Science.gov

Sample records for gene expression down-regulation

  1. Down-Regulation of Gene Expression by RNA-Induced Gene Silencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travella, Silvia; Keller, Beat

    Down-regulation of endogenous genes via post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a key to the characterization of gene function in plants. Many RNA-based silencing mechanisms such as post-transcriptional gene silencing, co-suppression, quelling, and RNA interference (RNAi) have been discovered among species of different kingdoms (plants, fungi, and animals). One of the most interesting discoveries was RNAi, a sequence-specific gene-silencing mechanism initiated by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), homologous in sequence to the silenced gene, which triggers degradation of mRNA. Infection of plants with modified viruses can also induce RNA silencing and is referred to as virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). In contrast to insertional mutagenesis, these emerging new reverse genetic approaches represent a powerful tool for exploring gene function and for manipulating gene expression experimentally in cereal species such as barley and wheat. We examined how RNAi and VIGS have been used to assess gene function in barley and wheat, including molecular mechanisms involved in the process and available methodological elements, such as vectors, inoculation procedures, and analysis of silenced phenotypes.

  2. The down-regulated ING5 expression in lung cancer: A potential target of gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuang; Yang, Xue-feng; Shen, Dao-fu; Gao, Yang; Shi, Shuai; Wu, Ji-cheng; Liu, Hong-xu; Sun, Hong-zhi; Su, Rong-jian; Zheng, Hua-chuan

    2016-01-01

    ING5 can interact with p53, thereby inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis. We found that ING5 overexpression not only inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion, but also induced G2 arrest, differentiation, autophagy, apoptosis, glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in lung cancer cells. ING5 transfection up-regulated the expression of Cdc2, ATG13, ATG14, Beclin-1, LC-3B, AIF, cytochrome c, Akt1/2/3, ADFP, PFK-1 and PDPc, while down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, XIAP, survivin,β-catenin and HXK1. ING5 transfection desensitized cells to the chemotherapy of MG132, paclitaxel, and SAHA, which paralleled with apoptotic alteration. ING5 overexpression suppressed the xenograft tumor growth by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis. ING5 expression level was significantly higher in normal tissue than that in lung cancer at both protein and mRNA levels. Nuclear ING5 expression was positively correlated with ki-67 expression and cytoplasmic ING5 expression. Cytoplasmic ING5 expression was positively associated with lymph node metastasis, and negatively with age, lymphatic invasion or CPP32 expression. ING5 expression was different in histological classification: squamous cell carcinoma > adenocarcinoma > large cell carcinoma > small cell carcinoma. Taken together, our data suggested that ING5 downregulation might involved in carcinogenesis, growth, and invasion of lung cancer and could be considered as a promising marker to gauge the aggressiveness of lung cancer. It might be employed as a potential target for gene therapy of lung cancer. PMID:27409347

  3. Leucine zipper, down regulated in cancer-1 gene expression in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Salemi, Michele; Barone, Nunziata; La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A.; Recupero, Domenico; Galia, Antonio; Fraggetta, Filippo; Aiello, Anna Maria; Pepe, Pietro; Castiglione, Roberto; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous genetic alterations have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer (PCa). DNA and protein microarrays have enabled the identification of genes associated with apoptosis, which is important in PCa development. Despite the molecular mechanisms are not entirely understood, inhibition of apoptosis is a critical pathophysiological factor that contributes to the onset and progression of PCa. Leucine zipper, down-regulated in cancer 1 (LDOC-1) is a known regulator of the nuclear factor (NF)-mediated pathway of apoptosis through the inhibition of NF-κB. The present study investigated the expression of the LDOC-1 gene in LNCaP, PC-3, PNT1A and PNT2 prostate cell lines by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition LDOC-1 protein expression in normal prostate tissues and PCa was studied by immunohistochemistry. LDOC-1 messenger RNA resulted overexpressed in LNCaP and PC-3 PCa cell lines compared with the two normal prostate cell lines PNT1A and PNT2. The results of immunohistochemistry demonstrated a positive cytoplasmic LDOC-1 staining in all PCa and normal prostate samples, whereas no nuclear staining was observed in any sample. Furthermore, a more intense signal was evidenced in PCa samples. LDOC-1 gene overexpression in PCa suggests an activity of LDOC-1 in PCa cell lines. PMID:27698860

  4. Down-regulation of GhADF1 gene expression affects cotton fibre properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yun; Wang, Juan; Gao, Peng; Jiao, Gai-Li; Zhao, Pi-Ming; Li, Yan; Wang, Gui-Ling; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2009-01-01

    Cotton fibre is the most important natural fibres for textile industry. To date, the mechanism that governs the development of fibre traits is largely unknown. In this study, we have characterized the function of a member of the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) family in Gossypium hirsutum by down-regulation of the gene (designated as GhADF1) expression in the transgenic cotton plants. We observed that both the fibre length and strength of the GhADF1-underexpressing plants increased as compared to the wild-type fibre, and transgenic fibres contained more abundant F-actin filaments in the cortical region of the cells. Moreover, the secondary cell wall of the transgenic fibre appeared thicker and the cellulose content was higher than that of the control fibre. Our results suggest that organization of actin cytoskeleton regulated by actin-associated proteins such as GhADF1 plays a critical role in the processes of elongation and secondary cell wall formation during fibre development. Additionally, our study provided a candidate intrinsic gene for the improvement of fibre traits via genetic engineering.

  5. Cryptotanshinone targets tumor-initiating cells through down-regulation of stemness genes expression

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YING; CABARCAS, STEPHANIE M.; ZHENG, JI; SUN, LEI; MATHEWS, LESLEY A.; ZHANG, XIAOHU; LIN, HONGSHENG; FARRAR, WILLIAM L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that tumor-initiating cells (TICs), also called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for tumor initiation and progression, therefore representing an important cell population that may be used as a target for the development of future anticancer therapies. In the present study, Cryptotanshinone (CT), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was demonstrated to regulate the behaviors of LNCaP prostate cells and prostate LNCaP TICs. The results demonstrate that treatment with CT alters cellular proliferation, cell cycle status, migration, viability, colony formation and notably, sphere formation and down-regulation of stemness genes (Nanog, OCT4, SOX2, β-catenin, CXCR4) in TICs. The present study demonstrates that CT targets the LNCaP CD44+CD24- population that is representative of prostate TICs and also affects total LNCaP cells as well via down-regulation of stemness genes. The strong effect with which CT has on prostate TICs suggests that CT may potentially function as a novel natural anticancer agent that specifically targets TICs. PMID:27313698

  6. High Silicon Accumulation in the Shoot is Required for Down-Regulating the Expression of Si Transporter Genes in Rice.

    PubMed

    Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2016-12-01

    Rice requires high silicon (Si) for its high and sustainable yield. The efficient uptake of Si in rice is mediated by two transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2, which function as influx and efflux transporters, respectively. Our previous studies showed that the mRNA expression levels of these transporter genes were down-regulated by Si. Herein we investigated the mechanism underlying regulation of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 expression. There was a negative correlation between the expression level of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 and shoot Si accumulation when the rice seedlings were exposed to different Si supply conditions. A split root experiment showed that the expression of both OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 was also down-regulated in half the roots without direct Si exposure when the other half of the roots were exposed to Si. Analysis with transgenic rice carrying different lengths of OsLsi1 promoter regions fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene revealed that the region responsible for the Si response of OsLsi1 expression is present between -327 to -292 in the promoter. However, this region was not associated with the tissue and cellular localization of OsLsi1. In conclusion, the Si-induced down-regulation of Si transporter genes is controlled by shoot Si, not root Si, and the region between -327 and -292 in the OsLsi1 promoter is involved in this regulation of OsLsi1 expression in rice.

  7. Majority of differentially expressed genes are down-regulated during malignant transformation in a four-stage model

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Frida; Skogs, Marie; Huss, Mikael; Rexhepaj, Elton; O’Hurley, Gillian; Klevebring, Daniel; Pontén, Fredrik; Gad, Annica K. B.; Uhlén, Mathias; Lundberg, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of normal cells to malignant, metastatic tumor cells is a multistep process caused by the sequential acquirement of genetic changes. To identify these changes, we compared the transcriptomes and levels and distribution of proteins in a four-stage cell model of isogenically matched normal, immortalized, transformed, and metastatic human cells, using deep transcriptome sequencing and immunofluorescence microscopy. The data show that ∼6% (n = 1,357) of the human protein-coding genes are differentially expressed across the stages in the model. Interestingly, the majority of these genes are down-regulated, linking malignant transformation to dedifferentiation. The up-regulated genes are mainly components that control cellular proliferation, whereas the down-regulated genes consist of proteins exposed on or secreted from the cell surface. As many of the identified gene products control basic cellular functions that are defective in cancers, the data provide candidates for follow-up studies to investigate their functional roles in tumor formation. When we further compared the expression levels of four of the identified proteins in clinical cancer cohorts, similar differences were observed between benign and cancer cells, as in the cell model. This shows that this comprehensive demonstration of the molecular changes underlying malignant transformation is a relevant model to study the process of tumor formation. PMID:23569271

  8. Majority of differentially expressed genes are down-regulated during malignant transformation in a four-stage model.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Frida; Skogs, Marie; Huss, Mikael; Rexhepaj, Elton; O'Hurley, Gillian; Klevebring, Daniel; Pontén, Fredrik; Gad, Annica K B; Uhlén, Mathias; Lundberg, Emma

    2013-04-23

    The transformation of normal cells to malignant, metastatic tumor cells is a multistep process caused by the sequential acquirement of genetic changes. To identify these changes, we compared the transcriptomes and levels and distribution of proteins in a four-stage cell model of isogenically matched normal, immortalized, transformed, and metastatic human cells, using deep transcriptome sequencing and immunofluorescence microscopy. The data show that ∼6% (n = 1,357) of the human protein-coding genes are differentially expressed across the stages in the model. Interestingly, the majority of these genes are down-regulated, linking malignant transformation to dedifferentiation. The up-regulated genes are mainly components that control cellular proliferation, whereas the down-regulated genes consist of proteins exposed on or secreted from the cell surface. As many of the identified gene products control basic cellular functions that are defective in cancers, the data provide candidates for follow-up studies to investigate their functional roles in tumor formation. When we further compared the expression levels of four of the identified proteins in clinical cancer cohorts, similar differences were observed between benign and cancer cells, as in the cell model. This shows that this comprehensive demonstration of the molecular changes underlying malignant transformation is a relevant model to study the process of tumor formation.

  9. Chronic Treatment with Anti-bipolar Drugs Down-Regulates Gene Expression of TRPC1 in Neurones

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ting; Rong, Yan; Feng, Rui; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Peng, Liang

    2017-01-01

    In the brain, TRPC1 channels are abundantly expressed in neurones virtually in all regions; these proteins function as receptor-activated ion channels and are implicated in numerous processes, being specifically important for neurogenesis. Primary cultures of mouse cerebellar granule cell, cerebral cortical neurones, and freshly isolated neurones from in vivo brains were used to study effects of chronic treatment with anti-bipolar drugs [carbamazepine (CBZ), lithium salts and valproic acid] on gene expression of TRPC1. Expression of TRPC1 mRNA was identified with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, whereas protein content was determined by Western blotting. Store-operated plasmalemmal Ca2+ entry (SOCE) was measured with fura-2 based microfluorimetry. Chronic treatment with each of the three drugs down-regulated mRNA and protein expression in cultured cerebellar granule cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Similar effect was also observed in cultured cerebral cortical neurones treated with CBZ, lithium salts and valproic acid and in freshly isolated neurones from the brains of CBZ-treated animals. The amplitude of SOCE was substantially decreased in cerebellar granule cells chronically treated with each of the three drugs. Our findings indicate that down-regulation of TRPC1 gene expression and function in neurones may be one of the mechanisms of anti-bipolar drugs action. PMID:28119572

  10. p38 MAPK down-regulates fibulin 3 expression through methylation of gene regulatory sequences: role in migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Arechederra, María; Priego, Neibla; Vázquez-Carballo, Ana; Sequera, Celia; Gutiérrez-Uzquiza, Álvaro; Cerezo-Guisado, María Isabel; Ortiz-Rivero, Sara; Roncero, Cesáreo; Cuenda, Ana; Guerrero, Carmen; Porras, Almudena

    2015-02-13

    p38 MAPKs regulate migration and invasion. However, the mechanisms involved are only partially known. We had previously identified fibulin 3, which plays a role in migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis, as a gene regulated by p38α. We have characterized in detail how p38 MAPK regulates fibulin 3 expression and its role. We describe here for the first time that p38α, p38γ, and p38δ down-regulate fibulin 3 expression. p38α has a stronger effect, and it does so through hypermethylation of CpG sites in the regulatory sequences of the gene. This would be mediated by the DNA methylase, DNMT3A, which is down-regulated in cells lacking p38α, but once re-introduced represses Fibulin 3 expression. p38α through HuR stabilizes dnmt3a mRNA leading to an increase in DNMT3A protein levels. Moreover, by knocking-down fibulin 3, we have found that Fibulin 3 inhibits migration and invasion in MEFs by mechanisms involving p38α/β inhibition. Hence, p38α pro-migratory/invasive effect might be, at least in part, mediated by fibulin 3 down-regulation in MEFs. In contrast, in HCT116 cells, Fibulin 3 promotes migration and invasion through a mechanism dependent on p38α and/or p38β activation. Furthermore, Fibulin 3 promotes in vitro and in vivo tumor growth of HCT116 cells through a mechanism dependent on p38α, which surprisingly acts as a potent inducer of tumor growth. At the same time, p38α limits fibulin 3 expression, which might represent a negative feed-back loop.

  11. Senescence-related functional nuclear barrier by down-regulation of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Young; Ryu, Sung Jin; Ahn, Hong Ju; Choi, Hae Ri; Kang, Hyun Tae; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    One of the characteristic natures of senescent cells is the hypo- or irresponsiveness not only to growth factors but also to apoptotic stress. In the present study, we confirmed the inhibition of nuclear translocation of activated p-ERK1/2 and NF-kB p50 in response to growth stimuli or LPS in the senescent human diploid fibroblasts. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the senescence-associated hypo-responsiveness, we carried out the comparison study for gene expression profiles through microarray analysis. In consequence, we observed the vast reduction in expression of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in senescent cells, when compared with those in young cells. Expression levels of several nucleoporins, karyopherin {alpha}, karyopherin {beta}, Ran, and Ran-regulating factors were confirmed to be down-regulated in senescent HDFs by using RT-PCR and Western blot methods. Taken together, these data suggest the operation of certain senescence-associated functional nuclear barriers by down-regulation of the nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in the senescent cells.

  12. STAT5 proteins are involved in down-regulation of iron regulatory protein 1 gene expression by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Starzynski, Rafal Radoslaw; Gonçalves, Ana Sofia; Muzeau, Françoise; Tyrolczyk, Zofia; Smuda, Ewa; Drapier, Jean-Claude; Beaumont, Carole; Lipinski, Pawel

    2006-12-01

    RNA-binding activity of IRP1 (iron regulatory protein 1) is regulated by the insertion/extrusion of a [4Fe-4S] cluster into/from the IRP1 molecule. NO (nitic oxide), whose ability to activate IRP1 by removing its [4Fe-4S] cluster is well known, has also been shown to down-regulate expression of the IRP1 gene. In the present study, we examine whether this regulation occurs at the transcriptional level. Analysis of the mouse IRP1 promoter sequence revealed two conserved putative binding sites for transcription factor(s) regulated by NO and/or changes in intracellular iron level: Sp1 (promoter-selective transcription factor 1) and MTF1 (metal transcription factor 1), plus GAS (interferon-gamma-activated sequence), a binding site for STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) proteins. In order to define the functional activity of these sequences, reporter constructs were generated through the insertion of overlapping fragments of the mouse IRP1 promoter upstream of the luciferase gene. Transient expression assays following transfection of HuH7 cells with these plasmids revealed that while both the Sp1 and GAS sequences are involved in basal transcriptional activity of the IRP1 promoter, the role of the latter is predominant. Analysis of protein binding to these sequences in EMSAs (electrophoretic mobility-shift assays) using nuclear extracts from mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated to synthesize NO showed a significant decrease in the formation of Sp1-DNA and STAT-DNA complexes, compared with controls. We have also demonstrated that the GAS sequence is involved in NO-dependent down-regulation of IRP1 transcription. Further analysis revealed that levels of STAT5a and STAT5b in the nucleus and cytosol of NO-producing macrophages are substantially lower than in control cells. These findings provide evidence that STAT5 proteins play a role in NO-mediated down-regulation of IRP1 gene expression.

  13. A Molecular Toolbox for Rapid Generation of Viral Vectors to Up- or Down-Regulate Neuronal Gene Expression in vivo

    PubMed Central

    White, Melanie D.; Milne, Ruth V. J.; Nolan, Matthew F.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a molecular toolbox for manipulation of neuronal gene expression in vivo. The toolbox includes promoters, ion channels, optogenetic tools, fluorescent proteins, and intronic artificial microRNAs. The components are easily assembled into adeno-associated virus (AAV) or lentivirus vectors using recombination cloning. We demonstrate assembly of toolbox components into lentivirus and AAV vectors and use these vectors for in vivo expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir3.1, and Kir3.2) and an artificial microRNA targeted against the ion channel HCN1 (HCN1 miRNA). We show that AAV assembled to express HCN1 miRNA produces efficacious and specific in vivo knockdown of HCN1 channels. Comparison of in vivo viral transduction using HCN1 miRNA with mice containing a germ line deletion of HCN1 reveals similar physiological phenotypes in cerebellar Purkinje cells. The easy assembly and re-usability of the toolbox components, together with the ability to up- or down-regulate neuronal gene expression in vivo, may be useful for applications in many areas of neuroscience. PMID:21772812

  14. Acute physiological stress down-regulates mRNA expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Toshiki; Afonso, Luis O B; Beckman, Brian R; Iwama, George K; Devlin, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH) binding to the GH receptor (GHR). Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish.

  15. Acute Physiological Stress Down-Regulates mRNA Expressions of Growth-Related Genes in Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Toshiki; Afonso, Luis O. B.; Beckman, Brian R.; Iwama, George K.; Devlin, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH) binding to the GH receptor (GHR). Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish. PMID:23990952

  16. Metformin reduces the endotoxin-induced down-regulation of apolipoprotein E gene expression in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Stavri, Simona; Trusca, Violeta G.; Simionescu, Maya; Gafencu, Anca V.

    2015-05-29

    The atheroprotective role of macrophage-derived apolipoprotein E (apoE) is well known. Our previous reports demonstrated that inflammatory stress down-regulates apoE expression in macrophages, aggravating atherogenesis. Metformin, extensively used as an anti-diabetic drug, has also anti-inflammatory properties, and thus confers vascular protection. In this study, we questioned whether metformin could have an effect on apoE expression in macrophages in normal conditions or under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stress. The results showed that metformin slightly increases the apoE expression only at high doses (5–10 mM). Low doses of metformin (1–3 mM) significantly reduce the LPS down-regulatory effect on apoE expression in macrophages. Our experiments demonstrated that LPS-induced NF-κB binds to the macrophage-specific distal regulatory element of apoE gene, namely to the multienhancer 2 (ME.2) and its 5′-deletion fragments. The NF-κB binding on ME.2 and apoE promoter has a down-regulatory effect. In addition, data revealed that metformin impairs NF-κB nuclear translocation, and thus, improves the apoE levels in macrophages under inflammatory stress. The positive effect of metformin in the inflammatory states, its clinical safety and low cost, make this drug a potential adjuvant in the therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • High doses of metformin slightly increase apoE expression in macrophages. • Low doses of metformin up-regulate apoE gene in endotoxin-stressed macrophages. • Metformin reduces the negative effect of LPS on apoE expression by NF-κB inhibition.

  17. Intragenic DNA methylation status down-regulates bovine IGF2 gene expression in different developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Zhan, Zhao-Yang; Sun, Yu-Jia; Cao, Xiu-Kai; Li, Ming-Xun; Wang, Jing; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-25

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in mammals and has an essential and important role in muscle development. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a fetal growth and differentiation factor that plays an important role in muscle growth and in myoblast proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of IGF2 and the methylation pattern on the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the last exon of IGF2 in six tissues with two different developmental stages. The DNA methylation pattern was compared using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP) and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA). The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis indicated that IGF2 has a broad tissue distribution and the adult bovine group showed significant lower mRNA expression levels than that in the fetal bovine group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, the DNA methylation level analysis showed that the adult bovine group exhibited a significantly higher DNA methylation levels than that in the fetal bovine group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). These results indicate that IGF2 expression levels were negatively associated with the methylation status of the IGF2 DMR during the two developmental stages. Our results suggest that the methylation pattern in this DMR may be a useful parameter to investigate as a marker-assisted selection for muscle developmental in beef cattle breeding program and as a model for studies in other species.

  18. Activation of defense against Phytophthora infestans in potato by down-regulation of syntaxin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Landgraf, Ramona; Smolka, Ulrike; Schulze, Sebastian; Heilmann, Mareike; Heilmann, Ingo; Hause, Gerd; Rosahl, Sabine

    2012-03-01

    The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is the causal agent of late blight, the most devastating disease of potato. The importance of vesicle fusion processes and callose deposition for defense of potato against Phytophthora infestans was analyzed. Transgenic plants were generated, which express RNA interference constructs targeted against plasma membrane-localized SYNTAXIN-RELATED 1 (StSYR1) and SOLUBLE N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTOR ADAPTOR PROTEIN 33 (StSNAP33), the potato homologs of Arabidopsis AtSYP121 and AtSNAP33, respectively. Phenotypically, transgenic plants grew normally, but showed spontaneous necrosis and chlorosis formation at later stages. In response to infection with Phytophthora infestans, increased resistance of StSYR1-RNAi plants, but not StSNAP33-RNAi plants, was observed. This increased resistance correlated with the constitutive accumulation of salicylic acid and PR1 transcripts. Aberrant callose deposition in Phytophthora infestans-infected StSYR1-RNAi plants coincided with decreased papilla formation at penetration sites. Resistance against the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea was not significantly altered. Infiltration experiments with bacterial solutions of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Escherichia coli revealed a hypersensitive phenotype of both types of RNAi lines. The enhanced defense status and the reduced growth of Phytophthora infestans on StSYR1-RNAi plants suggest an involvement of syntaxins in secretory defense responses of potato and, in particular, in the formation of callose-containing papillae.

  19. Ketogenic HMGCS2 Is a c-Myc target gene expressed in differentiated cells of human colonic epithelium and down-regulated in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Camarero, Nuria; Mascaró, Cristina; Mayordomo, Cristina; Vilardell, Felip; Haro, Diego; Marrero, Pedro F

    2006-09-01

    HMGCS2, the gene that regulates ketone body production, is expressed in liver and several extrahepatic tissues, such as the colon. In CaCo-2 colonic epithelial cells, the expression of this gene increases with cell differentiation. Accordingly, immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies shows that HMGCS2 is expressed mainly in differentiated cells of human colonic epithelium. Here, we used a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay to study the molecular mechanism responsible for this expression pattern. The assay revealed that HMGCS2 is a direct target of c-Myc, which represses HMGCS2 transcriptional activity. c-Myc transrepression is mediated by blockade of the transactivating activity of Miz-1, which occurs mainly through a Sp1-binding site in the proximal promoter of the gene. Accordingly, the expression of human HMGCS2 is down-regulated in 90% of Myc-dependent colon and rectum tumors. HMGCS2 protein expression is down-regulated preferentially in moderately and poorly differentiated carcinomas. In addition, it is also down-regulated in 80% of small intestine Myc-independent tumors. Based on these findings, we propose that ketogenesis is an undesirable metabolic characteristic of the proliferating cell, which is down-regulated through c-Myc-mediated repression of the key metabolic gene HMGCS2.

  20. Arthrophytum scoparium inhibits melanogenesis through the down-regulation of tyrosinase and melanogenic gene expressions in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hui-Chia; Najjaa, Hanen; Villareal, Myra O; Ksouri, Riadh; Han, Junkyu; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-02-01

    Melanin performs a crucial role in protecting the skin against harmful ultraviolet light. However, hyperpigmentation may lead to aesthetic problems and disorders such as solar lentigines (SL), melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and even melanoma. Arthrophytum scoparium grows in the desert in the North African region, and given this type of environment, A. scoparium exhibits adaptations for storing water and produces useful bioactive factors. In this study, the effect of A. scoparium ethanol extract (ASEE) on melanogenesis regulation in B16 murine melanoma cells was investigated. Cells treated with 0.017% (w/v) ASEE showed a significant inhibition of melanin biosynthesis in a time-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. To clarify the mechanism behind the ASEE-treated melanogenesis regulation, the expressions of tyrosinase enzyme and melanogenesis-related genes were determined. Results showed that the expression of tyrosinase enzyme was significantly decreased and Tyr, Trp-1, Mitf and Mc1R mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated. LC-ESI-TOF-MS analysis of the extract identified the presence of six phenolic compounds: coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, chrysoeriol, cyanidin, catechol and caffeoylquinic acid. The melanogenesis inhibitory effect of ASEE may therefore be attributed to its catechol and tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative content. We report here that ASEE can inhibit melanogenesis in a time-dependent manner by decreasing the tyrosinase protein and Tyr, Trp-1, Mitf and Mc1R mRNA expressions. This is the first report on the antimelanogenesis effect of A. scoparium and on its potential as a whitening agent.

  1. DDX6 post-transcriptionally down-regulates miR-143/145 expression through host gene NCR143/145 in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Iio, Akio; Takagi, Takeshi; Miki, Kohei; Naoe, Tomoki; Nakayama, Atsuo; Akao, Yukihiro

    2013-10-01

    In various human malignancies, widespread dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression is reported to occur and affects various cell growth programs. Recent studies suggest that the expression levels of miRNAs that act as tumor suppressors are frequently reduced in cancers because of chromosome deletions, epigenetical changes, aberrant transcription, and disturbances in miRNA processing. MiR-143 and -145 are well-recognized miRNAs that are highly expressed in several tissues, but down-regulated in most types of cancers. However, the mechanism of this down-regulation has not been investigated in detail. Here, we show that DEAD-box RNA helicase 6, DDX6 (p54/RCK), post-transcriptionally down-regulated miR-143/145 expression by prompting the degradation of its host gene product, NCR143/145 RNA. In human gastric cancer cell line MKN45, DDX6 protein was abundantly expressed and accumulated in processing bodies (P-bodies). DDX6 preferentially increased the instability of non-coding RNA, NCR143/145, which encompasses the miR-143/145 cluster, and down-regulated the expression of mature miR-143/145. In human monocytic cell line THP-1, lipopolysaccharide treatment promoted the assembly of P-bodies and down-regulated the expression of NCR143/145 and its miR-143/145 rapidly. In these cells, cycloheximide treatment led to a loss of P-bodies and to an increase in NCR143/145 RNA stability, thus resulting in up-regulation of miR-143/145 expression. These data demonstrate that DDX6 contributed to the control of NCR143/145 RNA stability in P-bodies and post-transcriptionally regulated miR-143/145 expression in cancer cells.

  2. Down-regulation of IKKβ expression in glioma-infiltrating microglia/macrophages is associated with defective inflammatory/immune gene responses in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Mieczkowski, Jakub; Kocyk, Marta; Nauman, Pawel; Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Sielska, Małgorzata; Przanowski, Piotr; Maleszewska, Marta; Rajan, Wenson D; Pszczolkowska, Dominika; Tykocki, Tomasz; Grajkowska, Wieslawa; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Roszkowski, Marcin; Kostkiewicz, Boguslaw; Kaminska, Bozena

    2015-10-20

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive malignancy associated with profound host immunosuppression. Microglia and macrophages infiltrating GBM acquire the pro-tumorigenic, M2 phenotype and support tumor invasion, proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and block immune responses both locally and systematically. Mechanisms responsible for immunological deficits in GBM patients are poorly understood. We analyzed immune/inflammatory gene expression in five datasets of low and high grade gliomas, and performed Gene Ontology and signaling pathway analyses to identify defective transcriptional responses. The expression of many immune/inflammatory response and TLR signaling pathway genes was reduced in high grade gliomas compared to low grade gliomas. In particular, we found the reduced expression of the IKBKB, a gene coding for IKKβ, which phosphorylates IκB proteins and represents a convergence point for most signal transduction pathways leading to NFκB activation. The reduced IKBKB expression and IKKβ levels in GBM tissues were demonstrated by qPCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The IKKβ expression was down-regulated in microglia/macrophages infiltrating glioblastoma. NFκB activation, prominent in microglia/macrophages infiltrating low grade gliomas, was reduced in microglia/macrophages in glioblastoma tissues. Down-regulation of IKBKB expression and NFκB signaling in microglia/macrophages infiltrating glioblastoma correlates with defective expression of immune/inflammatory genes and M2 polarization that may result in the global impairment of anti-tumor immune responses in glioblastoma.

  3. The candidate tumor suppressor CST6 alters the gene expression profile of human breast carcinoma cells: Down-regulation of the potent mitogenic, motogenic, and angiogenic factor autotaxin

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jin; Jie Chunfa; Polk, Paula; Shridhar, Ravi; Clair, Timothy; Zhang, Jun; Yin, Lijia; Keppler, Daniel . E-mail: dkeppl@lsuhsc.edu

    2006-02-03

    We recently coined CST6 as a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene for breast cancer. CST6 indeed is expressed in the normal human breast epithelium, but little or not at all in breast carcinomas and breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, ectopic expression of CST6 in human breast cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and orthotopic tumor growth. To obtain insights into the molecular mechanism by which CST6 exhibits its pleiotropic effects on tumor cells, we compared global gene expression profiles in mock- and CST6-transfected human MDA-MB-435S cells. Out of 12,625 transcript species, 61 showed altered expression. These included genes for extracellular matrix components, cytokines, kinases, and phosphatases, as well as several key transcription factors. TaqMan PCR assays were used to confirm the microarray data for 7 out of 11 genes. One down-regulated gene product, secreted autotaxin/lyso-phospholipase D, was of particular interest because its down-regulation by CST6 could explain most of CST6's effect on the breast cancer cells. This study thus provides First evidence that CST6 plays a role in the modulation of genes, particularly, genes that are highly relevant to breast cancer progression.

  4. Down-regulation of the fetal stem cell factor SOX17 by H33342: a mechanism responsible for differential gene expression in breast cancer side population cells.

    PubMed

    Christgen, Matthias; Geffers, Robert; Ballmaier, Matthias; Christgen, Henriette; Poczkaj, Janette; Krech, Till; Kreipe, Hans; Lehmann, Ulrich

    2010-02-26

    Human solid tumors contain rare cancer side population (SP) cells, which expel the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342 (H33342) and display cancer stem cell characteristics. Transcriptional profiling of cancer SP cells isolated by H33342 fluorescence analysis is a newly emerging approach to discover cancer stem cell markers and aberrant differentiation pathways. Using Affymetrix expression microarrays and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we investigated differential gene expression between SP and non-SP (NSP) cells isolated from human mammary carcinoma cell lines. A total of 136 genes were up-regulated in breast cancer SP relative to NSP cells, one of which was the fetal stem cell factor and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway target SOX17. Strikingly, we discovered that SOX17 was down-regulated by H33342 in a dose-dependent manner. In SP cells, which expel H33342, down-regulation of SOX17 was less pronounced than in NSP cells, which retain H33342. As a result of this, SOX17 displayed a 10-20-fold overexpression in cancer SP relative to NSP cells. Similar results were obtained for further stemness-related genes, namely EPC1 and SPRY1. These findings establish a previously unidentified gene-regulatory impact of H33342 as a novel mechanism responsible for differential gene expression in cancer SP cells. This has significant implications for the future interpretation of cancer SP cells.

  5. DHA down-regulates phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P450 2B1 gene expression in rat primary hepatocytes by attenuating CAR translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.-C.; Lii, C.-K.; Liu, K.-L.; Yang, J.-J.; Chen, H.-W.

    2007-12-15

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays an important role in regulating the expression of detoxifying enzymes, including cytochrome P450 2B (CYP 2B). Phenobarbital (PB) induction of human CYP 2B6 and mouse CYP 2b10 has been shown to be mediated by CAR. Our previous study showed that PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes is down-regulated by both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); however, the mechanism for this down-regulation by DHA was previously unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether change in CAR translocation is involved in the down-regulation by n-6 and n-3 PUFAs of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes. We used 100 {mu}M arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and DHA to test this hypothesis. PB triggered the translocation of CAR from the cytosol into the nucleus in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in our hepatocyte system, and the CAR distribution in rat primary hepatocytes was significantly affected by DHA. DHA treatment decreased PB-inducible accumulation of CAR in the nuclear fraction and increased it in the cytosolic fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CYP 2B1 expression by DHA occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and a similar pattern was found for the nuclear accumulation of CAR. The results of immunoprecipitation showed a CAR/RXR heterodimer bound to nuclear receptor binding site 1 (NR-1) of the PB-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) of the CYP 2B1gene. The EMSA results showed that PB-induced CAR binding to NR-1 was attenuated by DHA. Taken together, these results suggest that attenuation of CAR translocation and decreased subsequent binding to NR-1 are involved in DHA's down-regulation of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression.

  6. Red yeast rice extracts suppress adipogenesis by down-regulating adipogenic transcription factors and gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Taeil; Hwang, Seong Gu; Hirai, Shizuka; Matsui, Tohru; Yano, Hideo; Kawada, Teruo; Lim, Beoung Ou; Park, Dong Ki

    2004-11-12

    The effects of red yeast rice extracts (RE) on adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells were studied. RE were extracted from embryonic rice fermented with red yeast (Monascus ruber). These extracts significantly decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity and lipid accumulation, a marker of adipogenesis, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of both CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, the key adipogenic transcription factors, were markedly decreased by RE. RE also inhibited the expression of PPARgamma at protein levels. RE decreased significantly gene expression of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) and leptin, which are adipogenic marker proteins and C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma target genes. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of RE on adipocyte differentiation might be mediated through the down-regulated expression of adipogenic transcription factors and other specific genes.

  7. Identification of novel pathways and molecules able to down-regulate PHOX2B gene expression by in vitro drug screening approaches in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Di Zanni, Eleonora; Fornasari, Diego; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Ceccherini, Isabella; Bachetti, Tiziana

    2015-08-01

    PHOX2B is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of neurogenesis and in the correct differentiation of the autonomic nervous system. The pathogenetic role of PHOX2B in neuroblastoma (NB) is supported by mutations in familial, sporadic and syndromic cases of NB and overexpression of PHOX2B and its target ALK in tumor samples and NB cell lines. Starting from these observations, we have performed in vitro drug screening approaches targeting PHOX2B overexpression as a potential pharmacological means in NB. In particular, in order to identify molecules able to decrease PHOX2B expression, we have evaluated the effects of 70 compounds in IMR-32 cell line stably expressing the luciferase gene under the control of the PHOX2B promoter. Curcumin, SAHA and trichostatin A showed to down-regulate the PHOX2B promoter activity which resulted in a decrease of both protein and mRNA expressions. In addition, we have observed that curcumin acts by interfering with PBX-1/MEIS-1, NF-κB and AP-1 complexes, in this work demonstrated for the first time to regulate the transcription of the PHOX2B gene. Finally, combined drug treatments showed successful effects in down-regulating the expression of both PHOX2B and its target ALK genes, thus supporting the notion of the effectiveness of molecule combination in tumor therapy.

  8. Gene expression profiles in rice gametes and zygotes: identification of gamete-enriched genes and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Abiko, Mafumi; Maeda, Hiroki; Tamura, Kentaro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Okamoto, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    In angiosperms, fertilization and subsequent zygotic development occur in embryo sacs deeply embedded in the ovaries; therefore, these processes are poorly elucidated. In this study, microarray-based transcriptome analyses were conducted on rice sperm cells, egg cells, and zygotes isolated from flowers to identify candidate genes involved in gametic and/or early zygotic development. Cell type-specific transcriptomes were obtained, and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization were identified, in addition to genes enriched in male and female gametes. A total of 325 putatively up-regulated and 94 putatively down-regulated genes in zygotes were obtained. Interestingly, several genes encoding homeobox proteins or transcription factors were identified as highly up-regulated genes after fertilization, and the gene ontology for up-regulated genes was highly enriched in functions related to chromatin/DNA organization and assembly. Because a gene encoding methyltransferase 1 was identified as a highly up-regulated gene in zygotes after fertilization, the effect of an inhibitor of this enzyme on zygote development was monitored. The inhibitor appeared partially to affect polarity or division asymmetry in rice zygotes, but it did not block normal embryo generation. PMID:23570690

  9. Gene expression profiles in rice gametes and zygotes: identification of gamete-enriched genes and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Mafumi; Maeda, Hiroki; Tamura, Kentaro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Okamoto, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    In angiosperms, fertilization and subsequent zygotic development occur in embryo sacs deeply embedded in the ovaries; therefore, these processes are poorly elucidated. In this study, microarray-based transcriptome analyses were conducted on rice sperm cells, egg cells, and zygotes isolated from flowers to identify candidate genes involved in gametic and/or early zygotic development. Cell type-specific transcriptomes were obtained, and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization were identified, in addition to genes enriched in male and female gametes. A total of 325 putatively up-regulated and 94 putatively down-regulated genes in zygotes were obtained. Interestingly, several genes encoding homeobox proteins or transcription factors were identified as highly up-regulated genes after fertilization, and the gene ontology for up-regulated genes was highly enriched in functions related to chromatin/DNA organization and assembly. Because a gene encoding methyltransferase 1 was identified as a highly up-regulated gene in zygotes after fertilization, the effect of an inhibitor of this enzyme on zygote development was monitored. The inhibitor appeared partially to affect polarity or division asymmetry in rice zygotes, but it did not block normal embryo generation.

  10. The Liver X Receptor Ligand T0901317 Down-regulates APOA5 GeneExpression through Activation of SREBP-1c

    SciTech Connect

    Jakel, Heidelinde; Nowak, Maxime; Moitrot, Emanuelle; Dehondt, Helene; Hum, Dean W.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart,Jean-Charles

    2004-07-23

    Alterations in the expression of the recently discovered apolipoprotein A5 gene strongly affect plasma triglyceride levels. In this study, we investigated the contribution of APOA5 to the liver X-receptor (LXR) ligand mediated effect on plasma triglyceride levels.Following treatment with the LXR ligand T0901317, we found that APOA5mRNA levels were decreased in hepatoma cell lines. The observation that no down-regulation of APOA5 promoter activity was obtained by LXR-retinoid X receptor (RXR) co-transfection prompted us to explore the possible involvement of the known LXR target gene SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c). In fact, we found that co-transfection with the active form of SREBP-1c down-regulated APOA5promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. We then scanned the human APOA5 promoter sequence and identified two putative E-box elements that were able to bind specifically SREBP-1c in gel-shift assays and were shown to be functional by mutation analysis. Subsequent suppression of SREBP-1 mRNA through small interfering RNA interference abolished the decrease of APOA5 mRNA in response to T0901317. Finally, administration of T0901317 to hAPOA5 transgenic mice revealed a significant decrease OF APOA5 mRNA in liver tissue and circulating apolipoprotein AV protein in plasma, confirming that the described down-regulation also occurs in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrate that APOA5 gene expression is regulated by the LXR ligand T0901317 in a negative manner through SREBP-1c. These findings may provide a new mechanism responsible for the elevation of plasma triglyceride levels by LXR ligands and support the development of selective LXR agonists, not affecting SREBP-1c, as beneficial modulators of lipid metabolism.

  11. PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and IC87114 reduce inflammation in carrageenan-induced paw oedema and down-regulate inflammatory gene expression in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Eräsalo, Heikki; Laavola, Mirka; Hämäläinen, Mari; Leppänen, Tiina; Nieminen, Riina; Moilanen, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    PI3K/Akt pathway is a well-characterized pathway controlling cellular processes such as proliferation, migration and survival, and its role in cancer is vastly studied. There is also evidence to suggest the involvement of this pathway in the regulation of inflammatory responses. In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the role of PI3Ks in acute inflammation in vivo using pharmacological inhibitors against PI3Ks in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model. A non-selective PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and a PI3Kδ-selective inhibitor IC87114 were used. Both of these inhibitors reduced inflammatory oedema upon carrageenan challenge in the mouse paw. To explain this result, the effects of the two inhibitors on inflammatory gene expression were investigated in activated macrophages. LY294002 and IC87114 prevented Akt phosphorylation as expected and down-regulated the expression of inflammatory factors IL-6, MCP-1,TNFα and iNOS. These findings suggest that PI3K inhibitors could be used to attenuate inflammatory responses and that the mechanism of action behind this effect is the down-regulation of inflammatory gene expression.

  12. Berberine down-regulates the Th1/Th2 cytokine gene expression ratio in mouse primary splenocytes in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide in a preventive manner.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Chi; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2011-12-01

    Berberine is a natural isoquinoline alkaloid. This study investigated the effects of berberine on cytokine gene expression in mouse primary splenocytes in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using 4 different experimental models in vitro. The relative expression of the following cytokine genes was determined using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay: pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10, T-helper type 1 (Th1) (IL-2), and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines. The results showed that berberine down-regulated ratios of the relative Th1 (IL-2)/Th2 (IL-4) cytokines expression fold in mouse primary splenocytes in the absence or presence of LPS in a preventive manner. This study suggests that berberine may possess anti-inflammatory potential by shifting the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th2 polarization.

  13. Longitudinal epigenetic and gene expression profiles analyzed by three-component analysis reveal down-regulation of genes involved in protein translation in human aging

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Marc; Jin, Seung-Gi; Zhang, Xiaoying; Xiong, Wenying; Gogoshin, Grigoriy; Rodin, Andrei S.; Pfeifer, Gerd P.

    2015-01-01

    Data on biological mechanisms of aging are mostly obtained from cross-sectional study designs. An inherent disadvantage of this design is that inter-individual differences can mask small but biologically significant age-dependent changes. A serially sampled design (same individual at different time points) would overcome this problem but is often limited by the relatively small numbers of available paired samples and the statistics being used. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a new vector-based approach, termed three-component analysis, which incorporates temporal distance, signal intensity and variance into one single score for gene ranking and is combined with gene set enrichment analysis. We tested our method on a unique age-based sample set of human skin fibroblasts and combined genome-wide transcription, DNA methylation and histone methylation (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) data. Importantly, our method can now for the first time demonstrate a clear age-dependent decrease in expression of genes coding for proteins involved in translation and ribosome function. Using analogies with data from lower organisms, we propose a model where age-dependent down-regulation of protein translation-related components contributes to extend human lifespan. PMID:25977295

  14. The physiological response of Populus tremula x alba leaves to the down-regulation of PIP1 aquaporin gene expression under no water stress

    PubMed Central

    Secchi, Francesca; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the role of PIP1 aquaporins in leaf water and CO2 transport, several lines of PIP1-deficient transgenic Populus tremula x alba were generated using a reverse genetic approach. These transgenic lines displayed no visible developmental or morphological phenotypes when grown under conditions of no water stress. Major photosynthetic parameters were also not affected by PIP1 down regulation. However, low levels of PIP1 expression resulted in greater leaf hydraulic resistance (an increase of 27%), which effectively implicated PIP1 role in water transport. Additionally, the expression level of PIP1 genes in the various transgenic lines was correlated with reductions in mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm), suggesting that in poplar, these aquaporins influenced membrane permeability to CO2. Overall, although analysis showed that PIP1 genes contributed to the mass transfer of water and CO2 in poplar leaves, their down-regulation did not dramatically impair the physiological needs of this fast growing tree when cultivated under conditions of no stress. PMID:24379822

  15. WAFs lead molting retardation of naupliar stages with down-regulated expression profiles of chitin metabolic pathway and related genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Min-Chul; Kyung, Do-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Su; Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Il-Chan; Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-03-01

    Oil pollution is considered being disastrous to marine organisms and ecosystems. As molting is critical in the developmental process of arthropods in general and copepods, in particular, the impact will be adverse if the target of spilled oil is on molting. Thus, we investigated the harmful effects of water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil with an emphasis on inhibition of chitin metabolic pathways related genes and developmental retardation in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Also, we analysed the ontology and domain of chitin metabolic pathway genes and mRNA expression patterns of developmental stage-specific genes. Further, the developmental retardation followed by transcriptional modulations in nuclear receptor genes (NR) and chitin metabolic pathway-related genes were observed in the WAFs-exposed T. japonicus. As a result, the developmental time was found significantly (P<0.05) delayed in response to 40% WAFs in comparison with that of control. Moreover, the NR gene, HR3 and chitinases (CHT9 and CHT10) were up-regulated in N4-5 stages, while chitin synthase genes (CHS-1, CHS-2-1, and CHS-2-2) down-regulated in response to WAFs. In brief, a high concentration of WAFs repressed nuclear receptor genes but elicited activation of some of the transcription factors at low concentration of WAFs, resulting in suppression of chitin synthesis. Thus, we suggest that WAF can lead molting retardation of naupliar stages in T. japonicus through down-regulations of chitin metabolism. These findings will provide a better understanding of the mode of action of chitin biosynthesis associated with molting mechanism in WAF-exposed T. japonicus.

  16. CB1 Blockade Potentiates Down-Regulation of Lipogenic Gene Expression in Perirenal Adipose Tissue in High Carbohydrate Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Gavito, Ana Luisa; Suárez, Juan; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Arrabal, Sergio; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Bautista, Dolores; Martínez, Ana; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Serrano, Antonia; Baixeras, Elena

    2014-01-01

    De novo lipogenesis and hypercaloric diets are thought to contribute to increased fat mass, particularly in abdominal fat depots. CB1 is highly expressed in adipose tissue, and CB1-mediated signalling is associated with stimulation of lipogenesis and diet-induced obesity, though its contribution to increasing fat deposition in adipose tissue is controversial. Lipogenesis is regulated by transcription factors such as liver X receptor (LXR), sterol-response element binding protein (SREBP) and carbohydrate-responsive-element-binding protein (ChREBP). We evaluated the role of CB1 in the gene expression of these factors and their target genes in relation to lipogenesis in the perirenal adipose tissue (PrAT) of rats fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCHD) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Both obesity models showed an up-regulated gene expression of CB1 and Lxrα in this adipose pad. The Srebf-1 and ChREBP gene expressions were down-regulated in HFD but not in HCHD. The expression of their target genes encoding for lipogenic enzymes showed a decrease in diet-induced obesity and was particularly dramatic in HFD. In HCHD, CB1 blockade by AM251 reduced the Srebf-1 and ChREBP expression and totally abrogated the remnant gene expression of their target lipogenic enzymes. The phosphorylated form of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK-p), which participates in the CB1-mediated signalling pathway, was markedly present in the PrAT of obese rats. ERK-p was drastically repressed by AM251 indicating that CB1 is actually functional in PrAT of obese animals, though its activation loses the ability to stimulate lipogenesis in PrAT of obese rats. Even so, the remnant expression levels of lipogenic transcription factors found in HCHD-fed rats are still dependent on CB1 activity. Hence, in HCHD-induced obesity, CB1 blockade may help to further potentiate the reduction of lipogenesis in PrAT by means of inducing down-regulation of the ChREBP and Srebf-1 gene expression, and consequently in

  17. CB1 blockade potentiates down-regulation of lipogenic gene expression in perirenal adipose tissue in high carbohydrate diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Vida, Margarita; Rivera, Patricia; Gavito, Ana Luisa; Suárez, Juan; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Arrabal, Sergio; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Bautista, Dolores; Martínez, Ana; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Serrano, Antonia; Baixeras, Elena

    2014-01-01

    De novo lipogenesis and hypercaloric diets are thought to contribute to increased fat mass, particularly in abdominal fat depots. CB1 is highly expressed in adipose tissue, and CB1-mediated signalling is associated with stimulation of lipogenesis and diet-induced obesity, though its contribution to increasing fat deposition in adipose tissue is controversial. Lipogenesis is regulated by transcription factors such as liver X receptor (LXR), sterol-response element binding protein (SREBP) and carbohydrate-responsive-element-binding protein (ChREBP). We evaluated the role of CB1 in the gene expression of these factors and their target genes in relation to lipogenesis in the perirenal adipose tissue (PrAT) of rats fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCHD) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Both obesity models showed an up-regulated gene expression of CB1 and Lxrα in this adipose pad. The Srebf-1 and ChREBP gene expressions were down-regulated in HFD but not in HCHD. The expression of their target genes encoding for lipogenic enzymes showed a decrease in diet-induced obesity and was particularly dramatic in HFD. In HCHD, CB1 blockade by AM251 reduced the Srebf-1 and ChREBP expression and totally abrogated the remnant gene expression of their target lipogenic enzymes. The phosphorylated form of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK-p), which participates in the CB1-mediated signalling pathway, was markedly present in the PrAT of obese rats. ERK-p was drastically repressed by AM251 indicating that CB1 is actually functional in PrAT of obese animals, though its activation loses the ability to stimulate lipogenesis in PrAT of obese rats. Even so, the remnant expression levels of lipogenic transcription factors found in HCHD-fed rats are still dependent on CB1 activity. Hence, in HCHD-induced obesity, CB1 blockade may help to further potentiate the reduction of lipogenesis in PrAT by means of inducing down-regulation of the ChREBP and Srebf-1 gene expression, and consequently in

  18. AB283. SPR-10 Down-regulation of ryanodine receptor gene expression in murine urinary bladder smooth muscle following partial bladder outlet obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, Ettickan; Javed, Elham; Addya, Shankar; Fortina, Paolo; Zderic, Stephen; Wein, Alan; Chacko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) displays spontaneous action potentials and this potential is related to the phasic nature of spontaneous contractions in this tissue. The amplitude of a phasic contraction depends on the increase in Ca2+ entry caused by membrane depolarization. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in UBSM decreases the force production by decreasing the frequency of phasic contractions through interactions with large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) and small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels. Microarray and network analysis were employed to determine the changes in mRNA in 14-day obstructed murine bladders. We found that obstruction significantly down-regulated the RyRs in bladder smooth muscle (BSM). Methods Male C57Bl/6 mice were surgically obstructed and kept for 14 days. Sham-operated mice served as a control. Bladders were excised; urothelium scraped off with a scalpel, and the serosa was removed. BSM obtained from PBOO and sham control animals were used for microarray and western blotting Results Pathway-based analysis of these gene signatures showed significant number of under-expressed genes in obstructed bladder and they were mapped to proteins involved in calcium signaling. We focused our work on RyR protein expression in BSM. There was a four-fold reduction of RyR3 in BSM in 14-day obstructed groups as shown by microarray and immunoblotting compared to that of sham-operated animals. Conclusions These results confirm that the RyR gene expression is down-regulated in obstructed murine bladder smooth muscle. Funding Source(s) None

  19. Down-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 adversely affects the expression of Alzheimer's disease-relevant genes and proteins.

    PubMed

    Zuchner, Thole; Schliebs, Reinhard; Perez-Polo, J Regino

    2005-10-01

    Beta-amyloid peptides play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, preventing beta-amyloid formation by inhibition of the beta site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE) 1 is considered as a potential strategy to treat AD. Cholinergic mechanisms have been shown to control amyloid precursor protein processing and the number of muscarinic M2-acetylcholine receptors is decreased in brain regions of patients with AD enriched with senile plaques. Therefore, the present study investigates the effect of this M2 muscarinic receptor down-regulation by siRNA on total gene expression and on regulation of BACE1 in particular in SK-SH-SY5Y cells. This model system was used for microarray analysis after carbachol stimulation of siRNA-treated cells compared with carbachol stimulated, non-siRNA-treated cells. The same model system was used to elucidate changes at the protein level by using two-dimensional gels followed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis. Taken together, the results indicate that the M2 acetylcholine receptor down-regulation in brains of patients with AD has important effects on the expression of several genes and proteins with major functions in the pathology of AD. This includes beta-secretase BACE1 as well as several modulators of the tau protein and other AD-relevant genes and proteins. Moreover, most of these genes and proteins are adversely affected against the background of AD.

  20. A Common Variant of PROK1 (V67I) Acts as a Genetic Modifier in Early Human Pregnancy through Down-Regulation of Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Su, Mei-Tsz; Huang, Jyun-Yuan; Tsai, Hui-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chi; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2016-01-27

    PROK1-V67I has been shown to play a role as a modifier gene in the PROK1-PROKR system of human early pregnancy. To explore the related modifier mechanism of PROK1-V67I, we carried out a comparison study at the gene expression level and the cell function alternation of V67I, and its wild-type (WT), in transiently-transfected cells. We, respectively, performed quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA assays to evaluate the protein and/or transcript level of V67I and WT in HTR-8/SV neo, JAR, Ishikawa, and HEK293 cells. Transiently V67I- or WT-transfected HTR-8/SV neo and HEK293 cells were used to investigate cell function alternations. The transcript and protein expressions were down-regulated in all cell lines, ranging from 20% to 70%, compared with WT. There were no significant differences in the ligand activities of V67I and WT with regard to cell proliferation, cell invasion, calcium influx, and tubal formation. Both PROK1 alleles promoted cell invasion and intracellular calcium mobilization, whereas they had no significant effects on cell proliferation and tubal formation. In conclusion, the biological effects of PROK1-V67I on cell functions are similar to those of WT, and the common variant of V67I may act as a modifier in the PROK1-PROKR system through down-regulation of PROK1 expression. This study may provide a general mechanism that the common variant of V67I, modifying the disease severity of PROK1-related pathophysiologies.

  1. A Common Variant of PROK1 (V67I) Acts as a Genetic Modifier in Early Human Pregnancy through Down-Regulation of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mei-Tsz; Huang, Jyun-Yuan; Tsai, Hui-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chi; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    PROK1-V67I has been shown to play a role as a modifier gene in the PROK1-PROKR system of human early pregnancy. To explore the related modifier mechanism of PROK1-V67I, we carried out a comparison study at the gene expression level and the cell function alternation of V67I, and its wild-type (WT), in transiently-transfected cells. We, respectively, performed quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA assays to evaluate the protein and/or transcript level of V67I and WT in HTR-8/SV neo, JAR, Ishikawa, and HEK293 cells. Transiently V67I- or WT-transfected HTR-8/SV neo and HEK293 cells were used to investigate cell function alternations. The transcript and protein expressions were down-regulated in all cell lines, ranging from 20% to 70%, compared with WT. There were no significant differences in the ligand activities of V67I and WT with regard to cell proliferation, cell invasion, calcium influx, and tubal formation. Both PROK1 alleles promoted cell invasion and intracellular calcium mobilization, whereas they had no significant effects on cell proliferation and tubal formation. In conclusion, the biological effects of PROK1-V67I on cell functions are similar to those of WT, and the common variant of V67I may act as a modifier in the PROK1-PROKR system through down-regulation of PROK1 expression. This study may provide a general mechanism that the common variant of V67I, modifying the disease severity of PROK1-related pathophysiologies. PMID:26828479

  2. Down-regulation of c-myc gene expression with induction of high molecular weight DNA fragments by fluorodeoxyuridine.

    PubMed

    Li, Z R; Yin, M B; Arredondo, M A; Schöber, C; Rustum, Y M

    1994-07-19

    5-Fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd), a potent inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, induces extensive bulk DNA damage at drug concentrations that produce significant in vitro growth inhibition of human ileocecal carcinoma (HCT-8) cells. Constant- and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (CFGE and PFGE), to detect size distribution of DNA double-strand breaks and repair kinetics, in parallel with northern and western blot analyses, to quantitate c-myc gene and protein expression, were utilized to analyze drug effects. At 24-hr post in vitro drug treatment, when maximum bulk DNA damage was detected, FdUrd produced a broad range of high molecular weight DNA fragments, clustering between 0.1 and 5.7 megabases in size, and resulted in a decrease in the level of c-myc transcripts and protein with no significant effect on the level of v-myc and H-ras. These effects preceded the observed cellular growth inhibition. Addition of the reduced folate leucovorin potentiated the effects induced by FdUrd, indicating that thymidylate synthase inhibition is an important initial step in drug effect followed by DNA fragmentation and suppression of c-myc expression. Changes in the integrity of the genetic materials and regulatory genes occurred prior to the observed cell growth inhibition by FdUrd, suggesting that these molecular alterations by FdUrd may be associated with subsequent FdUrd-induced cell growth inhibition.

  3. Deletions of multidrug resistance gene loci in breast cancer leads to the down-regulation of its expression and predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Litviakov, Nikolai V.; Cherdyntseva, Nadezhda V.; Tsyganov, Matvey M.; Slonimskaya, Elena M.; Ibragimova, Marina K.; Kazantseva, Polina V.; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Choinzonov, Eugeniy L.

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is intensively used for the treatment of primary breast cancer. In our previous studies, we reported that clinical tumor response to NAC is associated with the change of multidrug resistance (MDR) gene expression in tumors after chemotherapy. In this study we performed a combined analysis of MDR gene locus deletions in tumor DNA, MDR gene expression and clinical response to NAC in 73 BC patients. Copy number variations (CNVs) in biopsy specimens were tested using high-density microarray platform CytoScanTM HD Array (Affymetrix, USA). 75%–100% persons having deletions of MDR gene loci demonstrated the down-regulation of MDR gene expression. Expression of MDR genes was 2–8 times lower in patients with deletion than in patients having no deletion only in post-NAC tumors samples but not in tumor tissue before chemotherapy. All patients with deletions of ABCB1 ABCB 3 ABCC5 gene loci – 7q21.1, 6p21.32, 3q27 correspondingly, and most patients having deletions in ABCC1 (16p13.1), ABCC2 (10q24), ABCG1 (21q22.3), ABCG2 (4q22.1), responded favorably to NAC. The analysis of all CNVs, including both amplification and deletion showed that the frequency of 13q14.2 deletion was 85% among patients bearing tumor with the deletion at least in one MDR gene locus versus 9% in patients with no deletions. Differences in the frequency of 13q14.2 deletions between the two groups were statistically significant (p = 2.03 ×10−11, Fisher test, Bonferroni-adjusted p = 1.73 × 10−8). In conclusion, our study for the first time demonstrates that deletion MDR gene loci can be used as predictive marker for tumor response to NAC. PMID:26799285

  4. Enriched Environment Inhibits Mouse Pancreatic Cancer Growth and Down-regulates the Expression of Mitochondria-related Genes in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohua; Gan, Yu; Fan, Yingchao; Wu, Yufeng; Lin, Hechun; Song, Yanfang; Cai, Xiaojin; Yu, Xiang; Pan, Weihong; Yao, Ming; Gu, Jianren; Tu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Psycho-social stress has been suggested to influence the development of cancer, but it remains poorly defined with regard to pancreatic cancer, a lethal malignancy with few effective treatment modalities. In this study, we sought to investigate the impacts of enriched environment (EE) housing, a rodent model of “eustress”, on the growth of mouse pancreatic cancer, and to explore the potential underlying mechanisms through gene expression profiling. The EE mice showed significantly reduced tumor weights in both subcutaneous (53%) and orthotopic (41%) models, while each single component of EE (inanimate stimulation, social stimulation or physical exercise) was not profound enough to achieve comparative anti-tumor effects as EE. The integrative transcriptomic and proteomic analysis revealed that in response to EE, a total of 129 genes in the tumors showed differential expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. The differentially expressed genes were mostly localized to the mitochondria and enriched in the citrate cycle and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. Interestingly, nearly all of the mitochondria-related genes were down-regulated by EE. Our data have provided experimental evidence in favor of the application of positive stress or of benign environmental stimulation in pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:25598223

  5. Tanshinone IIA Modulates Low Density Lipoprotein Uptake via Down-Regulation of PCSK9 Gene Expression in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Chen; Chen, Pei-Yi; Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Tai, Mi-Hsueh; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA, one of the most pharmacologically bioactive phytochemicals isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, possesses several biological activities such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, neuroprotection and hypolipidemic activities. In this study, we aim to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effect of tanshinone IIA in hepatic cells. We demonstrated that tanshinone IIA significantly increased the amount of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and LDL uptake activity in HepG2 cells at the post-transcriptional regulation. We further demonstrated that tanshinone IIA inhibited the expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) mRNA and mature protein, which may lead to an increase the cell-surface LDLR in hepatic cells. We further identified a regulatory DNA element involved in the tanshinone IIA-mediated PCSK9 down-regulation, which is located between the -411 and -336 positions of the PCSK9 promoter. Moreover, we found that tanshinone IIA markedly increased the nuclear forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) level, enhanced FoxO3a/PCSK9 promoter complexes formation and decreased the PCSK9 promoter binding capacity of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF-1α), resulting in suppression of PCSK9 gene expression. Finally, we found that the statin-induced PCSK9 overexpression was attenuated and the LDLR activity was elevated in a synergic manner by combination of tanshinone IIA treatment in HepG2 cells. Overall, our results reveal that the tanshinone IIA modulates LDLR level and activity via down-regulation of PCSK9 expression in hepatic cells. Our current findings provide a molecular basis of tanshinone IIA to develop PCSK9 inhibitors for cholesterol management.

  6. Tanshinone IIA Modulates Low Density Lipoprotein Uptake via Down-Regulation of PCSK9 Gene Expression in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Tai, Mi-Hsueh; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA, one of the most pharmacologically bioactive phytochemicals isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, possesses several biological activities such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, neuroprotection and hypolipidemic activities. In this study, we aim to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effect of tanshinone IIA in hepatic cells. We demonstrated that tanshinone IIA significantly increased the amount of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and LDL uptake activity in HepG2 cells at the post-transcriptional regulation. We further demonstrated that tanshinone IIA inhibited the expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) mRNA and mature protein, which may lead to an increase the cell-surface LDLR in hepatic cells. We further identified a regulatory DNA element involved in the tanshinone IIA-mediated PCSK9 down-regulation, which is located between the -411 and -336 positions of the PCSK9 promoter. Moreover, we found that tanshinone IIA markedly increased the nuclear forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) level, enhanced FoxO3a/PCSK9 promoter complexes formation and decreased the PCSK9 promoter binding capacity of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF-1α), resulting in suppression of PCSK9 gene expression. Finally, we found that the statin-induced PCSK9 overexpression was attenuated and the LDLR activity was elevated in a synergic manner by combination of tanshinone IIA treatment in HepG2 cells. Overall, our results reveal that the tanshinone IIA modulates LDLR level and activity via down-regulation of PCSK9 expression in hepatic cells. Our current findings provide a molecular basis of tanshinone IIA to develop PCSK9 inhibitors for cholesterol management. PMID:27617748

  7. Coumarin attenuates hepatic steatosis by down-regulating lipogenic gene expression in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Um, Min Young; Moon, Mi Kyeong; Ahn, Jiyun; Youl Ha, Tae

    2013-05-01

    Coumarin is a natural compound abundant in plant-based foods such as citrus fruits, tomatoes, vegetables and green tea. Although coumarin has been reported to exhibit anti-coagulant, anti-inflammation and cholesterol-lowering properties, the effect of coumarin on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of coumarin to protect against hepatic steatosis associated with a high-fat diet (HFD) and investigated potential mechanisms underlying this effect. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet, HFD and HFD containing 0·05 % courmarin for 8 weeks. The present results showed that coumarin reduced weight gain and abdominal fat mass in mice fed the HFD for 8 weeks (P< 0·05). Coumarin also significantly reduced the HFD-induced elevation in total cholesterol, apoB, leptin and insulin (P< 0·05). In the liver of HFD-fed mice, coumarin significantly reduced total lipids, TAG and cholesterol (38, 22 and 9 % reductions, respectively; P< 0·05), as well as lipid droplet number and size. Additionally, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels, as an indicator of hepatic steatosis, were attenuated by coumarin (P< 0·05). Finally, coumarin suppressed the HFD-induced up-regulation in fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity, and the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, FAS, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α in the liver. Taken together, these results demonstrate that coumarin could prevent HFD-induced hepatic steatosis by regulating lipogenic gene expression, suggesting potential targets for preventing hepatic steatosis.

  8. DMBT1 expression is down-regulated in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Braidotti, P; Nuciforo, PG; Mollenhauer, J; Poustka, A; Pellegrini, C; Moro, A; Bulfamante, G; Coggi, G; Bosari, S; Pietra, GG

    2004-01-01

    Background We studied the expression of DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumor 1), a putative tumor suppressor gene, in normal, proliferative, and malignant breast epithelium and its possible relation to cell cycle. Methods Sections from 17 benign lesions and 55 carcinomas were immunostained with anti DMBT1 antibody (DMBTh12) and sections from 36 samples, were double-stained also with anti MCM5, one of the 6 pre-replicative complex proteins with cell proliferation-licensing functions. DMBT1 gene expression at mRNA level was assessed by RT-PCR in frozen tissues samples from 39 patients. Results Normal glands and hyperplastic epithelium in benign lesions displayed a luminal polarized DMBTh12 immunoreactivity. Normal and hyperplastic epithelium adjacent to carcinomas showed a loss of polarization, with immunostaining present in basal and perinuclear cytoplasmic compartments. DMBT1 protein expression was down-regulated in the cancerous lesions compared to the normal and/or hyperplastic epithelium adjacent to carcinomas (3/55 positive carcinomas versus 33/42 positive normal/hyperplastic epithelia; p = 0.0001). In 72% of cases RT-PCR confirmed immunohistochemical results. Most of normal and hyperplastic mammary cells positive with DMBTh12 were also MCM5-positive. Conclusions The redistribution and up-regulation of DMBT1 in normal and hyperplastic tissues flanking malignant tumours and its down-regulation in carcinomas suggests a potential role in breast cancer. Moreover, the concomitant expression of DMTB1 and MCM5 suggests its possible association with the cell-cycle regulation. PMID:15301691

  9. Manassantin A inhibits cAMP-induced melanin production by down-regulating the gene expressions of MITF and tyrosinase in melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa Dong; Lee, Won-Hee; Roh, Eunmiri; Seo, Chang-Seob; Son, Jong-Keun; Lee, Seung Ho; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Jung, Sang-Hun; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2011-09-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is inducible in response to cAMP through the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and plays a pivotal role in the melanocyte-specific expression of tyrosinase or tyrosinase-related proteins (TRPs) for melanin biosynthesis. Manassantin A from Saururus chinensis inhibits cAMP-induced melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Here, we focused on molecular basis of the antimelanogenic activity. Manassantin A consistently inhibited the cAMP elevator 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)- or dibutyryl cAMP-induced melanin production in B16 cells or in melan-a melanocytes by down-regulating the expression of tyrosinase or TRP1 gene. Moreover, manassantin A suppressed MITF induction through IBMX-activated CREB pathway, directly inhibiting the Ser-133 phosphorylation of CREB. However, manassantin A did not affect IBMX-increased cAMP levels in these cells but also other cAMP-dependent melanogenic pathways through post-translational modifications of MITF. This putative molecular mechanism of manassantin A in the inhibition of melanin production suggests its pharmacological potential in skin hyperpigmentation.

  10. Biotic Stress Globally Down-Regulates Photosynthesis Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upon herbivore and pathogen attacks, plants switch from processes supporting growth and reproduction to defense by inducing a set of defense genes and down-regulating most of the nuclear encoded photosynthetic genes. To determine if this transcriptional response is universal we used transcriptome da...

  11. Expression of Caveolin-1 reduces cellular responses to TGF-{beta}1 through down-regulating the expression of TGF-{beta} type II receptor gene in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Youn Sook; Han, In-Oc; Park, Seok Hee . E-mail: parks@skku.edu

    2007-07-27

    Transcriptional repression of Transforming Growth Factor-{beta} type II receptor (T{beta}RII) gene has been proposed to be one of the major mechanisms leading to TGF-{beta} resistance. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) gene in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells down-regulates the expression of T{beta}RII gene in the transcriptional level, eventually resulting in the decreased responses to TGF-{beta}. The reduced expression of T{beta}RII gene by Cav-1 appeared to be due to the changes of the sequence-specific DNA binding proteins to either Positive Regulatory Element 1 (PRE1) or PRE2 of the T{beta}RII promoter. In addition, Cav-1 expression inhibited TGF-{beta}-mediated cellular proliferation and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor (PAI)-1 gene expression as well as TGF-{beta}-induced luciferase activity. Furthermore, the inhibition of endogeneous Cav-1 by small interfering RNA increased the expression of T{beta}RII gene. These findings strongly suggest that expression of Cav-1 leads to the decreased cellular responsiveness to TGF-{beta} through down-regulating T{beta}RII gene expression.

  12. Down-Regulation of TLR and JAK/STAT Pathway Genes Is Associated with Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Gene Expression Analysis in NK Cells from Patients Infected with Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Fernández, Juan E.; Miranda-Ortíz, Haydee; Fernández-López, Juan C.; Becker, Ingeborg; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    An important NK-cell inhibition with reduced TNF-α, IFN-γ and TLR2 expression had previously been identified in patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) infected with Leishmania mexicana. In an attempt to pinpoint alterations in the signaling pathways responsible for the NK-cell dysfunction in patients with DCL, this study aimed at identifying differences in the NK-cell response towards Leishmania mexicana lipophosphoglycan (LPG) between patients with localized and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis through gene expression profiling. Our results indicate that important genes involved in the innate immune response to Leishmania are down-regulated in NK cells from DCL patients, particularly TLR and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. This down-regulation showed to be independent of LPG stimulation. The study sheds new light for understanding the mechanisms that undermine the correct effector functions of NK cells in patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis contributing to a better understanding of the pathobiology of leishmaniasis. PMID:27031998

  13. 27-Hydroxycholesterol suppresses lipid accumulation by down-regulating lipogenic and adipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Shirouchi, Bungo; Kashima, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Yasutaka; Nakamura, Yuki; Fujimoto, Yumiko; Tong, Li-Tao; Sato, Masao

    2016-03-17

    Cholesterol oxidation products (oxycholesterols) are produced from cholesterol by automatic and/or enzymatic oxidation of the steroidal backbone and side-chain. Oxycholesterols are present in plasma and serum, suggesting that oxycholesterols are related to the development and progression of various diseases. However, limited information is available about the absolute amounts of oxycholesterols in organs and tissues, and the physiological significance of oxycholesterols in the body. In the present study, we quantified the levels of 13 oxycholesterols in white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice and then evaluated correlations between each oxycholesterol level and WAT weight. The sum of the levels of 13 oxycholesterols in WAT (white adipose tissue) was 15.9 ± 3.4 μg/g of WAT weight and approximately 1 % of cholesterol level. Among oxycholesterols, the levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH), an endogenous oxycholesterol produced by enzymatic oxidation, and the relative WAT weights were significantly negatively correlated. Next, we evaluated the effects of 27-OH on lipogenesis and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. TO901317 (TO), a potent and selective agonist for LXRα, significantly increased intracellular TAG contents, while 27-OH significantly reduced the contents to half when compared with control (DMSO) and completely abolished the effect of TO. In addition, 27-OH significantly reduced the mRNA levels of lipogenic (LXRα and FAS) and adipogenic genes (PPARγ and aP2) during adipocyte maturation of 3T3-L1 cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that 27-OH suppresses lipid accumulation by down-regulating lipogenic and adipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells.

