melanoma skin tumors, bladder cancer in men is the eighth most common, and the urothelial carcinoma or transitional cell carcinoma is the most common among these. Cutaneous metastases from urothelial neoplasms appear as single or multiple erythematous, infiltrated nodules or plaques, and like other cases of distant disease, it is indicative of poor prognosis. The invasive urothelial carcinoma is recognized for its ability to present divergent differentiation and morphological variants. The sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma is a rare cancer that consists of two different components: one composed of epithelial tissue and the other with sarcomatoid features of mesenchymal origin. The authors describe a case of cutaneous metastasis of sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma in a 63-year-old male patient. PMID:26982782

  14. Central Neurocytoma: A Review of Clinical Management and Histopathologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung J.; Bui, Timothy T.; Chen, Cheng Hao Jacky; Lagman, Carlito; Chung, Lawrance K.; Sidhu, Sabrin; Seo, David J.; Yong, William H.; Siegal, Todd L.; Kim, Minsu

    2016-01-01

    Central neurocytoma (CN) is a rare, benign brain tumor often located in the lateral ventricles. CN may cause obstructive hydrocephalus and manifest as signs of increased intracranial pressure. The goal of treatment for CN is a gross total resection (GTR), which often yields excellent prognosis with a very high rate of tumor control and survival. Adjuvant radiosurgery and radiotherapy may be considered to improve tumor control when GTR cannot be achieved. Chemotherapy is also not considered a primary treatment, but has been used as a salvage therapy. The radiological features of CN are indistinguishable from those of other brain tumors; therefore, many histological markers, such as synaptophysin, can be very useful for diagnosing CNs. Furthermore, the MIB-1 Labeling Index seems to be correlated with the prognosis of CN. We also discuss oncogenes associated with these elusive tumors. Further studies may improve our ability to accurately diagnose CNs and to design the optimal treatment regimens for patients with CNs. PMID:27867912

  15. The capybara eye: clinical tests, anatomic and biometric features.

    PubMed

    Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Truppel, Jesse; Tramontin, Mariana H; Vilani, Ricardo G D'Octaviano; Lange, Rogério R

    2008-01-01

    To carry out a descriptive investigation of the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) eye and to perform selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests with the aim of establishing normal physiological reference values for this species. A total of 22 healthy, capybaras were used to test most of the parameters in this investigation. Ages varied from 2 to 4 years of age. Selected diagnostic ocular tests were performed including Schirmer tear test, tonometry using an applanation tonometer (Tonopen), central corneal thickness using an ultrasonic pachymeter (Sonomed, Micropach, Model 200P +), axial globe length and culture of the normal conjunctival bacterial flora. Capybara's normal ocular features include: dorsal and ventral puncta, vestigial third eyelid, true cilia only at the upper eyelid margins. The bulbar conjunctiva is noticeably densely pigmented with a brown to bronze color. The capybara's pupil is oval in shape and vertical in position No tapetum lucidum is present in this species and the retinal blood vessels are almost absent. Results for selected ocular diagnostic tests investigated were: Intraocular pressure: 18.4 +/- 3.8 mmHg; Schirmer tear test: 14.9 +/- 5.1 mm/min; Central corneal thickness: 0.46 +/- 0.03 mm; Axial globe length: 22.20 +/- 1.71 mm. No statistically significant differences between ages or genders were found for any of the results. Corynebacterium sp., Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. were isolated from healthy conjunctiva, suggesting they are normal constituents of the conjunctival flora of the capybara eye. The corneal epithelium of the capybara possesses a thin and discrete Bowman's layer. Results and parameters obtained in this investigation exposed unique anatomic features of the capybara eye and will help veterinary ophthalmologists to more accurately diagnose discrete or unusual pathological changes of the capybara eye. Furthermore, corneal thickness and axial length of the capybara are similar to that of human beings

  16. Sorting out inherent features