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Sample records for gene flow marine

  1. Dispersal and gene flow in free-living marine nematodes.

    PubMed

    Derycke, Sofie; Backeljau, Thierry; Moens, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal and gene flow determine connectivity among populations, and can be studied through population genetics and phylogeography. We here review the results of such a framework for free-living marine nematodes. Although field experiments have illustrated substantial dispersal in nematodes at ecological time scales, analysis of the genetic diversity illustrated the importance of priority effects, founder effects and genetic bottlenecks for population structuring between patches <1 km apart. In contrast, only little genetic structuring was observed within an estuary (<50 km), indicating that these small scale fluctuations in genetic differentiation are stabilized over deeper time scales through extensive gene flow. Interestingly, nematode species with contrasting life histories (extreme colonizers vs persisters) or with different habitat preferences (algae vs sediment) show similar, low genetic structuring. Finally, historical events have shaped the genetic pattern of marine nematodes and show that gene flow is restricted at large geographical scales. We also discuss the presence of substantial cryptic diversity in marine nematodes, and end with highlighting future important steps to further unravel nematode evolution and diversity. PMID:23356547

  2. Dispersal and gene flow in free-living marine nematodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal and gene flow determine connectivity among populations, and can be studied through population genetics and phylogeography. We here review the results of such a framework for free-living marine nematodes. Although field experiments have illustrated substantial dispersal in nematodes at ecological time scales, analysis of the genetic diversity illustrated the importance of priority effects, founder effects and genetic bottlenecks for population structuring between patches <1 km apart. In contrast, only little genetic structuring was observed within an estuary (<50 km), indicating that these small scale fluctuations in genetic differentiation are stabilized over deeper time scales through extensive gene flow. Interestingly, nematode species with contrasting life histories (extreme colonizers vs persisters) or with different habitat preferences (algae vs sediment) show similar, low genetic structuring. Finally, historical events have shaped the genetic pattern of marine nematodes and show that gene flow is restricted at large geographical scales. We also discuss the presence of substantial cryptic diversity in marine nematodes, and end with highlighting future important steps to further unravel nematode evolution and diversity. PMID:23356547

  3. Limits to gene flow in a cosmopolitan marine planktonic diatom

    PubMed Central

    Leliaert, Frederik; Backeljau, Thierry; Debeer, Ann-Eline; Kotaki, Yuichi; Rhodes, Lesley; Lundholm, Nina; Sabbe, Koen; Vyverman, Wim

    2010-01-01

    The role of geographic isolation in marine microbial speciation is hotly debated because of the high dispersal potential and large population sizes of planktonic microorganisms and the apparent lack of strong dispersal barriers in the open sea. Here, we show that gene flow between distant populations of the globally distributed, bloom-forming diatom species Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (clade I) is limited and follows a strong isolation by distance pattern. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis implies that under appropriate geographic and environmental circumstances, like the pronounced climatic changes in the Pleistocene, population structuring may lead to speciation and hence may play an important role in diversification of marine planktonic microorganisms. A better understanding of the factors that control population structuring is thus essential to reveal the role of allopatric speciation in marine microorganisms. PMID:20615950

  4. Seascape analysis reveals regional gene flow patterns among populations of a marine planktonic diatom

    PubMed Central

    Godhe, Anna; Egardt, Jenny; Kleinhans, David; Sundqvist, Lisa; Hordoir, Robinson; Jonsson, Per R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the gene flow of the common marine diatom, Skeletonema marinoi, in Scandinavian waters and tested the null hypothesis of panmixia. Sediment samples were collected from the Danish Straits, Kattegat and Skagerrak. Individual strains were established from germinated resting stages. A total of 350 individuals were genotyped by eight microsatellite markers. Conventional F-statistics showed significant differentiation between the samples. We therefore investigated whether the genetic structure could be explained using genetic models based on isolation by distance (IBD) or by oceanographic connectivity. Patterns of oceanographic circulation are seasonally dependent and therefore we estimated how well local oceanographic connectivity explains gene flow month by month. We found no significant relationship between genetic differentiation and geographical distance. Instead, the genetic structure of this dominant marine primary producer is best explained by local oceanographic connectivity promoting gene flow in a primarily south to north direction throughout the year. Oceanographic data were consistent with the significant FST values between several pairs of samples. Because even a small amount of genetic exchange prevents the accumulation of genetic differences in F-statistics, we hypothesize that local retention at each sample site, possibly as resting stages, is an important component in explaining the observed genetic structure. PMID:24174105

  5. Barriers to Gene Flow in the Marine Environment: Insights from Two Common Intertidal Limpet Species of the Atlantic and Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Sá-Pinto, Alexandra; Branco, Madalena S.; Alexandrino, Paulo B.; Fontaine, Michaël C.; Baird, Stuart J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the scale of dispersal and the mechanisms governing gene flow in marine environments remains fragmentary despite being essential for understanding evolution of marine biota and to design management plans. We use the limpets Patella ulyssiponensis and Patella rustica as models for identifying factors affecting gene flow in marine organisms across the North-East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. A set of allozyme loci and a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome C oxidase subunit I were screened for genetic variation through starch gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing, respectively. An approach combining clustering algorithms with clinal analyses was used to test for the existence of barriers to gene flow and estimate their geographic location and abruptness. Sharp breaks in the genetic composition of individuals were observed in the transitions between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and across southern Italian shores. An additional break within the Atlantic cluster separates samples from the Alboran Sea and Atlantic African shores from those of the Iberian Atlantic shores. The geographic congruence of the genetic breaks detected in these two limpet species strongly supports the existence of transpecific barriers to gene flow in the Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic. This leads to testable hypotheses regarding factors restricting gene flow across the study area. PMID:23239977

  6. Barriers to gene flow in the marine environment: insights from two common intertidal limpet species of the Atlantic and Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Sá-Pinto, Alexandra; Branco, Madalena S; Alexandrino, Paulo B; Fontaine, Michaël C; Baird, Stuart J E

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the scale of dispersal and the mechanisms governing gene flow in marine environments remains fragmentary despite being essential for understanding evolution of marine biota and to design management plans. We use the limpets Patella ulyssiponensis and Patella rustica as models for identifying factors affecting gene flow in marine organisms across the North-East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. A set of allozyme loci and a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome C oxidase subunit I were screened for genetic variation through starch gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing, respectively. An approach combining clustering algorithms with clinal analyses was used to test for the existence of barriers to gene flow and estimate their geographic location and abruptness. Sharp breaks in the genetic composition of individuals were observed in the transitions between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and across southern Italian shores. An additional break within the Atlantic cluster separates samples from the Alboran Sea and Atlantic African shores from those of the Iberian Atlantic shores. The geographic congruence of the genetic breaks detected in these two limpet species strongly supports the existence of transpecific barriers to gene flow in the Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic. This leads to testable hypotheses regarding factors restricting gene flow across the study area.

  7. Conservation, Spillover and Gene Flow within a Network of Northern European Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Huserbråten, Mats Brockstedt Olsen; Moland, Even; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben Moland; André, Carl; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2013-01-01

    To ensure that marine protected areas (MPAs) benefit conservation and fisheries, the effectiveness of MPA designs has to be evaluated in field studies. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we empirically assessed the design of a network of northern MPAs where fishing for European lobster (Homarusgammarus) is prohibited. First, we demonstrate a high level of residency and survival (50%) for almost a year (363 days) within MPAs, despite small MPA sizes (0.5-1 km2). Second, we demonstrate limited export (4.7%) of lobsters tagged within MPAs (N = 1810) to neighbouring fished areas, over a median distance of 1.6 km out to maximum 21 km away from MPA centres. In comparison, median movement distance of lobsters recaptured within MPAs was 164 m, and recapture rate was high (40%). Third, we demonstrate a high level of gene flow within the study region, with an estimated FST of less than 0.0001 over a ≈ 400 km coastline. Thus, the restricted movement of older life stages, combined with a high level of gene flow suggests that connectivity is primarily driven by larval drift. Larval export from the MPAs can most likely affect areas far beyond their borders. Our findings are of high importance for the design of MPA networks for sedentary species with pelagic early life stages. PMID:24039927

  8. Southern hospitality: a latitudinal gradient in gene flow in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P; Eernisse, Douglas J

    2007-03-01

    In recent years population genetics and phylogeographic studies have become increasingly valuable tools for inferring both historical and present-day genetic patterns within marine species. Here, we take a comparative approach to population-level study, analyzing original mitochondrial DNA data from 969 individuals representing 28 chiton (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) species to uncover large-scale genetic patterns along the Pacific coast of North America. The data reveal a distinct latitudinal connectivity gradient among chitons: species that exist at lower latitudes tend to have more isolated populations. This trend appears to be a product of between-species differences; within species, no significant gradient in connectivity is observed. Lower average annual sea surface temperatures are hypothesized to contribute to longer larval duration (and by extension, greater connectivity) among lecithotrophic species, providing a mechanism for the observed positive correlation between gene flow and latitude. Because increased isolation among populations may lead to speciation, a latitudinal trend in gene flow may contribute to the increased species diversity observed at lower latitudes.

  9. Southern hospitality: a latitudinal gradient in gene flow in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P; Eernisse, Douglas J

    2007-03-01

    In recent years population genetics and phylogeographic studies have become increasingly valuable tools for inferring both historical and present-day genetic patterns within marine species. Here, we take a comparative approach to population-level study, analyzing original mitochondrial DNA data from 969 individuals representing 28 chiton (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) species to uncover large-scale genetic patterns along the Pacific coast of North America. The data reveal a distinct latitudinal connectivity gradient among chitons: species that exist at lower latitudes tend to have more isolated populations. This trend appears to be a product of between-species differences; within species, no significant gradient in connectivity is observed. Lower average annual sea surface temperatures are hypothesized to contribute to longer larval duration (and by extension, greater connectivity) among lecithotrophic species, providing a mechanism for the observed positive correlation between gene flow and latitude. Because increased isolation among populations may lead to speciation, a latitudinal trend in gene flow may contribute to the increased species diversity observed at lower latitudes. PMID:17348933

  10. Evidence for extensive gene flow and Thermotoga subpopulations in subsurface and marine environments

    PubMed Central

    Nesbø, Camilla L; S Swithers, Kristen; Dahle, Håkon; Haverkamp, Thomas HA; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre; Sokolova, Tatiana; Kublanov, Ilya; Zhaxybayeva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Oil reservoirs represent a nutrient-rich ecological niche of the deep biosphere. Although most oil reservoirs are occupied by microbial populations, when and how the microbes colonized these environments remains unanswered. To address this question, we compared 11 genomes of Thermotoga maritima-like hyperthermophilic bacteria from two environment types: subsurface oil reservoirs in the North Sea and Japan, and marine sites located in the Kuril Islands, Italy and the Azores. We complemented our genomes with Thermotoga DNA from publicly available subsurface metagenomes from North America and Australia. Our analysis revealed complex non-bifurcating evolutionary history of the isolates' genomes, suggesting high amounts of gene flow across all sampled locations, a conjecture supported by numerous recombination events. Genomes from the same type of environment tend to be more similar, and have exchanged more genes with each other than with geographically close isolates from different types of environments. Hence, Thermotoga populations of oil reservoirs do not appear isolated, a requirement of the ‘burial and isolation' hypothesis, under which reservoir bacteria are descendants of the isolated communities buried with sediments that over time became oil reservoirs. Instead, our analysis supports a more complex view, where bacteria from subsurface and marine populations have been continuously migrating into the oil reservoirs and influencing their genetic composition. The Thermotoga spp. in the oil reservoirs in the North Sea and Japan probably entered the reservoirs shortly after they were formed. An Australian oil reservoir, on the other hand, was likely colonized very recently, perhaps during human reservoir development. PMID:25500512

  11. Population genetic studies revealed local adaptation in a high gene-flow marine fish, the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Liu, Shufang; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Guo, Liang; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2013-01-01

    The genetic differentiation of many marine fish species is low. Yet local adaptation may be common in marine fish species as the vast and changing marine environment provides more chances for natural selection. Here, we used anonymous as well as known protein gene linked microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA to detect the population structure of the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) in the Northwest Pacific marginal seas. Among these loci, we detected at least two microsatellites, anonymous H16 and HSP27 to be clearly under diversifying selection in outlier tests. Sequence cloning and analysis revealed that H16 was located in the intron of BAHCC1 gene. Landscape genetic analysis showed that H16 mutations were significantly associated with temperature, which further supported the diversifying selection at this locus. These marker types presented different patterns of population structure: (i) mitochondrial DNA phylogeny showed no evidence of genetic divergence and demonstrated only one glacial linage; (ii) population differentiation using putatively neutral microsatellites presented a pattern of high gene flow in the L. polyactis. In addition, several genetic barriers were identified; (iii) the population differentiation pattern revealed by loci under diversifying selection was rather different from that revealed by putatively neutral loci. The results above suggest local adaptation in the small yellow croaker. In summary, population genetic studies based on different marker types disentangle the effects of demographic history, migration, genetic drift and local adaptation on population structure and also provide valuable new insights for the design of management strategies in L. polyactis.

  12. Population Structure and Adaptive Divergence in a High Gene Flow Marine Fish: The Small Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing-Jian; Zhang, Bai-Dong; Xue, Dong-Xiu; Gao, Tian-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of genetic diversity has been long considered as a key component of policy development for management and conservation of marine fishes. However, unraveling the population genetic structure of migratory fish species is challenging due to high potential for gene flow. Despite the shallow population differentiation revealed by putatively neutral loci, the higher genetic differentiation with panels of putatively adaptive loci could provide greater resolution for stock identification. Here, patterns of population differentiation of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) were investigated by genotyping 15 highly polymorphic microsatellites in 337 individuals of 15 geographic populations collected from both spawning and overwintering grounds. Outlier analyses indicated that the locus Lpol03 might be under directional selection, which showed a strong homology with Grid2 gene encoding the glutamate receptor δ2 protein (GluRδ2). Based on Lpol03, two distinct clusters were identified by both STRUCTURE and PCoA analyses, suggesting that there were two overwintering aggregations of L. polyactis. A novel migration pattern was suggested for L. polyactis, which was inconsistent with results of previous studies based on historical fishing yield statistics. These results provided new perspectives on the population genetic structure and migratory routes of L. polyactis, which could have significant implications for sustainable management and utilization of this important fishery resource. PMID:27100462

  13. Population Structure and Adaptive Divergence in a High Gene Flow Marine Fish: The Small Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis)

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Dong-Xiu; Gao, Tian-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of genetic diversity has been long considered as a key component of policy development for management and conservation of marine fishes. However, unraveling the population genetic structure of migratory fish species is challenging due to high potential for gene flow. Despite the shallow population differentiation revealed by putatively neutral loci, the higher genetic differentiation with panels of putatively adaptive loci could provide greater resolution for stock identification. Here, patterns of population differentiation of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) were investigated by genotyping 15 highly polymorphic microsatellites in 337 individuals of 15 geographic populations collected from both spawning and overwintering grounds. Outlier analyses indicated that the locus Lpol03 might be under directional selection, which showed a strong homology with Grid2 gene encoding the glutamate receptor δ2 protein (GluRδ2). Based on Lpol03, two distinct clusters were identified by both STRUCTURE and PCoA analyses, suggesting that there were two overwintering aggregations of L. polyactis. A novel migration pattern was suggested for L. polyactis, which was inconsistent with results of previous studies based on historical fishing yield statistics. These results provided new perspectives on the population genetic structure and migratory routes of L. polyactis, which could have significant implications for sustainable management and utilization of this important fishery resource. PMID:27100462

  14. Population Structure and Adaptive Divergence in a High Gene Flow Marine Fish: The Small Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing-Jian; Zhang, Bai-Dong; Xue, Dong-Xiu; Gao, Tian-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of genetic diversity has been long considered as a key component of policy development for management and conservation of marine fishes. However, unraveling the population genetic structure of migratory fish species is challenging due to high potential for gene flow. Despite the shallow population differentiation revealed by putatively neutral loci, the higher genetic differentiation with panels of putatively adaptive loci could provide greater resolution for stock identification. Here, patterns of population differentiation of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) were investigated by genotyping 15 highly polymorphic microsatellites in 337 individuals of 15 geographic populations collected from both spawning and overwintering grounds. Outlier analyses indicated that the locus Lpol03 might be under directional selection, which showed a strong homology with Grid2 gene encoding the glutamate receptor δ2 protein (GluRδ2). Based on Lpol03, two distinct clusters were identified by both STRUCTURE and PCoA analyses, suggesting that there were two overwintering aggregations of L. polyactis. A novel migration pattern was suggested for L. polyactis, which was inconsistent with results of previous studies based on historical fishing yield statistics. These results provided new perspectives on the population genetic structure and migratory routes of L. polyactis, which could have significant implications for sustainable management and utilization of this important fishery resource.

  15. Progressive colonization and restricted gene flow shape island-dependent population structure in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) inhabit the coastlines of large and small islands throughout the Galápagos archipelago, providing a rich system to study the spatial and temporal factors influencing the phylogeographic distribution and population structure of a species. Here, we analyze the microevolution of marine iguanas using the complete mitochondrial control region (CR) as well as 13 microsatellite loci representing more than 1200 individuals from 13 islands. Results CR data show that marine iguanas occupy three general clades: one that is widely distributed across the northern archipelago, and likely spread from east to west by way of the South Equatorial current, a second that is found mostly on the older eastern and central islands, and a third that is limited to the younger northern and western islands. Generally, the CR haplotype distribution pattern supports the colonization of the archipelago from the older, eastern islands to the younger, western islands. However, there are also signatures of recurrent, historical gene flow between islands after population establishment. Bayesian cluster analysis of microsatellite genotypes indicates the existence of twenty distinct genetic clusters generally following a one-cluster-per-island pattern. However, two well-differentiated clusters were found on the easternmost island of San Cristóbal, while nine distinct and highly intermixed clusters were found on youngest, westernmost islands of Isabela and Fernandina. High mtDNA and microsatellite genetic diversity were observed for populations on Isabela and Fernandina that may be the result of a recent population expansion and founder events from multiple sources. Conclusions While a past genetic study based on pure FST analysis suggested that marine iguana populations display high levels of nuclear (but not mitochondrial) gene flow due to male-biased dispersal, the results of our sex-biased dispersal tests and the finding of strong genetic

  16. Gene flow and bacterial transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, B.

    1993-07-01

    It is common knowledge that Salmonella which should be removed during the processing of sewage can persist is sewage sludge that is sprayed as agricultural fertilizer. Currently, researchers have found that Salmonella may become nonculturable by conventional means, while remaining viable. The issue raised by this article is the knowledge of lateral gene flow as secure as scientist suppose The author sites several research papers that suggest that intergeneric transformation can and does take place in marine environments such as tropical and subtropical estuaries.

  17. Behavior of Settling Marine Larvae in Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J.; Koehl, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many bottom-dwelling marine animals produce microscopic larvae that are dispersed by ambient water currents. These larvae can only recruit to habitats on which they have landed if they can resist being washed away by ambient water flow. We found that larvae on marine surfaces do not experience steady water flow, but rather are exposed to brief pulses of water movement as turbulent eddies sweep across them. We made video recordings of larvae of the tube worm, Hydroides elegans, (important members of the community of organisms growing on docks and ships) on surfaces subjected to measured realistic flow pulses to study factors that might affect their dislodgement from surfaces in nature. We found that the response of a larva of H. elegans to a realistic pulse of water flow depended on its behavior at the time of the pulse and on its recent history of exposure to flow pulses, and that stationary larvae were less likely than locomoting larvae to be blown away when hit by the first pulse of water flow.; ;

  18. Gene flow and population differentiation.

    PubMed

    Endler, J A

    1973-01-19

    There are many possible spatial patterns of selection and gene flow that can produce a given cline structure; the actual geography of natural selection and gene flow must be worked out before an attempt is made to explain a given natural cline in terms of a model. The results of experimental and theoretical models show that it is possible for local differentiation to evolve parapatrically in spite of considerable gene flow if the selection gradients are relatively uniform. Irregularities in environmental gradients increase the sensitivity of clines to the effects of gene flow in proportion to the increase in the differences in gene frequencies between the emigrants and the demes receiving the immigrants. It is not necessary for a sharp spatial environmental change to be present for distinct differentiation to occur. In some cases even a gentle environmental gradient can give rise to marked spatial differentiation along a genetically continuous series of demes; such environmental differences may be below the practical limits of resolution in field studies. Any asymmetry in gene flow does not lead to dedifferentiation if the environmental gradient is smooth; it merely shifts the position of the transition zone between the differentiated areas from that which would be expected if there were no asymmetry. Abrupt geographic differences in gene, genotype, or morph frequencies should not, therefore, be interpreted as evidence for environmental changes in the immediate vicinity of the steepest part of the cline; neither should they be interpreted as evidence for geographic barriers, sharp environmental differences, or sexual isolation among the differentiated groups of populations when there are no other sources of evidence for these phenomena. Gene flow may be unimportant in the differentiation of populations along environmental gradients.

  19. A New U.S. Marine Heat Flow Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. N.; Fisher, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Marine heat flow observations provide critical information on physical, chemical and biological processes occurring near and below the seafloor. Renewed interest in the collection and application of marine heat flow data to a broad range of scientific purposes is indicated by a renaissance in heat flow studies and publications over the last 10-15 years, as documented by a recent NSF-sponsored workshop and report on the Future of Marine Heat Flow [Harris et al., 2007]. Fundamental questions of geodynamics, global mass and energy fluxes across the seafloor, marine hydrogeology, gas hydrates, marine microbiology, sedimentary processes and other topics are addressed in recent heat flow studies. To facilitate these measurements we are establishing a marine heat flow capability for use by U.S. academic researchers on standard UNOLS vessels in collaboration with the Oregon State University coring capability. This capability includes two main sets of instruments: 1) A multipenetration probe that allows multiple measurements of heat flow, the product of the thermal gradient and thermal conductivity, with a single instrument transit to the seafloor; and 2) an outrigger probe system that allows measurements at a single location when a gravity or piston core is collected. A thermal conductivity needle probe system for use on recovered core samples will complete the determination of heat flow using outrigger probes, and supplement in-situ measurements from the multipenetration probe. This capability is available to U.S. scientists for an initial five-year period through funding from the National Science Foundation. Researchers wishing to include measurements of marine heat flow as part of a field program can request access to equipment, software, and technical support through the UNOLS ship time request system, and should consult early in the cruise planning process with US heat flow capability personnel to determine specific needs and capabilities. More information is

  20. Genomics of local adaptation with gene flow.

    PubMed

    Tigano, Anna; Friesen, Vicki L

    2016-05-01

    Gene flow is a fundamental evolutionary force in adaptation that is especially important to understand as humans are rapidly changing both the natural environment and natural levels of gene flow. Theory proposes a multifaceted role for gene flow in adaptation, but it focuses mainly on the disruptive effect that gene flow has on adaptation when selection is not strong enough to prevent the loss of locally adapted alleles. The role of gene flow in adaptation is now better understood due to the recent development of both genomic models of adaptive evolution and genomic techniques, which both point to the importance of genetic architecture in the origin and maintenance of adaptation with gene flow. In this review, we discuss three main topics on the genomics of adaptation with gene flow. First, we investigate selection on migration and gene flow. Second, we discuss the three potential sources of adaptive variation in relation to the role of gene flow in the origin of adaptation. Third, we explain how local adaptation is maintained despite gene flow: we provide a synthesis of recent genomic models of adaptation, discuss the genomic mechanisms and review empirical studies on the genomics of adaptation with gene flow. Despite predictions on the disruptive effect of gene flow in adaptation, an increasing number of studies show that gene flow can promote adaptation, that local adaptations can be maintained despite high gene flow, and that genetic architecture plays a fundamental role in the origin and maintenance of local adaptation with gene flow.

  1. Targeted gene flow for conservation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens.

  2. Gene flow and population history in high dispersal marine invertebrates: mitochondrial DNA analysis of Holothuria nobilis (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) populations from the Indo-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Uthicke, S; Benzie, J A H

    2003-10-01

    The sea cucumber, Holothuria nobilis, has a long-lived planktotrophic larvae, and previous allozyme surveys have suggested that high dispersal is realized. In contrast, recent ecological studies indicate that dispersal is low. To reconcile these data, and to investigate the evolution of this Indo-Pacific species, we screened geographical variation in 559 bp of a mitochondrial gene (COI) in 360 samples from the Australasian region and La Réunion. Sequences from La Réunion differed by > 7% from others and may constitute another species. Haplotype diversity in other samples was high (0.942, SD = 0.007), but haplotypes were closely related (mean nucleotide diversity: 0.0075, SD = 0.0041). AMOVA, pairwise FST values and exact tests did not detect significant population structure. Nested clade analysis showed that one of two main clades was over-represented in west Australia, whereas the other was more common in the northern Great Barrier Reef. Isolation-by-distance was identified as the main determinant of population structure at several clade levels. Contiguous range expansion was inferred for evolutionary older clade levels and this may correspond to a late Pleistocene (88 000-193 000 years ago) population expansion inferred from haplotype mismatch distributions. Thus, the population genetic structures detected are likely to be formed prior to the last ice age, with some indications for high dispersal on shorter time scales. PMID:12969467

  3. Diversity and Detection of Nitrate Assimilation Genes in Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew E.; Booth, Melissa G.; Frischer, Marc E.; Verity, Peter G.; Zehr, Jonathan P.; Zani, Sabino

    2001-01-01

    A PCR approach was used to construct a database of nasA genes (called narB genes in cyanobacteria) and to detect the genetic potential for heterotrophic bacterial nitrate utilization in marine environments. A nasA-specific PCR primer set that could be used to selectively amplify the nasA gene from heterotrophic bacteria was designed. Using seawater DNA extracts obtained from microbial communities in the South Atlantic Bight, the Barents Sea, and the North Pacific Gyre, we PCR amplified and sequenced nasA genes. Our results indicate that several groups of heterotrophic bacterial nasA genes are common and widely distributed in oceanic environments. PMID:11679368

  4. Horizontal gene transfer and mobile genetic elements in marine systems.

    PubMed

    Sobecky, Patricia A; Hazen, Tracy H

    2009-01-01

    The pool of mobile genetic elements (MGE) in microbial communities consists of viruses, plasmids, and associated elements (insertion sequences, transposons, and integrons) that are either self-transmissible or use mobile plasmids and viruses as vehicles for their dissemination. This mobilome facilitates the horizontal transfer of genes that promote the evolution and adaptation of microbial communities. Efforts to characterize MGEs from microbial populations resident in a variety of ecological habitats have revealed a surprisingly novel and seemingly untapped biodiversity. To better understand the impact of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), as well as the agents that promote HGT in marine ecosystems and to determine whether or not environmental parameters can effect the composition and structure of the mobilome in marine microbial communities, information on the distribution, diversity, and ecological traits of the marine mobilome is presented. In this chapter we discuss recent insights gained from different methodological approaches used to characterize the biodiversity and ecology of MGE in marine environments and their contributions to HGT. In addition, we present case studies that highlight specific HGT examples in coastal, open-ocean, and deep-sea marine ecosystems.

  5. Biogeography of Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Genes in Marine Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Bibby, Thomas S.; Zhang, Yinan; Chen, Min

    2009-01-01

    Background Photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins are the mechanism by which energy enters the marine ecosystem. The dominant prokaryotic photoautotrophs are the cyanobacterial genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus that are defined by two distinct light-harvesting systems, chlorophyll-bound protein complexes or phycobilin-bound protein complexes, respectively. Here, we use the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) Project as a unique and powerful tool to analyze the environmental diversity of photosynthetic light-harvesting genes in relation to available metadata including geographical location and physical and chemical environmental parameters. Methods All light-harvesting gene fragments and their metadata were obtained from the GOS database, aligned using ClustalX and classified phylogenetically. Each sequence has a name indicative of its geographic location; subsequent biogeographical analysis was performed by correlating light-harvesting gene budgets for each GOS station with surface chlorophyll concentration. Conclusion/Significance Using the GOS data, we have mapped the biogeography of light-harvesting genes in marine cyanobacteria on ocean-basin scales and show that an environmental gradient exists in which chlorophyll concentration is correlated to diversity of light-harvesting systems. Three functionally distinct types of light-harvesting genes are defined: (1) the phycobilisome (PBS) genes of Synechococcus; (2) the pcb genes of Prochlorococcus; and (3) the iron-stress-induced (isiA) genes present in some marine Synechococcus. At low chlorophyll concentrations, where nutrients are limited, the Pcb-type light-harvesting system shows greater genetic diversity; whereas at high chlorophyll concentrations, where nutrients are abundant, the PBS-type light-harvesting system shows higher genetic diversity. We interpret this as an environmental selection of specific photosynthetic strategy. Importantly, the unique light-harvesting system isiA is found in the iron

  6. Cloning of a marine cyanobacterial promoter for foreign gene expression using a promoter probe vector

    SciTech Connect

    Sode, Koji; Hatano, Naoaki; Tatara, Masahiro

    1996-06-01

    A marine cyanobacterial promoter was cloned to allow efficient foreign gene expression. This was carried out using chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) as a marker protein. For rapid and simple measurement of CAT activity, a method based on a fluorescently labeled substrate was improved by utilizing HPLC equipped with a flow-through fluorescent spectrophotometer. This method was used in conjunction with a newly constructed promoter probe vector. Cyanobacterial transformants, harboring plasmid containing a cloned 2-kbp marine cyanobacterial genomic fragment, showed a 10-fold higher CAT activity, compared with that achieved using the kanamycin-resistant gene promoter. From the sequence analysis of the cloned fragment, a putative promoter region was found. 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Plant introductions, hybridization and gene flow.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Richard J; James, Juliet K; Milne, Richard I; Gillies, Amanda C M

    2003-01-01

    Many regional floras contain a high proportion of recently introduced plant species. Occasionally, hybridization between an introduced species and another species (introduced or native) can result in interspecific gene flow. This may occur even in instances where the F(1) hybrid shows very high sterility, but occasionally produces a few viable gametes. We provide examples of gene flow occurring between some rhododendrons recently introduced to the British flora, and between an introduced and native Senecio species. Neutral molecular markers have normally been employed to obtain evidence of interspecific gene flow, but the challenge now is to isolate and characterize functional introgressed genes and to determine how they affect the fitness of introgressants and whether they improve adaptation to novel habitats allowing introgressants to expand the range of a species. We outline a candidate gene approach for isolating and characterizing an allele of the RAY gene in Senecio vulgaris, which is believed to have introgressed from S. squalidus, and which causes the production of ray florets in flower heads. We discuss the effects of this introgressed allele on individual fitness, including those that originate directly from the production of ray florets plus those that may arise from pleiotropy and/or linkage. PMID:12831478

  8. Detection of photoactive siderophore biosynthetic genes in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Gärdes, Astrid; Triana, Christopher; Amin, Shady A; Green, David H; Romano, Ariel; Trimble, Lyndsay; Carrano, Carl J

    2013-06-01

    Iron is an essential element for oceanic microbial life but its low bioavailability limits microorganisms in large areas of the oceans. To acquire this metal many marine bacteria produce organic chelates that bind and transport iron (siderophores). While it has been hypothesized that the global production of siderophores by heterotrophic bacteria and some cyanobacteria constitutes the bulk of organic ligands binding iron in the ocean because stability constants of siderophores and these organic ligands are similar, and because ligand concentrations rise sharply in response to iron fertilization events, direct evidence for this proposal is lacking. This lack is due to the difficulty in characterizing these ligands due both to their extremely low concentrations and their highly heterogeneous nature. The situation for characterizing photoactive siderophores in situ is more problematic because of their expected short lifetimes in the photic zone. An alternative approach is to make use of high sensitivity molecular technology (qPCR) to search for siderophore biosynthesis genes related to the production of photoactive siderophores. In this way one can access their "biochemical potential" and utilize this information as a proxy for the presence of these siderophores in the marine environment. Here we show, using qPCR primers designed to detect biosynthetic genes for the siderophores vibrioferrin, petrobactin and aerobactin that such genes are widespread and based on their abundance, the "biochemical potential" for photoactive siderophore production is significant. Concurrently we also briefly examine the microbial biodiversity responsible for such production as a function of depth and location across a North Atlantic transect.

  9. Coalescent and biophysical models of stepping-stone gene flow in neritid snails.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Eric D; Treml, Eric A; Barber, Paul H

    2012-11-01

    Marine species in the Indo-Pacific have ranges that can span thousands of kilometres, yet studies increasingly suggest that mean larval dispersal distances are less than historically assumed. Gene flow across these ranges must therefore rely to some extent on larval dispersal among intermediate 'stepping-stone' populations in combination with long-distance dispersal far beyond the mean of the dispersal kernel. We evaluate the strength of stepping-stone dynamics by employing a spatially explicit biophysical model of larval dispersal in the tropical Pacific to construct hypotheses for dispersal pathways. We evaluate these hypotheses with coalescent models of gene flow among high-island archipelagos in four neritid gastropod species. Two of the species live in the marine intertidal, while the other two are amphidromous, living in fresh water but retaining pelagic dispersal. Dispersal pathways predicted by the biophysical model were strongly favoured in 16 of 18 tests against alternate hypotheses. In regions where connectivity among high-island archipelagos was predicted as direct, there was no difference in gene flow between marine and amphidromous species. In regions where connectivity was predicted through stepping-stone atolls only accessible to marine species, gene flow estimates between high-island archipelagos were significantly higher in marine species. Moreover, one of the marine species showed a significant pattern of isolation by distance consistent with stepping-stone dynamics. While our results support stepping-stone dynamics in Indo-Pacific species, we also see evidence for nonequilibrium processes such as range expansions or rare long-distance dispersal events. This study couples population genetic and biophysical models to help to shed light on larval dispersal pathways. PMID:23050562

  10. Coalescent and biophysical models of stepping-stone gene flow in neritid snails.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Eric D; Treml, Eric A; Barber, Paul H

    2012-11-01

    Marine species in the Indo-Pacific have ranges that can span thousands of kilometres, yet studies increasingly suggest that mean larval dispersal distances are less than historically assumed. Gene flow across these ranges must therefore rely to some extent on larval dispersal among intermediate 'stepping-stone' populations in combination with long-distance dispersal far beyond the mean of the dispersal kernel. We evaluate the strength of stepping-stone dynamics by employing a spatially explicit biophysical model of larval dispersal in the tropical Pacific to construct hypotheses for dispersal pathways. We evaluate these hypotheses with coalescent models of gene flow among high-island archipelagos in four neritid gastropod species. Two of the species live in the marine intertidal, while the other two are amphidromous, living in fresh water but retaining pelagic dispersal. Dispersal pathways predicted by the biophysical model were strongly favoured in 16 of 18 tests against alternate hypotheses. In regions where connectivity among high-island archipelagos was predicted as direct, there was no difference in gene flow between marine and amphidromous species. In regions where connectivity was predicted through stepping-stone atolls only accessible to marine species, gene flow estimates between high-island archipelagos were significantly higher in marine species. Moreover, one of the marine species showed a significant pattern of isolation by distance consistent with stepping-stone dynamics. While our results support stepping-stone dynamics in Indo-Pacific species, we also see evidence for nonequilibrium processes such as range expansions or rare long-distance dispersal events. This study couples population genetic and biophysical models to help to shed light on larval dispersal pathways.

  11. Methanesulfonate (MSA) Catabolic Genes from Marine and Estuarine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Ana C.; De Marco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Quantitatively, methanesulfonate (MSA) is a very relevant compound in the global biogeochemical sulfur cycle. Its utilization by bacteria as a source of carbon and energy has been described and a specific enzyme, methanesulfonate monooxygenase (MSAMO), has been found to perform the first catabolic step of its oxidation. Other proteins seemingly involved in the import of MSA into bacterial cells have been reported. In this study, we obtained novel sequences of genes msmA and msmE from marine, estuary and soil MSA-degraders (encoding the large subunit of the MSAMO enzyme and the periplasmic component of the import system, respectively). We also obtained whole-genome sequences of two novel marine Filomicrobium strains, Y and W, and annotated two full msm operons in these genomes. Furthermore, msmA and msmE sequences were amplified from North Atlantic seawater and analyzed. Good conservation of the MsmA deduced protein sequence was observed in both cultured strains and metagenomic clones. A long spacer sequence in the Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster-binding motif within MsmA was found to be conserved in all instances, supporting the hypothesis that this feature is specific to the large (α) subunit of the MSAMO enzyme. The msmE gene was more difficult to amplify, from both cultivated isolates and marine metagenomic DNA. However, 3 novel msmE sequences were obtained from isolated strains and one directly from seawater. With both genes, our results combined with previous metagenomic analyses seem to imply that moderate to high-GC strains are somehow favored during enrichment and isolation of MSA-utilizing bacteria, while the majority of msm genes obtained by cultivation-independent methods have low levels of GC%, which is a clear example of the misrepresentation of natural populations that culturing, more often than not, entails. Nevertheless, the data obtained in this work show that MSA-degrading bacteria are abundant in surface seawater, which suggests ecological

  12. Unique marine derived cyanobacterial biosynthetic genes for chemical diversity.

    PubMed

    Kleigrewe, Karin; Gerwick, Lena; Sherman, David H; Gerwick, William H

    2016-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are a prolific source of structurally unique and biologically active natural products that derive from intriguing biochemical pathways. Advancements in genome sequencing have accelerated the identification of unique modular biosynthetic gene clusters in cyanobacteria and reveal a wealth of unusual enzymatic reactions involved in their construction. This article examines several interesting mechanistic transformations involved in cyanobacterial secondary metabolite biosynthesis with a particular focus on marine derived modular polyketide synthases (PKS), nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and combinations thereof to form hybrid natural products. Further, we focus on the cyanobacterial genus Moorea and the co-evolution of its enzyme cassettes that create metabolic diversity. Progress in the development of heterologous expression systems for cyanobacterial gene clusters along with chemoenzymatic synthesis makes it possible to create new analogs. Additionally, phylum-wide genome sequencing projects have enhanced the discovery rate of new natural products and their distinctive enzymatic reactions. Summarizing, cyanobacterial biosynthetic gene clusters encode for a large toolbox of novel enzymes that catalyze unique chemical reactions, some of which may be useful in synthetic biology.