  14. Region-specific down-regulation of Crhr1 gene expression in alcohol-preferring msP rats following ad lib access to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Anita C; Cippitelli, Andrea; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Heilig, Markus

    2007-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone 1 receptors (CRH-R1) mediate increased behavioral sensitivity to stress and excessive alcohol self-administration following a history of dependence. It was recently demonstrated that the genetically selected alcohol-preferring msP rat line replicates many characteristics of the post-dependent state, due to an innate up-regulation of the Crhr1 transcript in several limbic areas related to alcohol drinking motivation. Here, we examined whether voluntary alcohol consumption might be able to down-regulate Crhr1 transcript levels in msP rats in brain areas where elevated expression previously has been shown. Within central and medial amygdala (CeA, MeA), as well as the Nc. Accumbens, 2 weeks'ad lib access to alcohol led to a highly significant down-regulation of the Crhr1 transcript. Alcohol-induced Crhr1 down-regulation was not seen in cingulate cortex. These data support that recruitment of CRH-R1 signaling within components of the extended amygdala drives excessive alcohol intake, and that alcohol is voluntarily consumed in part for its ability to reduce CRH-R1 activity in this region.

  15. A carbohydrate fraction, AIP1, from Artemisia iwayomogi down-regulates Fas gene expression and suppresses apoptotic death of the thymocytes induced by 2,3,7,8-tectrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hee Jung; Yeo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Nam Hee; Hwang, Jung Suk; Koo, Kyung Ah; Cheong, Seon Woo; Park, Joo Hung; Oh, Gap Soo; Yoon, Chun Sik; Youn, Hyun Joo

    2005-02-01

    Apoptotic death of mouse thymocytes in vitro, as induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), involves the up-regulation of Fas gene expression, while a carbohydrate fraction, AIP1, from Artemisia iwayomogi suppresses the death of thymocytes in culture along with the down-regulation of Fas gene expression. We have now investigated whether the AIP1 fraction modulates TCDD-induced thymocyte death. When treated with TCDD and AIP1 fraction together, the thymocytes do not show apoptosis induced by the TCDD treatment. The AIP1 supplementation to the TCDD treatment also down-regulates the TCDD-induced Fas gene up-regulation. These findings indicate that the AIP1 fraction suppresses TCDD-induced thymocyte apoptosis through the modulation of Fas gene expression.

  16. CDK14 expression is down-regulated by cigarette smoke in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Daniel; Xiao, Yuxuan; Shrivasatava, Vibha; Levy, Avi; Andrusier, Miriam; D’Armiento, Jeanine; Holz, Marina K.; Vigodner, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In this study, DNA arrays have been employed to monitor gene expression patterns in testis of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 24 weeks and compared to control animals. The results of the analysis revealed significant changes in expression of several genes that may have a role in spermatogenesis. Cdk14 was chosen for further characterization because of a suggested role in the testis and in regulation of Wnt signaling. RT-PCR analysis confirmed down regulation of Cdk14 in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Cdk14 is expressed in all testicular cells; spermatogonia- and Sertoli-derived cell lines treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in vitro showed down-regulation of CDK14 mRNA and protein levels as well as down-regulation of β-catenin levels. CS-induced down-regulation of CDK14 mRNA and protein levels was also observed in several lung epithelium-derived cell lines including primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE), suggesting that the effect is not restricted to the testis. Similar to testicular cells, CS-induced down-regulation of CDK14 in lung cells correlated with decreased levels of β-catenin, a finding suggesting impaired Wnt signaling. In the lungs, CDK14 was localized to the alveolar and bronchial epithelium. PMID:25680692

  17. Comparative Analysis of RNAi-Based Methods to Down-Regulate Expression of Two Genes Expressed at Different Levels in Myzus persicae

    PubMed Central

    Mulot, Michaël; Boissinot, Sylvaine; Monsion, Baptiste; Rastegar, Maryam; Clavijo, Gabriel; Halter, David; Bochet, Nicole; Erdinger, Monique; Brault, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing availability of aphid genomic data, it is necessary to develop robust functional validation methods to evaluate the role of specific aphid genes. This work represents the first study in which five different techniques, all based on RNA interference and on oral acquisition of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), were developed to silence two genes, ALY and Eph, potentially involved in polerovirus transmission by aphids. Efficient silencing of only Eph transcripts, which are less abundant than those of ALY, could be achieved by feeding aphids on transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing an RNA hairpin targeting Eph, on Nicotiana benthamiana infected with a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-Eph recombinant virus, or on in vitro-synthesized Eph-targeting dsRNA. These experiments showed that the silencing efficiency may differ greatly between genes and that aphid gut cells seem to be preferentially affected by the silencing mechanism after oral acquisition of dsRNA. In addition, the use of plants infected with recombinant TRV proved to be a promising technique to silence aphid genes as it does not require plant transformation. This work highlights the need to pursue development of innovative strategies to reproducibly achieve reduction of expression of aphid genes. PMID:27869783

  18. Identification and expression of a soybean nodule-enhanced PEP-carboxylase kinase gene (NE-PpcK) that shows striking up-/down-regulation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenxin; Zhou, You; Chollet, Raymond

    2003-05-01

    Various isoforms of plant phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC (Ppc)) are controlled post-translationally by an intricate interaction between allosteric regulation and reversible protein phosphorylation. In leaves and root nodules of legumes, these changes in PEPC phosphorylation state are governed primarily by PEPC-kinase (PpcK), a novel, 'minimal but functional' Ser/Thr kinase. To date, this plant-specific kinase has been investigated in molecular terms exclusively in non-leguminous plants, such as Crassulacean-acid-metabolism (CAM) species and Arabidopsis. As an important extension of our earlier biochemical studies on this dedicated kinase and PEPC phosphorylation in soybean (Glycine max) nodules, we now report the molecular cloning of the first legume PpcK from a soybean nodule cDNA library, which encodes a functional, 31.0 kDa PpcK polypeptide. Besides displaying organ, developmental, and spatial expression properties that are strikingly up-regulated in mature nodules, the expression pattern of this transcript is distinct from that of a second soybean PpcK isogene (GmPpcK). The steady-state abundance of this former, nodule-enhanced transcript (NE-PpcK) is markedly influenced by photosynthate supply from the shoots. This latter up-/down-regulation of NE-PpcK transcript level occurs in vivo in concert with the corresponding changes in the nodule PpcK activity, the phosphorylation-state of PEPC, and the abundance of a previously identified, nodule-enhanced transcript (GmPEPC7) that encodes the target enzyme (NE-Ppc). Furthermore, genomic Southern analysis and inspection of the public database indicate that there are at least three distinct PpcK and Ppc isogenes in soybean. Collectively, these and recent findings with Arabidopsis implicate the existence of multiple PpcK-Ppc'expression-partners' in plants, exemplified by NE-PpcK and NE-Ppc in the soybean nodule.

  19. Maternal immune stimulation reduces both placental morphologic damage and down-regulated placental growth-factor and cell cycle gene expression caused by urethane: are these events related to reduced teratogenesis?

    PubMed

    Sharova, L V; Sharov, A A; Sura, P; Gogal, R M; Smith, B J; Holladay, S D

    2003-07-01

    Activation of the maternal immune system in mice decreased cleft palate caused by the chemical teratogen, urethane. Direct and indirect mechanisms for this phenomenon have been suggested, including maternal macrophages that cross the placenta to find and eliminate pre-teratogenic cells, or maternal immune proteins (cytokines) that cross placenta to alleviate or partially alleviate toxicant-mediated effects in the developing fetus. A third mechanism to explain improved fetal developmental outcome in teratogen-challenged pregnant mice might involve beneficial effects of immune stimulation on the placenta. In the present experiments, urethane treatment altered placental morphology and impaired placental function, the latter indicated by down-regulated activity of cell cycle genes and of genes encoding cytokines and growth factors. Maternal immune stimulation with either Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) or interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) reduced morphologic damage to the placenta caused by urethane and normalized expression of several genes that were down-regulated by urethane. Urethane treatment also shifted placental cytokine gene expression toward a T cell helper 1 (Th1) profile, while immunostimulation tended to restore a Th2 profile that may be more beneficial to pregnancy and fetal development. These data suggest that the beneficial effects of maternal immune stimulation on fetal development in teratogen-exposed mice may, in part, result from improved placental structure and function.

  20. Dietary bitter melon seed increases peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ gene expression in adipose tissue, down-regulates the nuclear factor-κB expression, and alleviates the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gadang, Vidya; Gilbert, William; Hettiararchchy, Navam; Horax, Ronny; Katwa, Laxmansa; Devareddy, Latha

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which bitter melon seed (BMS) alleviates the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome and elucidate the mechanism by which BMS exerts beneficial effects. Three-month-old female Zucker rats were assigned to following groups: lean control (L-Ctrl), obese control (O-Ctrl), and obese + BMS (O-BMS). The control groups were fed AIN-93M purified rodent diet, and the O-BMS group was fed AIN-93M diet modified to contain 3.0% (wt/wt) ground BMS for 100 days. After 100 days of treatment, BMS supplementation in the obese rats lowered the total serum cholesterol by 38% and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by about 52% and increased the ratio of serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol to total cholesterol compared to the O-Ctrl group. The percentage of total liver lipids was about 32% lower and serum triglyceride levels were 71% higher in the O-BMS group compared to the O-Ctrl group. Serum glucose levels were significantly lowered partly because of the increase in the serum insulin levels in the BMS-based diet groups. BMS supplementation increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in the white adipose tissue of the obese rats significantly (P < .05) and down-regulated the expression of PPAR-γ, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and interferon-γ mRNA in heart tissue of the obese rats. The findings of this study suggest that BMS improves the serum and liver lipid profiles and serum glucose levels by modulating PPAR-γ gene expression. To our knowledge, this study for the first time shows that BMS exerts cardioprotective effects by down-regulating the NF-κB inflammatory pathway.

  1. BDE-47 causes developmental retardation with down-regulated expression profiles of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved nuclear receptor (NR) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Hwang, Un-Ki; Zhou, Bingsheng; Choe, Joonho; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-08-01

    2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) in marine environments. Despite its adverse effects (e.g. developmental retardation) in ecdysozoa, the effects of BDE-47 on transcription of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved-nuclear receptor (NR) genes and metamorphosis-related genes have not been examined in copepods. To examine the deleterious effect of BDE-47 on copepod molting and metamorphosis, BDE-47 was exposed to the harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus, followed by monitoring developmental retardation and transcriptional alteration of NR genes. The developmental rate was significantly inhibited (P<0.05) in response to BDE-47 and the agricultural insecticide gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane. Conversely, the ecdysteroid agonist ponasterone A (PoA) led to decreased molting and metamorphosis time (P<0.05) from the nauplius stage to the adult stage. In particular, expression profiles of all NR genes were the highest at naupliar stages 5-6 except for SVP, FTZ-F1, and HR96 genes. Nuclear receptor USP, HR96, and FTZ-F1 genes also showed significant sex differences (P<0.05) in gene expression levels over different developmental stages, indicating that these genes may be involved in vitellogenesis. NR gene expression patterns showed significant decreases (P<0.05) in response to BDE-47 exposure, implying that molting and metamorphosis retardation is likely associated with NR gene expression. In summary, BDE-47 leads to molting and metamorphosis retardation and suppresses transcription of NR genes. This information will be helpful in understanding the molting and metamorphosis delay mechanism in response to BDE-47 exposure.

  2. Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract down-regulates expression of PPARγ2 and leptin genes in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J Mice and retards in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Ramani, Umed V; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-01-01

    Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i) in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and (ii) in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPARγ2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPARγ2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity.

  3. HSI2 Repressor Recruits MED13 and HDA6 to Down-Regulate Seed Maturation Gene Expression Directly During Arabidopsis Early Seedling Growth.

    PubMed

    Chhun, Tory; Chong, Suet Yen; Park, Bong Soo; Wong, Eriko Chi Cheng; Yin, Jun-Lin; Kim, Mijung; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2016-08-01

    Arabidopsis HSI2 (HIGH-LEVEL EXPRESSION OF SUGAR-INDUCIBLE GENE 2) which carries a EAR (ERF-associated amphiphilic repression) motif acts as a repressor of seed maturation genes and lipid biosynthesis, whereas MEDIATOR (MED) is a conserved multiprotein complex linking DNA-bound transcription factors to RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. How HSI2 executes its repressive function through MED is hitherto unknown. Here, we show that HSI2 and its homolog, HSI2-lik (HSL1), are able to form homo- and heterocomplexes. Both factors bind to the TRAP240 domain of MED13, a subunit of the MED CDK8 module. Mutant alleles of the med13 mutant show elevated seed maturation gene expression and increased lipid accumulation in cotyledons; in contrast, HSI2- or MED13-overexpressing plants display the opposite phenotypes. The overexpression phenotypes of HSI2 and MED13 are abolished in med13 and hsi2 hsl1, respectively, indicating that HSI2 and MED13 together are required for these functions. The HSI2 C-terminal region interacts with HDA6, whose overexpression also reduces seed maturation gene expression and lipid accumulation. Moreover, HSI2, MED13 and HDA6 bind to the proximal promoter and 5'-coding regions of seed maturation genes. Taken together, our results suggest that HSI2 recruits MED13 and HDA6 to suppress directly a subset of seed maturation genes post-germination.

  4. The Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome associated protein interacts with HsNip7 and its down-regulation affects gene expression at the transcriptional and translational levels

    SciTech Connect

    Hesling, Cedric; Oliveira, Carla C.; Castilho, Beatriz A.; Zanchin, Nilson I.T.

    2007-12-10

    The Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal disorder with pleiotropic phenotypes including pancreatic, skeletal and bone marrow deficiencies and predisposition to hematological dysfunctions. SDS has been associated to mutations in the SBDS gene, encoding a highly conserved protein that was shown to function in ribosome biogenesis in yeast. In this work, we show that SBDS is found in complexes containing the human Nip7 ortholog. Analysis of pre-rRNA processing in a stable SBDS knock-down HEK293-derivative cell line revealed accumulation of a small RNA which is a further indication of SBDS involvement in rRNA biosynthesis. Global transcription and polysome-bound mRNA profiling revealed that SBDS knock-down affects expression of critical genes involved in brain development and function, bone morphogenesis, blood cell proliferation and differentiation, and cell adhesion. Expression of a group of growth and signal transduction factors and of DNA damage response genes is also affected. In SBDS knock-down cells, 34 mRNAs showed decreased and 55 mRNAs showed increased association to polysomes, among which is a group encoding proteins involved in alternative splicing and RNA modification. These results indicate that SBDS is required for accurate expression of genes important for proper brain, skeletal, and blood cell development.

  5. Colostrum whey down-regulates the expression of early and late inflammatory response genes induced by Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium components in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Blais, M; Fortier, M; Pouliot, Y; Gauthier, S F; Boutin, Y; Asselin, C; Lessard, M

    2015-01-28

    Pathogenic invasion by Escherichia coli and Salmonellae remains a constant threat to the integrity of the intestinal epithelium and can rapidly induce inflammatory responses. At birth, colostrum consumption exerts numerous beneficial effects on the properties of intestinal epithelial cells and protects the gastrointestinal tract of newborns from pathogenic invasion. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of colostrum on the early and late inflammatory responses induced by pathogens. The short-term (2 h) and long-term (24 h) effects of exposure to heat-killed (HK) E. coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium on gene expression in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) model were first evaluated by microarray and quantitative PCR analyses. Luciferase assays were performed using a NF-κB-luc reporter construct to investigate the effect of colostrum whey treatment on the activation of NF-κB induced by HK bacteria. Luciferase assays were also performed using NF-κB-luc, IL-8-luc and IL-6-luc reporter constructs in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2/15 cells exposed to dose-response stimulations with HK bacteria and colostrum whey. Bovine colostrum whey treatment decreased the expression of early and late inflammatory genes induced by HK bacteria in IPEC-J2, as well as the transcriptional activation of NF-κB-luc induced by HK bacteria. Unlike that with colostrum whey, treatment with other milk fractions failed to decrease the activation of NF-κB-luc induced by HK bacteria. Lastly, the reduction of the HK bacteria-induced activation of NF-κB-luc, IL-8-luc and IL-6-luc by colostrum whey was dose dependent. The results of the present study indicate that bovine colostrum may protect and preserve the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier in the host by controlling the expression levels of early and late inflammatory genes following invasion by enteric pathogens.

  6. Down-Regulating the Expression of 53 Soybean Transcription Factor Genes Uncovers a Role for SPEECHLESS in Initiating Stomatal Cell Lineages during Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Danzer, John; Mellott, Eric; Bui, Anhthu Q; Le, Brandon H; Martin, Patrick; Hashimoto, Meryl; Perez-Lesher, Jeanett; Chen, Min; Pelletier, Julie M; Somers, David A; Goldberg, Robert B; Harada, John J

    2015-07-01

    We used an RNA interference screen to assay the function of 53 transcription factor messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that accumulate specifically within soybean (Glycine max) seed regions, subregions, and tissues during development. We show that basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor genes represented by Glyma04g41710 and its paralogs are required for the formation of stoma in leaves and stomatal precursor complexes in mature embryo cotyledons. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that these bHLH transcription factor genes are orthologous to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SPEECHLESS (SPCH) that initiate asymmetric cell divisions in the leaf protoderm layer and establish stomatal cell lineages. Soybean SPCH (GmSPCH) mRNAs accumulate primarily in embryo, seedling, and leaf epidermal layers. Expression of Glyma04g41710 under the control of the SPCH promoter rescues the Arabidopsis spch mutant, indicating that Glyma04g41710 is a functional ortholog of SPCH. Developing soybean embryos do not form mature stoma, and stomatal differentiation is arrested at the guard mother cell stage. We analyzed the accumulation of GmSPCH mRNAs during soybean seed development and mRNAs orthologous to MUTE, FAMA, and inducer of C-repeat/dehydration responsive element-binding factor expression1/scream2 that are required for stoma formation in Arabidopsis. The mRNA accumulation patterns provide a potential explanation for guard mother cell dormancy in soybean embryos. Our results suggest that variation in the timing of bHLH transcription factor gene expression can explain the diversity of stomatal forms observed during plant development.

  7. Down-Regulating the Expression of 53 Soybean Transcription Factor Genes Uncovers a Role for SPEECHLESS in Initiating Stomatal Cell Lineages during Embryo Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Danzer, John; Mellott, Eric; Bui, Anhthu Q.; Le, Brandon H.; Martin, Patrick; Hashimoto, Meryl; Perez-Lesher, Jeanett; Chen, Min; Pelletier, Julie M.; Somers, David A.; Goldberg, Robert B.; Harada, John J.

    2015-01-01

    We used an RNA interference screen to assay the function of 53 transcription factor messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that accumulate specifically within soybean (Glycine max) seed regions, subregions, and tissues during development. We show that basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor genes represented by Glyma04g41710 and its paralogs are required for the formation of stoma in leaves and stomatal precursor complexes in mature embryo cotyledons. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that these bHLH transcription factor genes are orthologous to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SPEECHLESS (SPCH) that initiate asymmetric cell divisions in the leaf protoderm layer and establish stomatal cell lineages. Soybean SPCH (GmSPCH) mRNAs accumulate primarily in embryo, seedling, and leaf epidermal layers. Expression of Glyma04g41710 under the control of the SPCH promoter rescues the Arabidopsis spch mutant, indicating that Glyma04g41710 is a functional ortholog of SPCH. Developing soybean embryos do not form mature stoma, and stomatal differentiation is arrested at the guard mother cell stage. We analyzed the accumulation of GmSPCH mRNAs during soybean seed development and mRNAs orthologous to MUTE, FAMA, and INDUCER OF C-REPEAT/DEHYDRATION RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR EXPRESSION1/SCREAM2 that are required for stoma formation in Arabidopsis. The mRNA accumulation patterns provide a potential explanation for guard mother cell dormancy in soybean embryos. Our results suggest that variation in the timing of bHLH transcription factor gene expression can explain the diversity of stomatal forms observed during plant development. PMID:25963149

  8. Down-regulation of acyl-CoA oxidase gene expression and increased NF-kappaB activity in etomoxir-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, Agatha; Merlos, Manuel; Laguna, Juan C; Carrera, Manuel Vázquez

    2003-02-01

    Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is required for hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes. Etomoxir is an irreversible inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and induces cardiac hypertrophy through an unknown mechanism. We studied the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in the heart of mice treated for 1 or 10 days with etomoxir (100 mg/kg/day). Etomoxir administration for 1 day significantly increased (4.4-fold induction) the mRNA expression of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in peroxisomal beta-oxidation. In contrast, etomoxir treatment for 10 days dramatically decreased ACO mRNA levels by 96%. The reduction in ACO expression in the hearts of 10-day etomoxir-treated mice was accompanied by an increase in the mRNA expression of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and the cardiac marker of oxidative stress bax. Moreover, the activity of the redox-regulated transcription factor NF-kappaB was increased in heart after 10 days of etomoxir treatment. Overall, the findings here presented show that etomoxir treatment may induce cardiac hypertrophy via increased cellular oxidative stress and NF-kappaB activation.

  9. Eugenol ameliorates hepatic steatosis and fibrosis by down-regulating SREBP1 gene expression via AMPK-mTOR-p70S6K signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hee Kyung; Kim, Go Woon; Jeong, Kyung Ju; Kim, Do Yeon; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial effect of eugenol on fatty liver was examined in hepatocytes and liver tissue of high fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice. To induce a fatty liver, palmitic acid or isolated hepatocytes from HFD-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in vitro studies, and C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD for 10 weeks. Lipid contents were markedly decreased when hepatocytes were treated with eugenol for up to 24 h. Gene expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and its target enzymes were suppressed but those of lipolysis-related proteins were increased. As a regulatory kinase for lipogenic transcriptional factors, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway was examined. Protein expressions of phosphorylated Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase (CAMKK), AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were significantly increased and those of phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6K were suppressed when the hepatocytes were treated with eugenol at up to 100 µM. These effects were all reversed in the presence of specific inhibitors of CAMKK, AMPK or mTOR. In vivo studies, hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels and steatosis score were decreased by 45% and 72%, respectively, in eugenol-treated mice. Gene expressions of fibrosis marker protein such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen type I (Col-I) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were also significantly reduced by 36%, 63% and 40% in eugenol-treated mice. In summary, eugenol may represent a potential intervention in populations at high risk for fatty liver.

  10. Active compound of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. down-regulates the expression of genes involved in joint erosion in a human synovial fibroblast cell line.

    PubMed

    Chaiwongsa, Rujirek; Ongchai, Siriwan; Boonsing, Phorani; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Panthong, Ampai; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the synovium. It is involved in up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), resulting in joint inflammation and erosion. Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. has long been used to reduce joint pain and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activities of an active compound of Z. cassumunar, (E)-4-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-ol (compound D), against cytokine-induced up-regulation of catabolic genes involved in cartilage degradation in RA. Synovial fibroblast cell line, SW982, was cultured in media containing interleukin-1β (IL-1β), in the presence or absence of compound D at the concentration range of 1 to 100 µM. After 24 hours, the cells were analyzed for the expressions of MMPs, IL-1β and interleukin-1β-converting enzyme (ICE) by RT-PCR. MMPs activities in the culture media were analyzed by zymographic techniques. Dexamethasone was used as the positive control. It was found that compound D at the concentration of 10 - 100 µM significantly decreased the mRNA expressions of MMP-1, -2, -3, and -13 which was induced by IL-1β (P<0.05) concomitantly with a decrease in activities of these MMPs in the culture media. An increase in the mRNA expression of IL-1β and ICE was also suppressed by compound D. The results suggest that the potent activities of this compound may be involved in the reduction of IL-1β protein synthesis in both pro-form and active form which played an important role in up-regulation of MMPs. This study first revealed the chondroprotective activity of Z. cassumunar in the transcriptional level by suppressing cytokine-induced catabolic genes which caused cartilage erosion in RA.

  11. Protein kinase B/Akt1 inhibits autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG expression

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wonseok; Ju, Ji-hyun; Lee, Kyung-min; Nam, KeeSoo; Oh, Sunhwa; Shin, Incheol

    2013-02-01

    Autophagy, or autophagocytosis, is a selective intracellular degradative process involving the cell's own lysosomal apparatus. An essential component in cell development, homeostasis, repair and resistance to stress, autophagy may result in either cell death or survival. The targeted region of the cell is sequestered within a membrane structure, the autophagosome, for regulation of the catabolic process. A key factor in both autophagosome formation and autophagosome maturation is a protein encoded by the ultraviolet irradiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG). Conversely, the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), which regulates survival in various cancers, inhibits autophagy through mTOR activation. We found that Akt1 may also directly inhibit autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG both in a 293T transient transfection system and breast cancer cells stably expressing Akt1. The UVRAG with mutations at putative Akt1-phosphorylation sites were still inhibited by Akt1, and dominant-negative Akt1 also inhibited UVRAG expression, suggesting that Akt1 down-regulates UVRAG by a kinase activity-independent mechanism. We showed that Akt1 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells down-regulated UVRAG transcription. Cells over-expressing Akt1 were more resistant than control cells to ultraviolet light-induced autophagy and exhibited the associated reduction in cell viability. Levels of the autophagosome indicator protein LC3B-II and mRFP-GFP-LC3 were reduced in cells that over-expressing Akt1. Inhibiting Akt1 by siRNA or reintroducing UVRAG gene rescued the level of LC3B-II in UV-irradiation. Altogether, these data suggest that Akt1 may inhibit autophagy by decreasing UVRAG expression, which also sensitizes cancer cells to UV irradiation.

  12. Ultrafine carbon particles down-regulate CYP1B1 expression in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Christiane; Frankenberger, Marion; Stanzel, Franz; Seidel, Albrecht; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Hofer, Thomas PJ

    2009-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 monoxygenases play an important role in the defence against inhaled toxic compounds and in metabolizing a wide range of xenobiotics and environmental contaminants. In ambient aerosol the ultrafine particle fraction which penetrates deeply into the lungs is considered to be a major factor for adverse health effects. The cells mainly affected by inhaled particles are lung epithelial cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Results In this study we have analyzed the effect of a mixture of fine TiO2 and ultrafine carbon black Printex 90 particles (P90) on the expression of cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) in human monocytes, macrophages, bronchial epithelial cells and epithelial cell lines. CYP1B1 expression is strongly down-regulated by P90 in monocytes with a maximum after P90 treatment for 3 h while fine and ultrafine TiO2 had no effect. CYP1B1 was down-regulated up to 130-fold and in addition CYP1A1 mRNA was decreased 13-fold. In vitro generated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), epithelial cell lines, and primary bronchial epithelial cells also showed reduced CYP1B1 mRNA levels. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is inducing CYB1B1 but ultrafine P90 can still down-regulate gene expression at 0.1 μM of BaP. The P90-induced reduction of CYP1B1 was also demonstrated at the protein level using Western blot analysis. Conclusion These data suggest that the P90-induced reduction of CYP gene expression may interfere with the activation and/or detoxification capabilities of inhaled toxic compounds. PMID:19835593

  13. Interferon-β Induced microRNA-129-5p Down-Regulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 Viral Gene Expression by Targeting SP1 in Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiarong; Li, Shuangdi; Yan, Qin; Chen, Xiaoyue; Yang, Yixia; Liu, Xuelian; Wan, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. Down-regulation of E6 and E7 expression may be responsible for the positive clinical outcomes observed with IFN treatment, but the molecular basis has not been well determined. As miRNAs play an important role in HPV induced cervical carcinogenesis, we hypothesize that IFN-β can regulate the expressions of specific miRNAs in cervical cancer cells, and that these miRNAs can mediate E6 and E7 expression, thus modulate their oncogenic potential. In this study, we found that miR-129-5p to be a candidate IFN-β inducible miRNA. MiR-129-5p levels gradually decrease with the development of cervical intraepithelial lesions. Manipulation of miR-129-5p expression in Hela cells modulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 viral gene expression. Exogenous miR-129-5p inhibits cell proliferation in Hela cells, promotes apoptosis and blocks cell cycle progression in Hela cells. SP1 is a direct target of miR-129-5p in Hela cells. This study is the first report of a cellular miRNA with anti-HPV activity and provides new insights into regulatory mechanisms between the HPV and the IFN system in host cells at the miRNA level. PMID:24358111

  14. Interferon-β induced microRNA-129-5p down-regulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 viral gene expression by targeting SP1 in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiarong; Li, Shuangdi; Yan, Qin; Chen, Xiaoyue; Yang, Yixia; Liu, Xuelian; Wan, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. Down-regulation of E6 and E7 expression may be responsible for the positive clinical outcomes observed with IFN treatment, but the molecular basis has not been well determined. As miRNAs play an important role in HPV induced cervical carcinogenesis, we hypothesize that IFN-β can regulate the expressions of specific miRNAs in cervical cancer cells, and that these miRNAs can mediate E6 and E7 expression, thus modulate their oncogenic potential. In this study, we found that miR-129-5p to be a candidate IFN-β inducible miRNA. MiR-129-5p levels gradually decrease with the development of cervical intraepithelial lesions. Manipulation of miR-129-5p expression in Hela cells modulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 viral gene expression. Exogenous miR-129-5p inhibits cell proliferation in Hela cells, promotes apoptosis and blocks cell cycle progression in Hela cells. SP1 is a direct target of miR-129-5p in Hela cells. This study is the first report of a cellular miRNA with anti-HPV activity and provides new insights into regulatory mechanisms between the HPV and the IFN system in host cells at the miRNA level.

  15. Expression of the 2-dehydro-3-deoxyphosphooc-tonate aldolase (KdsA) gene in mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) is down-regulated under high salt and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, X B; Wu, S L; Zhu, D P; Wu, H; Jiang, T; Qian, Y H; Jiao, F

    2015-10-05

    The oligosaccharide 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) is a key component of lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, and is also part of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan (RG-II) of the plant cell wall. The enzyme KDO-8-phosphate synthase (KDO8Ps), encoded by the 2-dehydro-3-deoxyphosphooctonate aldolase (KdsA) gene, catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of Kdo. In this study, the complete coding sequence of the KdsA gene from mulberry leaves was cloned and the primary structure of KDO8Ps was deduced. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of KDO8Ps from mulberry with those of five other plant species revealed a high level of evolutionary conservation. A phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated a short genetic distance among KDO8Ps proteins of different species. Expression of the KdsA gene was higher in the second leaves than in the eighth leaves of mulberry, and was down-regulated under conditions of high salt or drought stress. Our results suggest that KdsA expression is important for the growth of new plant tissues, and is sensitive to harsh environments.

  16. Amphiregulin induces human ovarian cancer cell invasion by down-regulating E-cadherin expression.

    PubMed

    So, Wai-Kin; Fan, Qianlan; Lau, Man-Tat; Qiu, Xin; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Leung, Peter C K

    2014-11-03

    Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation is associated with ovarian cancer progression. In this study, we report that the EGFR ligand amphiregulin (AREG) stimulates cell invasion and down-regulates E-cadherin expression in two human ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV3 and OVCAR5. In addition, AREG increases the expression of transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin including SNAIL, SLUG and ZEB1. siRNA targeting SNAIL or SLUG abolishes AREG-induced cell invasion. Moreover, ERK1/2 and AKT pathways are involved in AREG-induced E-cadherin down-regulation and cell invasion. Finally, we show that three EGFR ligands, AREG, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), exhibit comparable effects in down-regulating E-cadherin and promoting cell invasion. This study demonstrates that AREG induces ovarian cancer cell invasion by down-regulating E-cadherin expression.

  17. Down-regulation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 and Src homologous and collagen-like protein Shc gene expression by insulin in skeletal muscle is not associated with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xudong; Vaag, Allan; Hansson, Mona; Groop, Leif

    2002-01-01

    To examine whether altered gene expression of insulin receptor substrates (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 and Src homologous and collagen-like protein Shc is an inherited trait and is associated with muscle insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes, we measured mRNA levels of these genes by a relative quantitative RT-PCR method in muscle biopsies taken before and after an insulin clamp from 12 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for type 2 diabetes and 12 control subjects. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was decreased both in the diabetic and nondiabetic twin, compared with healthy control subjects (5.2 +/- 0.7 and 8.5 +/- 0.8 vs. 11.4 +/- 0.9 mg/kg x min(-1); P < 0.01 and P < 0.02, respectively). Basal mRNA levels of IRS-1, IRS-2, and Shc were similar in the diabetic and nondiabetic twins as well as in the control subjects. Insulin decreased mRNA expression of IRS-1 by 72% (from 0.75 +/- 0.06 to 0.21 +/- 0.04 relative units; P < 0.001), IRS-2 by 71% (from 0.55 +/- 0.10 to 0.16 +/- 0.08 relative units; P < 0.03), and Shc by 25% (from 0.95 +/- 0.04 to 0.71 +/- 0.04 relative units; P < 0.01) vs. baseline as demonstrated in the control subjects. The postclamp Shc mRNA level was slightly higher in the diabetic twins (P = 0.05) but similar in the nondiabetic twins, as compared with the control subjects, whereas postclamp IRS-1 and IRS-2 mRNA levels were similar between the study groups. There was an inverse correlation between postclamp Shc mRNA concentration and glucose uptake (r = -0.53, P = 0.01; n = 22) in the controls and nondiabetic twins. However, the decrease in Shc gene expression by insulin was not significantly different between the study groups. In conclusion, because insulin down-regulates IRS-1, IRS-2, and Shc gene expression in skeletal muscle in diabetic and nondiabetic monozygotic twins and control subjects to the same extent, it is unlikely that expression of these genes is an inherited trait or contributes to skeletal muscle insulin resistance.

  18. Cosmetic applications of glucitol-core containing gallotannins from a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves extract: inhibition of melanogenesis via down-regulation of tyrosinase and melanogenic gene expression in B16F10 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hang; Xu, Jialin; DaSilva, Nicholas A; Wang, Ling; Wei, Zhengxi; Guo, Liangran; Johnson, Shelby L; Lu, Wei; Xu, Jun; Gu, Qiong; Seeram, Navindra P

    2017-03-10

    The red maple (Acer rubrum) is a rich source of phenolic compounds which possess galloyl groups attached to different positions of a 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol core. While these glucitol-core containing gallotannins (GCGs) have reported anti-oxidant and anti-glycative effects, they have not yet been evaluated for their cosmetic applications. Herein, the anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic effects of a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple leaves extract [Maplifa(™); contains ca. 45% ginnalin A (GA) along with other GCGs] were investigated using enzyme and cellular assays. The GCGs showed anti-tyrosinase activity with IC50 values ranging from 101.4 to 1047.3 μM and their mechanism of tyrosinase inhibition (using GA as a representative GCG) was evaluated by chelating and computational/modeling studies. GA reduced melanin content in murine melanoma B16F10 cells by 79.1 and 56.7% (at non-toxic concentrations of 25 and 50 μM, respectively), and its mechanisms of anti-melanogenic effects were evaluated by using methods including fluorescent probe (DCF-DA), real-time PCR, and western blot experiments. These data indicated that GA was able to: (1) reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species, (2) down-regulate the expression of MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 gene levels in a time-dependent manner, and (3) significantly reduce protein expression of the TRP-2 gene. Therefore, the anti-melanogenic effects of red maple GCGs warrant further investigation of this proprietary natural product extract for potential cosmetic applications.

  19. Social isolation stress down-regulates cortical early growth response 1 (Egr-1) expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kinzo; Ono, Kazuya; Ouchi, Hirofumi; Tsushima, Ryohei; Murakami, Yukihisa

    2012-07-01

    Social isolation stress induces behavioral disturbances such as aggression, cognitive impairments, and deficits in prepulse inhibition in mice. Social isolation mice have, therefore, been studied as an animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Recently, the decrease in early growth response (Egr) gene expression levels were reported in the post-mortem brains of schizophrenia patients. In this study, we investigate the effects of social isolation stress on the expression levels of Egr mRNA and protein in the frontal cortex. Social isolation stress exposure significantly down-regulated the expression of Egr-1 protein and Egr-1 gene transcript in nucleus of cortical neurons in a manner dependent on a social isolation period. This stress had no effect on the expression level of Egr-1 in the striatum or the expression levels of other Egr family members (Egr-2, -3, and -4) in the frontal cortex. These results suggest that the decrease in Egr-1 expression in the frontal cortex may be involved in social isolation stress-induced behavioral abnormalities.

  20. Down-regulation of osteoprotegerin expression as a novel biomarker for colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Sung-Joo; Kim, Youn-Wha

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of tumor biology is important in the identification of molecules that are down-regulated in malignancy and in determining their role in tumor suppression. The aim of this study was to analyze osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and to investigate the underlying mechanism for changes in the expression of OPG. OPG expression was assessed in CRC tissue samples and cell lines. The methylation status of the OPG promoter region was determined, and the effects of demethylation on OPG expression were analyzed. The effects of recombinant OPG (rOPG) administration on cellular functions were also investigated. Clinical and prognostic implications of OPG protein expression in CRC patients were analyzed. The CRC tissues and cells showed significantly lower OPG expression. Pyrosequencing of OPG-silenced CRC cells revealed that the OPG gene promoter was highly methylated. Treatment with demethylating agent significantly elevated OPG mRNA and protein expression. rOPG significantly decreased cell viability and MMP-2 and VEGF-A production in CRC cells. Reduced OPG immunoreactivity was associated with aggressive oncogenic behavior in CRC. Also, OPG expression was found to be an independent predictor of recurrent hepatic metastasis and independent prognostic factor for worse survival rates. We demonstrated that OPG silencing in CRC occurs through epigenetic repression, and is involved in the development and progression of CRC. Our data suggest that OPG is a novel prognostic biomarker and a new therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with CRC. PMID:26942563

  1. Necdin, a negative growth regulator, is a novel STAT3 target gene down-regulated in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Haviland, Rachel; Eschrich, Steven; Bloom, Gregory; Ma, Yihong; Minton, Susan; Jove, Richard; Cress, W Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways involving STAT3 are frequently constitutively activated in many human primary tumors, and are known for the transcriptional role they play in controlling cell growth and cell cycle progression. However, the extent of STAT3's reach on transcriptional control of the genome as a whole remains an important question. We predicted that this persistent STAT3 signaling affects a wide variety of cellular functions, many of which still remain to be characterized. We took a broad approach to identify novel STAT3 regulated genes by examining changes in the genome-wide gene expression profile by microarray, using cells expressing constitutively-activated STAT3. Using computational analysis, we were able to define the gene expression profiles of cells containing activated STAT3 and identify candidate target genes with a wide range of biological functions. Among these genes we identified Necdin, a negative growth regulator, as a novel STAT3 target gene, whose expression is down-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels when STAT3 is constitutively active. This repression is STAT3 dependent, since inhibition of STAT3 using siRNA restores Necdin expression. A STAT3 DNA-binding site was identified in the Necdin promoter and both EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation confirm binding of STAT3 to this region. Necdin expression has previously been shown to be down-regulated in a melanoma and a drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell line. Further analysis of Necdin expression demonstrated repression in a STAT3-dependent manner in human melanoma, prostate and breast cancer cell lines. These results suggest that STAT3 coordinates expression of genes involved in multiple metabolic and biosynthetic pathways, integrating signals that lead to global transcriptional changes and oncogenesis. STAT3 may exert its oncogenic effect by up-regulating transcription of genes involved in promoting growth and proliferation, but also by down-regulating expression

  2. Down-Regulation of FXYD3 Expression in Human Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Okudela, Koji; Yazawa, Takuya; Ishii, Jun; Woo, Tetsukan; Mitsui, Hideaki; Bunai, Tomoyasu; Sakaeda, Masashi; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Sato, Hanako; Tajiri, Michihiko; Ogawa, Nobuo; Masuda, Munetaka; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Kitamura, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    FXYD3 is a FXYD-containing Na,K-ATPase ion channel regulator first identified as a protein overexpressed in murine breast tumors initiated by oncogenic ras or neu. However, our preliminary study revealed that FXYD3 expression was down-regulated in oncogenic KRAS-transduced airway epithelial cells. This contradiction led us to investigate the role of FXYD3 in carcinogenesis of the lung. FXYD3 mRNA and protein levels were lower in most of the lung cancer cell lines than in either the noncancerous lung tissue or airway epithelial cells. Protein levels were also lower in a considerable proportion of primary lung cancers than in nontumoral airway epithelia; FXYD3 expression levels decreased in parallel with the dedifferentiation process. Also, a somatic point mutation, g55c (D19H), was found in one cell line. Forced expression of the wild-type FXYD3, but not the mutant, restored the well-demarcated distribution of cortical actin in cancer cells that had lost FXYD3 expression, suggesting FXYD3 plays a role in the maintenance of cytoskeletal integrity. However, no association between FXYD3 expression and its promoter’s methylation status was observed. Therefore, inactivation of FXYD3 through a gene mutation or unknown mechanism could be one cause of the atypical shapes of cancer cells and play a potential role in the progression of lung cancer. PMID:19893046

  3. Exposure to Fluorescent Light Triggers Down Regulation of Genes Involved with Mitotic Progression in Xiphophorus Skin

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Ronald B.; Walter, Dylan J.; Boswell, William T.; Caballero, Kaela L.; Boswell, Mikki; Lu, Yuan; Chang, Jordan; Savage, Markita G.

    2015-01-01

    We report RNA-Seq results from skin of X. maculatus Jp 163 B after exposure to various doses of “cool white” fluorescent light (FL). We show that FL exposure incites a genetic transcriptional response in skin nearly as great as observed for UVB exposure; however, the gene sets modulated due to exposure to the two light sources are quite different. Known light responsive genes involved in maintaining circadian cycling (e.g., clock, cry2a, cry1b, per1b, per2, per3, arntl1a, etc.) exhibited expected shifts in transcriptional expression upon FL exposure. Exposure to FL also resulted in down-regulated transcription of many genes involved with cell cycle progression (e.g., cdc20, cdc45, cdca7b, plk1, cdk1, ccnb-3, cdca7a, etc.) and chromosome segregation (e.g., cenpe, cenpf, cenpi, cenpk, cenpo, cenpp, and cenpu; cep70; knstrm, kntc, mcm2, mcm5; smc2, etc.). In addition, several DNA replication and recombination repair genes (e.g., pola1, pole, rec52, rad54l, rpa1, parpbp, etc.) exhibit reduced expression in FL exposed X. maculatus skin. Some genes down modulated by FL are known to be associated with DNA repair and human diseases (e.g., atm2, brip1, fanc1, fancl, xrcc4, etc.). The overall suppression of genes involved with mitotic progression in the skin of adult fish is consistent with entry into the light phase of the circadian cycle. Current efforts are aimed at determining specific wavelengths that may lead to differential expression among the many genes affected by fluorescent light exposure. PMID:26334372

  4. Methyl Jasmonate Regulates Podophyllotoxin Accumulation in Podophyllum hexandrum by Altering the ROS-Responsive Podophyllotoxin Pathway Gene Expression Additionally through the Down Regulation of Few Interfering miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Saptarshi; Bhattacharyya, Dipto; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    Podophylloxin (ptox), primarily obtained from Podophyllum hexandrum, is the precursor for semi-synthetic anticancer drugs viz. etoposide, etopophos, and teniposide. Previous studies established that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treated cell culture of P. hexandrum accumulate ptox significantly. However, the molecular mechanism of MeJA induced ptox accumulation is yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrate that MeJA induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which stimulates ptox accumulation significantly and up regulates three ROS-responsive ptox biosynthetic genes, namely, PhCAD3, PhCAD4 (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase), and NAC3 by increasing their mRNA stability. Classic uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, as well as H2O2 treatment induced the ROS generation and consequently, enhanced the ptox production. However, when the ROS was inhibited with NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and Superoxide dismutase inhibitor diethyldithio-carbamic acid, the ROS inhibiting agent, the ptox production was decreased significantly. We also noted that, MeJA up regulated other ptox biosynthetic pathway genes which are not affected by the MeJA induced ROS. Further, these ROS non-responsive genes were controlled by MeJA through the down regulation of five secondary metabolites biosynthesis specific miRNAs viz. miR172i, miR035, miR1438, miR2275, and miR8291. Finally, this study suggested two possible mechanisms through which MeJA modulates the ptox biosynthesis: primarily by increasing the mRNA stability of ROS-responsive genes and secondly, by the up regulation of ROS non-responsive genes through the down regulation of some ROS non-responsive miRNAs.

  5. Methyl Jasmonate Regulates Podophyllotoxin Accumulation in Podophyllum hexandrum by Altering the ROS-Responsive Podophyllotoxin Pathway Gene Expression Additionally through the Down Regulation of Few Interfering miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Saptarshi; Bhattacharyya, Dipto; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    Podophylloxin (ptox), primarily obtained from Podophyllum hexandrum, is the precursor for semi-synthetic anticancer drugs viz. etoposide, etopophos, and teniposide. Previous studies established that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treated cell culture of P. hexandrum accumulate ptox significantly. However, the molecular mechanism of MeJA induced ptox accumulation is yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrate that MeJA induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which stimulates ptox accumulation significantly and up regulates three ROS-responsive ptox biosynthetic genes, namely, PhCAD3, PhCAD4 (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase), and NAC3 by increasing their mRNA stability. Classic uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, as well as H2O2 treatment induced the ROS generation and consequently, enhanced the ptox production. However, when the ROS was inhibited with NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and Superoxide dismutase inhibitor diethyldithio-carbamic acid, the ROS inhibiting agent, the ptox production was decreased significantly. We also noted that, MeJA up regulated other ptox biosynthetic pathway genes which are not affected by the MeJA induced ROS. Further, these ROS non-responsive genes were controlled by MeJA through the down regulation of five secondary metabolites biosynthesis specific miRNAs viz. miR172i, miR035, miR1438, miR2275, and miR8291. Finally, this study suggested two possible mechanisms through which MeJA modulates the ptox biosynthesis: primarily by increasing the mRNA stability of ROS-responsive genes and secondly, by the up regulation of ROS non-responsive genes through the down regulation of some ROS non-responsive miRNAs. PMID:28261233

  6. Down-regulation of a calmodulin-related gene during transformation of human mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yaswen, P.; Smoll, A.; Stampfer, M.R. ); Peehl, D.M. ); Trask, D.K.; Sager, R. )

    1990-10-01

    A human cDNA library obtained from cultured normal mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) was searched by subtractive hybridization for genes whose decrease in expression might be relevant to epithelial transformation. One clone identified by this procedure corresponded to a 1.4 kilobase mRNA, designated NB-1, whose expression was decreased >50-fold in HMECs tumorigenically transformed in vitro after exposure to benzo({alpha})pyrene and Kirsten sarcoma virus. Sequence analysis of NB-1 cDNA revealed an open reading frame with a high degree of homology to calmodulin. NB-1 expression could be demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction amplification in normal breast, prostate, cervix, and epidermal tissues. The presence of NB-1 transcripts was variable in primary breast carcinoma tissues and undetectable in tumor-derived cell lines of breast, prostate, or other origins. NB-1 mRNA expression could be down-regulated in cultured HMECs by exposure to reconstituted extracellular matrix material, while exposure to transforming growth factor type {beta} increased its relative abundance. The protein encoded by NB-1 may have Ca{sup 2{sup plus}} binding properties and perform functions similar to those of authentic calmodulin. Its possible roles in differentiation and/or suppression of tumorigenicity in epithelial tissues remain to be examined.

  7. Nutlin-3 down-regulates retinoblastoma protein expression and inhibits muscle cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Erica M.; Niu, MengMeng; Bergholz, Johann; Jim Xiao, Zhi-Xiong

    2015-05-29

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation, cell death and differentiation. The MDM2 oncoprotein is a major negative regulator for p53 by binding to and targeting p53 for proteasome-mediated degradation. The small molecule inhibitor, nutlin-3, disrupts MDM2-p53 interaction resulting in stabilization and activation of p53 protein. We have previously shown that nutlin-3 activates p53, leading to MDM2 accumulation as concomitant of reduced retinoblastoma (Rb) protein stability. It is well known that Rb is important in muscle development and myoblast differentiation and that rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), or cancer of the skeletal muscle, typically harbors MDM2 amplification. In this study, we show that nutlin-3 inhibited myoblast proliferation and effectively prevented myoblast differentiation, as evidenced by lack of expression of muscle differentiation markers including myogenin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), as well as a failure to form multinucleated myotubes, which were associated with dramatic increases in MDM2 expression and decrease in Rb protein levels. These results indicate that nutlin-3 can effectively inhibit muscle cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Nutlin-3 inhibits myoblast proliferation and prevents differentiation into myotubes. • Nutlin-3 increases MDM2 expression and down-regulates Rb protein levels. • This study has implication in nutlin-3 treatment of rhabdomyosarcomas.

  8. Down-regulation of GPR137 expression inhibits proliferation of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Shen, Zhen; Liang, Xianjun; Liu, Tongjun; Wang, Tiejun; Jiang, Yang

    2014-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) are highly related to oncogenesis and cancer metastasis. G protein-coupled receptor 137 (GPR137) was initially reported as a novel orphan GPR about 10 years ago. Some orphan GPRs have been implicated in human cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of GPR137 in human colon cancer. Expression levels of GRP137 were analyzed in different colon cancer cell lines by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA was specifically designed to knock down GPR137 expression in colon cancer cells. Cell viability was measured by methylthiazoletetrazolium and colony formation assays. In addition, cell cycle characteristic was investigated by flow cytometry. GRP137 expression was observed in all seven colon cancer cell lines at different levels. The mRNA and protein levels of GPR137 were down-regulated in both HCT116 and RKO cells after lentivirus infection. Lentivirus-mediated silencing of GPR137 reduced the proliferation rate and colonies numbers. Knockdown of GPR137 in both cell lines led to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. These results indicated that GPR137 plays an important role in colon cancer cell proliferation. A better understanding of GPR137's effects on signal transduction pathways in colon cancer cells may provide insights into the novel gene therapy of colon cancer.

  9. Clobetasol down-regulates SLPI expression in U937 monocytoid cells.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Naoko; Yoshida, Hitomi; Kitagishi, Yasuko; Nishimura, Yuri; Matsuda, Satoru

    2012-02-01

    In order to investigate how glucocorticoids affect the expression of secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), which is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, clobetasol was added to cell culture medium of U937 cells and the SLPI mRNA levels were examined. The in vitro effect of the treatment on SLPI expression was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Clobetasol treatment of U937 cells induced an up- and down-regulation of SLPI expression in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting confirmed the down-regulation of SLPI protein expression. We hypothesized a loop formation in the SLPI genome domain, in which the glucocorticoid receptor regulates bi-directional transcriptional activity.

  10. Concordant down-regulation of proto-oncogene PML and major histocompatibility antigen HLA class I expression in high-grade prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiming; Melamed, Jonathan; Wei, Ping; Cox, Karen; Frankel, Wendy; Bahnson, Robert R; Robinson, Nikki; Pyka, Ron; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Pan

    2003-02-14

    Recognition of tumor cells by cytolytic T lymphocytes depends on cell surface MHC class I expression. As a mechanism to evade T cell recognition, many malignant cancer cells, including those of prostate cancer, down-regulate MHC class I. For the majority of human cancers, the molecular mechanism of MHC class I down regulation is unclear, although it is well established that MHC class I down-regulation is often associated with the down-regulation of multiple genes devoted to antigen presentation. Since the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) proto-oncogene controls multiple antigen-presentation genes in some murine cancer cells, we analyzed the expression of proto-oncogene PML and MHC class I in high-grade prostate cancer. We found that 30 of 37 (81%) prostate adenocarcinoma cases with a Gleason grade of 7-8 had more than 50% down-regulation of HLA class I expression. Among these, 22 cases (73.3%) had no detectable PML protein, while 4 cases (13.3%) showed partial PML down-regulation. In contrast, all 7 cases of prostate cancer with high expression of cell surface HLA class I had high levels of PML expression. Concordant down-regulation of HLA and PML was observed in different histological patterns of prostate adenocarcinoma. These results suggest that in high-grade prostate cancer, malfunction of proto-oncogene PML is a major factor in the down-regulation of cell surface HLA class I molecules, the target molecules essential for the direct recognition of cancer cells by cytolytic T lymphocytes.

  11. Inhibition of N-Myc down regulated gene 1 in in vitro cultured human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Said, Harun M; Polat, Buelent; Stein, Susanne; Guckenberger, Mathias; Hagemann, Carsten; Staab, Adrian; Katzer, Astrid; Anacker, Jelena; Flentje, Michael; Vordermark, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study short dsRNA oligonucleotides (siRNA) as a potent tool for artificially modulating gene expression of N-Myc down regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) gene induced under different physiological conditions (Normoxia and hypoxia) modulating NDRG1 transcription, mRNA stability and translation. METHODS: A cell line established from a patient with glioblastoma multiforme. Plasmid DNA for transfections was prepared with the Endofree Plasmid Maxi kit. From plates containing 5 × 107 cells, nuclear extracts were prepared according to previous protocols. The pSUPER-NDRG1 vectors were designed, two sequences were selected from the human NDRG1 cDNA (5’-GCATTATTGGCATGGGAAC-3’ and 5’-ATGCAGAGTAACGTGGAAG-3’. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed using primers designed using published information on β-actin and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α mRNA sequences in GenBank. NDRG1 mRNA and protein level expression results under different conditions of hypoxia or reoxygenation were compared to aerobic control conditions using the Mann-Whitney U test. Reoxygenation values were also compared to the NDRG1 levels after 24 h of hypoxia (P < 0.05 was considered significant). RESULTS: siRNA- and iodoacetate (IAA)-mediated downregulation of NDRG1 mRNA and protein expression in vitro in human glioblastoma cell lines showed a nearly complete inhibition of NDRG1 expression when compared to the results obtained due to the inhibitory role of glycolysis inhibitor IAA. Hypoxia responsive elements bound by nuclear HIF-1 in human glioblastoma cells in vitro under different oxygenation conditions and the clearly enhanced binding of nuclear extracts from glioblastoma cell samples exposed to extreme hypoxic conditions confirmed the HIF-1 Western blotting results. CONCLUSION: NDRG1 represents an additional diagnostic marker for brain tumor detection, due to the role of hypoxia in regulating this gene, and it can represent a potential target for tumor treatment in human

  12. PDGF-D expression is down-regulated by TGFβ in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Charni Chaabane, Saima; Coomans de Brachène, Alexandra; Essaghir, Ahmed; Velghe, Amélie; Lo Re, Sandra; Stockis, Julie; Lucas, Sophie; Khachigian, Levon M; Huaux, François; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is a key mediator of fibrogenesis. TGFβ is overexpressed and activated in fibrotic diseases, regulates fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts and induces extracellular matrix deposition. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is also a regulator of fibrogenesis. Some studies showed a link between TGFβ and PDGF in certain fibrotic diseases. TGFβ induces PDGF receptor alpha expression in scleroderma fibroblasts. PDGF-C and -D are the most recently discovered ligands and also play a role in fibrosis. In this study, we report the first link between TGFβ and PDGF-D and -C ligands. In normal fibroblasts, TGFβ down-regulated PDGF-D expression and up-regulated PDGF-C expression at the mRNA and protein levels. This phenomenon is not limited to TGFβ since other growth factors implicated in fibrosis, such as FGF, EGF and PDGF-B, also regulated PDGF-D and PDGF-C expression. Among different kinase inhibitors, only TGFβ receptor inhibitors and the IκB kinase (IKK) inhibitor BMS-345541 blocked the effect of TGFβ. However, activation of the classical NF-κB pathway was not involved. Interestingly, in a model of lung fibrosis induced by either bleomycin or silica, PDGF-D was down-regulated, which correlates with the production of TGFβ and other fibrotic growth factors. In conclusion, the down-regulation of PDGF-D by TGFβ and other growth factors may serve as a negative feedback in the network of cytokines that control fibrosis.

  13. Down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis in transgenic Leucaena leucocephala harboring O-methyltransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Smita; Dwivedi, Upendra Nath

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, a 0.47 kb OMT gene construct from aspen, encoding for an enzyme O-methyltransferase (OMT, EC 2.1.1.6), in antisense orientation was used to down-regulate lignin biosynthesis in Leucaena leucocephala. The plants were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring the antisense gene, and the transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of the npt II gene. The integration of a heterologous antisense OMT gene construct in transformed plants led to a maximum of 60% reduction in OMT activity relative to control. The evaluation of total lignin content by the Klason method revealed a maximum of 28% reduction. Histochemical analyses of stem sections depicted a reduction in lignin content and normal xylem development. The results also suggested a probable increase in aldehyde levels and a decrease in syringyl units. Lignin down-regulation was accompanied by an increase in methanol soluble phenolics to an extent that had no impact on wood discoloration, and the plants displayed a normal phenotype. Concomitantly, an increase of up to 9% in cellulose content was also observed. Upon alkali extraction, modified lignin was more extractable as evident from reduced Klason lignin in saponified residue and increased alkali soluble phenolics. The results together suggested that the extent of down-regulation of OMT activity achieved may lead to quality amelioration of Leucaena with respect to its applicability in pulp and paper manufacture as well as nutritive and easily digestible forage production.

  14. NUDT2 Disruption Elevates Diadenosine Tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and Down-Regulates Immune Response and Cancer Promotion Genes.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Andrew S; Vasieva, Olga; Fang, Yongxiang; Copeland, Nikki A; McLennan, Alexander G; Jones, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is one of several roles proposed for the stress-induced nucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A). We have examined this directly by a comparative RNA-Seq analysis of KBM-7 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells and KBM-7 cells in which the NUDT2 Ap4A hydrolase gene had been disrupted (NuKO cells), causing a 175-fold increase in intracellular Ap4A. 6,288 differentially expressed genes were identified with P < 0.05. Of these, 980 were up-regulated and 705 down-regulated in NuKO cells with a fold-change ≥ 2. Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis (IPA®) was used to assign these genes to known canonical pathways and functional networks. Pathways associated with interferon responses, pattern recognition receptors and inflammation scored highly in the down-regulated set of genes while functions associated with MHC class II antigens were prominent among the up-regulated genes, which otherwise showed little organization into major functional gene sets. Tryptophan catabolism was also strongly down-regulated as were numerous genes known to be involved in tumor promotion in other systems, with roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Conversely, some pro-apoptotic genes were up-regulated. Major upstream factors predicted by IPA® for gene down-regulation included NFκB, STAT1/2, IRF3/4 and SP1 but no major factors controlling gene up-regulation were identified. Potential mechanisms for gene regulation mediated by Ap4A and/or NUDT2 disruption include binding of Ap4A to the HINT1 co-repressor, autocrine activation of purinoceptors by Ap4A, chromatin remodeling, effects of NUDT2 loss on transcript stability, and inhibition of ATP-dependent regulatory factors such as protein kinases by Ap4A. Existing evidence favors the last of these as the most probable mechanism. Regardless, our results suggest that the NUDT2 protein could be a novel cancer chemotherapeutic target, with its inhibition potentially exerting

  15. NUDT2 Disruption Elevates Diadenosine Tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and Down-Regulates Immune Response and Cancer Promotion Genes

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Andrew S.; Vasieva, Olga; Fang, Yongxiang; Copeland, Nikki A.; McLennan, Alexander G.; Jones, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is one of several roles proposed for the stress-induced nucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A). We have examined this directly by a comparative RNA-Seq analysis of KBM-7 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells and KBM-7 cells in which the NUDT2 Ap4A hydrolase gene had been disrupted (NuKO cells), causing a 175-fold increase in intracellular Ap4A. 6,288 differentially expressed genes were identified with P < 0.05. Of these, 980 were up-regulated and 705 down-regulated in NuKO cells with a fold-change ≥ 2. Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis (IPA®) was used to assign these genes to known canonical pathways and functional networks. Pathways associated with interferon responses, pattern recognition receptors and inflammation scored highly in the down-regulated set of genes while functions associated with MHC class II antigens were prominent among the up-regulated genes, which otherwise showed little organization into major functional gene sets. Tryptophan catabolism was also strongly down-regulated as were numerous genes known to be involved in tumor promotion in other systems, with roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Conversely, some pro-apoptotic genes were up-regulated. Major upstream factors predicted by IPA® for gene down-regulation included NFκB, STAT1/2, IRF3/4 and SP1 but no major factors controlling gene up-regulation were identified. Potential mechanisms for gene regulation mediated by Ap4A and/or NUDT2 disruption include binding of Ap4A to the HINT1 co-repressor, autocrine activation of purinoceptors by Ap4A, chromatin remodeling, effects of NUDT2 loss on transcript stability, and inhibition of ATP-dependent regulatory factors such as protein kinases by Ap4A. Existing evidence favors the last of these as the most probable mechanism. Regardless, our results suggest that the NUDT2 protein could be a novel cancer chemotherapeutic target, with its inhibition potentially exerting

  16. Down-regulation of the expression of the FIH-1 and ARD-1 genes at the transcriptional level by nickel and cobalt in the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line.

    PubMed

    Ke, Qingdong; Kluz, Thomas; Costa, Max

    2005-04-01

    Although nickel and cobalt compounds have been known to cause induction of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and activation of a battery of hypoxia-inducible genes in the cell, the molecular mechanisms of this induction remain unclear. The post-translational modification of HIF-1a, the oxygen-sensitive subunit of HIF-1, regulates stabilization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding activity, and transcriptional activity of the protein. Among the enzymes regulating the post-translational modification of HIF-la, the factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1) hydroxylates the protein at asparagine 803, suppressing the interaction of HIF-1a with transcription coactivators p300/CBP and reducing the transcriptional activity of the protein. ARD-1, the acetyltransferase, acetylates HIF-1a at lysine 532, which enhances the interaction of HIF-1a with pVHL. Therefore, FIH-1 and ARD-1 negatively regulate the transcriptional activity and the stability of HIF-1a. We examined the mRNA levels of FIH-l and ARD-1 genes after exposure nickel (II) or cobalt (II) to the cell and found that both genes were down-regulated by the chemical treatment, which may lead to reduced levels of both proteins and result in increased level of HIF-1 a and its transcriptional activity.

  17. Down-regulation of survivin expression by small interfering RNA induces pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis and enhances its radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hai-Tao; Xue, Xing-Huan; Dai, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Xi-Jing; Li, Ang; Qin, Zhao-Yin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the expression of survivin in pancreatic cancer cell line PC-2 and the role of siRNA in inducing PC-2 cell apoptosis and enhancing its radiosensitivity. METHODS: A siRNA plasmid expression vector against survivin was constructed and transfected into PC-2 cells with LipofectamineTM 2000. The down regulation of survivin expression was detected by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and immunohistochemical SP method and the role of siRNA in inducing PC-2 cell apoptosis and enhancing its radiosensitivity was detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The sequence-specific siRNA efficiently and specifically down-regulated the expression of survivin at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression inhibition ratio was 81.25% at mRNA level detected by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and 74.24% at protein level detected by immunohistochemical method. Forty-eight hours after transfection,apoptosis was induced in 7.03% cells by siRNA and in 14.58% cells by siRNA combined with radiation. CONCLUSION: The siRNA plasmid expression vector against survivin can inhibit the expression of survivin in PC-2 cells efficiently and specifically. Inhibiting the expression of survivin can induce apoptosis of PC-2 cells and enhance its radiosensitivity significantly. RNAi against survivin is of potential value in gene therapy of pancreatic cancer. PMID:16718816

  18. Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Tran, Thi Thu Phuong; Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Jae Ho; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2014-10-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene regulation by metformin. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. • Metformin down-regulates the AhR signaling. • Metformin reduces Sp1 protein expression. • Metformin suppresses TDO expression.

  19. MiR-203 suppresses tumor growth and invasion and down-regulates MiR-21 expression through repressing Ran in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Yang, Zhiping; Cao, Minjun; Xu, Yinsheng; Li, Jintao; Chen, Xuebin; Gao, Zhi; Xin, Jing; Zhou, Shaomei; Zhou, Zhixiang; Yang, Yishu; Sheng, Wang; Zeng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The expression of miR-203 has been reported to be significantly down-regulated in esophageal cancer. We showed here that overexpression of miR-203 in esophageal cancer cells dramatically increased cell apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion as well as tumor growth and down-regulated miR-21 expression. We subsequently identified that small GTPase Ran was a target gene of miR-203. Furthermore, Ran restoration partially counteracted the tumor suppressive effects of miR-203 and increased miR-21 expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-203 may act as novel tumor suppressor in esophageal cancer through down-regulating the expression of Ran and miR-21.

  20. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide down-regulates expression of GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ernst R; Bahrami, Soheyl; Heller, Regine; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2002-03-22

    GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) is a 9.7-kDa protein regulating GTP cyclohydrolase I activity in dependence of tetrahydrobiopterin and phenylalanine concentrations, thus enabling stimulation of tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis by phenylalanine to ensure its efficient metabolism by phenylalanine hydroxylase. Here, we were interested in regulation of GFRP expression by proinflammatory cytokines and stimuli, which are known to induce GTP cyclohydrolase I expression. Recombinant human GFRP stimulated recombinant human GTP cyclohydrolase I in the presence of phenylalanine and mediated feedback inhibition by tetrahydrobiopterin. Levels of GFRP mRNA in human myelomonocytoma (THP-1) cells remained unaltered by treatment of cells with interferon-gamma or interleukin-1beta, but were significantly down-regulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 microg/ml), without or with cotreatment by interferon-gamma, which strongly up-regulated GTP cyclohydrolase I expression and activity. GFRP expression was also suppressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with 1 microg/ml LPS, as well as in rat tissues 7 h post intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg LPS. THP-1 cells stimulated with interferon-gamma alone showed increased pteridine synthesis by addition of phenylalanine to the culture medium. Cells stimulated with interferon-gamma plus LPS, in contrast, showed phenylalanine-independent pteridine synthesis. These results demonstrate that LPS down-regulates expression of GFRP, thus rendering pteridine synthesis independent of metabolic control by phenylalanine.

  1. N-MYC DOWN-REGULATED-LIKE Proteins Regulate Meristem Initiation by Modulating Auxin Transport and MAX2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Ghawana, Sanjay; Jones, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background N-MYC DOWN-REGULATED-LIKE (NDL) proteins interact with the Gβ subunit (AGB1) of the heterotrimeric G protein complex and play an important role in AGB1-dependent regulation of lateral root formation by affecting root auxin transport, auxin gradients and the steady-state levels of mRNA encoding the PIN-FORMED 2 and AUXIN 1 auxin transport facilitators. Auxin transport in aerial tissue follows different paths and utilizes different transporters than in roots; therefore, in the present study, we analyzed whether NDL proteins play an important role in AGB1-dependent, auxin-mediated meristem development. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression levels of NDL gene family members need to be tightly regulated, and altered expression (both over-expression and down-regulation) confers ectopic growth. Over-expression of NDL1 disrupts vegetative and reproductive organ development. Reduced expression of the NDL gene family members results in asymmetric leaf emergence, twinning of rosette leaves, defects in leaf formation, and abnormal silique distribution. Reduced expression of the NDL genes in the agb1-2 (null allele) mutant rescues some of the abnormal phenotypes, such as silique morphology, silique distribution, and peduncle angle, suggesting that proper levels of NDL proteins are maintained by AGB1. We found that all of these abnormal aerial phenotypes due to altered NDL expression were associated with increases in basipetal auxin transport, altered auxin maxima and altered MAX2 expression within the inflorescence stem. Conclusion/Significance NDL proteins, together with AGB1, act as positive regulators of meristem initiation and branching. AGB1 and NDL1 positively regulate basipetal inflorescence auxin transport and modulate MAX2 expression in shoots, which in turn regulates organ and lateral meristem formation by the establishment and maintenance of auxin gradients. PMID:24223735

  2. Characteristic and Expression Analysis of a Metallothionein Gene, OsMT2b, Down-Regulated by Cytokinin Suggests Functions in Root Development and Seed Embryo Germination of Rice1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jing; Chen, Dan; Ren, Yujun; Zhang, Xuelian; Zhao, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular mass and cysteine-rich metal-binding proteins known to be mainly involved in maintaining metal homeostasis and stress responses. But, their functions in higher plant development are scarcely studied. Here, we characterized rice (Oryza sativa) METALLOTHIONEIN2b (OsMT2b) molecularly and found that its expression was down-regulated by cytokinins. OsMT2b was preferentially expressed in rice immature panicles, scutellum of germinating embryos, and primordium of lateral roots. In contrast with wild-type plants, OsMT2b-RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic plants had serious handicap in plant growth and root formation, whereas OsMT2b-overexpressing transformants were dwarfed and presented more adventitious roots and big lateral roots. The increased cytokinin levels in RNAi plants and decreased cytokinin levels in overexpressing plants were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography quantitative analysis in the roots of wild-type and transgenic plants. In RNAi plants, localization of isopentenyladenosine, a kind of endogenous cytokinin, in roots and germinating embryos expanded to the whole tissues, whereas in overexpressing plants, the isopentenyladenosine signals were very faint in the vascular tissues of roots and scutellum cells of germinating embryos. In vitro culture of embryos could largely resume the reduced germination frequency in RNAi plants but had no obvious change in overexpressing plants. Taken together, these results indicate a possible feedback regulation mechanism of OsMT2b to the level of endogenous cytokinins that is involved in root development and seed embryo germination of rice. PMID:18258694

  3. Recombinant R-spondin2 and Wnt3a Up- and Down-Regulate Novel Target Genes in C57MG Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baljinnyam, Bolormaa; Klauzinska, Malgorzata; Saffo, Saad; Callahan, Robert; Rubin, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    R-spondins (Rspos) comprise a family of four secreted proteins that have important roles in cell proliferation, cell fate determination and organogenesis. Rspos typically exert their effects by potentiating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. To systematically investigate the impact of Rspo/Wnt on gene expression, we performed a microarray analysis using C57MG mouse mammary epithelial cells treated with recombinant Rspo2 and/or Wnt3a. We observed the up- and down-regulation of several previously unidentified target genes, including ones that encode proteins involved in immune responses, effectors of other growth factor signaling pathways and transcription factors. Dozens of these changes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Time course experiments showed that Rspo2 typically had little or no effect on Wnt-dependent gene expression at 3 or 6 h, but enhanced expression at 24 h, consistent with biochemical data indicating that Rspo2 acts primarily to sustain rather than acutely increase Wnt pathway activation. Up-regulation of gene expression was inhibited by pre-treatment with Dickkopf1, a Wnt/β-catenin pathway antagonist, and by siRNA knockdown of β-catenin expression. While Dickkopf1 blocked Rspo2/Wnt3a-dependent down-regulation, a number of down-regulated genes were not affected by β-catenin knockdown, suggesting that in these instances down-regulation was mediated by a β-catenin-independent mechanism. PMID:22238613

  4. Down-regulation of tumor suppressor gene PTEN, overexpression of p53, plus high proliferating cell nuclear antigen index predict poor patient outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma after resection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tsung-Hui; Wang, Chih-Chi; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Chao-Long; Hung, Chao-Hung; Chen, Chien-Hung; Wang, Jing-Houng; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Lee, Chuan-Mo; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2007-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the interaction of two tumor suppressor genes PTEN and p53 and their relationship with cell cycle protein proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 124 resected HCC paraffin specimens were collected from 1987 to 1999 for immunohistochemistry. Expression of PTEN, p53 and PCNA in HCC were analyzed for clinicopathologic correlation. The study revealed decreased or absent PTEN immunostaining (PTEN down-regulation) in 42.7% and positive p53 (p53+) immunostaining in 41.9% of HCC. There was a positive correlation between PTEN down-regulation and p53 (+) (P=0.001). PTEN down-regulation or p53 (+) correlated with increased HCC dedifferentiation, advanced pathologic stages and high PCNA labeling index (LI) of tumors (P<0.05). Patients with either PTEN down-regulation, p53 (+), or high PCNA LI had shorter survival and higher recurrence rates than patients with intact PTEN expression, p53 (-), or low PCNA LI respectively (P<0.05). By combining the three genes, patients with all PTEN down-regulation (+)/p53 (+)/high PCNA LI had the shortest overall survival (P<0.001) and the highest recurrence rates (P<0.001), followed by patients with two, one and none of three events accordingly. Combination of PTEN/p53/PCNA represented an independent prognostic factor for tumor recurrence and disease-specific survival (P<0.05). In conclusion, the down-regulated PTEN expression and p53 over-expression are involved in the pathogenesis of HCC. They correlate with high PCNA expression, HCC de-differentiation and advanced HCC stages. A combination of the three genes predicts patient outcome more powerfully than any of the individual genes.