  13. Characterization of VAMP-2 gene from marine teleostean, Lateolabrax japonicus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kui; Huang, Xiaohang; Bao, Zhenmin; Gaisano, Herbert

    2006-12-01

    The whole length SPV2 gene of 715 bp, encoding VAMP-2 protein of 110 amino acids from Japanese sea perch, Lateolabrax japonicus, was obtained by using both RT-PCR and anchored PCR strategies while we initiated the structural and functional study on SNARE proteins in marine teleostean. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that SPV2 has its core arginine residue, a potential N-linked glycosylation site near its N-terminal, and one transmembrane domain in its C-terminal. Advanced structural analysis of bioinformatics approach predicts a coiled-coil alpha-helix backbone as the characteristic of SPV2 main conformational structure, identical to the structure of rat VAMP-2 obtained by crystallography. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that SPV2 was generally expressed in 10 neural and non-neural tissues, with the highest concentration in brain and the least in muscle.

  14. The impact of selection, gene flow and demographic history on heterogeneous genomic divergence: three-spine sticklebacks in divergent environments.

    PubMed

    Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Hansen, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous genomic divergence between populations may reflect selection, but should also be seen in conjunction with gene flow and drift, particularly population bottlenecks. Marine and freshwater three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations often exhibit different lateral armour plate morphs. Moreover, strikingly parallel genomic footprints across different marine-freshwater population pairs are interpreted as parallel evolution and gene reuse. Nevertheless, in some geographic regions like the North Sea and Baltic Sea, different patterns are observed. Freshwater populations in coastal regions are often dominated by marine morphs, suggesting that gene flow overwhelms selection, and genomic parallelism may also be less pronounced. We used RAD sequencing for analysing 28 888 SNPs in two marine and seven freshwater populations in Denmark, Europe. Freshwater populations represented a variety of environments: river populations accessible to gene flow from marine sticklebacks and large and small isolated lakes with and without fish predators. Sticklebacks in an accessible river environment showed minimal morphological and genomewide divergence from marine populations, supporting the hypothesis of gene flow overriding selection. Allele frequency spectra suggested bottlenecks in all freshwater populations, and particularly two small lake populations. However, genomic footprints ascribed to selection could nevertheless be identified. No genomic regions were consistent freshwater-marine outliers, and parallelism was much lower than in other comparable studies. Two genomic regions previously described to be under divergent selection in freshwater and marine populations were outliers between different freshwater populations. We ascribe these patterns to stronger environmental heterogeneity among freshwater populations in our study as compared to most other studies, although the demographic history involving bottlenecks should also be considered in the

  15. Analysis of a marine picoplankton community by 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, T M; DeLong, E F; Pace, N R

    1991-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of an oligotrophic marine picoplankton community was examined by analyzing the sequences of cloned ribosomal genes. This strategy does not rely on cultivation of the resident microorganisms. Bulk genomic DNA was isolated from picoplankton collected in the north central Pacific Ocean by tangential flow filtration. The mixed-population DNA was fragmented, size fractionated, and cloned into bacteriophage lambda. Thirty-eight clones containing 16S rRNA genes were identified in a screen of 3.2 x 10(4) recombinant phage, and portions of the rRNA gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The resulting sequences were used to establish the identities of the picoplankton by comparison with an established data base of rRNA sequences. Fifteen unique eubacterial sequences were obtained, including four from cyanobacteria and eleven from proteobacteria. A single eucaryote related to dinoflagellates was identified; no archaebacterial sequences were detected. The cyanobacterial sequences are all closely related to sequences from cultivated marine Synechococcus strains and with cyanobacterial sequences obtained from the Atlantic Ocean (Sargasso Sea). Several sequences were related to common marine isolates of the gamma subdivision of proteobacteria. In addition to sequences closely related to those of described bacteria, sequences were obtained from two phylogenetic groups of organisms that are not closely related to any known rRNA sequences from cultivated organisms. Both of these novel phylogenetic clusters are proteobacteria, one group within the alpha subdivision and the other distinct from known proteobacterial subdivisions. The rRNA sequences of the alpha-related group are nearly identical to those of some Sargasso Sea picoplankton, suggesting a global distribution of these organisms. Images PMID:2066334

  16. Hundreds of Genes Experienced Convergent Shifts in Selective Pressure in Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Chikina, Maria; Robinson, Joseph D; Clark, Nathan L

    2016-09-01

    Mammal species have made the transition to the marine environment several times, and their lineages represent one of the classical examples of convergent evolution in morphological and physiological traits. Nevertheless, the genetic mechanisms of their phenotypic transition are poorly understood, and investigations into convergence at the molecular level have been inconclusive. While past studies have searched for convergent changes at specific amino acid sites, we propose an alternative strategy to identify those genes that experienced convergent changes in their selective pressures, visible as changes in evolutionary rate specifically in the marine lineages. We present evidence of widespread convergence at the gene level by identifying parallel shifts in evolutionary rate during three independent episodes of mammalian adaptation to the marine environment. Hundreds of genes accelerated their evolutionary rates in all three marine mammal lineages during their transition to aquatic life. These marine-accelerated genes are highly enriched for pathways that control recognized functional adaptations in marine mammals, including muscle physiology, lipid-metabolism, sensory systems, and skin and connective tissue. The accelerations resulted from both adaptive evolution as seen in skin and lung genes, and loss of function as in gustatory and olfactory genes. In regard to sensory systems, this finding provides further evidence that reduced senses of taste and smell are ubiquitous in marine mammals. Our analysis demonstrates the feasibility of identifying genes underlying convergent organism-level characteristics on a genome-wide scale and without prior knowledge of adaptations, and provides a powerful approach for investigating the physiological functions of mammalian genes.

  17. Characterization of SNAP-25 gene from marine teleostean, Lateolabrax japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kui; Huang, Xiaohang; Chai, Yingmei; Gaisano, Herbert Y.

    2007-10-01

    The t-SNARE protein SNAP-25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa) plays an essential role in regulating fusion between the vesicle and plasma membranes during exocytosis. To clone and characterize SNAP-25 gene, the first step in the functional study of SNARE proteins in marine teleostean, was to obtain the cDNA of sea perch SNAP-25 (SPsn25) by RT-PCR and RACE-PCR amplification of a Japanese sea perch. The full-length cDNA of 831bp contains a CDS of 615 bp, coding 204 amino acid residues, and a 5 UTR of 219bp. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that SPsn25 corresponds with SNAP-25a isoform and shares 91.1% identity with SNAP-25a of a goldfish and a zebrafish. The SPsn25 expression in both mRNA and protein levels in the Japanese sea perch had been identified through semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western Blot assay. Together, these data again confirmed the nerve tissue specificity of the fish SNAP-25 gene expression.

  18. Separating underwater ambient noise from flow noise recorded on stereo acoustic tags attached to marine mammals.

    PubMed

    von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Wensveen, Paul J; Samarra, Filipa I P; Beerens, S Peter; Miller, Patrick J O

    2016-08-01

    Sound-recording acoustic tags attached to marine animals are commonly used in behavioural studies. Measuring ambient noise is of interest to efforts to understand responses of marine mammals to anthropogenic underwater sound, or to assess their communication space. Noise of water flowing around the tag reflects the speed of the animal, but hinders ambient noise measurement. Here, we describe a correlation-based method for stereo acoustic tags to separate the relative contributions of flow and ambient noise. The uncorrelated part of the noise measured in digital acoustic recording tag (DTAG) recordings related well to swim speed of a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), thus providing a robust measure of flow noise over a wide frequency bandwidth. By removing measurements affected by flow noise, consistent ambient noise estimates were made for two killer whales (Orcinus orca) with DTAGs attached simultaneously. The method is applicable to any multi-channel acoustic tag, enabling application to a wide range of marine species. PMID:27229472

  19. Separating underwater ambient noise from flow noise recorded on stereo acoustic tags attached to marine mammals.

    PubMed

    von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Wensveen, Paul J; Samarra, Filipa I P; Beerens, S Peter; Miller, Patrick J O

    2016-08-01

    Sound-recording acoustic tags attached to marine animals are commonly used in behavioural studies. Measuring ambient noise is of interest to efforts to understand responses of marine mammals to anthropogenic underwater sound, or to assess their communication space. Noise of water flowing around the tag reflects the speed of the animal, but hinders ambient noise measurement. Here, we describe a correlation-based method for stereo acoustic tags to separate the relative contributions of flow and ambient noise. The uncorrelated part of the noise measured in digital acoustic recording tag (DTAG) recordings related well to swim speed of a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), thus providing a robust measure of flow noise over a wide frequency bandwidth. By removing measurements affected by flow noise, consistent ambient noise estimates were made for two killer whales (Orcinus orca) with DTAGs attached simultaneously. The method is applicable to any multi-channel acoustic tag, enabling application to a wide range of marine species.

  20. Gene flow from transgenic common beans expressing the bar gene.

    PubMed

    Faria, Josias C; Carneiro, Geraldo E S; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2010-01-01

    Gene flow is a common phenomenon even in self-pollinated plant species. With the advent of genetically modified plants this subject has become of the utmost importance due to the need for controlling the spread of transgenes. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and intensity of outcrossing in transgenic common beans. In order to evaluate the outcross rates, four experiments were conducted in Santo Antonio de Goiás (GO, Brazil) and one in Londrina (PR, Brazil), using transgenic cultivars resistant to the herbicide glufosinate ammonium and their conventional counterparts as recipients of the transgene. Experiments with cv. Olathe Pinto and the transgenic line Olathe M1/4 were conducted in a completely randomized design with ten replications for three years in one location, whereas the experiments with cv. Pérola and the transgenic line Pérola M1/4 were conducted at two locations for one year, with the transgenic cultivar surrounded on all sides by the conventional counterpart. The outcross occurred at a negligible rate of 0.00741% in cv. Pérola, while none was observed (0.0%) in cv. Olathe Pinto. The frequency of gene flow was cultivar dependent and most of the observed outcross was within 2.5 m from the edge of the pollen source. Index terms: Phaseolus vulgaris, outcross, glufosinate ammonium. PMID:21865877

  1. Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and

  2. Numerical analysis for cavitation flow of marine propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Muchammad, Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.

    2015-12-01

    Concerning the environmental issue and the increase of fuel price, optimizing the fuel consumption has been recently an important subject in all industries. In marine industries one of the ways to decrease the energy consumption was by reducing the presence of cavitation on marine propeller blades. This will give a higher propulsive efficiency. This paper provides an investigation into the influence of the cavitation on a hydrodynamic performance around the propeller based on numerical method. Hydrofoil representing the blade form of propeller was of particular of interest. Two types of cavitation model were investigated with respect to the accuracy of the result and the effectiveness of the method. The results include the hydrodynamic characteristics of cavitation phenomenon like lift/drag variation with respect to the cavity extent. It was found that a high accuracy and low computational time is achieved when the cavitation model of Zwart-Gerber-Belamri is used. The interesting outcome of this study is that the results can be used as a good evaluation tool for high marine propeller performance.

  3. A sea water barrier to coral gene flow.

    PubMed

    Lessios, H A

    2012-11-01

    Land is not the only barrier to dispersal encountered by marine organisms. For sedentary shallow water species, there is an additional, marine barrier, 5000 km of uninterrupted deep-water stretch between the central and the eastern Pacific. This expanse of water, known as the ‘Eastern Pacific Barrier’, has been separating faunas of the two oceanic regions since the beginning of the Cenozoic. Species with larvae that cannot stay in the plankton for the time it takes to cross between the two sides have been evolving independently. That the eastern Pacific does not share species with the rest of the Pacific was obvious to naturalists two centuries ago (Darwin 1860). Yet, this rule has exceptions. A small minority of species are known to straddle the Eastern Pacific Barrier. One such exception is the scleractinian coral Porites lobata (Fig. 1). This species is spread widely throughout the Indo-Pacific, where it is one of the major reef-builders, but it is also encountered in the eastern Pacific. Are eastern and central Pacific populations of this coral connected by gene flow? In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Baums et al. (2012) use microsatellite data to answer this question. They show that P. lobata populations in the eastern Pacific are cut off from genetic influx from the rest of the Pacific. Populations within each of the two oceanic regions are genetically connected (though those in the Hawaiian islands are also isolated). Significantly, the population in the Clipperton Atoll, the westernmost island in the eastern Pacific, genetically groups with populations from the central Pacific, suggesting that crossing the Eastern Pacific Barrier by P. lobata propagules does occasionally occur.

  4. Estimation of the annual flow and stock of marine debris in South Korea for management purposes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong Chang; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Mok, Jin Yong; Kim, Kyoung Shin; Lee, Yun Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hongmook; Lee, Sukhui

    2014-09-15

    The annual flow and stock of marine debris in the Sea of Korea was estimated by summarizing previous survey results and integrating them with other relevant information to underpin the national marine debris management plan. The annual inflow of marine debris was estimated to be 91,195 tons [32,825 tons (36% of the total) from sources on land and 58,370 tons (64%) from ocean sources]. As of the end of 2012, the total stock of marine debris on all South Korean coasts (12,029 tons), the seabed (137,761 tons), and in the water column (2451 tons) was estimated to be 152,241 tons. In 2012, 42,595 tons of marine debris was collected from coasts, seabeds, and the water column. This is a very rare case study that estimated the amount of marine debris at a national level, the results of which provide essential information for the development of efficient marine debris management policies.

  5. Estimation of the annual flow and stock of marine debris in South Korea for management purposes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong Chang; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Mok, Jin Yong; Kim, Kyoung Shin; Lee, Yun Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hongmook; Lee, Sukhui

    2014-09-15

    The annual flow and stock of marine debris in the Sea of Korea was estimated by summarizing previous survey results and integrating them with other relevant information to underpin the national marine debris management plan. The annual inflow of marine debris was estimated to be 91,195 tons [32,825 tons (36% of the total) from sources on land and 58,370 tons (64%) from ocean sources]. As of the end of 2012, the total stock of marine debris on all South Korean coasts (12,029 tons), the seabed (137,761 tons), and in the water column (2451 tons) was estimated to be 152,241 tons. In 2012, 42,595 tons of marine debris was collected from coasts, seabeds, and the water column. This is a very rare case study that estimated the amount of marine debris at a national level, the results of which provide essential information for the development of efficient marine debris management policies. PMID:25038983

  6. Inconsistency of Species Tree Methods under Gene Flow.

    PubMed

    Solís-Lemus, Claudia; Yang, Mengyao; Ané, Cécile

    2016-09-01

    Coalescent-based methods are now broadly used to infer evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms under the assumption that incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) is the only source of gene tree discordance. Many of these methods are known to consistently estimate the species tree when all their assumptions are met. Nonetheless, little work has been done to test the robustness of such methods to violations of their assumptions. Here, we study the performance of two of the most efficient coalescent-based methods, ASTRAL and NJst, in the presence of gene flow. Gene flow violates the assumption that ILS is the sole source of gene tree conflict. We find anomalous gene trees on three-taxon rooted trees and on four-taxon unrooted trees. These anomalous trees do not exist under ILS only, but appear because of gene flow. Our simulations show that species tree methods (and concatenation) may reconstruct the wrong evolutionary history, even from a very large number of well-reconstructed gene trees. In other words, species tree methods can be inconsistent under gene flow. Our results underline the need for methods like PhyloNet, to account simultaneously for ILS and gene flow in a unified framework. Although much slower, PhyloNet had better accuracy and remained consistent at high levels of gene flow. PMID:27151419

  7. Gene flow in Antarctic fishes: the role of oceanography and life history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Emma; Rock, Jenny; Carvalho, Gary; Murphy, Eugene; Meredith, Michael; Hutchinson, Bill

    2010-05-01

    Marine organisms with pelagic larvae are generally assumed to experience high gene flow and low levels of population differentiation. However, variability in life history and environmental characteristics, in particular oceanographic flow fields, can significantly influence dispersal, and their relative effects are frequently unclear. Our research examines the influence of oceanographic and life history variability on gene flow in two species of Antarctic fish: Champsocephalus gunnari and Notothenia rossii. These species are broadly sympatric in their distribution, but differ in aspects of life history that are expected to strongly affect their dispersal capabilities. Our research has used two complementary techniques. Genetic analyses, specifically mtDNA and microsatellite markers, have been used to examine historic and contemporary gene flow and thus describe patterns of population differentiation at the circumpolar scale. These analyses have been compared with predicted larval transport from a global oceanographic model (OCCAM) combined with individual based particle tracking models. In using these complementary techniques, the relative influences of early life history and oceanographic variability can be elucidated. Here we present the key findings of our research, including evidence for inter-specific variation in mitochondrial gene flow at the circumpolar level and a limited degree of genetic structuring within the Scotia Sea.

  8. Calanoid Copepod Behavior in Thin Layer Shear Flows: Freshwater Versus Marine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipper, A. N.; Webster, D. R.; Yen, J.

    2015-11-01

    Marine copepods have been shown to behaviorally respond to vertical gradients of horizontal velocity and aggregate around thin layers. The current study addresses whether a freshwater copepod from an alpine lake demonstrates similar behavior response. Hesperodiaptomus shoshone is often the greatest biomass in alpine lakes and is the dominant zooplankton predator within its environment. The hypothesis is that H. shoshone responds to vertical gradients of horizontal velocity, which are associated with river outflows from alpine lakes, with fine-scale changes in swimming kinematics. The two calanoid copepods studied here, H. shoshone (freshwater) and Calanus finmarchicus(marine), are of similar size (2 - 4 mm), have similar morphologies, and utilize cruising as their primary swimming mode. The two animals differ not only in environment, but also in diet; H. shoshone is a carnivore, whereas C. finmarchicusis an herbivore. A laminar, planar jet (Bickley) was used in the laboratory to simulate a free shear flow. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) quantified the flow field. The marine species changed its swimming behavior significantly (increased swimming speed and turning frequency) and spent more time in the layer (40% vs. 70%) from control to treatment. In contrast, the freshwater species exhibited very few changes in either swimming behavior or residence time. Swimming kinematics and residence time results were also similar between males and females. Unlike the marine copepod, the results suggest the environmental flow structure is unimportant to the freshwater species.

  9. Flow, recruitment limitation, and the maintenance of diversity in marine benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Palardy, James E; Witman, Jon D

    2014-02-01

    Many terrestrial and marine systems are open to immigration. As such, the delivery of reproductive propagules should play a substantial role in determining local diversity in many systems. Here we present the results of a two-year experimental manipulation of subtidal flow regimes and show that flow has a strong positive effect on the assembly and maintenance of epifaunal invertebrate diversity by reducing recruitment limitation in two biogeographic regions. At two sites each in Alaska and Maine, USA, we experimentally manipulated flow speeds and measured the diversity of communities assembling through time and on recruitment panels scraped clean regularly. At all sites, the species richness of established communities, and the richness of recruitment into established communities and onto empty plates was >25% higher in enhanced flow than in control flow treatments. These effects were consistent for two years, and community diversity remained higher despite 30% higher species loss in enhanced flow treatments. Because communities remained open to immigration throughout the experiment, the data suggest that the diversity of epifaunal communities is strongly limited by recruitment and that supply-side effects on diversity in natural communities are strong. The positive effect of flow on diversity through a decrease in recruitment limitation was robust across scale, biogeographic region, and flow velocities and was consistent in magnitude in communities and on recruitment plates. Consequently, the data strongly suggest that the positive effects of flow on epifaunal diversity are persistent, can operate without diversity-enhancing positive feedback mechanisms, and are driven by increases in propagule delivery. Thus flow plays a large role in establishing and maintaining epifaunal diversity by mediating the delivery of propagules necessary to colonize a patch or to replace species within communities. Although our data do not preclude effects of interspecific interactions

  10. Current knowledge of gene flow in plants: implications for transgene flow.

    PubMed Central

    Ellstrand, Norman C

    2003-01-01

    Plant evolutionary biologists' view of gene flow and hybridization has undergone a revolution. Twenty-five years ago, both were considered rare and largely inconsequential. Now gene flow and hybridization are known to be idiosyncratic, varying with the specific populations involved. Gene flow typically occurs at evolutionarily significant rates and at significant distances. Spontaneous hybridization occasionally has important applied consequences, such as stimulating the evolution of more aggressive invasives and increasing the extinction risk for rare species. The same problems have occurred for spontaneous hybridization between crops and their wild relatives. These new data have implications for transgenic crops: (i) for most crops, gene flow can act to introduce engineered genes into wild populations; (ii) depending on the specific engineered gene(s) and populations involved, gene flow may have the same negative impacts as those observed for traditionally improved crops; (iii) gene flow's idiosyncratic nature may frustrate management and monitoring attempts; and (iv) intercrop transgene flow, although rarely discussed, is equally worthy of study. PMID:12831483

  11. Interior flow and near-nozzle spray development in a marine-engine diesel fuel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hult, J.; Simmank, P.; Matlok, S.; Mayer, S.; Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-04-01

    A consolidated effort at optically characterising flow patterns, in-nozzle cavitation, and near-nozzle jet structure of a marine diesel fuel injector is presented. A combination of several optical techniques was employed to fully transparent injector models, compound metal-glass and full metal injectors. They were all based on a common real-scale dual nozzle hole geometry for a marine two-stroke diesel engine. In a stationary flow rig, flow velocities in the sac-volume and nozzle holes were measured using PIV, and in-nozzle cavitation visualized using high-resolution shadowgraphs. The effect of varying cavitation number was studied and results compared to CFD predictions. In-nozzle cavitation and near-nozzle jet structure during transient operation were visualized simultaneously, using high-speed imaging in an atmospheric pressure spray rig. Near-nozzle spray formation was investigated using ballistic imaging. Finally, the injector geometry was tested on a full-scale marine diesel engine, where the dynamics of near-nozzle jet development was visualized using high-speed shadowgraphy. The range of studies focused on a single common geometry allows a comprehensive survey of phenomena ranging from first inception of cavitation under well-controlled flow conditions to fuel jet structure at real engine conditions.

  12. Antibiotic resistance genes detected in the marine sponge Petromica citrina from Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Laport, Marinella Silva; Pontes, Paula Veronesi Marinho; Dos Santos, Daniela Silva; Santos-Gandelman, Juliana de Fátima; Muricy, Guilherme; Bauwens, Mathieu; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia; George, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Although antibiotic-resistant pathogens pose a significant threat to human health, the environmental reservoirs of the resistance determinants are still poorly understood. This study reports the detection of resistance genes (ermB, mecA, mupA, qnrA, qnrB and tetL) to antibiotics among certain culturable and unculturable bacteria associated with the marine sponge Petromica citrina. The antimicrobial activities elicited by P. citrina and its associated bacteria are also described. The results indicate that the marine environment could play an important role in the development of antibiotic resistance and the dissemination of resistance genes among bacteria. PMID:27287338

  13. DNA capture reveals transoceanic gene flow in endangered river sharks.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenhong; Corrigan, Shannon; Yang, Lei; Straube, Nicolas; Harris, Mark; Hofreiter, Michael; White, William T; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2015-10-27

    For over a hundred years, the "river sharks" of the genus Glyphis were only known from the type specimens of species that had been collected in the 19th century. They were widely considered extinct until populations of Glyphis-like sharks were rediscovered in remote regions of Borneo and Northern Australia at the end of the 20th century. However, the genetic affinities between the newly discovered Glyphis-like populations and the poorly preserved, original museum-type specimens have never been established. Here, we present the first (to our knowledge) fully resolved, complete phylogeny of Glyphis that includes both archival-type specimens and modern material. We used a sensitive DNA hybridization capture method to obtain complete mitochondrial genomes from all of our samples and show that three of the five described river shark species are probably conspecific and widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Furthermore we show that there has been recent gene flow between locations that are separated by large oceanic expanses. Our data strongly suggest marine dispersal in these species, overturning the widely held notion that river sharks are restricted to freshwater. It seems that species in the genus Glyphis are euryhaline with an ecology similar to the bull shark, in which adult individuals live in the ocean while the young grow up in river habitats with reduced predation pressure. Finally, we discovered a previously unidentified species within the genus Glyphis that is deeply divergent from all other lineages, underscoring the current lack of knowledge about the biodiversity and ecology of these mysterious sharks. PMID:26460025

  14. DNA capture reveals transoceanic gene flow in endangered river sharks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenhong; Corrigan, Shannon; Yang, Lei; Straube, Nicolas; Harris, Mark; Hofreiter, Michael; White, William T.; Naylor, Gavin J. P.

    2015-01-01

    For over a hundred years, the “river sharks” of the genus Glyphis were only known from the type specimens of species that had been collected in the 19th century. They were widely considered extinct until populations of Glyphis-like sharks were rediscovered in remote regions of Borneo and Northern Australia at the end of the 20th century. However, the genetic affinities between the newly discovered Glyphis-like populations and the poorly preserved, original museum-type specimens have never been established. Here, we present the first (to our knowledge) fully resolved, complete phylogeny of Glyphis that includes both archival-type specimens and modern material. We used a sensitive DNA hybridization capture method to obtain complete mitochondrial genomes from all of our samples and show that three of the five described river shark species are probably conspecific and widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Furthermore we show that there has been recent gene flow between locations that are separated by large oceanic expanses. Our data strongly suggest marine dispersal in these species, overturning the widely held notion that river sharks are restricted to freshwater. It seems that species in the genus Glyphis are euryhaline with an ecology similar to the bull shark, in which adult individuals live in the ocean while the young grow up in river habitats with reduced predation pressure. Finally, we discovered a previously unidentified species within the genus Glyphis that is deeply divergent from all other lineages, underscoring the current lack of knowledge about the biodiversity and ecology of these mysterious sharks. PMID:26460025

  15. DNA capture reveals transoceanic gene flow in endangered river sharks.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenhong; Corrigan, Shannon; Yang, Lei; Straube, Nicolas; Harris, Mark; Hofreiter, Michael; White, William T; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2015-10-27

    For over a hundred years, the "river sharks" of the genus Glyphis were only known from the type specimens of species that had been collected in the 19th century. They were widely considered extinct until populations of Glyphis-like sharks were rediscovered in remote regions of Borneo and Northern Australia at the end of the 20th century. However, the genetic affinities between the newly discovered Glyphis-like populations and the poorly preserved, original museum-type specimens have never been established. Here, we present the first (to our knowledge) fully resolved, complete phylogeny of Glyphis that includes both archival-type specimens and modern material. We used a sensitive DNA hybridization capture method to obtain complete mitochondrial genomes from all of our samples and show that three of the five described river shark species are probably conspecific and widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Furthermore we show that there has been recent gene flow between locations that are separated by large oceanic expanses. Our data strongly suggest marine dispersal in these species, overturning the widely held notion that river sharks are restricted to freshwater. It seems that species in the genus Glyphis are euryhaline with an ecology similar to the bull shark, in which adult individuals live in the ocean while the young grow up in river habitats with reduced predation pressure. Finally, we discovered a previously unidentified species within the genus Glyphis that is deeply divergent from all other lineages, underscoring the current lack of knowledge about the biodiversity and ecology of these mysterious sharks.

  16. Speciation with gene flow on Lord Howe Island

    PubMed Central

    Papadopulos, Alexander S. T.; Baker, William J.; Crayn, Darren; Butlin, Roger K.; Kynast, Ralf G.; Hutton, Ian; Savolainen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the processes underlying the origin of species is a fundamental goal of biology. It is widely accepted that speciation requires an interruption of gene flow between populations: ongoing gene exchange is considered a major hindrance to population divergence and, ultimately, to the evolution of new species. Where a geographic barrier to reproductive isolation is lacking, a biological mechanism for speciation is required to counterbalance the homogenizing effect of gene flow. Speciation with initially strong gene flow is thought to be extremely rare, and few convincing empirical examples have been published. However, using phylogenetic, karyological, and ecological data for the flora of a minute oceanic island (Lord Howe Island, LHI), we demonstrate that speciation with gene flow may, in fact, be frequent in some instances and could account for one in five of the endemic plant species of LHI. We present 11 potential instances of species divergence with gene flow, including an in situ radiation of five species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, the coffee family). These results, together with the speciation of Howea palms on LHI, challenge current views on the origin of species diversity. PMID:21730151

  17. Novel aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes from coastal marine sediments of Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Mariana; Riva Mercadal, Juan P; Guerrero, Leandro D; Di Marzio, Walter D; Ferrero, Marcela A; Dionisi, Hebe M

    2008-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), widespread pollutants in the marine environment, can produce adverse effects in marine organisms and can be transferred to humans through seafood. Our knowledge of PAH-degrading bacterial populations in the marine environment is still very limited, and mainly originates from studies of cultured bacteria. In this work, genes coding catabolic enzymes from PAH-biodegradation pathways were characterized in coastal sediments of Patagonia with different levels of PAH contamination. Results Genes encoding for the catalytic alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHDs) were amplified from intertidal sediment samples using two different primer sets. Products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Clones representing each restriction pattern were selected in each library for sequencing. A total of 500 clones were screened in 9 gene libraries, and 193 clones were sequenced. Libraries contained one to five different ARHD gene types, and this number was correlated with the number of PAHs found in the samples above the quantification limit (r = 0.834, p < 0.05). Overall, eight different ARHD gene types were detected in the sediments. In five of them, their deduced amino acid sequences formed deeply rooted branches with previously described ARHD peptide sequences, exhibiting less than 70% identity to them. They contain consensus sequences of the Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site, suggesting that these gene fragments encode for ARHDs. On the other hand, three gene types were closely related to previously described ARHDs: archetypical nahAc-like genes, phnAc-like genes as identified in Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2, and phnA1-like genes from marine PAH-degraders from the genus Cycloclasticus. Conclusion These results show the presence of hitherto unidentified ARHD genes in this sub-Antarctic marine environment exposed to anthropogenic contamination. This information

  18. Actinorhodopsins: proteorhodopsin-like gene sequences found predominantly in non-marine environments.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Adrian K; Zhaxybayeva, Olga; Papke, R Thane; Doolittle, W Ford

    2008-04-01

    Proteorhodopsins are light-energy-harvesting transmembrane proteins encoded by genes recently discovered in the surface waters of the world's oceans. Metagenomic data from the Global Ocean Sampling expedition (GOS) recovered 2674 proteorhodopsin-related sequences from 51 aquatic samples. Four of these samples were from non-marine environments, specifically, Lake Gatun within the Panama Canal, Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay and the Punta Cormorant Lagoon in Ecuador. Rhodopsins related to but phylogenetically distinct from most sequences designated proteorhodopsins were present at all four of these non-marine sites and comprised three different clades that were almost completely absent from marine samples. Phylogenomic analyses of genes adjacent to those encoding these novel rhodopsins suggest affiliation to the Actinobacteria, and hence we propose to name these divergent, non-marine rhodopsins 'actinorhodopsins'. Actinorhodopsins conserve the acidic amino acid residues critical for proton pumping and their genes lack genomic association with those encoding photo-sensory transducer proteins, thus supporting a putative ion pumping function. The ratio of recA and radA to rhodopsin genes in the different environment types sampled within the GOS indicates that rhodopsins of one type or another are abundant in microbial communities in freshwater, estuarine and lagoon ecosystems, supporting an important role for these photosystems in all aquatic environments influenced by sunlight. PMID:18218036

  19. Numerical predictions of the turbulent cavitating flow around a marine propeller and an axial turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgut, M.; Jošt, D.; Nobile, E.; Škerlavaj, A.

    2015-12-01

    The numerical predictions of cavitating flow around a marine propeller working in non-uniform inflow and an axial turbine are presented. The cavitating flow is modelled using the homogeneous (mixture) model. Time-dependent simulations are performed for the marine propeller case using OpenFOAM. Three calibrated mass transfer models are alternatively used to model the mass transfer rate due to cavitation and the two-equation SST (Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model is employed to close the system of the governing equations. The predictions of the cavitating flow in an axial turbine are carried out with ANSYS-CFX, where only the native mass transfer model with tuned parameters is used. Steady-state simulations are performed in combination with the SST turbulence model, while time-dependent results are obtained with the more advanced SAS (Scale Adaptive Simulation) SST model. The numerical results agree well with the available experimental measurements, and the simulations performed with the three different calibrated mass transfer models are close to each other for the propeller flow. Regarding the axial turbine the effect of the cavitation on the machine efficiency is well reproduced only by the time dependent simulations.

  20. Evidence for panmixia despite barriers to gene flow in the southern African endemic, Caffrogobius caffer (Teleostei: Gobiidae)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Oceanography and life-history characteristics are known to influence the genetic structure of marine species, however the relative role that these factors play in shaping phylogeographic patterns remains unresolved. The population genetic structure of the endemic, rocky shore dwelling Caffrogobius caffer was investigated across a known major oceanographic barrier, Cape Agulhas, which has previously been shown to strongly influence genetic structuring of South African rocky shore and intertidal marine organisms. Given the variable and dynamic oceanographical features of the region, we further sought to test how the pattern of gene flow between C. caffer populations is affected by the dominant Agulhas and Benguela current systems of the southern oceans. Results The variable 5' region of the mtDNA control region was amplified for 242 individuals from ten localities spanning the distributional range of C. caffer. Fifty-five haplotypes were recovered and in stark contrast to previous phylogeographic studies of South African marine species, C. caffer showed no significant population genetic structuring along 1300 km of coastline. The parsimony haplotype network, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses revealed panmixia. Coalescent analyses reveal that gene flow in C. caffer is strongly asymmetrical and predominantly affected by the Agulhas Current. Notably, there was no gene flow between the east coast and all other populations, although all other analyses detect no significant population structure, suggesting a recent divergence. The mismatch distribution suggests that C. caffer underwent a population expansion at least 14 500 years ago. Conclusion We propose several possible life-history adaptations that could have enabled C. caffer to maintain gene flow across its distributional range, including a long pelagic larval stage. We have shown that life-history characteristics can be an important contributing factor to the phylogeography of marine species and that the effects

  1. Development of phoH as a novel signature gene for assessing marine phage diversity.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Dawn B; Crosti, Giuseppe; Dwivedi, Bhakti; McDaniel, Lauren D; Varsani, Arvind; Suttle, Curtis A; Weinbauer, Markus G; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-11-01

    Phages play a key role in the marine environment by regulating the transfer of energy between trophic levels and influencing global carbon and nutrient cycles. The diversity of marine phage communities remains difficult to characterize because of the lack of a signature gene common to all phages. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of host-derived auxiliary metabolic genes in phage genomes, such as those belonging to the Pho regulon, which regulates phosphate uptake and metabolism under low-phosphate conditions. Among the completely sequenced phage genomes in GenBank, this study identified Pho regulon genes in nearly 40% of the marine phage genomes, while only 4% of nonmarine phage genomes contained these genes. While several Pho regulon genes were identified, phoH was the most prevalent, appearing in 42 out of 602 completely sequenced phage genomes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that phage phoH sequences formed a cluster distinct from those of their bacterial hosts. PCR primers designed to amplify a region of the phoH gene were used to determine the diversity of phage phoH sequences throughout a depth profile in the Sargasso Sea and at six locations worldwide. phoH was present at all sites examined, and a high diversity of phoH sequences was recovered. Most phoH sequences belonged to clusters without any cultured representatives. Each depth and geographic location had a distinct phoH composition, although most phoH clusters were recovered from multiple sites. Overall, phoH is an effective signature gene for examining phage diversity in the marine environment. PMID:21926220

  2. Patterns of Gene Flow Define Species of Thermophilic Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Didelot, Xavier; Held, Nicole L.; Herrera, Alfa; Darling, Aaron; Reno, Michael L.; Krause, David J.; Whitaker, Rachel J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing appreciation of their vast diversity in nature, mechanisms of speciation are poorly understood in Bacteria and Archaea. Here we use high-throughput genome sequencing to identify ongoing speciation in the thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus. Patterns of homologous gene flow among genomes of 12 strains from a single hot spring in Kamchatka, Russia, demonstrate higher levels of gene flow within than between two persistent, coexisting groups, demonstrating that these microorganisms fit the biological species concept. Furthermore, rates of gene flow between two species are decreasing over time in a manner consistent with incipient speciation. Unlike other microorganisms investigated, we do not observe a relationship between genetic divergence and frequency of recombination along a chromosome, or other physical mechanisms that would reduce gene flow between lineages. Each species has its own genetic island encoding unique physiological functions and a unique growth phenotype that may be indicative of ecological specialization. Genetic differentiation between these coexisting groups occurs in large genomic “continents,” indicating the topology of genomic divergence during speciation is not uniform and is not associated with a single locus under strong diversifying selection. These data support a model where species do not require physical barriers to gene flow but are maintained by ecological differentiation. PMID:22363207

  3. Adaptive radiation of venomous marine snail lineages and the accelerated evolution of venom peptide genes.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Baldomero M; Watkins, Maren; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip; Imperial, Julita S; de la Cotera, Edgar P Heimer; Aguilar, Manuel B; Vera, Estuardo López; Concepcion, Gisela P; Lluisma, Arturo

    2012-09-01

    An impressive biodiversity (>10,000 species) of marine snails (suborder Toxoglossa or superfamily Conoidea) have complex venoms, each containing approximately 100 biologically active, disulfide-rich peptides. In the genus Conus, the most intensively investigated toxoglossan lineage (∼500 species), a small set of venom gene superfamilies undergo rapid sequence hyperdiversification within their mature toxin regions. Each major lineage of Toxoglossa has its own distinct set of venom gene superfamilies. Two recently identified venom gene superfamilies are expressed in the large Turridae clade, but not in Conus. Thus, as major venomous molluscan clades expand, a small set of lineage-specific venom gene superfamilies undergo accelerated evolution. The juxtaposition of extremely conserved signal sequences with hypervariable mature peptide regions is unprecedented and raises the possibility that in these gene superfamilies, the signal sequences are conserved as a result of an essential role they play in enabling rapid sequence evolution of the region of the gene that encodes the active toxin.