  5. Down-regulation of SFRP1 as a putative tumor suppressor gene can contribute to human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Yun-Li; Teng, Xiao-Mei; Lin, Yun; Zheng, Da-Li; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Han, Ze-Guang

    2007-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. SFRP1 (the secreted frizzled-related protein 1), a putative tumor suppressor gene mapped onto chromosome 8p12-p11.1, the frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) region in human HCC, encodes a Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling antagonist and is frequently inactivated by promoter methylation in many human cancers. However, whether the down-regulation of SFRP1 can contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis still remains unclear. Methods We investigated the expression of SFRP1 through real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry staining. The cell growth and colony formation were observed as the overexpression and knockdown of SFRP1. The DNA methylation status within SFRP1 promoter was analyzed through methylation-specific PCR or bisulphate-treated DNA sequencing assays. Loss of heterozygosity was here detected with microsatellite markers. Results SFRP1 was significantly down-regulated in 76.1% (35/46) HCC specimens at mRNA level and in 30% (30/100) HCCs indicated by immunohistochemistry staining, as compared to adjacent non-cancerous livers. The overexpression of SFRP1 can significantly inhibit the cell growth and colony formation of YY-8103, SMMC7721, and Hep3B cells. The RNA interference against the constitutional SFRP1 in the offspring SMMC7721 cells, which were stably transfected by ectopic SFRP1, can markedly promote cell growth of these cells. LOH of both microsatellite markers D8S532 and D8SAC016868 flanking the gene locus was found in 13% (6 of 46 HCCs) and 6.5% (3 of 46 HCCs) of the informative cases, respectively, where 5 of 8 HCC specimens with LOH showed the down-regulation of SFRP1. DNA hypermethylation within SFRP1 promoter was identified in two of three HCC specimens without SFRP1 expression. Moreover, the DNA methylation of SFRP1 promoter was significantly reduced, along with the re-expression of the gene, in those HCC cell lines, Bel7404, QGY7701, and MHCC-H, as treated by DAC

  6. Down-regulation of BK channel expression in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Pacheco Otalora, Luis F; Hernandez, Eder F; Arshadmansab, Massoud F; Francisco, Sebastian; Willis, Michael; Ermolinsky, Boris; Zarei, Masoud; Knaus, Hans-Guenther; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R

    2008-03-20

    In the hippocampus, BK channels are preferentially localized in presynaptic glutamatergic terminals including mossy fibers where they are thought to play an important role regulating excessive glutamate release during hyperactive states. Large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK, MaxiK, Slo) have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of genetic epilepsy. However, the role of BK channels in acquired mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) remains unknown. Here we used immunohistochemistry, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), Western immunoblotting and RT-PCR to investigate the expression pattern of the alpha-pore-forming subunit of BK channels in the hippocampus and cortex of chronically epileptic rats obtained by the pilocarpine model of MTLE. All epileptic rats experiencing recurrent spontaneous seizures exhibited a significant down-regulation of BK channel immunostaining in the mossy fibers at the hilus and stratum lucidum of the CA3 area. Quantitative analysis of immunofluorescence signals by LSCM revealed a significant 47% reduction in BK channel immunofluorescent signals in epileptic rats when compared to age-matched non-epileptic control rats. These data correlate with a similar reduction in BK channel protein levels and transcripts in the cortex and hippocampus. Our data indicate a seizure-related down-regulation of BK channels in chronically epileptic rats. Further functional assays are necessary to determine whether altered BK channel expression is an acquired channelopathy or a compensatory mechanism affecting the network excitability in MTLE. Moreover, seizure-mediated BK down-regulation may disturb neuronal excitability and presynaptic control at glutamatergic terminals triggering exaggerated glutamate release and seizures.

  7. Green tea polyphenols down-regulate caveolin-1 expression via ERK1/2 and p38MAPK in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanrong; Ying, Chenjiang; Zuo, Xuezhi; Yi, Haiwei; Yi, Weijie; Meng, Yi; Ikeda, Katsumi; Ye, Xiaolei; Yamori, Yukio; Sun, Xiufa

    2009-12-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a negative regulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), influences various aspects of the cardiovascular functions. We had reported that a high-fat diet up-regulated aortic Cav-1 expressions in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on endothelial Cav-1 expression and phosphorylation in vitro. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were treated with 4 microg/ml GTPs for 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 24 h, and with 0, 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 40 microg/ml GTPs for 16 h, respectively. Cav-1 protein and mRNA were detected using Western blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Cav-1 protein expression was down-regulated after treatment of BAECs with 4 microg/ml GTPs for 12, 16 and 24 h. And decrease in the level of Cav-1 mRNA was observed after GTP treatment for 4 and 8 h. GTPs (0.04-4 microg/ml) down-regulate Cav-1 protein expressions and mRNA levels dose dependently. PD98059, an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), up-regulated Cav-1 expression in BAECs alone and abolished the down-regulation effects of GTPs in BAECs while pretreatment with it. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) with SB203580, which down-regulates Cav-1 expression in BAECs alone, deteriorated the Cav-1 down-regulating effects by GTPs. In addition to the effects on expression of Cav-1, GTP treatment inhibited phosphorylation of Cav-1 [tyrosine 14 (Tyr14)]. These data indicate that GTPs down-regulate gene expression of Cav-1 time- and dose- dependently via activating ERK1/2 and inhibiting p38MAPK signaling.

  8. Chelerythrine down regulates expression of VEGFA, BCL2 and KRAS by arresting G-Quadruplex structures at their promoter regions

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Jagannath; Mondal, Soma; Bhattacharjee, Payel; Sengupta, Pallabi; Roychowdhury, Tanaya; Saha, Pranay; Kundu, Pallob; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu

    2017-01-01

    A putative anticancer plant alkaloid, Chelerythrine binds to G-quadruplexes at promoters of VEGFA, BCL2 and KRAS genes and down regulates their expression. The association of Chelerythrine to G-quadruplex at the promoters of these oncogenes were monitored using UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence anisotropy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, CD melting, isothermal titration calorimetry, molecular dynamics simulation and quantitative RT-PCR technique. The pronounced hypochromism accompanied by red shifts in UV absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ethidium bromide displacement assay indicates end stacking mode of interaction of Chelerythrine with the corresponding G-quadruplex structures. An increase in fluorescence anisotropy and CD melting temperature of Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex revealed the formation of stable Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry data confirmed that Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex formation is thermodynamically favourable. Results of quantative RT-PCR experiment in combination with luciferase assay showed that Chelerythrine treatment to MCF7 breast cancer cells effectively down regulated transcript level of all three genes, suggesting that Chelerythrine efficiently binds to in cellulo quadruplex motifs. MD simulation provides the molecular picture showing interaction between Chelerythrine and G-quadruplex. Binding of Chelerythrine with BCL2, VEGFA and KRAS genes involved in evasion, angiogenesis and self sufficiency of cancer cells provides a new insight for the development of future therapeutics against cancer. PMID:28102286

  9. Chelerythrine down regulates expression of VEGFA, BCL2 and KRAS by arresting G-Quadruplex structures at their promoter regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Jagannath; Mondal, Soma; Bhattacharjee, Payel; Sengupta, Pallabi; Roychowdhury, Tanaya; Saha, Pranay; Kundu, Pallob; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu

    2017-01-01

    A putative anticancer plant alkaloid, Chelerythrine binds to G-quadruplexes at promoters of VEGFA, BCL2 and KRAS genes and down regulates their expression. The association of Chelerythrine to G-quadruplex at the promoters of these oncogenes were monitored using UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence anisotropy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, CD melting, isothermal titration calorimetry, molecular dynamics simulation and quantitative RT-PCR technique. The pronounced hypochromism accompanied by red shifts in UV absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ethidium bromide displacement assay indicates end stacking mode of interaction of Chelerythrine with the corresponding G-quadruplex structures. An increase in fluorescence anisotropy and CD melting temperature of Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex revealed the formation of stable Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry data confirmed that Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex formation is thermodynamically favourable. Results of quantative RT-PCR experiment in combination with luciferase assay showed that Chelerythrine treatment to MCF7 breast cancer cells effectively down regulated transcript level of all three genes, suggesting that Chelerythrine efficiently binds to in cellulo quadruplex motifs. MD simulation provides the molecular picture showing interaction between Chelerythrine and G-quadruplex. Binding of Chelerythrine with BCL2, VEGFA and KRAS genes involved in evasion, angiogenesis and self sufficiency of cancer cells provides a new insight for the development of future therapeutics against cancer.

  10. Expression of Fragaria vesca PIP Aquaporins in Response to Drought Stress: PIP Down-Regulation Correlates with the Decline in Substrate Moisture Content

    PubMed Central

    Šurbanovski, Nada; Sargent, Daniel J.; Else, Mark A.; Simpson, David W.; Zhang, Hanma; Grant, Olga M.

    2013-01-01

    PIP aquaporin responses to drought stress can vary considerably depending on the isoform, tissue, species or level of stress; however, a general down-regulation of these genes is thought to help reduce water loss and prevent backflow of water to the drying soil. It has been suggested therefore, that it may be necessary for the plant to limit aquaporin production during drought stress, but it is unknown whether aquaporin down-regulation is gradual or triggered by a particular intensity of the stress. In this study, ten Fragaria PIP genes were identified from the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) genome sequence and characterised at the sequence level. The water relations of F. vesca were investigated and the effect of different intensities of drought stress on the expression of four PIP genes, as well as how drought stress influences their diurnal transcription was determined. PIP down-regulation in the root corresponded to the level of drought stress. Moreover, transcript abundance of two genes highly expressed in the root (FvPIP1;1 and FvPIP2;1) was strongly correlated to the decline in substrate moisture content. The amplitude of diurnal aquaporin expression in the leaves was down-regulated by drought without altering the pattern, but showing an intensity-dependent effect. The results show that transcription of PIP aquaporins can be fine-tuned with the environment in response to declining water availability. PMID:24086403

  11. Expression of Fragaria vesca PIP aquaporins in response to drought stress: PIP down-regulation correlates with the decline in substrate moisture content.

    PubMed

    Šurbanovski, Nada; Sargent, Daniel J; Else, Mark A; Simpson, David W; Zhang, Hanma; Grant, Olga M

    2013-01-01

    PIP aquaporin responses to drought stress can vary considerably depending on the isoform, tissue, species or level of stress; however, a general down-regulation of these genes is thought to help reduce water loss and prevent backflow of water to the drying soil. It has been suggested therefore, that it may be necessary for the plant to limit aquaporin production during drought stress, but it is unknown whether aquaporin down-regulation is gradual or triggered by a particular intensity of the stress. In this study, ten Fragaria PIP genes were identified from the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) genome sequence and characterised at the sequence level. The water relations of F. vesca were investigated and the effect of different intensities of drought stress on the expression of four PIP genes, as well as how drought stress influences their diurnal transcription was determined. PIP down-regulation in the root corresponded to the level of drought stress. Moreover, transcript abundance of two genes highly expressed in the root (FvPIP1;1 and FvPIP2;1) was strongly correlated to the decline in substrate moisture content. The amplitude of diurnal aquaporin expression in the leaves was down-regulated by drought without altering the pattern, but showing an intensity-dependent effect. The results show that transcription of PIP aquaporins can be fine-tuned with the environment in response to declining water availability.

  12. Skp2 expression is associated with down-regulation of p27 protein and cell proliferation in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Keikhaee, Mohammad Reza; Kudo, Yasusei; Siriwardena, Samadarani; Wu, Lanyan; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi

    2007-05-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a malignant salivary gland tumor, which shows frequent recurrence and metastasis, ultimately with a poor outcome. We previously demonstrated that p27 down-regulation is frequently found and is due to an enhancement of its degradation in ACC. In this study, we transfected nondegradable p27 mutant (T187A) and wild-type gene into ACC cell line. Transfection of T187A mutant gene was more effective on inhibition of cell growth of ACC cells, suggesting that aberration of p27 degradation may be present in ACC. As F-box protein S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2), which is necessary for ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27, is involved in p27 down-regulation in various cancers, we examined the Skp2 expression and its association with p27 expression in 50 ACC cases. We found Skp2 expression in 36% of ACC cases and inverse association between the expression of Skp2 and p27. Moreover, Skp2 small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) transfection decreased Skp2 protein and accumulation of p27 protein and inhibited the cell growth of ACC cells in vitro. These findings, overall, suggest that Skp2 may play an important role in ACC development through the down-regulation of p27 and that Skp2 siRNA can be a novel modality of cancer gene therapy for suppression of p27 down-regulation in ACC.

  13. Down-regulation of Cdc6, a cell cycle regulatory gene, in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Robles, Liza D; Frost, Andra R; Davila, Monica; Hutson, Alan D; Grizzle, William E; Chakrabarti, Ratna

    2002-07-12

    CDC6 plays a critical role in regulation of the onset of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. We have found that Cdc6 expression is down-regulated in prostate cancer as detected by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR of prostate cell lines and laser-captured microdissected prostate tissues. This result was substantiated by immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded tissue sections and immunoblot analysis of benign (BPH-1) and adenocarcinomatous prostatic cells. Furthermore, a 100-fold reduction in the transcription efficiency of the Cdc6 promoter-luciferase construct was noted in the metastatic PC3 cells compared with that in BPH-1 cells. Concentration of the E2F and Oct1 transcription factors that have putative binding sites in the Cdc6 promoter was substantially low in PC3 cells compared with BPH cells. Mutagenesis of the two E2F binding sites on the Cdc6 promoter resulted in increased promoter activity in PC3 cells owing to elimination of the negative regulation by pRb.E2F complex but not to the level of that obtained in BPH cells. We conclude that an altered interaction of transcription factors may be responsible for the down-regulation of Cdc6 transcription in PC3 cells. Our study suggests a potential use of the lack of CDC6 expression as an index of prostate cancer development.

  14. SAHA down-regulates the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase via inhibition of the JAK/STAT1 signaling pathway in gallbladder carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Jiang, Guanmin; Gao, Jiao; Li, Lingling; Du, Jun; Jiao, Xingyuan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the JAK/STAT1 signaling pathway in suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)-mediated down-regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in gallbladder carcinoma cells. We treated SGC-996 gallbladder carcinoma cells with IFN-γ and SAHA. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of IDO, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation and interferon regulatory factor genes-1 (IRF-1). Confocal microscopy analysis was used to detect STAT1 translocation. Transient transfection and reporter gene assay was used for detecting the activation of γ-activated sites (GAS) and interferon-stimulated response elements (ISRE). The results revealed that IDO was expressed in SGC-996 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner when stimulated with IFN-γ and SAHA down-regulated the expression of IDO induced by IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. SAHA blocked the expression of IRF-1 induced by IFN-γ and SAHA inhibited IFN-γ-induced STAT1 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In addition, SAHA down-regulated IFN-γ-induced activation of GAS and ISRE. In conclusion, SAHA down-regulated IDO expression via inhibition of the activation of members of the JAK/STAT1 signaling pathway. Therefore, regulation of the JAK/STAT1 signaling pathway may provide a new gallbladder carcinoma immunotherapeutic strategy to break tumor immune tolerance.

  15. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms down-regulated by thyroid hormone in human medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Monden, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yasuyo; Hashida, Tetsu; Ishii, Sumiyasu; Tomaru, Takuya; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Satoh, Teturou; Yamada, Masanobu; Mori, Masatomo; Kasai, Kikuo

    2006-04-01

    The role of thyroid hormone (T3) in the regulation of growth and development of the central nervous system including the cerebellum has been well established. However, the effects of thyroid hormone on malignant tumors derived from the cerebellum remain poorly understood. Our analysis mainly focused on expression levels of TR isoforms and the effects of thyroid hormone in human medulloblastoma HTB-185 cells. Northern blot analysis revealed TRalpha2 mRNA but not TRalpha1, beta1 or beta2 mRNA in the cell. The TRalpha1 and TRbeta1 mRNAs were detected only by RT-PCR method and TRbeta2 was not expressed. Incubation of T3 for 24 h decreased TRalpha1, TRalpha2 and TRbeta1 mRNA. Addition of actinomycin D caused an acute increase in the basal TR mRNA levels and the rate of decrease of all kinds of TR isoform mRNA was accelerated in the T3-treated groups compared to controls, indicating that the stability of TR mRNA was affected by T3. Incubation with cycloheximide also blocked a decrease in TR mRNA levels in the T3-treated HTB-185 cells suggesting that down-regulation of TR mRNA required the synthesis of new protein. Our data provide novel evidence for the expression of TRs down-regulated by T3 in HTB-185 cells, suggesting that TR expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by T3 at the level of RNA stability.

  16. Effects of p21 Gene Down-Regulation through RNAi on Antler Stem Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qianqian; Wang, Datao; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chunyi

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle is an integral part of cell proliferation, and consists mainly of four phases, G1, S, G2 and M. The p21 protein, a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, plays a key role in regulating cell cyclevia G1 phase control. Cells capable of epimorphic regeneration have G2/M accumulation as their distinctive feature, whilst the majority of somatic cells rest at G1 phase. To investigate the role played byp21 in antler regeneration, we studied the cell cycle distribution of antler stem cells (ASCs), via down-regulation of p21 in vitro using RNAi. The results showed that ASCs had high levels of p21 mRNA expression and rested at G1 phase, which was comparable to the control somatic cells. Down-regulation of p21 did not result in ASC cell cycle re-distribution toward G2/M accumulation, but DNA damage and apoptosis of the ASCs significantly increased and the process of cell aging was slowed. These findings suggest that the ASCs may have evolved to use an alternative, p21-independent cell cycle regulation mechanism. Also a unique p21-dependent inhibitory effect may control DNA damage as a protective mechanism to ensure the fast proliferating ASCs do not become dysplastic/cancerous. Understanding of the mechanism underlying the role played by p21 in the ASCs could give insight into a mammalian system where epimorphic regeneration is initiated whilst the genome stability is effectively maintained. PMID:26308075

  17. Systemic responses to inhaled ozone in mice: cachexia and down-regulation of liver xenobiotic metabolizing genes

    SciTech Connect

    Last, Jerold A. . E-mail: jalast@ucdavis.edu; Gohil, Kishorchandra; Mathrani, Vivek C.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2005-10-15

    Rats or mice acutely exposed to high concentrations of ozone show an immediate and significant weight loss, even when allowed free access to food and water. The mechanisms underlying this systemic response to ozone have not been previously elucidated. We have applied the technique of global gene expression analysis to the livers of C57BL mice acutely exposed to ozone. Mice lost up to 14% of their original body weight, with a 42% decrease in total food consumption. We previously had found significant up-regulation of genes encoding proliferative enzymes, proteins related to acute phase reactions and cytoskeletal functions, and other biomarkers of a cachexia-like inflammatory state in lungs of mice exposed to ozone. These results are consistent with a general up-regulation of different gene families responsive to NF-{kappa}B in the lungs of the exposed mice. In the present study, we observed significant down-regulation of different families of mRNAs in the livers of the exposed mice, including genes related to lipid and fatty acid metabolism, and to carbohydrate metabolism in this tissue, consistent with a systemic cachexic response. Several interferon-dependent genes were down-regulated in the liver, suggesting a possible role for interferon as a signaling molecule between lung and liver. In addition, transcription of several mRNAs encoding enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism in the livers of mice exposed to ozone was decreased, suggesting cytokine-mediated suppression of cytochrome P450 expression. This finding may explain a previously controversial report from other investigators more than 20 years ago of prolongation of pentobarbital sleeping time in mice exposed to ozone.

  18. [Inhibition of NHE1 down-regulates IL-8 expression and enhances p38 phosphorylation].

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Zhang, Yu-Juan; Zhang, Hai-Rui; Jin, Wei-Na; Chang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Ju; Ma, Li; Lin, Ya-Ni; Li, Qing-Hua; Ru, Rong-Xin; Pang, Tian-Xiang

    2013-02-01

    This study was purposed to explore the changes of possible angiogenetic factors other than VEGF after inhibition of NHE1 and their related mechanisms. The K562 cells were treated by NHE1 specific inhibitor cariporide, the angiogenesis factors after inhibition of NHE1 were screened by using protein chip, the IL-8 expression level after cariporide treatment was detected by real-time quantitative PCR; the K562 cells with stable interference of NHE1 were constructed, the IL-8 expression level after interference of NHE1 was detected by real-time quantitative PCR; the p38 phosphorylation level in K562 cells treated with cariporide was detected by Western blot. After treatment of K562 cells with p38 inhibitor SB203580, the IL-8 expression level was decreased by real-time quantitative PCR. The results of protein chip showed that IL-8 expression decreased after cariporide treatment. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed this inhibitory effect. The p38 phosphorylation level increased after cariporide treatment. The down-regulation of IL-8 expression induced by cariporide treatment was partially restored after K562 cells were treated with p38 inhibitor SB203580. It is concluded that the inhibition of NHE1 can inhibit IL-8 expression through up-regulation of p38 phosphorylation.

  19. Role of activator protein-1 in the down-regulation of the human CYP2J2 gene in hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Marden, Nicole Y; Fiala-Beer, Eva; Xiang, Shi-Hua; Murray, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2J2 arachidonic acid epoxygenase gene was down-regulated at a pre-translational level in human hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells incubated in a hypoxic environment; under these conditions, the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA and protein was increased. The 5'-upstream region of the CYP2J2 gene was isolated by amplification of a 2341 bp fragment and putative regulatory elements that resembled activator protein-1 (AP-1)-like sequences were identified. From transient transfection analysis, c-Jun was found to strongly activate a CYP2J2 -luciferase reporter construct, but co-transfection with plasmids encoding c-Fos or c-Fos-related antigens, Fra-1 and -2, abrogated reporter activity. Using a series of deletion-reporter constructs, a c-Jun-responsive module was identified between bp -152 and -50 in CYP2J2 : this region contained an AP-1-like element between bp -56 and -63. The capacity of this element to interact directly with c-Jun, but not c-Fos, was confirmed by electromobility-shift assay analysis. Mutagenesis of the -56/-63 element abolished most, but not all, of the activation of CYP2J2 by c-Jun, thus implicating an additional site within the c-Jun-responsive region. The present results establish an important role for c-Jun in the control of CYP2J2 expression in liver cells. Activation of c-Fos expression by hypoxia promotes the formation of c-Jun/c-Fos heterodimers, which decrease the binding of c-Jun to the CYP2J2 upstream region, leading to gene down-regulation. PMID:12737630

  20. Engagement of the T-cell receptor during positive selection in the thymus down-regulates RAG-1 expression.

    PubMed Central

    Brändle, D; Müller, C; Rülicke, T; Hengartner, H; Pircher, H

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the expression of the recombination activating gene RAG-1 by in situ hybridization to thymi from mice bearing transgenes for the T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain, TCR beta chain, or both TCR alpha and beta chains. RAG-1 transcription was found in the thymic cortex of transgenic mice carrying a single TCR alpha- or TCR beta-chain transgene, comparable to normal mice. However, RAG-1 transcription was strikingly reduced in the thymic cortex from transgenic mice carrying both TCR alpha- and beta-chain genes and expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (H-2b) molecules necessary for positive selection of the transgenic TCR. In contrast, thymi of transgenic mice also carrying both TCR alpha- and beta-chain genes but expressing MHC molecules (H-2d) that did not positively select the transgenic TCR displayed high levels of RAG-1 transcription. The low thymic RAG-1 expression coincided with high transgenic TCR alpha-chain surface expression and with inhibition of endogenous TCR alpha-chain rearrangement. Our findings suggest that binding of the TCR to self MHC molecules during positive selection down-regulates RAG-1 transcription in cortical thymocytes and thereby prevents further TCR alpha-chain rearrangements. Images PMID:1329099

  1. ZNF503/Zpo2 drives aggressive breast cancer progression by down-regulation of GATA3 expression.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Payam; Wang, Chih-Yang; Lawson, Devon A; Slorach, Euan M; Lu, Angela; Yu, Ying; Lai, Ming-Derg; Gonzalez Velozo, Hugo; Werb, Zena

    2017-03-21

    The transcription factor GATA3 is the master regulator that drives mammary luminal epithelial cell differentiation and maintains mammary gland homeostasis. Loss of GATA3 is associated with aggressive breast cancer development. We have identified ZNF503/ZEPPO2 zinc-finger elbow-related proline domain protein 2 (ZPO2) as a transcriptional repressor of GATA3 expression and transcriptional activity that induces mammary epithelial cell proliferation and breast cancer development. We show that ZPO2 is recruited to GATA3 promoter in association with ZBTB32 (Repressor of GATA, ROG) and that ZBTB32 is essential for down-regulation of GATA3 via ZPO2. Through this modulation of GATA3 activity, ZPO2 promotes aggressive breast cancer development. Our data provide insight into a mechanism of GATA3 regulation, and identify ZPO2 as a possible candidate gene for future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  2. Human cytomegalovirus miR-US33-5p inhibits viral DNA synthesis and viral replication by down-regulating expression of the host Syntaxin3.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Qi, Ying; Huang, Yujing; Liu, Zhongyang; Ma, Yanping; Shao, Yaozhong; Jiang, Shujuan; Sun, Zhengrong; Ruan, Qiang

    2015-02-13

    During infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), overexpression of hcmv-miR-US33 can inhibit the lytic viral replication and down-regulate US29 mRNA. However, it remains unknown whether inhibition of viral replication by miR-US33 is mediated by down-regulation of expression of US29 or another host gene. Here, we identified the host gene Syntaxin3 (STX3) to be a direct target of hcmv-miR-US33-5p using Hybrid-PCR and luciferase-reporter assays. It was further demonstrated that the levels of STX3 protein were down-regulated in hcmv-miR-US33-5p-overexpressing cells. Experiments with STX3-specific siRNA, or with an inhibitor of hcmv-miR-US33-5p confirmed that hcmv-miR-US33-5p-mediated inhibition of HCMV DNA synthesis and of viral replication are specifically mediated by down-regulation of STX3 expression.

  3. Keratinocytes exposed to ultraviolet radiation reveal three down-regulated genes with potential function in differentiation and cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Pötter, T; Göhde, W; Wedemeyer, N; Köhnlein, W

    2000-08-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in epidemic proportion. Although solar UV radiation is known to be the major risk factor, much information is lacking about the molecular mechanisms leading to skin cancer. To gain a deeper insight into these mechanisms, we have examined cells of a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCat) after exposure to 0.16 minimal erythema doses of UVB radiation. This dose led to an S-phase delay that was reversible 22 h postirradiation. To examine gene expression 10 h after UV irradiation, a nonradioactive differential display was employed. Three genes were identified as being down-regulated significantly. The first encodes for topoisomerase-IIbeta-binding protein 1 (expression level 5% 6 h after irradiation). This protein is associated with human topoisomerase IIbeta and appears to be necessary for DNA replication during the onset of S phase. The second gene product has previously been reported to be involved in differentiation and is therefore known as differentiation-dependent A4 protein (28% 8 h after irradiation). The third gene is XPO1 (also known as CRM1) (5% 8 h after irradiation), whose protein is involved in nuclear export of mRNA molecules. Differential expression of these genes after UV irradiation has not been reported. Because of their potential involvement in cell cycle control and differentiation, these proteins could be important for understanding the reaction of keratinocytes after exposure to UV radiation.

  4. Down-regulated expression of Tim-3 promotes invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Q Y; Qu, C H; Liu, J Q; Zhang, P; Yao, J

    2017-01-01

    To explore how Tim-3 is expressed and how its expression influences invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. A total of 188 CRC patients were prospectively collected for this study. Meanwhile, 135 normal controls were incorporated during the same period. Intestinal samples of the CRC radical cancerous tissues, paracancerous tissues ( 5.0 cm beyond the cancer tissue) were collected for the following experiment. Furthermore, peripheral venous blood samples (10 ml) were collected from each subject. Immunohistochemical analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot were performed for the detection of Tim-3 in different tissues. The immunohistochemical staining results showed that a positive Tim-3 signal was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus, observed as yellow or brown granules. Tim-3 was largely expressed in colon carcinoma tissues and normal colon mucosa tissues but was rarely expressed in the cell membrane. RT-qPCR results indicated that Tim-3 mRNA levels were significantly lower in CRC tissues than in paracancerous tissues and normal colon mucosa tissues. A trend of decreased Tim-3 mRNA levels was also found in the paracancerous tissues compared with the normal colon mucosa tissues (all P < 0.05). Western blot results revealed reduced Tim-3 protein expression in CRC tissues compared with normal colon mucosa tissues and paracancerous tissues, and Tim-3 protein expression was much lower in the paracancerous tissues than in the normal colon mucosa tissues (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, obviously lower Tim-3 mRNA levels were found in the poorly differentiated CRC patients and in those with lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis (all P < 0.05). Collectively, Tim-3 expression was mainly located in the cytoplasm and nucleus, showing down-regulated expression in colon carcinoma tissues compared with normal and paracancerous tissues. Reduced Tim-3 expression may promote CRC invasion and metastasis providing a

  5. Darkness affects differentially the expression of plastid-encoded genes and delays the senescence-induced down-regulation of chloroplast transcription in cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo L. (Zucchini).

    PubMed

    Mishev, Kiril; Dimitrova, Anna; Ananiev, Evguéni D

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to differentiated leaves, the regulatory mechanisms of chloroplast gene expression in darkened cotyledons have not been elucidated. Although some results have been reported indicating accelerated senescence in Arabidopsis upon reillumination, the capacity of cotyledons to recover after dark stress remains unclear. We analysed the effect of two-days dark stress, applied locally or at the whole-plant level, on plastid gene expression in zucchini cotyledons. Our results showed that in the dark the overall chloroplast transcription rate was much more inhibited than the nuclear run-on transcription. While the activities of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) and nuclear RNA polymerase II were strongly reduced, the activities of the nuclear-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (NEP) and nuclear RNA polymerase I were less affected. During recovery upon reillumination, chloroplast transcription in the cotyledons was strongly stimulated (3-fold) compared with the naturally senescing controls, suggesting delayed senescence. Northern blot and dot blot analyses of the expression of key chloroplast-encoded photosynthetic genes showed that in contrast to psbA, which remained almost unaffected, both the transcription rate and mRNA content of psaB and rbcL were substantially decreased.

  6. Delta-Like Ligand 4 Modulates Liver Damage by Down-Regulating Chemokine Expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhe; Liu, Yan; Dewidar, Bedair; Hu, Junhao; Park, Ogyi; Feng, Teng; Xu, Chengfu; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Qi; Meyer, Christoph; Ilkavets, Iryna; Müller, Alexandra; Stump-Guthier, Carolin; Munker, Stefan; Liebe, Roman; Zimmer, Vincent; Lammert, Frank; Mertens, Peter R; Li, Hai; Ten Dijke, Peter; Augustin, Hellmut G; Li, Jun; Gao, Bin; Ebert, Matthias P; Dooley, Steven; Li, Youming; Weng, Hong-Lei

    2016-07-01

    Disrupting Notch signaling ameliorates experimental liver fibrosis. However, the role of individual Notch ligands in liver damage is unknown. We investigated the effects of Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) in liver disease. DLL4 expression was measured in 31 human liver tissues by immunohistochemistry. Dll4 function was examined in carbon tetrachloride- and bile duct ligation-challenged mouse models in vivo and evaluated in hepatic stellate cells, hepatocytes, and Kupffer cells in vitro. DLL4 was expressed in patients' Kupffer and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Recombinant Dll4 protein (rDll4) ameliorated hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in mice after carbon tetrachloride challenge. In vitro, rDll4 significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide-dependent chemokine expression in both Kupffer and hepatic stellate cells. In bile duct ligation mice, rDll4 induced massive hepatic necrosis, resulting in the death of all animals within 1 week. Inflammatory cell infiltration and chemokine ligand 2 (Ccl2) expression were significantly reduced in rDll4-receiving bile duct ligation mice. Recombinant Ccl2 rescued bile duct ligation mice from rDll4-mediated death. In patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure, DLL4 expression was inversely associated with CCL2 abundance. Mechanistically, Dll4 regulated Ccl2 expression via NF-κB. Taken together, Dll4 modulates liver inflammatory response by down-regulating chemokine expression. rDll4 application results in opposing outcomes in two models of liver damage. Loss of DLL4 may be associated with CCL2-mediated cytokine storm in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

  7. Down-regulation of Fusarium oxysporum endogenous genes by Host-Delivered RNA interference enhances disease resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zongli; Parekh, Urvi; Maruta, Natsumi; Trusov, Yuri; Botella, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a devastating pathogen causing extensive yield losses in a variety of crops and development of sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to improve crop resistance is crucial. We have used Host-Derived RNA interference (HD-RNAi) technology to partially silence three different genes (FOW2, FRP1 and OPR) in the hemi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. Expression of double stranded RNA molecules targeting fungal pathogen genes was achieved in a number of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. F. oxysporum infecting the transgenic lines displayed substantially reduced mRNA levels on all three targeted genes, with an average of 75%, 83% and 72% reduction for FOW2, FRP1 and OPR respectively. The silencing of pathogen genes had a clear positive effect on the ability of the transgenic lines to fight infection. All transgenic lines displayed enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum with delayed disease symptom development, especially FRP1 and OPR lines. Survival rates after fungal infection were higher in the transgenic lines compared to control wild type plants which consistently showed survival rates of 10%, with FOW2 lines showing 25% survival; FRP1 lines 30-50% survival and FOW2 between 45-70% survival. The down-regulation effect was specific for the targeted genes without unintended effects in related genes. In addition to producing resistant crops, HD-RNAi can provide a useful tool to rapidly screen candidate fungal pathogenicity genes without the need to produce fungal knockout mutants.

  8. Down-regulation of Fusarium oxysporum endogenous genes by Host-Delivered RNA interference enhances disease resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zongli; Parekh, Urvi; Maruta, Natsumi; Trusov, Yuri; Botella, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a devastating pathogen causing extensive yield losses in a variety of crops and development of sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to improve crop resistance is crucial. We have used Host-Delivered RNA interference (HD-RNAi) technology to partially silence three different genes (FOW2, FRP1, and OPR) in the hemi-biotrophic fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. Expression of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules targeting fungal pathogen genes was achieved in a number of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. F. oxysporum infecting the transgenic lines displayed substantially reduced mRNA levels on all three targeted genes, with an average of 75, 83, and 72% reduction for FOW2, FRP1, and OPR, respectively. The silencing of pathogen genes had a clear positive effect on the ability of the transgenic lines to fight infection. All transgenic lines displayed enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum with delayed disease symptom development, especially FRP1 and OPR lines. Survival rates after fungal infection were higher in the transgenic lines compared to control wild type plants which consistently showed survival rates of 10%, with FOW2 lines showing 25% survival; FRP1 lines 30–50% survival and OPR between 45 and 70% survival. The down-regulation effect was specific for the targeted genes without unintended effects in related genes. In addition to producing resistant crops, HD-RNAi can provide a useful tool to rapidly screen candidate fungal pathogenicity genes without the need to produce fungal knockout mutants. PMID:25654075

  9. Mutant IDH1 expression is associated with down-regulation of monocarboxylate transporters

    PubMed Central

    Viswanath, Pavithra; Najac, Chloe; Izquierdo, Jose L.; Pankov, Aleksandr; Hong, Chibo; Eriksson, Pia; Costello, Joseph F.; Pieper, Russell O.; Ronen, Sabrina M.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are characteristic of low-grade gliomas. We recently showed that mutant IDH1 cells reprogram cellular metabolism by down-regulating pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. Reduced pyruvate metabolism via PDH could lead to increased pyruvate conversion to lactate. The goal of this study was therefore to investigate the impact of the IDH1 mutation on the pyruvate-to-lactate flux. We used 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and compared the conversion of hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate to [1-13C]-lactate in immortalized normal human astrocytes expressing mutant or wild-type IDH1 (NHAIDHmut and NHAIDHwt). Our results indicate that hyperpolarized lactate production is reduced in NHAIDHmut cells compared to NHAIDHwt. This reduction was associated with lower expression of the monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 in NHAIDHmut cells. Furthermore, hyperpolarized lactate production was comparable in lysates of NHAIDHmut and NHAIDHwt cells, wherein MCTs do not impact hyperpolarized pyruvate delivery and lactate production. Collectively, our findings indicated that lower MCT expression was a key contributor to lower hyperpolarized lactate production in NHAIDHmut cells. The SLC16A3 (MCT4) promoter but not SLC16A1 (MCT1) promoter was hypermethylated in NHAIDHmut cells, pointing to possibly different mechanisms mediating reduced MCT expression. Finally analysis of low-grade glioma patient biopsy data from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that MCT1 and MCT4 expression was significantly reduced in mutant IDH1 tumors compared to wild-type. Taken together, our study shows that reduced MCT expression is part of the metabolic reprogramming of mutant IDH1 gliomas. This finding could impact treatment and has important implications for metabolic imaging of mutant IDH1 gliomas. PMID:27144334

  10. Znhit1 causes cell cycle arrest and down-regulates CDK6 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhengmin; Cao, Yonghao; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Huang, Ying; Ding, Yuqiang; Liu, Xiaolong

    2009-08-14

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) is the key element of the D-type cyclin holoenzymes which has been found to function in the regulation of G1-phase of the cell cycle and is presumed to play important roles in T cell function. In this study, Znhit1, a member of a new zinc finger protein family defined by a conserved Zf-HIT domain, induced arrest in the G1-phase of the cell cycle in NIH/3T3 cells. Of the G1 cell cycle factors examined, the expression of CDK6 was found to be strongly down-regulated by Znhit1 via transcriptional repression. This effect may have correlations with the decreased acetylation level of histone H4 in the CDK6 promoter region. In addition, considering that CDK6 expression predominates in T cells, the negative regulatory role of Znhit1 in TCR-induced T cell proliferation was validated using transgenic mice. These findings identified Znhit1 as a CDK6 regulator that plays an important role in cell proliferation.

  11. Dehydroepiandrosterone down-regulates the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Kazuo; Ishizuka, Tatsuo; Mune, Tomoatsu; Miura, Atsushi; Ishizawa, Masayoshi; Kanoh, Yoshinori; Kawai, Yasunori; Natsume, Yoshiyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2003-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is expected to have a weight-reducing effect. In this study, we evaluated the effect of DHEA on genetically obese Otsuka Long Evans Fatty rats (OLETF) compared with Long-Evans Tokushima rats (LETO) as control. Feeding with 0.4% DHEA-containing food for 2 wk reduced the weight of sc, epididymal, and perirenal adipose tissue in association with decreased plasma leptin levels in OLETF. Adipose tissue from OLETF showed increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) protein, which was prevented by DHEA treatment. Further, we examined the effect of DHEA on PPARgamma in primary cultured adipocytes and monolayer adipocytes differentiated from rat preadipocytes. PPARgamma protein level was decreased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and DHEA significantly reduced mRNA levels of PPARgamma, adipocyte lipid-binding protein, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein, but not CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha. DHEA-sulfate also reduced the PPARgamma protein, but dexamethasone, testosterone, or androstenedione did not alter its expression. In addition, treatment with DHEA for 5 d reduced the triglyceride content in monolayer adipocytes. These results suggest that DHEA down-regulates adiposity through the reduction of PPARgamma in adipocytes.

  12. SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 directly down-regulate STIMULATED BY RETINOIC ACID 8 (STRA8) expression.

    PubMed

    Desimio, M G; Campolo, F; Dolci, S; De Felici, M; Farini, D

    2015-01-01

    As the name implies, Stimulated by Retinoic Acid 8 is an early retinoic acid (RA) responsive gene pivotal for the beginning of meiosis in female and male germ cells. Its expression is strictly time-dependent and cell-specific (pre-meiotic germ cells) and likely requires a complex mechanism of regulation. In this study, we demonstrate a direct negative control of SOHLH1 and SOHLH2, 2 germ cell specific bHLH transcription factors, on Stra8 expression. We observed a negative correlation between STRA8 and SOHLH1 expression in prepuberal differentiating mouse KIT(+) spermatogonia and found that SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 were able to directly and cooperatively repress STRA8 expression in cell lines in vitro through binding to its promoter. We also identified 2 canonical E-Box motives in the Stra8 promoter that mediated the negative regulation of SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 on these gene both in the cell lines and KIT(+) spermatogonia. We hypothesize that this novel negative activity of SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 in male cooperates with that of other transcription factors to coordinate spermatogonia differentiation and the RA-induced meiosis and in female ensures STRA8 down-regulation at mid-end stages of meiotic prophase I.

  13. Regulation of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel by Rab4 protein through neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4-2 (Nedd4-2).

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhi; Zhang, Shetuan

    2013-07-26

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming α-subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) channel in the heart, which plays a critical role in cardiac action potential repolarization. Dysfunction of IKr causes long QT syndrome, a cardiac electrical disorder that predisposes affected individuals to fatal arrhythmias and sudden death. The homeostasis of hERG channels in the plasma membrane depends on a balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Our recent data indicate that hERG channels undergo enhanced endocytic degradation under low potassium (hypokalemia) conditions. The GTPase Rab4 is known to mediate rapid recycling of various internalized proteins to the plasma membrane. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Rab4 on the expression level of hERG channels. Our data revealed that overexpression of Rab4 decreases the expression level of hERG in the plasma membrane. Rab4 does not affect the expression level of the Kv1.5 or EAG K(+) channels. Mechanistically, our data demonstrate that overexpression of Rab4 increases the expression level of endogenous Nedd4-2, a ubiquitin ligase that targets hERG but not Kv1.5 or EAG channels for ubiquitination and degradation. Nedd4-2 undergoes self- ubiquitination and degradation. Rab4 interferes with Nedd4-2 degradation, resulting in an increased expression level of Nedd4-2, which targets hERG. In summary, the present study demonstrates a novel pathway for hERG regulation; Rab4 decreases the hERG density at the plasma membrane by increasing the endogenous Nedd4-2 expression.

  14. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha mediates epidermal growth factor-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin expression and cell invasion in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K

    2013-02-28

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) regulates the transcription of a number of genes under hypoxia and other extracellular stimulations. It has been shown that E-cadherin is down-regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF) stimulation, and that cells with low E-cadherin expression are more invasive. Our recent study demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGF down-regulates E-cadherin expression through production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the activation of p38 MAPK in human ovarian cancer cells. In this study, we were interested in examining the potential role of HIF-1α in cell invasion under normoxic conditions, specifically when cells are treated with EGF, which is known to down-regulate E-cadherin and increase invasiveness. We show that EGF treatment induces HIF-1α expression in two human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3 and OVCAR5), and that this effect is diminished by treatment with a membrane-permeable H(2)O(2) scavenger, PEG-catalase. However, the induction of HIF-1α by EGF did not require the activation of p38 MAPK. Treatment with siRNA targeting HIF-1α reduces both basal and EGF-induced HIF-1α levels. Importantly, treatment with HIF-1α siRNA diminishes the up-regulation of Snail and Slug as well as the down-regulation of E-cadherin by EGF. The involvement of HIF-1α in the down-regulation of E-cadherin was confirmed with cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)), a hypoxia-mimetic reagent. Finally, we also show that EGF-induced cell invasion is attenuated by treatment with HIF-1α siRNA. This study demonstrates an important role for HIF-1α in mediating the effects of EGF on Snail, Slug and E-cadherin expression as well as invasiveness in human ovarian cancer cells.

  15. Transfection of a human glioblastoma cell line with liver-type glutaminase (LGA) down-regulates the expression of DNA-repair gene MGMT and sensitizes the cells to alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Szeliga, Monika; Zgrzywa, Agata; Obara-Michlewska, Marta; Albrecht, Jan

    2012-11-01

    O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA-repair protein promoting resistance of tumor cells to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. Glioma cells are particularly resistant to this class of drugs which include temozolomide (TMZ) and carmustine (BCNU). A previous study using the RNA microarray technique showed that decrease of MGMT mRNA stands out among the alterations in gene expression caused by the cell growth-depressing transfection of a T98G glioma cell line with liver-type glutaminase (LGA) [Szeliga et al. (2009) Glia, 57, 1014]. Here, we show that stably LGA-transfected cells (TLGA) exhibit decreased MGMT protein expression and activity as compared with non-transfected or mock transfected cells (controls). However, the decrease of expression occurs in the absence of changes in the methylation of the promoter region, indicating that LGA circumvents, by an as yet unknown route, the most common mechanism of MGMT silencing. TLGA turned out to be significantly more sensitive to treatment with 100-1000 μM of TMZ and BCNU in the acute cell growth inhibition assay (MTT). In the clonogenic survival assay, TLGA cells displayed increased sensitivity even to 10 μM TMZ and BCNU. Our results indicate that enrichment with LGA, in addition to inhibiting glioma growth, may facilitate chemotherapeutic intervention.

  16. A gene encoding a protein elicitor of Phytophthora infestans is down-regulated during infection of potato.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, S; van West, P; de Jong, A J; de Groot, K E; Vleeshouwers, V G; Govers, F

    1997-01-01

    Most species of the genus Phytophthora produce 10-kDa extracellular protein elicitors, collectively termed elicitins. Elicitins induce hypersensitive response in a restricted number of plants, particularly in the genus Nicotiana within the Solanaceae family. A cDNA encoding INF1, the major secreted elicitin of Phytophthora infestans, a pathogen of solanaceous plants, was isolated and characterized. The expression of the corresponding inf1 gene during the disease cycle of P. infestans was analyzed. inf1 was shown to be expressed in mycelium grown in various culture media, whereas it was not expressed in sporangiospores, zoospores, cysts, and germinating cysts. In planta, during infection of potato, particularly during the biotrophic stage, expression of inf1 was down-regulated compared to in vitro. The highest levels of expression of inf1 were observed in in vitro grown mycelium and in late stages of infection when profuse sporulation and leaf necrosis occur. The potential role of INF1 as an elicitor in interactions between P. infestans and Solanum species was investigated. Nineteen lines, representing nine solanaceous species with various levels of resistance to P. infestans, were tested for response to an Escherichia coli expressed INF1. Within the genus Solanum, resistance to P. infestans did not appear to be mediated by a defense response elicited by INF1. However, INF1 recognition could be a component of nonhost resistance of tobacco to P. infestans.

  17. [Phenylhexyl isothiocyanate induces gene p15 demethylation by down-regulating DNA methyltransferases in Molt-4 cells].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shao-hong; Ma, Xu-dong; Huang, Yi-qun; Xu, Yun-lu; Zheng, Rui-ji

    2009-04-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHI), which has been proved to be a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) recently, on gene p15 de novo expression in acute leukemia cell line Molt-4, and to further study its potential mechanism. Modified methylation specific PCR (MSP) was used to screen p15-M and p15-U mRNA. DNA methyltransferasel (DNMT1), 3A (DNMT3A), 3B (DNMT3B) and p15 mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. P15 protein was detected by Western blotting. Hypermethylation of gene p15 was reversed and activation transcription of gene p15 in Molt-4 was de novo after 5 days exposure to PHI in a concentration dependent manner. DNMT1 and DNMT3B were inhibited by exposure to PHI for 5 days (P < 0.05). Alteration of DNMT3A was not significant. It is showed that PHI could reverse hypermethylation of gene p15 and transcriptional activation of gene p15 is de novo by PHI. It may result from down-regulating DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3B, or up-regulating the histone acetylation that allows chromatin unfolding and the accessibility of regulators for transcriptional activation in the p15 promoter.

  18. Expression of neurexin and neuroligin in the enteric nervous system and their down-regulated expression levels in Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangye; Wang, Jian; Li, Aiwu; Liu, Hongzhen; Zhang, Wentong; Cui, Xinhai; Wang, Kelai

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the expression levels of neurexins and neuroligins in the enteric nervous system (ENS) in Hirschsprung Disease (HSCR). Longitudinal muscles with adherent mesenteric plexus were obtained by dissection of the fresh gut wall of mice, guinea pigs, and humans. Double labeling of neurexin I and Hu (a neuron marker), neuroligin 1 and Hu, neurexin I and synaptophysin (a presynaptic marker), and neuroligin 1 and PSD95 (a postsynaptic marker) was performed by immunofluorescence staining. Images were merged to determine the relative localizations of the proteins. Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin in different segments of the ENS in HSCR were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Neurexin and neuroligin were detected in the mesenteric plexus of mice, guinea pigs, and humans with HSCR. Neurexin was located in the presynapse, whereas neuroligin was located in the postsynapse. Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin were significant in the ganglionic colonic segment of HSCR, moderate in the transitional segment, and negative in the aganglionic colonic segment. The expressions of neurexin and neuroligin in the transitional segments were significantly down-regulated compared with the levels in the normal segments (P < 0.05). Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin in ENS are significantly down-regulated in HSCR, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of HSCR.

  19. FOXL2 down-regulates vitellogenin expression at mature stage in Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Xie, Jing; He, Lin; Wang, Yuanli; Yang, Hongdan; Duan, Zelin; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian development in crustaceans is characterized by rapid production of egg yolk protein in a process called vitellogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of a DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box RNA helicase 20 (DDX20), forkhead transcription factor (FOXL)2 and fushi tarazu factor (FTZ-F)1 in the regulation of vitellogenesis. Based on ESTs from the testis and accessory gland of Eriocheir sinensis, we cloned the full-length cDNAs of foxl2 and fushitarazu factor 1 (ftz-f1), which include the conserved structural features of the forkhead family and nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family respectively. The expression of foxl2 mRNA surged at the mature stage of the ovary, when vtg mRNA swooped, suggesting that foxl2 negatively affects the vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis at this developmental stage. Etoposide (inducing germ cell apoptosis) treatment up-regulated FOXL2 and DDX20 at both the mRNA and the protein levels, primarily in the follicular cells as shown by immunofluorescence analysis. Furthermore, foxl2, ddx20 and ftz-f1 mRNA levels increased significantly with right-eyestalk ablation. Interactions between FOXL2 and DDX20 or FTZ-F1 were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and the forkhead domain of FOXL2 was identified as the specific structure interacting with FTZ-F1. In conclusion, FOXL2 down-regulates VTG expression by binding with DDX20 in regulation of follicular cell apoptosis and with FTZ-F1 to repress the synthesis of VTG at the mature stage. This report is the first to describe the molecular mechanism of VTG synthesis in E. sinensis and may shed new light on the regulation of cytochrome P450 enzyme by FOXL2 and FTZ-F1 in vitellogenesis. PMID:26430246

  20. Down-regulation of wt1 expression in leukemia cell lines as part of apoptotic effect in arsenic treatment using two compounds.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Wolfgang; Chow, Kai U; Bauer, Nina; Bergmann, Lothar

    2006-08-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) induces remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). To better understand molecular mechanisms of arsenic actions, this study investigated the effect of two different arsenic compounds on gene expression of apoptosis and cellular proliferation related genes. The Wilms' tumor gene (wt1) is up-regulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and a variety of leukemia cell lines. The expression of wt1 in these cells is proposed to have an anti-apoptotic effect. HL-60 and K562 were treated with arsenic trioxide (As2O3) and sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) at concentrations between 0 - 10 microM for up to 48 h. The induction of apoptosis was accompanied by down-regulation of hTERT and wt1 mRNA and protein expression but up-regulation of par-4. Low concentrations of 0.1 microM arsenic induced expression of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 gene in both cell lines HL-60 and K562. There were no major differences encountered between compounds. After arsenic treatment of the leukemia cell lines HL-60 and K562 the up-regulation of par-4 may contribute to the induction of apoptosis rather than down-regulation of bcl-2. The therapeutic effect of arsenic is the induction of apoptosis by modulating the gene expression profile of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes including the wt1 gene.

  1. Omega 3 (n-3) fatty acids down-regulate nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) gene and blood cell adhesion molecule expression in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Daak, Ahmed A; Elderdery, Abozer Y; Elbashir, Leana M; Mariniello, Katia; Mills, Jeremy; Scarlett, Garry; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammation and reduced blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) are known characteristics of sickle cell disease (SCD).The anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 fatty acids are well recognized. Omega-3 treated (n = 24), hydroxyurea (HU) treated (n = 18), and n-3 untreated (n=21) homozygous SCD patients (HbSS) and healthy (HbAA) controls (n = 25) matched for age (5-16 years), gender and socioeconomic status were studied. According to age (5-10) or (11-16) years, two or three capsules containing 277.8 mg docosahexaenoic (DHA) and 39.0mg eicosapentaenoic (EPA) or high oleic acid placebo (41%) were assigned to n-3 treated and n-3 untreated groups, respectively. Hydroxyurea treated group was on dosage more than 20 mg/kg/day. The effect of supplementation on systemic and blood cell markers of inflammation was investigated. The n-3 treated group had higher levels of DHA and EPA (p < 0.001) and lower white blood cell count and monocyte integrin (p < 0.05) compared with the n-3 untreated. No difference was detected between the two groups regarding C-reactive protein, granulocytes integrin and selectin, plasma tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10. The n-3 treated group had lowered nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) gene expression compared to n-3 untreated and HU treated groups (p < 0.05). This study provides evidence that supplementation with n-3 fatty acids may ameliorate inflammation and blood cell adhesion in patients with SCD.

  2. Rapid transcriptional down-regulation of c-myc expression during cyclic adenosine monophosphate-promoted differentiation of leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Slungaard, A; Confer, D L; Schubach, W H

    1987-05-01

    Pharmacologic elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) promotes growth arrest and differentiation in a variety of transformed mammalian cells, including the HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. However, mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. Because cellular oncogenes play a pivotal role in regulating proliferation and differentiation, we examined whether cAMP-promoted differentiation of HL-60 was preceded by a decrease in the expression of c-myc, a cellular oncogene both amplified and constitutively expressed in HL-60. We find that cyclic AMP elevation in HL-60 caused by three different pharmacologic regimens is followed by an abrupt, greater than 90% decrease in steady state c-myc mRNA levels within 3 h, well before detectable changes in proliferation and differentiation. This decrease, which occurs despite protein synthetic blockade, is attributable to transcriptional down-regulation of c-myc and is accompanied by changes in chromatin structure near c-myc promoter sites. Our findings establish that cAMP, a ubiquitous intracellular regulatory messenger previously known only to enhance gene transcriptional activity in higher eukaryotic cells, can also suppress transcription of a cellular oncogene, thereby suggesting a potential mechanism for cAMP-promoted differentiation.

  3. Rapid transcriptional down-regulation of c-myc expression during cyclic adenosine monophosphate-promoted differentiation of leukemic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Slungaard, A; Confer, D L; Schubach, W H

    1987-01-01

    Pharmacologic elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) promotes growth arrest and differentiation in a variety of transformed mammalian cells, including the HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. However, mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. Because cellular oncogenes play a pivotal role in regulating proliferation and differentiation, we examined whether cAMP-promoted differentiation of HL-60 was preceded by a decrease in the expression of c-myc, a cellular oncogene both amplified and constitutively expressed in HL-60. We find that cyclic AMP elevation in HL-60 caused by three different pharmacologic regimens is followed by an abrupt, greater than 90% decrease in steady state c-myc mRNA levels within 3 h, well before detectable changes in proliferation and differentiation. This decrease, which occurs despite protein synthetic blockade, is attributable to transcriptional down-regulation of c-myc and is accompanied by changes in chromatin structure near c-myc promoter sites. Our findings establish that cAMP, a ubiquitous intracellular regulatory messenger previously known only to enhance gene transcriptional activity in higher eukaryotic cells, can also suppress transcription of a cellular oncogene, thereby suggesting a potential mechanism for cAMP-promoted differentiation. Images PMID:2437157

  4. Hepatitis C Virus Increases Free Fatty Acids Absorption and Promotes its Replication Via Down-Regulating GADD45α Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xiao-ming; Li, An-ling; Yang, Gui; Hu, Han-ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as a major cause of chronic hepatic diseases, is always accompanied with an abnormality of lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenic role of free fatty acids (FFA) in human HCV infection. Material/Methods Peripheral blood lipid indexes among HCV patients with different viral loads (199 samples) and healthy donors (80 samples) were detected by clinical biochemistry tests. HCV replication and the expression of growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible gene 45-α (GADD45α) in Huh7 cells and clinical samples were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Lipid accumulation in Huh7 cells was detected by immunofluorescence. Results In this study, we found that FFA showed a significant positive correlation with viral load in peripheral blood of HCV patients, but not total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). GADD45α expression in HCV patients dramatically decreased with the increase of viral load. In Huh7 cells, FFA treatment significantly enhanced HCV replication. HCV infection inhibited GADD45α expression, and this effect was further enhanced with the presence of FFA treatment. Ectopic expression of GADD45α in HCV-infected Huh7 cells markedly inhibited the absorption of FFA and HCV replication. However, FFA significantly elevated GADD45α expression without HCV infection. Conclusions These results demonstrated that HCV down-regulates GADD45α expression to enhance FFA absorption and thus facilitate its replication. GADD45α is an essential mediator for the pathogenesis of HCV infection. Thus, our study provides potential clues in the search for novel therapeutics and fatty lipid control options for HCV patients. PMID:27381636

  5. Role of hepatitis B virus X repression of C/EBPbeta activity in the down-regulation of glutathione S-transferase A2 gene: implications in other phase II detoxifying enzyme expression.

    PubMed

    Cho, I J; Ki, S H; Brooks, C; Kim, S G

    2009-02-01

    1. A genome-wide in silico screening rendered the genes of phase II enzymes in the rat genome whose promoters contain the putative DNA elements interacting with CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) and NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2). The hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein strongly modulates the transactivation and/or the repression of genes regulated by some bZIP transcription factors. 2. This study investigated the effects of HBx on the induction of phase II enzymes with the aim of elucidating the role of HBx interaction with C/EBPbeta or Nrf2 bZIP transcription factors in hepatocyte-derived cells. 3. Immunoblot and reporter gene analyses revealed that transfection of HBx interfered with the constitutive and inducible GSTA2 transactivation promoted by oltipraz (C/EBPbeta activator), but not that by tert-butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ, Nrf2 activator). Moreover, HBx transfection completely inhibited GSTA2 reporter gene activity induced by C/EBPbeta, but failed to inhibit that by Nrf2. 4. Gel shift assays identified that HBx inhibited the increase in C/EBPbeta-DNA complex formation by oltipraz, but not the increase in Nrf2-DNA complex by t-BHQ. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblot assays verified the direct interaction between HBx and C/EBPbeta. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed HBx inhibition of C/EBPbeta binding to its binding site in the GSTA2 gene promoter. HBx repressed the induction of other phase II enzymes including GSTP, UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1A, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, GSTM1, GSTM2, and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthase. 5. These results demonstrate that HBx inhibits the induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes, which is mediated by its interaction with C/EBPbeta, but not Nrf2, substantiating the specific role of HBx in phase II detoxifying capacity.

  6. Pseudomonas syringae Effector Avirulence Protein E Localizes to the Host Plasma Membrane and Down-Regulates the Expression of the NONRACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1/HARPIN-INDUCED1-LIKE13 Gene Required for Antibacterial Immunity in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiu-Fang; Nomura, Kinya; Ding, Xinhua; Chen, Xujun; Wang, Kun; Aung, Kyaw; Uribe, Francisco; Rosa, Bruce; Yao, Jian; Chen, Jin; He, Sheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens of plants and animals deliver effector proteins into host cells to promote infection. Elucidation of how pathogen effector proteins function not only is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis but also provides a useful tool in discovering the functions of host genes. In this study, we characterized the Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 effector protein Avirulence Protein E (AvrE), the founding member of a widely distributed, yet functionally enigmatic, bacterial effector family. We show that AvrE is localized in the plasma membrane (PM) and PM-associated vesicle-like structures in the plant cell. AvrE contains two physically interacting domains, and the amino-terminal portion contains a PM-localization signal. Genome-wide microarray analysis indicates that AvrE, as well as the functionally redundant effector Hypersensitive response and pathogenicity-dependent Outer Protein M1, down-regulates the expression of the NONRACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1/HARPIN-INDUCED1-LIKE13 (NHL13) gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Mutational analysis shows that NHL13 is required for plant immunity, as the nhl13 mutant plant displayed enhanced disease susceptibility. Our results defined the action site of one of the most important bacterial virulence proteins in plants and the antibacterial immunity function of the NHL13 gene. PMID:26206852

  7. Specific down-regulation of spermatogenesis genes targeted by 22G RNAs in hybrid sterile males associated with an X-Chromosome introgression.

    PubMed

    Li, Runsheng; Ren, Xiaoliang; Bi, Yu; Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; Hsieh, Chia-Ling; Young, Amanda; Zhang, Zhihong; Lin, Tingting; Zhao, Yanmei; Miao, Long; Sarkies, Peter; Zhao, Zhongying

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid incompatibility (HI) prevents gene flow between species, thus lying at the heart of speciation genetics. One of the most common HIs is male sterility. Two superficially contradictory observations exist for hybrid male sterility. First, an introgression on the X Chromosome is more likely to produce male sterility than on autosome (so-called large-X theory); second, spermatogenesis genes are enriched on the autosomes but depleted on the X Chromosome (demasculinization of X Chromosome). Analysis of gene expression in Drosophila hybrids suggests a genetic interaction between the X Chromosome and autosomes that is essential for male fertility. However, the prevalence of such an interaction and its underlying mechanism remain largely unknown. Here we examine the interaction in nematode species by contrasting the expression of both coding genes and transposable elements (TEs) between hybrid sterile males and its parental nematode males. We use two lines of hybrid sterile males, each carrying an independent introgression fragment from Caenorhabditis briggsae X Chromosome in an otherwise Caenorhabditis nigoni background, which demonstrate similar defects in spermatogenesis. We observe a similar pattern of down-regulated genes that are specific for spermatogenesis between the two hybrids. Importantly, the down-regulated genes caused by the X Chromosome introgressions show a significant enrichment on the autosomes, supporting an epistatic interaction between the X Chromosome and autosomes. We investigate the underlying mechanism of the interaction by measuring small RNAs and find that a subset of 22G RNAs specifically targeting the down-regulated spermatogenesis genes is significantly up-regulated in hybrids, suggesting that perturbation of small RNA-mediated regulation may contribute to the X-autosome interaction.

  8. Specific down-regulation of spermatogenesis genes targeted by 22G RNAs in hybrid sterile males associated with an X-Chromosome introgression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Runsheng; Ren, Xiaoliang; Bi, Yu; Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; Hsieh, Chia-Ling; Young, Amanda; Zhang, Zhihong; Lin, Tingting; Zhao, Yanmei; Miao, Long; Sarkies, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid incompatibility (HI) prevents gene flow between species, thus lying at the heart of speciation genetics. One of the most common HIs is male sterility. Two superficially contradictory observations exist for hybrid male sterility. First, an introgression on the X Chromosome is more likely to produce male sterility than on autosome (so-called large-X theory); second, spermatogenesis genes are enriched on the autosomes but depleted on the X Chromosome (demasculinization of X Chromosome). Analysis of gene expression in Drosophila hybrids suggests a genetic interaction between the X Chromosome and autosomes that is essential for male fertility. However, the prevalence of such an interaction and its underlying mechanism remain largely unknown. Here we examine the interaction in nematode species by contrasting the expression of both coding genes and transposable elements (TEs) between hybrid sterile males and its parental nematode males. We use two lines of hybrid sterile males, each carrying an independent introgression fragment from Caenorhabditis briggsae X Chromosome in an otherwise Caenorhabditis nigoni background, which demonstrate similar defects in spermatogenesis. We observe a similar pattern of down-regulated genes that are specific for spermatogenesis between the two hybrids. Importantly, the down-regulated genes caused by the X Chromosome introgressions show a significant enrichment on the autosomes, supporting an epistatic interaction between the X Chromosome and autosomes. We investigate the underlying mechanism of the interaction by measuring small RNAs and find that a subset of 22G RNAs specifically targeting the down-regulated spermatogenesis genes is significantly up-regulated in hybrids, suggesting that perturbation of small RNA-mediated regulation may contribute to the X-autosome interaction. PMID:27197225

  9. SKP2 siRNA inhibits the degradation of P27kip1 and down-regulates the expression of MRP in HL-60/A cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Yin, Songmei; Li, Yiqing; Xie, Shuangfeng; Nie, Danian; Ma, Liping; Wang, Xiuju; Wu, Yudan; Feng, Jianhong

    2009-08-01

    S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) gene is a tumor suppressor gene, and is involved in the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of P27kip1. SKP2 and P27kip1 affect the proceeding and prognosis of leukemia through regulating the proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of leukemia cells. In this study, we explored the mechanism of reversing of HL-60/A drug resistance through SKP2 down-regulation. HL-60/A cells were nucleofected by Amaxa Nucleofector System with SKP2 siRNA. The gene and protein expression levels of Skp2, P27kip1, and multi-drug resistance associated protein (MRP) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The 50% inhibitory concentration value was calculated using cytotoxic analysis according to the death rate of these two kinds of cells under different concentrations of chemotherapeutics to compare the sensitivity of the cells. HL-60/A cells showed multi-drug resistance phenotype characteristic by cross-resistance to adriamycin, daunorubicin, and arabinosylcytosine, due to the expression of MRP. We found that the expression of SKP2 was higher in HL-60/A cells than in HL-60 cells, but the expression of P27kip1 was lower. The expression of SKP2 in HL-60/A cells nucleofected by SKP2 siRNA was down-regulated whereas the protein level of P27kip1 was up-regulated. Compared with the MRP expression level in the control group (nucleofected by control siRNA), the mRNA and protein expression levels of MRP in HL-60/A cells nucleofected by SKP2 siRNA were lower, and the latter cells were more sensitive to adriamycin, daunorubicin, and arabinosylcytosine. Down-regulating the SKP2 expression and arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase improve drug sensitivity of leukemia cells with down-regulated MRP expression.

  10. Down-regulation of GIGANTEA-like genes increases plant growth and salt stress tolerance in poplar.

    PubMed

    Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Ho Soo; Wang, Zhi; Ji, Chang Yoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Choi, Young-Im; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xiping; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2017-03-01

    The flowering time regulator GIGANTEA (GI) connects networks involved in developmental stage transitions and environmental stress responses in Arabidopsis. However, little is known about the role of GI in growth, development and responses to environmental challenges in the perennial plant poplar. Here, we identified and functionally characterized three GI-like genes (PagGIa, PagGIb and PagGIc) from poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). PagGIs are predominantly nuclear localized and their transcripts are rhythmically expressed, with a peak around zeitgeber time 12 under long-day conditions. Overexpressing PagGIs in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis induced early flowering and salt sensitivity, while overexpressing PagGIs in the gi-2 mutant completely or partially rescued its delayed flowering and enhanced salt tolerance phenotypes. Furthermore, the PagGIs-PagSOS2 complexes inhibited PagSOS2-regulated phosphorylation of PagSOS1 in the absence of stress, whereas these inhibitions were eliminated due to the degradation of PagGIs under salt stress. Down-regulation of PagGIs by RNA interference led to vigorous growth, higher biomass and enhanced salt stress tolerance in transgenic poplar plants. Taken together, these results indicate that several functions of Arabidopsis GI are conserved in its poplar orthologues, and they lay the foundation for developing new approaches to producing salt-tolerant trees for sustainable development on marginal lands worldwide.

  11. Rapamycin down-regulates LDL-receptor expression independently of SREBP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Laura J.; Brown, Andrew J.

    2008-09-05

    As a key regulator of cholesterol homeostasis, sterol-regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) up-regulates expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis (e.g., 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) Reductase) and uptake (the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor). Previously, we showed that Akt, a critical kinase in cell growth and proliferation, contributes to SREBP-2 activation. However, the specific Akt target involved is unknown. A potential candidate is the mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR. Rapamycin can cause hyperlipidaemia clinically, and we hypothesised that this may be mediated via an effect of mTOR on SREBP-2. Herein, we found that SREBP-2 activation and HMG-CoA Reductase gene expression were unaffected by rapamycin treatment. However, LDL-receptor gene expression was decreased by rapamycin, suggesting that this may contribute to the hyperlipidaemia observed in rapamycin-treated patients. Rapamycin did not affect mRNA stability, so the decrease in LDL-receptor gene expression is likely to be occurring at the transcriptional level, although independently of SREBP-2.

  12. Icariin inhibits foam cell formation by down-regulating the expression of CD36 and up-regulating the expression of SR-BI.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haitao; Yan, Lijie; Qian, Peng; Duan, Hongyan; Wu, Jintao; Li, Bing; Wang, Shanling

    2015-04-01

    Icariin is an important pharmacologically active flavonol diglycoside that can inhibit inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of Icariin in the formation of foam cells. In this study, macrophages were cultured with LPS and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in the presence or absence of Icariin. RT-PCR and western blot were used to detect the levels of mRNA and protein expression of CD36, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and the phosphorylation of p38MAPK. It was demonstrated that 4 µM or 20 µM Icariin treatment significantly inhibited the cholesterol ester (CE)/total cholesterol (TC) and oxLDL-mediated foam cell formation (P < 0.05). The binding of oxLDL to LPS-activated macrophages was also significantly hindered by Icariin (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Icariin down-regulated the expression of CD36 in LPS-activated macrophages in a dose-dependent manner and CD36 over-expression restored the inhibitory effect of Icariin on foam cell formation. The phosphorylation of p38MAPK was reduced by Icariin, indicating that Icariin reduced the expression of CD36 through the p38MAPK pathway. In addition, Icariin up-regulated SR-BI protein expression in a dose-dependent manner, and SR-BI gene silencing restored the inhibitory effect of Icariin on foam cell formation. These data demonstrate that Icariin inhibited foam cell formation by down-regulating the expression of CD36 and up-regulating the expression of SR-BI. Therefore, our findings provide a new explanation as to why Icariin could inhibit atherosclerosis.

  13. Interferons alpha and beta down-regulate the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in human carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, R K; Gutman, M; Bucana, C D; Sanchez, R; Llansa, N; Fidler, I J

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the influence of interferons alpha, beta, and gamma (IFN-alpha, -beta, and -gamma) on the production of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) by human renal carcinoma cells. The human renal carcinoma cell metastatic line SN12PM6 was established in culture from a lung metastasis and SN12PM6-resistant cells were selected in vitro for resistance to the antiproliferative effects of IFN-alpha or IFN-beta. IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, but not IFN-gamma, down-regulated the expression of bFGF at the mRNA and protein levels by a mechanism independent of their antiproliferative effects. Down-regulation of bFGF required a long exposure (> 4 days) of cells to low concentrations (> 10 units/ml) of IFN-alpha or IFN-beta. The withdrawal of IFN-alpha or IFN-beta from the medium permitted SN12PM6-resistant cells to resume production of bFGF. The incubation of human bladder, prostate, colon, and breast carcinoma cells with noncytostatic concentrations of IFN-alpha or IFN-beta also produced down-regulation of bFGF production. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7753843

  14. Pioglitazone reverses down-regulation of cardiac PPAR{gamma} expression in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pelzer, Theo . E-mail: pelzer_t@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Jazbutyte, Virginija; Arias-Loza, Paula Anahi; Segerer, Stephan; Lichtenwald, Margit; Law, Marilyn P.; Schaefers, Michael; Ertl, Georg; Neyses, Ludwig

    2005-04-08

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) plays a critical role in peripheral glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, and inhibits cardiac hypertrophy in non-diabetic animal models. The functional role of PPAR{gamma} in the diabetic heart, however, is not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed cardiac gene expression, metabolic control, and cardiac glucose uptake in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF fa/fa) and lean ZDF rats (+/+) treated with the high affinity PPAR{gamma} agonist pioglitazone or placebo from 12 to 24 weeks of age. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia as well as lower cardiac PPAR{gamma}, glucose transporter-4 and {alpha}-myosin heavy chain expression levels were detected in diabetic ZDF rats compared to lean animals. Pioglitazone increased body weight and improved metabolic control, cardiac PPAR{gamma}, glut-4, and {alpha}-MHC expression levels in diabetic ZDF rats. Cardiac [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was not detectable by micro-PET studies in untreated and pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats but was observed after administration of insulin to pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats. PPAR{gamma} agonists favorably affect cardiac gene expression in type-2 diabetic rats via activation and up-regulation of cardiac PPAR{gamma} expression whereas improvement of impaired cardiac glucose uptake in advanced type-2 diabetes requires co-administration of insulin.

  15. PI3K/Akt pathway restricts epithelial adhesion of Dr+ Escherichia coli by down-regulating the expression of Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF)

    PubMed Central

    Banadakoppa, Manu; Goluszko, Pawel; Liebenthal, Daniel; Nowicki, Bogdan J.; Nowicki, Stella; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    The urogenital microbial infection in pregnancy is an important cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains which express Dr fimbriae (Dr+) are associated with unique gestational virulence and they utilize cell surface decay accelerating factor (DAF or CD55) as one of the cellular receptor before invading the epithelial cells. Previous studies in our laboratory established that nitric oxide reduces the rate of E. coli invasion by delocalizing the DAF protein from cell surface lipid rafts and down-regulating its expression. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/ protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) cell signal pathway plays an important role in host-microbe interaction because many bacteria including E. coli activate this pathway in order to establish infection. In the present study we showed that the PI3K/Akt pathway negatively regulates the expression of DAF on the epithelial cell surface and thus inhibits the adhesion of Dr+ E. coli to epithelial cells. Initially, using two human cell lines Ishikawa and HeLa which differ in constitutive activity of PI3K/Akt we showed that DAF levels were associated with the PI3K/Akt pathway. We then showed that the DAF gene expression was up-regulated and the Dr+ E. coli adhesion increased after the suppression of PI3K/Akt pathway in Ishikawa cells using inhibitor LY-294002, and a plasmid which allowed the expression of PI3K/Akt regulatory protein PTEN. The down-regulation of PTEN protein using PTEN-specific siRNA activated the PI3K/Akt pathway, down-regulated the DAF and decreased the adhesion of Dr+ E. coli. We conclude that the PI3K/Akt pathway regulated the DAF expression in a nitric oxide independent manner. PMID:24599886

  16. Royal jelly reduces melanin synthesis through down-regulation of tyrosinase expression.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Mi; Yeo, Joo Hong; Cho, Yoon Hee; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2011-01-01

    For cosmetic reasons, the demand for effective and safe skin-whitening agents is high. Since the key enzyme in the melanin synthetic pathway is tyrosinase, many depigmenting agents in the treatment of hyperpigmentation act as tyrosinase inhibitors. In this study, we have investigated the hypo-pigmentary mechanism of royal jelly in a mouse melanocyte cell line, B16F1. Treatment of B16F1 cells with royal jelly markedly inhibited melanin biosynthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Decreased melanin content occurred through the decrease of tyrosinase activity. The mRNA levels of tyrosinase were also reduced by royal jelly. These results suggest that royal jelly reduces melanin synthesis by down-regulation of tyrosinase mRNA transcription and serves as a new candidate in the design of new skin-whitening or therapeutic agents.

  17. Lack of Clinical Manifestations in Asymptomatic Dengue Infection Is Attributed to Broad Down-Regulation and Selective Up-Regulation of Host Defence Response Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Adeline S. L.; Azhar, Nur Atiqah; Yeow, Wanyi; Talbot, C. Conover; Khan, Mohammad Asif; Shankar, Esaki M.; Rathakrishnan, Anusyah; Azizan, Azliyati; Wang, Seok Mui; Lee, Siew Kim; Fong, Mun Yik; Manikam, Rishya; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Dengue represents one of the most serious life-threatening vector-borne infectious diseases that afflicts approximately 50 million people across the globe annually. Whilst symptomatic infections are frequently reported, asymptomatic dengue remains largely unnoticed. Therefore, we sought to investigate the immune correlates conferring protection to individuals that remain clinically asymptomatic. Methods We determined the levels of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and gene expression profiles of host immune factors in individuals with asymptomatic infections, and whose cognate household members showed symptoms consistent to clinical dengue infection. Results We observed broad down-regulation of host defense response (innate, adaptive and matrix metalloprotease) genes in asymptomatic individuals as against symptomatic patients, with selective up-regulation of distinct genes that have been associated with protection. Selected down-regulated genes include: TNF α (TNF), IL8, C1S, factor B (CFB), IL2, IL3, IL4, IL5, IL8, IL9, IL10 and IL13, CD80, CD28, and IL18, MMP8, MMP10, MMP12, MMP15, MMP16, and MMP24. Selected up-regulated genes include: RANTES (CCL5), MIP-1α (CCL3L1/CCL3L3), MIP-1β (CCL4L1), TGFβ (TGFB), and TIMP1. Conclusion Our findings highlight the potential association of certain host genes conferring protection against clinical dengue. These data are valuable to better explore the mysteries behind the hitherto poorly understood immunopathogenesis of subclinical dengue infection. PMID:24727912

  18. IgG1 cytoplasmic tail is essential for cell surface expression in Igβ down-regulated cells.

    PubMed

    Todo, Kagefumi; Koga, Orie; Nishikawa, Miwako; Hikida, Masaki

    2014-03-14

    It has been shown that cytoplasmic tail of the IgG1 B cell receptors (BCRs) are essential for the induction of T-dependent immune responses. Also it has been revealed that unique tyrosine residue in the cytoplasmic tail of IgG2a has the potential of being phosphorylated at tyrosine and that this phosphorylation modulates BCR signaling. However, it still remains unclear whether such phosphorylation of IgG cytoplasmic tail is involved in the regulation of BCR surface expression. In order to approach the issue, we established and analyzed the cell lines which express wild-type or mutated forms of IgG1 BCR. As the result, we found that IgG1 BCR expressed normally on the surface of A20 B cell line independent of the cytoplasmic tail. In contrast, IgG1 BCR whose cytoplasmic tyrosine was replaced with glutamic acid which mimics phosphorylated tyrosine, was expressed most efficiently on the surface of non-B lineage cells and Igβ-down-regulated B cell lines. These results suggest that tyrosine residue in IgG cytoplasmic tail is playing a essential role for the efficient expression of IgG BCR on the cell surface when BCR associated signaling molecules, including Igβ, are down-regulated.

  19. YM155 sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through cathepsin S-dependent down-regulation of Mcl-1 and NF-κB-mediated down-regulation of c-FLIP expression in human renal carcinoma Caki cells

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Bo Ram; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2016-01-01

    YM155, a small-molecule survivin inhibitor, has been reported for its anti-cancer activity in various cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of YM155 to enhance TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells. We found that YM155 alone had no effect on apoptosis, however, combined treatment with YM155 and TRAIL markedly induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells (Caki, ACHN, and A498), breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231), and glioma cells (U251MG), but not normal cells [mesangial cell (MC) and human skin fibroblast (HSF)]. YM155 induced down-regulation of Mcl-1 expression at the post-translational levels, and the overexpression of Mcl-1 markedly inhibited YM155 plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, YM155 induced down-regulation of c-FLIP mRNA expression through inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional activity. Ectopic expression of c-FLIP markedly blocked YM155-induced TRAIL sensitization. Taken together, our results suggested that YM155 sensitizes TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via down-regulation of Mcl-1 and c-FLIP expression in renal carcinoma Caki cells. PMID:27528031

  20. Down regulation of gene related sex hormone synthesis pathway in mouse testes by miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2011-12-01

    Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol are phytoestrogens isolated from tuberous root of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica. Modulatory effects of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol on enzymes involved in sex-hormone synthesis pathway in male C57BL/6 mice were investigated using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol suppressed the expressions of 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD1, and CYP17 while CYP19 mRNA expression was slightly decreased. In addition, the expression of 17β-HSD2 was induced in correlation with those did by estradiol. These observations supported that miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol could exhibit the same effect as estradiol regarding regulation of testicular gene related sex hormone synthesis pathway.

  1. Strong down-regulation of glycophorin genes: A host defense mechanism against rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Salas, Antonio; Marco-Puche, Guillermo; Triviño, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Cebey-López, Miriam; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Vilanova-Trillo, Lucía; Rodríguez-Tenreiro, Carmen; Gómez-Rial, José; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms of rotavirus (RV) infection have been analyzed from different angles but the way in which RV modifies the transcriptome of the host is still unknown. Whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing of peripheral blood samples was used to reveal patterns of expression from the genome of RV-infected patients. RV provokes global changes in the transcriptome of infected cells, involving an over-expression of genes involved in cell cycle and chromatin condensation. While interferon IFI27 was hyper-activated, interferon type II was not suggesting that RV has developed mechanisms to evade the innate response by host cells after virus infection. Most interesting was the inhibition of genes of the glycophorins A and B (GYPA/B) family, which are the major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane and receptor of several viruses for host invasion. RV infection induces a complex and global response in the host. The strong inhibition of glycophorins suggests a novel defense mechanism of the host to prevent viral infection, inhibiting the expression of receptors used by the virus for infection. The present results add further support to the systemic nature of RV infection.

  2. Down-regulation of the tumor suppressor gene retinoic acid receptor beta2 through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Bruno; Brand, Céline; Flajollet, Sébastien; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2006-09-01

    The retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2) is a potent, retinoid-inducible tumor suppressor gene, which is a critical molecular relay for retinoid actions in cells. Its down-regulation, or loss of expression, leads to resistance of cancer cells to retinoid treatment. Up to now, no primary mechanism underlying the repression of the RARbeta2 gene expression, hence affecting cellular retinoid sensitivity, has been identified. Here, we demonstrate that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway affects cellular retinoid sensitivity, by regulating corepressor recruitment to the RARbeta2 promoter. Through direct phosphorylation of the corepressor silencing mediator for retinoic and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT), Akt stabilized RAR/SMRT interaction, leading to an increased tethering of SMRT to the RARbeta2 promoter, decreased histone acetylation, down-regulation of the RARbeta2 expression, and impaired cellular differentiation in response to retinoid. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, an important modulator of cellular survival, has thus a direct impact on cellular retinoid sensitivity, and its deregulation may be the triggering event in retinoid resistance of cancer cells.

  3. MARCH1 down-regulation in IL-10-activated B cells increases MHC class II expression.

    PubMed

    Galbas, Tristan; Steimle, Viktor; Lapointe, Réjean; Ishido, Satoshi; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    IL-10 is vastly studied for its anti-inflammatory properties on most immune cells. However, it has been reported that IL-10 activates B cells, up-regulates their MHC class II molecules and prevents apoptosis. As MARCH1 was shown to be responsible for the intracellular sequestration of MHC class II molecules in dendritic cells and monocytes in response to IL-10, we set out to clarify the role of this ubiquitin ligase in B cells. Here, we demonstrate in mice that splenic follicular B cells represent the major cell population that up-regulate MHC II molecules in the presence of IL-10. Activation of these cells through TLR4, CD40 or the IL-10 receptor caused the down-regulation of MARCH1 mRNA. Accordingly, B cells from MARCH1-deficient mice do not up-regulate I-A(b) in response to IL-10. In all, our results demonstrate that IL-10 can have opposite effects on MARCH1 regulation in different cell types.

  4. MiR-29b inhibits collagen maturation in hepatic stellate cells through down-regulating the expression of HSP47 and lysyl oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yifei; Ghazwani, Mohammed; Li, Jiang; Sun, Ming; Stolz, Donna B.; He, Fengtian; Fan, Jie; Xie, Wen; Li, Song

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Enhanced HSP47 and LOX expression is associated with decreased miR-29b level in liver fibrosis. • miR-29b down-regulates HSP47 and LOX expression. • The suppression of HSP47 and LOX by miR-29b is mediated by putative sites at their 3′-UTRs. • miR-29b inhibits extracellular LOX activity and collagen maturation. - Abstract: Altered expression of miR-29b is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of liver fibrosis. We and others previously demonstrated that miR-29b down-regulates the expression of several extracellular-matrix (ECM) genes including Col 1A1, Col 3A1 and Elastin via directly targeting their 3′-UTRs. However, whether or not miR-29b plays a role in the post-translational regulation of ECM biosynthesis has not been reported. Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) are known to be essential for ECM maturation. In this study we have demonstrated that expression of HSP47 and LOX was significantly up-regulated in culture-activated primary rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), TGF-β stimulated LX-2 cells and liver tissue of CCl{sub 4}-treated mice, which was accompanied by a decrease of miR-29b level. In addition, over-expression of miR-29b in LX-2 cells resulted in significant inhibition on HSP47 and LOX expression. Mechanistically, miR-29b inhibited the expression of a reporter gene that contains the respective full-length 3′-UTR from HSP47 and LOX gene, and this inhibitory effect was abolished by the deletion of a putative miR-29b targeting sequence from the 3′-UTRs. Transfection of LX-2 cells with miR-29b led to abnormal collagen structure as shown by electron-microscopy, presumably through down-regulation of the expression of molecules involved in ECM maturation including HSP47 and LOX. These results demonstrated that miR-29b is involved in regulating the post-translational processing of ECM and fibril formation.

  5. Down-regulation apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 gene reduced the Litopenaeus vannamei hemocyte apoptosis in WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feng-Hua; Chen, Yong-Gui; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yue, Hai-Tao; Bi, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Kai; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, is crucial in various cellular responses. In the present study, we identified and characterized an ASK1 homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvASK1). The full-length cDNA of LvASK1 was 5400 bp long, with an open reading frame encoding a putative 1420 amino acid protein. LvASK1 was highly expressed in muscle, hemocyte, eyestalk and heart. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of the LvASK1 was upregulated during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The knocked-down expression of LvASK1 by RNA interference significantly reduced the apoptotic ratio of the hemocytes collected from WSSV-infected L. vannamei. Furthermore, the down-regulation of LvASK1 also decreased the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected L. vannamei. These results suggested that down-regulation of LvASK1 decreased the apoptotic rate of hemocytes in WSSV-infected shrimp, and that it could contribute to the reduction of cumulative mortality in WSSV-infected L. vannamei.

  6. Down-regulation of honey bee IRS gene biases behavior toward food rich in protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Mutti, Navdeep S; Ihle, Kate E; Siegel, Adam; Dolezal, Adam G; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Amdam, Gro V

    2010-04-01

    Food choice and eating behavior affect health and longevity. Large-scale research efforts aim to understand the molecular and social/behavioral mechanisms of energy homeostasis, body weight, and food intake. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) could provide a model for these studies since individuals vary in food-related behavior and social factors can be controlled. Here, we examine a potential role of peripheral insulin receptor substrate (IRS) expression in honey bee foraging behavior. IRS is central to cellular nutrient sensing through transduction of insulin/insulin-like signals (IIS). By reducing peripheral IRS gene expression and IRS protein amount with the use of RNA interference (RNAi), we demonstrate that IRS influences foraging choice in two standard strains selected for different food-hoarding behavior. Compared with controls, IRS knockdowns bias their foraging effort toward protein (pollen) rather than toward carbohydrate (nectar) sources. Through control experiments, we establish that IRS does not influence the bees' sucrose sensory response, a modality that is generally associated with food-related behavior and specifically correlated with the foraging preference of honey bees. These results reveal a new affector pathway of honey bee social foraging, and suggest that IRS expressed in peripheral tissue can modulate an insect's foraging choice between protein and carbohydrate sources.

  7. The C-Terminal Domain of Nrf1 Negatively Regulates the Full-Length CNC-bZIP Factor and Its Shorter Isoform LCR-F1/Nrf1β; Both Are Also Inhibited by the Small Dominant-Negative Nrf1γ/δ Isoforms that Down-Regulate ARE-Battery Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiguo; Qiu, Lu; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Chen, Jiayu; Ren, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD, aa 686–741) of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 1 (Nrf1) shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the equivalent Neh3 domain of Nrf2, a homologous transcription factor. The Neh3 positively regulates Nrf2, but whether the Neh3-like (Neh3L) CTD of Nrf1 has a similar role in regulating Nrf1-target gene expression is unknown. Herein, we report that CTD negatively regulates the full-length Nrf1 (i.e. 120-kDa glycoprotein and 95-kDa deglycoprotein) and its shorter isoform LCR-F1/Nrf1β (55-kDa). Attachment of its CTD-adjoining 112-aa to the C-terminus of Nrf2 yields the chimaeric Nrf2-C112Nrf1 factor with a markedly decreased activity. Live-cell imaging of GFP-CTD reveals that the extra-nuclear portion of the fusion protein is allowed to associate with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane through the amphipathic Neh3L region of Nrf1 and its basic c-tail. Thus removal of either the entire CTD or the essential Neh3L portion within CTD from Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β and Nrf2-C112Nrf1, results in an increase in their transcriptional ability to regulate antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven reporter genes. Further examinations unravel that two smaller isoforms, 36-kDa Nrf1γ and 25-kDa Nrf1δ, act as dominant-negative inhibitors to compete against Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β and Nrf2. Relative to Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β is a weak activator, that is positively regulated by its Asn/Ser/Thr-rich (NST) domain and acidic domain 2 (AD2). Like AD1 of Nrf1, both AD2 and NST domain of LCR-F1/Nrf1β fused within two different chimaeric contexts to yield Gal4D:Nrf1β607 and Nrf1β:C270Nrf2, positively regulate their transactivation activity of cognate Gal4- and Nrf2-target reporter genes. More importantly, differential expression of endogenous ARE-battery genes is attributable to up-regulation by Nrf1 and LCR-F1/Nrf1β and down-regulation by Nrf1γ and Nrf1δ. PMID:25290918

  8. The C-terminal domain of Nrf1 negatively regulates the full-length CNC-bZIP factor and its shorter isoform LCR-F1/Nrf1β; both are also inhibited by the small dominant-negative Nrf1γ/δ isoforms that down-regulate ARE-battery gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiguo; Qiu, Lu; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Chen, Jiayu; Ren, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD, aa 686-741) of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 1 (Nrf1) shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the equivalent Neh3 domain of Nrf2, a homologous transcription factor. The Neh3 positively regulates Nrf2, but whether the Neh3-like (Neh3L) CTD of Nrf1 has a similar role in regulating Nrf1-target gene expression is unknown. Herein, we report that CTD negatively regulates the full-length Nrf1 (i.e. 120-kDa glycoprotein and 95-kDa deglycoprotein) and its shorter isoform LCR-F1/Nrf1β (55-kDa). Attachment of its CTD-adjoining 112-aa to the C-terminus of Nrf2 yields the chimaeric Nrf2-C112Nrf1 factor with a markedly decreased activity. Live-cell imaging of GFP-CTD reveals that the extra-nuclear portion of the fusion protein is allowed to associate with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane through the amphipathic Neh3L region of Nrf1 and its basic c-tail. Thus removal of either the entire CTD or the essential Neh3L portion within CTD from Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β and Nrf2-C112Nrf1, results in an increase in their transcriptional ability to regulate antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven reporter genes. Further examinations unravel that two smaller isoforms, 36-kDa Nrf1γ and 25-kDa Nrf1δ, act as dominant-negative inhibitors to compete against Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β and Nrf2. Relative to Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β is a weak activator, that is positively regulated by its Asn/Ser/Thr-rich (NST) domain and acidic domain 2 (AD2). Like AD1 of Nrf1, both AD2 and NST domain of LCR-F1/Nrf1β fused within two different chimaeric contexts to yield Gal4D:Nrf1β607 and Nrf1β:C270Nrf2, positively regulate their transactivation activity of cognate Gal4- and Nrf2-target reporter genes. More importantly, differential expression of endogenous ARE-battery genes is attributable to up-regulation by Nrf1 and LCR-F1/Nrf1β and down-regulation by Nrf1γ and Nrf1δ.

  9. Down-regulation of a novel ABC transporter gene (Pxwhite) is associated with Cry1Ac resistance in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Jixing; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-04-01

    Biopesticides or transgenic crops based on Cry toxins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) effectively control agricultural insect pests. The sustainable use of Bt biopesticides and Bt crops is threatened, however, by the development of Cry resistance in the target pests. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is the first pest that developed resistance to a Bt biopesticide in the field, and a recent study has shown that the resistance of P. xylostella to Cry1Ac is caused by a mutation in an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene (ABCC2). In this study, we report that down-regulation of a novel ABC transporter gene from ABCG subfamily (Pxwhite) is associated with Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella. The full-length cDNA sequence of Pxwhite was cloned and analyzed. Spatial-temporal expression detection revealed that Pxwhite was expressed in all tissues and developmental stages, and highest expressed in Malpighian tubule tissue and in egg stage. Sequence variation analysis of Pxwhite indicated the absence of constant non-synonymous mutations between susceptible and resistant strains, whereas midgut transcript analysis showed that Pxwhite was remarkably reduced in all resistant strains and further reduced when larvae of the moderately resistant SZ-R strain were subjected to selection with Cry1Ac toxin. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated suppression of Pxwhite gene expression significantly reduced larval susceptibility to Cry1Ac toxin, and genetic linkage analysis confirmed that down-regulation of Pxwhite gene is tightly linked to Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that Pxwhite gene is involved in Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella.

  10. Global transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood identifies the most significantly down-regulated genes associated with metabolism regulation in Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Deng, Hua; Chang, Liang; Liu, Qinli; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine differences in gene expression patterns between KS patients and control individuals to help identify disease-related genes and biological pathways. Gene expression profiles of five KS patients and five healthy men were determined by microarray; 21 differentially expressed genes with a fold-change >1.5 and q-value <0.05 were identified between the groups. Genes associated with metabolism regulation and encoding liver fatty acid-binding protein (FABP1), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L1 (ALDH1L1), and vitronectin (VTN) were the most-significantly down-regulated in KS, as confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Notably, none of these differentially expressed genes are normally found on the X chromosome. Thus, our results indicate that aberrant metabolism is involved in the pathogenesis of KS. Further elucidation of the how aberrant expression of metabolism-related genes affect the pathogenesis of KS may lead to the development of novel preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  11. Pamidronate Down-regulates Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induced Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression in Human Intervertebral Disc Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Young-Mi; Hong, Seong-Hwan; Yang, Jae-Ho; Oh, Jin-Cheol; Park, Jin-Oh; Lee, Byung Ho; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hak-Sun; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background N-containing bisphosphonates (BPs), such as pamidronate and risedronate, can inhibit osteoclastic function and reduce osteoclast number by inducing apoptotic cell death in osteoclasts. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effect of pamidronate, second generation nitrogen-containing BPs and to elucidate matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) mRNA expression under serum starvation and/or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulation on metabolism of intervertebral disc (IVD) cells in vitro. Methods Firstly, to test the effect of pamidronate on IVD cells in vitro, various concentrations (10-12, 10-10, 10-8, and 10-6 M) of pamidronate were administered to IVD cells. Then DNA and proteoglycan synthesis were measured and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of type I collagen, type II collagen, and aggrecan were analyzed. Secondly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in human IVD cells under the lower serum status, IVD cells were cultivated in full serum or 1% serum. Thirdly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in IVD cells under the stimulation of 1% serum and TNF-α (10 ng/mL) In this study, IVD cells were cultivated in three dimensional alginate bead. Results Under the lower serum culture, IVD cells in alginate beads showed upregulation of MMP 2, 3, 9, 13 mRNA. The cells in lower serum and TNF-α also demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2, 3, 9, and 13 mRNA. The cells with various doses of pamidronate and lower serum and TNF-α were reveled partial down-regulation of MMPs. Conclusions Pamidronate, N-containing second generation BPs, was safe in metabolism of IVD in vitro maintaining chondrogenic phenotype and matrix synthesis, and down-regulated TNF-α induced MMPs expression. PMID:27622181

  12. Oxidative stress and ROS metabolism via down-regulation of sirtuin 3 expression in Cmah-null mice affect hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase (Cmah) disruption caused several abnormalities and diseases including hearing loss in old age. However, underling molecular mechanisms that give rise to age-related hearing loss (AHL) in Cmah-null mouse are still obscure. In this study, Cmah-null mice showed age-related decline of hearing associated with loss of sensory hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and/or stria vascularis degeneration in the cochlea. To identify differential gene expression profiles and pathway associated with AHL, we performed microarray analysis using Illumina MouseRef-8 v2 Expression BeadChip and pathway-focused PCR array in the cochlear tissues of Cmah-null mouse. Pathway and molecular mechanism analysis using differentially expressed genes provided evidences that altered biological pathway due to oxidative damage by low expressed antioxidants and dysregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. Especially, low sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) gene expressions in Cmah-null mice decreased both of downstream regulator (Foxo1 and MnSod) and regulatory transcription factor (Hif1α and Foxo3a) gene expression. Taken together, we suggest that down-regulation of Sirt3 expression leads to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction by regulation of ROS and that it could alter various signaling pathways in Cmah-null mice with AHL. PMID:26319214

  13. Low-dose irradiation promotes Rad51 expression by down-regulating miR-193b-3p in hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eon-Seok; Won, Yeo Jin; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Park, Daeui; Bae, Jin-Han; Park, Seong-Joon; Noh, Sung Jin; Kang, Yeong-Rok; Choi, Si Ho; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Heo, Kyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Son, Tae Gen

    2016-05-01

    Current evidence indicates that there is a relationship between microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene silencing and low-dose irradiation (LDIR) responses. Here, alterations of miRNA expression in response to LDIR exposure in male BALB/c mice and three different types of hepatocytes were investigated. The miRNome of the LDIR-exposed mouse spleens (0.01 Gy, 6.5 mGy/h) was analyzed, and the expression of miRNA and mRNA was validated by qRT-PCR. Western blotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and luciferase assays were also performed to evaluate the interaction between miRNAs and their target genes and to gain insight into the regulation of miRNA expression. The expression of miRNA-193b-3p was down-regulated in the mouse spleen and liver and in various hepatocytes (NCTC, Hepa, and HepG2 cell lines) in response to LDIR. The down-regulation of miR-193b-3p expression was caused by histone deacetylation on the miR-193b-3p promoter in the HepG2 cells irradiated with 0.01 Gy. However, the alteration of histone deacetylation and miR-193b-3p and Rad51 expression in response to LDIR was restored by pretreatment with N-acetyl-cyctein. In conclusion, we provide evidence that miRNA responses to LDIR include the modulation of cellular stress responses and repair mechanisms.

  14. Calcitonin gene-related peptide down-regulates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Wei; Li, Xiao-Hui; Du, Jie; Li, Dai; Li, Yuan-Jian; Hu, Chang-Ping

    2016-12-01

    We have found that eIF3a plays an important role in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and up-regulation of eIF3a induced by TGF-β1 is mediated via the ERK1/2 pathway. Whether ERK1/2 - eIF3a signal pathway is involved in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-mediated pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis remains unknown. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (5 mg/kg) in rats. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts were cultured to investigate the proliferation by BrdU incorporation method and flow cytometry. Sensory CGRP depletion by capsaicin exacerbated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, as shown by a significant disturbed alveolar structure, marked thickening of the interalveolar septa and dense interstitial infiltration by inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, accompanied with increased expression of TGF-β1, eIF3a, phosphorylated ERK1/2, α-SMA, collagen I, and collagen III. Exogenous application of CGRP significantly inhibited TGF-β1-induced proliferation and differentiation of pulmonary fibroblasts concomitantly with decreased expression of eIF3a, phosphorylated ERK1/2, α-SMA, collagen I, and collagen III. These effects of CGRP were abolished in the presence of CGRP8-37. These results suggest that endogenous CGRP is related to the development of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin, and the inhibitory effect of CGRP on proliferation of lung fibroblasts involves the ERK1/2 - eIF3a signaling pathway.

  15. Transgenic mice overexpressing glia maturation factor-β, an oxidative stress inducible gene, show premature aging due to Zmpste24 down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Imai, Rika; Asai, Kanae; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Takenaka, Masaru

    2015-07-01

    Glia Maturation Factor-β (GMF), a brain specific protein, is induced by proteinuria in renal tubules. Ectopic GMF overexpression causes apoptosisin vitro via cellular vulnerability to oxidative stress. In order to examine the roles of GMF in non-brain tissue, we constructed transgenic mice overexpressing GMF (GMF-TG). The GMF-TG mice exhibited appearance phenotypes associated with premature aging. The GMF-TG mice also demonstrated short lifespans and reduced hair regrowth, suggesting an accelerated aging process. The production of an abnormal lamin A, a nuclear envelope protein, plays a causal role in both normal aging and accelerated aging diseases, known as laminopathies. Importantly, we identified the abnormal lamin A (prelamin A), accompanied by a down-regulation of a lamin A processing enzyme (Zmpste24) in the kidney of the GMF-TG mice. The GMF-TG mice showed accelerated aging in the kidney, compared with wild-type mice, showing increased TGF-β1, CTGF gene and serum creatinine. The gene expression of p21/waf1 was increased at an earlier stage of life, at 10 weeks, which was in turn down-regulated at a later stage, at 60 weeks. In conclusion, we propose that GMF-TG mice might be a novel mouse model of accelerated aging, due to the abnormal lamin A.

  16. Down-regulation of Notch1 expression is involved in HL-60 cell growth inhibition induced by 4-hydroxynonenal, a product of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Pizzimenti, Stefania; Barrera, Giuseppina; Calzavara, Elisabetta; Mirandola, Leonardo; Toaldo, Cristina; Dianzani, Mario Umberto; Comi, Paola; Chiaramonte, Raffaella

    2008-11-01

    The role of the Notch1 pathway has been well assessed in leukemia. Notch1 mutations are the most common ones in T acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients which carry either oncogenic Notch1 forms or ineffective ubiquitin ligase implicated in Notch1 turnover. Abnormalities in the Notch1-Jagged1 system have been reported also in acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) patients where Jagged1 is frequently over-expressed. Moreover, activating Notch1 mutations, as well, can occur in human AML and in leukemia cases with lineage infidelity. As a result, Notch1 signalling inhibition is an attractive goal in leukaemia therapy. Blockage/delay in cell differentiation and/or increase of proliferation are the main results of Notch1 signalling activation in several leukemic cell lines. Moreover, specific genes involved in cell growth control have been identified as Notch1 transcriptional targets, i.e. Cyclin D1 and c-Myc. 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), an aldehyde produced during lipid peroxidation, is involved in several pathological and physiological conditions, including inflammation; atherosclerosis; and neurodegenerative and chronic liver diseases. Moreover HNE has an antiproliferative/ differentiative effect in several cell lines, by affecting the expression of key genes, such as oncogenes (e.g. c-Myc, c-Myb), cyclins and telomerase. This prompted us to study the effect of HNE on Notch1 expression and its related signalling in HL-60 cells, a leukemic cell line widely used for differentiation studies. RT-PCR as well as Western blot assay showed Notch1down-regulation in HNE-treated HL-60 cells. The expression of Hes1, a Notch1 target gene, was concomitantly down-regulated by HNE treatment, reflecting Notch1 signalling inhibition. DAPT, an inhibitor of Notch activity, when added contemporary to HNE, further increased cell growth inhibition, without affecting apoptosis. Moreover, DAPT treatment reversed the HNE-induced differentiation. Overall these results suggest that Notch1 is a target

  17. Hsa-mir-182 suppresses lung tumorigenesis through down regulation of RGS17 expression in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yihua; Fang, Rong; Li, Chenguang; Li, Li; Li, Fei; Ye, Xiaolei; Chen, Haiquan

    2010-05-28

    Lung cancer is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. RGS17 is previously shown to be over-expressed in human lung adenocarcinomas and plays an important role in lung tumor growth. Here we have identified a miRNA, has-mir-182, involved in the regulation of RGS17 expression through two conserved sites located in its 3' UTR region. Consistently, endogenous RGS17 expression level is regulated by hsa-mir-182 in human lung cancer cell lines. Similar to the knockdown of RGS17, ectopic expression of hsa-mir-182 significantly inhibits lung cancer cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth, which can be rescued by re-expression of RGS17. Taken together, these data have provided the first evidence of miRNA regulation of RGS17 expression in lung cancer.

  18. Heme oxygenase-1 expression is down-regulated by angiotensin II and under hypertension in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Alba, Gonzalo; El Bekay, Rajaa; Chacón, Pedro; Reyes, M Edith; Ramos, Eladio; Oliván, Josefina; Jiménez, Juan; López, José M; Martín-Nieto, José; Pintado, Elízabeth; Sobrino, Francisco

    2008-08-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a peptide hormone able to elicit a strong production of reactive oxygen species by human neutrophils. In this work, we have addressed whether expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidant enzyme, becomes altered in these cells upon Ang II treatment or under hypertension conditions. In neutrophils from healthy and hypertensive subjects, induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein expression with a parallel increase in enzyme activity took place upon treatment with 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-PGJ2 (15dPGJ2). However, Ang II prevented HO-1 synthesis by normal neutrophils in vitro, and HO-1 expression was depressed in neutrophils from hypertensive patients in comparison with cells from healthy subjects. In addition, Ang II treatment led to a reduced HO-1 enzyme activity to levels similar to those found in neutrophils from hypertensive patients. NO donors reversed the inhibition of 15dPGJ2-dependent HO-1 expression in neutrophils from hypertensive patients, and conversely, inhibition of inducible NO synthase (NOS2) activity counteracted the stimulatory effect of 15dPGJ2 on HO-1 expression in normal human neutrophils. Moreover, Ang II canceled 15dPGJ2-dependent induction of NOS2 mRNA synthesis. Present findings indicate that down-regulation of HO-1 expression in neutrophils from hypertensive subjects is likely exerted through the inhibition of NOS2 expression. Additionally, they underscore the potential usefulness of NO donors as new, therapeutic agents against hypertension.

  19. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi knockdown of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibits the growth and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma via down-regulating midkine expression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiu Yan; Tang, Hui Jun; Wang, Min; Cao, Guo Li; Yi, Ting Zhuang; Wu, Sheng Lan; Xu, Wei Jie; Tang, Shao Hui

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) overexpression contributes to the development of a variety of cancers. The present study explored the role of IGF-1R in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the possibility of IGF-1R silencing by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) as a therapeutic target for HCC. We showed that IGF-1R mRNA was up-regulated in Huh7 and Hep3B cells and human HCC tissues, and that IGF-1R knockdown by RNAi led to decreased proliferation, apoptosis induction, and decreased migration and invasion of Huh7 and Hep3B cells. Further, the in vivo study indicated that IGF-1R knockdown markedly diminished the tumorigenesis and metastasis of Huh7 xenograft. Moreover, the intratumoral administration of lentivirus-IGF-1R siRNA led to significant tumor growth inhibition in an established Huh7 xenograft model. Mechanistic investigations showed that midkine was found to be the most significantly down-regulated protein in Huh7 cells with IGF-1R knockdown, and ectopic overexpression of midkine significantly rescued inhibition of Huh7 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion caused by IGF-1R suppression. Collectively, these data suggest that IGF-1R inhibition by RNAi can significantly suppress HCC growth and invasion at least partially through down-regulating midkine expression, and IGF-1R is a potential target for HCC gene therapy. PMID:27813495

  20. Low long non-coding RNA HOTAIR expression is associated with down-regulation of Nrf2 in the spermatozoa of patients with asthenozoospermia or oligoasthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixin; Liu, Zhineng; Li, Xiaokang; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Jia; Zhu, Dandan; Chen, Xinping; Ye, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    HOTAIR, a long noncoding RNA, regulates development and progression of tumor cells and function of normal stem cells. However, the role and the molecular mechanism of HOTAIR in the spermatozoa of patients with asthenozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia are still unclear. Herein, 45 healthy control, 45 asthenozoospermic patients and 45 oligoasthenozoospermic patients were enrolled. Initially, through analyzing HOTAIR expression, we observed a decreased level of HOTAIR expression in patients. Subsequently, we found that there was a positive correlation between HOTAIR expression and Nrf2 expression in patients. The low expression of HOTAIR was also observed to be associated with specific sperm function parameters, including motility and vitality. In the ejaculated spermatozoa from patients, low level of histone H4 acetylation of the Nrf2 gene promoter was observed. Finally, we found that downregulation of HOTAIR expression reduced histone H4 acetylation in Nrf2 promoter and Nrf2 expression. Therefore, this study demonstrated that HOTAIR expression was low in the spermatozoa of patients with asthenozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia, which resulted in down-regulation of Nrf2 expression. Our data suggested the decrease of HOTAIR expression led to ROS related defects in sperm function.

  1. The role of bFGF in down-regulating α-SMA expression of chondrogenically induced BMSCs and preventing the shrinkage of BMSC engineered cartilage.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiong; Liu, Tianyi; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Wenjie; Liu, Wei; Cao, Yilin; Zhou, Guangdong

    2011-07-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have proved to be an ideal cell source for cartilage regeneration. Our previous studies demonstrated that a three-dimensional (3D) cartilage could be constructed successfully in vitro using BMSCs and biodegradable scaffolds. However, an obvious shrinkage and deformation was observed during in vitro chondrogenic induction. According to the literatures, it can be speculated that the up-regulation of smooth muscle actin-alpha (α-SMA) caused by transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is one of the leading reasons and that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) could antagonize the role of TGFβ to down-regulate α-SMA expression and prevent the shrinkage of BMSC engineered cartilage. This study testified these speculations by adding bFGF to chondrogenic media. According to the current results, chondrogenic induction significantly up-regulated α-SMA expression of BMSCs at both cell and tissue levels, and the engineered tissue only retained 12.4% of original size after 6 weeks of chondrogenic induction. However, the supplement of bFGF in chondrogenic media efficiently down-regulated α-SMA expression and the engineered tissue still retained over 60% of original size after 6 weeks of culture. Moreover, bFGF showed a beneficial influence on 3D cartilage formation of BMSCs in terms of gene expression and deposition of cartilage specific matrices. All these results suggested that bFGF could repress α-SMA expression caused by chondrogenic induction, efficiently prevent shrinkage of BMSC engineered tissue, and have a positive influence on cartilage formation, which provides a clue for both shape control and quality improvement of BMSC engineered 3D cartilage.

  2. Myostatin inhibits myoblast differentiation by down-regulating MyoD expression.

    PubMed

    Langley, Brett; Thomas, Mark; Bishop, Amy; Sharma, Mridula; Gilmour, Stewart; Kambadur, Ravi

    2002-12-20

    Myostatin, a negative regulator of myogenesis, is shown to function by controlling the proliferation of myoblasts. In this study we show that myostatin is an inhibitor of myoblast differentiation and that this inhibition is mediated through Smad 3. In vitro, increasing concentrations of recombinant mature myostatin reversibly blocked the myogenic differentiation of myoblasts, cultured in low serum media. Western and Northern blot analysis indicated that addition of myostatin to the low serum culture media repressed the levels of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and p21 leading to the inhibition of myogenic differentiation. The transient transfection of C(2)C(12) myoblasts with MyoD expressing constructs did not rescue myostatin-inhibited myogenic differentiation. Myostatin signaling specifically induced Smad 3 phosphorylation and increased Smad 3.MyoD association, suggesting that Smad 3 may mediate the myostatin signal by interfering with MyoD activity and expression. Consistent with this, the expression of dominant-negative Smad3 rescued the activity of a MyoD promoter-reporter in C(2)C(12) myoblasts treated with myostatin. Taken together, these results suggest that myostatin inhibits MyoD activity and expression via Smad 3 resulting in the failure of the myoblasts to differentiate into myotubes. Thus we propose that myostatin plays a critical role in myogenic differentiation and that the muscular hyperplasia and hypertrophy seen in animals that lack functional myostatin is because of deregulated proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts.

  3. Down-regulation of let-7 microRNA increased K-ras expression in lung damage induced by radon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihai; Wang, Dapeng; Gu, Chao; Liu, Xing; Pei, Weiwei; Li, Jianxiang; Cao, Yi; Jiao, Yang; Tong, Jian; Nie, Jihua

    2015-09-01

    Radon has long been recognized as a human carcinogen leading to lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Recent studies have shown that the let-7 microRNA and K-ras play an important role in the development of various cancers. However, the exact role between let-7 and K-ras in radon induced lung damage has not been explored so far. In the present study, wistar rats and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were long-term exposed to radon, and then alterations in histological pathology of rat lung tissue, ROS, antioxidant enzymes activities and clonogenic formation in HBE cells, as well as changes in let-7 and K-ras expression were determined to observe the adverse effects induced by radon. The results showed that long-term exposure to radon produced severe lung damage in rats, significantly increased ROS production and clonogenic formation ratios and decreased SOD activities in HBE cells. In addition, an obvious down-regulation of let-7 and up-regulation of K-ras were also revealed both in mRNA and in protein level in lung tissue of rats and HBE cells exposed to radon. Furthermore, a significant down-regulation of K-ras was then confirmed in both let-7b-3p and let-7a-2-3p transfected HBE cells. Taken together, the present results propose an involvement of let-7 microRNA and K-ras in radon induced lung damage both in vivo and in vitro, which may thus be of potential value in early diagnosis and therapy of radon-induced lung tumorgenesis.

  4. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles inhibit angiogenesis via down regulation of VEGFR2 expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hongyuan; Wang, Wenbo; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Zhongtian; Zhao, Shihong

    2014-02-01

    Angiogenesis is a process that forms new blood capillaries from existing vessels, which is of great physiological and pathological significance. Although recent studies provide evidence that cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CO-NPs) may have biomedical potential, the mechanisms of CO-NPs in angiogenesis have not been investigated to date. We have studied the anti-angiogenic properties of CO-NPs on primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that CO-NPs were able to induce cell morphology changes and suppress cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro and in vivo dose dependently. Furthermore, CO-NPs could induce cell apoptosis both at the early and late apoptotic stage and induce cell cycle arrest at S phase in a dose dependent manner. As signalling via the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) is critical for angiogenic responses, we further explored the expression of VEGFR2 after the treatment of CO-NPs. They were found to inhibit VEGFR2 expression dose and time dependently both at the protein and mRNA level while had no effect on VEGF and VEGFR1 expression. Together, we report for the first time that CO-NPs can act as an anti-angiogenic agent by suppressing VEGFR2 expression, which may be a potential nanomedicine for angiogenesis therapy.Angiogenesis is a process that forms new blood capillaries from existing vessels, which is of great physiological and pathological significance. Although recent studies provide evidence that cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CO-NPs) may have biomedical potential, the mechanisms of CO-NPs in angiogenesis have not been investigated to date. We have studied the anti-angiogenic properties of CO-NPs on primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that CO-NPs were able to induce cell morphology changes and suppress cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro and in vivo dose dependently. Furthermore, CO-NPs could induce cell apoptosis both at the early and

  5. Chronic restraint stress down-regulates amygdaloid expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule.

    PubMed

    Cordero, M I; Rodríguez, J J; Davies, H A; Peddie, C J; Sandi, C; Stewart, M G

    2005-01-01

    The amygdala is a brain area which plays a decisive role in fear and anxiety. Since exposure to chronic stress can induce profound effects in emotion and cognition, plasticity in specific amygdaloid nuclei in response to prior stress has been hypothesized to account for stress-induced emotional alterations. In order to identify amygdala nuclei which may be affected under chronic stress conditions we evaluated the effects of 21-days chronic restraint stress on the expression of a molecule implicated crucially in alterations in structural plasticity: the polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule. We found that polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule-immunoreactivity within the amygdala, present in somata and neuronal processes, has a regional gradient with the central medial and medial amygdaloid nuclei showing the highest levels. Our results demonstrate that chronic restraint stress induced an overall reduction in polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule-immunoreactivity in the amygdaloid complex, mainly due to a significant decrease in the central medial amygdaloid and medial amygdaloid nuclei. Our data suggest that polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in these nuclei may play a prominent role in functional and structural remodeling induced by stress, being a potential mechanism for cognitive and emotional modulation. Furthermore, these finding provide the first clear evidence that life experiences can regulate the expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in the amygdaloid complex.

  6. Soluble Nogo Receptor Down-regulates Expression of Neuronal Nogo-A to Enhance Axonal Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiangmin; Zhou, Zhigang; Hu, Jian; Fink, David J.; Mata, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Nogo-A, a member of the reticulon family, is present in neurons and oligodendrocytes. Nogo-A in central nervous system (CNS) myelin prevents axonal regeneration through interaction with Nogo receptor 1, but the function of Nogo-A in neurons is less known. We found that after axonal injury, Nogo-A is increased in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons unable to regenerate following a dorsal root injury or a sciatic nerve ligation-cut injury and that exposure in vitro to CNS myelin dramatically enhanced neuronal Nogo-A mRNA and protein through activation of RhoA while inhibiting neurite growth. Knocking down neuronal Nogo-A by small interfering RNA results in a marked increase of neurite outgrowth. We constructed a nonreplicating herpes simplex virus vector (QHNgSR) to express a truncated soluble fragment of Nogo receptor 1 (NgSR). NgSR released from QHNgSR prevented myelin inhibition of neurite extension by hippocampal and DRG neurons in vitro. NgSR prevents RhoA activation by myelin and decreases neuronal Nogo-A. Subcutaneous inoculation of QHNgSR to transduce DRG neurons resulted in improved regeneration of myelinated fibers in both the dorsal root and the spinal dorsal root entry zone, with concomitant improvement in sensory behavior. The results indicate that neuronal Nogo-A is an important intermediate in neurite growth dynamics and its expression is regulated by signals related to axonal injury and regeneration, that CNS myelin appears to activate signaling events that mimic axonal injury, and that NgSR released from QHNgSR may be used to improve recovery after injury. PMID:19901030

  7. Testicular Dnmt3 expression and global DNA methylation are down-regulated by gonadotropin releasing hormones in the ricefield eel Monopterus albus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yize; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    In vertebrates, DNA methyltransferase 3 (Dnmt3) homologues are responsible for de novo DNA methylation and play important roles in germ cell development. In the present study, four dnmt3 genes, dnmt3aa, dnmt3ab, dnmt3ba and dnmt3bb.1, were identified in ricefield eels. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that all four dnmt3 mRNAs were detected broadly in tissues examined, with testicular expression at relatively high levels. In the testis, immunostaining for all four Dnmt3 forms was mainly localized to spermatocytes, which also contained highly methylated DNA. All three forms of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh) in the ricefield eel were shown to decrease the expression of dnmt3 genes in the in vitro incubated testicular fragments through cAMP and IP3/Ca2+ pathways. Moreover, in vivo treatment of male fish with three forms of Gnrh decreased significantly the testicular Dnmt3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, and the global DNA methylation levels. These results suggest that the expression of Dnmt3 and global DNA methylation in the testis of ricefield eels are potentially down-regulated by Gnrh, and reveal a novel regulatory mechanism of testicular Dnmt3 expression in vertebrates. PMID:28225069

  8. MicroRNA-224 inhibits proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells by down-regulating Fizzled 5 expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Yang; Shen, Jingling; Zhang, Guoqiang; Han, Jiguang

    2016-08-02

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling is crucial for the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. However, the expression of microRNA-224 (miR-224) in the different types of breast cancers and its role in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells are poorly understood. In this study, the levels of miR-224 in different types of breast cancer tissues and cell lines were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and the potential targets of miR-224 in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling were investigated. The effects of altered miR-224 expression on the frequency of CD44+CD24- cancer stem-like cells (CSC), proliferation and migration of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were examined by flow cytometry, MTT and transwell migration. We found that the levels of miR-224 expression in different types of breast cancer tissues and cell lines were associated inversely with aggressiveness of breast cancers. Enhanced miR-224 expression significantly reduced the fizzled 5-regulated luciferase activity in 293T cells, fizzled 5 expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the β-dependent luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells, and the nuclear translocation of β-catenin in MDA-MB-231 cells. miR-224 inhibition significantly increased the percentages of CSC in MCF-7 cells and enhanced proliferation and migration of MCF-7 cells. Enhanced miR-224 expression inhibited proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, and the growth of implanted breast cancers in vivo. Induction of Frizzled 5 over-expression mitigated the miR-224-mediated inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation. Collectively, these data indicated that miR-224 down-regulated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling possibly by binding to Frizzled 5 and inhibited proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells.

  9. Down-regulating the expression of IL-3Rβ interfered with the proliferation, not differentiation in NB4 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wu, Yong; Chen, Yuanzhong

    2011-01-01

    The human IL-3 receptor is composed of both α and β subunits. In early studies, we showed that the level of IL-3Rβ expression was lower in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) than healthy donors and patients in complete remission by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). With the differentiation of cells, enhanced expression of IL-3Rβ was also observed in all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced NB4 cells. To unravel the role of IL-3Rβ upregulation in NB4 cells induced with ATRA, we knocked down IL-3Rβ expression by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of IL-3Rβ resulted in decreased proliferation in NB4 cells induced with or without ATRA, observed by cell growth curves, colony formation assays and cell cycle analysis. Surface expression of CD11b antigen and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assays were also carried out at different time points. However, no significant difference was observed between the experimental and control groups treated with ATRA. Other findings suggested that IL-3Rα was decreased in NB4-IL-3Rβ shRNA cells by western blot. Down-regulation of IL-3Rβ also caused a decrease in PML/RARα expression detected with RT-qPCR. Together, these results suggest that abnormalities of IL-3Rβ expression were observed in APL; knockdown of IL-3Rβ inhibited the proliferation of NB4 cells with or without ATRA, but no effect was detected in the cellular differentiation. When NB4 cells exposed to ATAR, the up-regulation of IL-3Rβ expression may contribute to the maintenance of proliferation rather than cell differentiation.

  10. IKAP/hELP1 deficiency in the cerebrum of familial dysautonomia patients results in down regulation of genes involved in oligodendrocyte differentiation and in myelination.

    PubMed

    Cheishvili, David; Maayan, Channa; Smith, Yoav; Ast, Gil; Razin, Aharon

    2007-09-01

    The gene affected in the congenital neuropathy familial dysautonomia (FD) is IKBKAP that codes for the IKAP/hELP1 protein. Several different functions have been suggested for this protein, but none of them have been verified in vivo or shown to have some link with the FD phenotype. In an attempt to elucidate the involvement of IKAP/hELP1 in brain function, we searched for IKAP/hELP1 target genes associated with neuronal function. In a microarray expression analysis using RNA extracted from the cerebrum of two FD patients as well as sex and age matched controls, no genes were found to be upregulated in the FD cerebrum. However, 25 genes were downregulated more than 2-fold in the cerebrum of both the male FD child and female FD mature woman. Thirteen of them are known to be involved in oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation. The down regulation of all these genes was verified by real-time PCR. Four of these genes were also confirmed to be downregulated at the protein level. These results are statistically significant and have high biological relevance, since seven of the downregulated genes in the cerebrum of the FD patients were shown by others to be upregulated during oligodendrocyte differentiation in vitro. Our results therefore suggest that IKAP/hELP1 may play a role in oligodendrocyte differentiation and/or myelin formation.

  11. Interleukin-10 receptor expression and signalling were down-regulated in CD4+ T cells of lupus nephritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, H D; Qi, Z M; Yang, L L; Qi, L; Zhang, N; Zhang, X L; Du, S Y; Jiang, Y

    2011-01-01

    Studies have indicated that interleukin (IL)-10 has a pathogenic role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); however, a protective effect of IL-10 in SLE was also observed. Because the exact mechanism of IL-10 signalling in the pathogenesis of SLE is unclear, this study sought to assess the expression and signalling of interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R) in peripheral leucocytes from patients with SLE. We used flow cytometry to examine the expression of IL-10R1 on different peripheral leucocytes from 28 SLE patients, of whom 14 had lupus nephritis (LN) and 14 were healthy controls. We also examined the effects of IL-10 on phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 and STAT-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 13 SLE patients and seven healthy controls. Plasma cytokines were detected by flow cytometric bead array (CBA) techniques. Although IL-10R1 expression levels on each peripheral leucocyte subset from 28 SLE patients and 14 healthy controls were similar, the expression levels on CD4+ T cells from LN patients were significantly lower than on CD4+ T cells from controls and SLE patients without nephritis (P < 0·01). IL-10R1 expression levels on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were correlated negatively with the SLE disease activity index (P < 0·01). Additionally, the phosphorylation of STAT-3 was delayed and reduced in PBMCs from LN patients and active SLE patients. Plasma IL-10 levels were significantly higher in LN patients than controls. IL-10R1 expression on CD4+ T cells and signalling in PBMCs were down-regulated in LN patients, indicating that IL-10 and its receptor may have a special role in LN pathogenesis. PMID:21635228

  12. Resistin impairs glucose permeability in EA.hy926 cells by down-regulating GLUT1 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Cai, Yuxi; Huang, Jing; Yu, Xiaolan; Sun, Jun; Yang, Zaiqing; Zhou, Lei

    2016-10-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease which is now affecting the health of more and more people in the world. Resistin, discovered in 2001, is considered to be closely related to metabolic dysfunction and obesity. Previous study showed that hyperglycemia is always accompanied by a high serum resistin concentration. We therefore investigated whether resistin can mediate glucose transfer across the blood-tissue barrier. Here, we employed a transwell system to analyze glucose permeability in EA.hy926 human endothelial cells treated without or with human resistin. In EA.hy926 cells treated with resistin, the permeability to glucose was heavily impaired. This was due to the down-regulation of GLUT1 expression as a result of the treatment, rather than regulation of tight junctions. In addition, overexpression of GLUT1 in EA.hy926 cells was able to recover the blocking effect of resistin on glucose permeability. We further found that resistin could inhibit the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and consequently impede the transcription of GLUT1. The results of the present study suggested that resistin could cause glucose retention in serum and thus result in hyperglycemia. This provides a novel explanation for hyperglycemia and a potential new way of treating type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Antitumor activity of curcumin is involved in down-regulation of YAP/TAZ expression in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lixia; Yin, Xuyuan; Yan, Jingzhe; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies worldwide and is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant. Certain studies have demonstrated that curcumin exerts its anti-tumor function in a variety of human cancers including PC, via targeting multiple therapeutically important cancer signaling pathways. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Two transcriptional co-activators, YAP (Yes-associated protein) and its close paralog TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif) exert oncogenic activities in various cancers. Therefore, in this study we aimed to determine the molecular basis of curcumin-induced cell proliferation inhibition in PC cells. First, we detected the anti-tumor effects of curcumin on PC cell lines using CTG assay, Flow cytometry, clonogenic assay, wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay. We found that curcumin significantly suppressed cell growth, weakened clonogenic potential, inhibited migration and invasion, and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in PC cells. We further measured that overexpression of YAP enhanced cell proliferation and abrogated the cytotoxic effects of curcumin on PC cells. Moreover, we found that curcumin markedly down-regulated YAP and TAZ expression and subsequently suppressed Notch-1 expression. Collectively, these findings suggest that pharmacological inhibition of YAP and TAZ activity may be a promising anticancer strategy for the treatment of PC patients. PMID:27738325

  14. Loss of Msx2 Function Down-Regulates the FoxE3 Expression and Results in Anterior Segment Dysgenesis Resembling Peters Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiangyue; Kawai, Kirio; Wang, Hongyan; Wu, Di; Wang, Mingwu; Yue, Zhicao; Zhang, Jinsong; Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Complex molecular interactions dictate the developmental steps that lead to a mature and functional cornea and lens. Peters anomaly is one subtype of anterior segment dysgenesis especially due to abnormal development of the cornea and lens. MSX2 was recently implicated as a potential gene that is critical for anterior segment development. However, the role of MSX2 within the complex mechanisms of eye development remains elusive. Our present study observed the morphologic changes in conventional Msx2 knockout (KO) mice and found phenotypes consistent with Peters anomaly and microphthalmia seen in humans. The role of Msx2 in cornea and lens development was further investigated using IHC, in situ hybridization, and quantification of proliferative and apoptotic lens cells. Loss of Msx2 down-regulated FoxE3 expression and up-regulated Prox1 and crystallin expression in the lens. The FoxE3 and Prox1 malfunction and precocious Prox1 and crystallin expression contribute to a disturbed lens cell cycle in lens vesicles and eventually to cornea-lentoid adhesions and microphthalmia in Msx2 KO mice. The observed changes in the expression of FoxE3 suggest that Msx2 is an important contributor in controlling transcription of target genes critical for early eye development. These results provide the first direct genetic evidence of the involvement of MSX2 in Peters anomaly and the distinct function of MSX2 in regulating the growth and development of lens vesicles. PMID:22503753

  15. Myristicin from nutmeg induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and down regulates genes of the DNA damage response pathways in human leukaemia K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Célia; Doran, Carolina; Silva, Inês C; Miranda, Claudia; Rueff, José; Rodrigues, António S

    2014-07-25

    Myristicin, an allylbenzene, is a major active component of various spices, such as nutmeg and cinnamon, plants from the Umbelliferae family or in some essential oils, such as oils of clove or marjoram. Human exposure to myristicin is low but widespread due to consumption of these spices and essential oils, added to food (e.g. cola drinks) or in traditional medicine. Occasionally high dose exposure occurs, leading to various clinical symptoms, however the molecular mechanisms underlying them are unknown. Our previous studies revealed that myristicin is not genotoxic and yet presented apoptotic activity. Therefore, in this work we assessed the apoptotic mechanisms induced by myristicin in human leukaemia cells. In order to gain further insight on the potential of myristicin to modulate gene expression we also analysed alterations in expression of 84 genes associated with the DNA damage response pathway. The results obtained show that myristicin can induce apoptosis as characterised by alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, PARP-cleavage and DNA fragmentation. The gene expression profile revealed an overall down regulation of DNA damage response genes after exposure to myristicin, with significant under-expression of genes associated with nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1), double strand break repair (RAD50, RAD51) and DNA damage signalling (ATM) and stress response (GADD45A, GADD45G). On the whole, we demonstrate that myristicin can alter mitochondrial membrane function, induce apoptosis and modulate gene expression in human leukaemia K562 cells. This study provides further detail on the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activity of myristicin.

  16. Cholesterol-lowering activity of sesamin is associated with down-regulation on genes of sterol transporters involved in cholesterol absorption.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yin Tong; Chen, Jingnan; Jiao, Rui; Peng, Cheng; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Wang, Xiaobo; Ma, Ka Ying; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2015-03-25

    Sesame seed is rich in sesamin. The present study was to (i) investigate the plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of dietary sesamin and (ii) examine the interaction of dietary sesamin with the gene expression of sterol transporters, enzymes, receptors, and proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism. Thirty hamsters were divided into three groups fed the control diet (CON) or one of two experimental diets containing 0.2% (SL) and 0.5% (SH) sesamin, respectively, for 6 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels in hamsters given the CON, SL, and SH diets were 6.62 ± 0.40, 5.32 ± 0.40, and 5.00 ± 0.44 mmol/L, respectively, indicating dietary sesamin could reduce plasma TC in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the excretion of total fecal neutral sterols was dose-dependently increased with the amounts of sesamin in diets (CON, 2.65 ± 0.57; SL, 4.30 ± 0.65; and SH, 5.84 ± 1.27 μmol/day). Addition of sesamin into diets was associated with down-regulation of mRNA of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein (NPC1L1), acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), microsomal triacylglycerol transport protein (MTP), and ATP-binding cassette transporters subfamily G members 5 and 8 (ABCG5 and ABCG8). Results also showed that dietary sesamin could up-regulate hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), whereas it down-regulated hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα). It was concluded that the cholesterol-lowering activity of sesamin was mediated by promoting the fecal excretion of sterols and modulating the genes involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism.

  17. Andrographolide inhibits osteopontin expression and breast tumor growth through down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Patil, H S; Sharma, P; Kumar, D; Dasari, S; Puranik, V G; Thulasiram, H V; Kundu, G C

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in India and around the world. Despite recent advancement in the treatment of breast cancer, the results of chemotherapy to date remain unsatisfactory, prompting a need to identify natural agents that could target cancer efficiently with least side effects. Andrographolide (Andro) is one such molecule which has been shown to possess inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth. In this study, Andro, a natural diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata has been shown to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and arrest cell cycle at G2/M phase and induces apoptosis through caspase independent pathway. Our experimental evidences suggest that Andro attenuates endothelial cell motility and tumor-endothelial cell interaction. Moreover, Andro suppresses breast tumor growth in orthotopic NOD/SCID mice model. The anti-tumor activity of Andro in both in vitro and in vivo model was correlated with down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt activation and inhibition of pro-angiogenic molecules such as OPN and VEGF expressions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Andro may act as an effective anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  18. Down-regulation of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase gene in switchgrass reveals a novel monolignol analog

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Down-regulation of the caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.68 (COMT) gene in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) resulted in cell walls of transgenic plants releasing more constituent sugars after pretreatment by dilute acid and treatment with glycosyl hydrolases from an added enzyme preparation and from Clostridium thermocellum. Fermentation of both wild-type and transgenic switchgrass after milder hot water pretreatment with no water washing showed that only the transgenic switchgrass inhibited C. thermocellum. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS)-based metabolomics were undertaken on cell wall aqueous extracts to determine the nature of the microbial inhibitors. Results GCMS confirmed the increased concentration of a number of phenolic acids and aldehydes that are known inhibitors of microbial fermentation. Metabolomic analyses of the transgenic biomass additionally revealed the presence of a novel monolignol-like metabolite, identified as trans-3, 4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol (iso-sinapyl alcohol) in both non-pretreated, as well as hot water pretreated samples. iso-Sinapyl alcohol and its glucoside were subsequently generated by organic synthesis and the identity of natural and synthetic materials were confirmed by mass spectrometric and NMR analyses. The additional novel presence of iso-sinapic acid, iso-sinapyl aldehyde, and iso-syringin suggest the increased activity of a para-methyltransferase, concomitant with the reduced COMT activity, a strict meta-methyltransferase. Quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the most likely homodimeric lignans generated from dehydration reactions, but these products were not evident in plant samples. Conclusions Down-regulation of COMT activity in switchgrass resulted in the accumulation of previously undetected metabolites resembling sinapyl alcohol and its related metabolites, but that are derived from para-methylation of 5-hydroxyconiferyl

  19. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A During Ligand-Induced Down-Regulation of Luteinizing Hormone Receptor in the Ovary☆

    PubMed Central

    Harada, M.; Peegel, H.; Menon, K. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is one of the most important regulators of ovarian angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the temporal relationship between VEGF-A and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) mRNA expression during ligand-induced down-regulation of LHR. Immature female rats were treated with pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin followed by 25 IU hCG 56h later (day 0). On day 5, treatment with hCG (50 IU) to down-regulate LHR showed a temporal decrease in VEGF-A mRNA and protein levels in parallel with decreasing LHR mRNA. This effect was specific since the expression of CYP11A1 mRNA showed no decline. Examination of VEGF-A mRNA expression, using in situ hybridization histochemistry with 35S-labeled antisense VEGF-A mRNA probe, showed intense signal in the corpora lutea on day 5. Treatment with 50 IU hCG to down-regulate LHR mRNA showed a decline in the intensity of VEGF-A mRNA in the corpora lutea. VEGF-A mRNA expression returned to control level 53 hours later when the expression of LHR mRNA also recovered. These results show that the transient down-regulation of VEGF-A mRNA and protein closely parallels the ligand-induced down-regulation of LHR mRNA. The present study establishes a close association between VEGF-A and LHR mRNA expression, suggesting the possibility that VEGF-A-induced vascularization of the ovary is dictated by the expression of LHR and this might play a regulatory role in ovarian physiology. PMID:20619315

  20. Down-regulation of the Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase Gene in Switchgrass Reveals a Novel Monolignol Analog

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Standaert, Robert F; Engle, Nancy L; Martin, Madhavi Z; Sangha, Amandeep K; Parks, Jerry M; Smith, Jeremy C; Samuel, Reichel; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, A J; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Fu, Chunxiang; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Davison, Brian H; Dixon, Richard A; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Down-regulation of the caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) resulted in cell walls of transgenic plants releasing more constituent sugars after pretreatment by dilute acid and treatment with glycosyl hydrolases from an added enzyme preparation and from Clostridium thermocellum. Fermentation of both wild-type and transgenic switchgrass after milder hot water pretreatment with no water washing showed that only the transgenic switchgrass inhibited C. thermocellum. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics were undertaken on cell wall aqueous extracts to determine the nature of the microbial inhibitors, confirming the increased concentration of a number of phenolic acids and aldehydes that are known inhibitors of fermentation. Metabolomic analyses of the transgenic biomass additionally revealed the presence of a novel monolignol-like metabolite, identified as trans-3, 4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol (iso-sinapyl alcohol) in both non-pretreated, as well as hot water pretreated samples. Although there was no indication that iso-sinapyl alcohol was integrated into the cell wall, diversion of substrates from sinapyl alcohol to free iso-sinapyl alcohol, its glucoside, and associated upstream lignin pathway changes, including increased phenolic aldehydes and acids, are associated with more facile cell wall deconstruction, and to the observed inhibitory effect on microbial growth.

  1. The non-structural protein Nsp2TF of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus down-regulates the expression of Swine Leukocyte Antigen class I.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qian M; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Ni, Yan-Yan; Cao, Dianjun; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is arguably the most economically-important global swine pathogen. Here we demonstrated that PRRSV down-regulates Swine Leukocyte Antigen class I (SLA-I) expression in porcine alveolar macrophages, PK15-CD163 cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. To identify the viral protein(s) involved in SLA-I down-regulation, we tested all 22 PRRSV structural and non-structural proteins and identified that Nsp1α and Nsp2TF, and GP3 significantly down-regulated SLA-I expression with Nsp2TF showing the greatest effect. We further generated a panel of mutant viruses in which the Nsp2TF protein synthesis was abolished, and found that the two mutants with disrupted -2 ribosomal frameshifting elements and additional stop codons in the TF domain were unable to down-regulate SLA-I expression. Additionally we demonstrated that the last 68 amino acids of TF domain in Nsp2TF are critical for this function. Collectively, the results indicate a novel function of Nsp2TF in negative modulation of SLA-I expression.

  2. CoCl2-induced biochemical hypoxia down regulates activities and expression of super oxide dismutase and catalase in cerebral cortex of mice.

    PubMed

    Rani, Anupama; Prasad, S

    2014-09-01

    Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress is one of the major hallmark reasons underlying brain dysfunction. In the present manuscript, we have used CoCl2-induced hypoxic mice to investigate alterations in the activities of chief antioxidative stress enzymes- superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and expression of their genes Sod1 and Cat in the cerebral cortex as this model has not been routinely used for carrying out such study. Hypoxia mimetic mice model was accordingly developed by oral CoCl2 administration to mice and validated by analyzing alterations in the expression of the hypoxia inducible factor gene Hif-1α and its immediate responsive genes. Our Western blot data demonstrated that a dose of 40 mg/kg BW of CoCl2 was able to generate hypoxia like condition in mice in which Hif-1α and its immediate responsive genes-glutamate transporter-1 (Slc2a1) and erythropoietin (Epo) expression were up regulated. Our in-gel assay data indicated that SOD and CAT activities significantly declined and it was associated with significant down regulation of Sod1 and Epo expression as evident from our semi quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot data, which might be correlated with up regulation of Hif-1α expression in the cerebral cortex of the CoCl2-treated hypoxic mice. Our findings suggest that CoCl2-induced hypoxic mouse model is useful for studying alterations in the anti oxidative enzymes and biochemical/molecular/neurobiological analysis of hypoxia-induced alterations in brain function.

  3. Alpaca fiber growth is mediated by microRNA let-7b via down-regulation of target gene FGF5.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Zhang, Y; Wang, H D; Shen, Y; Liu, N; Cao, J; Yu, X J; Dong, C S; He, X Y

    2015-10-29

    MicroRNAs are very small endogenous RNA molecules that play a crucial role in an array of biological processes, including regulation of skin morphogenesis. The microRNA let-7b is thought to modulate animal hair growth, by binding target genes that encode growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) has been previously reported to be involved in the initiation of the catagen phase of hair growth. In this study, we combined previous reports with bioinformatic analysis techniques to identify and validate FGF5 and, using lucerifase assay, confirmed targeted binding of let-7b to FGF5. To investigate the interaction between let-7b and FGF5, alpaca skin fibroblasts were transfected with let-7b over-expression vectors, and then mRNA and protein expression levels of FGF5 and the gene encoding its receptor, FGFR1, were evaluated. Levels of FGF5 mRNA and protein were remarkably lower in transfected groups, as compared to controls. In summary, this study confirmed that let-7b acts as a regulator of skin morphogenesis, by directly targeting FGF5 and down-regulating its expression. It provides the evidence of hair growth regulated by miRNAs in animals and may have important applications in wool production.

  4. MicroRNA-126 inhibits tumor proliferation and angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma by down-regulating EGFL7 expression

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming-Hua; Ma, Chen-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Ye, Chen-Dong; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Chen, Lin; Wang, Jin-Guo

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of microRNA-126 (miR-126) on tumor proliferation and angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by targeting EGFL7. HCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 71 HCC patients. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted to detect expressions of EGFL7 and VEGF and the micro-vessel density (MVD). HCC cell lines were collected and assigned into the blank, miR-126 mimics, miR-126 inhibitors, miR-126 mimics negative control (NC), miR-126 inhibitors NC, si-EGFL7, and miR-126 inhibitors + si-EGFL7 groups. Expressions of miR-126 and EGFL7 mRNA were detected by qRT-PCR assay. The protein expressions of EGFL7 and VEGF were measured by Western blotting. MTT assay was used to measure the proliferation of HCC cells. Tumor xenograft model in nude mice was utilized to evaluate the influence of miR-126 on tumor growth. HCC tissues had higher miR-126 expression and lower EGFL7 mRNA expression than adjacent normal tissues. Compared with the blank, miR-126 mimic NC, miR-126 inhibitor NC and miR-126 inhibitors + si-EGFL7 groups, the protein expressions of EGFL7 and VEGF and cell proliferation were reduced in the miR-126 mimics and si-EGFL7 groups, while the opposite trend was found in the miR-126 inhibitors group. Compared with the blank and miR-126 inhibitors + siRNA-EGFL7 groups, tumor size, tumor weight, and MVD of transplanted tumors in nude mice were significantly reduced in the miR-126 mimics and siRNA-EGFL7 groups, while the opposite trend was found in the miR-126 inhibitors group. In conclusion, miR-126 could inhibit tumor proliferation and angiogenesis of HCC by down-regulating EGFL7 expression. PMID:27611944

  5. Early down regulation of the glial Kir4.1 and GLT-1 expression in pericontusional cortex of the old male mice subjected to traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K; Prasad, S

    2013-10-01

    Astroglia play multiple roles in brain function by providing matrix to neurons, secreting neurotrophic factors, maintaining K(+) and glutamate homeostasis and thereby controlling synaptic plasticity which undergoes alterations during aging. K(+) and glutamate homeostasis is maintained by astrocytes membrane bound inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (Kir4.1) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1 or EAAT-2) proteins, respectively in the synapse and their expression may be altered due to traumatic brain injury (TBI). Also, it is not well understood whether this change is age dependent. To find out this, TBI was experimentally induced in adult and old male AKR strain mice using CHI technique, and expression of the Kir4.1 and GLT-1 in the pericontusional cortex at various time intervals was studied by Western blotting and semi quantitative RT-PCR techniques. Here, we report that expression of both Kir4.1 and GLT-1 genes at transcript and protein levels is significantly down regulated in the pericontusional ipsi-lateral cortex of old TBI mice as compared to that in the adult TBI mice as function of time after injury. Further, expression of both the genes starts decreasing early in old mice i.e., from the first hour after TBI as compared to that starts from fourth hour in adult TBI mice. Thus TBI affects expression of Kir4.1 and GLT-1 genes in age- and time dependent manner and it may lead to accumulations of more K(+) and glutamate early in the synapse of old mice as compared to adult. This may be implicated in the TBI induced early and severe neuronal depolarization and excito-neurotoxicity in old age.