  4. Comparison of spatio-temporal resolution of different flow measurement techniques for marine renewable energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Vincent; Wosnik, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy conversion devices are subject to a wide range of turbulent scales, either due to upstream bathymetry, obstacles and waves, or from wakes of upstream devices in array configurations. The commonly used, robust Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) are well suited for long term flow measurements in the marine environment, but are limited to low sampling rates due to their operational principle. The resulting temporal and spatial resolution is insufficient to measure all turbulence scales of interest to the device, e.g., ``blade-scale turbulence.'' The present study systematically characterizes the spatial and temporal resolution of ADCP, Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV), and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Measurements were conducted in a large cross section tow tank (3.7m × 2.4m) for several benchmark cases, including low and high turbulence intensity uniform flow as well as in the wake of a cylinder, to quantitatively investigate the flow scales which each of the instruments can resolve. The purpose of the study is to supply data for mathematical modeling to improve predictions from ADCP measurements, which can help lead to higher-fidelity energy resource assessment and more accurate device evaluation, including wake measurements. Supported by NSF-CBET grant 1150797.

  5. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears.

    PubMed

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-03-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction. PMID:25490862

  6. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction. PMID:25490862

  7. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears.

    PubMed

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-03-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction.

  8. Plant DNA barcodes and the influence of gene flow.

    PubMed

    Naciri, Yamama; Caetano, Sofia; Salamin, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Success of species assignment using DNA barcodes has been shown to vary among plant lineages because of a wide range of different factors. In this study, we confirm the theoretical prediction that gene flow influences species assignment with simulations and a literature survey. We show that the genome experiencing the highest gene flow is, in the majority of the cases, the best suited for species delimitation. Our results clearly suggest that, for most angiosperm groups, plastid markers will not be the most appropriate for use as DNA barcodes. We therefore advocate shifting the focus from plastid to nuclear markers to achieve an overall higher success using DNA barcodes.

  9. Phylogenetic Evidence for Lateral Gene Transfer in the Intestine of Marine Iguanas

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David M.; Cann, Isaac K. O.; Altermann, Eric; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lateral gene transfer (LGT) appears to promote genotypic and phenotypic variation in microbial communities in a range of environments, including the mammalian intestine. However, the extent and mechanisms of LGT in intestinal microbial communities of non-mammalian hosts remains poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced two fosmid inserts obtained from a genomic DNA library derived from an agar-degrading enrichment culture of marine iguana fecal material. The inserts harbored 16S rRNA genes that place the organism from which they originated within Clostridium cluster IV, a well documented group that habitats the mammalian intestinal tract. However, sequence analysis indicates that 52% of the protein-coding genes on the fosmids have top BLASTX hits to bacterial species that are not members of Clostridium cluster IV, and phylogenetic analysis suggests that at least 10 of 44 coding genes on the fosmids may have been transferred from Clostridium cluster XIVa to cluster IV. The fosmids encoded four transposase-encoding genes and an integrase-encoding gene, suggesting their involvement in LGT. In addition, several coding genes likely involved in sugar transport were probably acquired through LGT. Conclusion Our phylogenetic evidence suggests that LGT may be common among phylogenetically distinct members of the phylum Firmicutes inhabiting the intestinal tract of marine iguanas. PMID:20520734

  10. Gene Flow and Molecular Innovation in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ruzzini, Antonio C; Clardy, Jon

    2016-09-26

    The small molecules produced by environmental bacteria have been mainstays of both chemical and biological research for decades, and some have led to important therapeutic interventions. These small molecules have been shaped by natural selection as they evolved to fulfill changing functional roles in their native environments. This minireview describes some recent systematic studies providing illustrative examples that involve the acquisition and alteration of genetic information for molecular innovation by bacteria in well-defined environments. Two different bacterial genera are featured, Pseudonocardia and Salinispora, and, although the small-molecule repertoires of both have benefited from horizontal gene transfer, Pseudonocardia spp. have relied on plasmid-based tactics while Salinispora spp. have relied on chromosomally integrated genomic islands. PMID:27676308

  11. Consequences of recurrent gene flow from crops to wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Haygood, Ralph; Ives, Anthony R; Andow, David A

    2003-09-22

    Concern about gene flow from crops to wild relatives has become widespread with the increasing cultivation of transgenic crops. Possible consequences of such gene flow include genetic assimilation, wherein crop genes replace wild ones, and demographic swamping, wherein hybrids are less fertile than their wild parents, and wild populations shrink. Using mathematical models of a wild population recurrently receiving pollen from a genetically fixed crop, we find that the conditions for genetic assimilation are not stringent, and progress towards replacement can be fast, even for disfavoured crop genes. Demographic swamping and genetic drift relax the conditions for genetic assimilation and speed progress towards replacement. Genetic assimilation can involve thresholds and hysteresis, such that a small increase in immigration can lead to fixation of a disfavoured crop gene that had been maintained at a moderate frequency, even if the increase in immigration is cancelled before the gene fixes. Demographic swamping can give rise to 'migrational meltdown', such that a small increase in immigration can lead to not only fixation of a disfavoured crop gene but also drastic shrinkage of the wild population. These findings suggest that the spread of crop genes in wild populations should be monitored more closely. PMID:14561300

  12. Consequences of recurrent gene flow from crops to wild relatives.

    PubMed Central

    Haygood, Ralph; Ives, Anthony R; Andow, David A

    2003-01-01

    Concern about gene flow from crops to wild relatives has become widespread with the increasing cultivation of transgenic crops. Possible consequences of such gene flow include genetic assimilation, wherein crop genes replace wild ones, and demographic swamping, wherein hybrids are less fertile than their wild parents, and wild populations shrink. Using mathematical models of a wild population recurrently receiving pollen from a genetically fixed crop, we find that the conditions for genetic assimilation are not stringent, and progress towards replacement can be fast, even for disfavoured crop genes. Demographic swamping and genetic drift relax the conditions for genetic assimilation and speed progress towards replacement. Genetic assimilation can involve thresholds and hysteresis, such that a small increase in immigration can lead to fixation of a disfavoured crop gene that had been maintained at a moderate frequency, even if the increase in immigration is cancelled before the gene fixes. Demographic swamping can give rise to 'migrational meltdown', such that a small increase in immigration can lead to not only fixation of a disfavoured crop gene but also drastic shrinkage of the wild population. These findings suggest that the spread of crop genes in wild populations should be monitored more closely. PMID:14561300

  13. Consequences of recurrent gene flow from crops to wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Haygood, Ralph; Ives, Anthony R; Andow, David A

    2003-09-22

    Concern about gene flow from crops to wild relatives has become widespread with the increasing cultivation of transgenic crops. Possible consequences of such gene flow include genetic assimilation, wherein crop genes replace wild ones, and demographic swamping, wherein hybrids are less fertile than their wild parents, and wild populations shrink. Using mathematical models of a wild population recurrently receiving pollen from a genetically fixed crop, we find that the conditions for genetic assimilation are not stringent, and progress towards replacement can be fast, even for disfavoured crop genes. Demographic swamping and genetic drift relax the conditions for genetic assimilation and speed progress towards replacement. Genetic assimilation can involve thresholds and hysteresis, such that a small increase in immigration can lead to fixation of a disfavoured crop gene that had been maintained at a moderate frequency, even if the increase in immigration is cancelled before the gene fixes. Demographic swamping can give rise to 'migrational meltdown', such that a small increase in immigration can lead to not only fixation of a disfavoured crop gene but also drastic shrinkage of the wild population. These findings suggest that the spread of crop genes in wild populations should be monitored more closely.

  14. Response of marine bacterioplankton pH homeostasis gene expression to elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunse, Carina; Lundin, Daniel; Karlsson, Christofer M. G.; Akram, Neelam; Vila-Costa, Maria; Palovaara, Joakim; Svensson, Lovisa; Holmfeldt, Karin; González, José M.; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles; Marrasé, Cèlia; Dopson, Mark; Gasol, Josep M.; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2016-05-01

    Human-induced ocean acidification impacts marine life. Marine bacteria are major drivers of biogeochemical nutrient cycles and energy fluxes; hence, understanding their performance under projected climate change scenarios is crucial for assessing ecosystem functioning. Whereas genetic and physiological responses of phytoplankton to ocean acidification are being disentangled, corresponding functional responses of bacterioplankton to pH reduction from elevated CO2 are essentially unknown. Here we show, from metatranscriptome analyses of a phytoplankton bloom mesocosm experiment, that marine bacteria responded to lowered pH by enhancing the expression of genes encoding proton pumps, such as respiration complexes, proteorhodopsin and membrane transporters. Moreover, taxonomic transcript analysis showed that distinct bacterial groups expressed different pH homeostasis genes in response to elevated CO2. These responses were substantial for numerous pH homeostasis genes under low-chlorophyll conditions (chlorophyll a <2.5 μg l-1) however, the changes in gene expression under high-chlorophyll conditions (chlorophyll a >20 μg l-1) were low. Given that proton expulsion through pH homeostasis mechanisms is energetically costly, these findings suggest that bacterioplankton adaptation to ocean acidification could have long-term effects on the economy of ocean ecosystems.

  15. Isolation and expression of two aquaporin-encoding genes from the marine phanerogam Posidonia oceanica.

    PubMed

    Maestrini, Pierluigi; Giordani, Tommaso; Lunardi, Andrea; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2004-12-01

    Seagrasses such as Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile are marine phanerogams, widespread in various seas, where they form large prairies representing dynamic substrates exceeding the area of the sediment surface several times over and allowing settlement of epiphyte organisms. Studying mechanisms involved in water transport in marine plants, we isolated two aquaporin-encoding genes, PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1, showing high similarity to plasma membrane- and tonoplast-intrinsic protein-encoding genes, respectively. PoPIP1;1 is unique in the genome of P. oceanica, while PoTIP1;1 belongs to an aquaporin subfamily of at least four members. PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1 encode functional proteins, as indicated by expression experiments in Xenopus oocytes. Both genes are constitutively expressed in the leaves, with higher levels of transcripts in young than in differentiated leaf tissues. Variations of salt concentration in aquarium determined different PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1 transcript accumulation, indicating the existence of adaptation mechanisms related to gene expression also in marine plants, i.e. adapted to very high salt concentrations. Hyposalinity induced lower levels of PIP1 transcripts, while hypersalinity determined more PIP1 transcripts than normal salinity. TIP1 transcripts increased in response to both hypo- and hypersalinity after 2 days of treatment and went back to control levels after 5 d.

  16. Isolation and expression of two aquaporin-encoding genes from the marine phanerogam Posidonia oceanica.

    PubMed

    Maestrini, Pierluigi; Giordani, Tommaso; Lunardi, Andrea; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2004-12-01

    Seagrasses such as Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile are marine phanerogams, widespread in various seas, where they form large prairies representing dynamic substrates exceeding the area of the sediment surface several times over and allowing settlement of epiphyte organisms. Studying mechanisms involved in water transport in marine plants, we isolated two aquaporin-encoding genes, PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1, showing high similarity to plasma membrane- and tonoplast-intrinsic protein-encoding genes, respectively. PoPIP1;1 is unique in the genome of P. oceanica, while PoTIP1;1 belongs to an aquaporin subfamily of at least four members. PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1 encode functional proteins, as indicated by expression experiments in Xenopus oocytes. Both genes are constitutively expressed in the leaves, with higher levels of transcripts in young than in differentiated leaf tissues. Variations of salt concentration in aquarium determined different PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1 transcript accumulation, indicating the existence of adaptation mechanisms related to gene expression also in marine plants, i.e. adapted to very high salt concentrations. Hyposalinity induced lower levels of PIP1 transcripts, while hypersalinity determined more PIP1 transcripts than normal salinity. TIP1 transcripts increased in response to both hypo- and hypersalinity after 2 days of treatment and went back to control levels after 5 d. PMID:15653802

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of five opsin genes from the marine flatfish Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    PubMed

    Helvik, J V; Drivenes, O; Naess, T H; Fjose, A; Seo, H C

    2001-01-01

    Most molecular studies on the visual system in fish have been performed on freshwater teleosts such as goldfish and zebrafish where cones and rods appear simultaneously. Many marine fishes have long larval phase in the upper pelagic zone before transformation into a juvenile and a benthic life style. The retina at the larval stages consists of only single cone cells; later during metamorphosis double cones and rods develop. The flatfish Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) is a typical example of a marine species with such a two-step retina development. In this study, we have cloned five different opsins from Atlantic halibut larvae and juvenile retinas. Sequence comparisons with other opsins and phylogenetic analysis show that the five genes belong to the opsins of long-wavelength sensitive (L); middle-wavelength sensitive, M(Cone) and M(Rod); and short-wavelength sensitive, S(Blue) and S(Ultraviolet), respectively. In situ hybridization analysis reveals expression in double cone (L and M(Cone)), single cone (S(Blue) and S(Ultraviolet)), and rod (M(Rod)) types of photoreceptor cells in juvenile halibut retina. The visual system in Atlantic halibut seems therefore to have all four types of cone photoreceptors in addition to rod photoreceptors. This work shows for the first time molecular isolation of a complete set of retinal visual pigment genes from a marine teleost and describes the first cloning of an ultraviolet-sensitive opsin type from a marine teleost.

  18. Convergent evolution of marine mammals is associated with distinct substitutions in common genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuming; Seim, Inge; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic convergence is thought to be driven by parallel substitutions coupled with natural selection at the sequence level. Multiple independent evolutionary transitions of mammals to an aquatic environment offer an opportunity to test this thesis. Here, whole genome alignment of coding sequences identified widespread parallel amino acid substitutions in marine mammals; however, the majority of these changes were not unique to these animals. Conversely, we report that candidate aquatic adaptation genes, identified by signatures of likelihood convergence and/or elevated ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate, are characterized by very few parallel substitutions and exhibit distinct sequence changes in each group. Moreover, no significant positive correlation was found between likelihood convergence and positive selection in all three marine lineages. These results suggest that convergence in protein coding genes associated with aquatic lifestyle is mainly characterized by independent substitutions and relaxed negative selection. PMID:26549748

  19. Convergent evolution of marine mammals is associated with distinct substitutions in common genes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuming; Seim, Inge; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2015-11-09

    Phenotypic convergence is thought to be driven by parallel substitutions coupled with natural selection at the sequence level. Multiple independent evolutionary transitions of mammals to an aquatic environment offer an opportunity to test this thesis. Here, whole genome alignment of coding sequences identified widespread parallel amino acid substitutions in marine mammals; however, the majority of these changes were not unique to these animals. Conversely, we report that candidate aquatic adaptation genes, identified by signatures of likelihood convergence and/or elevated ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate, are characterized by very few parallel substitutions and exhibit distinct sequence changes in each group. Moreover, no significant positive correlation was found between likelihood convergence and positive selection in all three marine lineages. These results suggest that convergence in protein coding genes associated with aquatic lifestyle is mainly characterized by independent substitutions and relaxed negative selection.

  20. Evidence for the Intense Exchange of MazG in Marine Cyanophages by Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Clokie, Martha R. J.; Mann, Nicholas H.; Bryan, Samantha J.

    2008-01-01

    Background S-PM2 is a phage capable of infecting strains of unicellular cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Synechococcus. S-PM2, like other myoviruses infecting marine cyanobacteria, encodes a number of bacterial-like genes. Amongst these genes is one encoding a MazG homologue that is hypothesized to be involved in the adaption of the infected host for production of progeny phage. Methodology/Principal Findings This study focuses on establishing the occurrence of mazG homologues in other cyanophages isolated from different oceanic locations. Degenerate PCR primers were designed using the mazG gene of S-PM2. The mazG gene was found to be widely distributed and highly conserved among Synechococcus myoviruses and podoviruses from diverse oceanic provinces. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence of a globally connected cyanophage gene pool, the cyanophage mazG gene having a small effective population size indicative of rapid lateral gene transfer despite being present in a substantial fraction of cyanophage. The Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus phage mazG genes do not cluster with the host mazG gene, suggesting that their primary hosts are not the source of the mazG gene. PMID:18431505

  1. LONG DISTANCE POLLEN-MEDIATED GENE FLOW FROM CREEPING BENTGRASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers from USEPA WED have measured gene flow from experimental fields of Roundup? herbicide resistant genetically modified (GM) creeping bentgrass a grass used primarily on golf courses, to compatible non-crop relatives. Using a sampling design based on the estimated time ...

  2. Urban land use limits regional bumble bee gene flow.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shalene; Kremen, C

    2013-05-01

    Potential declines in native pollinator communities and increased reliance on pollinator-dependent crops have raised concerns about native pollinator conservation and dispersal across human-altered landscapes. Bumble bees are one of the most effective native pollinators and are often the first to be extirpated in human-altered habitats, yet little is known about how bumble bees move across fine spatial scales and what landscapes promote or limit their gene flow. In this study, we examine regional genetic differentiation and fine-scale relatedness patterns of the yellow-faced bumble bee, Bombus vosnesenskii, to investigate how current and historic habitat composition impact gene flow. We conducted our study across a landscape mosaic of natural, agricultural and urban/suburban habitats, and we show that B. vosnesenskii exhibits low but significant levels of differentiation across the study system (F(ST) = 0.019, D(est) = 0.049). Most importantly, we reveal significant relationships between pairwise F(ST) and resistance models created from contemporary land use maps. Specifically, B. vosnesenskii gene flow is most limited by commercial, industrial and transportation-related impervious cover. Finally, our fine-scale analysis reveals significant but declining relatedness between individuals at the 1-9 km spatial scale, most likely due to local queen dispersal. Overall, our results indicate that B. vosnesenskii exhibits considerable local dispersal and that regional gene flow is significantly limited by impervious cover associated with urbanization.

  3. A CRISPR/Cas9 system adapted for gene editing in marine algae

    PubMed Central

    Nymark, Marianne; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Sparstad, Torfinn; Bones, Atle M.; Winge, Per

    2016-01-01

    Here we report that the CRISPR/Cas9 technology can be used to efficiently generate stable targeted gene mutations in microalgae, using the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a model species. Our vector design opens for rapid and easy adaption of the construct to the target chosen. To screen for CRISPR/Cas9 mutants we employed high resolution melting based PCR assays, mutants were confirmed by sequencing and further validated by functional analyses. PMID:27108533

  4. Gene Flow and Selection in a Two-Locus System

    PubMed Central

    Slatkin, Montgomery

    1975-01-01

    A model of gene flow and selection in two linked loci is analyzed. The problems considered are the effects of linkage on the clines in frequencies at the two loci and the role of gene flow in producing linkage disequilibrium between the loci. Also, the possible significance of linkage as a mechanism for permitting a population of "track" spatial changes in the environment is considered. The results are that when the recombination fraction between the loci is of the same order of magnitude as the selection coefficients or smaller, then linkage is important in determining the gene frequencies and a substantial amount of linkage disequilibrium is present in the cline. Depending on the spatial pattern of selection on the two loci, linkage can either decrease or increase a population's response to local selection. PMID:1213276

  5. Long Serial Analysis of Gene Expression for Gene Discovery and Transcriptome Profiling in the Widespread Marine Coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi†

    PubMed Central

    Dyhrman, Sonya T.; Haley, Sheean T.; Birkeland, Shanda R.; Wurch, Louie L.; Cipriano, Michael J.; McArthur, Andrew G.

    2006-01-01

    The abundant and widespread coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi plays an important role in mediating CO2 exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere through its impact on marine photosynthesis and calcification. Here, we use long serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to identify E. huxleyi genes responsive to nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) starvation. Long SAGE is an elegant approach for examining quantitative and comprehensive gene expression patterns without a priori knowledge of gene sequences via the detection of 21-bp nucleotide sequence tags. E. huxleyi appears to have a robust transcriptional-level response to macronutrient deficiency, with 42 tags uniquely present or up-regulated twofold or greater in the N-starved library and 128 tags uniquely present or up-regulated twofold or greater in the P-starved library. The expression patterns of several tags were validated with reverse transcriptase PCR. Roughly 48% of these differentially expressed tags could be mapped to publicly available genomic or expressed sequence tag (EST) sequence data. For example, in the P-starved library a number of the tags mapped to genes with a role in P scavenging, including a putative phosphate-repressible permease and a putative polyphosphate synthetase. In short, the long SAGE analyses have (i) identified many new differentially regulated gene sequences, (ii) assigned regulation data to EST sequences with no database homology and unknown function, and (iii) highlighted previously uncharacterized aspects of E. huxleyi N and P physiology. To this end, our long SAGE libraries provide a new public resource for gene discovery and transcriptional analysis in this biogeochemically important marine organism. PMID:16391051

  6. Long serial analysis of gene expression for gene discovery and transcriptome profiling in the widespread marine coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.

    PubMed

    Dyhrman, Sonya T; Haley, Sheean T; Birkeland, Shanda R; Wurch, Louie L; Cipriano, Michael J; McArthur, Andrew G

    2006-01-01

    The abundant and widespread coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi plays an important role in mediating CO2 exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere through its impact on marine photosynthesis and calcification. Here, we use long serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to identify E. huxleyi genes responsive to nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) starvation. Long SAGE is an elegant approach for examining quantitative and comprehensive gene expression patterns without a priori knowledge of gene sequences via the detection of 21-bp nucleotide sequence tags. E. huxleyi appears to have a robust transcriptional-level response to macronutrient deficiency, with 42 tags uniquely present or up-regulated twofold or greater in the N-starved library and 128 tags uniquely present or up-regulated twofold or greater in the P-starved library. The expression patterns of several tags were validated with reverse transcriptase PCR. Roughly 48% of these differentially expressed tags could be mapped to publicly available genomic or expressed sequence tag (EST) sequence data. For example, in the P-starved library a number of the tags mapped to genes with a role in P scavenging, including a putative phosphate-repressible permease and a putative polyphosphate synthetase. In short, the long SAGE analyses have (i) identified many new differentially regulated gene sequences, (ii) assigned regulation data to EST sequences with no database homology and unknown function, and (iii) highlighted previously uncharacterized aspects of E. huxleyi N and P physiology. To this end, our long SAGE libraries provide a new public resource for gene discovery and transcriptional analysis in this biogeochemically important marine organism.

  7. A Gene Island with Two Possible Configurations Is Involved in Chromatic Acclimation in Marine Synechococcus

    PubMed Central

    Humily, Florian; Partensky, Frédéric; Six, Christophe; Farrant, Gregory K.; Ratin, Morgane; Marie, Dominique; Garczarek, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Synechococcus, the second most abundant oxygenic phototroph in the marine environment, harbors the largest pigment diversity known within a single genus of cyanobacteria, allowing it to exploit a wide range of light niches. Some strains are capable of Type IV chromatic acclimation (CA4), a process by which cells can match the phycobilin content of their phycobilisomes to the ambient light quality. Here, we performed extensive genomic comparisons to explore the diversity of this process within the marine Synechococcus radiation. A specific gene island was identified in all CA4-performing strains, containing two genes (fciA/b) coding for possible transcriptional regulators and one gene coding for a phycobilin lyase. However, two distinct configurations of this cluster were observed, depending on the lineage. CA4-A islands contain the mpeZ gene, encoding a recently characterized phycoerythrobilin lyase-isomerase, and a third, small, possible regulator called fciC. In CA4-B islands, the lyase gene encodes an uncharacterized relative of MpeZ, called MpeW. While mpeZ is expressed more in blue light than green light, this is the reverse for mpeW, although only small phenotypic differences were found among chromatic acclimaters possessing either CA4 island type. This study provides novel insights into understanding both diversity and evolution of the CA4 process. PMID:24391958

  8. Highly restricted gene flow and deep evolutionary lineages in the giant clam Tridacna maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryanto, A.; Kochzius, M.

    2009-09-01

    The tropical Indo-West Pacific is the biogeographic region with the highest diversity of marine shallow water species, with its centre in the Indo-Malay Archipelago. However, due to its high endemism, the Red Sea is also considered as an important centre of evolution. Currently, not much is known about exchange among the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and West Pacific, as well as connectivity within the Indo-Malay Archipelago, even though such information is important to illuminate ecological and evolutionary processes that shape marine biodiversity in these regions. In addition, the inference of connectivity among populations is important for conservation. This study aims to test the hypothesis that the Indo-Malay Archipelago and the Red Sea are important centres of evolution by studying the genetic population structure of the giant clam Tridacna maxima. This study is based on a 484-bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene from 211 individuals collected at 14 localities in the Indo-West Pacific to infer lineage diversification and gene flow as a measure for connectivity. The analysis showed a significant genetic differentiation among sample sites in the Indo-West Pacific (Φst = 0.74, P < 0.001) and across the Indo-Malay Archipelago (Φst = 0.72, P < 0.001), indicating restricted gene flow. Hierarchical AMOVA revealed the highest fixation index (Φct = 0.8, P < 0.001) when sample sites were assigned to the following regions: (1) Red Sea, (2) Indian Ocean and Java Sea, (3) Indonesian throughflow and seas in the East of Sulawesi, and (4) Western Pacific. Geological history as well as oceanography are important factors that shape the genetic structure of T. maxima in the Indo-Malay Archipelago and Red Sea. The observed deep evolutionary lineages might include cryptic species and this result supports the notion that the Indo-Malay Archipelago and the Red Sea are important centres of evolution.

  9. Blockage effects on the hydrodynamic performance of a marine cross-flow turbine.

    PubMed

    Consul, Claudio A; Willden, Richard H J; McIntosh, Simon C

    2013-02-28

    This paper explores the influence of blockage and free-surface deformation on the hydrodynamic performance of a generic marine cross-flow turbine. Flows through a three-bladed turbine with solidity 0.125 are simulated at field-test blade Reynolds numbers, O(10(5)-10(6)), for three different cross-stream blockages: 12.5, 25 and 50 per cent. Two representations of the free-surface boundary are considered: rigid lid and deformable free surface. Increasing the blockage is observed to lead to substantial increases in the power coefficient; the highest power coefficient computed is 1.23. Only small differences are observed between the two free-surface representations, with the deforming free-surface turbine out-performing the rigid lid turbine by 6.7 per cent in power at the highest blockage considered. This difference is attributed to the increase in effective blockage owing to the deformation of the free surface. Hydrodynamic efficiency, the ratio of useful power generated to overall power removed from the flow, is found to increase with blockage, which is consistent with the presence of a higher flow velocity through the core of the turbine at higher blockage ratios. Froude number is found to have little effect on thrust and power coefficients, but significant influence on surface elevation drop across the turbine.

  10. Interspecific and interploidal gene flow in Central European Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effects of polyploidisation on gene flow between natural populations are little known. Central European diploid and tetraploid populations of Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata are here used to study interspecific and interploidal gene flow, using a combination of nuclear and plastid markers. Results Ploidal levels were confirmed by flow cytometry. Network analyses clearly separated diploids according to species. Tetraploids and diploids were highly intermingled within species, and some tetraploids intermingled with the other species, as well. Isolation with migration analyses suggested interspecific introgression from tetraploid A. arenosa to tetraploid A. lyrata and vice versa, and some interploidal gene flow, which was unidirectional from diploid to tetraploid in A. arenosa and bidirectional in A. lyrata. Conclusions Interspecific genetic isolation at diploid level combined with introgression at tetraploid level indicates that polyploidy may buffer against negative consequences of interspecific hybridisation. The role of introgression in polyploid systems may, however, differ between plant species, and even within the small genus Arabidopsis, we find very different evolutionary fates when it comes to introgression. PMID:22126410

  11. Phosphate transporters in marine phytoplankton and their viruses: cross-domain commonalities in viral-host gene exchanges

    PubMed Central

    Monier, Adam; Welsh, Rory M; Gentemann, Chelle; Weinstock, George; Sodergren, Erica; Armbrust, E Virginia; Eisen, Jonathan A; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2012-01-01

    Phosphate (PO4) is an important limiting nutrient in marine environments. Marine cyanobacteria scavenge PO4 using the high-affinity periplasmic phosphate binding protein PstS. The pstS gene has recently been identified in genomes of cyanobacterial viruses as well. Here, we analyse genes encoding transporters in genomes from viruses that infect eukaryotic phytoplankton. We identified inorganic PO4 transporter-encoding genes from the PHO4 superfamily in several virus genomes, along with other transporter-encoding genes. Homologues of the viral pho4 genes were also identified in genome sequences from the genera that these viruses infect. Genome sequences were available from host genera of all the phytoplankton viruses analysed except the host genus Bathycoccus. Pho4 was recovered from Bathycoccus by sequencing a targeted metagenome from an uncultured Atlantic Ocean population. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that pho4 genes from pelagophytes, haptophytes and infecting viruses were more closely related to homologues in prasinophytes than to those in what, at the species level, are considered to be closer relatives (e.g. diatoms). We also identified PHO4 superfamily members in ocean metagenomes, including new metagenomes from the Pacific Ocean. The environmental sequences grouped with pelagophytes, haptophytes, prasinophytes and viruses as well as bacteria. The analyses suggest that multiple independent pho4 gene transfer events have occurred between marine viruses and both eukaryotic and bacterial hosts. Additionally, pho4 genes were identified in available genomes from viruses that infect marine eukaryotes but not those that infect terrestrial hosts. Commonalities in marine host-virus gene exchanges indicate that manipulation of host-PO4 uptake is an important adaptation for viral proliferation in marine systems. Our findings suggest that PO4-availability may not serve as a simple bottom-up control of marine phytoplankton. PMID:21914098

  12. Development of a gene cloning system for the hydrogen-producing marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, T.; Matsunaga, N.; Tsubaki, K.; Tanaka, T.

    1986-10-01

    Seventy-six strains of marine photosynthetic bacteria were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for plasmid DNA content. Among these strains, 12 carried two to four different plasmids with sizes ranging from 3.1 to 11.0 megadaltons. The marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 had two plasmids, pRD06S and pRD06L. The smaller plasmid, pRD06S, had a molecular weight of 3.8 megadaltons and was cut at a single site by restriction endonucleases SalI, SmaI, PstI, XhoI, and BglII. Moreover, the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 containing plasmid pRD06 had a satisfactory growth rate (doubling time, 7.5 h), a hydrogen-producing rate of 0.96 ..mu..mol/mg (dry weight) of cells per h, and nitrogen fixation capability. Plasmid pRD06S, however, had neither drug resistance nor heavy-metal resistance, and its copy number was less than 10. Therefore, a recombinant plasmid consisting of pRD06S and Escherichia coli cloning vector pUC13 was constructed and cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106. As a result, Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 developed ampicillin resistance. Thus, a shuttle vector for gene transfer was constructed for marine photosynthetic bacteria.

  13. Development of a gene cloning system for the hydrogen-producing marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, T; Matsunaga, N; Tsubaki, K; Tanaka, T

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-six strains of marine photosynthetic bacteria were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for plasmid DNA content. Among these strains, 12 carried two to four different plasmids with sizes ranging from 3.1 to 11.0 megadaltons. The marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 had two plasmids, pRD06S and pRD06L. The smaller plasmid, pRD06S, had a molecular weight of 3.8 megadaltons and was cut at a single site by restriction endonucleases SalI, SmaI, PstI, XhoI, and BglII. Moreover, the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 containing plasmid pRD06 had a satisfactory growth rate (doubling time, 7.5 h), a hydrogen-producing rate of 0.96 mumol/mg (dry weight) of cells per h, and nitrogen fixation capability. Plasmid pRD06S, however, had neither drug resistance nor heavy-metal resistance, and its copy number was less than 10. Therefore, a recombinant plasmid consisting of pRD06S and Escherichia coli cloning vector pUC13 was constructed and cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106. As a result, Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 developed ampicillin resistance. Thus, a shuttle vector for gene transfer was constructed for marine photosynthetic bacteria. PMID:3020006

  14. Integration of flow studies for robust selection of mechanoresponsive genes.

    PubMed

    Maimari, Nataly; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Russo, Alessandra; Broda, Krysia; Krams, Rob

    2016-03-01

    Blood flow is an essential contributor to plaque growth, composition and initiation. It is sensed by endothelial cells, which react to blood flow by expressing > 1000 genes. The sheer number of genes implies that one needs genomic techniques to unravel their response in disease. Individual genomic studies have been performed but lack sufficient power to identify subtle changes in gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether a systematic meta-analysis of available microarray studies can improve their consistency. We identified 17 studies using microarrays, of which six were performed in vivo and 11 in vitro. The in vivo studies were disregarded due to the lack of the shear profile. Of the in vitro studies, a cross-platform integration of human studies (HUVECs in flow cells) showed high concordance (> 90 %). The human data set identified > 1600 genes to be shear responsive, more than any other study and in this gene set all known mechanosensitive genes and pathways were present. A detailed network analysis indicated a power distribution (e. g. the presence of hubs), without a hierarchical organisation. The average cluster coefficient was high and further analysis indicated an aggregation of 3 and 4 element motifs, indicating a high prevalence of feedback and feed forward loops, similar to prokaryotic cells. In conclusion, this initial study presented a novel method to integrate human-based mechanosensitive studies to increase its power. The robust network was large, contained all known mechanosensitive pathways and its structure revealed hubs, and a large aggregate of feedback and feed forward loops. PMID:26842798

  15. Marine airborne salts applied to trace evapotranspiration, local recharge and lateral groundwater flow in Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazor, Emanuel; George, Richard

    1992-11-01

    Concentrations of dissolved Cl, Br, SO 4, Na, K, Ca and Mg in ground waters of six study areas in the flat Wheatbelt of Western Australia revealed: (a) variations of several orders of magnitude of ion concentrations (40-63 000 mg C11 -1) in ground waters encountered in wells 2-46 m deep; (b) variations exceeding an order of magnitude in the salinity observed in depth profiles of individual wells; (c) positive linear correlations between the concentrations of Cl, Br, Na and Mg, observed in all the study areas, and similar correlations also with Ca, K and SO 4 in part of these areas; (d) marine-like relative ionic concentration abundances of Cl, Br, Na and Mg in the six study areas, and of Ca, K and SO 4 in part of the areas; (e) concentrations of the various ions distinctly below saturation with halite, Br-containing salts or gypsum. Observations of this nature are shown to provide a powerful tool to establish: (a) lack of fractionation between the marine ions during the atmospheric transport, (b) salt input dominated by marine airborne salts, (c) operation of evapotranspiration from the regolith in calculable degrees that vary from one surface cell to another, (d) lack of salt phases in the aquifer materials, (e) dominance of local (vertical) recharge over remote (lateral) recharge, (f) infiltration of active recharge through preferred pathways in the aerated zone, (g) storage of ground water in local compartments, (h) amount of annual recharge in each unit of area, and (i) hydrochemical maturity of the local hydrological system. Rise of water tables, as a result of forest clearing, produces a different flow regime for water and solutes. The depth of the aerated zone is drastically reduced, saline interstitial water is mobilized from the aquifer (the former aerated zone), and previously productive land becomes degraded by excessive soil salinities.

  16. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Matthias G.; Allen, Michael J.; Wilson, William H.; Suttle, Curtis A.

    2010-01-01

    As major consumers of heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton, microzooplankton are a critical link in aquatic foodwebs. Here, we show that a major marine microflagellate grazer is infected by a giant virus, Cafeteria roenbergensis virus (CroV), which has the largest genome of any described marine virus (≈730 kb of double-stranded DNA). The central 618-kb coding part of this AT-rich genome contains 544 predicted protein-coding genes; putative early and late promoter motifs have been detected and assigned to 191 and 72 of them, respectively, and at least 274 genes were expressed during infection. The diverse coding potential of CroV includes predicted translation factors, DNA repair enzymes such as DNA mismatch repair protein MutS and two photolyases, multiple ubiquitin pathway components, four intein elements, and 22 tRNAs. Many genes including isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, eIF-2γ, and an Elp3-like histone acetyltransferase are usually not found in viruses. We also discovered a 38-kb genomic region of putative bacterial origin, which encodes several predicted carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, including an entire pathway for the biosynthesis of 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonate, a key component of the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that CroV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus, with Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus as its closest relative, although less than one-third of the genes of CroV have homologs in Mimivirus. CroV is a highly complex marine virus and the only virus studied in genetic detail that infects one of the major groups of predators in the oceans. PMID:20974979

  17. Do Major Roads Reduce Gene Flow in Urban Bird Populations?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuping; Suo, Mingli; Liu, Shenglin; Liang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the negative effects of roads on the genetics of animal populations have been extensively reported, the question of whether roads reduce gene flow in volant, urban bird populations has so far not been addressed. In this study, we assess whether highways decreased gene flow and genetic variation in a small passerine bird, the tree sparrow (Passer montanus). Methodology We assessed genetic differences among tree sparrows (Passer montanus) sampled at 19 sites within Beijing Municipality, China, using 7 DNA microsatellites as genetic markers. Results AMOVA showed that genetic variation between sites, between urban and rural populations, and between opposite sides of the same highway, were very weak. Mantel tests on all samples, and on urban samples only, indicated that the age and number of highways, and the number of ordinary roads, were uncorrelated with genetic differences (FST) among tree sparrows from different urban sites. Birds sampled at urban sites had similar levels of genetic diversity to those at rural sites. There was, however, evidence of some weak genetic structure between urban sites. Firstly, there were significant genetic differences (FST) between birds from opposite sides of the same highway, but no significant FST values between those from sites that were not separated by highways. Secondly, birds from eleven urban sites had loci that significantly deviated from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium but no such deviation was found in birds from rural sites. Conclusion We cannot, therefore, conclusively reject the hypothesis that highways have no effect on the gene flow of tree sparrow populations. Furthermore, since the significance of these results may increase with time, we suggested that research on the influence of highways on gene flow in urban bird populations needs to be conducted over several decades. PMID:24204724

  18. Effect of static mixer geometry on flow mixing and pressure drop in marine scr applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Taewha; Sung, Yonmo; Kim, Taekyung; Lee, Inwon; Choi, Gyungmin; Kim, Duckjool

    2014-03-01

    Flow mixing and pressure drop characteristics for marine selective catalytic reduction applications were investigated numerically to develop an efficient static mixer. Two different mixers, line- and swirl-type, were considered. The effect of vane angles on the relative intensity, uniformity index, and pressure drop was investigated in a swirl-type mixer; these parameters are dramatically affected by the mixer geometry. The presence of a mixer, regardless of the mixer type, led to an improvement of approximately 20% in the mixing performance behind the mixer in comparison to not having a mixer. In particular, there was a tradeoff relationship between the uniformity and the pressure drop. Con­sidering the mixing performance and the pressure drop, the swirl-type mixer was more suitable than the line-type mixer in this study.