  6. Simultaneous Suppression of Multiple Genes by Single Transgenes. Down-Regulation of Three Unrelated Lignin Biosynthetic Genes in Tobacco1

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, James C.; Barakate, Abdellah; Pinçon, Gaelle; Legrand, Michel; Lapierre, Catherine; Mila, Isabelle; Schuch, Wolfgang; Halpin, Claire

    2002-01-01

    Many reports now describe the manipulation of plant metabolism by suppressing the expression of single genes. The potential of such work could be greatly expanded if multiple genes could be coordinately suppressed. In the work presented here, we test a novel method for achieving this by using single chimeric constructs incorporating partial sense sequences for multiple genes to target suppression of two or three lignin biosynthetic enzymes. We compare this method with a more conventional approach to achieving the same end by crossing plants harboring different antisense transgenes. Our results indicate that crossing antisense plants is less straightforward and predictable in outcome than anticipated. Most progeny had higher levels of target enzyme activity than predicted and had lost the expected modifications to lignin structure. In comparison, plants transformed with the chimeric partial sense constructs had more consistent high level suppression of target enzymes and had significant changes to lignin content, structure, and composition. It was possible to suppress three target genes coordinately using a single chimeric construct. Our results indicate that chimeric silencing constructs offer great potential for the rapid and coordinate suppression of multiple genes on diverse biochemical pathways and that the technique therefore deserves to be adopted by other researchers. PMID:11891241

  7. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Budhraja, Amit; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2013-10-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other types of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Apigenin has a potential in preventing environmental arsenic induced carcinogenesis. • Apigenin suppresses CXCR4 in malignant transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. • The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to inhibition of NF-κB activity.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide mediates EGF-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin expression via p38 MAPK and snail in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K

    2010-08-01

    In ovarian cancer, it has been shown that E-cadherin is down-regulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) activation, and that cells with low E-cadherin expression are particularly invasive. Although it is generally believed that reactive oxygen species play important roles in intracellular signal transduction, the role of reactive oxygen species in EGF-mediated reductions in E-cadherin remains to be elucidated. In this study, we show that EGF treatment down-regulated E-cadherin by up-regulating its transcriptional repressors, Snail and Slug, in human ovarian cancer cells. Using 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester staining, we found that intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production was increased in EGF-treated cells and could be inhibited by treatment with an EGFR inhibitor, AG1478, or an H(2)O(2) scavenger, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-catalase. In addition, PEG-catalase diminished EGF-induced p38 MAPK, but not ERK1/2 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase, phosphorylation. PEG-catalase and the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 abolished EGF-induced Snail, but not Slug, expression and E-cadherin down-regulation. Furthermore, the involvement of p38 MAPK in the down-regulation of E-cadherin was confirmed using specific p38alpha MAPK small interfering RNA. Finally, we also show that EGF-induced cell invasion was abolished by treatment with PEG-catalase and SB203580, as well as p38alpha MAPK small interfering RNA, and that forced expression of E-cadherin diminished intrinsic invasiveness as well as EGF-induced cell invasion. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism in which EGF down-regulates E-cadherin expression through production of H(2)O(2), activation of p38 MAPK, and up-regulation of Snail in human ovarian cancer cells.

  9. Antisense Down-Regulation of 4CL Expression Alters Lignification, Tree Growth, and Saccharification Potential of Field-Grown Poplar1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Steven L.; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Meinzer, Frederick C.; Jourdes, Michael; Ki, Chanyoung; Patten, Ann M.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Gunter, Lee; Decker, Stephen R.; Selig, Michael J.; Sykes, Robert; Himmel, Michael E.; Kitin, Peter; Shevchenko, Olga; Strauss, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic down-regulation of the Pt4CL1 gene family encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) has been reported as a means for reducing lignin content in cell walls and increasing overall growth rates, thereby improving feedstock quality for paper and bioethanol production. Using hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba), we applied this strategy and examined field-grown transformants for both effects on wood biochemistry and tree productivity. The reductions in lignin contents obtained correlated well with 4CL RNA expression, with a sharp decrease in lignin amount being observed for RNA expression below approximately 50% of the nontransgenic control. Relatively small lignin reductions of approximately 10% were associated with reduced productivity, decreased wood syringyl/guaiacyl lignin monomer ratios, and a small increase in the level of incorporation of H-monomers (p-hydroxyphenyl) into cell walls. Transgenic events with less than approximately 50% 4CL RNA expression were characterized by patches of reddish-brown discolored wood that had approximately twice the extractive content of controls (largely complex polyphenolics). There was no evidence that substantially reduced lignin contents increased growth rates or saccharification potential. Our results suggest that the capacity for lignin reduction is limited; below a threshold, large changes in wood chemistry and plant metabolism were observed that adversely affected productivity and potential ethanol yield. They also underline the importance of field studies to obtain physiologically meaningful results and to support technology development with transgenic trees. PMID:20729393

  10. SKP2 Oncogene Is a Direct MYC Target Gene and MYC Down-regulates p27KIP1 through SKP2 in Human Leukemia Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Bretones, Gabriel; Acosta, Juan C.; Caraballo, Juan M.; Ferrándiz, Nuria; Gómez-Casares, M. Teresa; Albajar, Marta; Blanco, Rosa; Ruiz, Paula; Hung, Wen-Chun; Albero, M. Pilar; Perez-Roger, Ignacio; León, Javier

    2011-01-01

    SKP2 is the ubiquitin ligase subunit that targets p27KIP1 (p27) for degradation. SKP2 is induced in the G1-S transit of the cell cycle, is frequently overexpressed in human cancer, and displays transformation activity in experimental models. Here we show that MYC induces SKP2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human myeloid leukemia K562 cells with conditional MYC expression. Importantly, in these systems, induction of MYC did not activate cell proliferation, ruling out SKP2 up-regulation as a consequence of cell cycle entry. MYC-dependent SKP2 expression was also detected in other cell types such as lymphoid, fibroblastic, and epithelial cell lines. MYC induced SKP2 mRNA expression in the absence of protein synthesis and activated the SKP2 promoter in luciferase reporter assays. With chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, MYC was detected bound to a region of human SKP2 gene promoter that includes E-boxes. The K562 cell line derives from human chronic myeloid leukemia. In a cohort of chronic myeloid leukemia bone marrow samples, we found a correlation between MYC and SKP2 mRNA levels. Analysis of cancer expression databases also indicated a correlation between MYC and SKP2 expression in lymphoma. Finally, MYC-induced SKP2 expression resulted in a decrease in p27 protein in K562 cells. Moreover, silencing of SKP2 abrogated the MYC-mediated down-regulation of p27. Our data show that SKP2 is a direct MYC target gene and that MYC-mediated SKP2 induction leads to reduced p27 levels. The results suggest the induction of SKP2 oncogene as a new mechanism for MYC-dependent transformation. PMID:21245140

  11. Specific CpG hyper-methylation leads to Ankrd26 gene down-regulation in white adipose tissue of a mouse model of diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Raciti, Gregory A.; Spinelli, Rosa; Desiderio, Antonella; Longo, Michele; Parrillo, Luca; Nigro, Cecilia; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Mirra, Paola; Fiory, Francesca; Pilone, Vincenzo; Forestieri, Pietro; Formisano, Pietro; Pastan, Ira; Miele, Claudia; Beguinot, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications alter transcriptional activity and contribute to the effects of environment on the individual risk of obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Here, we have estimated the in vivo effect of a fat-enriched diet (HFD) on the expression and the epigenetic regulation of the Ankyrin repeat domain 26 (Ankrd26) gene, which is associated with the onset of these disorders. In visceral adipose tissue (VAT), HFD exposure determined a specific hyper-methylation of Ankrd26 promoter at the −436 and −431 bp CpG sites (CpGs) and impaired its expression. Methylation of these 2 CpGs impaired binding of the histone acetyltransferase/transcriptional coactivator p300 to this same region, causing hypo-acetylation of histone H4 at the Ankrd26 promoter and loss of binding of RNA Pol II at the Ankrd26 Transcription Start Site (TSS). In addition, HFD increased binding of DNA methyl-transferases (DNMTs) 3a and 3b and methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) to the Ankrd26 promoter. More importantly, Ankrd26 down-regulation enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as in human sera. Thus, in mice, the exposure to HFD induces epigenetic silencing of the Ankrd26 gene, which contributes to the adipose tissue inflammatory secretion profile induced by high-fat regimens. PMID:28266632

  12. Protective potency of clove oil and its transcriptional down-regulation of Aeromonas sobria virulence genes in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus L.).

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hamid, M I; Abd El-Aziz, N K; Ali, H A

    2016-08-31

    Disease episodes of fish caused by Aeromonas species are moved to the top list of limiting problems worldwide. The present study was planned to verify the in vitro antibacterial activities as well as the in vivo potential values of clove oil and ciprofloxacin against Aeromonas sobria in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The in vitro phenotypic virulence activities and the successful amplification of aerolysin and hemolysin genes in the precisely identified A. sobria strain were predictive for its virulence. In the in vivo assay, virulence of A. sobria strain was fully demonstrated based on constituent mRNA expression profile of tested virulence genes and typical septicemia associated with high mortalities of infected fish. Apparent lower mortality rates were correlated well with both decrescent bacterial burden and significant down-regulated transcripts of representative genes in the treated groups with clove oil, followed by ciprofloxacin as a prophylactic use for 15 days (P < 0.0001); however, the essential oil apart from ciprofloxacin significantly enhanced different hematological parameters (P < 0.05). In addition, administration of antibiotic may be considered as a pronounced stress factor in the fish even when it used in the prophylactic dose. In conclusion, medicinal plants-derived essential oils provide a virtually safer alternative to chemotherapeutics on fish, consumers and ecosystems.

  13. Artificial miRNA-mediated down-regulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes (C3H and F5H) cause reduction in lignin content in jute.

    PubMed

    Shafrin, Farhana; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Khan, Haseena

    2015-11-01

    Artificial microRNAs (amiRNA) provide a new feature in the gene silencing era. Concomitantly, reducing the amount of lignin in fiber-yielding plants such as jute holds significant commercial and environmental potential, since this amount is inversely proportional to the quality of the fiber. The present study aimed at reducing the lignin content in jute, by introducing amiRNA based vectors for down-regulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes of jute, coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) and ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H). The transgenic lines of F5H-amiRNA and C3H-amiRNA showed a reduced level of gene expression, which resulted in about 25% reduction in acid insoluble lignin content for whole stem and 12-15% reduction in fiber lignin as compared to the non-transgenic plants. The results indicate successful F5H-amiRNA and C3H-amiRNA transgenesis for lignin reduction in jute. This is likely to have far-reaching commercial implications and economic acceleration for jute producing countries.

  14. NES1/KLK10 gene represses proliferation, enhances apoptosis and down-regulates glucose metabolism of PC3 prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiajia; Lei, Hu; Fei, Xiaochun; Liang, Sheng; Xu, Hanzhang; Qin, Dongjun; Wang, Yue; Wu, Yingli; Li, Biao

    2015-01-01

    The normal epithelial cell-specific-1 (NES1) gene, also named as KLK10, is recognised as a novel putative tumour suppressor in breast cancer, but few studies have focused on the function of KLK10 in human prostate cancer. Our study confirms that the expression of KLK10 in prostate cancer tissue and cell lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP clone FGC) is low. Given that the androgen-independent growth characteristic of the PC3 cell line is more similar to clinical castration-resistant prostate cancer, we studied the role of KLK10 in PC3. In vitro and in vivo assays showed that over-expressing KLK10 in PC3 could decelerate tumour proliferation, which was accompanied with an increase in apoptosis and suppression of glucose metabolism. The related proteins, such as Bcl-2 and HK-2, were down-regulated subsequently. Furthermore, by up-regulating Bcl-2 or HK-2 respectively in the PC3-KLK10 cell line, we observed a subsequent increase of cell proliferation and a synchronous up-regulation of HK-2 and Bcl-2. Besides, KLK10 expression was also increased by Bcl-2 and HK-2, which suggests that there is a negative feedback loop between KLK10 and Bcl-2/HK-2. Thus, our results demonstrated that KLK10 may function as a tumour suppressor by repressing proliferation, enhancing apoptosis and decreasing glucose metabolism in PC3 cells. PMID:26616394

  15. NES1/KLK10 gene represses proliferation, enhances apoptosis and down-regulates glucose metabolism of PC3 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiajia; Lei, Hu; Fei, Xiaochun; Liang, Sheng; Xu, Hanzhang; Qin, Dongjun; Wang, Yue; Wu, Yingli; Li, Biao

    2015-11-30

    The normal epithelial cell-specific-1 (NES1) gene, also named as KLK10, is recognised as a novel putative tumour suppressor in breast cancer, but few studies have focused on the function of KLK10 in human prostate cancer. Our study confirms that the expression of KLK10 in prostate cancer tissue and cell lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP clone FGC) is low. Given that the androgen-independent growth characteristic of the PC3 cell line is more similar to clinical castration-resistant prostate cancer, we studied the role of KLK10 in PC3. In vitro and in vivo assays showed that over-expressing KLK10 in PC3 could decelerate tumour proliferation, which was accompanied with an increase in apoptosis and suppression of glucose metabolism. The related proteins, such as Bcl-2 and HK-2, were down-regulated subsequently. Furthermore, by up-regulating Bcl-2 or HK-2 respectively in the PC3-KLK10 cell line, we observed a subsequent increase of cell proliferation and a synchronous up-regulation of HK-2 and Bcl-2. Besides, KLK10 expression was also increased by Bcl-2 and HK-2, which suggests that there is a negative feedback loop between KLK10 and Bcl-2/HK-2. Thus, our results demonstrated that KLK10 may function as a tumour suppressor by repressing proliferation, enhancing apoptosis and decreasing glucose metabolism in PC3 cells.

  16. Kava components down-regulate expression of AR and AR splice variants and reduce growth in patient-derived prostate cancer xenografts in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuesen; Liu, Zhongbo; Xu, Xia; Blair, Christopher A; Sun, Zheng; Xie, Jun; Lilly, Michael B; Zi, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    Men living in Fiji and drinking kava have low incidence of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the PCa incidence among Fijian men who had migrated to Australia, increased by 5.1-fold. We therefore examined the potential effects of kava root extracts and its active components (kavalactones and flavokawains) on PCa growth and androgen receptor (AR) expression. PCa cell lines (LNCaP, LAPC-4, 22Rv1, C4-2B, DU145 and PC-3) with different AR expression, and a transformed prostate myofibroblast cell line (WPMY-1), were treated with a commercial kava extract, kavalactones (kawain, 5'6'-dehydrokawain, yangonin, methysticin) and flavokawain B. Expression of AR and its target genes (PSA and TMPRSS2) was examined. Two novel patient-derived PCa xenograft models from high grade PCa specimens were established by implanting the specimens into nude mice and passing tumor pieces through subcutaneous injection in nude mice, and then treated with kava extract and flavokawain B to examine their effects on tumor growth, AR expression and serum PSA levels. The kava extract and flavokawain B effectively down-regulated the expression of both the full-length AR and AR splice variants. The kava extract and kavalactones accelerated AR protein degradation, while flavokawain B inhibited AR mRNA transcription via decreasing Sp1 expression and the binding of Sp1 to the AR promoter. The kava root extract and flavokawain B reduce tumor growth, AR expression in tumor tissues and levels of serum PSA in the patient-derived PCa xenograft models. These results suggest a potential usefulness of a safe kava product or its active components for prevention and treatment of advanced PCa by targeting AR.

  17. Kava Components Down-Regulate Expression of AR and AR Splice Variants and Reduce Growth in Patient-Derived Prostate Cancer Xenografts in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuesen; Liu, Zhongbo; Xu, Xia; Blair, Christopher A.; Sun, Zheng; Xie, Jun; Lilly, Michael B.; Zi, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    Men living in Fiji and drinking kava have low incidence of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the PCa incidence among Fijian men who had migrated to Australia, increased by 5.1-fold. We therefore examined the potential effects of kava root extracts and its active components (kavalactones and flavokawains) on PCa growth and androgen receptor (AR) expression. PCa cell lines (LNCaP, LAPC-4, 22Rv1, C4-2B, DU145 and PC-3) with different AR expression, and a transformed prostate myofibroblast cell line (WPMY-1), were treated with a commercial kava extract, kavalactones (kawain, 5′6′-dehydrokawain, yangonin, methysticin) and flavokawain B. Expression of AR and its target genes (PSA and TMPRSS2) was examined. Two novel patient-derived PCa xenograft models from high grade PCa specimens were established by implanting the specimens into nude mice and passing tumor pieces through subcutaneous injection in nude mice, and then treated with kava extract and flavokawain B to examine their effects on tumor growth, AR expression and serum PSA levels. The kava extract and flavokawain B effectively down-regulated the expression of both the full-length AR and AR splice variants. The kava extract and kavalactones accelerated AR protein degradation, while flavokawain B inhibited AR mRNA transcription via decreasing Sp1 expression and the binding of Sp1 to the AR promoter. The kava root extract and flavokawain B reduce tumor growth, AR expression in tumor tissues and levels of serum PSA in the patient-derived PCa xenograft models. These results suggest a potential usefulness of a safe kava product or its active components for prevention and treatment of advanced PCa by targeting AR. PMID:22347450

  18. The MYB182 Protein Down-Regulates Proanthocyanidin and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Poplar by Repressing Both Structural and Regulatory Flavonoid Genes1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kazuko; Ma, Dawei; Constabel, C. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Trees in the genus Populus (poplar) contain phenolic secondary metabolites including the proanthocyanidins (PAs), which help to adapt these widespread trees to diverse environments. The transcriptional activation of PA biosynthesis in response to herbivory and ultraviolet light stress has been documented in poplar leaves, and a regulator of this process, the R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB134, has been identified. MYB134-overexpressing transgenic plants show a strong high-PA phenotype. Analysis of these transgenic plants suggested the involvement of additional MYB transcription factors, including repressor-like MYB factors. Here, MYB182, a subgroup 4 MYB factor, was found to act as a negative regulator of the flavonoid pathway. Overexpression of MYB182 in hairy root culture and whole poplar plants led to reduced PA and anthocyanin levels as well as a reduction in the expression of key flavonoid genes. Similarly, a reduced accumulation of transcripts of a MYB PA activator and a basic helix-loop-helix cofactor was observed in MYB182-overexpressing hairy roots. Transient promoter activation assays in poplar cell culture demonstrated that MYB182 can disrupt transcriptional activation by MYB134 and that the basic helix-loop-helix-binding motif of MYB182 was essential for repression. Microarray analysis of transgenic plants demonstrated that down-regulated targets of MYB182 also include shikimate pathway genes. This work shows that MYB182 plays an important role in the fine-tuning of MYB134-mediated flavonoid metabolism. PMID:25624398

  19. Intense THz pulses down-regulate genes associated with skin cancer and psoriasis: a new therapeutic avenue?

    PubMed Central

    Titova, Lyubov V.; Ayesheshim, Ayesheshim K.; Golubov, Andrey; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Woycicki, Rafal; Hegmann, Frank A.; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation lies between the infrared and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and is non-ionizing. We show that exposure of artificial human skin tissue to intense, picosecond-duration THz pulses affects expression levels of numerous genes associated with non-melanoma skin cancers, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Genes affected by intense THz pulses include nearly half of the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) members. EDC genes, which are mapped to the chromosomal human region 1q21, encode for proteins that partake in epidermal differentiation and are often overexpressed in conditions such as psoriasis and skin cancer. In nearly all the genes differentially expressed by exposure to intense THz pulses, the induced changes in transcription levels are opposite to disease-related changes. The ability of intense THz pulses to cause concerted favorable changes in the expression of multiple genes implicated in inflammatory skin diseases and skin cancers suggests potential therapeutic applications of intense THz pulses. PMID:23917523

  20. IL-6 down-regulates HLA class II expression and IL-12 production of human dendritic cells to impair activation of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yosuke; Kitamura, Hidemitsu; Takahashi, Norihiko; Ohtake, Junya; Kaneumi, Shun; Sumida, Kentaro; Homma, Shigenori; Kawamura, Hideki; Minagawa, Nozomi; Shibasaki, Susumu; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-02-01

    Immunosuppression in tumor microenvironments critically affects the success of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we focused on the role of interleukin (IL)-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) signaling cascade in immune regulation by human dendritic cells (DCs). IL-6-conditioned monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) impaired the presenting ability of cancer-related antigens. Interferon (IFN)-γ production attenuated by CD4(+) T cells co-cultured with IL-6-conditioned MoDCs corresponded with decreased DC IL-12p70 production. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and CD86 expression was significantly reduced in CD11b(+)CD11c(+) cells obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy donors by IL-6 treatment and was STAT3 dependent. Arginase-1 (ARG1), lysosomal protease, cathepsin L (CTSL), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) were involved in the reduction of surface HLA-DR expression. Gene expressions of ARG1, CTSL, COX2, and IL6 were higher in tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+)CD11c(+) cells compared with PBMCs isolated from colorectal cancer patients. Expression of surface HLA-DR and CD86 on CD11b(+)CD11c(+) cells was down-regulated, and T cell-stimulating ability was attenuated compared with PBMCs, suggesting that an immunosuppressive phenotype might be induced by IL-6, ARG1, CTSL, and COX2 in tumor sites of colorectal cancer patients. There was a relationship between HLA-DR expression levels in tumor tissues and the size of CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cell compartments. Our findings indicate that IL-6 causes a dysfunction in human DCs that activates cancer antigen-specific Th cells, suggesting that blocking the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway might be a promising strategy to improve cancer immunotherapy.

  1. Dietary sodium deprivation evokes activation of brain regional neurons and down-regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensin-convertion enzyme mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Lu, B; Yang, X J; Chen, K; Yang, D J; Yan, J Q

    2009-12-15

    Previous studies have indicated that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the induction of sodium appetite in rats and that different dietary sodium intakes influence the mRNA expression of central and peripheral RAAS components. To determine whether dietary sodium deprivation activates regional brain neurons related to sodium appetite, and changes their gene expression of RAAS components of rats, the present study examined the c-Fos expression after chronic exposure to low sodium diet, and determined the relationship between plasma and brain angiotensin I (ANG I), angiotensin II (ANG II) and aldosterone (ALD) levels and the sodium ingestive behavior variations, as well as the effects of prolonged dietary sodium deprivation on ANG II type 1 (AT1) and ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptors and angiotensin-convertion enzyme (ACE) mRNA levels in the involved brain regions using the method of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that the Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) expression in forebrain areas such as subfornical organ (SFO), paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) all increased significantly and that the levels of ANG I, ANG II and ALD also increased in plasma and forebrain in rats fed with low sodium diet. In contrast, AT1, ACE mRNA in PVN, SON and OVLT decreased significantly in dietary sodium depleted rats, while AT2 mRNA expression did not change in the examined areas. These results suggest that many brain areas are activated by increased levels of plasma and/or brain ANG II and ALD, which underlies the elevated preference for hypertonic salt solution after prolonged exposure to low sodium diet, and that the regional AT1 and ACE mRNA are down-regulated after dietary sodium deprivation, which may be mediated by increased ANG II in plasma and/or brain tissue.

  2. Reduced miR-9 and miR-181a expression down-regulates Bim concentration and promote osteoclasts survival

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shilong; Tang, Chaoliang; Zhang, Quan; Chen, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are often the result of blunt trauma and are associated with severe soft-tissue injury. Operative management of high-energy fractures remains difficult and challenging because the injuries often associated with serious complications. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the class of short noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression. miRNAs contribute to every step of osteogenesis from embryonic bone development to maintenance of adult bone tissue, and disturbed miRNAs expression are identified related to osteoporosis, osteosarcoma, post-traumatic arthritis and bone remodeling. But our understandings about the roles of miRNAs in tibial plateau fractures repairing process are rare. In this study, we first detect seven candidate miRNAs expression in the SF cells of the mouse model. The results indicated that miR-9 and miR-181a were down-regulated significantly five days after injury. By using dual luciferase assay and western blot, we confirmed that the expression of Cbl is repressed by miR-9 and miR-181a. Meanwhile, the amount of ubiquitinated Bim was raised and the total Bim was reduced by miRNA inhibitors. Further functional study indicated that reduced miR-9 and miR-181a expression can active RAW264.7 cells migration ability and raise the primary mouse osteoclasts survival rate in vitro. To our understood, this is the first study about the function of disturbed miRNAs in the tibial plateau fracture mouse model, and may expand our understanding about post tibial plateau fracture recover and post-traumatic sequelae generation. PMID:24966929

  3. ER stress upregulated PGE2/IFNγ-induced IL-6 expression and down-regulated iNOS expression in glial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, Toru; Honda, Miya; Oba, Tatsuya; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2013-12-01

    The disruption of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function can lead to neurodegenerative disorders, in which inflammation has also been implicated. We investigated the possible correlation between ER stress and immune function using glial cells. We demonstrated that ER stress synergistically enhanced prostaglandin (PG) E2 + interferon (IFN) γ-induced interleukin (IL)-6 production. This effect was mediated through cAMP. Immune-activated glial cells produced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Interestingly, ER stress inhibited PGE2 + IFNγ-induced iNOS expression. Similar results were obtained when cells were treated with dbcAMP + IFNγ. Thus, cAMP has a dual effect on immune reactions; cAMP up-regulated IL-6 expression, but down-regulated iNOS expression under ER stress. Therefore, our results suggest a link between ER stress and immune reactions in neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Angiotensin II receptor blockade promotes repair of skeletal muscle through down-regulation of aging-promoting C1q expression

    PubMed Central

    Yabumoto, Chizuru; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Rie; Yano, Masamichi; Kudo-Sakamoto, Yoko; Sumida, Tomokazu; Kamo, Takehiro; Yagi, Hiroki; Shimizu, Yu; Saga-Kamo, Akiko; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Oka, Toru; Lee, Jong-Kook; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Sakata, Yasushi; Uejima, Etsuko; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor prolonged life span in mice. Since aging-related decline in skeletal muscle function was retarded in Atgr1a−/− mice, we examined the role of AT1 receptor in muscle regeneration after injury. Administration of AT1 receptor blocker irbesartan increased the size of regenerating myofibers, decreased fibrosis, and enhanced functional muscle recovery after cryoinjury. We recently reported that complement C1q, secreted by macrophages, activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promoted aging-related decline in regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. Notably, irbesartan induced M2 polarization of macrophages, but reduced C1q expression in cryoinjured muscles and in cultured macrophage cells. Irbesartan inhibited up-regulation of Axin2, a downstream gene of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, in cryoinjured muscles. In addition, topical administration of C1q reversed beneficial effects of irbesartan on skeletal muscle regeneration after injury. These results suggest that AT1 receptor blockade improves muscle repair and regeneration through down-regulation of the aging-promoting C1q-Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26571361

  5. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Budhraja, Amit; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4′, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other type of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:23743303

  6. Wild-type and mutated presenilins 2 trigger p53-dependent apoptosis and down-regulate presenilin 1 expression in HEK293 human cells and in murine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Alves da Costa, Cristine; Paitel, Erwan; Mattson, Mark P.; Amson, Robert; Telerman, Adam; Ancolio, Karine; Checler, Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    Presenilins 1 and 2 are two homologous proteins that, when mutated, account for most early onset Alzheimer's disease. Several lines of evidence suggest that, among various functions, presenilins could modulate cell apoptotic responses. Here we establish that the overexpression of presenilin 2 (PS2) and its mutated form Asn-141-Ile-PS2 alters the viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells as established by combined trypan blue exclusion, sodium 3′-[1-(phenylamino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzene sulfonic acid hydrate assay, and propidium iodide incorporation FACS analyses. The two parent proteins increase the acetyl-DEVD-al-sensitive caspase-3-like activity in both HEK293 cells and Telencephalon specific murine neurons, modulate Bax and bcl-2 expressions, and enhance cytochrome C translocation into the cytosol. We show that overexpression of both wild-type and mutated PS2 increases p53-like immunoreactivity and transcriptional activity. We also establish that wild-type- and mutated PS2-induced caspase activation is reduced by p53 antisense approach and by pifithrin-α, a chemical inhibitor of p53. Furthermore, mouse fibroblasts in which the PS2 gene has been knocked out exhibited strongly reduced p53-transcriptional activity. Finally, we establish that the overexpression of both wild-type and mutated PS2 is accompanied by a drastic reduction of endogenous presenilin 1 (PS1) expression. Interestingly, pifithrin-α diminished endogenous PS2 immunoreactivity, whereas the inhibitor increases PS1 expression. Altogether, our data demonstrate that wild-type and familial Alzheimer's disease-linked PS2 trigger apoptosis and down-regulate PS1 expression through p53-dependent mechanisms. PMID:11904448

  7. Germinated brown rice extract inhibits adipogenesis through the down-regulation of adipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-adipogenic effect of germinated brown rice methanol extract (GBR) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The GBR inhibited adipocyte differentiation was measured by Oil Red O staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in a dose-dependent manner without initiating any cytotoxicity. The mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα), proliferator-activated receptorγ (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and adipogenic genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), were significantly down-regulated by treatment with GBR when compared to that of untreated control cells. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expressions were attenuated by GBR in mature adipocytes. These data suggest that GBR exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect through the suppression of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  8. Subcutaneous administration of collagen-polyvinylpyrrolidone down regulates IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1, ELAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in scleroderma skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Furuzawa-Carballeda, J; Krötzsch, E; Barile-Fabris, L; Alcalá, M; Espinosa-Morales, R

    2005-01-01

    In this study the effect of collagen-polyvinylpyrrolidone (collagen-PVP) vs. triamcinolone acetonide (Triam) in scleroderma (SSc) skin lesions was evaluated. Ten SSc patients were treated weekly with subcutaneous injections of 0.2 mL Triam (8 mg/mL) or 0.2 mL collagen-PVP (1.66 mg collagen). Skin biopsies were obtained from lesions before and after treatment. Tissue sections were evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry (ELAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1 and PDGF). The corticoid-treated group showed abnormal tissue architecture while the biodrug-treatment restored cutaneous appendages and type I/III collagen proportion. Cytokine and adhesion molecule expression was almost inhibited with Triam, while collagen-PVP down-regulated it. Collagen-PVP improved the tissue architecture of SSc lesions and down-regulated some proinflammatory parameters, without the side effects induced by corticoids.

  9. Swimming training down-regulates plasma leptin levels, but not adipose tissue ob mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Benatti, F B; Polacow, V O; Ribeiro, S M L; Gualano, B; Coelho, D F; Rogeri, P S; Costa, A S; Lancha Junior, A H

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of endurance training on leptin levels and adipose tissue gene expression and their association with insulin, body composition and energy intake. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: trained (N = 18) and sedentary controls (N = 20). The trained group underwent swimming training for 9 weeks. Leptin and insulin levels, adiposity and leptin gene expression in epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue were determined after training. There were no differences in energy intake between groups. Trained rats had a decreased final body weight (-10%), relative and total body fat (-36 and -55%, respectively) and insulin levels (-55%) compared with controls (P < 0.05). Although trained animals showed 56% lower leptin levels (2.58 +/- 1.05 vs 5.89 +/- 2.89 ng/mL in control; P < 0.05), no difference in leptin gene expression in either fat depot was demonstrable between groups. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that lower leptin levels in trained rats were due primarily to their lower body fat mass. After adjustment for total body fat, leptin levels were still 20% (P < 0.05) lower in exercised rats. In conclusion, nine weeks of swimming training did not affect leptin gene expression, but did lead to a decrease in leptin levels that was independent of changes in body fat.

  10. Up-regulation of a HOXA-PBX3 homeobox-gene signature following down-regulation of miR-181 is associated with adverse prognosis in patients with cytogenetically abnormal AML.

    PubMed

    Li, Zejuan; Huang, Hao; Li, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Xi; Chen, Ping; Arnovitz, Stephen; Radmacher, Michael D; Maharry, Kati; Elkahloun, Abdel; Yang, Xinan; He, Chunjiang; He, Miao; Zhang, Zhiyu; Dohner, Konstanze; Neilly, Mary Beth; Price, Colles; Lussier, Yves A; Zhang, Yanming; Larson, Richard A; Le Beau, Michelle M; Caligiuri, Michael A; Bullinger, Lars; Valk, Peter J M; Delwel, Ruud; Lowenberg, Bob; Liu, Paul P; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D; Rowley, Janet D; Chen, Jianjun

    2012-03-08

    Increased expression levels of miR-181 family members have been shown to be associated with favorable outcome in patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia. Here we show that increased expression of miR-181a and miR-181b is also significantly (P < .05; Cox regression) associated with favorable overall survival in cytogenetically abnormal AML (CA-AML) patients. We further show that up-regulation of a gene signature composed of 4 potential miR-181 targets (including HOXA7, HOXA9, HOXA11, and PBX3), associated with down-regulation of miR-181 family members, is an independent predictor of adverse overall survival on multivariable testing in analysis of 183 CA-AML patients. The independent prognostic impact of this 4-homeobox-gene signature was confirmed in a validation set of 271 CA-AML patients. Furthermore, our in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that ectopic expression of miR-181b significantly promoted apoptosis and inhibited viability/proliferation of leukemic cells and delayed leukemogenesis; such effects could be reversed by forced expression of PBX3. Thus, the up-regulation of the 4 homeobox genes resulting from the down-regulation of miR-181 family members probably contribute to the poor prognosis of patients with nonfavorable CA-AML. Restoring expression of miR-181b and/or targeting the HOXA/PBX3 pathways may provide new strategies to improve survival substantially.

  11. Induced ICER I{gamma} down-regulates cyclin A expression and cell proliferation in insulin-producing {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Akari; Weir, Gordon C.; Bonner-Weir, Susan . E-mail: susan.bonner-weir@joslin.harvard.edu

    2005-04-15

    We have previously found that cyclin A expression is markedly reduced in pancreatic {beta}-cells by cell-specific overexpression of repressor inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER I{gamma}) in transgenic mice. Here we further examined regulatory effects of ICER I{gamma} on cyclin A gene expression using Min6 cells, an insulin-producing cell line. The cyclin A promoter luciferase assay showed that ICER I{gamma} directly repressed cyclin A gene transcription. In addition, upon ICER I{gamma} overexpression, cyclin A mRNA levels markedly decreased, thereby confirming an inhibitory effect of ICER I{gamma} on cyclin A expression. Suppression of cyclin A results in inhibition of BrdU incorporation. Under normal culture conditions endogenous cyclin A is abundant in these cells, whereas ICER is hardly detectable. However, serum starvation of Min6 cells induces ICER I{gamma} expression with a concomitant very low expression level of cyclin A. Cyclin A protein is not expressed unless the cells are in active DNA replication. These results indicate a potentially important anti-proliferative effect of ICER I{gamma} in pancreatic {beta} cells. Since ICER I{gamma} is greatly increased in diabetes as well as in FFA- or high glucose-treated islets, this effect may in part exacerbate diabetes by limiting {beta}-cell proliferation.

  12. Association of down-regulation of CD109 expression with up-expression of Smad7 in pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-xin; Feng, Ai-ping; He, Yi-min; Li, Yan; Wu, Yan; Lian, Xin; Hu, Feng; Li, Jia-wen; Tu, Ya-ting; Chen, Shan-juan

    2016-02-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. CD109, a novel TGF-β co-receptor, which inhibits TGF-β signaling by enhancing Smad7-dependent degradation of TGF-β type I receptor (TGF-β RI), is abnormally expressed in psoriasis. To date, the expression of Smad7 and the correlation between CD109 and Smad7 expression in psoriasis have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the expression and the correlation of CD109 and TGF-β signaling associated proteins in psoriasis and their roles in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Thirty-two psoriasis specimens were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for CD109, Smad7, TGF-β RI and Ki67. Ten normal skin (NS) specimens served as controls. The positive expression rate (% positive cells) of Smad7 and Ki67 in psoriasis was significantly higher than in NS (62.6%±19.9% vs. 17.2%±4.4%, and 50.7%±14.3% vs. 19.5%±3.2%, respectively, P<0.001), and the expression levels of CD109 and TGF-β RI were reduced significantly in psoriasis as compared with NS (8.1%±6.7% vs. 35.8%±6.7% and 27.3%±3.4% vs. 3.0%±3.4%, respectively, P<0.001). There were significantly negative correlations between CD109 and Smad7 (r=-0.831, P<0.01). These findings indicated that CD109 might play a certain role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Lower expression of CD109 and TGF-β RI was highly correlated with higher expression of Smad7 and Ki67, suggesting that CD109 may induce the pathogenesis of psoriasis through Smad7-mediated degradation of TGF-β RI, and lead to the termination of TGF-β signaling.

  13. Efflux pumps expression and its association with porin down-regulation and β-lactamase production among Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing bloodstream infections in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Multi-drug efflux pumps have been increasingly recognized as a major component of resistance in P. aeruginosa. We have investigated the expression level of efflux systems among clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, regardless of their antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Results Aztreonam exhibited the highest in vitro activity against the P. aeruginosa isolates studied (64.4% susceptibility), whereas susceptibility rates of imipenem and meropenem were both 47.5%. The MexXY-OprM and MexAB-OprM efflux systems were overexpressed in 50.8% and 27.1% of isolates studied, respectively. Overexpression of the MexEF-OprN and MexCD-OprJ systems was not observed. AmpC β-lactamase was overexpressed in 11.9% of P. aeruginosa isolates. In addition, decreased oprD expression was also observed in 69.5% of the whole collection, and in 87.1% of the imipenem non-susceptible P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. The MBL-encoding genes blaSPM-1 and blaIMP-1 were detected in 23.7% and 1.7% P. aeruginosa isolates, respectively. The blaGES-1 was detected in 5.1% of the isolates, while blaGES-5 and blaCTX-M-2 were observed in 1.7% of the isolates evaluated. In the present study, we have observed that efflux systems represent an adjuvant mechanism for antimicrobial resistance. Conclusions Efflux systems in association of distinct mechanisms such as the porin down-regulation, AmpC overproduction and secondary β-lactamases play also an important role in the multi-drug resistance phenotype among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. PMID:20704733

  14. PCI-24781 down-regulates EZH2 expression and then promotes glioma apoptosis by suppressing the PIK3K/Akt/mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Lv, Shengqing; Liu, Jun; Zang, Zhenle; Yin, Junyi; An, Ning; Yang, Hui; Song, Yechun

    2014-01-01

    PCI-24781 is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor that inhibits tumor proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis. However, it is unclear whether PCI-24781 inhibits Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) expression in malignant gliomas. In this work, three glioma cell lines were incubated with various concentrations of PCI-24781 (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 μM) and analyzed for cell proliferation by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay and colony formation, and cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. The expression of EZH2 and apoptosis-related proteins was assessed by western blotting. Malignant glioma cells were also transfected with EZH2 siRNA to examine how PCI-24781 suppresses tumor cells. EZH2 was highly expressed in the three glioma cell lines. Incubation with PCI-24781 reduced cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis by down-regulating EZH2 in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were simulated by EZH2 siRNA. In addition, PCI-24781 or EZH2 siRNA accelerated cell apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of AKT, mTOR, p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k), glycogen synthase kinase 3A and B (GSK3a/b) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). These data suggest that PCI-24781 may be a promising therapeutic agent for treating gliomas by down-regulating EZH2 which promotes cell apoptosis by suppressing the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. PMID:25505847

  15. Salinomycin enhances cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells via down-regulation of AKT-dependent thymidylate synthase expression.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jen-Chung; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chen, Wen-Ching; Peng, Yi-Shuan; Wu, Chia-Hung; Wei, Chia-Li; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-12-15

    Salinomycin, a polyether antibiotic, acts as a highly selective potassium ionophore and has anticancer activity on various cancer cell lines. Cisplatin has been proved as chemotherapy drug for advanced human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, and increased expression of TS is thought to be associated with resistance to cisplatin. In this study, we showed that salinomycin (0.5-2μg/mL) treatment down-regulating of TS expression in an AKT inactivation manner in two NSCLC cell lines, human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and squamous cell carcinoma H1703 cells. Knockdown of TS using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or inhibiting AKT activity with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of salinomycin. A combination of cisplatin and salinomycin resulted in synergistic enhancement of cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced activation of phospho-AKT, and TS expression. Overexpression of a constitutive active AKT (AKT-CA) expression vector reversed the salinomycin and cisplatin-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. In contrast, pretreatment with LY294002 further decreased the cell viability in salinomycin and cisplatin cotreated cells. Our findings suggested that the down-regulation of AKT-mediated TS expression by salinomycin enhanced the cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in NSCLC cells. These results may provide a rationale to combine salinomycin with cisplatin for lung cancer treatment.

  16. Calcitriol May Down-Regulate mRNA Over-Expression of Toll-Like Receptor-2 and -4, LL-37 and Proinflammatory Cytokines in Cultured Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Mi Sook; Kim, Ji-Yun; Lee, He In

    2014-01-01

    Background Although vitamin D analogs have been used in the topical treatment of psoriasis, their mechanisms of action are not well understand. Calcitriol, the hormonally active vitamin D3 metabolite, has been demonstrated to exert immunomodulatory effects in the skin by down-regulating the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Objective We investigated the effects of calcitriol on the expression of TLR2, TLR4, antimicrobial peptide LL-37, and proinflammatory cytokines in cultured human keratinocytes. Methods The mRNA expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and LL-37 in cultured human keratinocytes were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription (RT). Furthermore, we measured supernatant TNF-α levels by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to confirm the effects of calcitriol on TLR2 and TLR4. Results As measured by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, calcitriol was found to suppress the lipopolysaccharide- and ultraviolet B radiation-mediated induction of expression of TLRs, LL-37 and proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β in normal human keratinocytes. The supernatant TNF-α levels measured by ELISA were also suppressed after treatment with calcitriol. Conclusion Calcitriol may down-regulate inflammatory stated over-expression of LL-37 and proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:24966627

  17. Down-regulation of specific members of the glutamine synthetase gene family in alfalfa by antisense RNA technology.

    PubMed

    Temple, S J; Bagga, S; Sengupta-Gopalan, C

    1998-06-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of NH3 with glutamate to produce glutamine. In plants GS is an octameric enzyme and is located either in the cytoplasm (GS1) or in the chloroplast (GS2). Two distinct classes of GS1 genes with unique 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) have been identified in alfalfa. We have demonstrated that the two classes exhibit differential expression pattern in the different plant organs suggesting different functional roles for the different isozymes. To determine the functional significance of the two classes of GS1 genes in alfalfa, we have utilized antisense gene constructs aimed specifically at the 3'UTR of the two GS1 genes and introduced them individually into alfalfa. Our data show that the gene constructs are effective in lowering the corresponding transcript level very effectively though there were organ-specific differences in the level of reduction. No transcript corresponding to the antisense gene construct was detected in any of the alfalfa transformants though they accumulated to significant levels in transgenic tobacco containing the same construct. This suggests that the antisense transcript was not stable in the presence of the homologous target sequence. Transgenic alfalfa with up to 80% reduction in the transcript level corresponding to each gene class, however, showed no reduction in GS activity or GS1 polypeptide level. The results suggest that GS1 mRNA levels are not rate-limiting for GS1 polypeptide synthesis and that GS levels are controlled both at the transcriptional and translational/post-translational level.

  18. Anti-cancer effect of snake venom toxin through down regulation of AP-1 mediated PRDX6 expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Lim; Park, Mi Hee; Son, Dong Ju; Song, Ho Sueb; Kim, Jung Hyun; Ko, Seong Cheol; Song, Min Jong; Lee, Won Hyoung; Yoon, Joo Hee; Ham, Young Wan; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-09-08

    Snake venom toxin (SVT) from Vipera lebetina turanica contains a mixture of different enzymes and proteins. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is known to be a stimulator of lung cancer cell growth. PRDX6 is a member of peroxidases, and has calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activities. PRDX6 has an AP-1 binding site in its promoter region of the gene. Since AP-1 is implicated in tumor growth and PRDX6 expression, in the present study, we investigated whether SVT inhibits PRDX6, thereby preventing human lung cancer cell growth (A549 and NCI-H460) through inactivation of AP-1. A docking model study and pull down assay showed that SVT completely fits on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) region of c-Fos of AP-1. SVT (0-10 μg/ml) inhibited lung cancer cell growth in a concentration dependent manner through induction of apoptotic cell death accompanied by induction of cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9, Bax, p21 and p53, but decreased cIAP and Bcl2 expression via inactivation of AP-1. In an xenograft in vivo model, SVT (0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg) also inhibited tumor growth accompanied with the reduction of PRDX6 expression, but increased expression of proapoptotic proteins. These data indicate that SVT inhibits tumor growth via inhibition of PRDX6 activity through interaction with its transcription factor AP-1.

  19. Calorie restriction down-regulates expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin in normal and D-galactose-induced aging mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shougang; Shi, Wenli; Li, Man; Gao, Qian

    2014-02-01

    It has been shown that iron progressively accumulates in the brain with age. Calorie restriction (CR) may allay many of the adverse effects of aging on the brain, yet the underlying mechanisms, in particular in relation to brain iron metabolism, remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of CR in the regulation of cerebral cellular iron homeostasis. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups of eight. The control group was fed a conventional diet ad libitum; the CR group received 70% of the calories of the control mouse intake per day; the D-galactose (D-gal) group received subcutaneous injection of D-gal at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily to produce mouse model of aging; the D-gal plus CR group received both of the two interventions for 14 weeks. The Morris water maze (MWM) was employed to test the cognitive performance of all animals, and the expression of iron regulatory genes, ferroportin and hepcidin, in the cortex and hippocampus were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to the controls, the D-gal group mice showed significant spatial reference memory deficits in the MWM test, whereas the D-gal-CR group mice exhibited almost normal cognitive function, indicating that CR protects against D-gal-induced learning and memory impairment. Hepcidin mRNA expression was increased in the D-gal group, decreased in the CR group, and was basically unchanged in the D-gal-CR group. There was no statistical difference in the transmembrane iron exporter ferroportin expression between control and any of the experimental groups. The results suggest that the anti-aging effects of CR might partially lie in its capacity to reduce or avoid age-related iron accumulation in the brain through down-regulating expression of brain hepcidin--the key negative regulator for intracellular iron efflux--and that facilitating the balance of brain iron metabolism may be a promising anti-aging measure.

  20. Andrographolide could inhibit human colorectal carcinoma Lovo cells migration and invasion via down-regulation of MMP-7 expression.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming-Der; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chiang, Tai-An; Tsai, Li-Yu; Tsai, Shu-Mei; Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2009-08-14

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to have potent anti-cancer activity against human colorectal carcinoma Lovo cells by inhibiting cell-cycle progression. To further investigate the mechanism for the anti-cancer properties of Andro, it was used to examine the effect on migration and invasion of Lovo cells. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that Andro inhibited dose-dependently the migration and invasion of Lovo cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Using zymographic assay and RT-PCR, the results revealed that Andro diminished the activity and the mRNA and protein levels of MMP-7, but not MMP-2 or MMP-9. The down-regulation of MMP-7 appeared to be via the inactivation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) since the treatment with Andro suppressed the nuclear protein level of AP-1, which was accompanied by a decrease in DNA-binding level of the factor. Taken together, these results indicated that Andro reduces the MMP-7-mediated cellular events in Lovo cells, and provided a new mechanism for its anti-cancer activity.

  1. Escin Ia suppresses the metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition via down-regulating LOXL2 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhui; Xu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Peng; Tong, Bei; Wei, Zhifeng; Dai, Yue

    2016-04-26

    The saponin fraction of Aesculus chinensis Bunge fruits (SFAC) could inhibit the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Among which, escin Ia showed more potent inhibition of the invasion than other five main saponin constituents. It selectively reduced the expression of LOXL2 mRNA and promoted the expression of E-cadherin mRNA, and prevented the EMT process of MDA-MB-231 cells and TNF-α/TGF-β-stimulated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, it reduced the LOXL2 level in MDA-MB-231 cells but not in MCF-7 cells. When MCF-7 cells were stimulated with TNF-α/TGF-β, transfected with LOXL2 or treated with hypoxia, escin Ia down-regulated the level of LOXL2 in MCF-7 cells. Meanwhile, escin Ia suppressed the EMT process in LOXL2-transfected or hypoxia-treated MCF-7 cells. Of interest, escin Ia did not alter the level of HIF-1α in hypoxia-induced MCF-7 cells. In TNBC xenograft mice, the metastasis and EMT of MDA-MB-231 cells were suppressed by escin Ia. In conclusion, escin Ia was the main active ingredient of SFAC for the anti-TNBC metastasis activity, and its action mechanisms involved inhibition of EMT process by down-regulating LOXL2 expression.

  2. Down-regulation of the CYP19A1 gene in cumulus cells of infertile women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Ionara Diniz E S; Donabella, Flávia Capello; Ribas, Cristiana Padovan; Meola, Juliana; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; de Paz, Cláudia Cristina Paro; Navarro, Paula A

    2015-05-01

    Aromatase plays a fundamental role in the establishment of oocyte quality, which might be compromised in infertile women with endometriosis. The expression of the CYP19A1 gene (that encodes aromatase) was compared in cumulus cells and oestradiol concentrations in the follicular fluid of infertile women with and without endometriosis submitted to ovarian stimulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Cumulus cells were isolated and the expression of the CYP19A1 was quantitated through real-time polymerase chain reaction. Oestradiol concentrations in follicular fluid were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. A lower expression of the CYP19A1 in the cumulus cells of infertile women with endometriosis was observed compared with controls (0.17 ± 0.13 and 0.56 ± 0.12, respectively), and no significant difference in the follicular fluid oestradiol concentrations was observed between groups. Our results show reduced expression of the CYP19A1 in cumulus cells of infertile women with endometriosis, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis-related infertility.

  3. miR-488 determines coat pigmentation by down-regulating the pigment-producing gene pro-opiomelanocortin.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Ma, S; Xue, L; Li, Y; Wang, J; He, X; Zhu, Z; Dong, C

    2016-10-31

    Coat color is a key economic trait in wool- and fur-producing animals. Coat color is controlled by complex mechanisms. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a gene involved in pigment formation. Previous studies suggested that miR-488 might target the POMC mRNA. This study aimed to determine whether miR-488 could affect coat color by regulating POMC and to explore the regulatory roles of miR-488 on coat color in mammals. A dual fluorescence report vector containing the 3'-UTR of POMC was built to determine whether miR-488 could post-transcriptionally regulate POMC expression. Then, a eukaryotic vector expressing miR-488 was built and transfected into mouse keratinocytes to confirm the regulatory mechanism in vitro. Compared with gray mice, the expression of POMC mRNA was 3.36-fold higher in black mice and 1.29-fold higher in brown mice. The results showed that miR-488 could control mice coat color by combining with the 3'-UTR seed sequence of POMC mRNA to achieve the degradation of POMC mRNA, therefore playing a role in POMC expression. This study revealed the roles of miR-488 in animal coat color and enriches our knowledge about the determination of coat color in mammals.

  4. Down-Regulation of DUSP6 Expression in Lung Cancer —Its Mechanism and Potential Role in Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Okudela, Koji; Yazawa, Takuya; Woo, Tetsukan; Sakaeda, Masashi; Ishii, Jun; Mitsui, Hideaki; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Sato, Hanako; Tajiri, Michihiko; Ogawa, Nobuo; Masuda, Munetaka; Takahashi, Takashi; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Kitamura, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    Our preliminary studies revealed that oncogenic KRAS (KRAS/V12) dramatically suppressed the growth of immortalized airway epithelial cells (NHBE-T, with viral antigen-inactivated p53 and RB proteins). This process appeared to be a novel event, different from the so-called premature senescence that is induced by either p53 or RB, suggesting the existence of a novel tumor suppressor that functions downstream of oncogenic KRAS. After a comprehensive search for genes whose expression levels were modulated by KRAS/V12, we focused on DUSP6, a pivotal negative feedback regulator of the RAS-ERK pathway. A dominant-negative DUSP6 mutant, however, failed to rescue KRAS/V12-induced growth suppression, but conferred a stronger anchorage-independent growth activity to the surviving subpopulation of cells generated from KRAS/V12-transduced NHBE-T. DUSP6 expression levels were found to be weaker in most lung cancer cell lines than in NHBE-T, and DUSP6 restoration suppressed cellular growth. In primary lung cancers, DUSP6 expression levels decreased as both growth activity and histological grade of the tumor increased. Loss of heterozygosity of the DUSP6 locus was found in 17.7% of cases and was associated with reduced expression levels. These results suggest that DUSP6 is a growth suppressor whose inactivation could promote the progression of lung cancer. We have here identified an important factor involved in carcinogenesis through a comprehensive search for downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS. PMID:19608870

  5. Down-regulation of an ankyrin repeat-containing protein, V-1, during skeletal muscle differentiation and its re-expression in the regenerative process of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yuko; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Yamakuni, Tohru; Ishida, Yukisato; Kato, Chieko; Ogashiwa, Masayo; Kobayashi, Masumi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Nonaka, Ikuya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Song, Si Young

    2003-01-01

    Using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical methods, we examined the expression of V-1, a member of the ankyrin repeat-containing protein family, during differentiation and regeneration of skeletal muscle. The expression of V-1 was high in cultured myoblasts and decreased during their differentiation into myotubes, while high expression was maintained when muscle differentiation was inhibited by treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor. Down-regulation of V-1 also occurred during in vivo muscle differentiation from embryonic to postnatal stages, reaching an undetectable level in mature skeletal muscle. In contrast, strong V-1 immunoreactivity was detected again in myoblasts and regenerating muscle fibers with a small diameter, which were observed in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its animal model, mdx mouse. Thus, it seems that V-1 is a good marker for early stage of muscle regeneration and changes of its expression suggest that V-1 plays a role in prenatal muscle differentiation and postnatal muscle regeneration.

  6. Vibrio parahaemolyticus CalR down regulates the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) gene transcription and thereby inhibits hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiquan; Zhang, Ying; Gao, He; Zhang, Lingyu; Yin, Zhe; Huang, Xinxiang; Zhou, Dongsheng; Yang, Huiying; Yang, Wenhui; Wang, Li

    2017-03-04

    TDH, encoded by tdh gene, is a major virulent determinant of V. parahaemolyticus that controls various biological activities, such as hemolytic activity, cytotoxicity, and enterotoxicity. The hemolytic activity on Wagatsuma agar ascribed to TDH is called Kanagawa phenomenon (KP). All KP positive strains contain tdh1 and tdh2 genes, but tdh2 is predominantly responsible for KP. CalR is a regulatory protein that was originally identified as a repressor of swarming motility and T3SS1 gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus. In the present study, the regulation of tdh2 by CalR was investigated using a set of experiments including qRT-PCR, primer extension, LacZ fusion, hemolytic phenotype, EMSA, and DNase I footprinting assays. The results showed that His-CalR protected a single region from 224bp to 318bp upstream of tdh2 against DNase I digestion, and a transcriptional start site located at 42bp upstream of tdh2 was detected and its transcribed activity was inhibited by CalR. Moreover, the KP test results showed that the hemolytic activity of V. parahaemolyticus is also under negative control of CalR. The data demonstrated that CalR is a repressor of the tdh2 transcription and thereby inhibits the hemolytic activity of V. parahaemolyticus.

  7. Dienogest, a synthetic progestin, down-regulates expression of CYP19A1 and inflammatory and neuroangiogenesis factors through progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in endometriotic cells.

    PubMed

    Ichioka, Masayuki; Mita, Shizuka; Shimizu, Yutaka; Imada, Kazunori; Kiyono, Tohru; Bono, Yukiko; Kyo, Satoru

    2015-03-01

    Dienogest (DNG) is a selective progesterone receptor (PR) agonist and oral administration of DNG is used for the treatment of endometriosis. DNG is considered to act on PR to down-regulate pathophysiological factors associated with endometriosis. PR exists as two major isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, and their physiological functions are mostly distinct. It was suggested that PR isoform expression patterns are altered in endometriosis, but it is unknown whether the pharmacological effects of DNG are exerted through PR-A, PR-B or both. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacological effects of DNG through these PR isoforms on the expression of CYP19A1 which encodes aromatase and inflammatory and neuroangiogenesis factors associated with the pain and progression of endometriosis. We used immortalized human endometriotic epithelial cell lines that specifically express PR-A or PR-B in a spheroid cell culture system, and treated them with DNG. We evaluated messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of CYP19A1, prostaglandin (PG)E2 synthase (cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1), inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1) and neuroangiogenesis factors (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF)) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, PGE2 production was measured by enzyme immunoassay. We found that DNG down-regulated mRNA expression of CYP19A1, COX-2, mPGES-1, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, NGF and VEGF, and PGE2 production in human endometriotic epithelial cell lines that specifically express either PR-A or PR-B. These results demonstrate that DNG activates both PR-A and PR-B and down-regulates the expression of pathophysiological factors associated with pain and progression of endometriosis. Our results suggest that DNG exerts therapeutic efficacy against the pain and progression of endometriosis regardless of PR isoform expression patterns.

  8. Superoxide dismutase induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest by down-regulated expression of Cdk-2 and cyclin-E in murine sarcoma S180 tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongyue; Liu, Anjun

    2013-06-01

    As an efficient reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been shown to inhibit tumor growth and interfere with motility and invasiveness of cancer cells. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of cell cycle arrest when S180 tumor cells were exposed to high levels of SOD were investigated. Here, both murine sarcoma S180 tumor cells and NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblasts were respectively treated with varying concentrations of Cu/Zn-SOD for 24, 48 and 72 h to determine optimal dose of SOD, which was a concentration of 800 U/ml SOD for 48 h. It is found that SOD induced S180 cell cycle arrest at G1-phase with decreasing level of superoxide production, whereas SOD had less effect on proliferation of NIH-3T3 cells. Moreover, the expression rate of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) in S180 tumor cells was suppressed after SOD treatment, which indicated the inhibition of DNA synthesis in S180 cells. Besides, there were significant down-regulations of cyclin-E and Cdk-2 in S180 cells after SOD treatment, which contributed to the blockage of G1/S transition in S180 cell cycle. Together, our data confirmed that SOD could notably inhibit proliferation of S180 tumor cell and induce cell cycle arrest at G1-phase by down-regulating expressions of cyclin-E and Cdk-2.

  9. Down-regulation of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression by fucoxanthin via leptin signaling in diabetic/obese KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Fumiaki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Yim, Mi-Jin; Shinoda, Taro; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2013-05-01

    Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1) is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids from saturated fatty acids. Recently, SCD1 down-regulation has been implicated in the prevention of obesity, and the improvement of insulin and leptin sensitivity. In this study, we examined the effect of fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid, on hepatic SCD1 in obese mouse models of hyperleptinemia KK-A(y) and leptin-deficiency ob/ob. In KK-A(y) mice, providing a diet containing 0.2 % fucoxanthin for 2 weeks markedly suppressed SCD1 mRNA and protein expressions in the liver. The fatty acid composition of liver lipids was also affected by an observed decrease in the ratio of oleic acid to stearic acid. Furthermore, serum leptin levels were significantly decreased in hyperleptinemia KK-A(y) mice after 2 weeks of fucoxanthin feeding. However, the suppressive effects of fucoxanthin on hepatic SCD1 and body weight gain were not observed in ob/ob mice. These results show that fucoxanthin down-regulates SCD1 expression and alters fatty acid composition of the liver via regulation of leptin signaling in hyperleptinemia KK-A(y) mice but not in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice.

  10. Tumor suppression involves down-regulation of interleukin 3 expression in hybrids between autocrine mastocytoma and interleukin 3-dependent parental mast cells.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, I D; Nair, A P; Hirsch, H H; Moroni, C

    1989-12-01

    Interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent PB-3c mouse mastocytes can be transformed by the v-Ha-ras oncogene to generate autocrine IL-3-producing mastocytomas. Hybrid cell lines were constructed by fusing an IL-3-producing mastocytoma cell line with its IL-3-dependent normal parental cell. Unlike the mastocytoma parent cell line, hybrid cell lines required growth factor for in vitro proliferation, indicating that the IL-3-dependent phenotype is dominant. IL-3 mRNA, expressed at high levels in the tumor cells, appeared down-regulated in the cell hybrids. In contrast, p21v-Ha-ras levels were not reduced in the hybrids. The hybrid lines generated tumors in vivo with drastically prolonged latency times when compared to the tumor parent (10 versus 2 weeks). We propose that down-regulation of IL-3 mRNA production after cell fusion is responsible for the loss of growth autonomy in the hybrids and is likely to play a role in the partial suppression of tumor formation in vivo. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that a tumor suppressor, present in PB-3c cells, acts as a negative regulator of IL-3 expression.

  11. Harmine combined with paclitaxel inhibits tumor proliferation and induces apoptosis through down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Juan; Sun, Kun; Tang, Xiao-He; Zhou, Cun-Jin; Sun, Hui; Yan, Zhe; Fang, Ling; Wu, Hong-Wen; Xie, Yi-Kui; Gu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) serves an important role in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. Harmine (HM) and paclitaxel (PTX) are reported as promising drug candidates for cancer therapy, but whether a synergistic anti-tumor effect of HM combined with PTX exists in human gastric cancer remains unknown. The present study evaluated the effects of HM and/or PTX on cell proliferation and apoptosis in a gastric cancer cell line, SGC-7901. HM and PTX inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Both HM and PTX alone induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. The combination of HM and PTX exerted synergistic effects on proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in SGC-7901 cells, with down-regulation of COX-2, PCNA and Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax expression. The results indicated that combination chemotherapy using HM with PTX exerts an anti-tumor effect for treating gastric cancer. The combination of the two drugs inhibits gastric cancer development more effectively than each drug alone through down-regulation of COX-2 expression. PMID:27446381

  12. Hypoxia in Tumor Angiogenesis and Metastasis: Evaluation of VEGF and MMP Over-expression and Down-Regulation of HIF-1alpha with RNAi in Hypoxic Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Shruti

    Background: As tumor mass grows beyond a few millimeters in diameter, the angiogenic "switch" is turned on leading to recruitment of blood vessels from surrounding artery and veins. However, the tumor mass is poorly perfused and there are pockets of hypoxia or lower oxygen concentrations relative to normal tissue. Hypoxia-inducing factor-1a (HIF-1a), a transcription factor, is activated when the oxygen concentration is low. Upon activation of HIF-1a, a number of other genes also turn on that allows the tumor to become more aggressive and resistant to therapy. Purpose: The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of hypoxia-induced HIF-1a followed by over-expression of angiogenic and metastatic markers in tumor cells and down-regulation of HIF-1a using nanoparticle-delivered RNA interference therapy. Methods: Human ovarian (SKOV3) and breast (MDA-MB-231) adenocarcinoma cells were incubated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Following hypoxia treatment of the cells, HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 expression was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. For intracellular delivery of HIF-1a gene silencing small interfering RNA (siRNA), type B gelatin nanoparticles were fabricated using the solvent displacement method and the surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mol. wt. 2kDa). Cellular uptake and distribution of the nanoparticles was observed with Cy3-siRNA loaded, FITC-conjugated gelatin nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle formulations was evaluated in both the cell lines. siRNA was transfected in the gelatin nanoparticles under hypoxic conditions. Total cellular protein and RNA were extracted for analysis of HIF1a, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Results: MDA-MB-231 and SKOV3 cells show increased expression of HIF1a under hypoxic conditions compared to baseline levels at normoxic conditions. ELISA and western blots of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 appear to

  13. Difluorinated-curcumin (CDF) restores PTEN expression in colon cancer cells by down-regulating miR-21.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sanchita; Yu, Yingjie; Padhye, Subhash B; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advancement in medicine, nearly 50% of patients with colorectal cancer show recurrence of the disease. Although the reasons for the high relapse are not fully understood, the presence of chemo- and radiotherapy-resistant cancer stem/stem-like cells, where many oncomirs like microRNA-21 (miR-21) are upregulated, could be one of the underlying causes. miR-21 regulates the processes of invasion and metastasis by downregulating multiple tumor/metastatic suppressor genes including PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog). Tumor suppressor protein PTEN controls self-renewal of stem cells. Indeed, our current data demonstrate a marked downregulation of PTEN in SCID mice xenografts of miR-21 over-expressing colon cancer HCT116 cells. Colonospheres that are highly enriched in cancer stem/stem like cells reveal increased miR-21 expression and decreased PTEN. Difluorinated curcumin (CDF), a novel analog of the dietary ingredient curcumin, which has been shown to inhibit the growth of 5-Flurouracil + Oxaliplatin resistant colon cancer cells, downregulated miR-21 in chemo-resistant colon cancer HCT116 and HT-29 cells and restored PTEN levels with subsequent reduction in Akt phosphorylation. Similar results were also observed in metastatic colon cancer SW620 cells. Since PTEN-Akt confers drug resistance to different malignancies including colorectal cancer, our observation of normalization of miR-21-PTEN-Akt pathway by CDF suggests that the compound could be a potential therapeutic agent for chemotherapy-resistant colorectal cancer.

  14. Asclepiasterol, a novel C21 steroidal glycoside derived from Asclepias curassavica, reverses tumor multidrug resistance by down-regulating P-glycoprotein expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Ma, Yan; Li, Wen-Xue; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Cai, Shao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a major cause of cancer therapy failure. In this study, we identified a novel C21 steroidal glycoside, asclepiasterol, capable of reversing P-gp-mediated MDR. Asclepiasterol (2.5 and 5.0μM) enhanced the cytotoxity of P-gp substrate anticancer drugs in MCF-7/ADR and HepG-2/ADM cells. MDR cells were more responsive to paclitaxel in the presence of asclepiasterol, and colony formation of MDR cells was only reduced upon treatment with a combination of asclepiasterol and doxorubicin. Consistent with these findings, asclepiasterol treatment increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 (Rh123) in MDR cells. Asclepiasterol decreased expression of P-gp protein without stimulating or suppressing MDR1 mRNA levels. Asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp suppression caused inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in two MDR cell types, and EGF, an activator of the MAPK/ERK pathway, reversed the P-gp down-regulation, implicating the MAPK/ERK pathway in asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp down-regulation. These results suggest that asclepiasterol could be developed as a modulator for reversing P-gp-mediated MDR in P-gp-overexpressing cancer variants. PMID:27129170

  15. Asclepiasterol, a novel C21 steroidal glycoside derived from Asclepias curassavica, reverses tumor multidrug resistance by down-regulating P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Rong-Rong; Wang, Jun; Ma, Yan; Li, Wen-Xue; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Cai, Shao-Hui

    2016-05-24

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a major cause of cancer therapy failure. In this study, we identified a novel C21 steroidal glycoside, asclepiasterol, capable of reversing P-gp-mediated MDR. Asclepiasterol (2.5 and 5.0μM) enhanced the cytotoxity of P-gp substrate anticancer drugs in MCF-7/ADR and HepG-2/ADM cells. MDR cells were more responsive to paclitaxel in the presence of asclepiasterol, and colony formation of MDR cells was only reduced upon treatment with a combination of asclepiasterol and doxorubicin. Consistent with these findings, asclepiasterol treatment increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 (Rh123) in MDR cells. Asclepiasterol decreased expression of P-gp protein without stimulating or suppressing MDR1 mRNA levels. Asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp suppression caused inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in two MDR cell types, and EGF, an activator of the MAPK/ERK pathway, reversed the P-gp down-regulation, implicating the MAPK/ERK pathway in asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp down-regulation. These results suggest that asclepiasterol could be developed as a modulator for reversing P-gp-mediated MDR in P-gp-overexpressing cancer variants.

  16. Expression of DIAPH1 is up-regulated in colorectal cancer and its down-regulation strongly reduces the metastatic capacity of colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Na; Izbicki, Jakob R; König, Alexandra; Habermann, Jens K; Blechner, Christine; Lange, Tobias; Schumacher, Udo; Windhorst, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    In most cases, metastatic colorectal cancer is not curable, thus new approaches are necessary to identify novel targets for colorectal cancer therapy. Actin-binding-proteins (ABPs) directly regulate motility of metastasising tumor cells, and for cortactin an association with colon cancer metastasis has been already shown. However, as its depletion only incompletely inhibits metastasis, additional, more suitable cellular targets have to be identified. Here we analyzed expression of the ABPs, DIAPH1, VASP, N-WASP, and fascin in comparison with cortactin and found that, besides cortactin, DIAPH1 was expressed with the highest frequency (63%) in colorectal cancer. As well as cortactin, DIAPH1 was not detectable in normal colon tissue and expression of both proteins was positively correlated with metastasis of colorectal cancer. To analyse the mechanistic role of DIAPH1 for metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in comparison with cortactin, expression of the proteins was stably down-regulated in the human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29, HROC-24 and HCT-116. Analysis of metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in SCID mice revealed that depletion of DIAPH1 reduced metastasis 60-fold and depletion of cortactin 16-fold as compared with control cells. Most likely the stronger effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon cancer metastasis is due to the fact that in vitro knock down of DIAPH1 impaired all steps of metastasis; adhesion, invasion and migration while down-regulation of cortactin only reduced adhesion and invasion. This very strong reducing effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon carcinoma cell metastasis makes the protein a promising therapeutic target for individualized colorectal cancer therapy.