  19. Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Genes in the Microbial Metagenomes of Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel-Elardo, Sheila Marie; Grozdanov, Lubomir; Proksch, Sebastian; Hentschel, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Genomic mining revealed one major nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) phylogenetic cluster in 12 marine sponge species, one ascidian, an actinobacterial isolate and seawater. Phylogenetic analysis predicts its taxonomic affiliation to the actinomycetes and hydroxy-phenyl-glycine as a likely substrate. Additionally, a phylogenetically distinct NRPS gene cluster was discovered in the microbial metagenome of the sponge Aplysina aerophoba, which shows highest similarities to NRPS genes that were previously assigned, by ways of single cell genomics, to a Chloroflexi sponge symbiont. Genomic mining studies such as the one presented here for NRPS genes, contribute to on-going efforts to characterize the genomic potential of sponge-associated microbiota for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. PMID:22822366

  20. Genome sequence of the phage-gene rich marine Phaeobacter arcticus type strain DSM 23566T

    PubMed Central

    Freese, Heike M.; Dalingault, Hajnalka; Petersen, Jörn; Pradella, Silke; Davenport, Karen; Teshima, Hazuki; Chen, Amy; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Chain, Patrick; Detter, John C.; Rohde, Manfred; Gronow, Sabine; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Woyke, Tanja; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Göker, Markus; Overmann, Jörg; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Phaeobacter arcticus Zhang et al. 2008 belongs to the marine Roseobacter clade whose members are phylogenetically and physiologically diverse. In contrast to the type species of this genus, Phaeobacter gallaeciensis, which is well characterized, relatively little is known about the characteristics of P. arcticus. Here, we describe the features of this organism including the annotated high-quality draft genome sequence and highlight some particular traits. The 5,049,232 bp long genome with its 4,828 protein-coding and 81 RNA genes consists of one chromosome and five extrachromosomal elements. Prophage sequences identified via PHAST constitute nearly 5% of the bacterial chromosome and included a potential Mu-like phage as well as a gene-transfer agent (GTA). In addition, the genome of strain DSM 23566T encodes all of the genes necessary for assimilatory nitrate reduction. Phylogenetic analysis and intergenomic distances indicate that the classification of the species might need to be reconsidered. PMID:24501630

  1. Extremely reduced dispersal and gene flow in an island bird

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, J A M; Bourgeois, Y X C; Delahaie, B; Duval, T; García-Jiménez, R; Cornuault, J; Heeb, P; Milá, B; Pujol, B; Thébaud, C

    2014-01-01

    The Réunion grey white-eye, Zosterops borbonicus, a passerine bird endemic to Réunion Island in the Mascarene archipelago, represents an extreme case of microgeographical plumage colour variation in birds, with four distinct colour forms occupying different parts of this small island (2512 km2). To understand whether such population differentiation may reflect low levels of dispersal and gene flow at a very small spatial scale, we examined population structure and gene flow by analysing variation at 11 microsatellite loci among four geographically close localities (<26 km apart) sampled within the distribution range of one of the colour forms, the brown-headed brown form. Our results revealed levels of genetic differentiation that are exceptionally high for birds at such a small spatial scale. This strong population structure appears to reflect low levels of historical and contemporary gene flow among populations, unless very close geographically (<10 km). Thus, we suggest that the Réunion grey white-eye shows an extremely reduced propensity to disperse, which is likely to be related to behavioural processes. PMID:24084644

  2. Maintenance of Species Boundaries Despite Ongoing Gene Flow in Ragworts

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Owen G.; Chapman, Mark A.; Nevado, Bruno; Filatov, Dmitry A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of hybridization between diversifying species has been the focus of a huge amount of recent evolutionary research. While gene flow can prevent speciation or initiate species collapse, it can also generate new hybrid species. Similarly, while adaptive divergence can be wiped out by gene flow, new adaptive variation can be introduced via introgression. The relative frequency of these outcomes, and indeed the frequency of hybridization and introgression in general are largely unknown. One group of closely-related species with several documented cases of hybridization is the Mediterranean ragwort (genus: Senecio) species-complex. Examples of both polyploid and homoploid hybrid speciation are known in the clade, although their evolutionary relationships and the general frequency of introgressive hybridization among them remain unknown. Using a whole genome gene–space dataset comprising eight Senecio species we fully resolve the phylogeny of these species for the first time despite phylogenetic incongruence across the genome. Using a D-statistic approach, we demonstrate previously unknown cases of introgressive hybridization between multiple pairs of taxa across the species tree. This is an important step in establishing these species as a study system for diversification with gene flow, and suggests that introgressive hybridization may be a widespread and important process in plant evolution. PMID:26979797

  3. The Sound of Silence: Activating Silent Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Marine Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Reen, F. Jerry; Romano, Stefano; Dobson, Alan D.W.; O’Gara, Fergal

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the rich harvest of marine microbial ecosystems has the potential to both safeguard the existence of our species for the future, while also presenting significant lifestyle benefits for commercial gain. However, while significant advances have been made in the field of marine biodiscovery, leading to the introduction of new classes of therapeutics for clinical medicine, cosmetics and industrial products, much of what this natural ecosystem has to offer is locked in, and essentially hidden from our screening methods. Releasing this silent potential represents a significant technological challenge, the key to which is a comprehensive understanding of what controls these systems. Heterologous expression systems have been successful in awakening a number of these cryptic marine biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). However, this approach is limited by the typically large size of the encoding sequences. More recently, focus has shifted to the regulatory proteins associated with each BGC, many of which are signal responsive raising the possibility of exogenous activation. Abundant among these are the LysR-type family of transcriptional regulators, which are known to control production of microbial aromatic systems. Although the environmental signals that activate these regulatory systems remain unknown, it offers the exciting possibility of evoking mimic molecules and synthetic expression systems to drive production of potentially novel natural products in microorganisms. Success in this field has the potential to provide a quantum leap forward in medical and industrial bio-product development. To achieve these new endpoints, it is clear that the integrated efforts of bioinformaticians and natural product chemists will be required as we strive to uncover new and potentially unique structures from silent or cryptic marine gene clusters. PMID:26264003

  4. Pattern and synchrony of gene expression among sympatric marine microbial populations.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Elizabeth A; Young, Curtis R; Eppley, John M; Ryan, John P; Chavez, Francisco P; Scholin, Christopher A; DeLong, Edward F

    2013-02-01

    Planktonic marine microbes live in dynamic habitats that demand rapid sensing and response to periodic as well as stochastic environmental change. The kinetics, regularity, and specificity of microbial responses in situ, however, are not well-described. We report here simultaneous multitaxon genome-wide transcriptome profiling in a naturally occurring picoplankton community. An in situ robotic sampler using a Lagrangian sampling strategy enabled continuous tracking and repeated sampling of coherent microbial populations over 2 d. Subsequent RNA sequencing analyses yielded genome-wide transcriptome profiles of eukaryotic (Ostreococcus) and bacterial (Synechococcus) photosynthetic picoplankton as well as proteorhodopsin-containing heterotrophs, including Pelagibacter, SAR86-cluster Gammaproteobacteria, and marine Euryarchaea. The photosynthetic picoplankton exhibited strong diel rhythms over thousands of gene transcripts that were remarkably consistent with diel cycling observed in laboratory pure cultures. In contrast, the heterotrophs did not cycle diurnally. Instead, heterotrophic picoplankton populations exhibited cross-species synchronous, tightly regulated, temporally variable patterns of gene expression for many genes, particularly those genes associated with growth and nutrient acquisition. This multitaxon, population-wide gene regulation seemed to reflect sporadic, short-term, reversible responses to high-frequency environmental variability. Although the timing of the environmental responses among different heterotrophic species seemed synchronous, the specific metabolic genes that were expressed varied from taxon to taxon. In aggregate, these results provide insights into the kinetics, diversity, and functional patterns of microbial community response to environmental change. Our results also suggest a means by which complex multispecies metabolic processes could be coordinated, facilitating the regulation of matter and energy processing in a dynamically

  5. Pattern and synchrony of gene expression among sympatric marine microbial populations

    PubMed Central

    Ottesen, Elizabeth A.; Young, Curtis R.; Eppley, John M.; Ryan, John P.; Chavez, Francisco P.; Scholin, Christopher A.; DeLong, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Planktonic marine microbes live in dynamic habitats that demand rapid sensing and response to periodic as well as stochastic environmental change. The kinetics, regularity, and specificity of microbial responses in situ, however, are not well-described. We report here simultaneous multitaxon genome-wide transcriptome profiling in a naturally occurring picoplankton community. An in situ robotic sampler using a Lagrangian sampling strategy enabled continuous tracking and repeated sampling of coherent microbial populations over 2 d. Subsequent RNA sequencing analyses yielded genome-wide transcriptome profiles of eukaryotic (Ostreococcus) and bacterial (Synechococcus) photosynthetic picoplankton as well as proteorhodopsin-containing heterotrophs, including Pelagibacter, SAR86-cluster Gammaproteobacteria, and marine Euryarchaea. The photosynthetic picoplankton exhibited strong diel rhythms over thousands of gene transcripts that were remarkably consistent with diel cycling observed in laboratory pure cultures. In contrast, the heterotrophs did not cycle diurnally. Instead, heterotrophic picoplankton populations exhibited cross-species synchronous, tightly regulated, temporally variable patterns of gene expression for many genes, particularly those genes associated with growth and nutrient acquisition. This multitaxon, population-wide gene regulation seemed to reflect sporadic, short-term, reversible responses to high-frequency environmental variability. Although the timing of the environmental responses among different heterotrophic species seemed synchronous, the specific metabolic genes that were expressed varied from taxon to taxon. In aggregate, these results provide insights into the kinetics, diversity, and functional patterns of microbial community response to environmental change. Our results also suggest a means by which complex multispecies metabolic processes could be coordinated, facilitating the regulation of matter and energy processing in a dynamically

  6. Waves of 3D marine structures slamming at different initial poses in complex wind-wave-flow environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-sheng; Yu, Long-fei

    2016-10-01

    Aimed at the hydrodynamic response for marine structures slamming into water, based on the mechanism analysis to the slamming process, and by combining 3D N-S equation and k- ɛ turbulent kinetic equation with structure fully 6DOF motion equation, a mathematical model for the wind-fluid-solid interaction is established in 3D marine structure slamming wave at free poses and wind-wave-flow complex environments. Compared with the results of physical model test, the numerical results from the slamming wave well correspond with the experimental results. Through the mathematical model, the wave-making issue of 3D marine structure at initial pose falls into water in different complex wind, wave and flow environments is investigated. The research results show that various kinds of natural factors and structure initial poses have different influence on the slamming wave, and there is an obvious rule in this process.

  7. Identification of novel cytochrome P450 1A genes from five marine mammal species.

    PubMed

    Teramitsu, I; Yamamoto, Y; Chiba, I; Iwata, H; Tanabe, S; Fujise, Y; Kazusaka, A; Akahori, F; Fujita, S

    2000-12-01

    Marine mammals, being endangered by the chronic exposure of hydrophobic environmental contaminants as an assorting result of global pollution, are especially focused as indicators for organochlorine pollution. The use of contaminant-induced xenobiotic metabolizers, particularly P450 (CYP) 1A, in marine mammals can be effective as potential biomarkers of the contaminant exposure and/or toxic effects. In this study, we identified the first marine mammalian CYPs. Six novel CYP1A cDNA fragments were cloned from the livers of marine mammal species, minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus), largha seal (Phoca largha), and ribbon seal (Phoca fasciata) by the method of reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR); two distinct fragments were from steller sea lion and one fragment each was obtained from the other species. Five of the fragments, one from each species, were classified in the subfamily of CYP1A1, and the other fragment cloned from steller sea lion was designated CYP1A2. Degenerate PCR primers were used to amplify the fragments from liver cDNAs. The deduced amino acid sequences of these fragment CYP1As showed identities ranging from 50.0 to 94.3% with other known vertebrate CYPs in the subfamily of CYP1A, including those from fish, chicken, and terrestrial mammals. The isolated fragments were used to construct a molecular phylogeny, along with other vertebrate CYP1A cDNAs cut down in size to the corresponding region of 265 bp in which those newly determined fragments were cloned. This phylogenetic analysis by the maximum parsimony method using the PHYLIP program suggests two distinct evolutional pathways for aquatic mammalian CYP1As, compatible to a conservative taxonomy. Pinniped genes are clustered together with dog gene, forming a carnivore group, and cetaceans form another branch. Identification of CYP1A genes in marine mammals will be an introductory step to provide

  8. Distribution and Diversity of Natural Product Genes in Marine and Freshwater Cyanobacterial Cultures and Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Ian M.; Waterbury, John B.; Webb, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    Natural products are a functionally diverse class of biochemically synthesized compounds, which include antibiotics, toxins, and siderophores. In this paper, we describe both the detection of natural product activities and the sequence identification of gene fragments from two molecular systems that have previously been implicated in natural product production, i.e., nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and modular polyketide synthases (PKSs), in diverse marine and freshwater cyanobacterial cultures. Using degenerate PCR and the sequencing of cloned products, we show that NRPSs and PKSs are common among the cyanobacteria tested. Our molecular data, when combined with genomic searches of finished and progressing cyanobacterial genomes, demonstrate that not all cyanobacteria contain NRPS and PKS genes and that the filamentous and heterocystous cyanobacteria are the richest sources of these genes and the most likely sources of novel natural products within the phylum. In addition to validating the use of degenerate primers for the identification of PKS and NRPS genes in cyanobacteria, this study also defines numerous gene fragments that will be useful as probes for future studies of the synthesis of natural products in cyanobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of the cyanobacterial NRPS and PKS fragments sequenced in this study, as well as those from the cyanobacterial genome projects, demonstrate that there is remarkable diversity and likely novelty of these genes within the cyanobacteria. These results underscore the potential variety of novel products being produced by these ubiquitous organisms. PMID:16269782

  9. Gene flow pattern among Aedes aegypti populations in Mexico.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Muñoz, Maria; Mercado-Curiel, Ricardo F; Diaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Pérez Ramirez, Gerardo; Black, William C

    2013-03-01

    Patterns of gene flow vary greatly among Aedes aegypti populations throughout Mexico. The populations are panmictic along the Pacific coast, isolated by distance in northeast Mexico, and exhibit moderate gene flow across the Yucatan peninsula. Nine Ae. aegypti collections from 6 cities in Oaxaca, Mexico, were taken to examine the local patterns of gene flow. Genetic variation was examined in a 387-bp region of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 4 mitochondrial gene (ND4) using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, and 3 haplotypes were detected. Cluster analysis on the linearized FST genetic distances failed to group collections in geographic proximity. Regression analysis of linear or road distances on linearized F(ST) indicated that proximal collections were as diverse as distant collections across an approximately 800-km range. The geographical distribution of the Mexican mosquito haplotype frequencies was determined for the ND4 sequences from 524 individuals from Oaxaca (this study) and 2,043 individuals from our previous studies. Herein, we report on yet another pattern dominated by genetic drift among 9 Ae. aegypti collections from 6 cities in Oaxaca, Mexico, and compare it to those reported in other regions of Mexico. Molecular analysis of variance showed that there was as much genetic variation among collections 4 km apart as there was among all collections. The numbers of haplotypes and the amount of genetic diversity among the collections from Oaxaca were much lower than detected in previous studies in other regions of Mexico and may reflect the effects of control efforts or adaptations to the altitudinal limits (1,500 m) of the species in Mexico. The geographical distribution of mosquito haplotypes in Mexico is also reported. Furthermore, based on the distribution of the mosquito haplotypes in America, we suggest that mosquito dispersion is very efficient, most likely due to commercial transportation.

  10. Speciation with gene flow in equids despite extensive chromosomal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Jónsson, Hákon; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Petersen, Lillian; Fumagalli, Matteo; Albrechtsen, Anders; Petersen, Bent; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Vilstrup, Julia T; Lear, Teri; Myka, Jennifer Leigh; Lundquist, Judith; Miller, Donald C; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Stagegaard, Julia; Strauss, Günter; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Antczak, Douglas F; Bailey, Ernest; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2014-12-30

    Horses, asses, and zebras belong to a single genus, Equus, which emerged 4.0-4.5 Mya. Although the equine fossil record represents a textbook example of evolution, the succession of events that gave rise to the diversity of species existing today remains unclear. Here we present six genomes from each living species of asses and zebras. This completes the set of genomes available for all extant species in the genus, which was hitherto represented only by the horse and the domestic donkey. In addition, we used a museum specimen to characterize the genome of the quagga zebra, which was driven to extinction in the early 1900s. We scan the genomes for lineage-specific adaptations and identify 48 genes that have evolved under positive selection and are involved in olfaction, immune response, development, locomotion, and behavior. Our extensive genome dataset reveals a highly dynamic demographic history with synchronous expansions and collapses on different continents during the last 400 ky after major climatic events. We show that the earliest speciation occurred with gene flow in Northern America, and that the ancestor of present-day asses and zebras dispersed into the Old World 2.1-3.4 Mya. Strikingly, we also find evidence for gene flow involving three contemporary equine species despite chromosomal numbers varying from 16 pairs to 31 pairs. These findings challenge the claim that the accumulation of chromosomal rearrangements drive complete reproductive isolation, and promote equids as a fundamental model for understanding the interplay between chromosomal structure, gene flow, and, ultimately, speciation.

  11. Marine heat flow measurements across subsea permafrost limit in the eastern Mackenzie Trough, Canadian Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. G.; Hong, J. K.; Jin, Y. K.; Riedel, M.; Melling, H.; Kang, S. G.; Dallimore, S.

    2015-12-01

    Marine heat flow measurements using a 5 m-long Ewing-type heat probe were made during Korean icebreaker R/V Araon's Arctic expeditions (ARA04C in 2013 and ARA05B in 2014) to better know the shallow subsurface thermal structure in the eastern slope of Mackenzie Trough, the Canadian Beaufort Sea, in which associative geological processes of permafrost degradation and gas hydrate dissociation occur because of long-term warming since the Last Glacial Maximum. Heat flow in the continental slope was collected for the first time and is rather higher than those from deep boreholes (up to a few km below the seafloor) in the continental shelf. However, the smaller geothermal gradient and thermal conductivity were observed from sites along a transect line across permafrost limit on the eastern slope of the trough. It is noted that geothermal gradients are relatively constant in the vicinity of permafrost limit but are much smaller (even minus) only at deeper depths with positive bottom water temperature. Reason for such distribution is unclear yet. Based on observed geothermal gradient and bottom water temperature, permafrost table shown in subbottom profile seems to be controlled not by temperature. On the other hand, our finding of permafrost evidence on the other subbottom profile located landward may support that permafrost limit in the trough is along with ~100 m isobath.

  12. Identification of Carbohydrate Metabolism Genes in the Metagenome of a Marine Biofilm Community Shown to Be Dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Smith, Darren L.; Connolly, John; McDonald, James E.; Cox, Michael J.; Joint, Ian; Edwards, Clive; McCarthy, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Polysaccharides are an important source of organic carbon in the marine environment, degradation of the insoluble, globally abundant cellulose is a major component of the marine carbon cycle. Although a number of species of cultured bacteria are known to degrade crystalline cellulose, little is known of the polysaccharide hydrolases expressed by cellulose-degrading microbial communities, particularly in the marine environment. Next generation 454 Pyrosequencing was applied to analyze the microbial community that colonizes, degrades insoluble polysaccharides in situ in the Irish Sea. The bioinformatics tool MG-RAST was used to examine the randomly sampled data for taxonomic markers, functional genes,, showed that the community was dominated by members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, the identification of 211 gene sequences matched to a custom-made database comprising the members of nine glycoside hydrolase families revealed an extensive repertoire of functional genes predicted to be involved in cellulose utilization. This demonstrates that the use of an in situ cellulose baiting method yielded a marine microbial metagenome considerably enriched in functional genes involved in polysaccharide degradation. The research reported here is the first designed to specifically address the bacterial communities that colonize, degrade cellulose in the marine environment, to evaluate the glycoside hydrolase (cellulase, chitinase) gene repertoire of that community, in the absence of the biases associated with PCR-based molecular techniques. PMID:24710093

  13. Gene flow across linguistic boundaries in Native North American populations

    PubMed Central

    Hunley, Keith; Long, Jeffrey C.

    2005-01-01

    Cultural and linguistic groups are often expected to represent genetic populations. In this article, we tested the hypothesis that the hierarchical classification of languages proposed by J. Greenberg [(1987) Language in the Americas (Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, CA)] also represents the genetic structure of Native North American populations. The genetic data are mtDNA sequences for 17 populations gleaned from literature sources and public databases. The hypothesis was rejected. Further analysis showed that departure of the genetic structure from the linguistic classification was pervasive and not due to an outlier population or a problematic language group. Therefore, Greenberg's language groups are at best an imperfect approximation to the genetic structure of these populations. Moreover, we show that the genetic structure among these Native North American populations departs significantly from the best-fitting hierarchical models. Analysis of median joining networks for mtDNA haplotypes provides strong evidence for gene flow across linguistic boundaries. In principle, the language of a population can be replaced more rapidly than its genes because language can be transmitted both vertically from parents to children and horizontally between unrelated people. However, languages are part of a cultural complex, and there may be strong pressure to maintain a language in place whereas genes are free to flow. PMID:15668380

  14. Evaluating biological containment strategies for pollen-mediated gene flow.

    PubMed

    Hüsken, Alexandra; Prescher, Sabine; Schiemann, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Several biological containment methods have been developed to reduce pollen dispersal; many of them only have a proof of concept in a model plant species. This review focuses on biological containment measures which were tested for their long-term efficiency at the greenhouse or field scale level, i.e. plastid transformation, transgene excission, cleistogamy and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Pollen-mediated gene transfer in transplastomic tobacco could occur at very low frequencies if the predominant mode of inheritance is maternal. Transgene excision from tobacco pollen can be made highly efficient by coexpression of two recombinases. For cleistogamous oilseed rape it was shown that some flowers were partially open depending on genotypes, environment and recording dates. Reports on the stability of CMS in maize and sunflower indicated that there is a high variability for different genotypes under different environmental conditions and over successive years. But for both crop types some stable lines could be selected. These data demonstrate that the biological containment methods discussed are very promising for reducing gene flow but that no single containment strategy provides 100% reduction. However, the necessary efficiency of biological containment methods depends on the level of containment required. The containment level may need to be higher for safety purposes (e.g. production of special plant-made pharmaceuticals), while much lower containment levels may already be sufficient to reach coexistence goals. It is concluded that where pollen-mediated gene flow must be prevented altogether, combinations of complementary containment systems will be required.

  15. Tracing carbon flow in an arctic marine food web using fatty acid-stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Budge, S M; Wooller, M J; Springer, A M; Iverson, S J; McRoy, C P; Divoky, G J

    2008-08-01

    Global warming and the loss of sea ice threaten to alter patterns of productivity in arctic marine ecosystems because of a likely decline in primary productivity by sea ice algae. Estimates of the contribution of ice algae to total primary production range widely, from just 3 to >50%, and the importance of ice algae to higher trophic levels remains unknown. To help answer this question, we investigated a novel approach to food web studies by combining the two established methods of stable isotope analysis and fatty acid (FA) analysis--we determined the C isotopic composition of individual diatom FA and traced these biomarkers in consumers. Samples were collected near Barrow, Alaska and included ice algae, pelagic phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans. Ice algae and pelagic phytoplankton had distinctive overall FA signatures and clear differences in delta(13)C for two specific diatom FA biomarkers: 16:4n-1 (-24.0+/-2.4 and -30.7+/-0.8 per thousand, respectively) and 20:5n-3 (-18.3+/-2.0 and -26.9+/-0.7 per thousand, respectively). Nearly all delta(13)C values of these two FA in consumers fell between the two stable isotopic end members. A mass balance equation indicated that FA material derived from ice algae, compared to pelagic diatoms, averaged 71% (44-107%) in consumers based on delta(13)C values of 16:4n-1, but only 24% (0-61%) based on 20:5n-3. Our estimates derived from 16:4n-1, which is produced only by diatoms, probably best represented the contribution of ice algae relative to pelagic diatoms. However, many types of algae produce 20:5n-3, so the lower value derived from it likely represented a more realistic estimate of the proportion of ice algae material relative to all other types of phytoplankton. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential value of compound-specific isotope analysis of marine lipids to trace C flow through marine food webs and provide a foundation for future work.

  16. Diversity of Heterotrophic Nitrogen Fixation Genes in a Marine Cyanobacterial Mat

    PubMed Central

    Zehr, J. P.; Mellon, M.; Braun, S.; Litaker, W.; Steppe, T.; Paerl, H. W.

    1995-01-01

    The diversity of nitrogenase genes in a marine cyanobacterial mat was investigated through amplification of a fragment of nifH, which encodes the Fe protein of the nitrogenase complex. The amplified nifH products were characterized by DNA sequencing and were compared with the sequences of nitrogenase genes from cultivated organisms. Phylogenetic analysis showed that similar organisms clustered together, with the exception that anaerobic bacteria clustered together, even though they represented firmicutes, (delta)-proteobacteria, and (gamma)-proteobacteria. Mat nifH sequences were most closely related to those of the anaerobes, with a few being most closely related to the cluster of (gamma)-proteobacteria containing Klebsiella and Azotobacter species. No cyanobacterial nifH sequences were found from the mat collected in November when Microcoleus chthonoplastes was the dominant cyanobacterium, but sequences closely related to the cyanobacterium Lyngbya lagerheimeii were found during summer, when a Lyngbya strain was dominant. The results indicate that there is a high diversity of heterotrophic nitrogen-fixing organisms in marine cyanobacterial mats. PMID:16535068

  17. Control of pollen-mediated gene flow in transgenic trees.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunsheng; Norris-Caneda, Kim H; Rottmann, William H; Gulledge, Jon E; Chang, Shujun; Kwan, Brian Yow-Hui; Thomas, Anita M; Mandel, Lydia C; Kothera, Ronald T; Victor, Aditi D; Pearson, Leslie; Hinchee, Maud A W

    2012-08-01

    Pollen elimination provides an effective containment method to reduce direct gene flow from transgenic trees to their wild relatives. Until now, only limited success has been achieved in controlling pollen production in trees. A pine (Pinus radiata) male cone-specific promoter, PrMC2, was used to drive modified barnase coding sequences (barnaseH102E, barnaseK27A, and barnaseE73G) in order to determine their effectiveness in pollen ablation. The expression cassette PrMC2-barnaseH102E was found to efficiently ablate pollen in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), pine, and Eucalyptus (spp.). Large-scale and multiple-year field tests demonstrated that complete prevention of pollen production was achieved in greater than 95% of independently transformed lines of pine and Eucalyptus (spp.) that contained the PrMC2-barnaseH102E expression cassette. A complete pollen control phenotype was achieved in transgenic lines and expressed stably over multiple years, multiple test locations, and when the PrMC2-barnaseH102E cassette was flanked by different genes. The PrMC2-barnaseH102E transgenic pine and Eucalyptus (spp.) trees grew similarly to control trees in all observed attributes except the pollenless phenotype. The ability to achieve the complete control of pollen production in field-grown trees is likely the result of a unique combination of three factors: the male cone/anther specificity of the PrMC2 promoter, the reduced RNase activity of barnaseH102E, and unique features associated with a polyploid tapetum. The field performance of the PrMC2-barnaseH102E in representative angiosperm and gymnosperm trees indicates that this gene can be used to mitigate pollen-mediated gene flow associated with large-scale deployment of transgenic trees.

  18. Gene flow and demographic history of the mangrove crab Neosarmatium meinerti: A case study from the western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragionieri, Lapo; Cannicci, Stefano; Schubart, Christoph D.; Fratini, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Most marine organisms are characterized by at least one planktonic phase during their life history, potentially allowing interconnection of populations separated by several hundred kilometers. For many years, the idea that marine species are genetically homogenous throughout their range of distribution, due to passive larval transport, has been a paradigm. Nowadays, a growing number of studies underline the existence of boundaries in the marine realm and highlight how larval dispersal is a complex process depending on biotic as well as abiotic factors. Marine fragmented habitats, such as atolls, mangroves and estuaries, are optimal systems for investigating the marine dispersion process under a metapopulation approach, since populations can be geographically defined a priori as opposed to those occupying open marine environments. Within this frame, the present paper investigates the population genetic structure and the demographic history of the mangrove crab Neosarmatium meinerti within the western Indian Ocean by partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I. A total of 167 specimens were sampled from six mangrove sites distributed along the East African coast, from Kenya to South Africa, also including a mangrove forest located on Mahé Island, Seychelles. A sharp genetic break between the mainland and the Seychelles is recorded, revealing the existence of two historically distinct groups that can be defined as independent evolutionary units. Gene flow along the East African coast appears to be high enough to form a single metapopulation, probably by means of stepping stone populations. Otherwise, this mainland metapopulation is currently under expansion through a gradual moving front from the subtropical toward the equatorial populations.

  19. Regulation of iron transport related genes by boron in the marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893.

    PubMed

    Romano, Ariel; Trimble, Lyndsay; Hobusch, Ashtian R; Schroeder, Kristine J; Amin, Shady A; Hartnett, Andrej D; Barker, Ryan A; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Carrano, Carl J

    2013-08-01

    While there has been extensive interest in the use of boron isotope ratios as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the high (0.4 mM) concentration and the depth-independent (conservative or non-nutrient-like) concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the modern ocean. Here we report that boron affects the expression of a number of protein and genes in the "algal-associated" Gram-negative marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893. Most intriguingly, a number of these proteins and genes are related to iron uptake. In a recent separate publication we have shown that boron regulates one such iron transport related protein, i.e. the periplasmic iron binding protein FbpA via a direct interaction of the metalloid with this protein. Here we show that a number of other iron uptake related genes are also affected by boron but in the opposite way i.e. they are up-regulated. We propose that the differential effect of boron on FbpA expression relative to other iron transport related genes is a result of an interaction between boron and the global iron regulatory protein Fur.

  20. Time to get moving: assisted gene flow of forest trees.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Sally N; Bemmels, Jordan B

    2016-01-01

    Geographic variation in trees has been investigated since the mid-18th century. Similar patterns of clinal variation have been observed along latitudinal and elevational gradients in common garden experiments for many temperate and boreal species. These studies convinced forest managers that a 'local is best' seed source policy was usually safest for reforestation. In recent decades, experimental design, phenotyping methods, climatic data and statistical analyses have improved greatly and refined but not radically changed knowledge of clines. The maintenance of local adaptation despite high gene flow suggests selection for local adaptation to climate is strong. Concerns over maladaptation resulting from climate change have motivated many new genecological and population genomics studies; however, few jurisdictions have implemented assisted gene flow (AGF), the translocation of pre-adapted individuals to facilitate adaptation of planted forests to climate change. Here, we provide evidence that temperate tree species show clines along climatic gradients sufficiently similar for average patterns or climate models to guide AGF in the absence of species-specific knowledge. Composite provenancing of multiple seed sources can be used to increase diversity and buffer against future climate uncertainty. New knowledge will continue to refine and improve AGF as climates warm further. PMID:27087852

  1. Divergence with gene flow within the recent chipmunk radiation (Tamias).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J; Demboski, J R; Bell, K C; Hird, S; Sarver, B; Reid, N; Good, J M

    2014-09-01

    Increasing data have supported the importance of divergence with gene flow (DGF) in the generation of biological diversity. In such cases, lineage divergence occurs on a shorter timescale than does the completion of reproductive isolation. Although it is critical to explore the mechanisms driving divergence and preventing homogenization by hybridization, it is equally important to document cases of DGF in nature. Here we synthesize data that have accumulated over the last dozen or so years on DGF in the chipmunk (Tamias) radiation with new data that quantify very high rates of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression among para- and sympatric species in the T. quadrivittatus group in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. These new data (188 cytochrome b sequences) bring the total number of sequences up to 1871; roughly 16% (298) of the chipmunks we have sequenced exhibit introgressed mtDNA. This includes ongoing introgression between subspecies and between both closely related and distantly related taxa. In addition, we have identified several taxa that are apparently fixed for ancient introgressions and in which there is no evidence of ongoing introgression. A recurrent observation is that these introgressions occur between ecologically and morphologically diverged, sometimes non-sister taxa that engage in well-documented niche partitioning. Thus, the chipmunk radiation in western North America represents an excellent mammalian example of speciation in the face of recurrent gene flow among lineages and where biogeography, habitat differentiation and mating systems suggest important roles for both ecological and sexual selection.

  2. The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Gayden, Tenzin; Cadenas, Alicia M.; Regueiro, Maria; Singh, Nanda B.; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; Underhill, Peter A.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L.; Herrera, Rene J.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution Y-chromosome haplogroup analyses coupled with Y–short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes were used to (1) investigate the genetic affinities of three populations from Nepal—including Newar, Tamang, and people from cosmopolitan Kathmandu (referred to as “Kathmandu” subsequently)—as well as a collection from Tibet and (2) evaluate whether the Himalayan mountain range represents a geographic barrier for gene flow between the Tibetan plateau and the South Asian subcontinent. The results suggest that the Tibetans and Nepalese are in part descendants of Tibeto-Burman–speaking groups originating from Northeast Asia. All four populations are represented predominantly by haplogroup O3a5-M134–derived chromosomes, whose Y-STR–based age (±SE) was estimated at 8.1±2.9 thousand years ago (KYA), more recent than its Southeast Asian counterpart. The most pronounced difference between the two regions is reflected in the opposing high-frequency distributions of haplogroups D in Tibet and R in Nepal. With the exception of Tamang, both Newar and Kathmandu exhibit considerable similarities to the Indian Y-haplogroup distribution, particularly in their haplogroup R and H composition. These results indicate gene flow from the Indian subcontinent and, in the case of haplogroup R, from Eurasia as well, a conclusion that is also supported by the admixture analysis. In contrast, whereas haplogroup D is completely absent in Nepal, it accounts for 50.6% of the Tibetan Y-chromosome gene pool. Coalescent analyses suggest that the expansion of haplogroup D derivatives—namely, D1-M15 and D3-P47 in Tibet—involved two different demographic events (5.1±1.8 and 11.3±3.7 KYA, respectively) that are more recent than those of D2-M55 representatives common in Japan. Low frequencies, relative to Nepal, of haplogroup J and R lineages in Tibet are also consistent with restricted gene flow from the subcontinent. Yet the presence of haplogroup O3a5-M134 representatives in

  3. Simulation of Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines in Unsteady Flow using Vortex Particle Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sale, Danny; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    A vortex particle method has been developed to study the performance and wake characteristics of Marine Hydrokinetic turbines. The goals are to understand mean flow and turbulent eddy effects on wake evolution, and the unsteady loading on the rotor and support structures. The vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian method involving both vortex particle and spatial mesh discretizations. Particle strengths are modified by vortex stretching, diffusion, and body forces; these terms in the vorticity transport equation involve differential operators and are computed more efficiently on a Cartesian mesh using finite differences. High-order and moment-conserving interpolations allow the particles and mesh to exchange field quantities and particle strengths. An immersed boundary method which introduces a penalization term in the vorticity transport equations provides an efficient way to satisfy the no-slip boundary condition on solid boundaries. To provide further computational speedup, we investigate the use of multicore processors and graphics processing units using the OpenMP and OpenCL interfaces within the Parallel Particle-Mesh Library.

  4. Geographic distribution of secondary metabolite genes in the marine actinomycete Salinispora arenicola.

    PubMed

    Edlund, Anna; Loesgen, Sandra; Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R

    2011-09-01

    The molecular fingerprinting technique terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was used in combination with sequence-based approaches to evaluate the geographic distribution of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes in strains of the marine actinomycete Salinispora arenicola. This study targeted ketosynthase (KS) domains from type I polyketide synthase (PKS) genes and revealed four distinct clusters, the largest of which was comprised of strains from all six global locations sampled. The remaining strains fell into three smaller clusters comprised of strains derived entirely from the Red Sea, the Sea of Cortez, or around the Island of Guam. These results reveal variation in the secondary metabolite gene collectives maintained by strains that are largely clonal at the 16S rRNA level. The location specificities of the three smaller clusters provide evidence that collections of secondary metabolite genes in subpopulations of S. arenicola are endemic to these locations. Cloned KS sequences support the maintenance of distinct sets of biosynthetic genes in the strains associated with each cluster and include four that had not previously been detected in S. arenicola. Two of these new sequences were observed only in strains derived from Guam or the Sea of Cortez. Transcriptional analysis of one of the new KS sequences in conjunction with the production of the polyketide arenicolide A supports a link between this sequence and the associated biosynthetic pathway. From the perspective of natural product discovery, these results suggest that screening populations from distant locations can enhance the discovery of new natural products and provides further support for the use of molecular fingerprinting techniques, such as T-RFLP, to rapidly identify strains that possess distinct sets of biosynthetic genes.

  5. Flow enhances photosynthesis in marine benthic autotrophs by increasing the efflux of oxygen from the organism to the water.