  17. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin down-regulates the expression of the ubiquitin ligase subunit Skp2 in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Ma'anit; Kakiashvili, Eli; Rosenberg, Tzur; Hershko, Dan D

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Loss of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. The decrease in p27 levels is mainly the result of enhanced proteasome-dependent degradation mediated by its specific ubiquitin ligase subunit S phase kinase protein 2 (Skp2). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a downstream mediator in the phosphoinositol 3' kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway that down-regulates p27 levels in breast cancer. Rapamycin was found to stabilize p27 levels in breast cancer, but whether this effect is mediated through changes in Skp2 expression is unknown. Methods The expression of Skp2 mRNA and protein levels were examined in rapamycin-treated breast cancer cell lines. The effect of rapamycin on the degradation rate of Skp2 expression was examined in cycloheximide-treated cells and in relationship to the anaphase promoting complex/Cdh1 (APC\\C) inhibitor Emi1. Results Rapamycin significantly decreased Skp2 mRNA and protein levels in a dose and time-dependent fashion, depending on the sensitivity of the cell line to rapamycin. The decrease in Skp2 levels in the different cell lines was followed by cell growth arrest at G1. In addition, rapamycin enhanced the degradation rate of Skp2 and down-regulated the expression of the APC\\C inhibitor Emi1. Conclusion These results suggest that Skp2, an important oncogene in the development and progression of breast cancer, may be a novel target for rapamycin treatment. PMID:16859513

  18. Estrogen-Induced Maldevelopment of the Penis Involves Down-Regulation of Myosin Heavy Chain 11 (MYH11) Expression, a Biomarker for Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation1

    PubMed Central

    Okumu, L.A.; Bruinton, Sequoia; Braden, Tim D.; Simon, Liz; Goyal, Hari O.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cavernous smooth muscle cells are essential components in penile erection. In this study, we investigated effects of estrogen exposure on biomarkers for smooth muscle cell differentiation in the penis. Neonatal rats received diethylstilbestrol (DES), with or without the estrogen receptor (ESR) antagonist ICI 182,780 (ICI) or the androgen receptor (AR) agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT), from Postnatal Days 1 to 6. Tissues were collected at 7, 10, or 21 days of age. The smooth muscle cell biomarker MYH11 was studied in depth because microarray data showed it was significantly down-regulated, along with other biomarkers, in DES treatment. Quantitative real time-PCR and Western blot analyses showed 50%–80% reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in Myh11 expression in DES-treated rats compared to that in controls; and ICI and DHT coadministration mitigated the decrease. Temporally, from 7 to 21 days of age, Myh11 expression was onefold increased (P ≥ 0.05) in DES-treated rats versus threefold increased (P ≤ 0.001) in controls, implying the long-lasting inhibitory effect of DES on smooth muscle cell differentiation. Immunohistochemical localization of smooth muscle alpha actin, another biomarker for smooth muscle cell differentiation, showed fewer cavernous smooth muscle cells in DES-treated animals than in controls. Additionally, DES treatment significantly up-regulated Esr1 mRNA expression and suppressed the neonatal testosterone surge by 90%, which was mitigated by ICI coadministration but not by DHT coadministration. Collectively, results provided evidence that DES treatment in neonatal rats inhibited cavernous smooth muscle cell differentiation, as shown by down-regulation of MYH11 expression at the mRNA and protein levels and by reduced immunohistochemical staining of smooth muscle alpha actin. Both the ESR and the AR pathways probably mediate this effect. PMID:22976277

  19. MiR-26 down-regulates TNF-α/NF-κB signalling and IL-6 expression by silencing HMGA1 and MALT1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chyi-Ying A.; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Ho, Yi-Fang; Shyu, Ann-Bin

    2016-01-01

    MiR-26 has emerged as a key tumour suppressor in various cancers. Accumulating evidence supports that miR-26 regulates inflammation and tumourigenicity largely through down-regulating IL-6 production, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Here, combining a transcriptome-wide approach with manipulation of cellular miR-26 levels, we showed that instead of directly targeting IL-6 mRNA for gene silencing, miR-26 diminishes IL-6 transcription activated by TNF-α through silencing NF-κB signalling related factors HMGA1 and MALT1. We demonstrated that miR-26 extensively dampens the induction of many inflammation-related cytokine, chemokine and tissue-remodelling genes that are activated via NF-κB signalling pathway. Knocking down both HMGA1 and MALT1 by RNAi had a silencing effect on NF-κB-responsive genes similar to that caused by miR-26. Moreover, we discovered that poor patient prognosis in human lung adenocarcinoma is associated with low miR-26 and high HMGA1 or MALT1 levels and not with levels of any of them individually. These new findings not only unravel a novel mechanism by which miR-26 dampens IL-6 production transcriptionally but also demonstrate a direct role of miR-26 in down-regulating NF-κB signalling pathway, thereby revealing a more critical and broader role of miR-26 in inflammation and cancer than previously realized. PMID:27025651

  20. MiR-26 down-regulates TNF-α/NF-κB signalling and IL-6 expression by silencing HMGA1 and MALT1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chyi-Ying A; Chang, Jeffrey T; Ho, Yi-Fang; Shyu, Ann-Bin

    2016-05-05

    MiR-26 has emerged as a key tumour suppressor in various cancers. Accumulating evidence supports that miR-26 regulates inflammation and tumourigenicity largely through down-regulating IL-6 production, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Here, combining a transcriptome-wide approach with manipulation of cellular miR-26 levels, we showed that instead of directly targeting IL-6 mRNA for gene silencing, miR-26 diminishes IL-6 transcription activated by TNF-α through silencing NF-κB signalling related factors HMGA1 and MALT1. We demonstrated that miR-26 extensively dampens the induction of many inflammation-related cytokine, chemokine and tissue-remodelling genes that are activated via NF-κB signalling pathway. Knocking down both HMGA1 and MALT1 by RNAi had a silencing effect on NF-κB-responsive genes similar to that caused by miR-26. Moreover, we discovered that poor patient prognosis in human lung adenocarcinoma is associated with low miR-26 and high HMGA1 or MALT1 levels and not with levels of any of them individually. These new findings not only unravel a novel mechanism by which miR-26 dampens IL-6 production transcriptionally but also demonstrate a direct role of miR-26 in down-regulating NF-κB signalling pathway, thereby revealing a more critical and broader role of miR-26 in inflammation and cancer than previously realized.

  1. Immune complexes (IC) down-regulate the basal and interferon-γ-induced expression of MHC Class II on human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, P; Beigier-Bompadre, M; De La Barrera, S; Alves-Rosa, M F; Fernandez, G; Palermo, M S; Isturiz, M A

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of Fc receptors for IgG (FcγRs) on monocytes/macrophages with immune complexes (IC) triggers regulatory and effector functions. Previous studies have shown that FcγR–IC interactions inhibit the IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II in murine macrophages. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for these effects have not been elucidated. In addition, whether this IC-dependent effect also occurs in human cells is not known. Taking into account the fact that IC and IFN-γ are frequently found in infections and autoimmune disorders, together with the crucial role MHC class II molecules play in the regulation of immune response, we explored the effect and mechanism of IC-induced MHC class II down-regulation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This effect was studied either in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. We demonstrate that IC exert a drastic inhibition of basal and IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II on human monocytes. This effect was mediated through the interaction of IC with both FcγRI and FcγRII. Moreover, similar results were obtained using supernatants from IC-treated PBMC. The IC-induced down-regulation of MHC class II is abrogated by pepstatin and phosphoramidon, supporting the role of aspartic protease(s) and metalloprotease(s) in this process. In parallel with MHC class II expression, antigen presentation was markedly inhibited in the presence of IC. PMID:11529917

  2. Down-regulation by prostaglandins of type-II phospholipase A2 expression in guinea-pig alveolar macrophages: a possible involvement of cAMP.

    PubMed Central

    Vial, D; Arbibe, L; Havet, N; Dumarey, C; Vargaftig, B; Touqui, L

    1998-01-01

    We have demonstrated previously that isolated guinea-pig alveolar macrophages (AM) synthesize type-II phospholipase A2 (PLA2-II) through a tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent process. This synthesis is enhanced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and accompanied by a release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) into the medium. Because agents elevating intracellular cAMP, such as PGE2, have been shown to stimulate PLA2-II expression in various cell types, we investigated the modulation of PLA2-II synthesis by cAMP in AM. Surprisingly, incubation of AM with PGE2, dibutyryl-cAMP, cholera toxin or rolipram (an inhibitor of specific cAMP-phosphodiesterase) inhibited both basal and LPS-stimulated PLA2-II expression. The inhibitory effect of PGE2 was observed at concentrations similar to those released by AM. Moreover, treatment of AM with either aspirin or neutralizing PGE2 monoclonal antibody stimulated PLA2-II synthesis. These effects were closely correlated with the ability of these agents to modulate TNF-alpha release, which was decreased by dibutyryl-cAMP and exogenous PGE2, whereas neutralizing PGE2 antibody markedly increased this release. Hence, in contrast to other cell systems, we report that: (i) agents elevating intracellular cAMP levels down-regulate both basal and LPS-induced PLA2-II synthesis, (ii) prostaglandins exert a negative feedback effect on this synthesis, probably through an elevation of intracellular cAMP levels, and (iii) inhibition of TNF-alpha release may account, at least in part, for the down-regulation of PLA2-II expression by endogenously produced prostaglandins and cAMP-elevating agents. PMID:9461495

  3. Inhibiting effects of rhynchophylline on zebrafish methamphetamine dependence are associated with amelioration of neurotransmitters content and down-regulation of TH and NR2B expression.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingjin; Chen, Yifei; Li, Chan; Peng, Qiuxian; Fang, Miao; Liu, Wei; Kang, Qunzhao; Lin, Yingbo; Yung, Ken Kin Lam; Mo, Zhixian

    2016-07-04

    Others and we have reported that rhynchophylline reverses amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) effect which may be partly mediated by amelioration of central neurotransmitters and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B) levels in the rat brains. The current study investigated the inhibiting effects of rhynchophylline on methamphetamine-induced (METH-induced) CPP in adult zebrafish and METH-induced locomotor activity in tyrosine hydroxylase-green fluorescent protein (TH-GFP) transgenic zebrafish larvae and attempted to confirm the hypothesis that these effects were mediated via regulation of neurotransmitters and dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. After baseline preference test (on days 1-3), zebrafish were injected intraperitoneally METH (on days 4, 6 and 8) or the same volume of fish physiological saline (on days 5 and 7) and were immediately conditioned. Rhynchophylline was administered at 12h after injection of METH. On day 9, zebrafish were tested for METH-induced CPP. Results revealed that rhynchophylline (100mg/kg) significantly inhibited the acquisition of METH-induced CPP, reduced the content of dopamine and glutamate and down-regulated the expression of TH and NR2B in the CPP zebrafish brains. Furthermore, the influence of rhynchophylline on METH-induced locomotor activity was also observed in TH-GFP transgenic zebrafish larvae. Results showed that rhynchophylline (50mg/L) treatment led to a significant reduction on the locomotor activity and TH expression in TH-GFP transgenic zebrafish larvae. Taken together, these data indicate that the inhibition of the formation of METH dependence by rhynchophylline in zebrafish is associated with amelioration of the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate content and down-regulation of TH and NR2B expression.

  4. A standardized randomized 6-month aerobic exercise-training down-regulated pro-inflammatory genes, but up-regulated anti-inflammatory, neuron survival and axon growth-related genes.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, Osigbemhe; Chen, Yuanxiu; Allard, Joanne; Ntekim, Oyonumo; Johnson, Sheree; Bond, Vernon; Goerlitz, David; Li, James; Obisesan, Thomas O

    2015-09-01

    There is considerable support for the view that aerobic exercise may confer cognitive benefits to mild cognitively impaired elderly persons. However, the biological mechanisms mediating these effects are not entirely clear. As a preliminary step towards informing this gap in knowledge, we enrolled older adults confirmed to have mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a 6-month exercise program. Male and female subjects were randomized into a 6-month program of either aerobic or stretch (control) exercise. Data collected from the first 10 completers, aerobic exercise (n=5) or stretch (control) exercise (n=5), were used to determine intervention-induced changes in the global gene expression profiles of the aerobic and stretch groups. Using microarray, we identified genes with altered expression (relative to baseline values) in response to the 6-month exercise intervention. Genes whose expression were altered by at least two-fold, and met the p-value cutoff of 0.01 were inputted into the Ingenuity Pathway Knowledge Base Library to generate gene-interaction networks. After a 6-month aerobic exercise-training, genes promoting inflammation became down-regulated, whereas genes having anti-inflammatory properties and those modulating immune function or promoting neuron survival and axon growth, became up-regulated (all fold change≥±2.0, p<0.01). These changes were not observed in the stretch group. Importantly, the differences in the expression profiles correlated with significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the aerobic program as opposed to the stretch group. We conclude that three distinct cellular pathways may collectively influence the training effects of aerobic exercise in MCI subjects. We plan to confirm these effects using rt-PCR and correlate such changes with the cognitive phenotype.

  5. Screening of differentially expressed genes in pathological scar tissues using expression microarray.

    PubMed

    Huang, L P; Mao, Z; Zhang, L; Liu, X X; Huang, C; Jia, Z S

    2015-09-09

    Pathological scar tissues and normal skin tissues were differentiated by screening for differentially expressed genes in pathologic scar tissues via gene expression microarray. The differentially expressed gene data was analyzed by gene ontology and pathway analyses. There were 5001 up- or down-regulated genes in 2-fold differentially expressed genes, 956 up- or down-regulated genes in 5-fold differentially expressed genes, and 114 up- or down-regulated genes in 20-fold differentially expressed genes. Therefore, significant differences were observed in the gene expression in pathological scar tissues and normal foreskin tissues. The development of pathological scar tissues has been correlated to changes in multiple genes and pathways, which are believed to form a dynamic network connection.

  6. Down-regulation of CITED2 attenuates breast tumor growth, vessel formation and TGF-β-induced expression of VEGFA

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Swaathi; Doucet, Michele; Kominsky, Scott L

    2017-01-01

    While we previously demonstrated that CITED2 expression in primary breast tumor tissues is elevated relative to normal mammary epithelium and inversely correlated with patient survival, its functional impact on primary tumor development and progression remained unknown. To address this issue, we examined the effect of CITED2 silencing on the growth of human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 following orthotopic administration in vivo. Here, we show that CITED2 silencing significantly attenuated MDA-MB-231 primary tumor growth concordant with reduced tumor vascularization, while MDA-MB-468 primary tumor growth and tumor vascularization remained unaffected. Correspondingly, expression of VEGFA was significantly reduced in shCITED2-expressing MDA-MB-231, but not MDA-MB-468 tumors. Consistent with the observed pattern of vascularization and VEGFA expression, we found that TGF-β stimulation induced expression of VEGFA and enhanced CITED2 recruitment to the VEGFA promoter in MDA-MA-231 cells, while failing to induce VEGFA expression in MDA-MB-468 cells. Further supporting its involvement in TGF-β-induced expression of VEGFA, CITED2 silencing prevented TGF-β induction of VEGFA expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. Collectively, these data indicate that CITED2 regulates primary breast tumor growth, likely by influencing tumor vasculature via TGF-β-dependent regulation of VEGFA. PMID:28008154

  7. The Ayurvedic drug Ksheerabala (101) ameliorates alcohol-induced neurotoxicity by down-regulating the expression of transcription factor (NFkB) in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Rejitha, S.; Prathibha, P.; Madambath, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Most of the pharmaceutical effects of alcohol are due to its accumulation in the brain. Ksheerabala (101) an Ayurvedic formulation mainly used against central nervous system disorders. Aim: To determine the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of Ksheerabala (101) on alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were grouped into four; control, alcohol (4 g/kg), Ksheerabala (15 μL/1 ml milk/100 g) and Ksheerabala (15 μL/1 ml milk/100 g) + alcohol (4 g/kg). After the experimental period (90 days), the animals were sacrificed and the effect of Ksheerabala (101) was studied on oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, and induction of transcription factor in brain. Results were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: The activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione which were decreased in alcohol-treated rats, increased significantly in co-administered groups. The lipid peroxidation products and protein carbonyls which were increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats decreased significantly in co-administered groups. The expression of gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthase decreased significantly in alcohol-treated rats and increased significantly in co-administered groups. The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) which was up-regulated in alcohol-treated rats was down-regulated in co-administered rats. The histopathology reinforced these results. Conclusion: Ksheerabala (101) attenuates alcohol-induced oxidative stress and down-regulates the expression of NFκB in rat brain. PMID:27313421

  8. Depletion of mitochondrial DNA by down-regulation of deoxyguanosine kinase expression in non-proliferating HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, Maribel; Johansson, Magnus . E-mail: magnus.johansson@ki.se; Karlsson, Anna

    2007-07-15

    Purine deoxyribonucleotides required for mitochondrial DNA replication are either imported from the cytosol or derived from phosphorylation of deoxyadenosine or deoxyguanosine catalyzed by mitochondrial deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK). DGUOK deficiency has been linked to mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes suggesting an important role for this enzyme in dNTP supply. We have generated HeLa cell lines with 20-30% decreased levels of DGUOK mRNA by the expression of small interfering RNAs directed towards the DGUOK mRNA. The cells with decreased expression of the enzyme showed similar levels of mtDNA as control cells when grown exponentially in culture. However, mtDNA levels rapidly decreased in the cells when cell cycle arrest was induced by serum starvation. DNA incorporation of 9-{beta}-D-arabino-furanosylguanine (araG) was lower in the cells with decreased deoxyguanosine kinase expression, but the total rate of araG phosphorylation was increased in the cells. The increase in araG phosphorylation was shown to be due to increased expression of deoxycytidine kinase. In summary, our findings show that DGUOK is required for mitochondrial DNA replication in resting cells and that small changes in expression of this enzyme may cause mitochondrial DNA depletion. Our data also suggest that alterations in the expression level of DGUOK may induce compensatory changes in the expression of other nucleoside kinases.

  9. Correlation between the decrease of cholesterol efflux from macrophages in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and down-regulated CYP7A1 expression.

    PubMed

    Bao, L D; Li, C Q; Peng, R; Ren, X H; Ma, R L; Wang, Y; Lv, H J

    2015-07-31

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes of cellular cholesterol efflux from macrophages in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM), and to determine the expression of CYP7A1, ABCG5, and LXRβ therein. We recruited 30 patients with type II DM (including 15 patients complicated with coronary heart disease and 15 patients with DM only) and 15 normal controls for this study. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated for macrophage culture. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CYP7A1, ABCG5, and LXRβ were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The macrophage cholesterol efflux rate was determined with 10% autoserum and standard serum as receptors. We determined that the expression levels of macrophage CYP7A1 mRNA and protein in the type II DM group were significantly lower than those in the control group, but no differences were found in the ABCG5 and LXRβ expression levels between the groups. The macrophage cholesterol efflux rate in the patients with type II DM was also significantly decreased compared with that of the normal control subjects (P < 0.01). Furthermore, CYP7A1 mRNA expression and macrophage cholesterol efflux rate were significantly positively correlated. In summary, this study demonstrated that the macrophage cholesterol efflux in patients with type II DM was significantly reduced, and that this reduction was associated with the down-regulation of CYP7A1 expression.

  10. Pharmacologic down-regulation of EZH2 suppresses bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shou-Hung; Huang, Hsu-Shan; Wu, Hong-Ui; Tsai, Yi-Ta; Chuang, Mei-Jen; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Huang, Shih-Ming; Sun, Guang-Huan; Chang, Sun-Yran; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Cha, Tai-Lung

    2014-01-01

    The polycomb group gene, EZH2, is highly expressed in advanced bladder cancer. Here we demonstrated that down-regulation of EZH2 in tumor tissues after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy correlated with good therapeutic response in advanced bladder cancer. We next developed a small molecule, NSC745885, derived from natural anthraquinone emodin, which down-regulated EZH2 via proteasome-mediated degradation. NSC745885 showed potent selective toxicity against multiple cancer cell lines but not normal cells. NSC745885 treatment overcame multiple-drug resistance and inhibited growth of resistant cancer cells. Over-expression of EZH2 in cancer cells attenuated effects of NSC745885, suggesting that down-regulation of EZH2 was responsible for growth inhibition of NSC745885. NSC745885 also suppressed tumor growth and down-regulated EZH2 in vivo. These results indicate that NSC7455889 suppresses bladder cancer by targeting EZH2. PMID:25431950

  11. LncRNA-ANCR down-regulation suppresses invasion and migration of colorectal cancer cells by regulating EZH2 expression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhao-Yang; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Ying-Li; Liu, Bao; Wang, Meng; Hong, Xuan; Yu, Yan; Zhou, Yao-Hui; Zeng, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed to explore the effects of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-ANCR on the invasion and migration of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells by regulating enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) expression. CRC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected and CRC SW620 cells line and normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIECs) were incubated. CRC SW620 cells line was transfected with ANCR-siRNA. The expressions of ANCR and EZH2 mRNA were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). EZH2 and trimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3) protein expressions were detected using Western blotting. The relationship between ANCR and EZH2 was determined through RNA pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays. Cell invasion and migration were determined by Trans-well and cell scratch assays. ANCR, EZH2 and H3K27me3 expressions were up-regulated in CRC tissues and SW620 cells (all P < 0.05). After transfected with ANCR-siRNA, SW620 cells showed decreased ANCR expression and EZH2 mRNA and protein expressions (all P < 0.05). According to the results of RNA pull-down and co-IP assays, ANCR could specifically bind to EZH2. The results of Trans-well and cell scratch tests showed that when ANCR expression was decreased, the invasion and migration abilities of SW620 cells significantly declined (both P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that lncRNA-ANCR could influence the invasion and migration of CRC cells by specifically binding to EZH2.

  12. Urban particulate matter down-regulates filaggrin via COX2 expression/PGE2 production leading to skin barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chiang-Wen; Lin, Zih-Chan; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Hsu, Lee-Fen; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lee, I-Ta; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Fang, Jia-You

    2016-01-01

    We explored the regulation of filaggrin, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expression induced by urban particulate matter (PM) in human keratinocytes. In addition, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in PM-induced effects on COX2/PGE2 and filaggrin. PMs induced increases in COX2 expression and PGE2 production, and decreased filaggrin expression. These effects were attenuated by pretreatment with COX2 inhibitor and PGE2 receptor antagonist, or after transfection with siRNAs of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), gp91phox and p47phox. Furthermore, PM-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NADPH oxidase activity was attenuated by pretreatment with an AhR antagonist (AhRI) or antioxidants. Moreover, Nox-dependent ROS generation led to phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK, which then activated the downstream molecules NF-κB and AP-1, respectively. In vivo studies in PMs-treated mice showed that AhRI and apocynin (a Nox2 inhibitor) had anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing COX2 and increasing filaggrin expression. Our results reveal for the first time that PMs-induced ROS generation is mediated through the AhR/p47 phox/NADPH oxidase pathway, which in turn activates ERK1/2, p38/NF-κB and JNK/AP-1, and which ultimately induces COX2 expression and filaggrin downregulation. Up-regulated expression of COX2 and production of PGE2 may lead to impairment of skin barrier function. PMID:27313009

  13. Down-regulation of miR-503 expression predicate advanced mythological features and poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Qu, Weiqing; Zhong, Zhaokun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to explore what impact miR-503 has on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Cancer and matched non-malignant lung tissue specimens were collected from 109 patients who underwent surgery in Tanisha Hospital from Jun 2006 to July 2013. Overall survival (OS) curves were analyzed using the Lapland-Meier method, and the differences were examined using log-rank tests. Cox proportional- hazards regression analysis was applied in order to estimate univariate and multivariate hazard ratios for OS. Results: The relative expression of miR-503 in NSCLC tissues (0.366 ± 0.130) was significantly lower than that in matched noncancerous lung tissues (1.667 ± 1.047, P < 0.01). Statistically significant association was observed between miR-503 expression and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.005), distant metastasis (P = 0.002), TNM stage (P = 0.008), and tumor grade (P = 0.043). Lapland Meier analysis clearly illustrated that the patients with the lower expression of miR-503 had a worse outcome compared to patients with higher miR-503 expression (P = 0.004). Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that miR-503 expression level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR = 3.992, 95% CI: 2.276-9.872; P = 0.018) in NSCLC. Conclusion: In patients with NSCLC, low miR-503 expression is an independent prognostic factor. PMID:26191272

  14. Urban particulate matter down-regulates filaggrin via COX2 expression/PGE2 production leading to skin barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiang-Wen; Lin, Zih-Chan; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Hsu, Lee-Fen; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lee, I-Ta; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Fang, Jia-You

    2016-06-17

    We explored the regulation of filaggrin, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expression induced by urban particulate matter (PM) in human keratinocytes. In addition, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in PM-induced effects on COX2/PGE2 and filaggrin. PMs induced increases in COX2 expression and PGE2 production, and decreased filaggrin expression. These effects were attenuated by pretreatment with COX2 inhibitor and PGE2 receptor antagonist, or after transfection with siRNAs of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), gp91phox and p47phox. Furthermore, PM-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NADPH oxidase activity was attenuated by pretreatment with an AhR antagonist (AhRI) or antioxidants. Moreover, Nox-dependent ROS generation led to phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK, which then activated the downstream molecules NF-κB and AP-1, respectively. In vivo studies in PMs-treated mice showed that AhRI and apocynin (a Nox2 inhibitor) had anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing COX2 and increasing filaggrin expression. Our results reveal for the first time that PMs-induced ROS generation is mediated through the AhR/p47 phox/NADPH oxidase pathway, which in turn activates ERK1/2, p38/NF-κB and JNK/AP-1, and which ultimately induces COX2 expression and filaggrin downregulation. Up-regulated expression of COX2 and production of PGE2 may lead to impairment of skin barrier function.

  15. Vitamin C down-regulate apo(a) expression via Tet2-dependent DNA demethylation in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Kai; Ma, Xiao-Feng; Li, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Hai; Liu, Ya-Mi; Zhang, Kai; Zeng, Jun-Fa; Lei, Jian-Jun; Wei, Dang-Heng; Wang, Zuo

    2017-05-01

    Lipoprotein(a)[Lp(a)] is a risk factor for coronary heart diseases. However, the metabolism of this protein remains poorly understood. Efficient and specific drugs that can decrease high plasma levels of Lp(a) have not been developed yet. Vitamin C is responsible for maintaining the catalytic activity of a group of iron and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases and induces the generation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) via Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) dioxygenases. In addition, It has been reported vitamin C deficiency induces atherosclerosis and increases Lp(a) and apo(a) plasma levels in Lp(a)+ mice. However, the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin C on apo(a) expression and the possible molecular mechanism of vitamin C that influences apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] biosynthesis in HepG2 cells. Results showed that vitamin C significantly inhibited the expression and secretion levels of apo(a). Vitamin C can also increase ELK1 expression and hydroxymethylation of ELK1 promoter and the globle DNA in HepG2 cells. In addition, the effects of vitamin C inhibiting the apo(a) expression were attenuated by ELK1siRNA and Tet2siRNA. These results suggested vitamin C down-regulate apo(a) expression via Tet2-dependent DNA demethylation in HepG2 cells.

  16. Down-regulation of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 expression in the airway epithelium ameliorates allergic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bacsi, Attila; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Szczesny, Bartosz; Radak, Zsolt; Hazra, Tapas K; Sur, Sanjiv; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2013-01-01

    Allergic airway inflammation is characterized by increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, inflammatory cell infiltration, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness, in parallel with oxidative DNA base and strand damage, whose etiological role is not understood. Our goal was to establish the role of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a common oxidatively damaged base, and its repair by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) in allergic airway inflammatory processes. Airway inflammation was induced by intranasally administered ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen grain extract (RWPE) in sensitized BALB/c mice. We utilized siRNA technology to deplete Ogg1 from airway epithelium; 8-oxoG and DNA strand break levels were quantified by Comet assays. Inflammatory cell infiltration and epithelial methaplasia were determined histologically, mucus and cytokines levels biochemically and enhanced pause was used as the main index of airway hyperresponsiveness. Decreased Ogg1 expression and thereby 8-oxoG repair in the airway epithelium conveyed a lower inflammatory response after RWPE challenge of sensitized mice, as determined by expression of Th2 cytokines, eosinophilia, epithelial methaplasia, and airway hyperresponsiveness. In contrast, 8-oxoG repair in Ogg1-proficient airway epithelium was coupled to an increase in DNA single-strand break (SSB) levels and exacerbation of allergen challenge-dependent inflammation. Decreased expression of the Nei-like glycosylases Neil1 and Neil2 that preferentially excise ring-opened purines and 5-hydroxyuracil, respectively, did not alter the above parameters of allergic immune responses to RWPE. These results show that DNA SSBs formed during Ogg1-mediated repair of 8-oxoG augment antigen-driven allergic immune responses. A transient modulation of OGG1 expression/activity in airway epithelial cells could have clinical benefits.

  17. Down-regulated expression of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Long-Yi; Zhou, Dong-Xun; Lu, Jin; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Zou, Da-Jin

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTP1B protein showed decreased expression in 67.79% of the HCC patients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PTP1B expression predicts poor prognosis of HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PTP1B expression is correlated with expansion of OV6{sup +} tumor-initiating cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of PTP1B is associated with activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling. -- Abstract: The protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a classical non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in metabolic signaling and can exert both tumor suppressing and tumor promoting effects in different cancers depending on the substrate involved and the cellular context. However, the expression level and function of PTP1B in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, PTP1B expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in normal liver tissue (n = 16) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 169). The correlations between PTP1B expression level and clinicopathologic features and patient survival were also analyzed. One hundred and eleven of 169 HCC patients (65.7%) had negative or low PTP1B expression in tumorous tissues, whereas normal tissues always expressed strong PTP1B. Decreased PTP1B expression was significantly associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry also showed that low PTP1B expression level was correlated with high percentage of OV6{sup +} tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and high frequency of nuclear {beta}-Catenin expression in HCC specimens. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the loss of inhibitory effect of PTP1B may contribute to progression and invasion of HCC through activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling and expansion of liver T-ICs. PTP1B may serve as a valuable prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in HCC.

  18. P02.04MICRORNA-MEDIATED DOWN-REGULATION OF NKG2D LIGAND EXPRESSION REDUCES GLIOMA CELL IMMUNOGENICITY

    PubMed Central

    Codo, P.; Weller, M.; Meister, G.; Szabo, E.; Steinle, A.; Wolter, M.; Reifenberger, G.; Roth, P.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a primary brain tumor with a dismal prognosis despite comprehensive therapeutic regimens. It is characterized by diffuse infiltration of the surrounding healthy brain tissue, well-adapted to hypoxic conditions and regarded as paradigmatic for tumor-associated immunosuppression. One of the major activating receptors of natural killer (NK) cells is NKG2D. It binds to at least 8 ligands (NKG2DL) which are induced after malignant transformation and cellular stress. Regulation of NKG2DL expression may be affected by endogenous RNA molecules known as microRNA (miRNA). Here, we aimed at characterizing the role of miRNA in the control of NKG2DL expression in glioma cells. We selected 6 miRNA that were described or predicted to target NKG2DL. Three of the miRNA candidates, miR-20a, miR-93 and miR-106b, were expressed in glioma cell lines and were also detected in glioblastoma tissue specimens. Silencing of these miRNA with locked nucleic acid (LNA) molecules resulted in an up-regulation of NKG2DL cell surface levels which translated into increased sensitivity to immune cell killing. This effect was reversed by neutralizing NKG2D antibodies, confirming that enhanced immune cell lysis upon miRNA silencing was mediated through the NKG2D system. We conclude that the expression of several miRNA may contribute to the immune escape of glioma cells at the level of the NKG2D system. Therapeutic targeting of miRNA that regulate NKG2DL levels may therefore represent a promising approach to allow for more potent immune responses against glioblastoma.

  19. Glycyrrhizin down-regulates CCL2 and CXCL2 expression in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Panahi, Yaser; Fakhari, Shohreh; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeid; Jalili, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Many inflammatory chemokines release from leukocytes and pancreatic acinar cells which play important roles in pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP). Of interests, CXCL2 and CCL2 have been shown elevated in the plasma of patients with AP. We have recently found that Glycyrrhizin (GZ) attenuates AP in mice model. In this study, we aimed to investigate the direct effect of GZ on expression levels of CCL2 and CXCl2 in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. Isolated acinar cells were isolated from the pancreas of healthy C57BL/6 mice, stimulated with cerulein (10-7 M) and then treated with either PBS or different doses of GZ. The levels of CCL2 and CXCL2 expression at mRNA were assessed by qRT-PCR. Conditioned media from supernatants of each cells culture condition were collected for detection of CCL2 and CXCL2 levels by ELISA. First, we observed that cerulein significantly upregulates both cytokines expression in acinar cells. Moreover, we treated the acinar cells with GZ and found that GZ significantly downregulates CCL2 and CXCL2 expression at mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, the conditioned media of GZ-treated cells contained a significant lower levels of CCL2 and CXCL2 (p<0.05). In conclusion, our data demonstrate for the first time that GZ directly downregulates CCL2 and CXCL2 levels in cerulein-stimulated acinar cells which may explain the mechanism of therapeutic effects of GZ in cerulein-induced AP in mice. PMID:26155433

  20. Prenatal stress down-regulates Reelin expression by methylation of its promoter and induces adult behavioral impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Palacios-García, Ismael; Lara-Vásquez, Ariel; Montiel, Juan F; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela F; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Utreras, Elías; Montecino, Martín; González-Billault, Christian; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress causes predisposition to cognitive and emotional disturbances and is a risk factor towards the development of neuropsychiatric conditions like depression, bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. The extracellular protein Reelin, expressed by Cajal-Retzius cells during cortical development, plays critical roles on cortical lamination and synaptic maturation, and its deregulation has been associated with maladaptive conditions. In the present study, we address the effect of prenatal restraint stress (PNS) upon Reelin expression and signaling in pregnant rats during the last 10 days of pregnancy. Animals from one group, including control and PNS exposed fetuses, were sacrificed and analyzed using immunohistochemical, biochemical, cell biology and molecular biology approaches. We scored changes in the expression of Reelin, its signaling pathway and in the methylation of its promoter. A second group included control and PNS exposed animals maintained until young adulthood for behavioral studies. Using the optical dissector, we show decreased numbers of Reelin-positive neurons in cortical layer I of PNS exposed animals. In addition, neurons from PNS exposed animals display decreased Reelin expression that is paralleled by changes in components of the Reelin-signaling cascade, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, PNS induced changes in the DNA methylation levels of the Reelin promoter in culture and in histological samples. PNS adult rats display excessive spontaneous locomotor activity, high anxiety levels and problems of learning and memory consolidation. No significant visuo-spatial memory impairment was detected on the Morris water maze. These results highlight the effects of prenatal stress on the Cajal-Retzius neuronal population, and the persistence of behavioral consequences using this treatment in adults, thereby supporting a relevant role of PNS in the genesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. We also propose an in vitro model that can yield new

  1. Prenatal Stress Down-Regulates Reelin Expression by Methylation of Its Promoter and Induces Adult Behavioral Impairments in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-García, Ismael; Lara-Vásquez, Ariel; Montiel, Juan F.; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela F.; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Utreras, Elías; Montecino, Martín; González-Billault, Christian; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress causes predisposition to cognitive and emotional disturbances and is a risk factor towards the development of neuropsychiatric conditions like depression, bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. The extracellular protein Reelin, expressed by Cajal-Retzius cells during cortical development, plays critical roles on cortical lamination and synaptic maturation, and its deregulation has been associated with maladaptive conditions. In the present study, we address the effect of prenatal restraint stress (PNS) upon Reelin expression and signaling in pregnant rats during the last 10 days of pregnancy. Animals from one group, including control and PNS exposed fetuses, were sacrificed and analyzed using immunohistochemical, biochemical, cell biology and molecular biology approaches. We scored changes in the expression of Reelin, its signaling pathway and in the methylation of its promoter. A second group included control and PNS exposed animals maintained until young adulthood for behavioral studies. Using the optical dissector, we show decreased numbers of Reelin-positive neurons in cortical layer I of PNS exposed animals. In addition, neurons from PNS exposed animals display decreased Reelin expression that is paralleled by changes in components of the Reelin-signaling cascade, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, PNS induced changes in the DNA methylation levels of the Reelin promoter in culture and in histological samples. PNS adult rats display excessive spontaneous locomotor activity, high anxiety levels and problems of learning and memory consolidation. No significant visuo-spatial memory impairment was detected on the Morris water maze. These results highlight the effects of prenatal stress on the Cajal-Retzius neuronal population, and the persistence of behavioral consequences using this treatment in adults, thereby supporting a relevant role of PNS in the genesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. We also propose an in vitro model that can yield new

  2. Thymosin From Bombyx mori Is Down-Regulated in Expression by BmNPV Exhibiting Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Yongdi; Fang, Qiang; Xu, Minlin; Lv, Mengyuan; Liao, Jinxu; Li, Si; Nie, Zuoming; Zhang, Wenping

    2016-01-01

    Thymosins have been highly conserved during evolution. These hormones exist in many animal species and play an essential role in many biological events. However, little is known regarding the physiological function of silkworm Bombyx mori thymosin (BmTHY). In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of BmTHY in a Bombyx mori larval ovarian cell line (BmN) challenged with Bombyx mori nuclear polyhydrosis virus (BmNPV) and the antiviral effect of recombinant BmTHY (rBmTHY) for Bombyx mori against BmNPV. Western-blot assay and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the level of BmTHY protein expression and transcription decreased over time when BmN cells were infected by BmNPV. Treatment with endotoxin-free rBmTHY led to a significant reduction in viral titer in the supernatant of BmN cells challenged with BmNPV. The results from antiviral tests performed in vitro and in vivo showed that endotoxin-free rBmTHY improved the survival rate of Bombyx mori infected with BmNPV. These findings suggest that BmTHY exerts immunomodulatory effects on Bombyx mori, rendering them resistant to viral infection. PMID:27432352

  3. Helper T cells down-regulate CD4 expression upon chronic stimulation giving rise to double-negative T cells.

    PubMed

    Grishkan, Inna V; Ntranos, Achilles; Calabresi, Peter A; Gocke, Anne R

    2013-01-01

    Double-negative T (DNT) cells are αβTCR(+)CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-)NK1.1(-) cells that constitute a small but significant proportion of the αβTCR(+) T cells. Their developmental pathway and pathological significance remain unclear. In the present study, we utilized chronic in vitro stimulation of CD4(+) T cells to mimic immune hyper-activation of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus, conditions characterized by DNT cells accumulation. After approximately 4-5 rounds of stimulation, the CD3(+)CD4(-) population became apparent. These cells did not express CD8, NK1.1, γδTCR, or B220, exhibited a highly proliferative effector phenotype, and were dependent on T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation for survival. Moreover, CD3(+)CD4(-) cells expressed MHC class II-restricted αβTCR, indicative of their origin from a CD4(+) T cell population. The results presented herein illustrate a novel method of DNT cell generation in vitro and suggest that immune hyper-activation could also be implicated in the genesis of the disease-associated DNT cells in vivo.

  4. Solamargine inhibits migration and invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Sani, Iman Karimi; Marashi, Seyed Hassan; Kalalinia, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Solamargine is a steroidal alkaloid glycoside isolated from Solanum nigrum. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of solamargine on tumor migration and invasion in aggressive human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The MTT assay was used to assess the effects of solamargine on the viability of HepG2 cells. Migration and invasion ability of HepG2 cells under solamargine treatment were examined by a wound healing migration assay and Boyden chamber assay, respectively. Western blotting assays were used to detect the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity were analyzed by gelatin zymography assay. Solamargine reduced HepG2 cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. At 7.5μM solamargine decreased cell viability by less than 20% in HepG2 cells. A wound healing migration assay and Boyden chamber invasion assay showed that solamargine significantly inhibited in vitro migration and invasion of HepG2 cells. At the highest dose, solamargine decreased cell migration and invasion by more than 70% and 72% in HepG2 cells, respectively. Western blotting and gelatin zymography results showed that solamargine reduced expression and function of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins. In conclusion, the results showed that solamargine significantly inhibits migration and invasion of HepG2 cells by down-regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity.

  5. Antagonism of microRNA-99a promotes cell invasion and down-regulates E-cadherin expression in pancreatic cancer cells by regulating mammalian target of rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Li, Xiaohan; Cao, Wei; Qi, Yafei; Yang, Xianghong

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNA-99a (miRNA-99a), a potential tumor suppressor, has been implicated in tumorigenesis of many human malignancies. However, the role of miRNA-99a in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we transfected miRNA-99a antagonism into human pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 cells to inhibit miRNA-99a expression and investigated its influence on cell migration and invasion as well as the underlying possible mechanisms. We found that miRNA-99a antagonism significantly increased proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of AsPC-1 cells, which was accompanied by increased expression of mesenchymal phenotype cell biomarkers (N-cadherin, Vimentin, and α-SMA), and decreased expression of epithelial phenotype cell biomarker (E-cadherin). Interestingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) remarkably restored miRNA-99a antagonism-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin. In conclusion, our data suggest that miRNA-99a is involved in pancreatic cancer migration and invasion by regulating mTOR, and may provide a target for effective therapies against pancreatic cancer.

  6. Inhibition of mTOR down-regulates scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI) expression, reduces endothelial cell migration and impairs nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Krieger, Sigurd; Winter, Katharina; Rosner, Margit; Mikula, Mario; Weichhart, Thomas; Bittman, Robert; Hengstschläger, Markus; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-07-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibiting drug rapamycin (Sirolimus) has severe side effects in patients including hyperlipidemia, an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. Recently, it was shown that rapamycin decreases hepatic LDL receptor (LDL-R) expression, which likely contributes to hypercholesterolemia. Scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI) is the major HDL receptor and consequently regulating HDL-cholesterol levels and the athero-protective effects of HDL. By using the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, we show that SR-BI is down-regulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This reduction of SR-BI protein as well as mRNA levels by about 50% did not alter HDL particle uptake or HDL-derived lipid transfer. However, rapamycin reduced HDL-induced activation of eNOS and stimulation of endothelial cell migration. The effects on cell migration could be counteracted by SR-BI overexpression, indicating that decreased SR-BI expression is in part responsible for the rapamycin-induced effects. We demonstrate that inhibition of mTOR leads to endothelial cell dysfunction and decreased SR-BI expression, which may contribute to atherogenesis during rapamycin treatment.

  7. Over-expression of microRNA-223 inhibited the proinflammatory responses in Helicobacter pylori-infection macrophages by down-regulating IRAK-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianjun; Wu, Jianhong; Cheng, Yang; Jiang, Yibiao; Li, Guangxin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-223 plays an important role in the inflammatory response of macrophages. Recent studies have identified that miR-223 was highly expressed in H. pylori infection macrophages, the significance of the elevation, however, has not yet been investigated. In this study, we analyzed the impact of elevated miR-233 to macrophage inflammatory response and possible mechanisms. We found that miR-223 not only could inhibit the expression of inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and TNF-α, but also was able to decrease the expression of CD40, CD68, CD80, and CD163. Furthermore, proteins relating to inflammatory signal pathways, such as IRAK-1, NF-κB and MAPK, in H. pylori infected macrophages were down-regulated. Taken together, these results indicated that miR-223 may act as an inflammatory inhibitory factor in H. pylori infected macrophages by IRAK-1, NF-κB or MAPK signal pathways. These findings contribute to the understanding of miR-223 in macrophages inflammatory responses induced by H. pylori. PMID:27158353

  8. Differential expression of the transcription factors MarA, Rob, and SoxS of Salmonella Typhimurium in response to sodium hypochlorite: down-regulation of rob by MarA and SoxS.

    PubMed

    Collao, B; Morales, E H; Gil, F; Polanco, R; Calderón, I L; Saavedra, C P

    2012-11-01

    To survive, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) must sense signals found in phagocytic cells and modulate gene expression. In the present work, we evaluated the expression and cross-regulation of the transcription factors MarA, Rob, and SoxS in response to NaOCl. We generated strains ΔsoxS and ΔmarA, which were 20 times more sensitive to NaOCl as compared to the wild-type strain; while Δrob only 5 times. Subsequently, we determined that marA and soxS transcript and protein levels were increased while those of rob decreased in a wild-type strain treated with NaOCl. To assess if changes in S. Typhimurium after exposure to NaOCl were due to a cross-regulation, as in Escherichia coli, we evaluated the expression of marA, soxS, and rob in the different genetic backgrounds. The positive regulation observed in the wild-type strain of marA and soxS was retained in the Δrob strain. As in the wild-type strain, rob was down-regulated in the ΔmarA and ΔsoxS treated with NaOCl; however, this effect was decreased. Since rob was down-regulated by both factors, we generated a ΔmarA ΔsoxS strain finding that the negative regulation was abolished, confirming our hypothesis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using MarA and SoxS confirmed an interaction with the promoter of rob.

  9. Heading date gene, dth3 controlled late flowering in O. Glaberrima Steud. by down-regulating Ehd1.

    PubMed

    Bian, X F; Liu, X; Zhao, Z G; Jiang, L; Gao, H; Zhang, Y H; Zheng, M; Chen, L M; Liu, S J; Zhai, H Q; Wan, J M

    2011-12-01

    Heading date in rice is an important agronomic trait controlled by several genes. In this study, flowering time of variety Dianjingyou 1 (DJY1) was earlier than a near-isogenic line (named NIL) carried chromosome segment from African rice on chromosome 3S, when grown in both long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions. By analyzing a large F2 population from NIL × DJY1, the locus DTH3 (QTL for days to heading on chromosome 3) controlling early heading date in DJY1 was fine mapped to a 64-kb segment which contained only one annotated gene, a MIKC-type MADS-box protein. We detected a 6-bp deletion and a single base substitution in the C-domain by sequencing DTH3 in DJY1 compared with dth3 in NIL, and overexpression of DTH3 caused early flowering in callus. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the transcript level of dth3 in NIL was lower than that DTH3 in DJY1 in both LD and SD conditions. The Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) which promotes the RFT1, was up-regulated by DTH3 in both LD and SD conditions. Based on Indel and dCAPs marker analysis, the dth3 allele was only present in African rice accessions. A phylogenetic analysis based on microsatellite genotyping suggested that African rice had a close genetic relationship to O. rufipogon and O. latifolia, and was similar to japonica cultivars. DTH3 affected flowering time and had no significant effect on the main agronomic traits.

  10. p107 inhibits G1 to S phase progression by down-regulating expression of the F-box protein Skp2

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Geneviève; Makris, Constantin; Coulombe, Philippe; Scime, Anthony; Nakayama, Keiko; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Meloche, Sylvain

    2005-01-01

    Cell cycle progression is negatively regulated by the pocket proteins pRb, p107, and p130. However, the mechanisms responsible for this inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we show that overexpression of p107 in fibroblasts inhibits Cdk2 activation and delays S phase entry. The inhibition of Cdk2 activity is correlated with the accumulation of p27, consequent to a decreased degradation of the protein, with no change of Thr187 phosphorylation. Instead, we observed a marked decrease in the abundance of the F-box receptor Skp2 in p107-overexpressing cells. Reciprocally, Skp2 accumulates to higher levels in p107−/− embryonic fibroblasts. Ectopic expression of Skp2 restores p27 down-regulation and DNA synthesis to the levels observed in parental cells, whereas inactivation of Skp2 abrogates the inhibitory effect of p107 on S phase entry. We further show that the serum-dependent increase in Skp2 half-life observed during G1 progression is impaired in cells overexpressing p107. We propose that p107, in addition to its interaction with E2F, inhibits cell proliferation through the control of Skp2 expression and the resulting stabilization of p27. PMID:15631990

  11. Nandrolone-pretreatment enhances cardiac beta(2)-adrenoceptor expression and reverses heart contractile down-regulation in the post-stress period of acute-stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Penna, Claudia; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Mancardi, Daniele; Spaccamiglio, Angela; Racca, Silvia; Pagliaro, Pasquale

    2007-10-01

    To investigate whether nandrolone decanoate (ND)-pretreatment can modulate (1) beta-adrenoceptor expression and (2) myocardial contractility in response to beta-adrenoceptors stimulation with isoproterenol (ISO), in hearts of both normal and stressed rats. Rats were treated with 15 mg/(kgday) of Deca-Durabolin (ND, 1 ml i.m.) or with vehicle (oil) for 14 days. The day after the last injection, the dose-response to ISO (1 x 10(-8), 5 x 10(-8) and 10(-7)M), was studied in isolated rat hearts harvested from unstressed animals (unstressed+vehicle (control) or unstressed+ND) or from stressed animals (stressed+vehicle or stressed+ND): acute stress protocol consisted in restrain for 1h immediately before sacrifice. ND-pretreatment increased beta(2)-adrenoceptor expression. In baseline conditions all hearts had a similar left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and maximum rate of increase of LVDP (dP/dt(max)). In hearts of unstressed+vehicle or unstressed+ND, ISO caused a similar increase in LVDP (+90-100%) and dP/dt(max) (+120-150%). However, hearts of stressed+vehicle animals showed a marked depression of inotropic response to ISO (i.e. for ISO 1 x 10(-8),-55% in LVDP response versus unstressed). Yet, in hearts of stressed+ND-animals the effect of stress was reversed, showing the highest response to ISO (i.e. for ISO 1 x 10(-7), +30% LVDP response versus unstressed). The ND-induced beta(2)-adrenoceptor overexpression does not affect ISO-response in unstressed animals. However, acute stress induces a down-regulation of ISO-response, which is reversed by ND-pretreatment. Since the physiological post-stress down-regulation of adrenergic-response is absent after nandrolone treatment, the heart may be exposed to a sympathetic over-stimulation. This might represent a risk for cardiovascular incidents in anabolic steroid addicts under stressing conditions.

  12. Endothelin-1 down-regulates matrix metalloproteinase 14 and 15 expression in human first trimester trophoblasts via endothelin receptor type B

    PubMed Central

    Majali-Martinez, Alejandro; Velicky, Philipp; Pollheimer, Jürgen; Knöfler, Martin; Yung, Hong wa; Burton, Graham J.; Tabrizi-Wizsy, Nassim Ghaffari; Lang, Uwe; Hiden, Ursula; Desoye, Gernot; Dieber-Rotheneder, Martina

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does endothelin-1 (ET-1) regulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 14 and 15 production and invasion of human first trimester trophoblasts? SUMMARY ANSWER ET-1 in pathophysiological concentrations down-regulates MMP14 and MMP15 expression via endothelin receptor (ETR) type B and decreases trophoblast migration and invasion. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY MMP14 and MMP15 are involved in trophoblast invasion. Impairment of invasion has been linked to pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia (PE). ET-1 is up-regulated in PE. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION In vitro study using primary human trophoblasts from 50 first trimester placentas (gestational week 7–12). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Trophoblasts were cultured in the absence or presence of 10–100 nM ET-1. MMP14 and MMP15 mRNA and protein were quantified by RT-qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Selective antagonists for ETRA (BQ-123) or ETRB (BQ-788) were used to identify ETR subtypes involved. Functional ET-1 effects were tested in first trimester chorionic villous explants and transwell invasion assays. The roles of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (25 ng/ml) and oxygen (1%) in ET-1 regulation of MMP14 and 15 expression were assessed by Western blotting. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE ET-1 down-regulated MMP14 and MMP15 mRNA (−21% and −26%, respectively, P < 0.05) and protein levels (–18% and –22%, respectively, P < 0.05). This effect was mediated via ETRB. ET-1 decreased trophoblast outgrowth in placental explants (−24%, P < 0.05) and trophoblast invasion (−26%, P ≤ 0.01). TNF-α enhanced ET-1 mediated MMP15 down-regulation (by 10%, P < 0.05), whereas hypoxia abolished the effect of ET-1 on both MMPs. LARGE SCALE DATA N/A. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Only primary trophoblasts were used in this study. Since trophoblast yield from first trimester placental material is limited, further aspects of MMP14 and 15 regulation could not be characterized. Other anti

  13. Down-Regulation of KORRIGAN-Like Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase Genes Impacts Carbon Partitioning, Mycorrhizal Colonization and Biomass Production in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Kalluri, Udaya C.; Payyavula, Raja S.; Labbé, Jessy L.; Engle, Nancy; Bali, Garima; Jawdy, Sara S.; Sykes, Robert W.; Davis, Mark; Ragauskas, Arthur; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    A greater understanding of the genetic regulation of plant cell wall remodeling and the impact of modified cell walls on plant performance is important for the development of sustainable biofuel crops. Here, we studied the impact of down-regulating KORRIGAN-like cell wall biosynthesis genes, belonging to the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene family, on Populus growth, metabolism and the ability to interact with symbiotic microbes. The reductions in cellulose content and lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl unit ratio, and increase in cellulose crystallinity of cell walls of PdKOR RNAi plants corroborated the functional role of PdKOR in cell wall biosynthesis. Altered metabolism and reduced growth characteristics of RNAi plants revealed new implications on carbon allocation and partitioning. The distinctive metabolome phenotype comprised of a higher phenolic and salicylic acid content, and reduced lignin, shikimic acid and maleic acid content relative to control. Plant sustainability implications of modified cell walls on beneficial plant-microbe interactions were explored via co-culture with an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Laccaria bicolor. A significant increase in the mycorrhization rate was observed in transgenic plants, leading to measurable beneficial growth effects. These findings present new evidence for functional interconnectedness of cellulose biosynthesis pathway, metabolism and mycorrhizal association in plants, and further emphasize the consideration of the sustainability implications of plant trait improvement efforts. PMID:27757116

  14. Down-regulation of KORRIGAN-like endo-β-1,4-glucanase genes impacts carbon partitioning, mycorrhizal colonization and biomass production in Populus

    DOE PAGES

    Kalluri, Udaya C; Engle, Nancy L.; Bali, Garima; ...

    2016-10-04

    Here, a greater understanding of the genetic regulation of plant cell wall remodeling and the impact of modified cell walls on plant performance is important for the development of sustainable biofuel crops. Here, we studied the impact of down-regulating KORRIGAN-like cell wall biosynthesis genes, belonging to the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene family, on Populus growth, metabolism and the ability to interact with symbiotic microbes. The reductions in cellulose content and lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl unit ratio, and increase in cellulose crystallinity of cell walls of PdKOR RNAi plants corroborated the functional role of PdKOR in cell wall biosynthesis. Altered metabolism and reduced growth characteristicsmore » of RNAi plants revealed new implications on carbon allocation and partitioning. The distinctive metabolome phenotype comprised of a higher phenolic and salicylic acid content, and reduced lignin, shikimic acid and maleic acid content relative to control. Plant sustainability implications of modified cell walls on beneficial plant-microbe interactions were explored via co-culture with an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Laccaria bicolor. A significant increase in the mycorrhization rate was observed in transgenic plants, leading to measurable beneficial growth effects. These findings present new evidence for functional interconnectedness of cellulose biosynthesis pathway, metabolism and mycorrhizal association in plants, and further emphasize the consideration of the sustainability implications of plant trait improvement efforts.« less

  15. TGF-β Down-regulates Apolipoprotein M Expression through the TAK-1-JNK-c-Jun Pathway in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kun; Mo, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Xing; Tang, Zhen-Li; Jiang, Yue; Peng, Xiao-Shan; Zhang, Qing-Hai; Shi, Jin-Feng; Yi, Guang-Hui

    2017-02-01

    Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is a relatively novel apolipoprotein that plays pivotal roles in many dyslipidemia-associated diseases; however, its regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Many cytokines have been identified that down-regulate apoM expression in HepG2 cells, among which transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) exerts the most potent effects. In addition, c-Jun, a member of the activated protein 1 (AP-1) family whose activity is modulated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), decreases apoM expression at the transcriptional level by binding to the regulatory element in the proximal apoM promoter. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms through which TGF-β decreases the apoM level in HepG2 cells. The results revealed that TGF-β inhibited apoM expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that it suppressed apoM secretion. These effects were attenuated by treatment of cells with either SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) or c-Jun siRNA. 5Z-7-oxozeaenol [(a TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK-1) inhibitor)] also attenuated the TGF-β-mediated inhibition of apoM expression and suppressed the activation of JNK and c-Jun. These results have demonstrated that TGF-β suppresses apoM expression through the TAK-1-JNK-c-Jun pathway in HepG2 cells.

  16. Down-regulation of P-gp expression and function after Mulberroside A treatment: potential role of protein kinase C and NF-kappa B.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhua; Huang, Ling; Zeng, Xuezhen; Zhong, Guoping; Ying, Mengjia; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2014-04-25

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a major role in drug-drug and herb-drug interactions. Mulberroside A (Mul A) is one of the main bioactive constituents of Sangbaipi, the dried root-bark of Morus alba L. (white mulberry), which is officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Mul A treatment on mRNA expression and protein expression of P-gp in the Caco-2 cells by real-time qPCR and Western blot analysis. The effect of Mul A treatment on the function of P-gp in vitro and in vivo was assessed by Rho123 transport assay and a pharmacokinetic study. The potential roles of protein kinase C (PKC) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the expression regulation of P-gp after Mul A treatment were also investigated. The results revealed that Mul A treatment significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression of P-gp in Caco-2 cells after treatment with Mul A (5-20 μM). Furthermore, Mul A treatment displayed apparently inhibitory effect on the function of P-gp both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, activation of PKC activity and NF-κB nuclear translocation were observed in the presence of Mul A, which suggested that PKC and NF-κB might play crucial roles in Mul A-induced suppression of P-gp. Our study demonstrated that Mul A treatment could down-regulate P-gp expression and function accompanied by the activation of PKC and NF-κB, and this should be taken into consideration in potential herb-drug interactions when Mul A or M. alba are co-administered with other drugs transported by P-gp.

  17. Tristetraprolin Down-Regulation Contributes to Persistent TNF-Alpha Expression Induced by Cigarette Smoke Extract through a Post-Transcriptional Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Quan; Mu, Mao; Li, Hong; Luo, Yuan; Liang, Yue-Dong; Luo, Xin-Hua; Gao, Chang-Qing; Jackson, Patricia L.; Wells, J. Michael; Zhou, Yong; Hu, Meng; Cai, Guoqiang; Thannickal, Victor J.; Steele, Chad; Blalock, J. Edwin; Han, Xiaosi; Chen, Ching-Yi; Ding, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a potent pro-inflammatory mediator and its expression is up-regulated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Tristetraprolin (TTP) is implicated in regulation of TNF-α expression; however, whether TTP is involved in cigarette smoke-induced TNF-α expression has not been determined. Methods TTP expression was examined by western blot analysis in murine alveolar macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells challenged without or with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). TNF-α mRNA stability, and the decay of TNF-α mRNA, were determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. TNF-α protein levels were examined at the same time in these cells. To identify the molecular mechanism involved, a construct expressing the human beta-globin reporter mRNA containing the TNF-α 3’-untranslated region was generated to characterize the TTP targeted site within TNF-α mRNA. Results CSE induced TTP down-regulation in alveolar macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells. Reduced TTP expression resulted in significantly increased TNF-α mRNA stability. Importantly, increased TNF-α mRNA stability due to impaired TTP function resulted in significantly increased TNF-α levels in these cells. Forced TTP expression abrogated the increased TNF-α mRNA stability and expression induced by CSE. By using the globin reporter construct containing TNF-α mRNA 3’-untranslated region, the data indicate that TTP directly targets the adenine- and uridine-rich region (ARE) of TNF-α mRNA and negatively regulates TNF-α expression at the post-transcriptional level. Conclusion The data demonstrate that cigarette smoke exposure reduces TTP expression and impairs TTP function, resulting in significantly increased TNF-α mRNA stability and excessive TNF-α expression in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. The data suggest that TTP is a novel post-transcriptional regulator and limits excessive TNF-α expression and inflammatory response induced by

  18. The CEBPA gene is down-regulated in acute promyelocytic leukemia and its upstream promoter, but not the core promoter, is highly methylated

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Lemos, Bárbara Amélia; de Lima Lange, Ana Paula Alencar; de Lira Benício, Mariana Tereza; da Silva José, Thiago Donizete; Lucena-Araújo, Antônio Roberto; Krause, Alexandre; Thomé, Carolina Hassibe; Rego, Eduardo Magalhães

    2011-01-01

    Impairment of CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein alpha (CEBPA) function is a common finding in acute myeloid leukemia; nevertheless, its relevance for acute promyelocytic leukemia pathogenesis is unclear. We analyzed the expression and assessed the methylation status of the core and upstream promoters of CEBPA in acute promyelocytic leukemia at diagnosis. Patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (n=18) presented lower levels of CEBPA expression compared to healthy controls (n=5), but higher levels than those in acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21) (n=9) and with inv(16) (n=5). Regarding the core promoter, we detected no methylation in 39 acute promyelocytic leukemia samples or in 8 samples from controls. In contrast, analysis of the upstream promoter showed methylation in 37 of 39 samples, with 17 patients showing methylation levels over 30%. Our results corroborate data obtained in animal models showing that CEBPA is down-regulated in acute promyelocytic leukemia stem cells and suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may be involved. PMID:21134977

  19. Low-amplitude high frequency vibration down-regulates myostatin and atrogin-1 expression, two components of the atrophy pathway in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Benedetti, Laura; Galli, Daniela; Prè, Deborah; Silvani, Giulia; Crosetto, Nicola; Magenes, Giovanni; Cusella De Angelis, Maria Gabriella

    2014-05-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a very widespread mechanical stimulus used in physical therapy, rehabilitation and fitness centres. It has been demonstrated that vibration induces improvements in muscular strength and performance and increases bone density. We investigated the effects of low-amplitude, high frequency vibration (HFV) at the cellular and tissue levels in muscle. We developed a system to produce vibrations adapted to test several parameters in vitro and in vivo. For in vivo experiments, we used newborn CD1 wild-type mice, for in vitro experiments, we isolated satellite cells from 6-day-old CD1 mice, while for proliferation studies, we used murine cell lines. Animals and cells were treated with high frequency vibration at 30 Hz. We analyzed the effects of mechanical stimulation on muscle hypertrophy/atrophy pathways, fusion enhancement of myoblast cells and modifications in the proliferation rate of cells. Results demonstrated that mechanical vibration strongly down-regulates atrophy genes both in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro experiments indicated that mechanical stimulation promotes fusion of satellite cells treated directly in culture compared to controls. Finally, proliferation experiments indicated that stimulated cells had a decreased growth rate compared to controls. We concluded that vibration treatment at 30 Hz is effective in suppressing the atrophy pathway both in vivo and in vitro and enhances fusion of satellite muscle cells.

  20. Altered expression of miR-125a-5p in thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis and its down-regulation of foxp3 expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinpin; Qiu, Di; Chen, Zezhi; Du, Weiwei; Liu, Jingli; Mo, Xuean

    2016-04-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoantibody-mediated and T cell-dependent autoimmune disease of neuromuscular junctions. Thymomas may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis (TAMG), but the thymic pathogenesis of TAMG is unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA molecules 21-24 nt in length that regulate the expression of their target genes in a post-transcriptional manner. In this study, we used a miRNA microarray chip to identify, for the first time, 137 miRNAs in normal tissue adjacent to the thymoma from TAMG patients that were significantly dysregulated compared with normal thymus controls. We confirmed the differential expression of miR-125a-5p in larger samples using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Using bioinformatics analysis, we identified the foxp3 3' untranslated region (UTR) as a target of miR-125a-5p. Importantly, miR-125a-5p expression exhibited a negative correlation with foxp3 expression in normal tissue adjacent to the thymoma from TAMG patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression of the foxp3 gene was modulated by miR-125a-5p in Jurkat cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the abnormal expression of miR-125a-5p and its effect on foxp3 expression are likely involved in the pathogenesis of TAMG.

  1. Sodium arsenite down-regulates the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein via translational and post-translational mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hong; Hao, Yuqing; Wang, Lijing; Jia, Dongwei; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium arsenite down-regulates the protein expression level of XIAP in HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium arsenite inhibits the de novo XIAP synthesis and its IRES activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium arsenite decreases XIAP stability and promotes its proteasomal degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of XIAP attenuates the pro-apoptotic effect of sodium arsenite. -- Abstract: X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, and has been reported to exhibit elevated expression levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and promote cell survival, metastasis and tumor recurrence. Targeting XIAP has proven effective for the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and restoration of cancer cell chemosensitivity. Arsenic (or sodium arsenite) is a potent anti-tumor agent used to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Additionally, arsenic induces cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human HCC cells. In this study, we identified XIAP as a target for sodium arsenite-induced cytotoxicity in HCC. The exposure of HCC cell lines to sodium arsenite resulted in inhibition of XIAP expression in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Sodium arsenite blocked the de novo XIAP synthesis and the activity of its internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element. Moreover, treatment with sodium arsenite decreased the protein stability of XIAP and induced its ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. Overexpression of XIAP attenuated the pro-apoptotic effect of sodium arsenite in HCC. Taken together, our data demonstrate that sodium arsenite suppresses XIAP expression via translational and post-translational mechanisms in HCC.

  2. Stromal down-regulation of macrophage CD4/CCR5 expression and NF-κB activation mediates HIV-1 non-permissiveness in intestinal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ruizhong; Meng, Gang; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Clapham, Paul R; Grams, Jayleen; Novak, Lea; Kappes, John C; Smythies, Lesley E; Smith, Phillip D

    2011-05-01

    Tissue macrophages are derived exclusively from blood monocytes, which as monocyte-derived macrophages support HIV-1 replication. However, among human tissue macrophages only intestinal macrophages are non-permissive to HIV-1, suggesting that the unique microenvironment in human intestinal mucosa renders lamina propria macrophages non-permissive to HIV-1. We investigated this hypothesis using blood monocytes and intestinal extracellular matrix (stroma)-conditioned media (S-CM) to model the exposure of newly recruited monocytes and resident macrophages to lamina propria stroma, where the cells take up residence in the intestinal mucosa. Exposure of monocytes to S-CM blocked up-regulation of CD4 and CCR5 expression during monocyte differentiation into macrophages and inhibited productive HIV-1 infection in differentiated macrophages. Importantly, exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages simultaneously to S-CM and HIV-1 also inhibited viral replication, and sorted CD4+ intestinal macrophages, a proportion of which expressed CCR5+, did not support HIV-1 replication, indicating that the non-permissiveness to HIV-1 was not due to reduced receptor expression alone. Consistent with this conclusion, S-CM also potently inhibited replication of HIV-1 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein, which provides CD4/CCR5-independent entry. Neutralization of TGF-β in S-CM and recombinant TGF-β studies showed that stromal TGF-β inhibited macrophage nuclear translocation of NF-κB and HIV-1 replication. Thus, the profound inability of intestinal macrophages to support productive HIV-1 infection is likely the consequence of microenvironmental down-regulation of macrophage HIV-1 receptor/coreceptor expression and NF-κB activation.

  3. Down-regulation of Connexin43 expression reveals the involvement of caveolin-1 containing lipid rafts in human U251 glioblastoma cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Strale, Pierre-Olivier; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Lamiche, Coralie; Cronier, Laurent; Mesnil, Marc; Defamie, Norah

    2012-11-01

    Glioblastoma cells are characterized by high proliferation and invasive capacities. Tumor development has been associated with a decrease of gap-junctional intercellular communication, but the concrete involvement of gap junction proteins, connexins, remains elusive since they are also suspected to promote cell invasion. In order to better understand how connexins control the glioma cell phenotype, we studied the consequences of inhibiting the intrinsic expression of the major astrocytic connexin, Connexin43, in human U251 glioblastoma cells by the shRNA strategy. The induced down-regulation of Cx43 expression has various effects on the U251 cells such as increased clonogenicity, angiogenesis and decreased adhesion on specific extracellular matrix proteins. We demonstrate that the invasion capacity measured in vitro and ex vivo correlates with Cx43 expression level. For the first time in a cancer cell context, our work demonstrates that Cx43 cofractionates, colocalizes and coimmunoprecipitates with a lipid raft marker, caveolin-1 and that this interaction is inversely correlated to the level of Cx43. This localization of Cx43 in these lipid raft microdomains regulates both homo- and heterocellular gap junctional communications (respectively between U251 cells, or between U251 cells and astrocytes). Moreover, the adhesive and invasive capacities are not dependent, in our model, on Cav-1 expression level. Our results tend to show that heterocellular gap junctional communication between cancer and stroma cells may affect the behavior of the tumor cells. Altogether, our data demonstrate that Cx43 controls the tumor phenotype of glioblastoma U251 cells and in particular, invasion capacity, through its localization in lipid rafts containing Cav-1.

  4. Brain metastases from lung cancer show increased expression of DVL1, DVL3 and beta-catenin and down-regulation of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Anja; Tomas, Davor; Beroš, Vili; Pećina, Hrvoje Ivan; Zeljko, Martina; Pećina-Šlaus, Nives

    2014-06-13

    The susceptibility of brain to secondary formation from lung cancer primaries is a well-known phenomenon. In contrast, the molecular basis for invasion and metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. In the present study, 31 brain metastases that originated from primary lung carcinomas were analyzed regarding over expression of Dishevelled-1 (DVL1), Dishevelled-3 (DVL3), E-cadherin (CDH1) and beta-catenin (CTNNB1). Protein expressions and localizations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Genetic alterations of E-cadherin were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Heteroduplex was used to investigate mutations in beta-catenin. DVL1 and DVL3 showed over expression in brain metastasis in 87.1% and 90.3% of samples respectively. Nuclear staining was observed in 54.8% of cases for DVL1 and 53.3% for DVL3. The main effector of the Wnt signaling, beta-catenin, was up-regulated in 56%, and transferred to the nucleus in 36% of metastases. When DVL1 and DVL3 were up-regulated the number of cases with nuclear beta-catenin significantly increased (p=0.0001). Down-regulation of E-cadherin was observed in 80% of samples. Genetic analysis showed 36% of samples with LOH of the CDH1. In comparison to other lung cancer pathologies, the diagnoses adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were significantly associated to CDH1 LOH (p=0.001). Microsatellite instability was detected in one metastasis from adenocarcinoma. Exon 3 of beta-catenin was not targeted. Altered expression of Dishevelled-1, Dishevelled-3, E-cadherin and beta-catenin were present in brain metastases which indicates that Wnt signaling is important and may contribute to better understanding of genetic profile conditioning lung cancer metastasis to the brain.

  5. Triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes by down-regulating expression of a viral protein LMP1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Heng; Guo, Wei; Long, Cong; Wang, Huan; Wang, Jingchao; Sun, Xiaoping

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • Triptolide inhibits proliferation of EBV-positive lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Triptolide reduces expression of LMP1 by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide inhibits ED-L1 promoter activity. - Abstract: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects various types of cells and mainly establishes latent infection in B lymphocytes. The viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) plays important roles in transformation and proliferation of B lymphocytes infected with EBV. Triptolide is a compound of Tripterygium extracts, showing anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, it is determined whether triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes. The CCK-8 assays were performed to examine cell viabilities of EBV-positive B95-8 and P3HR-1 cells treated by triptolide. The mRNA and protein levels of LMP1 were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activities of two LMP1 promoters (ED-L1 and TR-L1) were determined by Dual luciferase reportor assay. The results showed that triptolide inhibited the cell viability of EBV-positive B lymphocytes, and the over-expression of LMP1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Triptolide decreased the LMP1 expression and transcriptional levels in EBV-positive B cells. The activity of LMP1 promoter ED-L1 in type III latent infection was strongly suppressed by triptolide treatment. In addition, triptolide strongly reduced growth of B95-8 induced B lymphoma in BALB/c nude mice. These results suggest that triptolide decreases proliferation of EBV-induced B lymphocytes possibly by a mechanism related to down-regulation of the LMP1 expression.

  6. Brain Metastases from Lung Cancer Show Increased Expression of DVL1, DVL3 and Beta-Catenin and Down-Regulation of E-Cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Kafka, Anja; Tomas, Davor; Beroš, Vili; Pećina, Hrvoje Ivan; Zeljko, Martina; Pećina-Šlaus, Nives

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility of brain to secondary formation from lung cancer primaries is a well-known phenomenon. In contrast, the molecular basis for invasion and metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. In the present study, 31 brain metastases that originated from primary lung carcinomas were analyzed regarding over expression of Dishevelled-1 (DVL1), Dishevelled-3 (DVL3), E-cadherin (CDH1) and beta-catenin (CTNNB1). Protein expressions and localizations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Genetic alterations of E-cadherin were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Heteroduplex was used to investigate mutations in beta-catenin. DVL1 and DVL3 showed over expression in brain metastasis in 87.1% and 90.3% of samples respectively. Nuclear staining was observed in 54.8% of cases for DVL1 and 53.3% for DVL3. The main effector of the Wnt signaling, beta-catenin, was up-regulated in 56%, and transferred to the nucleus in 36% of metastases. When DVL1 and DVL3 were up-regulated the number of cases with nuclear beta-catenin significantly increased (p = 0.0001). Down-regulation of E-cadherin was observed in 80% of samples. Genetic analysis showed 36% of samples with LOH of the CDH1. In comparison to other lung cancer pathologies, the diagnoses adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were significantly associated to CDH1 LOH (p = 0.001). Microsatellite instability was detected in one metastasis from adenocarcinoma. Exon 3 of beta-catenin was not targeted. Altered expression of Dishevelled-1, Dishevelled-3, E-cadherin and beta-catenin were present in brain metastases which indicates that Wnt signaling is important and may contribute to better understanding of genetic profile conditioning lung cancer metastasis to the brain. PMID:24933634

  7. Down-regulation of pigment epithelium-derived factor in uveitic lesion associates with focal vascular endothelial growth factor expression and breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Deeg, Cornelia A; Altmann, Frank; Hauck, Stefanie M; Schoeffmann, Stephanie; Amann, Barbara; Stangassinger, Manfred; Ueffing, Marius

    2007-05-01

    Spontaneous equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is an incurable autoimmune disease affecting the eye. Identifying biological markers or pathways associated with this disease may allow the understanding of its pathogenesis at a molecular level. The vitreous is the body fluid closest to the disease-affected tissue and possibly also an effector of pathological processes relevant for ERU. Surgical removal of vitreous leads to cessation of relapses in spontaneous uveitis of both man and horse, therefore vitreous composites are likely to contribute to disease progression. Uveitic vitreous is likely to contain potential biomarkers in relatively undiluted quantities. With the goal to identify these markers, we systematically compared vitreous from healthy and disease-affected eyes by proteomic profiling. Nine differentially expressed proteins were identified, that are functionally related to immune response, inflammation, and maintenance of the blood-retinal barrier. One of these, pigment epithelium-derived factor, a protein involved in maintaining a proper blood-retina barrier as well as protecting from neoangiogenesis was additionally found to be down-regulated within uveitic retinal lesions whereas, conversely, vascular endothelial growth factor was found to be up-regulated at these sites. Together, these changes point to as of yet undiscovered biological pathways involved in the pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease.