    PubMed

    Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia; Shavit, Uri; Grinstein, Mor; Tchernov, Dan

    2010-02-01

    Worldwide, many marine coastal habitats are facing rapid deterioration due in part to human-driven changes in habitat characteristics, including changes in flow patterns, a factor known to greatly affect primary production in corals, algae, and seagrasses. The effect of flow traditionally is attributed to enhanced influx of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) across the benthic boundary layer from the water to the organism however, here we report that the organism's photosynthetic response to changes in the flow is nearly instantaneous, and that neither nutrients nor DIC limits this rapid response. Using microelectrodes, dual-pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry, particle image velocimetry, and real time mass-spectrometry with the common scleractinian coral Favia veroni, the alga Gracilaria cornea, and the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, we show that this augmented photosynthesis is due to flow-driven enhancement of oxygen efflux from the organism to the water, which increases the affinity of the RuBisCO to CO(2). No augmentation of photosynthesis was found in the absence of flow or when flow occurred, but the ambient concentration of oxygen was artificially elevated. We suggest that water motion should be considered a fundamental factor, equivalent to light and nutrients, in determining photosynthesis rates in marine benthic autotrophs.

  6. Inteins as indicators of gene flow in the halobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Soucy, Shannon M.; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Papke, R. Thane; Gogarten, Johann Peter

    2014-01-01

    This research uses inteins, a type of mobile genetic element, to infer patterns of gene transfer within the Halobacteria. We surveyed 118 genomes representing 26 genera of Halobacteria for intein sequences. We then used the presence-absence profile, sequence similarity and phylogenies from the inteins recovered to explore how intein distribution can provide insight on the dynamics of gene flow between closely related and divergent organisms. We identified 24 proteins in the Halobacteria that have been invaded by inteins at some point in their evolutionary history, including two proteins not previously reported to contain an intein. Furthermore, the size of an intein is used as a heuristic for the phase of the intein's life cycle. Larger size inteins are assumed to be the canonical two domain inteins, consisting of self-splicing and homing endonuclease domains (HEN); smaller sizes are assumed to have lost the HEN domain. For many halobacterial groups the consensus phylogenetic signal derived from intein sequences is compatible with vertical inheritance or with a strong gene transfer bias creating these clusters. Regardless, the coexistence of intein-free and intein-containing alleles reveal ongoing transfer and loss of inteins within these groups. Inteins were frequently shared with other Euryarchaeota and among the Bacteria, with members of the Cyanobacteria (Cyanothece, Anabaena), Bacteriodetes (Salinibacter), Betaproteobacteria (Delftia, Acidovorax), Firmicutes (Halanaerobium), Actinobacteria (Longispora), and Deinococcus-Thermus-group. PMID:25018750

  7. Genetics, Gene Flow, and Glaciation: The Case of the South American Limpet Nacella mytilina

    PubMed Central

    González-Wevar, Claudio A.; Rosenfeld, Sebastián; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Hüne, Mathias; Gérard, Karin; Ojeda, Jaime; Mansilla, Andrés; Brickle, Paul; Díaz, Angie; Poulin, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Glacial episodes of the Quaternary, and particularly the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) drastically altered the distribution of the Southern-Hemisphere biota, principally at higher latitudes. The irregular coastline of Patagonia expanding for more than 84.000 km constitutes a remarkable area to evaluate the effect of Quaternary landscape and seascape shifts over the demography of near-shore marine benthic organisms. Few studies describing the biogeographic responses of marine species to the LGM have been conducted in Patagonia, but existing data from coastal marine species have demonstrated marked genetic signatures of post-LGM recolonization and expansion. The kelp-dweller limpet Nacella mytilina is broadly distributed along the southern tip of South America and at the Falkland/Malvinas Islands. Considering its distribution, abundance, and narrow bathymetry, N. mytilina represents an appropriate model to infer how historical and contemporary processes affected the distribution of intraspecific genetic diversity and structure along the southern tip of South America. At the same time, it will be possible to determine how life history traits and the ecology of the species are responsible for the current pattern of gene flow and connectivity across the study area. We conducted phylogeographic and demographic inference analyses in N. mytilina from 12 localities along Pacific Patagonia (PP) and one population from the Falkland/Malvinas Islands (FI). Analyses of the mitochondrial gene COI in 300 individuals of N. mytilina revealed low levels of genetic polymorphism and the absence of genetic differentiation along PP. In contrast, FI showed a strong and significant differentiation from Pacific Patagonian populations. Higher levels of genetic diversity were also recorded in the FI population, together with a more expanded genealogy supporting the hypothesis of glacial persistence of the species in these islands. Haplotype genealogy, and mismatch analyses in the FI population

  8. Genetics, Gene Flow, and Glaciation: The Case of the South American Limpet Nacella mytilina.

    PubMed

    González-Wevar, Claudio A; Rosenfeld, Sebastián; Segovia, Nicolás I; Hüne, Mathias; Gérard, Karin; Ojeda, Jaime; Mansilla, Andrés; Brickle, Paul; Díaz, Angie; Poulin, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Glacial episodes of the Quaternary, and particularly the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) drastically altered the distribution of the Southern-Hemisphere biota, principally at higher latitudes. The irregular coastline of Patagonia expanding for more than 84.000 km constitutes a remarkable area to evaluate the effect of Quaternary landscape and seascape shifts over the demography of near-shore marine benthic organisms. Few studies describing the biogeographic responses of marine species to the LGM have been conducted in Patagonia, but existing data from coastal marine species have demonstrated marked genetic signatures of post-LGM recolonization and expansion. The kelp-dweller limpet Nacella mytilina is broadly distributed along the southern tip of South America and at the Falkland/Malvinas Islands. Considering its distribution, abundance, and narrow bathymetry, N. mytilina represents an appropriate model to infer how historical and contemporary processes affected the distribution of intraspecific genetic diversity and structure along the southern tip of South America. At the same time, it will be possible to determine how life history traits and the ecology of the species are responsible for the current pattern of gene flow and connectivity across the study area. We conducted phylogeographic and demographic inference analyses in N. mytilina from 12 localities along Pacific Patagonia (PP) and one population from the Falkland/Malvinas Islands (FI). Analyses of the mitochondrial gene COI in 300 individuals of N. mytilina revealed low levels of genetic polymorphism and the absence of genetic differentiation along PP. In contrast, FI showed a strong and significant differentiation from Pacific Patagonian populations. Higher levels of genetic diversity were also recorded in the FI population, together with a more expanded genealogy supporting the hypothesis of glacial persistence of the species in these islands. Haplotype genealogy, and mismatch analyses in the FI population

  9. Genetics, Gene Flow, and Glaciation: The Case of the South American Limpet Nacella mytilina.

    PubMed

    González-Wevar, Claudio A; Rosenfeld, Sebastián; Segovia, Nicolás I; Hüne, Mathias; Gérard, Karin; Ojeda, Jaime; Mansilla, Andrés; Brickle, Paul; Díaz, Angie; Poulin, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Glacial episodes of the Quaternary, and particularly the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) drastically altered the distribution of the Southern-Hemisphere biota, principally at higher latitudes. The irregular coastline of Patagonia expanding for more than 84.000 km constitutes a remarkable area to evaluate the effect of Quaternary landscape and seascape shifts over the demography of near-shore marine benthic organisms. Few studies describing the biogeographic responses of marine species to the LGM have been conducted in Patagonia, but existing data from coastal marine species have demonstrated marked genetic signatures of post-LGM recolonization and expansion. The kelp-dweller limpet Nacella mytilina is broadly distributed along the southern tip of South America and at the Falkland/Malvinas Islands. Considering its distribution, abundance, and narrow bathymetry, N. mytilina represents an appropriate model to infer how historical and contemporary processes affected the distribution of intraspecific genetic diversity and structure along the southern tip of South America. At the same time, it will be possible to determine how life history traits and the ecology of the species are responsible for the current pattern of gene flow and connectivity across the study area. We conducted phylogeographic and demographic inference analyses in N. mytilina from 12 localities along Pacific Patagonia (PP) and one population from the Falkland/Malvinas Islands (FI). Analyses of the mitochondrial gene COI in 300 individuals of N. mytilina revealed low levels of genetic polymorphism and the absence of genetic differentiation along PP. In contrast, FI showed a strong and significant differentiation from Pacific Patagonian populations. Higher levels of genetic diversity were also recorded in the FI population, together with a more expanded genealogy supporting the hypothesis of glacial persistence of the species in these islands. Haplotype genealogy, and mismatch analyses in the FI population

  10. Detection of genes involved in fatty acid elongation and desaturation in thraustochytrid marine eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Naoki; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Taoka, Yousuke; Okita, Yuji; Honda, Daiske; Ito, Makoto; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Heterotrophic marine protists known as thraustochytrids can synthesize polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The biosynthetic pathways of PUFAs in thraustochytrids are poorly understood, however. In this study, we attempted to reveal the enzymes involved in DHA synthesis in thraustochytrids. Nine thraustochytrid strains representing 3 genera (Aurantiochytrium, Schizochytrium, and Thraustochytrium) were used for PCR-based detection of the genes encoding Δ5-elongase and Δ4-desaturase and for fatty acid analysis. The degenerate primers were designed to amplify the Δ5-elongase and Δ4-desaturase genes, and the partial sequences of the enzymes were obtained from the genera Thraustochytrium and Schizochytrium. These fragments were identical to those of known Δ5-elongase and Δ4-desaturase. Neither Δ5-elongase nor Δ4-desaturase was detected in the strains belonging to the genus Aurantiochytrium, however, suggesting that this group likely synthesizes DHA not via the elongation/desaturation pathway but via an alternate pathway such as the polyketide synthase pathway. The fatty acid profiles of thraustochytrids were consistent with the presence of genes involved in PUFA biosynthesis in thraustochytrid genera. Thus, our findings suggest that two biosynthetic pathways for PUFAs exist in these organisms.

  11. Novel lipolytic genes from the microbial metagenomic library of the South China Sea marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongfei; Fu, Chengzhang; Huang, Yunpeng; Yin, Yeshi; Cheng, Gong; Lei, Fang; Lu, Na; Li, Jing; Ashforth, Elizabeth Jane; Zhang, Lixin; Zhu, Baoli

    2010-05-01

    Metagenomic cloning is a powerful tool for the discovery of novel genes and biocatalysts from environmental microorganisms. Based on activity screening of a marine sediment microbial metagenomic library, a total of 19 fosmid clones showing lipolytic activity were identified. After subcloning, 15 different lipolytic genes were obtained; their encoded proteins showed 32-68% amino acid identity with proteins in the database. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that most of these predicted proteins are new members of known families of bacterial lipolytic enzymes. However, two proteins, FLS18C and FLS18D, could not be assigned to any known family, thus probably representing a novel family of the bacterial lipolytic enzyme. The activity assay results indicated that most of these lipolytic enzymes showed optimum temperature for hydrolysis at 40-50 degrees C with p-nitrophenol butyrate as a substrate. The lipolytic gene fls18D was overexpressed, and the resulting protein FLS18D was characterized as an alkaline esterase. Furthermore, the whole sequence of fosmid pFL18 containing FLS18C and FLS18D was shotgun sequenced, and a total of 26 ORFs on it were analyzed and annotated.

  12. Extensive gene flow over Europe and possible speciation

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENOT, Dr. LUCIE; NARA, Dr. KAZUHIDE; STHULTZ, CHRISTOPHER; Labbe, Jessy L; DUBOIS, MARIE-PIERRE; TEDERSOO, LEHO; Martin, Francis; SELOSSE, Dr. MARC-ANDRE

    2012-01-01

    Biogeographical patterns and large-scale genetic structure have been little studied in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, despite the ecological and economic importance of EM symbioses. We coupled population genetics and phylogenetic approaches to understand spatial structure in fungal populations on a continental scale. Using nine microsatellite markers, we characterized gene flow among 16 populations of the widespread EM basidiomycete Laccaria amethystina over Europe (i.e. over 2900 km). We also widened our scope to two additional populations from Japan (104 km away) and compared them with European populations through microsatellite markers and multilocus phylogenies, using three nuclear genes (NAR, G6PD and ribosomal DNA) and two mitochondrial ribosomal genes. European L. amethystina populations displayed limited differentiation (average FST = 0.041) and very weak isolation by distance (IBD). This panmictic European pattern may result from effective aerial dispersal of spores, high genetic diversity in populations and mutualistic interactions with multiple hosts that all facilitate migration. The multilocus phylogeny based on nuclear genes confirmed that Japanese and European specimens were closely related but clustered on a geographical basis. By using microsatellite markers, we found that Japanese populations were strongly differentiated from the European populations (FST = 0.416), more than expected by extrapolating the European pattern of IBD. Population structure analyses clearly separated the populations into two clusters, i.e. European and Japanese clusters. We discuss the possibility of IBD in a continuous population (considering some evidence for a ring species over the Northern Hemisphere) vs. an allopatric speciation over Eurasia, making L. amethystina a promising model of intercontinental species for future studies.

  13. Comparative Analysis and Distribution of Omega-3 lcPUFA Biosynthesis Genes in Marine Molluscs.

    PubMed

    Surm, Joachim M; Prentis, Peter J; Pavasovic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has identified marine molluscs as an excellent source of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (lcPUFAs), based on their potential for endogenous synthesis of lcPUFAs. In this study we generated a representative list of fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) and elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (Elovl) genes from major orders of Phylum Mollusca, through the interrogation of transcriptome and genome sequences, and various publicly available databases. We have identified novel and uncharacterised Fad and Elovl sequences in the following species: Anadara trapezia, Nerita albicilla, Nerita melanotragus, Crassostrea gigas, Lottia gigantea, Aplysia californica, Loligo pealeii and Chlamys farreri. Based on alignments of translated protein sequences of Fad and Elovl genes, the haeme binding motif and histidine boxes of Fad proteins, and the histidine box and seventeen important amino acids in Elovl proteins, were highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of aligned reference sequences was used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships for Fad and Elovl genes separately. Multiple, well resolved clades for both the Fad and Elovl sequences were observed, suggesting that repeated rounds of gene duplication best explain the distribution of Fad and Elovl proteins across the major orders of molluscs. For Elovl sequences, one clade contained the functionally characterised Elovl5 proteins, while another clade contained proteins hypothesised to have Elovl4 function. Additional well resolved clades consisted only of uncharacterised Elovl sequences. One clade from the Fad phylogeny contained only uncharacterised proteins, while the other clade contained functionally characterised delta-5 desaturase proteins. The discovery of an uncharacterised Fad clade is particularly interesting as these divergent proteins may have novel functions. Overall, this paper presents a number of novel Fad and Elovl genes suggesting that many mollusc groups possess most of the

  14. Comparative Analysis and Distribution of Omega-3 lcPUFA Biosynthesis Genes in Marine Molluscs

    PubMed Central

    Surm, Joachim M.; Prentis, Peter J.; Pavasovic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has identified marine molluscs as an excellent source of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (lcPUFAs), based on their potential for endogenous synthesis of lcPUFAs. In this study we generated a representative list of fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) and elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (Elovl) genes from major orders of Phylum Mollusca, through the interrogation of transcriptome and genome sequences, and various publicly available databases. We have identified novel and uncharacterised Fad and Elovl sequences in the following species: Anadara trapezia, Nerita albicilla, Nerita melanotragus, Crassostrea gigas, Lottia gigantea, Aplysia californica, Loligo pealeii and Chlamys farreri. Based on alignments of translated protein sequences of Fad and Elovl genes, the haeme binding motif and histidine boxes of Fad proteins, and the histidine box and seventeen important amino acids in Elovl proteins, were highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of aligned reference sequences was used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships for Fad and Elovl genes separately. Multiple, well resolved clades for both the Fad and Elovl sequences were observed, suggesting that repeated rounds of gene duplication best explain the distribution of Fad and Elovl proteins across the major orders of molluscs. For Elovl sequences, one clade contained the functionally characterised Elovl5 proteins, while another clade contained proteins hypothesised to have Elovl4 function. Additional well resolved clades consisted only of uncharacterised Elovl sequences. One clade from the Fad phylogeny contained only uncharacterised proteins, while the other clade contained functionally characterised delta-5 desaturase proteins. The discovery of an uncharacterised Fad clade is particularly interesting as these divergent proteins may have novel functions. Overall, this paper presents a number of novel Fad and Elovl genes suggesting that many mollusc groups possess most of the

  15. Cloning, expression and characterization of a new agarase-encoding gene from marine Pseudoalteromonas sp.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinzhi; Chu, Yan; Wu, Qianqian; Gu, Yuchao; Han, Feng; Yu, Wengong

    2009-10-01

    The beta-agarase gene agaA, cloned from a marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. CY24, consists of 1,359 nucleotides encoding 453 amino acids in a sequence corresponding to a catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolase family 16 (GH16) and a carbohydrate-binding module type 13 (CBM13). The recombinant enzyme is an endo-type agarase that hydrolyzes beta-1,4-linkages of agarose, yielding neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose as the predominant products. In two cleavage patterns, AgaA digested the smallest substrate, neoagarooctaose, into neoagarobiose, neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose. Site directed mutation was performed to investigate the differences between AgaA and AgaD of Vibrio sp. PO-303, identifying residues V(109)VTS(112) as playing a key role in the enzyme reaction. PMID:19504047

  16. Gene invasion in distant eukaryotic lineages: discovery of mutually exclusive genetic elements reveals marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Monier, Adam; Sudek, Sebastian; Fast, Naomi M; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2013-09-01

    Inteins are rare, translated genetic parasites mainly found in bacteria and archaea, while spliceosomal introns are distinctly eukaryotic features abundant in most nuclear genomes. Using targeted metagenomics, we discovered an intein in an Atlantic population of the photosynthetic eukaryote, Bathycoccus, harbored by the essential spliceosomal protein PRP8 (processing factor 8 protein). Although previously thought exclusive to fungi, we also identified PRP8 inteins in parasitic (Capsaspora) and predatory (Salpingoeca) protists. Most new PRP8 inteins were at novel insertion sites that, surprisingly, were not in the most conserved regions of the gene. Evolutionarily, Dikarya fungal inteins at PRP8 insertion site a appeared more related to the Bathycoccus intein at a unique insertion site, than to other fungal and opisthokont inteins. Strikingly, independent analyses of Pacific and Atlantic samples revealed an intron at the same codon as the Bathycoccus PRP8 intein. The two elements are mutually exclusive and neither was found in cultured Bathycoccus or other picoprasinophyte genomes. Thus, wild Bathycoccus contain one of few non-fungal eukaryotic inteins known and a rare polymorphic intron. Our data indicate at least two Bathycoccus ecotypes exist, associated respectively with oceanic or mesotrophic environments. We hypothesize that intein propagation is facilitated by marine viruses; and, while intron gain is still poorly understood, presence of a spliceosomal intron where a locus lacks an intein raises the possibility of new, intein-primed mechanisms for intron gain. The discovery of nucleus-encoded inteins and associated sequence polymorphisms in uncultivated marine eukaryotes highlights their diversity and reveals potential sexual boundaries between populations indistinguishable by common marker genes.

  17. Development of Ecogenomic Sensors for Remote Detection of Marine Microbes, Their Genes and Gene Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholin, C.; Preston, C.; Harris, A.; Birch, J.; Marin, R.; Jensen, S.; Roman, B.; Everlove, C.; Makarewicz, A.; Riot, V.; Hadley, D.; Benett, W.; Dzenitis, J.

    2008-12-01

    An internet search using the phrase "ecogenomic sensor" will return numerous references that speak broadly to the idea of detecting molecular markers indicative of specific organisms, genes or other biomarkers within an environmental context. However, a strict and unified definition of "ecogenomic sensor" is lacking and the phrase may be used for laboratory-based tools and techniques as well as semi or fully autonomous systems that can be deployed outside of laboratory. We are exploring development of an ecogenomic sensor from the perspective of a field-portable device applied towards oceanographic research and water quality monitoring. The device is known as the Environmental Sample Processor, or ESP. The ESP employs wet chemistry molecular analytical techniques to autonomously assess the presence and abundance of specific organisms, their genes and/or metabolites in near real-time. Current detection chemistries rely on low- density DNA probe and protein arrays. This presentation will emphasize results from 2007-8 field trials when the ESP was moored in Monterey Bay, CA, as well as current engineering activities for improving analytical capacity of the instrument. Changes in microbial community structure at the rRNA level were observed remotely in accordance with changing chemical and physical oceanographic conditions. Current developments include incorporation of a reusable solid phase extraction column for purifying nucleic acids and a 4-channel real-time PCR module. Users can configure this system to support a variety of PCR master mixes, primer/probe combinations and control templates. An update on progress towards fielding a PCR- enabled ESP will be given along with an outline of plans for its use in coastal and oligotrophic oceanic regimes.

  18. Locally adapted traits maintained in the face of high gene flow.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, S W; Gerberich, J C; Kronenberger, J A; Angeloni, L M; Funk, W C

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow between phenotypically divergent populations can disrupt local adaptation or, alternatively, may stimulate adaptive evolution by increasing genetic variation. We capitalised on historical Trinidadian guppy transplant experiments to test the phenotypic effects of increased gene flow caused by replicated introductions of adaptively divergent guppies, which were translocated from high- to low-predation environments. We sampled two native populations prior to the onset of gene flow, six historic introduction sites, introduction sources and multiple downstream points in each basin. Extensive gene flow from introductions occurred in all streams, yet adaptive phenotypic divergence across a gradient in predation level was maintained. Descendants of guppies from a high-predation source site showed high phenotypic similarity with native low-predation guppies in as few as ~12 generations after gene flow, likely through a combination of adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity. Our results demonstrate that locally adapted phenotypes can be maintained despite extensive gene flow from divergent populations. PMID:25363522

  19. The Himalayas: barrier and conduit for gene flow.

    PubMed

    Gayden, Tenzin; Perez, Annabel; Persad, Patrice J; Bukhari, Areej; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Simms, Tanya; Maloney, Trisha; Rodriguez, Kristina; Herrera, Rene J

    2013-06-01

    The Himalayan mountain range is strategically located at the crossroads of the major cultural centers in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Although previous Y-chromosome studies indicate that the Himalayas served as a natural barrier for gene flow from the south to the Tibetan plateau, this region is believed to have played an important role as a corridor for human migrations between East and West Eurasia along the ancient Silk Road. To evaluate the effects of the Himalayan mountain range in shaping the maternal lineages of populations residing on either side of the cordillera, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA variation in 344 samples from three Nepalese collections (Newar, Kathmandu and Tamang) and a general population of Tibet. Our results revealed a predominantly East Asian-specific component in Tibet and Tamang, whereas Newar and Kathmandu are both characterized by a combination of East and South Central Asian lineages. Interestingly, Newar and Kathmandu harbor several deep-rooted Indian lineages, including M2, R5, and U2, whose coalescent times from this study (U2, >40 kya) and previous reports (M2 and R5, >50 kya) suggest that Nepal was inhabited during the initial peopling of South Central Asia. Comparisons with our previous Y-chromosome data indicate sex-biased migrations in Tamang and a founder effect and/or genetic drift in Tamang and Newar. Altogether, our results confirm that while the Himalayas acted as a geographic barrier for human movement from the Indian subcontinent to the Tibetan highland, it also served as a conduit for gene flow between Central and East Asia. PMID:23580401

  20. Gene flow increases fitness at the warm edge of a species’ range

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Jason P.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Rice, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    According to theory, gene flow to marginal populations may stall or aid adaptation at range limits by swamping peripheral populations with maladaptive gene flow or by enhancing genetic variability and reducing inbreeding depression, respectively. We tested these contrasting predictions by manipulating patterns of gene flow of the annual plant, Mimulus laciniatus, at its warm range limit. Gene flow was experimentally applied by using crosses within warm-limit populations (selfed and outcrossed), between warm-limit populations, and between warm-limit and central range populations across two elevational transects. We measured the fitness of offspring in a common garden at the warm-edge species range limit. All sources of gene flow increased seedling emergence at the range limit, suggesting local inbreeding depression at both range limit populations; however, lifetime reproductive success only increased significantly when pollen originated from another warm-limit population. Center–to–warm-edge gene flow was maladaptive by delaying time to development at this warm, fast-drying range limit, whereas edge-to-edge gene flow hastened emergence time and time to reproduction. By empirically testing theory on the effects of gene flow on the formation of geographic range limits, we find benefits of gene flow among populations to be greatest when gene flow is between populations occupying the same range limit. Our results emphasize the overlooked importance of gene flow among populations occurring near the same range limit and highlight the potential for prescriptive gene flow as a conservation option for populations at risk from climate change. PMID:21709253

  1. Role of a Microcin-C–like biosynthetic gene cluster in allelopathic interactions in marine Synechococcus

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Yepes, Javier; Brahamsha, Bianca; Palenik, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Competition between phytoplankton species for nutrients and light has been studied for many years, but allelopathic interactions between them have been more difficult to characterize. We used liquid and plate assays to determine whether these interactions occur between marine unicellular cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus. We have found a clear growth impairment of Synechococcus sp. CC9311 and Synechococcus sp. WH8102 when they are cultured in the presence of Synechococcus sp. CC9605. The genome of CC9605 contains a region showing homology to genes of the Escherichia coli Microcin C (McC) biosynthetic pathway. McC is a ribosome-synthesized peptide that inhibits translation in susceptible strains. We show that the CC9605 McC gene cluster is expressed and that three genes (mccD, mccA, and mccB) are further induced by coculture with CC9311. CC9605 was resistant to McC purified from E. coli, whereas strains CC9311 and WH8102 were sensitive. Cloning the CC9605 McC biosynthetic gene cluster into sensitive CC9311 led this strain to become resistant to both purified E. coli McC and Synechococcus sp. CC9605. A CC9605 mutant lacking mccA1, mccA2, and the N-terminal domain of mccB did not inhibit CC9311 growth, whereas the inhibition of WH8102 was reduced. Our results suggest that an McC-like molecule is involved in the allelopathic interactions with CC9605. PMID:23818639

  2. Identification of copper-induced genes in the marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Dennett, Geraldine; González, Alberto; Vergara, Eva; Medina, Cristóbal; Correa, Juan A; Moenne, Alejandra

    2011-06-01

    In order to identify genes/proteins involved in copper tolerance, the marine alga Ulva compressa was cultivated with 10 μM copper for 3 days. The activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (AP), peroxiredoxin (PRX), thioredoxin (TRX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the level of lipoperoxides were determined in the alga cultivated with and without copper addition. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipoperoxides level increased in response to copper excess, indicating that the alga was under oxidative stress. A cDNA library was prepared using U. compressa cultivated with 10 μM copper for 3 days. A total of 3 × 10(4) clones were isolated and 480 clones were sequenced, resulting in 235 non-redundant ESTs, of which 104 encode proteins with known functions. Among them, we identified proteins involved in (1) antioxidant metabolism such as AP, PRX, TRX, GST, and metalothionein (MET), (2) signal transduction, such as calmodulin (CAM), (3) calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), (4) gene expression, (5) protein synthesis and degradation, and (6) chloroplast and mitochondria electron transport chains. Half of the identified proteins are potentially localized in organelles. The relative level of 18 genes, including those coding for AP, PRX, TRX, GST, MET, CAM, CDPK, and NDK were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in the alga cultivated with 10 μM copper for 0 to 7 days. Transcript levels increased in response to copper stress and most of them reached a maximum at days 3 and 5. Thus, the selected genes are induced by copper stress and they are probably involved in copper acclimation and tolerance.

  3. Intron features of key functional genes mediating nitrogen metabolism in marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Bhadury, Punyasloke; Song, Bongkeun; Ward, Bess B

    2011-09-01

    Introns are widespread and variable in eukaryotic genomes. Although their histories and functions, or even whether all of them have any function, remain largely unknown, analysis of intron sequences and genomic contexts may shed light on the evolutionary history of genes and organisms. The number and frequency of introns vary widely in the small number of published genomes of protists and algae suggesting that the same is true of the vast diversity of protists and algae that remain uncultivated. The objective of this study were to investigate introns in sequences of functional genes of phytoplankton, both in published genomes and in sequences obtained from environmental clone libraries. We examined the introns of the genes involved in nitrogen uptake and assimilation pathways in the genome sequences of cultivated phytoplankton as well as in environmental clone libraries of nitrate reductases (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), nitrate transporter (Nrt2) and ammonium transporter (AMT) genes constructed from pelagic phytoplankton communities in Monterey Bay (CA, USA) and Onslow Bay (NC, USA). Here we describe the most extensive set to date of intron sequences from uncultivated marine algae and report important differences for diatom vs. non-diatom sequences. The majority of the introns in NR, NiR, Nrt2 and AMT from cultured phytoplankton and environmental libraries showed canonical splice patterns. Introns found in diatom-like NR environmental libraries had lower GC content than the respective exons. The green algal-like NR and Nrt2 environmental sequences had introns and exons of much more similar GC content, and both higher than in diatoms. These patterns suggest a different evolutionary history and recent acquisition of diatom introns compared to other algae.

  4. Role of a microcin-C-like biosynthetic gene cluster in allelopathic interactions in marine Synechococcus.

    PubMed

    Paz-Yepes, Javier; Brahamsha, Bianca; Palenik, Brian

    2013-07-16

    Competition between phytoplankton species for nutrients and light has been studied for many years, but allelopathic interactions between them have been more difficult to characterize. We used liquid and plate assays to determine whether these interactions occur between marine unicellular cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus. We have found a clear growth impairment of Synechococcus sp. CC9311 and Synechococcus sp. WH8102 when they are cultured in the presence of Synechococcus sp. CC9605. The genome of CC9605 contains a region showing homology to genes of the Escherichia coli Microcin C (McC) biosynthetic pathway. McC is a ribosome-synthesized peptide that inhibits translation in susceptible strains. We show that the CC9605 McC gene cluster is expressed and that three genes (mccD, mccA, and mccB) are further induced by coculture with CC9311. CC9605 was resistant to McC purified from E. coli, whereas strains CC9311 and WH8102 were sensitive. Cloning the CC9605 McC biosynthetic gene cluster into sensitive CC9311 led this strain to become resistant to both purified E. coli McC and Synechococcus sp. CC9605. A CC9605 mutant lacking mccA1, mccA2, and the N-terminal domain of mccB did not inhibit CC9311 growth, whereas the inhibition of WH8102 was reduced. Our results suggest that an McC-like molecule is involved in the allelopathic interactions with CC9605. PMID:23818639

  5. Natural selection on marine carnivores elaborated a diverse family of classical MHC class I genes exhibiting haplotypic gene content variation and allelic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Hammond, John A; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Norman, Paul J; Parham, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Pinnipeds, marine carnivores, diverged from terrestrial carnivores ~45 million years ago, before their adaptation to marine environments. This lifestyle change exposed pinnipeds to different microbiota and pathogens, with probable impact on their MHC class I genes. Investigating this question, genomic sequences were determined for 71 MHC class I variants: 27 from harbor seal and 44 from gray seal. These variants form three MHC class I gene lineages, one comprising a pseudogene. The second, a candidate nonclassical MHC class I gene, comprises a nonpolymorphic transcribed gene related to dog DLA-79 and giant panda Aime-1906. The third is the diversity lineage, which includes 62 of the 71 seal MHC class I variants. All are transcribed, and they minimally represent six harbor and 12 gray seal MHC class I genes. Besides species-specific differences in gene number, seal MHC class I haplotypes exhibit gene content variation and allelic polymorphism. Patterns of sequence variation, and of positions for positively selected sites, indicate the diversity lineage genes are the seals' classical MHC class I genes. Evidence that expansion of diversity lineage genes began before gray and harbor seals diverged is the presence in both species of two distinctive sublineages of diversity lineage genes. Pointing to further expansion following the divergence are the presence of species-specific genes and greater MHC class I diversity in gray seals than harbor seals. The elaboration of a complex variable family of classical MHC class I genes in pinnipeds contrasts with the single, highly polymorphic classical MHC class I gene of dog and giant panda, terrestrial carnivores. PMID:23001684

  6. Natural selection on marine carnivores elaborated a diverse family of classical MHC class I genes exhibiting haplotypic gene content variation and allelic polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Paul J.; Parham, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Pinnipeds, marine carnivores, diverged from terrestrial carnivores ~45 million years ago, before their adaptation to marine environments. This lifestyle change exposed pinnipeds to different microbiota and pathogens, with probable impact on their MHC class I genes. Investigating this question, genomic sequences were determined for 71 MHC class I variants: 27 from harbor seal and 44 from gray seal. These variants form three MHC class I gene lineages, one comprising a pseudogene. The second, a candidate nonclassical MHC class I gene, comprises a nonpolymorphic transcribed gene related to dog DLA-79 and giant panda Aime-1906. The third is the diversity lineage, which includes 62 of the 71 seal MHC class I variants. All are transcribed, and they minimally represent six harbor and 12 gray seal MHC class I genes. Besides species-specific differences in gene number, seal MHC class I haplotypes exhibit gene content variation and allelic polymorphism. Patterns of sequence variation, and of positions for positively selected sites, indicate the diversity lineage genes are the seals’ classical MHC class I genes. Evidence that expansion of diversity lineage genes began before gray and harbor seals diverged is the presence in both species of two distinctive sublineages of diversity lineage genes. Pointing to further expansion following the divergence are the presence of species-specific genes and greater MHC class I diversity in gray seals than harbor seals. The elaboration of a complex variable family of classical MHC class I genes in pinnipeds contrasts with the single, highly polymorphic classical MHC class I gene of dog and giant panda, terrestrial carnivores. PMID:23001684

  7. Contrasting demographic history and gene flow patterns of two mangrove species on either side of the Central American Isthmus.

    PubMed

    Cerón-Souza, Ivania; Gonzalez, Elena G; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Rivera-Ocasio, Elsie; Toro-Perea, Nelson; Bermingham, Eldredge; McMillan, W Owen

    2015-08-01

    Comparative phylogeography offers a unique opportunity to understand the interplay between past environmental events and life-history traits on diversification of unrelated but co-distributed species. Here, we examined the effects of the quaternary climate fluctuations and palaeomarine currents and present-day marine currents on the extant patterns of genetic diversity in the two most conspicuous mangrove species of the Neotropics. The black (Avicennia germinans, Avicenniaceae) and the red (Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophoraceae) mangroves have similar geographic ranges but are very distantly related and show striking differences on their life-history traits. We sampled 18 Atlantic and 26 Pacific locations for A. germinans (N = 292) and R. mangle (N = 422). We performed coalescence simulations using microsatellite diversity to test for evidence of population change associated with quaternary climate fluctuations. In addition, we examined whether patterns of genetic variation were consistent with the directions of major marine (historical and present day) currents in the region. Our demographic analysis was grounded within a phylogeographic framework provided by the sequence analysis of two chloroplasts and one flanking microsatellite region in a subsample of individuals. The two mangrove species shared similar biogeographic histories including: (1) strong genetic breaks between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins associated with the final closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI), (2) evidence for simultaneous population declines between the mid-Pleistocene and early Holocene, (3) asymmetric historical migration with higher gene flow from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans following the direction of the palaeomarine current, and (4) contemporary gene flow between West Africa and South America following the major Atlantic Ocean currents. Despite the remarkable differences in life-history traits of mangrove species, which should have had a strong influence on seed

  8. Contrasting demographic history and gene flow patterns of two mangrove species on either side of the Central American Isthmus

    PubMed Central

    Cerón-Souza, Ivania; Gonzalez, Elena G; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Rivera-Ocasio, Elsie; Toro-Perea, Nelson; Bermingham, Eldredge; McMillan, W Owen

    2015-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography offers a unique opportunity to understand the interplay between past environmental events and life-history traits on diversification of unrelated but co-distributed species. Here, we examined the effects of the quaternary climate fluctuations and palaeomarine currents and present-day marine currents on the extant patterns of genetic diversity in the two most conspicuous mangrove species of the Neotropics. The black (Avicennia germinans, Avicenniaceae) and the red (Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophoraceae) mangroves have similar geographic ranges but are very distantly related and show striking differences on their life-history traits. We sampled 18 Atlantic and 26 Pacific locations for A. germinans (N = 292) and R. mangle (N = 422). We performed coalescence simulations using microsatellite diversity to test for evidence of population change associated with quaternary climate fluctuations. In addition, we examined whether patterns of genetic variation were consistent with the directions of major marine (historical and present day) currents in the region. Our demographic analysis was grounded within a phylogeographic framework provided by the sequence analysis of two chloroplasts and one flanking microsatellite region in a subsample of individuals. The two mangrove species shared similar biogeographic histories including: (1) strong genetic breaks between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins associated with the final closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI), (2) evidence for simultaneous population declines between the mid-Pleistocene and early Holocene, (3) asymmetric historical migration with higher gene flow from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans following the direction of the palaeomarine current, and (4) contemporary gene flow between West Africa and South America following the major Atlantic Ocean currents. Despite the remarkable differences in life-history traits of mangrove species, which should have had a strong influence on seed

  9. Contrasting demographic history and gene flow patterns of two mangrove species on either side of the Central American Isthmus.

    PubMed

    Cerón-Souza, Ivania; Gonzalez, Elena G; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Rivera-Ocasio, Elsie; Toro-Perea, Nelson; Bermingham, Eldredge; McMillan, W Owen

    2015-08-01

    Comparative phylogeography offers a unique opportunity to understand the interplay between past environmental events and life-history traits on diversification of unrelated but co-distributed species. Here, we examined the effects of the quaternary climate fluctuations and palaeomarine currents and present-day marine currents on the extant patterns of genetic diversity in the two most conspicuous mangrove species of the Neotropics. The black (Avicennia germinans, Avicenniaceae) and the red (Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophoraceae) mangroves have similar geographic ranges but are very distantly related and show striking differences on their life-history traits. We sampled 18 Atlantic and 26 Pacific locations for A. germinans (N = 292) and R. mangle (N = 422). We performed coalescence simulations using microsatellite diversity to test for evidence of population change associated with quaternary climate fluctuations. In addition, we examined whether patterns of genetic variation were consistent with the directions of major marine (historical and present day) currents in the region. Our demographic analysis was grounded within a phylogeographic framework provided by the sequence analysis of two chloroplasts and one flanking microsatellite region in a subsample of individuals. The two mangrove species shared similar biogeographic histories including: (1) strong genetic breaks between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins associated with the final closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI), (2) evidence for simultaneous population declines between the mid-Pleistocene and early Holocene, (3) asymmetric historical migration with higher gene flow from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans following the direction of the palaeomarine current, and (4) contemporary gene flow between West Africa and South America following the major Atlantic Ocean currents. Despite the remarkable differences in life-history traits of mangrove species, which should have had a strong influence on seed

  10. Conductive heat flow and nonlinear geothermal gradients in marine sediments—observations from Ocean Drilling Program boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranne, Christian; O'Regan, Matt

    2016-02-01

    A basic premise in marine heat flow studies is that the temperature gradient varies with depth as a function of the bulk thermal conductivity of the sediments. As sediments become more deeply buried, compaction reduces the porosity and causes an increase in the bulk thermal conductivity. Therefore, while the heat flow may remain constant with depth, the thermal gradient is not necessarily linear. However, it has been argued that measurements showing increased sediment thermal conductivity with burial depth may be caused by a horizontal measurement bias generated by increasing anisotropy in sediments during consolidation. This study reanalyses a synthesis of Ocean Drilling Program data from 186 boreholes, and investigates the occurrence of nonlinear geothermal gradients in marine sediments. The aim is to identify whether observed downhole changes in thermal conductivity influence the measured temperature gradient, and to investigate potential errors in the prediction of in-situ temperatures derived from the extrapolation of near-surface thermal gradients. The results indicate that the measured thermal conductivity does influence the geothermal gradient. Furthermore, comparisons between shallow measurements (<10 m) from surface heat flow surveys and the deeply constrained temperature data from 98 ODP boreholes indicate that the shallow gradients are consistently higher by on average 19 °C km-1. This is consistent with higher porosity and generally lower thermal conductivity in near-seafloor sediments, and highlights the need to develop robust porosity-thermal conductivity models to accurately predict temperatures at depth from shallow heat flow surveys.

  11. Reverse transcriptase genes are highly abundant and transcriptionally active in marine plankton assemblages.

    PubMed

    Lescot, Magali; Hingamp, Pascal; Kojima, Kenji K; Villar, Emilie; Romac, Sarah; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Boccara, Martine; Jaillon, Olivier; Iudicone, Daniele; Bowler, Chris; Wincker, Patrick; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Genes encoding reverse transcriptases (RTs) are found in most eukaryotes, often as a component of retrotransposons, as well as in retroviruses and in prokaryotic retroelements. We investigated the abundance, classification and transcriptional status of RTs based on Tara Oceans marine metagenomes and metatranscriptomes encompassing a wide organism size range. Our analyses revealed that RTs predominate large-size fraction metagenomes (>5 μm), where they reached a maximum of 13.5% of the total gene abundance. Metagenomic RTs were widely distributed across the phylogeny of known RTs, but many belonged to previously uncharacterized clades. Metatranscriptomic RTs showed distinct abundance patterns across samples compared with metagenomic RTs. The relative abundances of viral and bacterial RTs among identified RT sequences were higher in metatranscriptomes than in metagenomes and these sequences were detected in all metatranscriptome size fractions. Overall, these observations suggest an active proliferation of various RT-assisted elements, which could be involved in genome evolution or adaptive processes of plankton assemblage.

  12. Reverse transcriptase genes are highly abundant and transcriptionally active in marine plankton assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Lescot, Magali; Hingamp, Pascal; Kojima, Kenji K; Villar, Emilie; Romac, Sarah; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Boccara, Martine; Jaillon, Olivier; Iudicone, Daniele; Bowler, Chris; Wincker, Patrick; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding reverse transcriptases (RTs) are found in most eukaryotes, often as a component of retrotransposons, as well as in retroviruses and in prokaryotic retroelements. We investigated the abundance, classification and transcriptional status of RTs based on Tara Oceans marine metagenomes and metatranscriptomes encompassing a wide organism size range. Our analyses revealed that RTs predominate large-size fraction metagenomes (>5 μm), where they reached a maximum of 13.5% of the total gene abundance. Metagenomic RTs were widely distributed across the phylogeny of known RTs, but many belonged to previously uncharacterized clades. Metatranscriptomic RTs showed distinct abundance patterns across samples compared with metagenomic RTs. The relative abundances of viral and bacterial RTs among identified RT sequences were higher in metatranscriptomes than in metagenomes and these sequences were detected in all metatranscriptome size fractions. Overall, these observations suggest an active proliferation of various RT-assisted elements, which could be involved in genome evolution or adaptive processes of plankton assemblage. PMID:26613339

  13. Ubiquity and diversity of heterotrophic bacterial nasA genes in diverse marine environments.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuexia; Dang, Hongyue; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate uptake by heterotrophic bacteria plays an important role in marine N cycling. However, few studies have investigated the diversity of environmental nitrate assimilating bacteria (NAB). In this study, the diversity and biogeographical distribution of NAB in several global oceans and particularly in the western Pacific marginal seas were investigated using both cultivation and culture-independent molecular approaches. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and nasA (encoding the large subunit of the assimilatory nitrate reductase) gene sequences indicated that the cultivable NAB in South China Sea belonged to the α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and CFB (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides) bacterial groups. In all the environmental samples of the present study, α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were found to be the dominant nasA-harboring bacteria. Almost all of the α-Proteobacteria OTUs were classified into three Roseobacter-like groups (I to III). Clone library analysis revealed previously underestimated nasA diversity; e.g. the nasA gene sequences affiliated with β-Proteobacteria, ε-Proteobacteria and Lentisphaerae were observed in the field investigation for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The geographical and vertical distributions of seawater nasA-harboring bacteria indicated that NAB were highly diverse and ubiquitously distributed in the studied marginal seas and world oceans. Niche adaptation and separation and/or limited dispersal might mediate the NAB composition and community structure in different water bodies. In the shallow-water Kueishantao hydrothermal vent environment, chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were the primary NAB, indicating a unique nitrate-assimilating community in this extreme environment. In the coastal water of the East China Sea, the relative abundance of Alteromonas and Roseobacter-like nasA gene sequences responded closely to algal blooms, indicating that NAB may be

  14. Ubiquity and Diversity of Heterotrophic Bacterial nasA Genes in Diverse Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xuexia; Dang, Hongyue; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate uptake by heterotrophic bacteria plays an important role in marine N cycling. However, few studies have investigated the diversity of environmental nitrate assimilating bacteria (NAB). In this study, the diversity and biogeographical distribution of NAB in several global oceans and particularly in the western Pacific marginal seas were investigated using both cultivation and culture-independent molecular approaches. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and nasA (encoding the large subunit of the assimilatory nitrate reductase) gene sequences indicated that the cultivable NAB in South China Sea belonged to the α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and CFB (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides) bacterial groups. In all the environmental samples of the present study, α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were found to be the dominant nasA-harboring bacteria. Almost all of the α-Proteobacteria OTUs were classified into three Roseobacter-like groups (I to III). Clone library analysis revealed previously underestimated nasA diversity; e.g. the nasA gene sequences affiliated with β-Proteobacteria, ε-Proteobacteria and Lentisphaerae were observed in the field investigation for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The geographical and vertical distributions of seawater nasA-harboring bacteria indicated that NAB were highly diverse and ubiquitously distributed in the studied marginal seas and world oceans. Niche adaptation and separation and/or limited dispersal might mediate the NAB composition and community structure in different water bodies. In the shallow-water Kueishantao hydrothermal vent environment, chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were the primary NAB, indicating a unique nitrate-assimilating community in this extreme environment. In the coastal water of the East China Sea, the relative abundance of Alteromonas and Roseobacter-like nasA gene sequences responded closely to algal blooms, indicating that NAB may be

  15. Ubiquity and diversity of heterotrophic bacterial nasA genes in diverse marine environments.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuexia; Dang, Hongyue; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate uptake by heterotrophic bacteria plays an important role in marine N cycling. However, few studies have investigated the diversity of environmental nitrate assimilating bacteria (NAB). In this study, the diversity and biogeographical distribution of NAB in several global oceans and particularly in the western Pacific marginal seas were investigated using both cultivation and culture-independent molecular approaches. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and nasA (encoding the large subunit of the assimilatory nitrate reductase) gene sequences indicated that the cultivable NAB in South China Sea belonged to the α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and CFB (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides) bacterial groups. In all the environmental samples of the present study, α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were found to be the dominant nasA-harboring bacteria. Almost all of the α-Proteobacteria OTUs were classified into three Roseobacter-like groups (I to III). Clone library analysis revealed previously underestimated nasA diversity; e.g. the nasA gene sequences affiliated with β-Proteobacteria, ε-Proteobacteria and Lentisphaerae were observed in the field investigation for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The geographical and vertical distributions of seawater nasA-harboring bacteria indicated that NAB were highly diverse and ubiquitously distributed in the studied marginal seas and world oceans. Niche adaptation and separation and/or limited dispersal might mediate the NAB composition and community structure in different water bodies. In the shallow-water Kueishantao hydrothermal vent environment, chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were the primary NAB, indicating a unique nitrate-assimilating community in this extreme environment. In the coastal water of the East China Sea, the relative abundance of Alteromonas and Roseobacter-like nasA gene sequences responded closely to algal blooms, indicating that NAB may be

  16. Antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria and human uropathogenic Escherichia coli from a region of intensive aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tomova, Alexandra; Ivanova, Larisa; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Rioseco, Maria Luisa; Kalsi, Rajinder K; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2015-10-01

    Antimicrobials are heavily used in Chilean salmon aquaculture. We previously found significant differences in antimicrobial-resistant bacteria between sediments from an aquaculture and a non-aquaculture site. We now show that levels of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG) are significantly higher in antimicrobial-selected marine bacteria than in unselected bacteria from these sites. While ARG in tetracycline- and florfenicol-selected bacteria from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites were equally frequent, there were significantly more plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes per bacterium and significantly higher numbers of qnrB genes in quinolone-selected bacteria from the aquaculture site. Quinolone-resistant urinary Escherichia coli from patients in the Chilean aquacultural region were significantly enriched for qnrB (including a novel qnrB gene), qnrS, qnrA and aac(6')-1b, compared with isolates from New York City. Sequences of qnrA1, qnrB1 and qnrS1 in quinolone-resistant Chilean E. coli and Chilean marine bacteria were identical, suggesting horizontal gene transfer between antimicrobial-resistant marine bacteria and human pathogens. PMID:26259681

  17. The olfactory receptor gene repertoires in secondary-adapted marine vertebrates: evidence for reduction of the functional proportions in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Takushi; Kubota, Shin; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Fukami, Hironobu

    2007-08-22

    An olfactory receptor (OR) multigene family is responsible for the well-developed sense of smell possessed by terrestrial tetrapods. Mammalian OR genes had diverged greatly in the terrestrial environment after the fish-tetrapod split, indicating their importance to land habitation. In this study, we analysed OR genes of marine tetrapods (minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata, dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima, Dall's porpoise Phocoenoides dalli, Steller's sea lion Eumetopias jubatus and loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta) and revealed that the pseudogene proportions of OR gene repertoires in whales were significantly higher than those in their terrestrial relative cattle and also in sea lion and sea turtle. On the other hand, the pseudogene proportion of OR sequences in sea lion was not significantly higher compared with that in their terrestrial relative (dog). It indicates that secondary perfectly adapted marine vertebrates (cetaceans) have lost large amount of their OR genes, whereas secondary-semi-adapted marine vertebrates (sea lions and sea turtles) still have maintained their OR genes, reflecting the importance of terrestrial environment for these animals. PMID:17535789

  18. Antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria and human uropathogenic Escherichia coli from a region of intensive aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tomova, Alexandra; Ivanova, Larisa; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Rioseco, Maria Luisa; Kalsi, Rajinder K; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2015-10-01

    Antimicrobials are heavily used in Chilean salmon aquaculture. We previously found significant differences in antimicrobial-resistant bacteria between sediments from an aquaculture and a non-aquaculture site. We now show that levels of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG) are significantly higher in antimicrobial-selected marine bacteria than in unselected bacteria from these sites. While ARG in tetracycline- and florfenicol-selected bacteria from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites were equally frequent, there were significantly more plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes per bacterium and significantly higher numbers of qnrB genes in quinolone-selected bacteria from the aquaculture site. Quinolone-resistant urinary Escherichia coli from patients in the Chilean aquacultural region were significantly enriched for qnrB (including a novel qnrB gene), qnrS, qnrA and aac(6')-1b, compared with isolates from New York City. Sequences of qnrA1, qnrB1 and qnrS1 in quinolone-resistant Chilean E. coli and Chilean marine bacteria were identical, suggesting horizontal gene transfer between antimicrobial-resistant marine bacteria and human pathogens.

  19. Sex-biased gene flow among elk in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    , Brian K. Hand; , Shanyuan Chen; , N. Anderson; , A. Beja-Pereira; Cross, Paul C.; , M. Ebinger; , H. Edwards; , R.A. Garrott; , M.D. Kardos; Kauffman, Matthew J.; , E.L. Landguth; , A. Middleton; , B. Scurlock; , P.J. White; , P. Zager; , M.K. Schwartz; , G. Luikart

    2014-01-01

    We quantified patterns of population genetic structure to help understand gene flow among elk populations across the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We sequenced 596 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region of 380 elk from eight populations. Analysis revealed high mitochondrial DNA variation within populations, averaging 13.0 haplotypes with high mean gene diversity (0.85). The genetic differentiation among populations for mitochondrial DNA was relatively high (FST = 0.161; P = 0.001) compared to genetic differentiation for nuclear microsatellite data (FST = 0.002; P = 0.332), which suggested relatively low female gene flow among populations. The estimated ratio of male to female gene flow (mm/mf = 46) was among the highest we have seen reported for large mammals. Genetic distance (for mitochondrial DNA pairwise FST) was not significantly correlated with geographic (Euclidean) distance between populations (Mantel’s r = 0.274, P = 0.168). Large mitochondrial DNA genetic distances (e.g., FST > 0.2) between some of the geographically closest populations (<65 km) suggested behavioral factors and/or landscape features might shape female gene flow patterns. Given the strong sex-biased gene flow, future research and conservation efforts should consider the sexes separately when modeling corridors of gene flow or predicting spread of maternally transmitted diseases. The growing availability of genetic data to compare male vs. female gene flow provides many exciting opportunities to explore the magnitude, causes, and implications of sex-biased gene flow likely to occur in many species

  20. Synergistic effect of quorum sensing genes in biofilm development and PAHs degradation by a marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Supriya; Mangwani, Neelam; Das, Surajit

    2016-04-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a prevalently found intercellular signaling system in bacteria. QS system bestows behavioral coordination ability in bacteria at high population density. QS via acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) is extensively conserved in Gram-negative bacteria and plays crucial role in regulating many biological processes. The role of QS genes coding for AHL synthase enzyme (lasI and rhlI) was established in bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) viz. phenanthrene and pyrene. AHL producing biofilm forming marine bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa N6P6 was isolated by selective enrichment on PAHs. AHL production was confirmed using AHL bioreporters and GC-MS analysis. Biofilm development and its architecture was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by alterations in lasI/rhlI expression. The lasI/rhlI gene expression pattern significantly influences biofilm formation and subsequent degradation of PAHs. The integrated density of Pseudomonas aeruginosa N6P6 biofilm was highest for 48 h old biofilm and the PAHs (phenanthrene and pyrene) degradation was also found maximum (85.6 % and 47.56 %) with this biofilm. A significant positive correlation (P < 0.05) was observed between lasI expression and PAHs degradation. The role of QS genes in biofilm formation and degradation of PAHs was validated by blocking the transcription of lasI/rhlI by a QS inhibitor (QSI) tannic acid. Further, application of such QS positive isolates in PAHs contaminated sites could be a promising strategy to improve the PAHs bioremediation.

  1. Molecular Diversity and Gene Evolution of the Venom Arsenal of Terebridae Predatory Marine Snails

    PubMed Central

    Gorson, Juliette; Ramrattan, Girish; Verdes, Aida; Wright, Elizabeth M.; Kantor, Yuri; Rajaram Srinivasan, Ramakrishnan; Musunuri, Raj; Packer, Daniel; Albano, Gabriel; Qiu, Wei-Gang; Holford, Mandë

    2015-01-01

    Venom peptides from predatory organisms are a resource for investigating evolutionary processes such as adaptive radiation or diversification, and exemplify promising targets for biomedical drug development. Terebridae are an understudied lineage of conoidean snails, which also includes cone snails and turrids. Characterization of cone snail venom peptides, conotoxins, has revealed a cocktail of bioactive compounds used to investigate physiological cellular function, predator-prey interactions, and to develop novel therapeutics. However, venom diversity of other conoidean snails remains poorly understood. The present research applies a venomics approach to characterize novel terebrid venom peptides, teretoxins, from the venom gland transcriptomes of Triplostephanus anilis and Terebra subulata. Next-generation sequencing and de novo assembly identified 139 putative teretoxins that were analyzed for the presence of canonical peptide features as identified in conotoxins. To meet the challenges of de novo assembly, multiple approaches for cross validation of findings were performed to achieve reliable assemblies of venom duct transcriptomes and to obtain a robust portrait of Terebridae venom. Phylogenetic methodology was used to identify 14 teretoxin gene superfamilies for the first time, 13 of which are unique to the Terebridae. Additionally, basic local algorithm search tool homology-based searches to venom-related genes and posttranslational modification enzymes identified a convergence of certain venom proteins, such as actinoporin, commonly found in venoms. This research provides novel insights into venom evolution and recruitment in Conoidean predatory marine snails and identifies a plethora of terebrid venom peptides that can be used to investigate fundamental questions pertaining to gene evolution. PMID:26025559

  2. Hominin evolution and gene flow in the Pleistocene Africa.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V

    2013-01-01

    Africa demonstrates a complex process of the hominin evolution with a series of adaptive radiations during several millions of years that led to diverse morphological forms. Recently, Hammer et al. (2011) and Harvati et al. (2011) provided integrated morphological and genetic evidence of interbreeding between modern humans and unknown archaic hominins in Africa as recently as 35,000 years ago. However, a genetic evidence of hybridization between hominin lineages during the Lower and Middle Pleistocene epochs is unknown and the direct retrieval of DNA from extinct lineages of African hominins remains elusive. The availability of both nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences from modern humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans allows collecting nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin (numts) inserted into the nuclear genome of the ancestral hominin lineages and drawing conclusions about the hominin evolution in the remote past. The mtDNA and numt analysis uncovered a deep division of mtDNA lineages that existed in African hominins in the Middle Pleistocene. The first cluster included the human and Neanderthal-like mtDNA sequences while the second consisted of DNA sequences that are known today as mtAncestor-1, a nuclear fossil of the mtDNA, and the Denisova mtDNA isolated from a bone and a tooth found in southern Siberia. The two groups initially diverged 610,000-1,110,000 years ago. Approximately 220,000 years after the primary split, the Denisova - mtAncestor-1 mtDNA lineages mixed with the mtDNA pool of an ancestral population of Neanderthals and modern humans. This admixture after the profound division is demonstrated by the transposition of the Denisova-like mtDNA sequence into the nuclear genome of an ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans. This finding suggests the matrilineal genetic structure among the Middle Pleistocene hominins as well as the existence of gene flow between African hominin lineages. Through paleogenomic analyses, it is impossible to

  3. Hominin evolution and gene flow in the Pleistocene Africa.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V

    2013-01-01

    Africa demonstrates a complex process of the hominin evolution with a series of adaptive radiations during several millions of years that led to diverse morphological forms. Recently, Hammer et al. (2011) and Harvati et al. (2011) provided integrated morphological and genetic evidence of interbreeding between modern humans and unknown archaic hominins in Africa as recently as 35,000 years ago. However, a genetic evidence of hybridization between hominin lineages during the Lower and Middle Pleistocene epochs is unknown and the direct retrieval of DNA from extinct lineages of African hominins remains elusive. The availability of both nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences from modern humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans allows collecting nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin (numts) inserted into the nuclear genome of the ancestral hominin lineages and drawing conclusions about the hominin evolution in the remote past. The mtDNA and numt analysis uncovered a deep division of mtDNA lineages that existed in African hominins in the Middle Pleistocene. The first cluster included the human and Neanderthal-like mtDNA sequences while the second consisted of DNA sequences that are known today as mtAncestor-1, a nuclear fossil of the mtDNA, and the Denisova mtDNA isolated from a bone and a tooth found in southern Siberia. The two groups initially diverged 610,000-1,110,000 years ago. Approximately 220,000 years after the primary split, the Denisova - mtAncestor-1 mtDNA lineages mixed with the mtDNA pool of an ancestral population of Neanderthals and modern humans. This admixture after the profound division is demonstrated by the transposition of the Denisova-like mtDNA sequence into the nuclear genome of an ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans. This finding suggests the matrilineal genetic structure among the Middle Pleistocene hominins as well as the existence of gene flow between African hominin lineages. Through paleogenomic analyses, it is impossible to

  4. Flow-Through Leaching of Marine Barite: New Insights on its Composition and Diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, C.; Torres, M. E.; Ungerer, A.; Klinkhammer, G. P.

    2007-12-01

    The distribution of stable mineral barite (BaSO4) in marine sediments has long been studied as a proxy for paleoproductivity. It is important to investigate the variation in Sr/Ba ratios of crystal barite, as it has a great influence on barite solubility and its early diagenetic processes. In addition, the role of alternative barium carriers to the sediments (e.g. aluminum silicates and oxyhydroxides) and their contributions to overall barium budget and burial efficiency need to be resolved. The techniques currently used to describe and quantify barium phases are all based on batch leaching techniques that define barium phases operationally, not chemically. Because during batch analyses each phase is characterized by a single-point measurement, variations due to phase heterogeneities cannot be resolved; nor can the results of these experiments be related in any systematic way to what happens in nature. To overcome this problem, we are developing a flow-through method that makes use of automated chromatographic techniques, which allows complete monitoring of the dissolution of barite samples with time-resolved analysis (TRA) as each phase is sequentially leached using different reagents. We have analyzed a barite sample recovered from seeps along the San Clemente escarpment, and show that we can attain complete dissolution of the sample (>85%) in 2 hours, using DTPA at 80°C. Approximately 100 μg of barite are first leached with distilled water (pH 5) for 30 minutes. During this step ~2% of the barite is removed. This highly soluble phase has Sr/Ba ratios that range from 30 to 120 mmol/mol. Acid leaching of the samples with 10 mM HNO3 removes an additional 4~8% of the barite, and this phase has Sr/Ba ratios ranging from 13 to 35 mmol/mol. Higher acid concentration (100 mM HNO3) dissolves up to 40% of the barite. These results are consistent with electron microprobe data that show clear oscillatory zoning of the (Ba,Sr)SO4. Unlike the barite sample, sediment samples

  5. Matching genetics with oceanography: directional gene flow in a Mediterranean fish species.

    PubMed

    Schunter, C; Carreras-Carbonell, J; Macpherson, E; Tintoré, J; Vidal-Vijande, E; Pascual, A; Guidetti, P; Pascual, M

    2011-12-01

    Genetic connectivity and geographic fragmentation are two opposing mechanisms determining the population structure of species. While the first homogenizes the genetic background across populations the second one allows their differentiation. Therefore, knowledge of processes affecting dispersal of marine organisms is crucial to understand their genetic distribution patterns and for the effective management of their populations. In this study, we use genetic analyses of eleven microsatellites in combination with oceanographic satellite and dispersal simulation data to determine distribution patterns for Serranus cabrilla, a ubiquitous demersal broadcast spawner, in the Mediterranean Sea. Pairwise population F(ST) values ranged between -0.003 and 0.135. Two genetically distinct clusters were identified, with a clear division located between the oceanographic discontinuities at the Ibiza Channel (IC) and the Almeria-Oran Front (AOF), revealing an admixed population in between. The Balearic Front (BF) also appeared to dictate population structure. Directional gene flow on the Spanish coast was observed as S. cabrilla dispersed from west to east over the AOF, from north to south on the IC and from south of the IC towards the Balearic Islands. Correlations between genetic and oceanographic data were highly significant. Seasonal changes in current patterns and the relationship between ocean circulation patterns and spawning season may also play an important role in population structure around oceanographic fronts.

  6. No gene flow across the Eastern Pacific Barrier in the reef-building coral Porites lobata.

    PubMed

    Baums, Iliana B; Boulay, Jennifer N; Polato, Nicholas R; Hellberg, Michael E

    2012-11-01

    The expanse of deep water between the central Pacific islands and the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific is regarded as the world's most potent marine biogeographic barrier. During recurrent climatic fluctuations (ENSO, El Niño Southern Oscillation), however, changes in water temperature and the speed and direction of currents become favourable for trans-oceanic dispersal of larvae from central Pacific to marginal eastern Pacific reefs. Here, we investigate the population connectivity of the reef-building coral Porites lobata across the Eastern Pacific Barrier (EPB). Patterns of recent gene flow in samples (n = 1173) from the central Pacific and the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) were analysed with 12 microsatellite loci. Results indicated that P. lobata from the ETP are strongly isolated from those in the central Pacific and Hawaii (F(ct) ' = 0.509; P < 0.001). However, samples from Clipperton Atoll, an oceanic island on the eastern side of the EPB, grouped with the central Pacific. Within the central Pacific, Hawaiian populations were strongly isolated from three co-occurring clusters found throughout the remainder of the central Pacific. No further substructure was evident in the ETP. Changes in oceanographic conditions during ENSO over the past several thousand years thus appear insufficient to support larval deliveries from the central Pacific to the ETP or strong postsettlement selection acts on ETP settlers from the central Pacific. Recovery of P. lobata populations in the frequently disturbed ETP thus must depend on local larval sources.

  7. Gene flow by larval dispersal in the Antarctic notothenioid fish Gobionotothen gibberifrons.

    PubMed

    Matschiner, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Salzburger, Walter

    2009-06-01

    The diversification of the teleost suborder Notothenioidei (Perciformes) in Antarctic waters provides one of the most striking examples of a marine adaptive radiation. Along with a number of adaptations to the cold environment, such as the evolution of antifreeze glycoproteins, notothenioids diversified into eight families and at least 130 species. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of the humped rockcod (Gobionotothen gibberifrons), a benthic notothenioid fish. Six populations were sampled at different locations around the Scotia Sea, comprising a large part of the species' distribution range (N = 165). Our analyses based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data (352 bp) and eight microsatellite markers reveal a lack of genetic structuring over large geographic distances (Phi(ST) < or = 0.058, F(ST) < or = 0.005, P values nonsignificant). In order to test whether this was due to passive larval dispersal, we used GPS-tracked drifter trajectories, which approximate movement of passive surface particles with ocean currents. The drifter data indicate that the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) connects the sampling locations in one direction only (west-east), and that passive transport is possible within the 4-month larval period of G. gibberifrons. Indeed, when applying the isolation-with-migration model in IMA, strong unidirectional west-east migration rates are detected in the humped rockcod. This leads us to conclude that, in G. gibberifrons, genetic differentiation is prevented by gene flow via larval dispersal with the ACC. PMID:19457182

  8. Reinforcement can overcome gene flow during speciation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Matute, Daniel R

    2010-12-21

    Reinforcement, the strengthening of prezygotic reproductive isolation by natural selection in response to maladaptive hybridization [1-3], is one of the few processes in which natural selection directly favors the evolution of species as discrete groups (e.g., [4-7]). The evolution of reproductive barriers via reinforcement is expected to evolve in regions where the ranges of two species overlap and hybridize as an evolutionary solution to avoiding the costs of maladaptive hybridization [2,3,8]. The role of reinforcement in speciation has, however, been highly controversial because population-genetic theory suggests that the process is severely impeded by both hybridization [8-11] and migration of individuals from outside the contact zone [12,13]. To determine whether reinforcement could strengthen the reproductive barriers between two sister species of Drosophila in the face of these impediments, I initiated experimental populations of these two species that allowed different degrees of hybridization, as well as migration from outside populations. Surprisingly, even in the face of gene flow, reinforcement could promote the evolution of reproductive isolation within only five generations. As theory predicts, high levels of hybridization (and/or strong selection against hybrids) and migration impeded this evolution. These results suggest that reinforcement can help complete the process of speciation.

  9. Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays

    PubMed Central

    Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5 kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like β propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the

  10. Ultrafiltration and Microarray for Detection of Microbial Source Tracking Marker and Pathogen Genes in Riverine and Marine Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Harwood, Valerie J; Nayak, Bina; Weidhaas, Jennifer L

    2016-01-04

    Pathogen identification and microbial source tracking (MST) to identify sources of fecal pollution improve evaluation of water quality. They contribute to improved assessment of human health risks and remediation of pollution sources. An MST microarray was used to simultaneously detect genes for multiple pathogens and indicators of fecal pollution in freshwater, marine water, sewage-contaminated freshwater and marine water, and treated wastewater. Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) was used to concentrate organisms from water samples, yielding a recovery efficiency of >95% for Escherichia coli and human polyomavirus. Whole-genome amplification (WGA) increased gene copies from ultrafiltered samples and increased the sensitivity of the microarray. Viruses (adenovirus, bocavirus, hepatitis A virus, and human polyomaviruses) were detected in sewage-contaminated samples. Pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila, Shigella flexneri, and Campylobacter fetus were detected along with genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, and tetracycline. Nonmetric dimensional analysis of MST marker genes grouped sewage-spiked freshwater and marine samples with sewage and apart from other fecal sources. The sensitivity (percent true positives) of the microarray probes for gene targets anticipated in sewage was 51 to 57% and was lower than the specificity (percent true negatives; 79 to 81%). A linear relationship between gene copies determined by quantitative PCR and microarray fluorescence was found, indicating the semiquantitative nature of the MST microarray. These results indicate that ultrafiltration coupled with WGA provides sufficient nucleic acids for detection of viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and antibiotic resistance genes by the microarray in applications ranging from beach monitoring to risk assessment.

  11. Ultrafiltration and Microarray for Detection of Microbial Source Tracking Marker and Pathogen Genes in Riverine and Marine Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Harwood, Valerie J; Nayak, Bina; Weidhaas, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    Pathogen identification and microbial source tracking (MST) to identify sources of fecal pollution improve evaluation of water quality. They contribute to improved assessment of human health risks and remediation of pollution sources. An MST microarray was used to simultaneously detect genes for multiple pathogens and indicators of fecal pollution in freshwater, marine water, sewage-contaminated freshwater and marine water, and treated wastewater. Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) was used to concentrate organisms from water samples, yielding a recovery efficiency of >95% for Escherichia coli and human polyomavirus. Whole-genome amplification (WGA) increased gene copies from ultrafiltered samples and increased the sensitivity of the microarray. Viruses (adenovirus, bocavirus, hepatitis A virus, and human polyomaviruses) were detected in sewage-contaminated samples. Pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila, Shigella flexneri, and Campylobacter fetus were detected along with genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, and tetracycline. Nonmetric dimensional analysis of MST marker genes grouped sewage-spiked freshwater and marine samples with sewage and apart from other fecal sources. The sensitivity (percent true positives) of the microarray probes for gene targets anticipated in sewage was 51 to 57% and was lower than the specificity (percent true negatives; 79 to 81%). A linear relationship between gene copies determined by quantitative PCR and microarray fluorescence was found, indicating the semiquantitative nature of the MST microarray. These results indicate that ultrafiltration coupled with WGA provides sufficient nucleic acids for detection of viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and antibiotic resistance genes by the microarray in applications ranging from beach monitoring to risk assessment. PMID:26729716

  12. Ultrafiltration and Microarray for Detection of Microbial Source Tracking Marker and Pathogen Genes in Riverine and Marine Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Harwood, Valerie J.; Nayak, Bina

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen identification and microbial source tracking (MST) to identify sources of fecal pollution improve evaluation of water quality. They contribute to improved assessment of human health risks and remediation of pollution sources. An MST microarray was used to simultaneously detect genes for multiple pathogens and indicators of fecal pollution in freshwater, marine water, sewage-contaminated freshwater and marine water, and treated wastewater. Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) was used to concentrate organisms from water samples, yielding a recovery efficiency of >95% for Escherichia coli and human polyomavirus. Whole-genome amplification (WGA) increased gene copies from ultrafiltered samples and increased the sensitivity of the microarray. Viruses (adenovirus, bocavirus, hepatitis A virus, and human polyomaviruses) were detected in sewage-contaminated samples. Pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila, Shigella flexneri, and Campylobacter fetus were detected along with genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, and tetracycline. Nonmetric dimensional analysis of MST marker genes grouped sewage-spiked freshwater and marine samples with sewage and apart from other fecal sources. The sensitivity (percent true positives) of the microarray probes for gene targets anticipated in sewage was 51 to 57% and was lower than the specificity (percent true negatives; 79 to 81%). A linear relationship between gene copies determined by quantitative PCR and microarray fluorescence was found, indicating the semiquantitative nature of the MST microarray. These results indicate that ultrafiltration coupled with WGA provides sufficient nucleic acids for detection of viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and antibiotic resistance genes by the microarray in applications ranging from beach monitoring to risk assessment. PMID:26729716

  13. Analysis of the nucleoprotein gene identifies three distinct lineages of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) within the European marine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, M.; Cunningham, C.O.; Melvin, W.T.; Kurath, G.

    1999-01-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) protection assay (RPA) has been used to detect nucleotide sequence variation within the nucleoprotein gene of 39 viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates of European marine origin. The classification of VHSV isolates based on RPA cleavage patterns permitted the identification of ten distinct groups of viruses based on differences at the molecular level. The nucleotide sequence of representatives of each of these groupings was determined and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. This revealed grouping of the European marine isolates of VHSV into three genotypes circulating within distinct geographic areas. A fourth genotype was identified comprising isolates originating from North America. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that VHSV isolates recovered from wild caught fish around the British Isles were genetically related to isolates responsible for losses in farmed turbot. Furthermore, a relationship between naturally occurring marine isolates and VHSV isolates causing mortality among rainbow trout in continental Europe was demonstrated. Analysis of the nucleoprotein gene identifies distinct lineages of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus within the European marine environment. Virus Res. 63, 35-44. Available from: 

  14. Estimates of Gene Flow among Populations, Geographic Races, and Species in the Ipomopsis Aggregata Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, P. G.; Soltis, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    Interpopulational gene flow within a species can reduce population differentiation due to genetic drift, whereas genetic exchange among taxa can impede speciation. We used allozyme data to estimate gene flow within and among geographic races and species of perennial herbs in the Ipomopsis aggregata complex (Polemoniaceae). Estimates of interpopulational gene flow within taxa from two methods (F statistics and private alleles) were correlated with one another. Gene flow among populations within each geographic race (subspecies) of I. aggregata was relatively high (Nm > ~1.0). Gene flow was also high among populations of I. arizonica and among four northern populations of I. tenuituba. However, gene flow was low (Nm < 1.0) for I. tenuituba when a population representing subsp. macrosiphon was included. This is consistent with previous findings that subsp. macrosiphon has had an independent origin and is reproductively, as well as geographically, isolated. A recently developed model, based on hierarchical F statistics, was employed to estimate genetic exchange among taxa. Gene flow estimates were generally high among races of I. aggregata (dNm(race) > 1.0) but were low among subspecies of I. tenuituba (dNm(race) < 1.0). Consistent with morphological evidence, estimates of interspecific gene flow were moderate between I. aggregata and I. tenuituba, which hybridize in several areas. However, contrary to morphological evidence, we estimated relatively high levels of interspecific gene flow involving I. arizonica. Our results suggest that I. arizonica has hybridized with other species without the transfer of morphological traits. In the I. aggregata complex, gene flow appears to be an important evolutionary force shaping geographic variation for allozymes within species, but is insufficient to prevent morphological divergence among taxa. PMID:1551582

  15. [Identification of tetracenomycin X from a marine-derived Saccharothrix sp. guided by genes sequence analysis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Tan, Yi; Gan, Mao-Luo; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Wang, Yi-Guang; Ping, Yu-Hui; Li, Bin; Yang, Zhao-Yong; Xiao, Chun-Ling

    2014-02-01

    The crude extracts of the fermentation broth from a marine sediment-derived actinomycete strain, Saccharothrix sp. 10-10, showed significant antibacterial activities against drug-resistant pathogens. A genome-mining PCR-based experiment targeting the genes encoding key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites indicated that the strain 10-10 showed the potential to produce tetracenomycin-like compounds. Further chemical investigation of the cultures of this strain led to the identification of two antibiotics, including a tetracenomycin (Tcm) analogs, Tcm X (1), and a tomaymycin derivative, oxotomaymycin (2). Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data analysis, including UV, 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and MS spectra. Tcm X (1) showed moderate antibacterial activities against a number of drug-resistant pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) pathogens, with the MIC values in the range of 32-64 microg x mL(-1). In addition, 1 also displayed significant cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines, including HL60 (leukemia), HepG2 (liver), and MCF-7 (breast) with the IC 50 values of 5.1, 9.7 and 18.0 micromol x L(-1), respectively. Guided by the PCR-based gene sequence analysis, Tcm X (1) and oxotomaymycin (2) were identified from the genus of Saccharothrix and their 13C NMR data were correctly assigned on the basis of 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis for the first time. PMID:24761614

  16. Structures and comparative characterization of biosynthetic gene clusters for cyanosporasides, enediyne-derived natural products from marine actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Lane, Amy L; Nam, Sang-Jip; Fukuda, Takashi; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Kauffman, Christopher A; Jensen, Paul R; Fenical, William; Moore, Bradley S

    2013-03-20

    Cyanosporasides are marine bacterial natural products containing a chlorinated cyclopenta[a]indene core of suspected enediyne polyketide biosynthetic origin. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of novel cyanosporasides C-F (3-6) from the marine actinomycetes Salinispora pacifica CNS-143 and Streptomyces sp. CNT-179, highlighted by the unprecedented C-2' N-acetylcysteamine functionalized hexose group of 6. Cloning, sequencing, and mutagenesis of homologous ~50 kb cyanosporaside biosynthetic gene clusters from both bacteria afforded the first genetic evidence supporting cyanosporaside's enediyne, and thereby p-benzyne biradical, biosynthetic origin and revealed the molecular basis for nitrile and glycosyl functionalization. This study provides new opportunities for bioengineering of enediyne derivatives and expands the structural diversity afforded by enediyne gene clusters.