  8. Flooding impairs Fe uptake and distribution in Citrus due to the strong down-regulation of genes involved in Strategy I responses to Fe deficiency in roots.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Quiñones, Ana; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, M Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    This work determines the ffects of long-term anoxia conditions--21 days--on Strategy I responses to iron (Fe) deficiency in Citrus and its impact on Fe uptake and distribution. The study was carried out in Citrus aurantium L. seedlings grown under flooding conditions (S) and in both the presence (+Fe) and absence of Fe (-Fe) in nutritive solution. The results revealed a strong down-regulation (more than 65%) of genes HA1 and FRO2 coding for enzymes proton-ATPase and Ferric-Chelate Reductase (FC-R), respectively, in -FeS plants when compared with -Fe ones. H+-extrusion and FC-R activity analyses confirmed the genetic results, indicating that flooding stress markedly repressed acidification and reduction responses to Fe deficiency (3.1- and 2.0-fold, respectively). Waterlogging reduced by half Fe concentration in +FeS roots, which led to 30% up-regulation of Fe transporter IRT1, although this effect was unable to improve Fe absorption. Consequently, flooding inhibited 57Fe uptake in +Fe and -Fe seedlings (29.8 and 66.2%, respectively) and 57Fe distribution to aerial part (30.6 and 72.3%, respectively). This evidences that the synergistic action of both enzymes H+-ATPase and FC-R is the preferential regulator of the Fe acquisition system under flooding conditions and, hence, their inactivation implies a limiting factor of citrus in their Fe-deficiency tolerance in waterlogged soils.

  9. The N-Myc down regulated Gene1 (NDRG1) Is a Rab4a effector involved in vesicular recycling of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Kachhap, Sushant K; Faith, Dennis; Qian, David Z; Shabbeer, Shabana; Galloway, Nathan L; Pili, Roberto; Denmeade, Samuel R; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Carducci, Michael A

    2007-09-05

    Cell to cell adhesion is mediated by adhesion molecules present on the cell surface. Downregulation of molecules that form the adhesion complex is a characteristic of metastatic cancer cells. Downregulation of the N-myc down regulated gene1 (NDRG1) increases prostate and breast metastasis. The exact function of NDRG1 is not known. Here by using live cell confocal microscopy and in vitro reconstitution, we report that NDRG1 is involved in recycling the adhesion molecule E-cadherin thereby stabilizing it. Evidence is provided that NDRG1 recruits on recycling endosomes in the Trans Golgi network by binding to phosphotidylinositol 4-phosphate and interacts with membrane bound Rab4aGTPase. NDRG1 specifically interacts with constitutively active Rab4aQ67L mutant protein and not with GDP-bound Rab4aS22N mutant proving NDRG1 as a novel Rab4a effector. Transferrin recycling experiments reveals NDRG1 colocalizes with transferrin during the recycling phase. NDRG1 alters the kinetics of transferrin recycling in cells. NDRG1 knockdown cells show a delay in recycling transferrin, conversely NDRG1 overexpressing cells reveal an increase in rate of transferrin recycling. This novel finding of NDRG1 as a recycling protein involved with recycling of E-cadherin will aid in understanding NDRG1 role as a metastasis suppressor protein.

  10. Complete knockout of the lactate dehydrogenase A gene is lethal in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, 3 down-regulated CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Yip, Shirley S M; Zhou, Meixia; Joly, John; Snedecor, Bradley; Shen, Amy; Crawford, Yongping

    2014-09-01

    Accumulation of high level of lactate can negatively impact cell growth during fed-batch culture process. In this study, we attempted to knockout the lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) gene in CHO cells in order to attenuate the lactate level. To prevent the potential deleterious effect of pyruvate accumulation, consequent to LDHA knockout, on cell culture, we chose a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, and 3 (PDHK1, 2, and 3) knockdown cell line in which to knock out LDHA alleles. Around 3,000 clones were screened to obtain 152 mutants. Only heterozygous mutants were identified. An attempt to knockout the remaining wild-type allele from one such heterozygote yielded only two mutants after screening 567 clones. One had an extra valine. Another evidenced a duplication event, possessing at lease one wild-type and two different frameshifted alleles. Both mutants still retained LDH activity. Together, our data strongly suggest that a complete knockout of LDHA is lethal in CHO cells, despite simultaneous down-regulation of PDHK1, 2, and 3.

  11. Role of Pin1 in neointima formation: down-regulation of Nrf2-dependent heme oxygenase-1 expression by Pin1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Moo Yeol; Lim, Sung Chul; Hien, Tran Thi; Kim, Jung Woo; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Sang Kyum; Choi, Hong Seok; Kang, Keon Wook

    2010-06-15

    Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to intima formation after stenting and balloon angioplasty. Pin1, a peptidyl prolyl isomerase recognizing phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro, isomerizes the peptide bond. Because Pin1 overexpression is associated with transformation and the uncontrolled cell growth of tumors, we hypothesized that Pin1 functions as a chronic stimulator of VSMC proliferation. Pin1-positive smooth muscle cells were seen in the neointimal region of the femoral artery after guidewire injury. Exposure of VSMCS to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) increased Pin1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Basal cell growth rate and cyclin D1 expression were enhanced in Pin1-overexpressing VSMCs (Pin1-VSMCs). Moreover, PDGF-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Pin1-VSMCs was higher than in control VSMCs. In Pin1-VSMCs, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction in response to nitric oxide donor was suppressed compared to control VSMCs. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) was also diminished in Pin1-VSMCs. In contrast, the activity of the inducible minimal antioxidant response element (ARE) was potentiated in Pin1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), compared to Pin1-wild-type MEFs. Moreover, Nrf2 ubiquitination was stimulated by Pin1 overexpression. Intraperitoneal injection of juglone (a Pin1 inhibitor) for 3weeks (1mg/kg, two times a week) significantly suppressed neointimal formation induced by wire injury. In conclusion, Pin1 induction during neointimal formation may be associated with ROS-mediated VSMC proliferation via down-regulation of Nrf2/ARE-dependent HO-1 expression. Pin1 may be a novel therapeutic target for several vascular diseases including atherosclerosis and stenosis.

  12. Down-regulation of transforming growth factor beta-2 expression is associated with the reduction of cyclosporin induced gingival overgrowth in rats treated with roxithromycin: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gingival overgrowth (GO) is a common side effect of the chronic use of cyclosporine (CsA), an immunosuppressant widely used to prevent rejection in transplant patients. Recent studies have reported elevated levels of specific cytokines in gingival overgrowth tissue, particularly TGF-beta, suggesting that this growth factor plays a role in the accumulation of extracellular matrix materials. The effectiveness of azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, in the regression of this undesirable side effect has also been demonstrated. Methods In this study, we created an experimental model for assessing the therapeutic effect of roxithromycin in GO and the expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta2) through immunohistochemistry. We used four groups of rats totaling 32 individuals. GO was induced during five weeks and drug treatment was given on the 6th week as follows: group 1 received saline; group 2 received CsA and was treated with saline on the 6th week; group 3 received CsA and, on the 6th week, ampicilin; and group 4 received CsA during 5 weeks and, on the 6th week, was treated with roxithromycin. Results The results demonstrated that roxithromycin treatment was effective in reducing cyclosporine-induced GO in rats. Both epithelial and connective tissue showed a decrease in thickness and a significant reduction in TGF-beta2 expression, with a lower number of fibroblasts, reduction in fibrotic areas and decrease in inflammatory infiltrate. Conclusion The present data suggest that the down-regulation of TGF-beta2 expression may be an important mechanism of action by which roxithromycin inhibits GO. PMID:19995419

  13. Protective effect of naringenin in experimental ischemic stroke: down-regulated NOD2, RIP2, NF-κB, MMP-9 and up-regulated claudin-5 expression.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Zhang, Xiangjian; Chen, Linyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Lan; Zhao, Xumeng; Zhao, Ting; Zhao, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Inflammatory damage plays a pivotal, mainly detrimental role in cerebral ischemic pathogenesis and may represent a promising target for treatment. Naringenin (NG) has gained growing appreciation for its beneficial biological effects through its anti-inflammatory property. Whether this protective effect applies to cerebral ischemic injury, we therefore investigate the potential neuroprotective role of NG and the underlying mechanisms. Focal cerebral ischemia in male Sprague-Dawley rats was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and NG was pre-administered intragastrically once daily for four consecutive days before surgery. Neurological deficit, brain water content and infarct volume were measured at 24 h after stroke. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to explore the anti-inflammatory potential of NG in the regulation of NOD2, RIP2 and NF-κB in ischemic cerebral cortex. Additionally, the activities of MMP-9 and claudin-5 were analyzed to detect NG's influence on blood-brain barrier. Compared with pMCAO and Vehicle groups, NG noticeably improved neurological deficit, decreased infarct volume and edema at 24 h after ischemic insult. Consistent with these results, our data also indicated that NG significantly downregulated the expression of NOD2, RIP2, NF-κB and MMP-9, and upregulated the expression of claudin-5 (P < 0.05). The results provided a neuroprotective profile of NG in cerebral ischemia, this effect was likely exerted by down-regulated NOD2, RIP2, NF-κB, MMP-9 and up-regulated claudin-5 expression.

  14. Down-regulation of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression after weaning is associated with hyperphagia-induced obesity in JCR rats overexpressing neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Diané, Abdoulaye; Pierce, W David; Russell, James C; Heth, C Donald; Vine, Donna F; Richard, Denis; Proctor, Spencer D

    2014-03-14

    We hypothesised that hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides are differentially expressed in obese-prone and lean-prone rats and trigger overeating-induced obesity. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we measured energy balance and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expressions in male JCR:LA-cp rats. We compared, in independent cohorts, free-feeding obese-prone (Obese-FF) and lean-prone (Lean-FF) rats at pre-weaning (10 d old), weaning (21-25 d old) and early adulthood (8-12 weeks). A group of Obese-pair-feeding (PF) rats pair-fed to the Lean-FF rats was included in the adult cohort. The body weights of 10-d-old Obese-FF and Lean-FF pups were not significantly different. However, when the pups were shifted from dams' milk to solid food (weaning), the obese-prone rats exhibited more energy intake over the days than the lean-prone rats and higher body and fat pad weights and fasting plasma glucose, leptin, insulin and lipid levels. These differences were consistent with higher energy consumption and lower energy expenditure. In the young adult cohort, the differences between the Obese-FF and Lean-FF rats became more pronounced, yielding significant age effects on most of the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, which were reduced in the Obese-PF rats. The obese-prone rats displayed higher NPY expression than the lean-prone rats at pre-weaning and weaning, and the expression levels did not differ by age. In contrast, POMC expression exhibited significant age-by-genotype differences. At pre-weaning, there was no genotype difference in POMC expression, but in the weanling cohort, obese-prone pups exhibited lower POMC expression than the lean-prone rats. This genotype difference became more pronounced at adulthood. Overall, the development of hyperphagia-induced obesity in obese-prone JCR rats is related to POMC expression down-regulation in the presence of established NPY overexpression.

  15. The Human ARF Cell Cycle Regulatory Gene Promoter Is a CpG Island Which Can Be Silenced by DNA Methylation and Down-Regulated by Wild-Type p53

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Keith D.; Jones, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    The INK4a/ARF locus encodes two proteins involved in tumor suppression in a manner virtually unique in mammalian cells. Distinct first exons, driven from separate promoters, splice onto a common exon 2 and 3 but utilize different reading frames to produce two completely distinct proteins, both of which play roles in cell cycle control. INK4a, a critical element of the retinoblastoma gene pathway, binds to and inhibits the activities of CDK4 and CDK6, while ARF, a critical element of the p53 pathway, increases the level of functional p53 via interaction with MDM2. Here we clone and characterize the promoter of the human ARF gene and show that it is a CpG island characteristic of a housekeeping gene which contains numerous Sp1 sites. Both ARF and INK4a are coordinately expressed in cells except when their promoter regions become de novo methylated. In one of these situations, ARF transcription could be reactivated by treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, and the reactivation kinetics of ARF and INK4a were found to differ slightly in a cell line in which both genes were silenced by methylation. The ARF promoter was also found to be highly responsive to E2F1 expression, in keeping with previous results at the RNA level. Lastly, transcription from the ARF promoter was down-regulated by wild-type p53 expression, and the magnitude of the effect correlated with the status of the endogenous p53 gene. This finding points to the existence of an autoregulatory feedback loop between p53, MDM2, and ARF, aimed at keeping p53 levels in check. PMID:9774662

  16. 17 beta-estradiol modifies nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase expression and down-regulates its activity in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Cabilla, Jimena P; Díaz, María del Carmen; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Poliandri, Ariel H; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Lasaga, Mercedes; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies showed that 17 beta-estradiol (17 beta-E2) regulates the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway in many tissues. Evidence from our laboratory indicates that 17 beta-E2 disrupts the inhibitory effect of NO on prolactin release, decreasing sGC activity and affecting the cGMP pathway in anterior pituitary gland of adult ovariectomized and estrogenized rats. To ascertain the mechanisms by which 17 beta-E2 affects sGC activity, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of 17 beta-E2 on sGC protein and mRNA expression in anterior pituitary gland from immature female rats. In the present work, we showed that 17 beta-E2 acute treatment exerted opposite effects on the two sGC subunits, increasing alpha1 and decreasing beta1 subunit protein and mRNA expression. This action on sGC protein expression was maximal 6-9 h after 17 beta-E2 administration. 17beta-E2 also caused the same effect on mRNA expression at earlier times. Concomitantly, 17 beta-E2 dramatically decreased sGC activity 6 and 9 h after injection. These effects were specific of 17 beta-E2, because they were not observed with the administration of other steroids such as progesterone and 17 alpha-estradiol. This inhibitory action of 17beta-E2 on sGC also required the activation of estrogen receptor (ER), because treatment with the pure ER antagonist ICI 182,780 completely blocked 17 beta-E2 action. 17 beta-E2 acute treatment caused the same effects on pituitary cells in culture. These results suggest that 17 beta-E2 exerts an acute inhibitory effect on sGC in anterior pituitary gland by down-regulating sGC beta 1 subunit and sGC activity in a specific, ER-dependent manner.

  17. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling down-regulates N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III expression: the implications of two mutually exclusive pathways for regulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingsong; Akama, Ryota; Isaji, Tomoya; Lu, Yingying; Hashimoto, Hirokazu; Kariya, Yoshinobu; Fukuda, Tomohiko; Du, Yuguang; Gu, Jianguo

    2011-02-11

    In previous studies, we reported that N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III) activity and the enzyme product, bisected N-glycans, both were induced in cells cultured under dense conditions in an E-cadherin-dependent manner (Iijima, J., Zhao, Y., Isaji, T., Kameyama, A., Nakaya, S., Wang, X., Ihara, H., Cheng, X., Nakagawa, T., Miyoshi, E., Kondo, A., Narimatsu, H., Taniguchi, N., and Gu, J. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 13038-13046). Furthermore, we found that α-catenin, a component of the E-cadherin-catenin complex, was also required for this induction (Akama, R., Sato, Y., Kariya, Y., Isaji, T., Fukuda, T., Lu, L., Taniguchi, N., Ozawa, M., and Gu, J. (2008) Proteomics 8, 3221-3228). To further explore the molecular mechanism of this regulation, the roles of β-catenin, an essential molecule in both cadherin-mediated cell adhesion and canonical Wnt signaling, were investigated. Unexpectedly, shRNA knockdown of β-catenin resulted in a dramatic increase in GnT-III expression and its product, the bisected N-glycans, which was confirmed by RT-PCR and GnT-III activity and by E4-PHA lectin blot analysis. The induction of GnT-III expression increased bisecting GlcNAc residues on β1 integrin, which led to down-regulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion and cell migration. Immunostaining showed that nuclear localization of β-catenin was greatly suppressed; intriguingly, the knockdown of β-catenin in the nuclei was more effective than that in cell-cell contacts in the knockdown cells, which was also confirmed by Western blot analysis. Stimulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by the addition of exogenous Wnt3a or BIO, a GSK-3β inhibitor, consistently and significantly inhibited GnT-III expression and its products. Conversely, the inhibition of β-catenin translocation into the nuclei increased GnT-III activation. Taken together, the results of the present study are the first to clearly demonstrate that GnT-III expression may be precisely regulated by the

  18. Flooding Impairs Fe Uptake and Distribution in Citrus Due to the Strong Down-Regulation of Genes Involved in Strategy I Responses to Fe Deficiency in Roots

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Quiñones, Ana; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, M. Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    This work determines the ffects of long-term anoxia conditions—21 days—on Strategy I responses to iron (Fe) deficiency in Citrus and its impact on Fe uptake and distribution. The study was carried out in Citrus aurantium L. seedlings grown under flooding conditions (S) and in both the presence (+Fe) and absence of Fe (-Fe) in nutritive solution. The results revealed a strong down-regulation (more than 65%) of genes HA1 and FRO2 coding for enzymes proton-ATPase and Ferric-Chelate Reductase (FC-R), respectively, in –FeS plants when compared with –Fe ones. H+-extrusion and FC-R activity analyses confirmed the genetic results, indicating that flooding stress markedly repressed acidification and reduction responses to Fe deficiency (3.1- and 2.0-fold, respectively). Waterlogging reduced by half Fe concentration in +FeS roots, which led to 30% up-regulation of Fe transporter IRT1, although this effect was unable to improve Fe absorption. Consequently, flooding inhibited 57Fe uptake in +Fe and –Fe seedlings (29.8 and 66.2%, respectively) and 57Fe distribution to aerial part (30.6 and 72.3%, respectively). This evidences that the synergistic action of both enzymes H+-ATPase and FC-R is the preferential regulator of the Fe acquisition system under flooding conditions and, hence, their inactivation implies a limiting factor of citrus in their Fe-deficiency tolerance in waterlogged soils. PMID:25897804

  19. Neuroprotective Effect of Scutellarin on Ischemic Cerebral Injury by Down-Regulating the Expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and AT1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jichun; Zhou, Mingjie; Ren, Huanhuan; Pan, Qunwen; Zheng, Chunli; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Previous studies have demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in brain ischemic injury. In the present study, we investigated whether Scutellarin (Scu) exerts neuroprotective effects by down-regulating the Expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and AT1 receptor in a rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Methods Adult Sprague–Dawley rats were administrated with different dosages of Scu by oral gavage for 7 days and underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Blood pressure was measured 7 days after Scu administration and 24 h after pMCAO surgery by using a noninvasive tail cuff method. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by Laser Doppler perfusion monitor and the neuronal dysfunction was evaluated by analysis of neurological deficits before being sacrificed at 24 h after pMCAO. Histopathological change, cell apoptosis and infarct area were respectively determined by hematoxylin–eosin staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Tissue angiotensin II (Ang II) and ACE activity were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The expression levels of ACE, Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured by Western blot and real-time PCR. ACE inhibitory activity of Scu in vitro was detected by the photometric determination. Results Scu treatment dose-dependently decreased neurological deficit score, infarct area, cell apoptosis and morphological changes induced by pMCAO, which were associated with reductions of ACE and AT1R expression and the levels of Ang II, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in ischemic brains. Scu has a potent ACE inhibiting activity. Conclusion Scu protects brain from acute ischemic injury probably through its inhibitory effect on the ACE/Ang II/AT1 axis, CBF preservation and

  20. Polytherapy with a combination of three repurposed drugs (PXT3003) down-regulates Pmp22 over-expression and improves myelination, axonal and functional parameters in models of CMT1A neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chumakov, Ilya; Milet, Aude; Cholet, Nathalie; Primas, Gwenaël; Boucard, Aurélie; Pereira, Yannick; Graudens, Esther; Mandel, Jonas; Laffaire, Julien; Foucquier, Julie; Glibert, Fabrice; Bertrand, Viviane; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Sereda, Michael W; Vial, Emmanuel; Guedj, Mickaël; Hajj, Rodolphe; Nabirotchkin, Serguei; Cohen, Daniel

    2014-12-10

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is the most common inherited sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. It is caused by PMP22 overexpression which leads to defects of peripheral myelination, loss of long axons, and progressive impairment then disability. There is no treatment available despite observations that monotherapeutic interventions slow progression in rodent models. We thus hypothesized that a polytherapeutic approach using several drugs, previously approved for other diseases, could be beneficial by simultaneously targeting PMP22 and pathways important for myelination and axonal integrity. A combination of drugs for CMT1A polytherapy was chosen from a group of authorised drugs for unrelated diseases using a systems biology approach, followed by pharmacological safety considerations. Testing and proof of synergism of these drugs were performed in a co-culture model of DRG neurons and Schwann cells derived from a Pmp22 transgenic rat model of CMT1A. Their ability to lower Pmp22 mRNA in Schwann cells relative to house-keeping genes or to a second myelin transcript (Mpz) was assessed in a clonal cell line expressing these genes. Finally in vivo efficacy of the combination was tested in two models: CMT1A transgenic rats, and mice that recover from a nerve crush injury, a model to assess neuroprotection and regeneration. Combination of (RS)-baclofen, naltrexone hydrochloride and D-sorbitol, termed PXT3003, improved myelination in the Pmp22 transgenic co-culture cellular model, and moderately down-regulated Pmp22 mRNA expression in Schwannoma cells. In both in vitro systems, the combination of drugs was revealed to possess synergistic effects, which provided the rationale for in vivo clinical testing of rodent models. In Pmp22 transgenic CMT1A rats, PXT3003 down-regulated the Pmp22 to Mpz mRNA ratio, improved myelination of small fibres, increased nerve conduction and ameliorated the clinical phenotype. PXT3003 also improved axonal regeneration and

  1. Down-regulation of MHC Class I by the Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) UL49.5 Gene Product Mildly Affects Virulence in a Haplotype-specific Fashion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease is a devastating neoplastic disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus 2 or Marek’s disease virus (MDV), which is characterized by massive visceral tumors, immune suppression, neurologic syndromes, and peracute deaths. It has been reported that MDV down-regulates surface expre...

  2. Down-regulation of Leucaena leucocephala cinnamoyl CoA reductase (LlCCR) gene induces significant changes in phenotype, soluble phenolic pools and lignin in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Prashant, S; Srilakshmi Sunita, M; Pramod, S; Gupta, Ranadheer K; Anil Kumar, S; Rao Karumanchi, S; Rawal, S K; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2011-12-01

    cDNA and genomic clones of cinnamoyl CoA reductase measuring 1011 and 2992 bp were isolated from a leguminous pulpwood tree Leucaena leucocephala, named as LlCCR. The cDNA exhibited 80-85% homology both at the nucleotide and amino acid levels with other known sequences. The genomic sequence contained five exons and four introns. Sense and antisense constructs of LlCCR were introduced in tobacco plants to up and down-regulate this key enzyme of lignification. The primary transformants showed a good correlation between CCR transcript levels and its activity. Most of the CCR down-regulated lines displayed stunted growth and development, wrinkled leaves and delayed senescence. These lines accumulated unusual phenolics like ferulic and sinapic acids in cell wall. Histochemical staining suggested reduction in aldehyde units and increased syringyl over guaiacyl (S/G) ratio of lignin. Anatomical studies showed thin walled, elongated xylem fibres, collapsed vessels with drastic reduction of secondary xylem. The transmission electron microscopic studies revealed modification of ultrastructure and topochemical distribution of wall polysaccharides and lignin in the xylem fibres. CCR down-regulated lines showed increased thickness of secondary wall layers and poor lignification of S2 and S3 wall layers. The severely down-regulated line AS17 exhibited 24.7% reduction of Klason lignin with an increase of 15% holocellulose content. Contrarily, the CCR up-regulated lines exhibited robust growth, development and significant increase in lignin content. The altered lignin profiles observed in transgenic tobacco lines support a role for CCR down-regulation in improving wood properties of L. leucocephala exclusively used in the pulp and paper industry of India.

  3. Down-Regulation of Hippocampal Genes Regulating Dopaminergic, GABAergic, and Glutamatergic Function Following Combined Neonatal Phencyclidine and Post-Weaning Social Isolation of Rats as a Neurodevelopmental Model for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Philip LR; Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Alexander, Stephen PH

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dysfunction of dopaminergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic function underlies many core symptoms of schizophrenia. Combined neonatal injection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), and post-weaning social isolation of rats produces a behavioral syndrome with translational relevance to several core symptoms of schizophrenia. This study uses DNA microarray to characterize alterations in hippocampal neurotransmitter-related gene expression and examines the ability of the sodium channel blocker, lamotrigine, to reverse behavioral changes in this model. Methods: Fifty-four male Lister-hooded rat pups either received phencyclidine (PCP, 10mg/kg, s.c.) on post-natal days (PND) 7, 9, and 11 before being weaned on PND 23 into separate cages (isolation; PCP-SI; n = 31) or received vehicle injection and group-housing (2–4 per cage; V-GH; n = 23) from weaning. The effect of lamotrigine on locomotor activity, novel object recognition, and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle was examined (PND 60–75) and drug-free hippocampal gene expression on PND 70. Results: Acute lamotrigine (10–15mg/kg i.p.) reversed the hyperactivity and novel object recognition impairment induced by PCP-SI but had no effect on the prepulse inhibition deficit. Microarray revealed small but significant down-regulation of hippocampal genes involved in glutamate metabolism, dopamine neurotransmission, and GABA receptor signaling and in specific schizophrenia-linked genes, including parvalbumin (PVALB) and GAD67, in PCP-SI rats, which resemble changes reported in schizophrenia. Conclusions: Findings indicate that alterations in dopamine neurotransmission, glutamate metabolism, and GABA signaling may contribute to some of the behavioral deficits observed following PCP-SI, and that lamotrigine may have some utility as an adjunctive therapy to improve certain cognitive deficits symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:27382048

  4. Quinacrine induces apoptosis in human leukemia K562 cells via p38 MAPK-elicited BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Changchien, Jung-Jung; Chen, Ying-Jung; Huang, Chia-Hui; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Lin, Shinne-Ren; Chang, Long-Sen

    2015-04-01

    Although previous studies have revealed the anti-cancer activity of quinacrine, its effect on leukemia is not clearly resolved. We sought to explore the cytotoxic effect and mechanism of quinacrine action in human leukemia K562 cells. Quinacrine induced K562 cell apoptosis accompanied with ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, and down-regulation of BCL2L1 and BCL2. Upon exposure to quinacrine, ROS-mediated p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation were observed in K562 cells. Quinacrine-induced cell death and mitochondrial depolarization were suppressed by the p38MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and constitutively active MEK1 over-expression. Activation of p38 MAPK was shown to promote BCL2 degradation. Further, ERK inactivation suppressed c-Jun-mediated transcriptional expression of BCL2L1. Over-expression of BCL2L1 and BCL2 attenuated quinacrine-evoked mitochondrial depolarization and rescued the viability of quinacrine-treated cells. Taken together, our data indicate that quinacrine-induced K562 cell apoptosis is mediated through mitochondrial alterations triggered by p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression. - Highlights: • Quinacrine induces K562 cell apoptosis via down-regulation of BCL2 and BCL2L1. • Quinacrine induces p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation in K562 cells. • Quinacrine elicits p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation. • Quinacrine suppresses ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression.

  5. Antitumor effect of BPR-DC-2, a novel synthetic cyclic cyanoguanidine derivative, involving the inhibition of MDR-1 expression and down-regulation of p-AKT and PARP-1 in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Lai; Huang, Chia-Hsin; Lin, Chih-Chan; Huang, Zih-Ning; Chern, Jyh-Haur; Lien, Hsiao-Yin; Wu, Yong-Yi; Cheng, Chia-Hui; Chang, Chia-Yu; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2011-04-01

    In our previous study, a series of novel cyclic cyanoguanidine compounds, eg. 5-substituted 2-cyanoimino-4-imidazodinone and 2-cyanoimino-4- pyrimidinone derivatives have been successfully synthesized and showed remarkable cytotoxicity in several cancer cell lines. In this present study, it is our aim to screen more potential candidates among the cyclic pyridyl cyanoguanidine compounds (BPR-DC-1, 2, 3) by in vitro and in vivo studies for the therapy of lung cancer, alternatively. Our results showed that BPR-DC-2 significantly inhibited proliferation of tumor cells with an IC50 of 3.60 ± 1.27 and 14.81 ± 4.23 μM in human lung carcinoma cells, H69 and A549, respectively by the MTT assay at 48 hr; BPR-DC-2 also obviously suppressed the tumor proliferation and MDR-1 gene expression, even induced cell apoptosis in the ex vivo histocultured lung tumor. We further demonstrated that, in the nude mouse model of metastatic lung cancer, BPR-DC-2 could diminish the tumor mass, retard the progression of metastasis, and prolong the survival time. In addition, it was found that BPR-DC-2 exerted its anti-tumor effects through the inhibition of MDR-1 gene expression and down-regulation of tumor anti-apoptosis signals (activated p-AKT and over-expression of PARP-1) by western blotting analysis. In conclusion, in this present study we have demonstrated that BPR-DC-2, derived from a series of novel synthetic cyclic cyanoguanidine compounds, has proved its potential as an anti-tumor drug candidate in treating lung cancer.

  6. Diarctigenin, a lignan constituent from Arctium lappa, down-regulated zymosan-induced transcription of inflammatory genes through suppression of DNA binding ability of nuclear factor-kappaB in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hak; Hong, Seong Su; Kwon, Soon Woo; Lee, Hwa Young; Sung, Hyeran; Lee, In-Jeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Song, Sukgil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Chung, Daehyun; Ahn, Byeongwoo; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2008-11-01

    Diarctigenin was previously isolated as an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages from the seeds of Arctium lappa used as an alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. However, little is known about the molecular basis of these effects. Here, we demonstrated that diarctigenin inhibited the production of NO, prostaglandin E(2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 with IC(50) values of 6 to 12 miciroM in zymosan- or lipopolysaccharide-(LPS) activated macrophages. Diarctigenin attenuated zymosan-induced mRNA synthesis of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and also inhibited promoter activities of iNOS and cytokine genes in the cells. Because nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB plays a pivotal role in inflammatory gene transcription, we next investigated the effect of diarctigenin on NF-kappaB activation. Diarctigenin inhibited the transcriptional activity and DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB in zymosan-activated macrophages but did not affect the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory kappaB (IkappaB) proteins. Moreover, diarctigenin suppressed expression vector NF-kappaB p65-elicited NF-kappaB activation and also iNOS promoter activity, indicating that the compound could directly target an NF-kappa-activating signal cascade downstream of IkappaB degradation and inhibit NF-kappaB-regulated iNOS expression. Diarctigenin also inhibited the in vitro DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB but did not affect the nuclear import of NF-kappaB p65 in the cells. Taken together, diarctigenin down-regulated zymosan- or LPS-induced inflammatory gene transcription in macrophages, which was due to direct inhibition of the DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB. Finally, this study provides a pharmacological potential of diarctigenin in the NF-kappaB-associated inflammatory disorders.

  7. Differential Gene Expression in Human Cerebrovascular Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Shenkar, Robert; Elliott, J. Paul; Diener, Katrina; Gault, Judith; Hu, Ling-Jia; Cohrs, Randall J.; Phang, Tzulip; Hunter, Lawrence; Breeze, Robert E.; Awad, Issam A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to identify genes with differential expression in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and control superficial temporal arteries (STAs) and to confirm differential expression of genes previously implicated in the pathobiology of these lesions. METHODS Total ribonucleic acid was isolated from four CCM, four AVM, and three STA surgical specimens and used to quantify lesion-specific messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels on human gene arrays. Data were analyzed with the use of two separate methodologies: gene discovery and confirmation analysis. RESULTS The gene discovery method identified 42 genes that were significantly up-regulated and 36 genes that were significantly down-regulated in CCMs as compared with AVMs and STAs (P = 0.006). Similarly, 48 genes were significantly up-regulated and 59 genes were significantly down-regulated in AVMs as compared with CCMs and STAs (P = 0.006). The confirmation analysis showed significant differential expression (P < 0.05) in 11 of 15 genes (angiogenesis factors, receptors, and structural proteins) that previously had been reported to be expressed differentially in CCMs and AVMs in immunohistochemical analysis. CONCLUSION We identify numerous genes that are differentially expressed in CCMs and AVMs and correlate expression with the immunohistochemistry of genes implicated in cerebrovascular malformations. In future efforts, we will aim to confirm candidate genes specifically related to the pathobiology of cerebrovascular malformations and determine their biological systems and mechanistic relevance. PMID:12535382

  8. Afatinib down-regulates MCL-1 expression through the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 axis and leads to apoptosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xianfang; Lv, Zhenghua; Zou, Jidong; Liu, Xiuxiu; Ma, Juke; Wang, Jinhua; Sa, Na; Jing, Peihang; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is the second generation of irreversible inhibitor of EGFR, HER2 and HER4, which has shown encouraging phase II and III clinical outcomes in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the molecular mechanism of afatinib-induced apoptosis in HNSCC is poorly understood. In the present investigation, we discovered that down-regulation of MCL-1, an anti-apoptotic member of BCL-2 family, was responsible for afatinib-triggered apoptosis. And the inactivation of AKT-mTOR signaling caused by afatinib lead to translational inhibition of MCL-1 expression. As a crucial branch of ER stress, PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 axis was also stimulated in HNSCC cells after afatinib incubation. Silencing either eIF2α or ATF4 by siRNA transfection relieved afatinib-caused suppression of AKT-mTOR activity, attenuating MCL-1 down-regulation as well as subsequent apoptosis. Collectively, the results show that afatinib hampers AKT-mTOR activation by stimulating PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signaling pathway, giving rise to MCL-1 down-regulation mediated apoptosis in HNSCC cells. Therefore, our findings reveal the elaborate molecular network of afatinib-induced apoptosis in HNSCC, which would provide substantial theoretical underpinnings for afatinib clinical application and highlight its promising prospect in HNSCC treatment. PMID:27648360

  9. Overexpressed microRNA-182 promotes proliferation and invasion in prostate cancer PC-3 cells by down-regulating N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ranlu; Li, Jing; Teng, Zhigang; Zhang, Zhihong; Xu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs, non-coding 20-22 nucleotide single-stranded RNAs, result in translational repression or degradation and gene silencing of their target genes, and significantly contribute to the regulation of gene expression. In the current study, we report that miR-182 expression was significantly upregulated in prostate cancer tissues and four cell lines, compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues and normal prostatic epithelial (RWPE-1) cells. Ectopic overexpression of miR-182 significantly promotes the proliferation, increases the invasion, promotes the G1/S cell cycle transition and reduces early apotosis of PC-3 cells, while suppression of miR-182 decreased the proliferation and invasion, inhibits the G1/S cell cycle transition and increase early apotosis of PC-3 cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that miR-182 could downregulate expression of NDRG1 by directly targeting the NDRG1 3'-untranslated region. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-182 plays an important role in the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells by directly suppressing the tumor supressor gene NDRG1. We uncovered a new epigenetic regulation of NDRG1.

  10. Down-regulation of coasy, the gene associated with NBIA-VI, reduces Bmp signaling, perturbs dorso-ventral patterning and alters neuronal development in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Deepak; Zizioli, Daniela; Tiso, Natascia; Facchinello, Nicola; Vezzoli, Sara; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Memo, Maurizio; Monti, Eugenio; Borsani, Giuseppe; Finazzi, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in Pantothenate kinase 2 and Coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (COASY), genes involved in CoA biosynthesis, are associated with rare neurodegenerative disorders with brain iron accumulation. We showed that zebrafish pank2 gene plays an essential role in brain and vasculature development. Now we extended our study to coasy. The gene has high level of sequence identity with the human ortholog and is ubiquitously expressed from the earliest stages of development. The abrogation of its expression led to strong reduction of CoA content, high lethality and a phenotype resembling to that of dorsalized mutants. Lower doses of morpholino resulted in a milder phenotype, with evident perturbation in neurogenesis and formation of vascular arborization; the dorso-ventral patterning was severely affected, the expression of bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) receptors and activity were decreased, while cell death increased. These features specifically correlated with the block in CoA biosynthesis and were rescued by the addition of CoA to fish water and the overexpression of the human wild-type, but not mutant gene. These results confirm the absolute requirement for adequate levels of CoA for proper neural and vascular development in zebrafish and point to the Bmp pathway as a possible molecular connection underlining the observed phenotype. PMID:27892483

  11. Down-regulation of coasy, the gene associated with NBIA-VI, reduces Bmp signaling, perturbs dorso-ventral patterning and alters neuronal development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Deepak; Zizioli, Daniela; Tiso, Natascia; Facchinello, Nicola; Vezzoli, Sara; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Memo, Maurizio; Monti, Eugenio; Borsani, Giuseppe; Finazzi, Dario

    2016-11-28

    Mutations in Pantothenate kinase 2 and Coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (COASY), genes involved in CoA biosynthesis, are associated with rare neurodegenerative disorders with brain iron accumulation. We showed that zebrafish pank2 gene plays an essential role in brain and vasculature development. Now we extended our study to coasy. The gene has high level of sequence identity with the human ortholog and is ubiquitously expressed from the earliest stages of development. The abrogation of its expression led to strong reduction of CoA content, high lethality and a phenotype resembling to that of dorsalized mutants. Lower doses of morpholino resulted in a milder phenotype, with evident perturbation in neurogenesis and formation of vascular arborization; the dorso-ventral patterning was severely affected, the expression of bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) receptors and activity were decreased, while cell death increased. These features specifically correlated with the block in CoA biosynthesis and were rescued by the addition of CoA to fish water and the overexpression of the human wild-type, but not mutant gene. These results confirm the absolute requirement for adequate levels of CoA for proper neural and vascular development in zebrafish and point to the Bmp pathway as a possible molecular connection underlining the observed phenotype.

  12. Deletion of the Small RNA Chaperone Protein Hfq down Regulates Genes Related to Virulence and Confers Protection against Wild-Type Brucella Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shuangshuang; Zhong, Zhijun; Ke, Yuehua; Yang, Mingjuan; Xu, Xiaoyang; Ren, Hang; An, Chang; Yuan, Jiuyun; Yu, Jiuxuan; Xu, Jie; Qiu, Yefeng; Shi, Yanchun; Wang, Yufei; Peng, Guangneng; Chen, Zeliang

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic epidemics worldwide. Brucella, the etiological pathogen of brucellosis, has unique virulence characteristics, including the ability to survive within the host cell. Hfq is a bacterial chaperone protein that is involved in the survival of the pathogen under stress conditions. Moreover, hfq affects the expression of a large number of target genes. In the present study, we characterized the expression and regulatory patterns of the target genes of Hfq during brucellosis. The results revealed that hfq expression is highly induced in macrophages at the early infection stage and at the late stage of mouse infection. Several genes related to virulence, including omp25, omp31, vjbR, htrA, gntR, and dnaK, were found to be regulated by hfq during infection in BALB/c mice. Gene expression and cytokine secretion analysis revealed that an hfq-deletion mutant induced different cytokine profiles compared with that induced by 16M. Infection with the hfq-deletion mutant induced protective immune responses against 16M challenge. Together, these results suggest that hfq is induced during infection and its deletion results in significant attenuation which affects the host immune response caused by Brucella infection. By regulating genes related to virulence, hfq promotes the virulence of Brucella. The unique characteristics of the hfq-deletion mutant, including its decreased virulence and the ability to induce protective immune response upon infection, suggest that it represents an attractive candidate for the design of a live attenuated vaccine against Brucella. PMID:26834720

  13. Down-regulation of BdBRI1, a putative brassinosteroid receptor gene produces a dwarf phenotype with enhanced drought tolerance in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ying; Yin, Yanhai; Fei, Shuizhang

    2015-05-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in plant growth, development and responses to a range of environmental cues. Although the mechanism of how BRs regulate growth and development is well-understood in Arabidopsis, the effect of BRs on stress tolerance, particularly drought tolerance remains unknown. We isolated a BRI1 (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1) homologous gene, BdBRI1 from Brachypodium distachyon, a model for temperate grasses and cereals, created and characterized RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown mutants for BdBRI1 in Brachypodium. The loss-of-function BdBRI1-RNAi mutants exhibited reduced plant height, shortened internodes, narrow and short leaf, and reduced expression of BR signaling genes, BdBES1, BdBZR1, BdBLE2, and enhanced expression of BR biosynthesis genes BdD2, BdCPD and BdDWF4. More importantly, BdBRI1 RNAi mutants exhibited enhanced drought tolerance, accompanied by highly elevated expression of drought-responsive genes, BdP5CS, BdCOR47/BdRD17, together with BdERD1 and BdRD26, two putative targets of the transcription factors BES1 and BZR1 that are key components of the BR signaling pathway. Our results suggest that BR signaling and biosynthesis are largely conserved among Arabidopsis, rice and Brachypodium, and that BR signaling plays an important role in drought tolerance by directly regulating expression of key drought-responsive genes. The effect of BR biosynthesis or crosstalks between BR and other hormones or components of stress signaling pathways on drought tolerance is discussed.

  14. Down-regulation of a chitin synthase a gene by RNA interference enhances pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana ANU1 against Spodoptera exigua (HÜBNER).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Bok; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Youngjin

    2017-02-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzymatic component, which is required for chitin formation in the cuticles and cuticular linings of other tissues in insects. CHSs have been divided into two classes, classes A and B, based on their amino acid sequence similarities and functions. Class A CHS (CHS-A) is specifically expressed in the epidermis and related ectodermal cells such as tracheal cells, while class B CHS (CHS-B) is expressed in gut epithelial cells that produce peritrophic matrices. In this study, we cloned the CHS-A gene from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (SeCHS-A). The SeCHS-A contains an open reading frame of 4,698 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 1,565 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of approximately 177.8 kDa. The SeCHS-A mRNA was expressed in all developmental stages and specifically in the epidermis and tracheae tissue by quantitative real-time-PCR analysis. Expression of SeCHS-A gene was suppressed by feeding double-stranded RNA (dsCHS-A, 400 ng/larva) in the third instar larvae of S. exigua. Suppression of the SeCHS-A gene expression significantly increased 35% of mortality on pupation of S. exigua. Also, the third instar larvae fed with dsCHS-A significantly increased susceptibility to entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana ANU1 at 3 days after treatment. These results suggest that the SeCHS-A gene plays an important role in development of S. exigua and RNA interference may apply to effective pest control with B. bassiana.

  15. Endothelin-1-induced down-regulation of NaV1.7 expression in adrenal chromaffin cells: attenuation of catecholamine secretion and tau dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Takayuki; Yanagita, Toshihiko; Maruta, Toyoaki; Sugita, Chihiro; Satoh, Shinya; Kanai, Tasuku; Wada, Akihiko; Murakami, Manabu

    2013-04-02

    Endothelin-1 and voltage-dependent sodium channels are involved in control and suppression of neuropathological factors, which contribute to sculpting the neuronal network. We previously demonstrated that veratridine-induced NaV1.7 sodium channel activation caused intracellular calcium elevation, catecholamine secretion and tau dephosphorylation in adrenal chromaffin cells. The aim of this study was to examine whether endothelin-1 could modulate NaV1.7. Our results indicated that endothelin-1 decreased the protein level of NaV1.7 and the veratridine-induced increase in intracellular calcium. In addition, it also abolished the veratridine-induced dephosphorylation of tau and the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. These findings suggest that the endothelin-1-induced down-regulation of NaV1.7 diminishes NaV1.7-related catecholamine secretion and dephosphorylation of tau.

  16. Inhibition of PCSK9 transcription by berberine involves down-regulation of hepatic HNF1α protein expression through the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bin; Li, Hai; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Cao, Aiqin; Liu, Jingwen

    2015-02-13

    Our previous in vitro studies have identified hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) as an obligated trans-activator for PCSK9 gene expression and demonstrated its functional involvement in the suppression of PCSK9 expression by berberine (BBR), a natural cholesterol-lowering compound. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of BBR on HNF1α-mediated PCSK9 transcription. Administration of BBR to hyperlipidemic mice and hamsters lowered circulating PCSK9 concentrations and hepatic PCSK9 mRNA levels without affecting the gene expression of HNF1α. However, hepatic HNF1α protein levels were markedly reduced in BBR-treated animals as compared with the control. Using HepG2 cells as a model system, we obtained evidence that BBR treatment let to accelerated degradation of HNF1α protein. By applying inhibitors to selectively block the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy-lysosomal pathway, we show that HNF1α protein content in HepG2 cells was not affected by bafilomycin A1 treatment, but it was dose-dependently increased by UPS inhibitors bortezomib and MG132. Bortezomib treatment elevated HNF1α and PCSK9 cellular levels with concomitant reductions of LDL receptor protein. Moreover, HNF1α protein displayed a multiubiquitination ladder pattern in cells treated with BBR or overexpressing ubiquitin. By expressing GFP-HNF1α fusion protein in cells, we observed that blocking UPS resulted in accumulation of GFP-HNF1α in cytoplasm. Importantly, we show that the BBR reducing effects on HNF1α protein and PCSK9 gene transcription can be eradicated by proteasome inhibitors. Altogether, our studies using BBR as a probe uncovered a new aspect of PCSK9 regulation by ubiquitin-induced proteasomal degradation of HNF1α.

  17. Resveratrol and its methoxy derivatives modulate the expression of estrogen metabolism enzymes in breast epithelial cells by AhR down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Licznerska, Barbara; Szaefer, Hanna; Wierzchowski, Marcin; Sobierajska, Hanna; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2017-01-01

    Our earlier studies have shown that compared to resveratrol, its analogs with ortho-methoxy substituents exert stronger antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity. Since estrogens are considered the major risk factors of breast carcinogenesis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3,4,2'-trimethoxy (3MS), 3,4,2',4'-tetramethoxy (4MS), and 3,4,2',4',6'-pentamethoxy (5MS) trans-stilbenes on the constitutive expression of the enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism, as well as receptors: AhR and HER2 in breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. The results showed different effect of resveratrol and its methoxy derivatives on the expression of genes encoding key enzymes of estrogen synthesis and catabolism. Resveratrol at the doses of 1 and 5 µmol/L increased the level of CYP19 transcript and protein level, while 5MS reduced mRNA transcript of both CYP19 and STS genes. Resveratrol and all its derivatives reduced also SULT1E1 mRNA transcript level. The reduced expression of AhR, CYP1A1, and 1B1 was also found as a result of treatment with these compounds. The most significant changes were found in the case of AhR. The most potent inhibitor of CYP1A1 and 1B1 genes expression was 5MS, which reduced the levels of mRNA transcript and protein of both CYPs from 31 to 89% of the initial levels. These results indicate that methoxy derivatives of resveratrol might be efficient modulators of estrogen metabolism. Moreover, the number of methoxy groups introduced to stilbene structure may play a certain role in this effect.

  18. MicroRNA-182-5p promotes cell invasion and proliferation by down regulating FOXF2, RECK and MTSS1 genes in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Ueno, Koji; Shahryari, Varahram; Deng, Guoren; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Hinoda, Yuji; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2013-01-01

    Recently miR-182 has been reported to be over-expressed in prostate cancer (PC) tissues, however detailed functional analysis of miR-182-5p has not been carried out. The purpose of this study was to: 1. analyze the function of miR-182-5p in prostate cancer, 2. assess its usefulness as a tumor marker, 3. identify miR-182-5p target genes in PC, 4. investigate the potential for miR-182-5p inhibitor to be used in PC treatment. Initially we found that miR-182-5p expression was significantly higher in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines compared to normal prostate tissues and cells. Moreover high miR-182-5p expression was associated with shorter overall survival in PC patients. To study the functional significance of miR-182-5p, we knocked down miR-182-5p with miR-182-5p inhibitor. After miR-182-5p knock-down, prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion were decreased. We identified FOXF2, RECK and MTSS1 as potential target genes of miR-182-5p using several algorithms which was confirmed by 3'UTR luciferase assay and Western analysis. Knock-down of miR-182-5p also significantly decreased in vivo prostate tumor growth. In conclusion this is the first report documenting that over-expression of miR-182-5p is associated with prostate cancer progression and potentially useful as a prognostic biomarker. Also knock down of miR-182-5p in order to increase expression of tumor suppressor genes FOXF2, RECK and MTSS1 may be of therapeutic benefit in prostate cancer treatment.

  19. MicroRNA-182-5p Promotes Cell Invasion and Proliferation by Down Regulating FOXF2, RECK and MTSS1 Genes in Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Ueno, Koji; Shahryari, Varahram; Deng, Guoren; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Hinoda, Yuji; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2013-01-01

    Recently miR-182 has been reported to be over-expressed in prostate cancer (PC) tissues, however detailed functional analysis of miR-182-5p has not been carried out. The purpose of this study was to: 1. analyze the function of miR-182-5p in prostate cancer, 2. assess its usefulness as a tumor marker, 3. identify miR-182-5p target genes in PC, 4. investigate the potential for miR-182-5p inhibitor to be used in PC treatment. Initially we found that miR-182-5p expression was significantly higher in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines compared to normal prostate tissues and cells. Moreover high miR-182-5p expression was associated with shorter overall survival in PC patients. To study the functional significance of miR-182-5p, we knocked down miR-182-5p with miR-182-5p inhibitor. After miR-182-5p knock-down, prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion were decreased. We identified FOXF2, RECK and MTSS1 as potential target genes of miR-182-5p using several algorithms which was confirmed by 3’UTR luciferase assay and Western analysis. Knock-down of miR-182-5p also significantly decreased in vivo prostate tumor growth. In conclusion this is the first report documenting that over-expression of miR-182-5p is associated with prostate cancer progression and potentially useful as a prognostic biomarker. Also knock down of miR-182-5p in order to increase expression of tumor suppressor genes FOXF2, RECK and MTSS1 may be of therapeutic benefit in prostate cancer treatment. PMID:23383207

  20. Down-regulation of CXCR4 expression by tamoxifen is associated with DNA methyltransferase 3B up-regulation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kubarek, Ł; Kozłowska, A; Przybylski, M; Lianeri, M; Jagodzinski, P P

    2009-09-01

    The CXCR4 chemokine receptor is a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor present on the surface of various cells including cancer cells. The CXCR4 receptor contributes to the induction of several intracellular signalling pathways that enhance survival, proliferation, and migration of malignant cells. We observed that tamoxifen (Tam) reduced the CXCR4 transcript and protein levels in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. However, we did not see a Tam effect on CXCR4 transcript and protein levels in MCF-7(LVMT3B) cells with RNA interference-mediated knockdown of DNMT3B. We also observed that Tam significantly increased, for several hours, the expression of enzymatically active DNMT3B splice variants in MCF-7 cells. However, there was no Tam effect on these DNMT3B splice variants' expression in MCF-7(LVMT3B) cells. Bisulfite sequencing suggests that Tam may reduce CXCR4 expression via increased methylation of cytosine in the cytosine-guanosine (CpG) dinucleotide island of the CXCR4 promoter of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Our findings suggest that Tam induces an increase in DNMT3B expression that is associated with the increase of CpG dinucleotide methylation in the CXCR4 promoter and significant reduction of CXCR4 gene expression in MCF-7 cells.

  1. Distal-less homeobox 5 inhibits adipogenic differentiation through the down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Lim; Woo, Kyung Mi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Distal-less homeobox 5 (Dlx5) is a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation that contains a homeobox domain. Because there are possible reciprocal relationships between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), we examined the regulatory role of Dlx5 in adipogenic differentiation in this study. Adipogenic stimuli suppressed the expression levels of Dlx5 mRNA in mouse bone marrow stromal cells. Over-expression of Dlx5 inhibited adipogenic differentiation in human bone marrow MSCs and 3T3-L1 preadipocytic cells whereas knockdown of Dlx5 enhanced adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Over-expression of Dlx5 suppressed the expression of adipogenic marker genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Dlx5-mediated suppression of adipogenic differentiation was overcome by over-expression of PPARγ but not by that of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) or C/EBPα. Dlx5 decreased the transcriptional activity of CREB and C/EBPα in a dose-dependent manner. Dlx5 directly bound to CREB and C/EBPα and prevented them from binding to and subsequently transactivating the PPARγ promoter. These results suggest that Dlx5 plays an important regulatory role in fate determination of bone marrow MSCs toward the osteoblast lineage through the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation as well as the direct stimulation of osteoblast differentiation.

  2. Feeding a High Concentrate Diet Down-Regulates Expression of ACACA, LPL and SCD and Modifies Milk Composition in Lactating Goats.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Xu, Tianle; Zhao, Huajian; Zhang, Kai; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD) group and low concentrate diet (LCD) group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACACA, ACCα) involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk.

  3. Costunolide inhibits interleukin-1beta expression by down-regulation of AP-1 and MAPK activity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong Soon; Yoon, Yeo Dae; Lee, Ki Hoon; Park, Song-Kyu; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2004-01-02

    Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the root of Saussurea lappa Clarke, is known to have a variety of biological activities, including anti-carcinogenic and anti-fungal activities. Here, we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of costunolide on the protein and mRNA expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We also showed that costunolide suppressed the transcriptional activity of the IL-1beta promoter. Moreover, costunolide inhibited the activity of AP-1 transcription factor, and the phosphorylation of MAPKs, including SAPK/JNK and p38 MAP kinase. The inhibitory effect of costunolide on AP-1 activity was also confirmed by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Additionally, specific inhibitors of SAPK/JNK and p38 MAP kinase, SP600125 and SB203580, also suppressed LPS-induced increase in IL-1beta gene expression and AP-1 DNA binding. Taken together, these results demonstrate that costunolide inhibits IL-1beta gene expression by blocking the activation of MAPKs and DNA binding of AP-1 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

  4. Down-Regulation of Glycosyl Transferase Genes in Streptococcus Mutans by Punica Granatum L. Flower and Rhus Coriaria L. Fruit Water Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Vahid-Dastjerdi, Elahe; Monadi, Elham; Khalighi, Hamid Reza; Torshabi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    In our previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effects of Punica granatum L. flower and Rhus coriaria L. fruit water extracts on dental plaque accumulation by several bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), on orthodontic wire by in-vitro assays. In this study, the anti-cariogenic properties of the extracts were evaluated by assessing their effects on expression of glycosyltransferase (gtf) genes, which are responsible for initial biofilm formation by S. mutans. In this study, the effect of herbal extracts on expression of gtfB, C (encoding enzymes that produce water-insoluble glucans) and D (encoding enzymes that produce water-soluble glucans) genes in S. mutans growing in planktonic state was evaluated quantitatively by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of understudied herbal water extracts significantly suppressed gtfB, C and D gene expression by 85.3 ± 7.5%, 33.3 ± 6.4% and 25 ± 14%, respectively for Punica granatum L. extract and 73.4 ± 7.3%, 93.8 ± 2.7% and 59.3 ± 9.8%, respectively for Rhus coriaria L. extract compared to the non-treated control group (P < 0.05). Also, the real-rime PCR showed that the inhibitory effect of Rhus coriaria L. extract on gtfC and D was significantly greater (10.8 and 1.8 fold, respectively) than that of Punica granatum L. extract. These findings suggest that Punica granatum L. and especially Rhus coriaria L. maybe used as novel, natural antiplaque agents since they inhibit specific genes associated with bacterial biofilm formation without necessarily affecting the growth of oral bacteria. PMID:27642322

  5. MicroRNA-21 promotes cell proliferation and down-regulates the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Qing; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2009-10-23

    MicroRNAs are involved in cancer-related processes. The microRNA-21(miR-21) has been identified as the only miRNA over-expressed in a wide variety of cancers, including cervical cancer. However, the function of miR-21 is unknown in cervical carcinomas. In this study, we found that the inhibition of miR-21 in HeLa cervical cancer cells caused profound suppression of cell proliferation, and up-regulated the expression of the tumor suppressor gene PDCD4. We also provide direct evidence that PDCD4-3'UTR is a functional target of miR-21 and that the 18 bp putative target site can function as the sole regulatory element in HeLa cells. These results suggest that miR-21 may play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of cervical cancer and may serve as a target for effective therapies.

  6. Eupafolin enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through cathepsin S-induced down-regulation of Mcl-1 expression and AMPK-mediated Bim up-regulation in renal carcinoma Caki cells

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seon Min; Seo, Bo Ram; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Eupafolin, a flavone found in Artemisia princeps, has been reported for its anti-tumor activity in several cancer cells. In this study, we examined whether eupafolin could sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We found that eupafolin alone and TRAIL alone had no effect on apoptosis. However, combined treatment with eupafolin and TRAIL markedly induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma (Caki) cells, glioma cells (U251MG), and prostate cancer cells (DU145), but not normal cells [mesangial cells (MC) and normal mouse kidney cells (TCMK-1)]. Eupafolin induced down-regulation of Mcl-1 expression at the post-translational levels in cathepsin S-dependent manner, and over-expression of Mcl-1 markedly blocked apoptosis induced by combined treatment with eupafolin and TRAIL. In addition, eupafolin increased Bim expression at the post-translational levels via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated inhibition of proteasome activity. Knock-down of Bim expression by siRNA inhibited eupafolin plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, combined treatment with eupafolin and TRAIL reduced tumor growth in xenograft models. Taken together, these results suggest that eupafolin enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via down-regulation of Mcl-1 and up-regulation of Bim in renal carcinoma Caki cells. PMID:27582546

  7. SAMHD1 is down regulated in lung cancer by methylation and inhibits tumor cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jia-lei; Lu, Fan-zhen; Shen, Xiao-Yong; Wu, Yun; Zhao, Li-ting

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SAMHD1 expression level is down regulated in lung adenocarcinoma. • The promoter of SAMHD1 is methylated in lung adenocarcinoma. • Over expression of SAMHD1 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells. - Abstract: The function of dNTP hydrolase SAMHD1 as a viral restriction factor to inhibit the replication of several viruses in human immune cells was well established. However, its regulation and function in lung cancer have been elusive. Here, we report that SAMHD1 is down regulated both on protein and mRNA levels in lung adenocarcinoma compared to adjacent normal tissue. We also found that SAMHD1 promoter is highly methylated in lung adenocarcinoma, which may inhibit its gene expression. Furthermore, over expression of the SAMHD1 reduces dNTP level and inhibits the proliferation of lung tumor cells. These results reveal the regulation and function of SAMHD1 in lung cancer, which is important for the proliferation of lung tumor cells.

  8. Gestational diabetes leads to down-regulation of CDK4-pRB-E2F1 pathway genes in pancreatic islets of rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Zahra; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Saeidi, Mohsen; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): The link between a hyperglycemic intrauterine environment and the development of diabetes later in life has been observed in offspring exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon are still not clear. Reduced β-cells mass is a determinant in the development of diabetes (type 1 and type 2 diabetes). Some recent studies have provided evidence that the CDK4-pRB-E2F1 regulatory pathway is involved in β-cells proliferation. Therefore, we postulated that GDM exposure impacts the offspring’s β-cells by disruption in the CDK4-pRB-E2F1 pathway. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar rats were randomly allocated in control and diabetic group. The experimental group received 40 mg/kg/body weight of streptozotocin (STZ) on day zero of gestation. After delivery, diabetic offspring of GDM mothers and control dams at the age of 15 week were randomly scarified and pancreases were harvested. Langerhans islets of diabetic and control groups were digested by collagenase digestion technique. After RNA extraction, we investigated the expressions of the kir 6.2 and CDK4-pRB-E2F1 pathway genes by quantitative real-time PCR. Results: GDM reduced the expression of CDK4-pRB-E2F1 pathway genes in Langerhans islets cells of offspring. CDK4, pRB and E2F1 pathway genes were downregulated in diabetic islets by 51%, 35% and 84%, respectively. Also, the expression of Kir 6.2 was significantly decreased in diabetic islets by 88%. Conclusion: We suggest that the effect of gestational diabetes on offspring’s β-cells may be primarily caused by the suppression of CDK4-pRB-E2F1 pathway. PMID:28293391

  9. Toxic-selenium and low-selenium transcriptomes in Caenorhabditis elegans: toxic selenium up-regulates oxidoreductase and down-regulates cuticle-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Boehler, Christopher J; Raines, Anna M; Sunde, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an element that in trace quantities is both essential in mammals but also toxic to bacteria, yeast, plants and animals, including C. elegans. Our previous studies showed that selenite was four times as toxic as selenate to C. elegans, but that deletion of thioredoxin reductase did not modulate Se toxicity. To characterize Se regulation of the full transcriptome, we conducted a microarray study in C. elegans cultured in axenic media supplemented with 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mM Se as selenite. C. elegans cultured in 0.2 and 0.4 mM Se displayed a significant delay in growth as compared to 0, 0.05, or 0.1 mM Se, indicating Se-induced toxicity, so worms were staged to mid-L4 larval stage for these studies. Relative to 0.1 mM Se treatment, culturing C. elegans at these Se concentrations resulted in 1.9, 9.7, 5.5, and 2.3%, respectively, of the transcriptome being altered by at least 2-fold. This toxicity altered the expression of 295 overlapping transcripts, which when filtered against gene sets for sulfur and cadmium toxicity, identified a dataset of 182 toxic-Se specific genes that were significantly enriched in functions related to oxidoreductase activity, and significantly depleted in genes related to structural components of collagen and the cuticle. Worms cultured in low Se (0 mM Se) exhibited no signs of deficiency, but low Se was accompanied by a transcriptional response of 59 genes changed ≥2-fold when compared to all other Se concentrations, perhaps due to decreases in Se-dependent TRXR-1 activity. Overall, these results suggest that Se toxicity in C. elegans causes an increase in ROS and stress responses, marked by increased expression of oxidoreductases and reduced expression of cuticle-associated genes, which together underlie the impaired growth observed in these studies.

  10. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediate hypoxic down-regulation of hERG channel protein.

    PubMed

    Nanduri, Jayasri; Wang, Ning; Bergson, Pamela; Yuan, Guoxiang; Ficker, Eckhard; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2008-08-22

    Previous studies suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in physiological responses to hypoxia. In the present study, we examined the effects of hypoxia on human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) channel protein expression and assessed the role of ROS. Hypoxia, in a stimulus- and time-dependent manner, decreased hERG protein with marked reduction in hERG K+ conductance in human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing the hERG alpha subunit. Down-regulation of hERG by hypoxia was not due to increased proteasomal degradation or decreased transcription but due to decreased synthesis of the protein. Hypoxia increased ROS in a time-dependent manner. Antioxidants prevented hypoxia-evoked down-regulation of hERG protein and exogenous oxidants mimicked the effects of hypoxia. Hypoxia-evoked down-regulation of hERG protein and elevation in ROS were absent in p(O) cells, which are devoid of mitochondrial DNA. Inhibitors of NADPH oxidase failed to prevent the effects of hypoxia. These results demonstrate that hypoxia enhances the production of ROS in the mitochondria, resulting in down-regulation of hERG translation and decreased hERG-mediated K+ conductance.

  11. Down-regulation of p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis leads to improved sugar release

    DOE PAGES

    Sykes, Robert W.; Gjersing, Erica L.; Foutz, Kirk; ...

    2015-08-27

    In this study, lignocellulosic materials provide an attractive replacement for food-based crops used to produce ethanol. Understanding the interactions within the cell wall is vital to overcome the highly recalcitrant nature of biomass. One factor imparting plant cell wall recalcitrance is lignin, which can be manipulated by making changes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, eucalyptus down-regulated in expression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) or p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H, EC 1.14.13.36) were evaluated for cell wall composition and reduced recalcitrance.

  12. Down-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase inhibits the growth of endothelial EA.hy926 cell through induction of G1 cell cycle arrest via up-regulating p53 and p21(waf1/cip1) expression.

    PubMed

    Fei, Zhewei; Gao, Yong; Qiu, Mingke; Qi, Xianqin; Dai, Yuxin; Wang, Shuqing; Quan, Zhiwei; Liu, Yingbin; Ou, Jingmin

    2016-03-01

    Folic acid supplementation may meliorate cardiovascular disease risk by improving vascular endothelial structure and function. However, the underlying mechanisms are still lack of a global understanding. To be used, folic acid must be converted to 7,8-dihydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase to generate one-carbon derivatives serving as important cellular cofactors in the synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids required for cell growth. Therefore, this study explored the effect of dihydrofolate reductase knockdown on endothelial EA.hy926 cell growth and the mechanism involved. We found that down-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase inhibited EA.hy926 cell proliferation, and induced G1 phase arrest. Meanwhile, the expression of regulators necessary for G1/S phase transition, such as cyclin-dependent kinases CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6, were remarkably down-regulated; by contrast, the cell cycle inhibitors p21(waf/cip1), p27(Kip1) and p53 were significantly up-regulated after dihydrofolate reductase knockdown. Furthermore, supplementation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to the dihydrofolate reductase knockdown cells could weaken the inhibitory effect of dihydrofolate reductase knockdown on cell proliferation, simultaneously, inducing the expression of p53 and p21(waf/cip1) falling back moderately. Our findings suggest that attenuating dihydrofolate reductase may cause imbalanced expression of cell cycle regulators, especially up-regulation of p53-p21(waf/cip1) pathway, leading to G1 cell cycle arrest, thereby inhibiting the growth of endothelial EA.hy926 cells.

  13. Down-regulation of osmotin (PR5) gene by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) leads to susceptibility of resistant Piper colubrinum Link. to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian.

    PubMed

    Anu, K; Jessymol, K K; Chidambareswaren, M; Gayathri, G S; Manjula, S

    2015-06-01

    Piper colubrinum Link., a distant relative of Piper nigrum L., is immune to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian that causes 'quick wilt' in cultivated black pepper (P. nigrum). The osmotin, PR5 gene homologue, earlier identified from P. colubrinum, showed significant overexpression in response to pathogen and defense signalling molecules. The present study focuses on the functional validation of P. colubrinum osmotin (PcOSM) by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) using Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV)-based vector. P. colubrinum plants maintained under controlled growth conditions in a growth chamber were infiltrated with Agrobacterium carrying TRV empty vector (control) and TRV vector carrying PcOSM. Three weeks post infiltration, viral movement was confirmed in newly emerged leaves of infiltrated plants by RT-PCR using TRV RNA1 and TRV RNA2 primers. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of PcOSM gene in TRV-PcOSM infiltrated plant compared with the control plants. The control and silenced plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici which demonstrated that knock-down of PcOSM in P. colubrinum leads to increased fungal mycelial growth in silenced plants compared to control plants, which was accompanied by decreased accumulation of H2O2 as indicated by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that Piper colubrinum osmotin gene is required for resisting P. capsici infection and has possible role in hypersensitive cell death response and oxidative burst signaling during infection.

  14. Prostate tumor OVerexpressed-1 (PTOV1) down-regulates HES1 and HEY1 notch targets genes and promotes prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background PTOV1 is an adaptor protein with functions in diverse processes, including gene transcription and protein translation, whose overexpression is associated with a higher proliferation index and tumor grade in prostate cancer (PC) and other neoplasms. Here we report its interaction with the Notch pathway and its involvement in PC progression. Methods Stable PTOV1 knockdown or overexpression were performed by lentiviral transduction. Protein interactions were analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation, pull-down and/or immunofluorescence. Endogenous gene expression was analyzed by real time RT-PCR and/or Western blotting. Exogenous promoter activities were studied by luciferase assays. Gene promoter interactions were analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP). In vivo studies were performed in the Drosophila melanogaster wing, the SCID-Beige mouse model, and human prostate cancer tissues and metastasis. The Excel package was used for statistical analysis. Results Knockdown of PTOV1 in prostate epithelial cells and HaCaT skin keratinocytes caused the upregulation, and overexpression of PTOV1 the downregulation, of the Notch target genes HEY1 and HES1, suggesting that PTOV1 counteracts Notch signaling. Under conditions of inactive Notch signaling, endogenous PTOV1 associated with the HEY1 and HES1 promoters, together with components of the Notch repressor complex. Conversely, expression of active Notch1 provoked the dismissal of PTOV1 from these promoters. The antagonist role of PTOV1 on Notch activity was corroborated in the Drosophila melanogaster wing, where human PTOV1 exacerbated Notch deletion mutant phenotypes and suppressed the effects of constitutively active Notch. PTOV1 was required for optimal in vitro invasiveness and anchorage-independent growth of PC-3 cells, activities counteracted by Notch, and for their efficient growth and metastatic spread in vivo. In prostate tumors, the overexpression of PTOV1 was associated with decreased expression

  15. Microarray-based gene expression profiling to elucidate effectiveness of fermented Codonopsis lanceolata in mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kim, Ji Seon; Park, Sung Jin; Ma, Choong Je; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2014-04-08

    In this study, the effect of Codonopsis lanceolata fermented by lactic acid on controlling gene expression levels related to obesity was observed in an oligonucleotide chip microarray. Among 8170 genes, 393 genes were up regulated and 760 genes were down regulated in feeding the fermented C. lanceolata (FCL). Another 374 genes were up regulated and 527 genes down regulated without feeding the sample. The genes were not affected by the FCL sample. It was interesting that among those genes, Chytochrome P450, Dmbt1, LOC76487, and thyroid hormones, etc., were mostly up or down regulated. These genes are more related to lipid synthesis. We could conclude that the FCL possibly controlled the gene expression levels related to lipid synthesis, which resulted in reducing obesity. However, more detailed protein expression experiments should be carried out.