  17. Development of a gene transfer system for curing of plasmids in the marine fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida.

    PubMed Central

    Valla, S; Frydenlund, K; Coucheron, D H; Haugan, K; Johansen, B; Jørgensen, T; Knudsen, G; Strøm, A

    1992-01-01

    All reported natural isolates of the marine fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida contain plasmids, and in another marine fish pathogen, Vibrio anguillarum, it has been shown that a plasmid is important for expression of virulence by the organism. To study the function of the plasmids in V. salmonicida, we developed a gene transfer system based on the plasmid RSF1010 replicon. The gene transfer system was used to construct a plasmid-free strain, and this strain was found to behave similarly to the wild type in a fish pathogenicity test based on intraperitoneal injection of the bacteria. We were unable to detect any other phenotypic differences between the two strains. It could therefore be concluded that at least in the V. salmonicida strain tested, extrachromosomal DNA is not required for expression of virulence. Images PMID:1622274

  18. Structures and comparative characterization of biosynthetic gene clusters for cyanosporasides, enediyne-derived natural products from marine actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Amy L.; Nam, Sang Jip; Fukuda, Takashi; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Kauffman, Christopher A.; Jensen, Paul R.; Fenical, William; Moore, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanosporasides are marine bacterial natural products containing a chlorinated cyclopenta[a]indene core of suspected enediyne polyketide biosynthetic origin. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of novel cyanosporasides C–F (3–6) from the marine actinomycetes “Salinispora pacifica” CNS-143 and Streptomyces sp. CNT-179, highlighted by the unprecedented C-2' N-acetylcysteamine functionalized hexose group of 6. Cloning, sequencing, and mutagenesis of homologous ~50 kb cyanosporaside biosynthetic gene clusters from both bacteria afforded the first genetic evidence supporting cyanosporaside's enediyne, and thereby p-benzyne biradical, biosynthetic origin and revealed the molecular basis for nitrile and glycosyl functionalization. This study provides new opportunities for bioengineering of enediyne derivatives and expands the structural diversity afforded by enediyne gene clusters. PMID:23458364

  19. Genomic heterogeneity of historical gene flow between two species of newts inferred from transcriptome data.

    PubMed

    Stuglik, Michał T; Babik, Wiesław

    2016-07-01

    The role of gene flow in species formation is a major unresolved issue in speciation biology. Progress in this area requires information on the long-term patterns of gene flow between diverging species. Here, we used thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms derived from transcriptome resequencing and a method modeling the joint frequency spectrum of these polymorphisms to reconstruct patterns of historical gene flow between two Lissotriton newts: L. vulgaris (Lv) and L. montandoni (Lm). We tested several models of divergence including complete isolation and various scenarios of historical gene flow. The model of secondary contact received the highest support. According to this model, the species split from their common ancestor ca. 5.5 million years (MY) ago, evolved in isolation for ca. 2 MY, and have been exchanging genes for the last 3.5 MY Demographic changes have been inferred in both species, with the current effective population size of ca. 0.7 million in Lv and 0.2 million in Lm. The postdivergence gene flow resulted in two-directional introgression which affected the genomes of both species, but was more pronounced from Lv to Lm. Interestingly, we found evidence for genomic heterogeneity of interspecific gene flow. This study demonstrates the complexity of long-term gene flow between distinct but incompletely reproductively isolated taxa which divergence was initiated millions of years ago. PMID:27386093

  20. Genomic heterogeneity of historical gene flow between two species of newts inferred from transcriptome data.

    PubMed

    Stuglik, Michał T; Babik, Wiesław

    2016-07-01

    The role of gene flow in species formation is a major unresolved issue in speciation biology. Progress in this area requires information on the long-term patterns of gene flow between diverging species. Here, we used thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms derived from transcriptome resequencing and a method modeling the joint frequency spectrum of these polymorphisms to reconstruct patterns of historical gene flow between two Lissotriton newts: L. vulgaris (Lv) and L. montandoni (Lm). We tested several models of divergence including complete isolation and various scenarios of historical gene flow. The model of secondary contact received the highest support. According to this model, the species split from their common ancestor ca. 5.5 million years (MY) ago, evolved in isolation for ca. 2 MY, and have been exchanging genes for the last 3.5 MY Demographic changes have been inferred in both species, with the current effective population size of ca. 0.7 million in Lv and 0.2 million in Lm. The postdivergence gene flow resulted in two-directional introgression which affected the genomes of both species, but was more pronounced from Lv to Lm. Interestingly, we found evidence for genomic heterogeneity of interspecific gene flow. This study demonstrates the complexity of long-term gene flow between distinct but incompletely reproductively isolated taxa which divergence was initiated millions of years ago.

  1. Pleistocene isolation and recent gene flow in Haliotis asinina, an Indo-Pacific vetigastropod with limited dispersal capacity.

    PubMed

    Imron; Jeffrey, Benardine; Hale, Peter; Degnan, Bernard M; Degnan, Sandie M

    2007-01-01

    Haliotis asinina is a broadcast-spawning mollusc that inhabits Indo-Pacific coral reefs. This tropical abalone develops through a nonfeeding larval stage that is competent to settle on specific species of coralline algae after 3-4 days in the plankton. Failure to contact an inductive algae within 10 days of hatching usually results in death. These life cycle characteristics suggest a limited capacity for dispersal and thus gene flow. This makes H. asinina particularly suitable for elucidating phylogeographical structure throughout the Indo-Malay Archipelagoes, and eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans, all regions of biogeographical complexity and high conservation value. We assayed 482 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene in 206 abalone collected from 16 geographically discrete sites across the Indian and Pacific Oceans and Indo-Malay Archipelagoes. DNA sequence variation was analysed via population genetics and phylogenetics, and by nested clade analyses (NCA). Our data resolved clear phylogeographical breaks among major biogeographical regions, with sequence divergences ranging from a high of 3.7% and 3.0% between Indian and Pacific sites and Pacific and Indo-Malay sites, respectively, to a low of 1.1% between Indian and Indo-Malay sites. Despite the apparent limited dispersal capacity of H. asinina, no finer scale phylogeographical structure was resolved within the respective biogeographical regions. However, amova and NCA identified several significant associations between haplotypes and geographical distribution, most notably higher gene flow among geographical populations associated with major ocean currents. Our study provides further evidence that larval dispersal capacity alone is not a good predictor of population genetic structure in marine invertebrates. We infer instead that a combination of historical events (long-term barriers followed by range expansion associated with Pleistocene sea level changes) and contemporary processes

  2. Pleistocene isolation and recent gene flow in Haliotis asinina, an Indo-Pacific vetigastropod with limited dispersal capacity.

    PubMed

    Imron; Jeffrey, Benardine; Hale, Peter; Degnan, Bernard M; Degnan, Sandie M

    2007-01-01

    Haliotis asinina is a broadcast-spawning mollusc that inhabits Indo-Pacific coral reefs. This tropical abalone develops through a nonfeeding larval stage that is competent to settle on specific species of coralline algae after 3-4 days in the plankton. Failure to contact an inductive algae within 10 days of hatching usually results in death. These life cycle characteristics suggest a limited capacity for dispersal and thus gene flow. This makes H. asinina particularly suitable for elucidating phylogeographical structure throughout the Indo-Malay Archipelagoes, and eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans, all regions of biogeographical complexity and high conservation value. We assayed 482 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene in 206 abalone collected from 16 geographically discrete sites across the Indian and Pacific Oceans and Indo-Malay Archipelagoes. DNA sequence variation was analysed via population genetics and phylogenetics, and by nested clade analyses (NCA). Our data resolved clear phylogeographical breaks among major biogeographical regions, with sequence divergences ranging from a high of 3.7% and 3.0% between Indian and Pacific sites and Pacific and Indo-Malay sites, respectively, to a low of 1.1% between Indian and Indo-Malay sites. Despite the apparent limited dispersal capacity of H. asinina, no finer scale phylogeographical structure was resolved within the respective biogeographical regions. However, amova and NCA identified several significant associations between haplotypes and geographical distribution, most notably higher gene flow among geographical populations associated with major ocean currents. Our study provides further evidence that larval dispersal capacity alone is not a good predictor of population genetic structure in marine invertebrates. We infer instead that a combination of historical events (long-term barriers followed by range expansion associated with Pleistocene sea level changes) and contemporary processes

  3. Reconstructing Deep-Marine Sediment Gravity Flow Dynamics from Ancient Rocks: an Example from Skoorsteenberg Fm. Tanqua Karoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, I. A.; Pontén, A. S. M.; Hodgson, D.; Vangdal, B.

    2015-12-01

    The processes which create deep-marine lobes are challenging to study, owing to the depth of the lobes beneath the sea surface and the destructive nature of the sediment gravity flows which transport the sediment that builds them. One approach is to reconstruct paleohydraulics using detailed outcrop observations which can be used to build a theoretical framework for flow behavior. The Skoorsteenberg Fm., Tanqua Karoo, offers an excellent opportunity to study fine-grained deep-marine lobes in near continuous quasi-3D exposure. The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of the various facies of Fan 3 (one of the Skoorsteenberg Fm. lobe complexes) are presented. The turbidites which dominate the proximal and medial lobe areas, pass down-dip into very muddy sandstones which are here attributed to a type of transitional flow state. The model developed here suggests that turbidity currents exiting channels were large and turbulent enough to erode and entrain their substrate, increasing their concentration and clay content. As the flows decelerated they became increasingly stratified, characterised by an increasing bulk Richardson (Ri). Sand and silt particles settled together with flocculated clay, forming a cohesive, low yield-strength layer. This layer flowed in a laminar manner but settling of sand grains continued due to the low yield strength. The rising yield strength of the lower layer progressively inhibited the efficiency of vertical mixing, characterised by an increasing flux Richardson number, which, when it exceeded a critical value , led to a catastrophic collapse of the turbulent energy field and en-masse transformation of the upper part of the flow, ultimately resulting in a highly argillaceous sandstone (debrite) division. This transformation was possible due to the narrow grain size range, dominantly silt-vf sand with abundant flocculated clay, which behaved as a single phase. This model of flow evolution accounts for the presence of such beds without

  4. C-values of seven marine mammal species determined by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Du, Bo; Wang, Ding

    2006-11-01

    C-values, which estimate genome size, have puzzled geneticists for years because they bear no relationship to organismal complexity. Though C-values have been estimated for thousands of species, considerably more data are required in order to better understanding genome evolution. This is particularly true for mammals, in which C-values are known for less than 8% of the total number of mammalian species. Among marine mammals, a C-value has been estimated only for the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Thus examination of additional species of marine mammals is necessary for comparative purposes. It will enable a better understanding of marine mammal genome evolution, and it is also relevant to conservation, because larger genome size has been linked to increased likelihood of extinction in some plant and animal groups. Our study presents C-values of seven marine mammal species, including five cetacean species that are endangered to varying degrees. Similarly to the results for other groups, our results suggest that larger genome size in cetaceans is related to an increased likelihood of extinction. PMID:17189914

  5. Horizontal Transfer of a Novel Soil Agarase Gene from Marine Bacteria to Soil Bacteria via Human Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tao; Xu, Hui; Wei, Congchong; Jiang, Tengfei; Qin, Shishang; Zhang, Weijia; Cao, Yu; Hu, Chao; Zhang, Fan; Qiao, Dairong; Cao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Seaweed is receiving an increasing amount of attention as a “sea vegetable”. The microbiota of coastal populations may acquire seaweed associated enzymes through marine food. Several agarases have been found in non-marine environments; however, their origin is unknown. In this study, a hypothetical protein, Aga1, was identified as an agarase from an inland soil agar-degrading bacterium, Paenibacillus sp. SSG-1.Having low similarity to known glycoside hydrolases, Aga1 may be a distant member of the glycoside hydrolase family 86. Aga1 has good pH stability (pH 3–11) and is stable in the presence of various metal ions. Aga1 is an exo-type β-agarase that produces NA 4 (neoagarotetraose) and NA 6 (neoagarohexaose) as its main products. In addition, Aga1 may be a cell-surface-binding protein. The bioinformatic analysis showed aga1 may have been transfered together with its surrounding genes, from marine bacteria to soil bacteria via human microbiota. The use of seaweed as food and the disposal of human faeces or saliva were the most likely reasons for this gene transfer pathway. Notably, the results also indicated that microbes from inland humans may degrade agar and that these microbes may have acquired seaweed associated genes because of increased seaweed in diets. PMID:27756908

  6. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria from salmon aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Q A; Cabello, Felipe C; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Tomova, Alexandra; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Sørum, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) detected by disc diffusion and antimicrobial resistance genes detected by DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction with amplicon sequencing were studied in 124 marine bacterial isolates from a Chilean salmon aquaculture site and 76 from a site without aquaculture 8 km distant. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was present in 81% of the isolates regardless of site. Resistance to tetracycline was most commonly encoded by tetA and tetG; to trimethoprim, by dfrA1, dfrA5 and dfrA12; to sulfamethizole, by sul1 and sul2; to amoxicillin, by blaTEM ; and to streptomycin, by strA-strB. Integron integrase intl1 was detected in 14 sul1-positive isolates, associated with aad9 gene cassettes in two from the aquaculture site. intl2 Integrase was only detected in three dfrA1-positive isolates from the aquaculture site and was not associated with gene cassettes in any. Of nine isolates tested for conjugation, two from the aquaculture site transferred AR determinants to Escherichia coli. High levels of AR in marine sediments from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites suggest that dispersion of the large amounts of antimicrobials used in Chilean salmon aquaculture has created selective pressure in areas of the marine environment far removed from the initial site of use of these agents.

  7. Gene flow in maize fields with different local pollen densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggi, A. Susana; Lopez-Sanchez, Higinio; Caragea, Petrutza; Westgate, Mark; Arritt, Raymond; Clark, Craig A.

    2007-08-01

    The development of maize ( Zea mays L.) varieties as factories of pharmaceutical and industrial compounds has renewed interest in controlling pollen dispersal. The objective of this study was to compare gene flow into maize fields of different local pollen densities under the same environmental conditions. Two fields of approximately 36 ha were planted with a nontransgenic, white hybrid, in Ankeny, Iowa, USA. In the center of both fields, a 1-ha plot of a yellow-seeded stacked RR/Bt transgenic hybrid was planted as a pollen source. Before flowering, the white receiver maize of one field was detasseled in a 4:1 ratio to reduce the local pollen density (RPD). The percentage of outcross in the field with RPD was 42.2%, 6.3%, and 1.3% at 1, 10, and 35 m from the central plot, respectively. The percentage of outcross in the white maize with normal pollen density (NPD) was 30.1%, 2.7%, and 0.4%, respectively, at these distances. At distances greater than 100 m, the outcross frequency decreased below 0.1 and 0.03% in the field with RPD and NPD, respectively. A statistical model was used to compare pollen dispersal based on observed outcross percentages. The likelihood ratio test confirmed that the models of outcrossing in the two fields were significantly different ( P is practically 0). Results indicated that when local pollen is low, the incoming pollen has a competitive advantage and the level of outcross is significantly greater than when the local pollen is abundant.

  8. The Bolivar Channel Ecosystem of the Galapagos Marine Reserve: Energy flow structure and role of keystone groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Diego J.; Wolff, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    The Bolivar Channel Ecosystem (BCE) is among the most productive zones in the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). It is exposed to relatively cool, nutrient-rich waters of the Cromwell current, which are brought to the photic zone through topographic upwelling. The BCE is characterized by a heterogeneous rocky reef habitat covered by dense algae beds and inhabited by numerous invertebrate and fish species, which represent the food for higher predators including seals and sharks and exploited fish species. In addition, plankton and detritus based food chains channel large amounts of energy through the complex food web. Important emblematic species of the Galapagos archipelagos reside in this area such as the flightless cormorant, the Galapagos penguin and the marine iguanas. A trophic model of BCE was constructed for the habitats < 30 m depth that fringe the west coast of Isabela and east coast of Fernandina islands covering 14% of the total BCE area (44 km 2). The model integrates data sets from sub tidal ecological monitoring and marine vertebrate population monitoring (2004 to 2008) programs of the Charles Darwin Foundation and consists of 30 compartments, which are trophically linked through a diet matrix. Results reveal that the BCE is a large system in terms of flows (38 695 t km - 2 yr - 1 ) comparable to Peruvian Bay Systems of the Humboldt upwelling system. A very large proportion of energy flows from the primary producers (phytoplankton and macro-algae) to the second level and to the detritus pool. Catches are high (54.3 t km - 2 yr - 1 ) and are mainly derived from the second and third trophic levels (mean TL of catch = 2.45) making the fisheries gross efficiency high (0.3%). The system's degree of development seems rather low as indicated by a P/R ratio of 4.19, a low ascendency (37.4%) and a very low Finn's cycling index (1.29%). This is explained by the system's exposure to irregular changes in oceanographic conditions as related to the EL Niño Southern

  9. The relative influence of natural selection and geography on gene flow in guppies.

    PubMed

    Crispo, Erika; Bentzen, Paul; Reznick, David N; Kinnison, Michael T; Hendry, Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    Two general processes may influence gene flow among populations. One involves divergent selection, wherein the maladaptation of immigrants and hybrids impedes gene flow between ecological environments (i.e. ecological speciation). The other involves geographic features that limit dispersal. We determined the relative influence of these two processes in natural populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). If selection is important, gene flow should be reduced between different selective environments. If geography is important, gene flow should be impeded by geographic distance and physical barriers. We examined how genetic divergence, long-term gene flow, and contemporary dispersal within a watershed were influenced by waterfalls, geographic distance, predation, and habitat features. We found that waterfalls and geographic distance increased genetic divergence and reduced dispersal and long-term gene flow. Differences in predation or habitat features did not influence genetic divergence or gene flow. In contrast, differences in predation did appear to reduce contemporary dispersal. We suggest that the standard predictions of ecological speciation may be heavily nuanced by the mating behaviour and life history strategies of guppies. PMID:16367829

  10. The relative influence of natural selection and geography on gene flow in guppies.

    PubMed

    Crispo, Erika; Bentzen, Paul; Reznick, David N; Kinnison, Michael T; Hendry, Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    Two general processes may influence gene flow among populations. One involves divergent selection, wherein the maladaptation of immigrants and hybrids impedes gene flow between ecological environments (i.e. ecological speciation). The other involves geographic features that limit dispersal. We determined the relative influence of these two processes in natural populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). If selection is important, gene flow should be reduced between different selective environments. If geography is important, gene flow should be impeded by geographic distance and physical barriers. We examined how genetic divergence, long-term gene flow, and contemporary dispersal within a watershed were influenced by waterfalls, geographic distance, predation, and habitat features. We found that waterfalls and geographic distance increased genetic divergence and reduced dispersal and long-term gene flow. Differences in predation or habitat features did not influence genetic divergence or gene flow. In contrast, differences in predation did appear to reduce contemporary dispersal. We suggest that the standard predictions of ecological speciation may be heavily nuanced by the mating behaviour and life history strategies of guppies.

  11. Flow-Dependent Epigenetic DNA Methylation in Endothelial Gene Expression and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Jessilyn; Thabet, Salim; Jo, Hanjoong

    2015-07-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms that regulate endothelial cell gene expression are now emerging. DNA methylation is the most stable epigenetic mark that confers persisting changes in gene expression. Not only is DNA methylation important in rendering cell identity by regulating cell type-specific gene expression throughout differentiation, but it is becoming clear that DNA methylation also plays a key role in maintaining endothelial cell homeostasis and in vascular disease development. Disturbed blood flow causes atherosclerosis, whereas stable flow protects against it by differentially regulating gene expression in endothelial cells. Recently, we and others have shown that flow-dependent gene expression and atherosclerosis development are regulated by mechanisms dependent on DNA methyltransferases (1 and 3A). Disturbed blood flow upregulates DNA methyltransferase expression both in vitro and in vivo, which leads to genome-wide DNA methylation alterations and global gene expression changes in a DNA methyltransferase-dependent manner. These studies revealed several mechanosensitive genes, such as HoxA5, Klf3, and Klf4, whose promoters were hypermethylated by disturbed blood flow, but rescued by DNA methyltransferases inhibitors such as 5Aza-2-deoxycytidine. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which flow controls epigenomic DNA methylation patterns, which in turn alters endothelial gene expression, regulates vascular biology, and modulates atherosclerosis development. PMID:25953647

  12. Genomic insights into the evolution of hybrid isoprenoid biosynthetic gene clusters in the MAR4 marine streptomycete clade

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Kelley A.; Jensen, Paul R.

    2015-11-17

    Background: Considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular genetics of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Coupled with increased access to genome sequence data, new insight can be gained into the diversity and distributions of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and the evolutionary processes that generate them. Here we examine the distribution of gene clusters predicted to encode the biosynthesis of a structurally diverse class of molecules called hybrid isoprenoids (HIs) in the genus Streptomyces. These compounds are derived from a mixed biosynthetic origin that is characterized by the incorporation of a terpene moiety onto a variety of chemical scaffolds and include many potent antibiotic and cytotoxic agents. Results: One hundred and twenty Streptomyces genomes were searched for HI biosynthetic gene clusters using ABBA prenyltransferases (PTases) as queries. These enzymes are responsible for a key step in HI biosynthesis. The strains included 12 that belong to the ‘MAR4’ clade, a largely marine-derived lineage linked to the production of diverse HI secondary metabolites. We found ABBA PTase homologs in all of the MAR4 genomes, which averaged five copies per strain, compared with 21 % of the non-MAR4 genomes, which averaged one copy per strain. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that MAR4 PTase diversity has arisen by a combination of horizontal gene transfer and gene duplication. Furthermore, there is evidence that HI gene cluster diversity is generated by the horizontal exchange of orthologous PTases among clusters. Many putative HI gene clusters have not been linked to their secondary metabolic products, suggesting that MAR4 strains will yield additional new compounds in this structure class. Finally, we confirm that the mevalonate pathway is not always present in genomes that contain HI gene clusters and thus is not a reliable query for identifying strains with the potential to produce HI secondary metabolites. In

  13. Genomic insights into the evolution of hybrid isoprenoid biosynthetic gene clusters in the MAR4 marine streptomycete clade

    DOE PAGES

    Gallagher, Kelley A.; Jensen, Paul R.

    2015-11-17

    Background: Considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular genetics of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Coupled with increased access to genome sequence data, new insight can be gained into the diversity and distributions of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and the evolutionary processes that generate them. Here we examine the distribution of gene clusters predicted to encode the biosynthesis of a structurally diverse class of molecules called hybrid isoprenoids (HIs) in the genus Streptomyces. These compounds are derived from a mixed biosynthetic origin that is characterized by the incorporation of a terpene moiety onto a variety of chemicalmore » scaffolds and include many potent antibiotic and cytotoxic agents. Results: One hundred and twenty Streptomyces genomes were searched for HI biosynthetic gene clusters using ABBA prenyltransferases (PTases) as queries. These enzymes are responsible for a key step in HI biosynthesis. The strains included 12 that belong to the ‘MAR4’ clade, a largely marine-derived lineage linked to the production of diverse HI secondary metabolites. We found ABBA PTase homologs in all of the MAR4 genomes, which averaged five copies per strain, compared with 21 % of the non-MAR4 genomes, which averaged one copy per strain. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that MAR4 PTase diversity has arisen by a combination of horizontal gene transfer and gene duplication. Furthermore, there is evidence that HI gene cluster diversity is generated by the horizontal exchange of orthologous PTases among clusters. Many putative HI gene clusters have not been linked to their secondary metabolic products, suggesting that MAR4 strains will yield additional new compounds in this structure class. Finally, we confirm that the mevalonate pathway is not always present in genomes that contain HI gene clusters and thus is not a reliable query for identifying strains with the potential to produce HI secondary metabolites

  14. Blood-Based Gene-Expression Biomarkers of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Deployed Marines: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tylee, Daniel S.; Chandler, Sharon D.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Liu, Xiaohua; Pazol, Joel; Woelk, Christopher H.; Lohr, James B.; Kremen, William S.; Baker, Dewleen G.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Tsuang, Ming T.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) likely involves the interaction of numerous genes and environmental factors. Similarly, gene-expression levels in peripheral blood are influenced by both genes and environment, and expression levels of many genes show good correspondence between peripheral blood and brain tissues. In that context, this pilot study sought to test the following hypotheses: 1) post-trauma expression levels of a gene subset in peripheral blood would differ between Marines with and without PTSD; 2) a diagnostic biomarker panel of PTSD among high-risk individuals could be developed based on gene expression in readily assessable peripheral blood cells; and 3) a diagnostic panel based on expression of individual exons would surpass the accuracy of a model based on expression of full-length gene transcripts. Gene-expression levels in peripheral blood samples from 50 U.S. Marines (25 PTSD cases and 25 non-PTSD comparison subjects) were determined by microarray following their return from deployment to war-zones in Iraq or Afghanistan. The original sample was carved into training and test subsets for construction of support vector machine classifiers. The panel of peripheral blood biomarkers achieved 80% prediction accuracy in the test subset based on the expression of just two full-length transcripts (GSTM1 and GSTM2). A biomarker panel based on 20 exons attained an improved 90% accuracy in the test subset. Though further refinement and replication of these biomarker profiles are required, these preliminary results provide proof-of-principle for the diagnostic utility of blood-based mRNA-expression in PTSD among trauma-exposed individuals. PMID:25311155

  15. Testing for asymmetrical gene flow in a Drosophila melanogaster body-size cline.

    PubMed Central

    Kennington, W Jason; Gockel, Julia; Partridge, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Asymmetrical gene flow is an important, but rarely examined genetic parameter. Here, we develop a new method for detecting departures from symmetrical migration between two populations using microsatellite data that are based on the difference in the proportion of private alleles. Application of this approach to data collected from wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster along a latitudinal body-size cline in eastern Australia revealed that asymmetrical gene flow could be detected, but was uncommon, nonlocalized, and occurred in both directions. We also show that, in contrast to the findings of a previous study, there is good evidence to suggest that the cline experiences significant levels of gene flow between populations. PMID:14573478

  16. Numerical performance analysis of acoustic Doppler velocity profilers in the wake of an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Harding, Samuel F.; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ

    2015-09-01

    The use of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) for the characterization of flow conditions in the vicinity of both experimental and full scale marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines is becoming increasingly prevalent. The computation of a three dimensional velocity measurement from divergent acoustic beams requires the assumption that the flow conditions are homogeneous between all beams at a particular axial distance from the instrument. In the near wake of MHK devices, the mean fluid motion is observed to be highly spatially dependent as a result of torque generation and energy extraction. This paper examines the performance of ADCP measurements in such scenarios through the modelling of a virtual ADCP (VADCP) instrument in the velocity field in the wake of an MHK turbine resolved using unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is achieved by sampling the CFD velocity field at equivalent locations to the sample bins of an ADCP and performing the coordinate transformation from beam coordinates to instrument coordinates and finally to global coordinates. The error in the mean velocity calculated by the VADCP relative to the reference velocity along the instrument axis is calculated for a range of instrument locations and orientations. The stream-wise velocity deficit and tangential swirl velocity caused by the rotor rotation lead to significant misrepresentation of the true flow velocity profiles by the VADCP, with the most significant errors in the transverse (cross-flow) velocity direction.

  17. Performance and Near-Wake Flow field of A Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Operating in Free surface Proximity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Arindam; Kolekar, Nitin

    2015-11-01

    The current experimental investigation aims at understanding the effect of free surface proximity and associated blockage on near-wake flow-field and performance of a three bladed horizontal axis marine hydrokinetic turbine. Experiments were conducted on a 0.14m radius, three bladed constant chord turbine in a 0.61m ×0.61m test section water channel. The turbine was subjected to various rotational speeds, flow speeds and depths of immersion. Experimental data was acquired through a submerged in-line thrust-torque sensor that was corrected to an unblocked dataset with a blockage correction using measured thrust data. A detailed comparison is presented between blocked and unblocked datasets to identify influence of Reynolds number and free surface proximity on blockage effects. The percent change in Cp was found to be dependent on flow velocity, rotational speed and free surface to blade tip clearance. Further, flow visualization using a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry was carried out in the near-wake region of turbine to understand the mechanism responsible for variation of Cp with rotational speed and free surface proximity. Results revealed presence of slower wake at higher rotational velocities and increased asymmetry in the wake at high free surface proximity.

  18. Mathematical simulation of boulder dislodgement by high-energy marine flows in the western coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canelas, Ricardo; Oliveira, Maria; Crespo, Alejandro; Neves, Ramiro; Costa, Pedro; Freitas, Conceição; Andrade, César; Ferreira, Rui

    2014-05-01

    The study of coastal boulder deposits related with marine abrupt inundation events has been addressed by several authors using conventional numerical solutions that simulate particle transport by storm and tsunami, sometimes with contradictory results (Nandasena et al. 2011, Kain et al. 2012). The biggest challenge has been the differentiation of the events (storm or tsunami), and the reconstruction of wave parameters (e.g. wave height, length, direction) responsible for the entrainment and transport of these megaclasts. In this study we employ an inverse-problem strategy to determine the cause of dislodgement of megaclasts and to explain the pattern of deposition found in some locations of the Portuguese western coast, well above maximum records of sea level. It is envisaged that the causes are either flows originated by wave breaking, typically associated to storms, which would impart large momentum in a short time interval (herein impulsive motion), or long waves such as a tsunamis, that would transport the clasts in a mode analogous to bedload (herein sustained motion). The geometry of the problem is idealized but represents the key features of overhanging layers related with fractures, bedding and differential erosion of sub-horizontal layers. In plan view, concave and convex coastline shapes are testes to assess the influence of flow concentration. These geometrical features are representative of the western Portuguese coast. The fluid-solid model solves numerically the Navier-Stokes equations for the liquid phase and Newton's motion equations for solid bodies. The discretization of both fluid and solids is performed with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The model is based DualSPHyics code (www.dual.sphysics.org) and represents an effort to avoid different discretization techniques for different phases in motion. This approach to boulder transport demonstrates that the ability of high-energy flow events to entrain and transport large particles largely

  19. Identification of genes coding for putative wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes in terrestrial and marine environments.

    PubMed

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Alvarez, Adrián F; Alvarez, Héctor M

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of neutral lipids such as triacylglycerols (TAG) and wax esters (WE) is catalyzed in bacteria by wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes (WS/DGAT). We investigated the diversity of genes encoding this enzyme in contrasting natural environments from Patagonia (Argentina). The content of petroleum hydrocarbons in samples collected from oil-producing areas was measured. PCR-based analysis covered WS/DGAT occurrence in marine sediments and soil. No product was obtained in seawater samples. All clones retrieved from marine sediments affiliated with gammaproteobacterial sequences and within them, most phylotypes formed a unique cluster related to putative WS/DGAT belonging to marine OM60 clade. In contrast, soils samples contained phylotypes only related to actinomycetes. Among them, phylotypes affiliated with representatives largely or recently reported as oleaginous bacteria, as well as with others considered as possible lipid-accumulating bacteria based on the analysis of their annotated genomes. Our study shows for the first time that the environment could contain a higher variety of ws/dgat than that reported from bacterial isolates. The results of this study highlight the relevance of the environment in a natural process such as the synthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids. Particularly, both marine sediments and soil may serve as a useful source for novel WS/DGAT with biotechnological interest. PMID:26228353

  20. Diversity and depth-specific distribution of SAR11 cluster rRNA genes from marine planktonic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Field, K G; Gordon, D; Wright, T; Rappé, M; Urback, E; Vergin, K; Giovannoni, S J

    1997-01-01

    Small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene clusters are phylogenetically related sets of SSU rRNA genes, commonly encountered in genes amplified from natural populations. Genetic variability in gene clusters could result from artifacts (polymerase error or PCR chimera formation), microevolution (variation among rrn copies within strains), or macroevolution (genetic divergence correlated with long-term evolutionary divergence). To better understand gene clusters this study assessed genetic diversity and distribution of a single environmental SSU rDNA gene cluster, the SAR11 cluster. SAR11 cluster genes, from an uncultured group of the alpha subclass of the class Proteobacteria, have been recovered from coastal and midoceanic waters of the North Atlantic and Pacific. We cloned and bidirectionally sequenced 23 new SAR11 cluster 16S rRNA genes, from 80 and 250 m in the Sargasso Sea and from surface coastal waters of the Atlantic and Pacific, and analyzed them with previously published sequences. Two SAR11 genes were obviously PCR chimeras, but the biological (nonchimeric) origins of most subgroups within the cluster were confirmed by independent recovery from separate gene libraries. Using group-specific oligonucleotide probes, we analyzed depth profiles of nucleic acids, targeting both amplified rDNAs and bulk RNAs. Two subgroups within the SAR11 cluster showed different highly depth-specific distributions. We conclude that some of the genetic diversity within the SAR11 gene cluster represents macroevolutionary divergence correlated with niche specialization. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility for marine microbial ecology of oligonucleotide probes based on gene sequences amplified from natural populations and show that a detailed knowledge of sequence variability may be needed to effectively design these probes. PMID:8979340

  1. Diversity and depth-specific distribution of SAR11 cluster rRNA genes from marine planktonic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Field, K.G.; Gordon, D.; Wright, T.

    1997-01-01

    Small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene clusters are phylogenetically related sets of SSU rRNA genes, commonly encountered in genes amplified from natural populations. Genetic variability in gene clusters could result form artifacts (polymerase error or PCR chimera formation), microevolution (variation among rrn copies within strains), or macroevolution (genetic divergence correlated with long-term evolutionary divergence). To better understand gene clusters, this study assessed genetic diversity and distribution of a single environmental SSU rDNA gene cluster, the SAR11 cluster. SAR11 cluster genes, from an uncultured group of the {alpha} subclass of the class Proteobacteria, have been recovered from coastal and midoceanic waters of the North Atlantic and Pacific. We cloned and bidirectionally sequenced 23 new SAR11 cluster 16S rRNA genes, from 80 and 250 m im the Sargasso Sea and from surface coastal waters of the Atlantic and Pacific, and analyzed them with previously published sequences. Two SAR11 genes were obviously PCR chimeras, but the biological (nonchimeric) origins of most subgroups within the cluster were confirmed by independent recovery from separate gene libraries. Using group-specific oligonucleotide probes, we analyzed depth profiles of nucleic acids, targeting both amplified rDNAs and bulk RNAs. Two subgroups within the SAR11 cluster showed different highly depth-specific distributions. We conclude that some of the genetic diversity within the SAR11 gene cluster represents macroevolutionary divergence correlated with niche specialization. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility for marine microbial ecology of oligonucleotide probes based on gene sequences amplified from natural populations and show that a detailed knowledge of sequence variability may be needed to effectively design these probes. 48 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Estimating exotic gene flow into native pine stands: zygotic vs. gametic components.

    PubMed

    Unger, G M; Vendramin, G G; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring contemporary gene flow from widespread exotic plantations is becoming an important problem in forest conservation genetics. In plants, where both seed and pollen disperse, three components of exotic gene flow with potentially unequal consequences should be, but have not been, explicitly distinguished: zygotic, male gametic and female gametic. Building on a previous model for estimating contemporary rates of zygotic and male gametic gene flow among plant populations, we present here an approach that additionally estimates the third (female gametic) gene flow component, based on a combination of uni- and biparentally inherited markers. Using this method and a combined set of chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites, we estimate gene flow rates from exotic plantations into two Iberian relict stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Results show neither zygotic nor female gametic gene flow but moderate (6-8%) male gametic introgression for both species, implying significant dispersal of pollen, but not of seeds, from exotic plantations into native stands shortly after introduced trees reached reproductive maturity. Numerical simulation results suggest that the model yields reasonably accurate estimates for our empirical data sets, especially for larger samples. We discuss conservation management implications of observed levels of exposure to nonlocal genes and identify research needs to determine potentially associated hazards. Our approach should be useful for plant ecologists and ecosystem managers interested in the vectors of contemporary genetic connectivity among discrete plant populations.

  3. Natal dispersal and gene flow in white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    I documented natal dispersal and gene flow in 79 yearling white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota during 1974-1988. Sixty-four percent (n = 28) of 44 males and 20?/0 (n = 7) of 35 females dispersed from their natal home ranges when 1.0-1.5-years old. Eighty-six percent and 95%, of all yearlings including nondispersers, dispersed 526 and 538 km, respectively. Minimum gene flow was estimated to be 40 deer per generation, based on a circular subpopulation defined by a 26-km radius. Gene flow estimated from allele frequencies for five polymorphic loci averaged 15 deer per generation among five subpopulations. These values of gene flow were concomitant with significant allele frequency heterogeneity at the subpopulation level.

  4. The evolution of sensory divergence in the context of limited gene flow in the bumblebee bat.

    PubMed

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Piyapan, Piyathip; Yokubol, Medhi; Mie, Khin Mie; Bates, Paul J; Satasook, Chutamas; Nwe, Tin; Bu, Si Si Hla; Mackie, Iain J; Petit, Eric J; Teeling, Emma C

    2011-01-01

    The sensory drive theory of speciation predicts that populations of the same species inhabiting different environments can differ in sensory traits, and that this sensory difference can ultimately drive speciation. However, even in the best-known examples of sensory ecology driven speciation, it is uncertain whether the variation in sensory traits is the cause or the consequence of a reduction in levels of gene flow. Here we show strong genetic differentiation, no gene flow and large echolocation differences between the allopatric Myanmar and Thai populations of the world's smallest mammal, Craseonycteris thonglongyai, and suggest that geographic isolation most likely preceded sensory divergence. Within the geographically continuous Thai population, we show that geographic distance has a primary role in limiting gene flow rather than echolocation divergence. In line with sensory-driven speciation models, we suggest that in C. thonglongyai, limited gene flow creates the suitable conditions that favour the evolution of sensory divergence via local adaptation. PMID:22146392

  5. The evolution of sensory divergence in the context of limited gene flow in the bumblebee bat

    PubMed Central

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J.; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Piyapan, Piyathip; Yokubol, Medhi; Mie, Khin Mie; Bates, Paul J.; Satasook, Chutamas; Nwe, Tin; Bu, Si Si Hla; Mackie, Iain J.; Petit, Eric J.; Teeling, Emma C.