  16. Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profiling to Elucidate Effectiveness of Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kim, Ji Seon; Park, Sung Jin; Ma, Choong Je; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of Codonopsis lanceolata fermented by lactic acid on controlling gene expression levels related to obesity was observed in an oligonucleotide chip microarray. Among 8170 genes, 393 genes were up regulated and 760 genes were down regulated in feeding the fermented C. lanceolata (FCL). Another 374 genes were up regulated and 527 genes down regulated without feeding the sample. The genes were not affected by the FCL sample. It was interesting that among those genes, Chytochrome P450, Dmbt1, LOC76487, and thyroid hormones, etc., were mostly up or down regulated. These genes are more related to lipid synthesis. We could conclude that the FCL possibly controlled the gene expression levels related to lipid synthesis, which resulted in reducing obesity. However, more detailed protein expression experiments should be carried out. PMID:24717412

  17. A Ca(2+) chelator ameliorates chromium (VI)-induced hepatocyte L-02 injury via down-regulation of voltage-Dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) expression.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xing; Xiao, Fang; Zhong, Xiali; Duan, Yujie; Liu, Kaihua; Zhong, Caigao

    2017-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium could result in cell malfunctions. Intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) content and VDAC1 expression are both important features related to cell survial. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of cell injury induced by Cr(VI) and tentatively offer clues to repairing this cell damage using [Ca(2+)]i and VDAC1. L-02 hepatocytes were treated with Cr(VI)/BAPTA, and the levels of [Ca(2+)]i and cell injury associated with Cr(VI) were determined in addition to the effect of BAPTA. The expression of VDAC1 in Cr(VI)-induced cells was evaluated. The results showed a dose-dependent elevation of the level of VDAC1 and the mRNA level of the VDAC1 biogenesis-related gene Sam50. BAPTA could ameliorate less severe damage induced by 4μM Cr(VI) via reducing VDAC1 and Sam50. Additionally, cell injury caused by less than 4μM Cr(VI) could be ameliorated by VDAC1 knockdown. Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that inhibition of intracellular Ca(2±) overload could protect cells from damage and that VDAC1 plays a considerable role in Cr(VI)-induced liver injury.

  18. Intrahippocampal injection of Aβ1-42 inhibits neurogenesis and down-regulates IFN-γ and NF-κB expression in hippocampus of adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meige; Liu, Jing; Ruan, Zhigang; Tian, Sumin; Ma, Yuxin; Zhu, Jiayong; Li, Guoying

    2013-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Amyloid-β (Aβ) is widely recognized as a key factor in the pathogenesis of AD. Aβ1-42 a major component of amyloid plaques, has shown synaptotoxicity associated with impaired long-term potentiation and cognitive deficits. Alteration of neurogenesis in AD patients has been reported, while little is known about how Aβ1-42 affects hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult brain. In this study, we injected human Aβ1-42 peptide into hippocampal CA1 area of adult mouse brain bilaterally and evaluated histological change and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain showed that Aβ1-42-injection resulted in an extensive neurodegeneration in the Aβ-accumulated area and CA3 in hippocampus. Immunostaining showed that intrahippocampal Aβ1-42-injection dramatically decreased the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) compared to the vehicle injection. Moreover, a significant decrease in the number of BrdU/double-cortin double-positive cells in Aβ1-42-injected hippocampus was observed, suggesting that Aβ1-42-injection inhibited progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in subgranular zone of the DG in the adult brain. We also found that the Aβ1-42-mediated decline of neurogenesis was associated with decreased protein levels of cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the hippocampus. These results suggest that Aβ1-42 inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult brain possibly through down-regulation of INF-γ and NF-κB signaling pathway. This study provides a new insight into Aβ1-42-mediated decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system.

  19. Interleukin-18 Down-Regulates Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 Expression through Farnesoid X Receptor Associated with Nuclear Factor Kappa B and Yin Yang 1 in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-cong; Lian, Wei; Zhang, Liang-jun; Feng, Xin-chan; Gao, Yu; Li, Shao-xue; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Long; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Lei; Wang, Rong-quan; Chai, Jin; Chen, Wen-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) plays an important role in bile acid metabolism by transporting toxic organic anion conjugates, including conjugated bilirubin, glutathione, sulfate, and multifarious drugs. MRP2 expression is reduced in cholestatic patients and rodents. However, the molecular mechanism of MRP2 down-regulation remains elusive. In this report, we treated human hepatoma HepG2 cells with interleukin-18 (IL-18) and measured the expression of MRP2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) by quantitative real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. We found that expression of MRP2 was repressed by IL-18 at both the mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the activated NF-κB pathway increased YY1 and reduced FXR. These changes were all attenuated in HepG2 cells with knockdown of the NF-κB subunit, p65. The reduced expression of FXR and MRP2 in HepG2 cells that had been caused by IL-18 treatment was also attenuated by YY1 knockdown. We further observed significantly elevated IL-18, NF-κB, and YY1 expression and decreased FXR and MRP2 expression in bile duct-ligated Sprague Dawley rat livers. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays also showed that FXR bound to the promoter region in MRP2 was less abundant in liver extracts from bile duct-ligated rats than sham-operated rats. Our findings indicate that IL-18 down-regulates MRP2 expression through the nuclear receptor FXR in HepG2 cells, and may be mediated by NF-κB and YY1.

  20. Antisense down-regulation of the strawberry β-galactosidase gene FaβGal4 increases cell wall galactose levels and reduces fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Candelas; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Barceló-Muñoz, Marta; García-Gago, Juan A; Waldron, Keith W; Quesada, Miguel A; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Mercado, José A

    2016-02-01

    Strawberry softening is characterized by an increase in the solubilization and depolymerization of pectins from cell walls. Galactose release from pectin side chains by β-galactosidase enzymes has been proposed as one reason for the increase in soluble pectins. A putative β-galactosidase gene, FaβGal4, has been identified using a custom-made oligonucleotide-based strawberry microarray platform. FaβGal4 was expressed mainly in the receptacle during fruit ripening, and was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively regulated by auxins. To ascertain the role of FaβGal4 in strawberry softening, transgenic plants containing an antisense sequence of this gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter were generated. Phenotypic analyses were carried out in transgenic plants during three consecutive growing seasons, using non-transformed plants as control. Two out of nine independent transgenic lines yielded fruits that were 30% firmer than control at the ripe stage. FaβGal4 mRNA levels were reduced by 70% in ripe fruits from these selected transgenic lines, but they also showed significant silencing of FaβGal1, although the genes did not share significant similarity. These two transgenic lines also showed an increase in pectin covalently bound to the cell wall, extracted using Na2CO3. The amount of galactose in cell walls from transgenic fruits was 30% higher than in control; notably, the galactose increase was larger in the 1 M KOH fraction, which is enriched in hemicellulose. These results suggest that FaβGal4 participates in the solubilization of covalently bound pectins during ripening, reducing strawberry fruit firmness.

  1. Antisense down-regulation of the strawberry β-galactosidase gene FaβGal4 increases cell wall galactose levels and reduces fruit softening

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Candelas; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Barceló-Muñoz, Marta; García-Gago, Juan A.; Waldron, Keith W.; Quesada, Miguel A.; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Mercado, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry softening is characterized by an increase in the solubilization and depolymerization of pectins from cell walls. Galactose release from pectin side chains by β-galactosidase enzymes has been proposed as one reason for the increase in soluble pectins. A putative β-galactosidase gene, FaβGal4, has been identified using a custom-made oligonucleotide-based strawberry microarray platform. FaβGal4 was expressed mainly in the receptacle during fruit ripening, and was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively regulated by auxins. To ascertain the role of FaβGal4 in strawberry softening, transgenic plants containing an antisense sequence of this gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter were generated. Phenotypic analyses were carried out in transgenic plants during three consecutive growing seasons, using non-transformed plants as control. Two out of nine independent transgenic lines yielded fruits that were 30% firmer than control at the ripe stage. FaβGal4 mRNA levels were reduced by 70% in ripe fruits from these selected transgenic lines, but they also showed significant silencing of FaβGal1, although the genes did not share significant similarity. These two transgenic lines also showed an increase in pectin covalently bound to the cell wall, extracted using Na2CO3. The amount of galactose in cell walls from transgenic fruits was 30% higher than in control; notably, the galactose increase was larger in the 1 M KOH fraction, which is enriched in hemicellulose. These results suggest that FaβGal4 participates in the solubilization of covalently bound pectins during ripening, reducing strawberry fruit firmness. PMID:26585222

  2. miR-27a-3p suppresses tumor metastasis and VM by down-regulating VE-cadherin expression and inhibiting EMT: an essential role for Twist-1 in HCC

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Sun, Huizhi; Sun, Baocun; Zhu, Dongwang; Zhao, Xiulan; Wang, Yong; Gu, Qiang; Dong, Xueyi; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yanhui; Li, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Twist-1 and miRNAs have been reported to be associated with tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. However, the relationship between Twist-1 and miRNAs and the function of miRNAs remain largely undefined. We aimed to reveal the Twist-1-related miRNA expression profile and to determine whether Twist-1 functions in tumor metastasis and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) by regulating miRNA expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Results showed that the expression of miR-27a-3p was consistently down-regulated in HCC cell lines and tissue samples displaying high expression of Twist-1. Both loss- and gain-of-function assays revealed suppressive effects of miR-27a-3p. Low miR-27a-3p expression was significantly associated with early metastasis in HCC. Subsequent investigations revealed that miR-27a-3p mediated the inhibition of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Additional experiments showed that VE-cadherin is a direct target of miR-27a-3p and further demonstrated the critical role of miR-27a-3p in suppressing tumor metastasis and VM. Conclusions: Twist-1 up-regulation in HepG2 cells resulted in the differential expression of 18 miRNAs. Among them, miR-27a-3p deregulation contributed to VM and metastasis. The miR-27a-3p-mediated down-regulation of VE-cadherin and inhibition of EMT may be essential for Twist-1 to induce tumor metastasis and VM. Our findings highlight the importance of miR-27a-3p and suggest a promising new strategy for anti-HCC therapy. PMID:26980408

  3. Post-translational derepression of invertase activity in source leaves via down-regulation of invertase inhibitor expression is part of the plant defense response.

    PubMed

    Bonfig, Katharina B; Gabler, Andrea; Simon, Uwe K; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Hatz, Martina; Berger, Susanne; Muhammad, Naseem; Zeier, Jürgen; Sinha, Alok K; Roitsch, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that pathogens do not only elicit direct defense responses, but also cause pronounced changes in primary carbohydrate metabolism. Cell-wall-bound invertases belong to the key regulators of carbohydrate partitioning and source-sink relations. Whereas studies have focused so far only on the transcriptional induction of invertase genes in response to pathogen infection, the role of post-translational regulation of invertase activity has been neglected and was the focus of the present study. Expression analyses revealed that the high mRNA level of one out of three proteinaceous invertase inhibitors in source leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana is strongly repressed upon infection by a virulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. This repression is paralleled by a decrease in invertase inhibitor activity. The physiological role of this regulatory mechanism is revealed by the finding that in situ invertase activity was detectable only upon infection by P. syringae. In contrast, a high invertase activity could be measured in vitro in crude and cell wall extracts prepared from both infected and non-infected leaves. The discrepancy between the in situ and in vitro invertase activity of control leaves and the high in situ invertase activity in infected leaves can be explained by the pathogen-dependent repression of invertase inhibitor expression and a concomitant reduction in invertase inhibitor activity. The functional importance of the release of invertase from post-translational inhibition for the defense response was substantiated by the application of the competitive chemical invertase inhibitor acarbose. Post-translational inhibition of extracellular invertase activity by infiltration of acarbose in leaves was shown to increase the susceptibility to P. syringae. The impact of invertase inhibition on spatial and temporal dynamics of the repression of photosynthesis and promotion of bacterial growth during pathogen infection supports

  4. Activated macrophages down-regulate expression of E-cadherin in hepatocellular carcinoma cells via NF-κB/Slug pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianteng; Wang, Hao; Li, Guosheng; Song, Yonghong; Wang, Shurong; Zhu, Faliang; Guo, Chun; Zhang, Lining; Shi, Yongyu

    2014-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas are an aggressive malignancy mainly due to metastasis or postsurgical recurrence. Expression of E-cadherin is strongly reduced in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, and its downregulation is connected to invasiveness and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinomas. The previous study showed that the supernatant from activated macrophages can downregulate the expression of E-cadherin in HCC cells. The partial known molecular mechanism is that tyrosine kinases c-Src- and EGFR phosphorylate β-catenin and E-cadherin leading to destabilization of E-cadherin/β-catenin complex. The aim of this study is to clarify other mechanism by which activated macrophages downregulate the expression of E-cadherin. We detect the expression of E-cadherin and macrophage infiltration in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues by double-staining immunohistochemistry and evaluate the relationship between macrophages and E-cadherin expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro experiments. We found that reduced expression of E-cadherin was associated with macrophage infiltration along the border between the tumor nest and stroma in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Besides, protein expression of E-cadherin was significantly decreased in hepatocellular carcinoma cells co-cultured with macrophages derived from THP-1 cells. Consistently, mRNA expression of E-cadherin was also decreased in cancer cells co-cultured with THP-1-differentiated macrophages. Moreover, the downregulation of E-cadherin expression was companied by upregulation of Slug expression in cancer cells with conditional medium from THP-1-differentiated macrophage culture. The change in expression of E-cadherin and Slug was abrogated when NF-κB signaling pathway was blocked. All the findings suggested that macrophages contributed to the decreased expression of E-cadherin by NF-κB/Slug pathway in hepatocellular carcinomas.

  5. Down Regulation of CLDND1 Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Achari, Chandrani; Winslow, Sofia; Larsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Identification of targets for apoptosis induction is important to provide novel therapeutic approaches in breast cancer. Our earlier studies showed that down regulation of protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) induces death in breast cancer cells. In this study we set out to identify previously unrecognized apoptosis regulators in breast cancer cells. To identify candidates, global expression analysis with microarray was performed after down regulation of PKCδ in the basal-like breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and BT-549. Genes that were down regulated in all cell lines were further studied for survival-supporting effects. The claudin-like CLDND1 was singled out since several independent siRNAs targeting CLDND1 induced cell death in several cell lines. The cell death induced by CLDND1 knockdown was caspase-dependent, suggesting induction of apoptosis. Nuclear fragmentation, cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP and release of cytochrome C from the mitochondria upon CLDND1 depletion demonstrated involvement of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Inhibition of MEK1/2 and JNK further potentiated the cell death induction by CLDND1 knockdown. However, CLDND1 down regulation augmented ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which thereby may protect against the apoptosis inducing effects of CLDND1 down regulation. A concomitant inhibition of MEK1/2 suppresses the ERK1/2 phosphorylation and markedly potentiates the cell death following CLDND1 siRNA treatment. There is today little information on the function of CLDND1. These data provide novel information on CLDND1 and highlight it as a novel survival factor in basal-like breast cancer cell lines. PMID:26083392

  6. Mechanisms of allele-selective down-regulation of HLA class I in Burkitt's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Imreh, M P; Zhang, Q J; de Campos-Lima, P O; Imreh, S; Krausa, P; Browning, M; Klein, G; Masucci, M G

    1995-07-04

    Burkitt lymphomas (BL) that arise in HLA-AII-positive individuals are characterized by selective loss/down-regulation of the HLA AII polypeptide. We have investigated the molecular basis of such down-regulation by comparing 5 pairs of BL lines and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) derived from the normal B cells of the same individuals. The presence of apparently intact HLA AII genes was confirmed in all 5 BL/LCL pairs by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) typing and by Southern-blot hybridization with HLA A locus-specific probes. Northern-blot analysis with locus- and allele-specific probes revealed a significantly lower expression or absence of AII-specific mRNA in all 5 BL lines compared to the corresponding LCLs. Up-regulation of AII-specific mRNA was achieved by IFN alpha treatment of 2 BL lines with low HLA AII expression (BL-28 and BL-72) while the treatment had no effect in 3 BL lines (WWI-BL, WW2-BL and BL41) that did not express the endogenous gene. HLA AII expression was restored by transfection of the gene in WWI-BL whereas transfectants of BL-41 remained AII-negative. An HLA-AII-promoter-driven chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene (pAIICAT) was active in WWI-BL but not in BL-41. HLA-AII was expressed in hybrids of BL-41 with an AII-positive LCL, while expression of the endogenous HLA AII gene could not be restored by fusion of BL-41 with an AII-negative LCL, although an adequate set of transcription factors was present in the hybrid. Our results suggest that genetic defects and lack of transcription factors may contribute to the selective down-regulation of HLA AII in BL cells.

  7. Gene-Silencing-Induced Changes in Carbohydrate Conformation in Relation to Bioenergy Value and Carbohydrate Subfractions in Modeled Plant (Medicago sativa) with Down-Regulation of HB12 and TT8 Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinxin; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Zhang, Yonggen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Gene silencing with RNA interference (RNAi) technology may be capable of modifying internal structure at a molecular level. This structural modification could affect biofunctions in terms of biodegradation, biochemical metabolism, and bioactive compound availability. The objectives of this study were to (1) Detect gene silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate molecular structure in an alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa spp. sativa: alfalfa) with down-regulation of genes that encode transcription factors TT8 and HB12; (2) Determine gene silencing-induced changes in nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa); and (3) Quantify the correlation between gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes and the nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in animals of ruminants. The experimental treatments included: T1 = Non-transgenic and no-gene silenced alfalfa forage (code “NT”); T2 = HB12-RNAi forage with HB12 gene down regulation (code “HB12”); T3 = TT8-RNAi forage with TT8 gene down regulation (code “TT8”). The HB12 and TT8 gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes were determined by non-invasive and non-destructive advanced molecular spectroscopy in a middle infrared radiation region that focused on structural, non-structural and total carbohydrate compounds. The nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability of the modified forage were determined using NRC-2001 system in terms of total digestive nutrient (TDN), truly digestible fiber (tdNDF), non-fiber carbohydrate (tdNDF), fatty acid (tdFA), crude protein (tdCP) and bioenergy profiles (digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy) for ruminants. The carbohydrate subfractions were evaluated using the updated CNCPS 6.0 system. The results showed that gene silencing significantly affected tdNFC (42.3 (NT) vs. 38.7 (HB12) vs. 37.4% Dry Matter (TT8); p = 0.016) and tdCP (20.8 (NT) vs. 19.4 (HB12) vs. 22.3% DM (TT8); p = 0.009). The gene-silencing also

  8. Gene-Silencing-Induced Changes in Carbohydrate Conformation in Relation to Bioenergy Value and Carbohydrate Subfractions in Modeled Plant (Medicago sativa) with Down-Regulation of HB12 and TT8 Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxin; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Zhang, Yonggen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-05-13

    Gene silencing with RNA interference (RNAi) technology may be capable of modifying internal structure at a molecular level. This structural modification could affect biofunctions in terms of biodegradation, biochemical metabolism, and bioactive compound availability. The objectives of this study were to (1) Detect gene silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate molecular structure in an alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa spp. sativa: alfalfa) with down-regulation of genes that encode transcription factors TT8 and HB12; (2) Determine gene silencing-induced changes in nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa); and (3) Quantify the correlation between gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes and the nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in animals of ruminants. The experimental treatments included: T1 = Non-transgenic and no-gene silenced alfalfa forage (code "NT"); T2 = HB12-RNAi forage with HB12 gene down regulation (code "HB12"); T3 = TT8-RNAi forage with TT8 gene down regulation (code "TT8"). The HB12 and TT8 gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes were determined by non-invasive and non-destructive advanced molecular spectroscopy in a middle infrared radiation region that focused on structural, non-structural and total carbohydrate compounds. The nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability of the modified forage were determined using NRC-2001 system in terms of total digestive nutrient (TDN), truly digestible fiber (tdNDF), non-fiber carbohydrate (tdNDF), fatty acid (tdFA), crude protein (tdCP) and bioenergy profiles (digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy) for ruminants. The carbohydrate subfractions were evaluated using the updated CNCPS 6.0 system. The results showed that gene silencing significantly affected tdNFC (42.3 (NT) vs. 38.7 (HB12) vs. 37.4% Dry Matter (TT8); p = 0.016) and tdCP (20.8 (NT) vs. 19.4 (HB12) vs. 22.3% DM (TT8); p = 0.009). The gene-silencing also affected

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonists down-regulate alpha2-macroglobulin expression by a PPARalpha-dependent mechanism.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) regulates transcription of genes involved both in lipid and glucose metabolism as well as inflammation. Fibrates are PPARα ligands used to normalize lipid and glucose parameters and exert anti-inflammatory effects. Fibrates...

  10. The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor-suppressor gene is down-regulated by selenium deficiency in Caco-2 cells and rat colon mucosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To test the hypothesis that selenium affects DNA methylation and hence gene regulation we employed a methylation array (Panomics) in the human colonic epithelial Caco-2 cell model. The array profiles DNA methylation from promoter regions of 82 human genes. After conditioning cells to repeatedly redu...

  11. Squamosamide derivative FLZ inhibits TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression via down-regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in ARPE-19 cells

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ting-Ting; Liang, Ze-Yu; Chen, Song

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) resulting from chronic inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It has been reported that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) could induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in RPE cells. FLZ, a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative from a Chinese herb, Annona glabra, has displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity. However, the effects of FLZ on TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression in RPE cells remain unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of FLZ on TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression in RPE cells. We found that FLZ prevented TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression and the ability of monocytes to adhere to ARPE-19 cells induced by TNF-α. Furthermore, FLZ inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB p65 expression, as well as phosphorylation of IκBα in ARPE-19 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that FLZ inhibited TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression through blocking NF-κB signaling pathway in ARPE-19 cells. Thus, FLZ could be used for designing novel therapeutic agents against AMD. PMID:26464656

  12. Squamosamide derivative FLZ inhibits TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression via down-regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in ARPE-19 cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ting-Ting; Liang, Ze-Yu; Chen, Song

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) resulting from chronic inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It has been reported that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) could induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in RPE cells. FLZ, a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative from a Chinese herb, Annona glabra, has displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity. However, the effects of FLZ on TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression in RPE cells remain unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of FLZ on TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression in RPE cells. We found that FLZ prevented TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression and the ability of monocytes to adhere to ARPE-19 cells induced by TNF-α. Furthermore, FLZ inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB p65 expression, as well as phosphorylation of IκBα in ARPE-19 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that FLZ inhibited TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression through blocking NF-κB signaling pathway in ARPE-19 cells. Thus, FLZ could be used for designing novel therapeutic agents against AMD.

  13. Probiotic Enterococcus faecalis Symbioflor(®) down regulates virulence genes of EHEC in vitro and decrease pathogenicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans model.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Klaus; Lamparter, Marina C; Zölch, Benjamin; Landstorfer, Richard; Simon, Svenja; Spanier, Britta; Ehrmann, Matthias A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2017-03-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC) shorten the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans compared to avirulent bacteria. Co-feeding EHEC with Enterococcus faecalis Symbioflor(®) significantly increased the worms' lifespan. The transcriptome of EHEC grown in vitro with or without Symbioflor(®) was analyzed using RNA-seq. The analysis revealed downregulation of several virulence-associated genes in the presence of Symbioflor(®), including virulence key genes (e.g., LEE, flagellum, quorum-sensing). The downregulation of the LEE genes was corroborated by lux-transposon mutants. Upregulated genes included acid response genes, due to a decrease in pH exerted by Symbioflor(®). Further genes indicate cellular stress in EHEC (e.g. prophage/mobile elements involved in excision, cell lysis, and cell division inhibition). Thus, the observed protection of C. elegans during an EHEC infection by the probiotic Symbioflor(®) is suggested to be caused by triggering concomitant transcriptomic changes. To verify the biological relevance of this modulation, exemplary genes found to be influenced by Symbioflor(®) were knocked out (fliD, espB, Z3136, Z3917, and L7052). The lifespan of nematodes changed when using knock-outs as food source and the effect could be complemented in trans. In summary, Symbioflor(®) appears to be a protective probiotic in the nematode model.

  14. Astaxanthin down-regulates Rad51 expression via inactivation of AKT kinase to enhance mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jen-Chung; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Wang, Tai-Jing; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chen, Wen-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination, and studies show that chemo-resistant carcinomas exhibit high levels of Rad51 expression. In this study, astaxanthin treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Astaxanthin treatment (2.5-20 μM) decreased Rad51 expression and phospho-AKT(Ser473) protein level in a time and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vector rescued the decreased Rad51 mRNA and protein levels in astaxanthin-treated NSCLC cells. Combined treatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) further decreased the Rad51 expression in astaxanthin-exposed A549 and H1703 cells. Knockdown of Rad51 expression by transfection with si-Rad51 RNA or cotreatment with LY294002 further enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of astaxanthin. Additionally, mitomycin C (MMC) as an anti-tumor antibiotic is widely used in clinical NSCLC chemotherapy. Combination of MMC and astaxanthin synergistically resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced phospho-AKT(Ser473) level and Rad51 expression. Overexpression of AKT-CA or Flag-tagged Rad51 reversed the astaxanthin and MMC-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. In contrast, pretreatment with LY294002 further decreased the cell viability in astaxanthin and MMC co-treated cells. In conclusion, astaxanthin enhances MMC-induced cytotoxicity by decreasing Rad51 expression and AKT activation. These findings may provide rationale to combine astaxanthin with MMC for the treatment of NSCLC.

  15. A homologue of snail is expressed transiently in subsets of mesenchyme cells in the sea urchin embryo and is down-regulated in axis-deficient embryos.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Jeff; Illingworth, Charles A

    2006-11-01

    Vertebrate members of the zinc finger transcription factor family related to Drosophila snail are expressed in neural crest and paraxial mesoderm along the left-right axis of the embryo. As simple deuterostomes, echinoderms are an important sister phylum for the chordates. We have identified populations of patterned, nonskeletogenic mesenchyme in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus by their expression of a sea urchin member of the snail family (Lv-snail). Lv-snail mRNA and protein are detectable at the midgastrula stage within the archenteron. At the late gastrula stage, a contiguous cluster of cells on the left side of the tip of the archenteron is Lv-snail-positive. At the early prism stage, two small clusters of mesenchyme cells near the presumptive arm buds are also Lv-snail-positive. At the pluteus stage, staining is detectable in isolated mesenchyme cells and the ciliated band. Based on fate mapping of secondary mesenchyme cells (SMCs) and double-label immunostaining, these patterns are consistent with expression of SNAIL by novel subsets of SMCs that are largely distinct from skeletogenic mesenchyme. In radialized embryos lacking normal bilateral symmetry, mesenchymal expression of Lv-SNAIL is abolished. These results suggest that transient expression of Lv-snail may be important for the differentiation of a subset of axially patterned nonskeletogenic mesenchyme cells and suggest conserved functions for snail family members in deuterostome development.

  16. Iron chelation down-regulates dopamine transporter expression by decreasing mRNA stability and increasing endocytosis in N2a cells.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Narasimha V; Jensen, Gordon L; Unger, Erica L

    2011-02-15

    Cell surface expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT) is determined by the relative rates of its internalization and recycling. Changes in the cellular labile iron pool (LIP) affect many cellular mechanisms including those that regulate DAT trafficking. In this study, we analyzed DAT expression and posttranslational modifications in response to changes in cellular iron in transfected neuroblastoma cells (N2a). Iron chelation by desferrioxamine (DFO) altered DAT protein levels by decreasing the stability of DAT mRNA. Increased phosphorylation and ubiquitination of this transporter protein following DFO treatment were also observed. Cellular iron depletion elevated protein levels of the early endosomal marker Rab5. Moreover, confocal microscopy studies showed increased localization of DAT into the endosomal compartment in DFO-treated cells compared to control. Together, these findings suggest that cellular iron depletion regulates DAT expression through reducing mRNA stability as well as an increasing in endocytosis.

  17. Yiqi Huayu recipe relieves nerve root constriction induced radicular neuralgia by down-regulating TRPV4 expression in dorsal root ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhanying; Cui, Xuejun; Hu, Zhijun; Xiao, Jing; Li, Weiwei; Yang, Qiangling; Liu, Dan; Lin, Jie; Wang, Yongjun; Shi, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of Yiqi Huayu recipe on TRPV4 expression in radicular neuralgia model induced by chronic constriction to the rat lumber nerve root. Healthy male SD rats were divided into 3 groups for radicular neuralgia (RN) model construction: the sham operation group, model groups (day 3, 7, 14 and 28), and medication groups (day 3, 7, 14 and 28). Von-Frey hairs test was performed to detect the 50% with drawal threshold (50% TPW) for rats of each group. The expression of TRPV4 in dorsal root ganglion was detected at both mRNA and protein level. Rats from all model groups displayed hyperalgesia with significantly reduced 50% TPW values compared with sham-operation group (P<0.01); Yiqi Huayu recipe medication groups showed higher 50% TPW than model group since 7 days post medication (P<0.01); the medication groups showed decreased TRPV4 expression than that of model groups (P<0.01). In conclusion, Yiqi Huayu recipe alleviates nerve root constriction induced radicular neuralgia by repressing TRPV4 expression in dorsal root ganglion. PMID:26770465

  18. Xenoestrogens down-regulate aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 mRNA expression in human breast cancer cells via an estrogen receptor alpha-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xian-Yang; Zaha, Hiroko; Nagano, Reiko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Yonemoto, Junzo; Sone, Hideko

    2011-10-10

    Environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity, known as xenoestrogens, may cause impaired reproductive development and endocrine-related cancers in humans by disrupting endocrine functions. Aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 (ARNT2) is believed to play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including estrogen signaling pathways, that may be involved in the pathogenesis and therapeutic responses of endocrine-related cancers. However, much of the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether ARNT2 expression is regulated by a range of representative xenoestrogens in human cancer cell lines. Bisphenol A (BPA), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(2-chlorophenyl-4-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) were found to be estrogenic toward BG1Luc4E2 cells by an E-CALUX bioassay. ARNT2 expression was downregulated by BPA, BBP, and o,p'-DDT in a dose-dependent manner in estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1)-positive MCF-7 and BG1Luc4E2 cells, but not in estrogen receptor-negative LNCaP cells. The reduction in ARNT2 expression in cells treated with the xenoestrogens was fully recovered by the addition of a specific ESR1 antagonist, MPP. In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that ARNT2 expression is modulated by xenoestrogens by an ESR1-dependent mechanism in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

  19. Minocycline enhances mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity through down-regulating ERK1/2-mediated Rad51 expression in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jen-Chung; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chang, Po-Yuan; Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting; Jian, Yi-Jun; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chen, Wen-Ching; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2015-10-01

    Minocycline is a semisynthetic tetracycline derivative; it has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects distinct from its antimicrobial function. However, the molecular mechanism of minocycline-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination and high levels of Rad51 expression are observed in chemo- or radioresistant carcinomas. Our previous studies have shown that the MKK1/2-ERK1/2 signal pathway maintains the expression of Rad51 in NSCLC cells. In this study, minocycline treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Treatment with minocycline decreased Rad51 mRNA and protein levels through MKK1/2-ERK1/2 inactivation. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active MKK1 (MKK1-CA) vectors significantly rescued the decreased Rad51 protein and mRNA levels in minocycline-treated NSCLC cells. However, combined treatment with MKK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and minocycline further decreased the Rad51 expression and cell viability of NSCLC cells. Knocking down Rad51 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of Rad51 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of minocycline. Mitomycin C (MMC) is typically used as a first or second line regimen to treat NSCLC. Compared to a single agent alone, MMC combined with minocycline resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced activation of phospho-ERK1/2, and reduced Rad51 protein levels. Overexpression of MKK1-CA or Flag-tagged Rad51 could reverse the minocycline and MMC-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. These findings may have implications for the rational design of future drug regimens incorporating minocycline and MMC for the treatment of NSCLC.

  20. Down-regulation of HSP60 expression by RNAi increases lipopolysaccharide- and cerulein-induced damages on isolated rat pancreatic tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuai; Li, Kun; Feng, Jia-Yan; Li, Yan-Na; Gao, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Chang-Jie

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the function of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) on pancreatic tissues by applying HSP60 small interfering RNA (siRNA) to reduce HSP60 expression. Rat pancreas was isolated and pancreatic tissue snips were prepared, cultured, and stimulated with low and high concentrations of cerulein (10−11 and 10−5 mol/L) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 and 20 μg/mL). Before the stimulation and 1 and 4 h after the stimulation, the viability and the level of trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP) in the tissue fragments were determined and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the culture supernatants were measured. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to evaluate the HSP60 mRNA and protein expression. After the administration of siRNA to inhibit HSP60 expression in the isolated tissues, these injury parameters were measured and compared. The pancreatic tissues in the control (mock-interfering) group showed a decreased viability to varying degrees after being stimulated with cerulein or LPS, and the levels of TAP, TNF-α, and IL-6 increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the tissues and/or in the culture supernatant. The expressions of HSP60 mRNA and protein were raised moderately after stimulating 1 h with low concentrations of cerulein or LPS, but decreased with high concentrations of the toxicants. In particular, the expression of HSP60 protein was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) when the tissues were stimulated by the two toxicants for 4 h. In contrast, the tissue fragments in which HSP60 siRNA was applied showed much lower tissue viability (p < 0.01) and higher levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and TAP (p < 0.01) in the tissues or culture supernatant after stimulating with the toxicants at the same dose and for the same time duration as compared with those of the control groups (p < 0.05). The results indicated that both cerulein and LPS can induce injuries on isolated

  1. Protein phosphatase complex PP5/PPP2R3C dephosphorylates P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 and down-regulates the expression and function.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Miho; Noguchi, Kohji; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2014-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/ABCB1 is a key molecule of multidrug resistance in cancer. Protein phosphatase (PP) 2A, regulatory subunit B, gamma (PPP2R3C), which is a regulatory subunit of PP2A and PP5, was identified as a binding candidate to P-gp. Immunoprecipitation-western blotting revealed that PP5 and PPP2R3C were coprecipitated with P-gp, while PP2A was not. PP5/PPP2R3C dephosphorylated protein kinase A/protein kinase C-phosphorylation of P-gp. Knockdown of PP5 and/or PPP2R3C increased P-gp expression and lowered the sensitivity to vincristine and doxorubicin. Consequently, our results indicate that PP5/PPP2R3C negatively regulates P-gp expression and function.

  2. Salvianolic Acid B Down-regulates Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activity and Expression in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-induced Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Le; Guan, Yun-Qian; Du, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a bioactive water-soluble compound of Salviae miltiorrhizae, a traditional herbal medicine that has been used clinically for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to evaluate the effect of Sal B on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and on the underlying mechanisms in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-activated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs), a cell model of Kawasaki disease. Methods: HCAECs were pretreated with 1–10 μmol/L of Sal B, and then stimulated by TNF-α at different time points. The protein expression and activity of MMP-9 were determined by Western blot assay and gelatin zymogram assay, respectively. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was detected with immunofluorescence, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and Western blot assay. Protein expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase (c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK], extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK], and p38) were determined by Western blot assay. Results: After HCAECs were exposed to TNF-α, 1–10 μmol/L Sal B significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression and activity. Furthermore, Sal B significantly decreased IκBα phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation in HCAECs stimulated with TNF-α for 30 min. In addition, Sal B decreased the phosphorylation of JNK and ERK1/2 proteins in cells treated with TNF-α for 10 min. Conclusions: The data suggested that Sal B suppressed TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression and activity by blocking the activation of NF-κB, JNK, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:26415806

  3. NiCl2-down-regulated antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression causes oxidative damage in the broiler(')s kidney.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongrui; Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Deng, Jie; Yin, Shuang; Li, Jian; Tang, Kun

    2014-12-01

    The kidney serves as a major organ of nickel (Ni) excretion and is a target organ for acute Ni toxicity due to Ni accumulation. There are no studies on the Ni or Ni compound-regulated antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression in animals and human beings at present. This study was conducted to investigate the pathway of nickel chloride (NiCl2)-caused renal oxidative damage by the methods of biochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two hundred and eighty one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Dietary NiCl2 elevated the malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) contents, and reduced the ability to inhibit hydroxy radical in the NiCl2-treated groups. Also, the renal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and mRNA expression levels were increased. The total antioxidant (T-AOC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes including copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were decreased, and the glutathione (GSH) contents as well were decreased in the kidney. Concurrently, the renal CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST, and GR mRNA expression levels were decreased. The above-mentioned results showed that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg caused renal oxidative damage by reducing mRNA expression levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes, and then enhancing free radicals generation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA oxidation.

  4. Cigarette smoke attenuates phagocytic ability of macrophages through down-regulating Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) expressions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yueqin; Luo, Guangwei; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Rui; Zhu, Jianhua; Hu, Na; Huang, Wei; Cheng, Guilian; Jia, Min; Su, Bingtao; Zhang, Nian; Cui, Tianpen

    2017-02-14

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common inflammatory diseases resulting from habitual smoking. Impaired clearance of apoptotic cell by airway macrophages contributes to lung inflammation. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8), as a link between apoptotic cells and phagocytes, facilitates clearance of apoptotic cells and attenuates inflammation. We sought to investigate altered expression and potential role of MFG-E8 in COPD. In this study, apoptosis was increased and the level of MFG-E8 was decreased while HMGB1 expression was increased in lung tissues of CS-exposed mice. Compared with CS-exposed WT mice, more apoptotic cells were accumulated in lung tissues of CS-exposed MFG-E8 deficiency mice. Exposure of a range of macrophages to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) resulted in decreased MFG-E8 expression. Administration of rmMFG-E8 ameliorated phagocytic ability of RAW264.7 cells and suppressed inflammatory response induced by CS-exposure. 10% CSE stimulation suppressed Rac1 membrane localization in RAW264.7 cells which was restored by administration of rmMFG-E8. MFG-E8 deficiency diminished uptake of apoptotic thymocytes by peritoneal macrophages upon CSE exposure. Overall, the findings in current work provide a novel target for diagnosing and treating COPD.

  5. Cigarette smoke attenuates phagocytic ability of macrophages through down-regulating Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) expressions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yueqin; Luo, Guangwei; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Rui; Zhu, Jianhua; Hu, Na; Huang, Wei; Cheng, Guilian; Jia, Min; Su, Bingtao; Zhang, Nian; Cui, Tianpen

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common inflammatory diseases resulting from habitual smoking. Impaired clearance of apoptotic cell by airway macrophages contributes to lung inflammation. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8), as a link between apoptotic cells and phagocytes, facilitates clearance of apoptotic cells and attenuates inflammation. We sought to investigate altered expression and potential role of MFG-E8 in COPD. In this study, apoptosis was increased and the level of MFG-E8 was decreased while HMGB1 expression was increased in lung tissues of CS-exposed mice. Compared with CS-exposed WT mice, more apoptotic cells were accumulated in lung tissues of CS-exposed MFG-E8 deficiency mice. Exposure of a range of macrophages to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) resulted in decreased MFG-E8 expression. Administration of rmMFG-E8 ameliorated phagocytic ability of RAW264.7 cells and suppressed inflammatory response induced by CS-exposure. 10% CSE stimulation suppressed Rac1 membrane localization in RAW264.7 cells which was restored by administration of rmMFG-E8. MFG-E8 deficiency diminished uptake of apoptotic thymocytes by peritoneal macrophages upon CSE exposure. Overall, the findings in current work provide a novel target for diagnosing and treating COPD. PMID:28195210

  6. Down-Regulation of ClC-3 Expression Reduces Epidermal Stem Cell Migration by Inhibiting Volume-Activated Chloride Currents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Pan, Fuqiang; Tian, Yanping; Li, Hongli; Li, Shirong; Cao, Chuan

    2016-06-01

    ClC-3, a member of the ClC chloride (Cl(-)) channel family, has recently been proposed as the primary Cl(-) channel involved in cell volume regulation. Changes in cell volume influence excitability, contraction, migration, pathogen-host interactions, cell proliferation, and cell death processes. In this study, expression and function of ClC-3 channels were investigated during epidermal stem cell (ESC) migration. We observed differential expression of CLC-3 regulates migration of ESCs. Further, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and image analysis demonstrated ClC-3 expression affected volume-activated Cl(-) current (I Cl,Vol) within ESCs. Live cell imaging systems, designed to observe cellular responses to overexpression and suppression of ClC-3 in real time, indicated ClC-3 may regulate ESC migratory dynamics. We employed IMARIS software to analyze the velocity and distance of ESC migration in vitro to demonstrate the function of ClC-3 channel in ESCs. As our data suggest volume-activated Cl(-) channels play a vital role in migration of ESCs, which contribute to skin repair by migrating from neighboring unwounded epidermis infundibulum, hair follicle or sebaceous glands, ClC-3 may represent a new and valuable target for stem cell therapies.

  7. Lack of estrogen down-regulates CXCR4 expression on Treg cells and reduces Treg cell population in bone marrow in OVX mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, X-L; Duan, X-B; Chen, Z-H; Li, M; Xu, J-S; Ding, G-M

    2015-05-08

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is the most common metabolic bone disease in women after menopausal. Recent works focused on cross—talk between immune regulation and bone metabolism pathways and suggested Treg cells suppressed bone resorption and osteoclasts (OC) differentiation in bone marrow via cell—cell contact interaction and/or secreting of IL—10 and TGF—beta. In this study, we investigated the impact of estrogen on regulatory T cells (Treg cells) trafficking and staying in bone marrow and we found that a significant reduction of Treg cell population in bone marrow in estrogen deficiency ovariectomied (OVX) mice. We then studied the expressions of chemokines CXCL12/CXCR4 axes, which were critical to Treg cells migration and our data show the expression of CXCR4 on Treg cells was relative with oestrogen in vivo, however, the expression of CXCL12 was not. Furthermore, the loss of trafficking ability of Treg cells in OVX mice was recoverable in our system. These findings may mechanistically explain why Treg cells lose their suppressive functions on the regulation of OC cells and demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for estrogen, which may be critical to the novel therapy in clinical practice of PMO patients.

  8. Ptc6 Is Required for Proper Rapamycin-Induced Down-Regulation of the Genes Coding for Ribosomal and rRNA Processing Proteins in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    González, Asier; Casado, Carlos; Ariño, Joaquín; Casamayor, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Ptc6 is one of the seven components (Ptc1-Ptc7) of the protein phosphatase 2C family in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to other type 2C phosphatases, the cellular role of this isoform is poorly understood. We present here a comprehensive characterization of this gene product. Cells lacking Ptc6 are sensitive to zinc ions, and somewhat tolerant to cell-wall damaging agents and to Li+. Ptc6 mutants are sensitive to rapamycin, albeit to lesser extent than ptc1 cells. This phenotype is not rescued by overexpression of PTC1 and mutation of ptc6 does not reproduce the characteristic genetic interactions of the ptc1 mutation with components of the TOR pathway, thus suggesting different cellular roles for both isoforms. We show here that the rapamycin-sensitive phenotype of ptc6 cells is unrelated to the reported role of Pt6 in controlling pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. Lack of Ptc6 results in substantial attenuation of the transcriptional response to rapamycin, particularly in the subset of repressed genes encoding ribosomal proteins or involved in rRNA processing. In contrast, repressed genes involved in translation are Ptc6-independent. These effects cannot be attributed to the regulation of the Sch9 kinase, but they could involve modulation of the binding of the Ifh1 co-activator to specific gene promoters. PMID:23704987

  9. Down-regulation of intestinal scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) expression in rodents under conditions of deficient bile delivery to the intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Voshol, P J; Schwarz, M; Rigotti, A; Krieger, M; Groen, A K; Kuipers, F

    2001-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) is expressed in the intestines of rodents and has been suggested to be involved in the absorption of dietary cholesterol. The aim of this study was to determine whether intestinal SR-BI expression is affected in animal models with altered bile delivery to the intestine and impaired cholesterol absorption. SR-BI protein and mRNA levels were determined in proximal and distal small intestine from control, bile-duct-ligated and bile-diverted rats and from control and bile-duct-ligated mice. Two genetically altered mouse models were studied: multidrug resistance-2 P-glycoprotein-deficient [Mdr2((-/-))] mice that produce phospholipid/cholesterol-free bile, and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase-deficient [Cyp7a((-/-))] mice, which exhibit qualitative and quantitative changes in the bile-salt pool. Cholesterol-absorption efficiency was quantified using a dual-isotope ratio method. SR-BI was present at the apical membrane of enterocytes in control rats and mice and was more abundant in proximal than in distal segments of the intestine. In bile-duct-ligated animals, levels of SR-BI protein were virtually absent and mRNA levels were decreased by approximately 50%. Bile-diverted rats, Mdr2((-/-)) mice and Cyp7a((-/-)) mice showed decreased levels of intestinal SR-BI protein while mRNA levels were unaffected. Cholesterol absorption was reduced by >90% in bile-duct-ligated and bile-diverted animals and in Cyp7a((-/-)) mice, whereas Mdr2((-/-)) mice showed an approximately 50% reduction. This study shows that SR-BI is expressed at the apical membrane of enterocytes of rats and mice, mainly in the upper intestine where cholesterol absorption is greatest, and indicates that bile components play a role in post-transcriptional regulation of SR-BI expression. Factors associated with cholestasis appear to be involved in transcriptional control of intestinal SR-BI expression. The role of SR-BI in the cholesterol-absorption process remains to be

  10. Down-Regulation of CXCL12/CXCR4 Expression Alleviates Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Inflammatory Pain via Inhibiting Glial TLR4 Activation in the Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Zai-Li; Tan, Wen-Fei; Sun, Xi-Jia; Ma, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is important for the pathogenesis of inflammatory reactions and the promotion of pain processing after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in spinal cord. Recently, C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), were demonstrated to be simultaneously critical for inflammatory reactions, thereby facilitating glial activation. However, whether CXCL12/CXCR4 expression can contribute to IR-induced inflammatory pain via spinal TLR4 remained unclear. A rat model was established by 8 min of aortic arch occlusion. The effects of CXCL12/CXCR4 expression and TLR4 activation on inflammatory hyperalgesia were investigated by pretreatments with CXCL12-neutralizing antibody, CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100) and TLR4 antagonist (TAK-242) for 5 consecutive days before surgery. The results indicated that IR induced significant and sustained inflammatory pain, observed as decreases in paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL), throughout the post-injury period. The increased levels of TLR4 and proinflammatory chemokine CXCL12, as well as its receptor, CXCR4, were closely correlated with the PWT and PWL trends. Double immunostaining further suggested that TLR4, which is mainly expressed on astrocytes and microglia, was closely co-localized with CXCL12 and CXCR4 in spinal dorsal horn. As expected, intrathecal pretreatment with the TLR4 antagonist, TAK-242 markedly ameliorated pain by inhibiting astrocytic and microglial activation, as shown by decreases in TLR4 immunoreactivity and the percentage of double-labeled cells. These protective effects were likely due in part to the reduced production of the downstream cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as for the recruitment of CXCL12 and CXCR4. Additionally, intrathecal pretreatment with CXCL12-neutralizing antibody and AMD3100 resulted in similar analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects as those receiving TAK-242 pretreatment. These results suggest that

  11. Down regulation of a gene for cadherin but not alkaline phosphatase associated with Cry1Ab resistance in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in South America and the mid-southern region of the United States. Evolution of insecticide resistance in such target pests is a major threat to the durability of tran...

  12. Fluoxetine ameliorates cognitive impairments induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via down-regulation of HCN2 surface expression in the hippocampal CA1 area in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pan; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Lu, Yun; Chen, Cheng; Li, Changjun; Zhou, Mei; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; Shen, Guanxin; Guo, Lianjun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes cognitive impairments and increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) through several biologically plausible pathways, yet the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), could play a neuroprotective role against chronic cerebral hypoperfusion injury and to clarify underlying mechanisms of its efficacy. Rats were subjected to permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO). Two weeks later, rats were treated with 30 mg/kg fluoxetine (intragastric injection, i.g.) for 6 weeks. Cognitive function was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) and novel objects recognition (NOR) test. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was used to address the underlying synaptic mechanisms. Western blotting was used to quantify the protein levels. Our results showed that fluoxetine treatment significantly improved the cognitive impairments caused by 2VO, accompanied with a reversion of 2VO-induced inhibitory of LTP. Furthermore, 2VO caused an up-regulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 2 (HCN2) surface expressions in the hippocampal CA1 area and fluoxetine also effectively recovered the disorder of HCN2 surface expressions, which may be a possible mechanism that fluoxetine treatment ameliorates cognitive impairments in rats with CCH.

  13. Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by rotenone, through down-regulation of RANKL-induced c-Fos and NFATc1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Han Bok; Lee, Byeong Ki; Oh, Jaemin; Yeon, Jeong-Tae; Choi, Sik-Won; Cho, Hae Joong; Lee, Myeung Su; Kim, Jeong-Joong; Bae, Ji-Myung; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Hun Soo

    2010-03-01

    Osteoclasts are responsible for bone erosion in diseases as diverse as osteoporosis, periodontitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Natural plant-derived products have received recent attention as potential therapeutic and preventative drugs in human disease. The effect of rotenone in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation was examined in this study. Rotenone inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of c-Fos, NFATc1, TRAP, and OSCAR in RANKL-treated BMMs was inhibited by rotenone treatment. Rotenone strongly inhibited p38 and ERK phosphorylation and I-kappaB degradation in RANKL-stimulated BMMs, and did not inhibit JNK phosphorylation. Further, RANKL-induced c-Fos and NFATc1 protein expression was suppressed by rotenone. Rotenone additionally inhibited the bone resorptive activity of differentiated osteoclasts. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone erosion study was also performed to assess the effects of rotenone in vivo. Mice treated with rotenone demonstrated marked attenuation of bone erosion based on Micro CT and histologic analysis of femurs. These results collectively suggested that rotenone demonstrated inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and suppressed inflammatory bone loss in vivo. Rotenone may therefore serve as a useful drug in the prevention of bone loss.

  14. Protein Kinase C-{delta} mediates down-regulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein: involvement in apoptosis induction

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng-Hou; Wu, Ying-Li; Zhao, Meng; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2009-11-15

    We reported previously that NSC606985, a camptothecin analogue, induces apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta ({Delta}PKC-{delta}). By subcellular proteome analysis, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) was identified as being significantly down-regulated in NSC606985-treated leukemic NB4 cells. HnRNP K, a docking protein for DNA, RNA, and transcriptional or translational molecules, is implicated in a host of processes involving the regulation of gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms of hnRNP K reduction and its roles during apoptosis are still not understood. In the present study, we found that, following the appearance of the {Delta}PKC-{delta}, hnRNP K protein was significantly down-regulated in NSC606985, doxorubicin, arsenic trioxide and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. We further provided evidence that {Delta}PKC-{delta} mediated the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein during apoptosis: PKC-{delta} inhibitor could rescue the reduction of hnRNP K; hnRNP K failed to be decreased in PKC-{delta}-deficient apoptotic KG1a cells; conditional induction of {Delta}PKC-{delta} in U937T cells directly down-regulated hnRNP K protein. Moreover, the proteasome inhibitor also inhibited the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein by apoptosis inducer and the conditional expression of {Delta}PKC-{delta}. More intriguingly, the suppression of hnRNP K with siRNA transfection significantly induced apoptosis. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that proteolytically activated PKC-{delta} down-regulates hnRNP K protein in a proteasome-dependent manner, which plays an important role in apoptosis induction.

  15. CIN85 Modulates the Down-regulation of FcγRIIa Expression and Function by c-Cbl in a PKC-dependent Manner in Human Neutrophils*

    PubMed Central

    Marois, Louis; Vaillancourt, Myriam; Paré, Guillaume; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J. G.; Rollet-Labelle, Emmanuelle; Naccache, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    We previously described a non-classical mechanism that arrests FcγRIIa signaling in human neutrophils once engaged by immune complexes or opsonized pathogens. The engagement of FcγRIIa leads to its ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl and degradation by the proteasome. Herein, we further examined some of the events regulating this novel pathway. The adaptor protein CIN85 was described in other systems to be involved in the regulation of the c-Cbl-dependent pathway. We found that CIN85 is expressed in human neutrophils and that it translocates like c-Cbl from the cytosol to the plasma membrane following receptor cross-linking. CIN85 was also recruited to the same subset of high density detergent-resistant membrane fractions in which stimulated FcγRIIa partitioned with c-Cbl. The integrity of these microdomains is essential to the FcγRIIa degradation process because the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibits this event. Silencing the expression of CIN85 by siRNA in dibutyryl cyclic AMP-differentiated PLB 985 cells prevented FcγRIIa degradation and increased IgG-mediated phagocytosis. Confocal microscopy revealed that the presence of CIN85 is essential to the proper sorting of FcγRIIa during endocytosis. We also provide direct evidence that CIN85 is a substrate of serine/threonine kinase PKCs. Classical PKCs positively regulate FcγRIIa ubiquitination and degradation because these events were inhibited by Gö6976, a classical PKC inhibitor. We conclude that the ubiquitination and degradation of stimulated FcγRIIa mediated by c-Cbl are positively regulated by the adaptor protein CIN85 in a PKC-dependent manner and that these events contribute to the termination of FcγRIIa signaling. PMID:21372129

  16. Down-regulation of L-selectin expression in neutrophils by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: role of intracellular ATP concentration.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gaviro, M V; Domínguez-Jiménez, C; Carretero, J M; Sabando, P; González-Alvaro, I; Sánchez-Madrid, F; Díaz-González, F

    2000-11-15

    L-selectin is an adhesion molecule that plays an essential role in the early events of the inflammatory response. Our group has recently described that several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are able to induce both in vivo and in vitro the shedding of L-selectin in neutrophils through an unknown mechanism. In this work, we have studied potential mechanisms involved in the shedding of L-selectin induced by NSAIDs. This effect of NSAIDs did not involve any detectable intracellular calcium flux. Pretreatment of neutrophils either with Ro 31-8220 and H7, 2 specific inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), or with inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases such as tyrphostin A25 or herbimycin A did not prevent the NSAID-mediated L-selectin shedding. However, the KD-IX-73-4, an inhibitor of L-selectin proteolysis was able to block the effect of NSAIDs on L-selectin expression. Remarkably, NSAIDs caused a variable reduction in the neutrophil intracellular ATP concentration that highly correlated with the differential ability of NSAIDs to trigger L-selectin shedding (r = 0.8, P <.01). In agreement with this finding, azide plus 2-deoxy-D-glucose, 2 metabolic blockers, also induced a rapid L-selectin shedding (65% +/- 8%) without affecting the neutrophil viability, activation, or expression level of other surface molecules with soluble isoforms such as CD16 and CD59. These data indicate that the maintenance of L-selectin on the neutrophil surface requires energy consumption, which suggests that L-selectin is shed in neutrophils by default. Interestingly, NSAIDs seem to cause the shedding of L-selectin, at least in part, through the reduction of the intracellular ATP concentration.

  17. MiR-34a-5p promotes multi-chemoresistance of osteosarcoma through down-regulation of the DLL1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Youguang; Zhao, Fangfang; Wang, Haiyan; Cai, Shanbao

    2017-01-01

    MiR-34a-5p has been implicated in the tumorigenesis and progression of several types of cancer. However, the role of miR-34a-5p in osteosarcoma (OS) remains largely unknown. This study was performed in two multi-chemosensitive (G-292 and MG63.2) and two resistant (SJSA-1 and MNNG/HOS) OS cell lines. MiR-34a-5p promotes OS multi-chemoresistance via its repression of the Delta-like ligand 1 (DLL1) gene, the ligand of the Notch pathway, and thus negatively correlates with OS chemoresistance. The siRNA-mediated repression of the DLL1 gene suppressed cell apoptosis and de-sensitized G-292 and MG63.2 cells, while overexpression of DLL1 sensitized SJSA-1 and MNNG/HOS cells to drug-induced cell death. In agreement with the changes in the drug-induced cell death, the activity of the ATF2/ATF3/ATF4 signaling pathway was significantly altered by a forced reversal of miR-34a-5p or DLL1 levels in OS cells. DLL1 is a target of miR-34a-5p and negatively regulates the multi-chemoresistance of OS. This study suggested that miR-34a-5p, DLL1 and the ATF2/ATF3/ATF4 signaling pathway-associated genes are the potential diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets for an effective chemotherapy of OS. Our results also provide novel insights into the effective chemotherapy for OS patients. PMID:28281638

  18. Quercetin Protects Mice from ConA-Induced Hepatitis by Inhibiting HMGB1-TLR Expression and Down-Regulating the Nuclear Factor Kappa B Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Liu, Hong-chun; Yao, Qun-yan; Xu, Bei-li; Zhang, Shun-cai; Tu, Chuan-tao

    2016-02-01

    The dietary flavonoid quercetin has hepatoprotective effects. We analyzed the effects of quercetin on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis in mice and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action. Mice were administered quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min before intravenous administration of ConA. Quercetin pretreatment significantly reduced the ConA-induced elevations in plasma aminotransferase concentrations and liver necrosis, as well as reducing serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-4. Quercetin pretreatment also reduced expression of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in liver tissues. Quercetin pretreatment significantly inhibited degradation of inhibitory kappa B alpha and modulated ConA-induced nuclear translocation in the liver of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65. These results demonstrate that quercetin protects against ConA-mediated hepatitis in mice by attenuating the HMGB1-TLRs-NF-κB signaling pathway.

  19. α-Solanine inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor expression by down-regulating the ERK1/2-HIF-1α and STAT3 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhengde; Huang, Chaohao; Xu, Yaya; Xiao, Yuwu; Tang, Lili; Dai, Juji; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Bicheng; Zhou, Mengtao

    2016-01-15

    In tumors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contributes to angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and tumorigenesis. In our previous study, we found that α-solanine, which is widespread in solanaceae, has a strong anti-cancer effect under normoxia. However, it is unknown whether α-solanine has a similar effect under hypoxia. We used cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to mimic hypoxia in vitro. HIF-1α, which is almost undetectable under normoxia, was significantly increased. Simultaneously, another regulator of VEGF, STAT3, was also significantly activated by CoCl2. We utilized α-solanine in co-culture with CoCl2. α-solanine decreased the expression of VEGF and loss of E-cadherin. α-solanine also suppressed the activation of phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), HIF-1α, and STAT3 signaling. The results provide new evidence that α-solanine has a strong anti-cancer effect via the ERK1/2-HIF-1α and STAT3 signaling pathways and suggest that it may be a potential new drug.

  20. Global gene expression analyses of hematopoietic stem cell-like cell lines with inducible Lhx2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Karin; Wirta, Valtteri; Dahl, Lina; Bruce, Sara; Lundeberg, Joakim; Carlsson, Leif; Williams, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Background Expression of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 in murine hematopoietic cells allows for the generation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-like cell lines. To address the molecular basis of Lhx2 function, we generated HSC-like cell lines where Lhx2 expression is regulated by a tet-on system and hence dependent on the presence of doxycyclin (dox). These cell lines efficiently down-regulate Lhx2 expression upon dox withdrawal leading to a rapid differentiation into various myeloid cell types. Results Global gene expression of these cell lines cultured in dox was compared to different time points after dox withdrawal using microarray technology. We identified 267 differentially expressed genes. The majority of the genes overlapping with HSC-specific databases were those down-regulated after turning off Lhx2 expression and a majority of the genes overlapping with those defined as late progenitor-specific genes were the up-regulated genes, suggesting that these cell lines represent a relevant model system for normal HSCs also at the level of global gene expression. Moreover, in situ hybridisations of several genes down-regulated after dox withdrawal showed overlapping expression patterns with Lhx2 in various tissues during embryonic development. Conclusion Global gene expression analysis of HSC-like cell lines with inducible Lhx2 expression has identified genes putatively linked to self-renewal / differentiation of HSCs, and function of Lhx2 in organ development and stem / progenitor cells of non-hematopoietic origin. PMID:16600034

  1. Carnosic acid sensitized TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through down-regulation of c-FLIP and Bcl-2 expression at the post translational levels and CHOP-dependent up-regulation of DR5, Bim, and PUMA expression in human carcinoma caki cells

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jae Hoon; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Carnosic acid is a phenolic diterpene from rosmarinus officinalis, and has multiple functions, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-tumor activity. In this study, we examined whether carnosic acid could sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We found that carnosic acid markedly induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN, and A498), and human hepatocellular carcinoma (SK-HEP-1), and human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cells, but not normal cells (TMCK-1 and HSF). Carnosic acid induced down-regulation of c-FLIP and Bcl-2 expression at the post-translational levels, and the over-expression of c-FLIP and Bcl-2 markedly blocked carnosic acid-induced TRAIL sensitization. Furthermore, carnosic acid induced death receptor (DR)5, Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim), and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression at the transcriptional levels via CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP). Down-regulation of CHOP expression by siRNA inhibited DR5, Bim, and PUMA expression, and attenuated carnosic acid plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our study demonstrates that carnosic acid enhances sensitization against TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through the down-regulation of c-FLIP and Bcl-2 expression, and up-regulation of ER stress-mediated DR5, Bim, and PUMA expression at the transcriptional levels. PMID:25596735

  2. Down-regulation of KORRIGAN-like endo-β-1,4-glucanase genes impacts carbon partitioning, mycorrhizal colonization and biomass production in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; Engle, Nancy L.; Bali, Garima; Jawdy, Sara S.; Sykes, Robert W.; Davis, Mark F.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Payyavula, Raja S.; Labbe, Jessy L.

    2016-10-04

    Here, a greater understanding of the genetic regulation of plant cell wall remodeling and the impact of modified cell walls on plant performance is important for the development of sustainable biofuel crops. Here, we studied the impact of down-regulating KORRIGAN-like cell wall biosynthesis genes, belonging to the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene family, on Populus growth, metabolism and the ability to interact with symbiotic microbes. The reductions in cellulose content and lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl unit ratio, and increase in cellulose crystallinity of cell walls of PdKOR RNAi plants corroborated the functional role of PdKOR in cell wall biosynthesis. Altered metabolism and reduced growth characteristics of RNAi plants revealed new implications on carbon allocation and partitioning. The distinctive metabolome phenotype comprised of a higher phenolic and salicylic acid content, and reduced lignin, shikimic acid and maleic acid content relative to control. Plant sustainability implications of modified cell walls on beneficial plant-microbe interactions were explored via co-culture with an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Laccaria bicolor. A significant increase in the mycorrhization rate was observed in transgenic plants, leading to measurable beneficial growth effects. These findings present new evidence for functional interconnectedness of cellulose biosynthesis pathway, metabolism and mycorrhizal association in plants, and further emphasize the consideration of the sustainability implications of plant trait improvement efforts.

  3. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 protein (XRCC1) expression by Hsp90 inhibition enhances the gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2015-05-15

    Gefitinib (Iressa{sup R}, ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT signaling activation. It has been shown that inhibition of Hsp90 function can enhance antitumor activity of EGFR-TKI. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein in base excision repair, which could be regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in gefitinib alone or combination with an Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. In this study, gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through ERK1/2 and AKT inactivation in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Knocking down XRCC1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of XRCC1 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of gefitinib. Combining treatment of gefitinib with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in enhancing the reduction of XRCC1 protein and mRNA levels in gefitinib-exposed A549 and H1975 cells. Compared to a single agent alone, gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level as well as the cell survival suppressed by an Hsp90 inhibitor and gefitinib. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 can enhance the sensitivity of gefitinib for NSCLC cells. - Highlights: • Gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression in NSCLC cells. • Knocking down XRCC1 expression enhanced the cytotoxic effect of gefitinib. • Gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in synergistically cytotoxicity.

  4. Chitosan supplementation reduces enteric colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens and down-regulates expression of colonization genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and poultry is considered as the most common source of human infections. Campylobacter is prevalent in most poultry flocks and a reduction of Campylobacter in poultry would greatly reduce the risk of campylo...

  5. Neuromodulatory propensity of Bacopa monniera against scopolamine-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells via down-regulation of AChE and up-regulation of BDNF and muscarnic-1 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Pandareesh, M D; Anand, T

    2013-10-01

    Scopolamine is a competitive antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and thus classified as an anti-muscarinic and anti-cholinergic drug. PC12 cell lines possess muscarinic receptors and mimic the neuronal cells. These cells were treated with different concentrations of scopolamine for 24 h and were protected from the cellular damage by pretreatment with Bacopa monniera extract (BME). In current study, we have explored the molecular mechanism of neuromodulatory and antioxidant propensity of (BME) to attenuate scopolamine-induced cytotoxicity using PC12 cells. Our results elucidate that pretreatment of PC12 cells with BME ameliorates the mitochondrial and plasma membrane damage induced by 3 μg/ml scopolamine to 54.83 and 30.30 % as evidenced by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase assays respectively. BME (100 μg/ml) ameliorated scopolamine effect by down-regulating acetylcholine esterase and up-regulating brain-derived neurotropic factor and muscarinic muscarinic-1 receptor expression. BME pretreated cells also showed significant protection against scopolamine-induced toxicity by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation. This result indicates that the scopolamine-induced cytotoxicity and neuromodulatory changes were restored with the pretreatment of BME.

  6. Artemisolide is a typical inhibitor of I{kappa}B kinase {beta} targeting cysteine-179 residue and down-regulates NF-{kappa}B-dependent TNF-{alpha} expression in LPS-activated macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Byung Hak; Lee, Jun-Young; Seo, Jee Hee; Lee, Hwa Young; Ryu, Shi Yong; Ahn, Byung Woo; Lee, Chong-Kil; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2007-09-28

    Nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B regulates a central common signaling for immunity and cell survival. Artemisolide (ATM) was previously isolated as a NF-{kappa}B inhibitor from a plant of Artemisia asiatica. However, molecular basis of ATM on NF-{kappa}B activation remains to be defined. Here, we demonstrate that ATM is a typical inhibitor of I{kappa}B kinase {beta} (IKK{beta}), resulting in inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-{kappa}B activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. ATM inhibited the kinase activity of highly purified IKK{beta} and also LPS-induced IKK activity in the cells. Moreover, the effect of ATM on IKK{beta} activity was completely abolished by substitution of Cys-179 residue of IKK{beta} to Ala residue, indicating direct targeting site of ATM. ATM could inhibit I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells and subsequently prevent NF-{kappa}B activation. Further, we demonstrate that ATM down-regulates NF-{kappa}B-dependent TNF-{alpha} expression. Taken together, this study provides a pharmacological potential of ATM in NF-{kappa}B-dependent inflammatory disorders.

  7. RNA-sequence analysis of gene expression from honeybees (Apis mellifera) infected with Nosema ceranae

    PubMed Central

    Fougeroux, André; Petit, Fabien; Anselmo, Anna; Gorni, Chiara; Cucurachi, Marco; Cersini, Antonella; Granato, Anna; Cardeti, Giusy; Formato, Giovanni; Mutinelli, Franco; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Williams, John L.; Botti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are constantly subjected to many biotic stressors including parasites. This study examined honeybees infected with Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae). N. ceranae infection increases the bees energy requirements and may contribute to their decreased survival. RNA-seq was used to investigate gene expression at days 5, 10 and 15 Post Infection (P.I) with N. ceranae. The expression levels of genes, isoforms, alternative transcription start sites (TSS) and differential promoter usage revealed a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation suggesting that bees use a range of tactics to cope with the stress of N. ceranae infection. N. ceranae infection may cause reduced immune function in the bees by: (i)disturbing the host amino acids metabolism (ii) down-regulating expression of antimicrobial peptides (iii) down-regulation of cuticle coatings and (iv) down-regulation of odorant binding proteins. PMID:28350872

  8. RNA-sequence analysis of gene expression from honeybees (Apis mellifera) infected with Nosema ceranae.

    PubMed

    Badaoui, Bouabid; Fougeroux, André; Petit, Fabien; Anselmo, Anna; Gorni, Chiara; Cucurachi, Marco; Cersini, Antonella; Granato, Anna; Cardeti, Giusy; Formato, Giovanni; Mutinelli, Franco; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Williams, John L; Botti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are constantly subjected to many biotic stressors including parasites. This study examined honeybees infected with Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae). N. ceranae infection increases the bees energy requirements and may contribute to their decreased survival. RNA-seq was used to investigate gene expression at days 5, 10 and 15 Post Infection (P.I) with N. ceranae. The expression levels of genes, isoforms, alternative transcription start sites (TSS) and differential promoter usage revealed a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation suggesting that bees use a range of tactics to cope with the stress of N. ceranae infection. N. ceranae infection may cause reduced immune function in the bees by: (i)disturbing the host amino acids metabolism (ii) down-regulating expression of antimicrobial peptides (iii) down-regulation of cuticle coatings and (iv) down-regulation of odorant binding proteins.

  9. Triptolide down-regulates COX-2 expression and PGE2 release by suppressing the activity of NF-κB and MAP kinases in lipopolysaccharide-treated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yu; Fang, Marong; Wang, Jing; Yu, Haiyan; Hu, Zhiying; Yew, David T; Chen, Wei

    2012-03-01

    As an active compound extracted from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii, triptolide (TP) was demonstrated to have potent antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive properties in previous studies. Recently, it has been shown that TP prevented the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of rats in a model of Parkinson's disease, but little is known about the precise neuroprotective mechanism of TP. This study was designed to elucidate whether the neuroprotective effect of TP is partially based on its direct inhibition of inflammatory molecules by investigating the effects of TP on the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) related to the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PC12 cells. The activation of related upstream molecules such as NF-κB, P38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and beta-alanyl-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase (AKT), in PC12 cells were investigated by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that TP directly inhibited the expression of both mRNA and protein of COX-2 (p < 0.01), decreased PGE2 production (p < 0.01) in a dose-dependent manner, down-regulated NF-κB activity (p < 0.01), and significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2 (p42/p44) and AKT in PC12 cells after LPS challenge. This suggests that the neuroprotective effects of TP may be partially mediated by direct inhibition of the expression of COX-2, activation of NF-κB, and phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2 (p42/p44) and AKT proteins of neuronal cells.

  10. High-dose green tea polyphenols induce nephrotoxicity in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice by down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and heat-shock protein expressions.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hirofumi; Akiyama, Satoko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nesumi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Takuji; Murakami, Akira

    2011-11-01

    Previously, we reported that oral feeding of 1% green tea polyphenols (GTPs) aggravated the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of 1% GTPs in several organs from normal and DSS-exposed mice. Sixty-two male ICR mice were initially divided into four groups. Non-treated group (group 1, n = 15) was given standard diet and water, GTPs (group 2, n = 15) received 1% GTPs in diet and water, DSS (group 3, n = 15) received diet and 5% DSS in water, and GTPs + DSS group (group 4, n = 17) received 1% GTPs in diet and 5% DSS in water. We found that group 4 significantly increased (P < 0.05) kidney weight, the levels of serum creatinine and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in both kidney and liver, as compared with those in group 3. The mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and heat-shock proteins (HSPs) in group 4 were lower than those of group 3. For instance, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), HSP27, and 90 mRNA in the kidney of group 4 were dramatically down-regulated as compared with those of group 3. Furthermore, 1% GTPs diet decreased the expression of HO-1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and HSP90 in kidney and liver of non-treated mice. Taken together, our results indicate that high-dose GTPs diet disrupts kidney functions through the reduction of antioxidant enzymes and heat-shock protein expressions in not only colitis but also non-treated ICR mice.

  11. [Cinnamaldehyde decreases interleukin-1beta induced PGE2 production by down-regulation of mPGES-1 and COX-2 expression in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changbin; Li, Canghai; Sui, Feng; Lu, Yin; Li, Lanfang; Guo, Shuying; Yang, Na; Geng, Daitao; Jiang, Tingliang

    2012-05-01

    Cinnamaldehyde was shown to have significant anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic actions in studies from both others' and our lab. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays a key role in generation of these pathological states, while PGE, synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is one of crucial biological elements in the process of PGE2 production. And as a downstream inducible terminal prostaglandin synthase of COX-2, mPGES-1 is now regarded as a more promising novel drug target than COX-2 and is attracting more and more attention from both academia and pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of present study was to further investigate the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic molecular mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde based on the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264. 7 in vitro. The PGE2 was identified by using the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 at mRNA and protein levels was detected by the Real-time PCR and Western blotting methods respectively. The experimental results suggested that cinnamaldehyde could evidently reverse the increased production of PGE2induced by IL-1beta. Moreover, the up-regulated expression levels of mPGES-1 and COX-2 were significatly decreased. Together, these results provide compelling evidence that the down-regulated actions to both the production of PGE2 as well as the expression