    2011-01-01

    The sensory drive theory of speciation predicts that populations of the same species inhabiting different environments can differ in sensory traits, and that this sensory difference can ultimately drive speciation. However, even in the best-known examples of sensory ecology driven speciation, it is uncertain whether the variation in sensory traits is the cause or the consequence of a reduction in levels of gene flow. Here we show strong genetic differentiation, no gene flow and large echolocation differences between the allopatric Myanmar and Thai populations of the world's smallest mammal, Craseonycteris thonglongyai, and suggest that geographic isolation most likely preceded sensory divergence. Within the geographically continuous Thai population, we show that geographic distance has a primary role in limiting gene flow rather than echolocation divergence. In line with sensory-driven speciation models, we suggest that in C. thonglongyai, limited gene flow creates the suitable conditions that favour the evolution of sensory divergence via local adaptation. PMID:22146392

  6. Identification of a novel flow-mediated gene expression signature in patients with bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Shohreh; Björck, Hanna M; Folkersen, Lasse; Nilsson, Roland; Renner, Johan; Caidahl, Kenneth; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Länne, Toste; Eriksson, Per

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) are at significantly higher risk of developing serious aortic complications than individuals with tricuspid aortic valves (TAV). Studies have indicated an altered aortic blood flow in patients with BAV; however, the extent to which altered flow influences the pathological state of BAV aorta is unclear. In the present study, we dissected flow-mediated aortic gene expression in patients undergoing elective open heart surgery. A large collection of public microarray data sets were firstly screened for consistent co-expression with five well-characterized flow-regulated genes (query genes). Genes with co-expression probability of >0.5 were selected and further analysed in expression profiles (127 arrays) from ascending aorta of BAV and TAV patients. Forty-four genes satisfied two filtering criteria: a significant correlation with one or more of the query genes (R > 0.40) and differential expression between patients with BAV and TAV. No gene fulfilled the criteria in mammary artery (88 arrays), an artery not in direct contact with the valve. Fifty-five percent of the genes significantly altered between BAV and TAV patients showed differential expression between two identified flow regions in the rat aorta. A large proportion of the identified genes were related to angiogenesis and/or wound healing, with pro-angiogenesis genes downregulated and inhibitory genes upregulated in patients with BAV. Moreover, differential expression of ZFP36, GRP116 and PKD2 was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Implementing a new strategy, we have demonstrated an angiostatic gene expression signature in patients with BAV, indicating impaired wound healing in these patients, potentially involved in BAV-associated aortopathy. PMID:22903503

  7. Enhanced Gene Detection Assays for Fumarate-Adding Enzymes Allow Uncovering of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degraders in Terrestrial and Marine Systems

    PubMed Central

    von Netzer, Frederick; Pilloni, Giovanni; Kleindienst, Sara; Krüger, Martin; Knittel, Katrin; Gründger, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    The detection of anaerobic hydrocarbon degrader populations via catabolic gene markers is important for the understanding of processes at contaminated sites. Fumarate-adding enzymes (FAEs; i.e., benzylsuccinate and alkylsuccinate synthases) have already been established as specific functional marker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders. Several recent studies based on pure cultures and laboratory enrichments have shown the existence of new and deeply branching FAE gene lineages, such as clostridial benzylsuccinate synthases and homologues, as well as naphthylmethylsuccinate synthases. However, established FAE gene detection assays were not designed to target these novel lineages, and consequently, their detectability in different environments remains obscure. Here, we present a new suite of parallel primer sets for detecting the comprehensive range of FAE markers known to date, including clostridial benzylsuccinate, naphthylmethylsuccinate, and alkylsuccinate synthases. It was not possible to develop one single assay spanning the complete diversity of FAE genes alone. The enhanced assays were tested with a range of hydrocarbon-degrading pure cultures, enrichments, and environmental samples of marine and terrestrial origin. They revealed the presence of several, partially unexpected FAE gene lineages not detected in these environments before: distinct deltaproteobacterial and also clostridial bssA homologues as well as environmental nmsA homologues. These findings were backed up by dual-digest terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnostics to identify FAE gene populations independently of sequencing. This allows rapid insights into intrinsic degrader populations and degradation potentials established in aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon-impacted environmental systems. PMID:23124238

  8. Carry-over effect of larval settlement cue on postlarval gene expression in the marine gastropod Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Degnan, Sandie M

    2009-11-01

    The drastic shift from pelagic larvae to benthic adult form that occurs during marine invertebrate metamorphosis is often induced by intimate interactions between settling larvae and their benthic environment. Larval experience prior to and during metamorphosis can significantly affect adult fitness, but it is presently unknown whether the exact nature of the inductive cue is an experience that matters, or by what mechanism such carry-over effects are mediated. Here we test for carry-over effects of the specific nature of inductive cues on gene expression in metamorphosing postlarvae of the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina. Postlarvae induced by three different species of coralline algae all successfully undergo metamorphosis, yet the expression profiles of 11 of 17 metamorphosis-related genes differ according to which species of algae the larvae settled upon. Significantly, several genes continue to be differentially expressed for at least 40 h after removal of the algae from the postlarvae, clearly demonstrating a carry-over effect of inductive cue on gene expression. We observe a carryover effect in several genes with varying functions and spatial expression patterns, indicating that each algal species impacts global gene expression in a unique manner. These data unexpectedly reveal that transcriptional modulation of metamorphosis-related genes is contingent upon the precise composition of the benthic microenvironment experienced directly at induction of settlement, and highlight transcription as a mechanism that can mediate between larval and postlarval experiences. For new recruits into an abalone population, metamorphosis clearly does not represent a new transcriptional beginning.

  9. Complete genome sequence of a marine roseophage provides evidence into the evolution of gene transfer agents in alphaproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sijun; Zhang, Yongyu; Chen, Feng; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2011-01-01

    Roseophage RDJLΦ1 is a siphovirus isolated from South China Sea on Roseobacter denitrificans OCh114. Its virion encapsulates 62.7 kb genome that encodes 87 gene products. RDJLΦ1 shares similar genome organization and gene content with the marine bacteriophage ΦJL001 and Pseudomonas phages YuA and M6, which are different from those of typical λ- or Mu-like phages. Four hallmark genes (ORFs 81 to 84) of RDJLΦ1 were highly homologous to RcGTA-like genes 12 to 15. The largest gene (ORF 84) was predicted to encode a tail fibre protein that could be involved in host recognition. Extended phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses based on 77 RcGTA-like element-containing bacterial genomes revealed that RcGTA-like genes 12 to 15 together appear to be a conserved modular element that could also be found in some phage or prophage genomes. Our study suggests that RcGTA-like genes-containing phages and prophages and complete RcGTAs possibly descended from a same prophage ancestor that had diverged and then evolved vertically. The complete genome of RDJLΦ1 provides evidence into the hypothesis that extant RcGTA may be a prophage remnant.

  10. Gene flow despite complex Robertsonian fusions among rock-wallaby (Petrogale) species.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sally; Moritz, Craig; Eldridge, Mark D B

    2015-10-01

    Complex Robertsonian rearrangements, with shared arms in different fusions, are expected to prevent gene flow between hybrids through missegregation during meiosis. Here, we estimate gene flow between recently diverged and chromosomally diverse rock-wallabies (Petrogale) to test for this form of chromosomal speciation. Contrary to expectations, we observe relatively high admixture among species with complex fusions. Our results reinforce the need to consider alternative roles of chromosome change, together with genic divergence, in driving speciation.

  11. Gene flow and competitive exclusion of avian influenza A virus in natural reservoir hosts.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Justin; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Holmes, Edward C; Smith, Gavin J D; Guan, Yi

    2009-08-01

    Geographical separation of host species has shaped the avian influenza A virus gene pool into independently evolving Eurasian and American lineages, although phylogenetic evidence for gene flow and reassortment indicates that these lineages also mix on occasion. While the evolutionary dynamics of the avian influenza gene pool have been described, the consequences of gene flow on virus evolution and population structure in this system have not been investigated. Here we show that viral gene flow from Eurasia has led to the replacement of endemic avian influenza viruses in North America, likely through competition for susceptible hosts. This competition is characterized by changes in rates of nucleotide substitution and selection pressures. However, the discontinuous distribution of susceptible hosts may produce long periods of co-circulation of competing virus strains before lineage extinction occurs. These results also suggest that viral competition for host resources may be an important mechanism in disease emergence.

  12. Gene flow and demographic history of leopards (Panthera pardus) in the central Indian highlands

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Trishna; Sharma, Sandeep; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wood, Thomas C; Panwar, Hemendra S; Seidensticker, John

    2013-01-01

    Gene flow is a critical ecological process that must be maintained in order to counteract the detrimental effects of genetic drift in subdivided populations, with conservation benefits ranging from promoting the persistence of small populations to spreading adaptive traits in changing environments. We evaluated historical and contemporary gene flow and effective population sizes of leopards in a landscape in central India using noninvasive sampling. Despite the dramatic changes in land-use patterns in this landscape through recent times, we did not detect any signs that the leopard populations have been through a genetic bottleneck, and they appear to have maintained migration–drift equilibrium. We found that historical levels of gene flow (mean mh = 0.07) were significantly higher than contemporary levels (mean mc = 0.03), and populations with large effective population sizes (Satpura and Kanha Tiger Reserves) are the larger exporters of migrants at both timescales. The greatest decline in historical versus contemporary gene flow is between pairs of reserves that are currently not connected by forest corridors (i.e., Melghat-Pench mh − mc = 0.063; and Kanha-Satpura mh − mc = 0.054). We attribute this reduction in gene flow to accelerated fragmentation and habitat alteration in the landscape over the past few centuries, and suggest protection of forest corridors to maintain gene flow in this landscape. PMID:24062803

  13. Quantitating and dating recent gene flow between European and East Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Qin, Pengfei; Zhou, Ying; Lou, Haiyi; Lu, Dongsheng; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Yuchen; Jin, Li; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-04-02

    Historical records indicate that extensive cultural, commercial and technological interaction occurred between European and Asian populations. What have been the biological consequences of these contacts in terms of gene flow? We systematically estimated gene flow between Eurasian groups using genome-wide polymorphisms from 34 populations representing Europeans, East Asians, and Central/South Asians. We identified recent gene flow between Europeans and Asians in most populations we studied, including East Asians and Northwestern Europeans, which are normally considered to be non-admixed populations. In addition we quantitatively estimated the extent of this gene flow using two statistical approaches, and dated admixture events based on admixture linkage disequilibrium. Our results indicate that most genetic admixtures occurred between 2,400 and 310 years ago and show the admixture proportions to be highly correlated with geographic locations, with the highest admixture proportions observed in Central Asia and the lowest in East Asia and Northwestern Europe. Interestingly, we observed a North-to-South decline of European gene flow in East Asians, suggesting a northern path of European gene flow diffusing into East Asian populations. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of the history of human migration and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped the genetic structure of populations in Eurasia.

  14. Contrasting historical and recent gene flow among African buffalo herds in the Caprivi Strip of Namibia.

    PubMed

    Epps, Clinton W; Castillo, Jessica A; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; du Preez, Pierre; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Jago, Mark; Naidoo, Robin

    2013-03-01

    Population genetic structure is often used to infer population connectivity, but genetic structure may largely reflect historical rather than recent processes. We contrasted genetic structure with recent gene-flow estimates among 6 herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Caprivi Strip, Namibia, using 134 individuals genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. We tested whether historical and recent gene flows were influenced by distance, potential barriers (rivers), or landscape resistance (distance from water). We also tested at what scales individuals were more related than expected by chance. Genetic structure across the Caprivi Strip was weak, indicating that historically, gene flow was strong and was not affected by distance, barriers, or landscape resistance. Our analysis of simulated data suggested that genetic structure would be unlikely to reflect human disturbances in the last 10-20 generations (75-150 years) because of slow predicted rates of genetic drift, but recent gene-flow estimates would be affected. Recent gene-flow estimates were not consistently affected by rivers or distance to water but showed that isolation by distance appears to be developing. Average relatedness estimates among individuals exceeded random expectations only within herds. We conclude that historically, African buffalo moved freely throughout the Caprivi Strip, whereas recent gene flow has been more restricted. Our findings support efforts to maintain the connectivity of buffalo herds across this region and demonstrate the utility of contrasting genetic inferences from different time scales.

  15. Numerical investigation of the flow in axial water turbines and marine propellers with scale-resolving simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgut, Mitja; Jošt, Dragica; Nobile, Enrico; Škerlavaj, Aljaž

    2015-11-01

    The accurate prediction of the performances of axial water turbines and naval propellers is a challenging task, of great practical relevance. In this paper a numerical prediction strategy, based on the combination of a trusted CFD solver and a calibrated mass transfer model, is applied to the turbulent flow in axial turbines and around a model scale naval propeller, under non-cavitating and cavitating conditions. Some selected results for axial water turbines and a marine propeller, and in particular the advantages, in terms of accuracy and fidelity, of ScaleResolving Simulations (SRS), like SAS (Scale Adaptive Simulation) and Zonal-LES (ZLES) compared to standard RANS approaches, are presented. Efficiency prediction for a Kaplan and a bulb turbine was significantly improved by use of the SAS SST model in combination with the ZLES in the draft tube. Size of cavitation cavity and sigma break curve for Kaplan turbine were successfully predicted with SAS model in combination with robust high resolution scheme, while for mass transfer the Zwart model with calibrated constants were used. The results obtained for a marine propeller in non-uniform inflow, under cavitating conditions, compare well with available experimental measurements, and proved that a mass transfer model, previously calibrated for RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes), can be successfully applied also within the SRS approaches.

  16. Experimental and computational analysis of a novel flow channel to assess the adhesion strength of sessile marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Dimartino, Simone; Mather, Anton V.; Alestra, Tommaso; Nawada, Suhas; Haber, Meir

    2015-01-01

    Bioadhesives produced by marine macroalgae represent a potential source of inspiration for the development of water-resistant adhesives. Assessing their adhesion strength, however, remains difficult owing to low volumes of adhesive material produced, low solubility and rapid curing time. These difficulties can be circumvented by testing the adhesion strength of macroalgae propagules attached to a substrate. In this paper, we present a simple, novel flow channel used to test the adhesion strength of the germlings of the fucalean alga Hormosira banksii to four substrates of biomedical relevance (PMMA, agar, gelatin and gelatin + lipid). The adhesion strength of H. banksii germlings was found to increase in a time-dependent manner, with minimal adhesion success after a settlement period of 6 h and maximum adhesion strength achieved 24 h after initial settlement. Adhesion success increased most dramatically between 6 and 12 h settlement time, while no additional increase in adhesion strength was recorded for settlement times over 24 h. No significant difference in adhesion strength to the various substrates was observed. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to estimate the influence of fluid velocity and germling density on drag force acting on the settled organisms. CFD modelling showed that, on average, the drag force decreased with increasing germling number, suggesting that germlings would benefit from gregarious settlement behaviour. Collectively, our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms allowing benthic marine organisms to thrive in hydrodynamically stressful environments and provide useful insights for further investigations. PMID:25657838

  17. Experimental and computational analysis of a novel flow channel to assess the adhesion strength of sessile marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Dimartino, Simone; Mather, Anton V; Alestra, Tommaso; Nawada, Suhas; Haber, Meir

    2015-02-01

    Bioadhesives produced by marine macroalgae represent a potential source of inspiration for the development of water-resistant adhesives. Assessing their adhesion strength, however, remains difficult owing to low volumes of adhesive material produced, low solubility and rapid curing time. These difficulties can be circumvented by testing the adhesion strength of macroalgae propagules attached to a substrate. In this paper, we present a simple, novel flow channel used to test the adhesion strength of the germlings of the fucalean alga Hormosira banksii to four substrates of biomedical relevance (PMMA, agar, gelatin and gelatin + lipid). The adhesion strength of H. banksii germlings was found to increase in a time-dependent manner, with minimal adhesion success after a settlement period of 6 h and maximum adhesion strength achieved 24 h after initial settlement. Adhesion success increased most dramatically between 6 and 12 h settlement time, while no additional increase in adhesion strength was recorded for settlement times over 24 h. No significant difference in adhesion strength to the various substrates was observed. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to estimate the influence of fluid velocity and germling density on drag force acting on the settled organisms. CFD modelling showed that, on average, the drag force decreased with increasing germling number, suggesting that germlings would benefit from gregarious settlement behaviour. Collectively, our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms allowing benthic marine organisms to thrive in hydrodynamically stressful environments and provide useful insights for further investigations.

  18. Experimental and computational analysis of a novel flow channel to assess the adhesion strength of sessile marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Dimartino, Simone; Mather, Anton V; Alestra, Tommaso; Nawada, Suhas; Haber, Meir

    2015-02-01

    Bioadhesives produced by marine macroalgae represent a potential source of inspiration for the development of water-resistant adhesives. Assessing their adhesion strength, however, remains difficult owing to low volumes of adhesive material produced, low solubility and rapid curing time. These difficulties can be circumvented by testing the adhesion strength of macroalgae propagules attached to a substrate. In this paper, we present a simple, novel flow channel used to test the adhesion strength of the germlings of the fucalean alga Hormosira banksii to four substrates of biomedical relevance (PMMA, agar, gelatin and gelatin + lipid). The adhesion strength of H. banksii germlings was found to increase in a time-dependent manner, with minimal adhesion success after a settlement period of 6 h and maximum adhesion strength achieved 24 h after initial settlement. Adhesion success increased most dramatically between 6 and 12 h settlement time, while no additional increase in adhesion strength was recorded for settlement times over 24 h. No significant difference in adhesion strength to the various substrates was observed. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to estimate the influence of fluid velocity and germling density on drag force acting on the settled organisms. CFD modelling showed that, on average, the drag force decreased with increasing germling number, suggesting that germlings would benefit from gregarious settlement behaviour. Collectively, our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms allowing benthic marine organisms to thrive in hydrodynamically stressful environments and provide useful insights for further investigations. PMID:25657838

  19. Marine Heat Flow Measurements of the Northern and Southern Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antriasian, A. M.; Harris, R. N.; Trehu, A. M.; Henrys, S. A.; Gorman, A. R.; Lauer, R. M.; Phrampus, B. J.; Colella, H.; Baker, D.; Rocco, N.

    2015-12-01

    The 120 Ma Hikurangi Plateau, a large igneous province on the Pacific plate, is subducting below the Australian plate at the Hikurangi margin. Large along-strike variations in apparent interseismic coupling and in the depth range over which slow slip occurs provide the opportunity to better understand which factors affect the slip behavior along the megathrust. Prior to our heat flow survey the thermal regime of the incoming Hikurangi Plateau was largely unknown. In May and June, 2015, we collected 196 seafloor heat flow values in a series of transects consisting of closely-spaced measurements with a 3.5 m "violin-bow" type probe. Heat flow measurements are located around the northern and southern Hikurangi margin and are collocated with seismic reflection lines. The background heat flow on the incoming plate is 49 ± 7, and 52 ± 9, mW/m2 for the northern and southern areas, respectively. These values are consistent with cooling plate models for this age of oceanic crust and suggest no difference in the basal heat flux between these two areas. However, heat flow transects in the northern Hikurangi trough show clear evidence for crustal fluid flow associated with the basement relief, while heat flow transects along the southern Hikurangi trough do not show evidence for crustal fluid flow, which may be due to a lack of basement relief. We are developing a 2D thermal model for each region to understand the thermal and hydrologic regimes and their influence on clay diagenesis and modes of deformation.

  20. [Treatment of marine-aquaculture effluent by the multi-soil-layer (MSL) system and subsurface flow constructed wetland].

    PubMed

    Song, Ying; Huang, Yu-ting; Ge, Chuan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Zhi-jianz; Luo, An-cheng

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using multi-soil-layer (MSL) system and subsurface flow constructed wetland to treat the wastewater of marine cultured Penaeus vannamei and to determine the suitable process for the local aquaculture wastewater pollution characteristics. In this study, MSL system and four constructed wetland systems with Spartina anglica, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and unplanted system were evaluated for their potentials of pollutants removal capacity. The results showed the average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)+ -N) and nitrate (NO-(3) -N) by MSL system were 80. 38% ± 2. 14% , 68. 14% ± 3.51% , 40.79% ± 3. 10% , 42. 68% ± 2.90% and 54. 19% ± 5. 15% , respectively. Additionally, the ability of pollutants removal of other four wetland systems decreased in the order: Spartina anglica, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and unplanted system. PMID:25518662

  1. [Treatment of marine-aquaculture effluent by the multi-soil-layer (MSL) system and subsurface flow constructed wetland].

    PubMed

    Song, Ying; Huang, Yu-ting; Ge, Chuan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Zhi-jianz; Luo, An-cheng

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using multi-soil-layer (MSL) system and subsurface flow constructed wetland to treat the wastewater of marine cultured Penaeus vannamei and to determine the suitable process for the local aquaculture wastewater pollution characteristics. In this study, MSL system and four constructed wetland systems with Spartina anglica, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and unplanted system were evaluated for their potentials of pollutants removal capacity. The results showed the average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)+ -N) and nitrate (NO-(3) -N) by MSL system were 80. 38% ± 2. 14% , 68. 14% ± 3.51% , 40.79% ± 3. 10% , 42. 68% ± 2.90% and 54. 19% ± 5. 15% , respectively. Additionally, the ability of pollutants removal of other four wetland systems decreased in the order: Spartina anglica, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and unplanted system.

  2. Study on the metal flow of large marine full-fiber crankshaft processed by TR bending-upsetting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhen; Xu, Bin; Sun, Ming-yue; Li, Dian-zhong; Deng, Jun-jiang; He, Ming-jiu

    2013-05-01

    Large marine crankshaft is the heart of medium-speed diesel engine. The TR forming method used to obtain full-fiber workpiece is considerably complex. However, the metal flow behavior during bending-upsetting process, which determines the forming quality, was seldom studied in previous works. In this study, a finite element model (FEM) was established using constitutive model of 42CrMo4 steel and specified boundary conditions. The simulated results has demonstrated that the early filled metal resists the following metal entering the upper cavity, thereby causing the flash on the upper edge and the unfilled defect on the lower edge of the crank-arm. Further analysis has indicated that larger initial angel of the elbow rod θ0 and a good lubrication condition between dies and workpiece can effectively decrease the volume of flash and eliminate the unfilled defect on the final product.

  3. Gene Flow and the Measurement of Dispersal in Plant Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Marc S.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews methods of estimating pollen and seed dispersals and discusses the extent and frequency of gene exchange within and between populations. Offers suggestions for designing exercises suitable for estimating dispersal distances in natural plant populations. (ML)

  4. Bears in a forest of gene trees: phylogenetic inference is complicated by incomplete lineage sorting and gene flow.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Verena E; Bidon, Tobias; Hailer, Frank; Rodi, Julia L; Fain, Steven R; Janke, Axel

    2014-08-01

    Ursine bears are a mammalian subfamily that comprises six morphologically and ecologically distinct extant species. Previous phylogenetic analyses of concatenated nuclear genes could not resolve all relationships among bears, and appeared to conflict with the mitochondrial phylogeny. Evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and introgression can cause gene tree discordance and complicate phylogenetic inferences, but are not accounted for in phylogenetic analyses of concatenated data. We generated a high-resolution data set of autosomal introns from several individuals per species and of Y-chromosomal markers. Incorporating intraspecific variability in coalescence-based phylogenetic and gene flow estimation approaches, we traced the genealogical history of individual alleles. Considerable heterogeneity among nuclear loci and discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were found. A species tree with divergence time estimates indicated that ursine bears diversified within less than 2 My. Consistent with a complex branching order within a clade of Asian bear species, we identified unidirectional gene flow from Asian black into sloth bears. Moreover, gene flow detected from brown into American black bears can explain the conflicting placement of the American black bear in mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. These results highlight that both incomplete lineage sorting and introgression are prominent evolutionary forces even on time scales up to several million years. Complex evolutionary patterns are not adequately captured by strictly bifurcating models, and can only be fully understood when analyzing multiple independently inherited loci in a coalescence framework. Phylogenetic incongruence among gene trees hence needs to be recognized as a biologically meaningful signal.

  5. Bears in a Forest of Gene Trees: Phylogenetic Inference Is Complicated by Incomplete Lineage Sorting and Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Kutschera, Verena E.; Bidon, Tobias; Hailer, Frank; Rodi, Julia L.; Fain, Steven R.; Janke, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Ursine bears are a mammalian subfamily that comprises six morphologically and ecologically distinct extant species. Previous phylogenetic analyses of concatenated nuclear genes could not resolve all relationships among bears, and appeared to conflict with the mitochondrial phylogeny. Evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and introgression can cause gene tree discordance and complicate phylogenetic inferences, but are not accounted for in phylogenetic analyses of concatenated data. We generated a high-resolution data set of autosomal introns from several individuals per species and of Y-chromosomal markers. Incorporating intraspecific variability in coalescence-based phylogenetic and gene flow estimation approaches, we traced the genealogical history of individual alleles. Considerable heterogeneity among nuclear loci and discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were found. A species tree with divergence time estimates indicated that ursine bears diversified within less than 2 My. Consistent with a complex branching order within a clade of Asian bear species, we identified unidirectional gene flow from Asian black into sloth bears. Moreover, gene flow detected from brown into American black bears can explain the conflicting placement of the American black bear in mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. These results highlight that both incomplete lineage sorting and introgression are prominent evolutionary forces even on time scales up to several million years. Complex evolutionary patterns are not adequately captured by strictly bifurcating models, and can only be fully understood when analyzing multiple independently inherited loci in a coalescence framework. Phylogenetic incongruence among gene trees hence needs to be recognized as a biologically meaningful signal. PMID:24903145

  6. Bears in a forest of gene trees: phylogenetic inference is complicated by incomplete lineage sorting and gene flow.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Verena E; Bidon, Tobias; Hailer, Frank; Rodi, Julia L; Fain, Steven R; Janke, Axel

    2014-08-01

    Ursine bears are a mammalian subfamily that comprises six morphologically and ecologically distinct extant species. Previous phylogenetic analyses of concatenated nuclear genes could not resolve all relationships among bears, and appeared to conflict with the mitochondrial phylogeny. Evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and introgression can cause gene tree discordance and complicate phylogenetic inferences, but are not accounted for in phylogenetic analyses of concatenated data. We generated a high-resolution data set of autosomal introns from several individuals per species and of Y-chromosomal markers. Incorporating intraspecific variability in coalescence-based phylogenetic and gene flow estimation approaches, we traced the genealogical history of individual alleles. Considerable heterogeneity among nuclear loci and discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were found. A species tree with divergence time estimates indicated that ursine bears diversified within less than 2 My. Consistent with a complex branching order within a clade of Asian bear species, we identified unidirectional gene flow from Asian black into sloth bears. Moreover, gene flow detected from brown into American black bears can explain the conflicting placement of the American black bear in mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. These results highlight that both incomplete lineage sorting and introgression are prominent evolutionary forces even on time scales up to several million years. Complex evolutionary patterns are not adequately captured by strictly bifurcating models, and can only be fully understood when analyzing multiple independently inherited loci in a coalescence framework. Phylogenetic incongruence among gene trees hence needs to be recognized as a biologically meaningful signal. PMID:24903145

  7. Patterns of gene flow between crop and wild carrot, Daucus carota (Apiaceae) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of gene flow between crops and their wild relatives have implications for both management practices for farming and breeding as well as understanding the risk of transgene escape. These types of studies may also yield insight into population dynamics and the evolutionary consequences of gene...

  8. Population genetic structure of the striped silverside, Atherinomorus endrachtensis (Atherinidae, Atheriniformes, Teleostei), inhabiting marine lakes and adjacent lagoons in Palau: marine lakes are "Islands" for marine species.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Ryo O; Chiba, Satoru N; Goto, Tadasuke V; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    Although evidence for the evolution of terrestrial species on islands continues to rapidly accumulate, little is known about the evolution of marine species in geographically isolated environments such as islands as ocean currents often facilitate gene flow among populations. In this study, we focused on marine lakes of the Palau Islands, which are considered to be true analogues of terrestrial islands for marine species. To examine evolutionary processes in marine lakes, we conducted population genetic analyses on marine lake and lagoon populations of the striped silverside, Atherinomorus endrachtensis, using two mitochondrial DNA markers differing in evolutionary rate, the cytochrome b gene and the control region. The analyses revealed that the amount of genetic diversity of marine lake populations is much lower than that of lagoon populations and high levels of genetic differentiation occur among marine lake and lagoon populations. The present study has shown that marine lake populations have been completely isolated and have differentiated from lagoon populations, and each marine lake population is experiencing different evolutionary processes. These findings clearly demonstrate that marine lakes are excellent environments for the evolutionary study of marine species.

  9. Plastid 16S rRNA gene diversity among eukaryotic picophytoplankton sorted by flow cytometry from the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao Li; Lepère, Cécile; Scanlan, David J; Vaulot, Daniel

    2011-04-28

    The genetic diversity of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes was investigated in the South East Pacific Ocean. Genetic libraries of the plastid 16S rRNA gene were constructed on picoeukaryote populations sorted by flow cytometry, using two different primer sets, OXY107F/OXY1313R commonly used to amplify oxygenic organisms, and PLA491F/OXY1313R, biased towards plastids of marine algae. Surprisingly, the two sets revealed quite different photosynthetic picoeukaryote diversity patterns, which were moreover different from what we previously reported using the 18S rRNA nuclear gene as a marker. The first 16S primer set revealed many sequences related to Pelagophyceae and Dictyochophyceae, the second 16S primer set was heavily biased toward Prymnesiophyceae, while 18S sequences were dominated by Prasinophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Haptophyta. Primer mismatches with major algal lineages is probably one reason behind this discrepancy. However, other reasons, such as DNA accessibility or gene copy numbers, may be also critical. Based on plastid 16S rRNA gene sequences, the structure of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes varied along the BIOSOPE transect vertically and horizontally. In oligotrophic regions, Pelagophyceae, Chrysophyceae, and Prymnesiophyceae dominated. Pelagophyceae were prevalent at the DCM depth and Chrysophyceae at the surface. In mesotrophic regions Pelagophyceae were still important but Chlorophyta contribution increased. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new clade of Prasinophyceae (clade 16S-IX), which seems to be restricted to hyper-oligotrophic stations. Our data suggest that a single gene marker, even as widely used as 18S rRNA, provides a biased view of eukaryotic communities and that the use of several markers is necessary to obtain a complete image.

  10. Plastid 16S rRNA Gene Diversity among Eukaryotic Picophytoplankton Sorted by Flow Cytometry from the South Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiao Li; Lepère, Cécile; Scanlan, David J.; Vaulot, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The genetic diversity of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes was investigated in the South East Pacific Ocean. Genetic libraries of the plastid 16S rRNA gene were constructed on picoeukaryote populations sorted by flow cytometry, using two different primer sets, OXY107F/OXY1313R commonly used to amplify oxygenic organisms, and PLA491F/OXY1313R, biased towards plastids of marine algae. Surprisingly, the two sets revealed quite different photosynthetic picoeukaryote diversity patterns, which were moreover different from what we previously reported using the 18S rRNA nuclear gene as a marker. The first 16S primer set revealed many sequences related to Pelagophyceae and Dictyochophyceae, the second 16S primer set was heavily biased toward Prymnesiophyceae, while 18S sequences were dominated by Prasinophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Haptophyta. Primer mismatches with major algal lineages is probably one reason behind this discrepancy. However, other reasons, such as DNA accessibility or gene copy numbers, may be also critical. Based on plastid 16S rRNA gene sequences, the structure of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes varied along the BIOSOPE transect vertically and horizontally. In oligotrophic regions, Pelagophyceae, Chrysophyceae, and Prymnesiophyceae dominated. Pelagophyceae were prevalent at the DCM depth and Chrysophyceae at the surface. In mesotrophic regions Pelagophyceae were still important but Chlorophyta contribution increased. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new clade of Prasinophyceae (clade 16S-IX), which seems to be restricted to hyper-oligotrophic stations. Our data suggest that a single gene marker, even as widely used as 18S rRNA, provides a biased view of eukaryotic communities and that the use of several markers is necessary to obtain a complete image. PMID:21552558

  11. Effect of pollinator abundance on self-fertilization and gene flow: application to GM Canola.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin; Hayter, Katrina; Cresswell, James E

    2007-10-01

    Cross-pollination from fields of transgenic crops is of great public concern. Although cross-pollination in commercial canola (Brassica napus) fields has been empirically measured, field trials are expensive and do not identify the causes of cross-pollination. Therefore, theoretical models can be valuable because they can provide estimates of cross-pollination at any given site and time. We present a general analytical model of field-to-field gene flow due to the following competing mechanisms: the wind, bees, and autonomous pollination. We parameterize the model for the particular case of field-to-field cross-pollination of genetically modified (GM) canola via the wind and via bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and honey bees (Apis mellifera). We make extensive use of the large data set of bee densities collected during the recent U.K. Farm Scale Evaluations. We predict that canola approaches almost full seed set without pollinators and that autonomous pollination is responsible for > or = 25% of seed set, irrespective of pollinator abundance. We do not predict the relative contribution of bees vs. the wind in landscape-scale gene flow in canola. However, under model assumptions, we predict that the maximum field-to-field gene flow due to bumble bees is 0.04% and 0.13% below the current EU limit for adventitious GM presence for winter- and spring-sown canola, respectively. We predict that gene flow due to bees is approximately 3.1 times higher at 20% compared to 100% male-fertility, and due to the wind, 1.3 times higher at 20% compared to 100% male-fertility, for both winter- and spring-sown canola. Bumble bee-mediated gene flow is approximately 2.7 times higher and wind-mediated gene flow approximately 1.7 times lower in spring-sown than in winter-sown canola, regardless of the degree of male-sterility. The model of cross-pollination due to the wind most closely predicted three previously published observations: field-to-field gene flow is low; gene flow increases with

  12. Finding immune gene expression differences induced by marine bacterial pathogens in the Deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, E.; Queiroz, A.; Serrão Santos, R.; Bettencourt, R.

    2013-11-01

    The deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus lives in a natural environment characterised by extreme conditions of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, pH, high concentrations of heavy metals, methane and hydrogen sulphide. The deep-sea vent biological systems represent thus the opportunity to study and provide new insights into the basic physiological principles that govern the defense mechanisms in vent animals and to understand how they cope with microbial infections. Hence, the importance of understanding this animal's innate defense mechanisms, by examining its differential immune gene expressions toward different pathogenic agents. In the present study, B. azoricus mussels were infected with single suspensions of marine bacterial pathogens, consisting of Vibrio splendidus, Vibrio alginolyticus, or Vibrio anguillarum, and a pool of these Vibrio bacteria. Flavobacterium suspensions were also used as a non-pathogenic bacterium. Gene expression analyses were carried out using gill samples from infected animals by means of quantitative-Polymerase Chain Reaction aimed at targeting several immune genes. We also performed SDS-PAGE protein analyses from the same gill tissues. We concluded that there are different levels of immune gene expression between the 12 h to 24 h exposure times to various bacterial suspensions. Our results from qPCR demonstrated a general pattern of gene expression, decreasing from 12 h over 24 h post-infection. Among the bacteria tested, Flavobacterium is the bacterium inducing the highest gene expression level in 12 h post-infections animals. The 24 h infected animals revealed, however, greater gene expression levels, using V. splendidus as the infectious agent. The SDS-PAGE analysis also pointed at protein profile differences between 12 h and 24 h, particularly evident for proteins of 18-20 KDa molecular mass, where most dissimilarity was found. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that immune genes, as well as experimental

  13. Finding immune gene expression differences induced by marine bacterial pathogens in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, E.; Queiroz, A.; Serrão Santos, R.; Bettencourt, R.

    2013-02-01

    The deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus lives in a natural environment characterized by extreme conditions of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, pH, high concentrations of heavy metals, methane and hydrogen sulphide. The deep-sea vent biological systems represent thus the opportunity to study and provide new insights into the basic physiological principles that govern the defense mechanisms in vent animals and to understand how they cope with microbial infections. Hence, the importance of understanding this animal's innate defense mechanisms, by examining its differential immune gene expressions toward different pathogenic agents. In the present study, B. azoricus mussels were infected with single suspensions of marine bacterial pathogens, consisting of Vibrio splendidus, Vibrio alginolyticus, or Vibrio anguillarum, and a pool of these Vibrio strains. Flavobacterium suspensions were also used as an irrelevant bacterium. Gene expression analyses were carried out using gill samples from animals dissected at 12 h and 24 h post-infection times by means of quantitative-Polymerase Chain Reaction aimed at targeting several immune genes. We also performed SDS-PAGE protein analyses from the same gill tissues. We concluded that there are different levels of immune gene expression between the 12 h and 24 h exposure times to various bacterial suspensions. Our results from qPCR demonstrated a general pattern of gene expression, decreasing from 12 h over 24 h post-infection. Among the bacteria tested, Flavobacterium is the microorganism species inducing the highest gene expression level in 12 h post-infections animals. The 24 h infected animals revealed, however, greater gene expression levels, using V. splendidus as the infectious agent. The SDS-PAGE analysis also pointed at protein profile differences between 12 h and 24 h, particularly around a protein area, of 18 KDa molecular mass, where most dissimilarities were found. Multivariate analyses

  14. Immune gene expression profile of Penaeus monodon in response to marine yeast glucan application and white spot syndrome virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Wilsy; Lowman, Douglas; Antony, Swapna P; Puthumana, Jayesh; Bright Singh, I S; Philip, Rosamma

    2015-04-01

    Immunostimulant potential of eight marine yeast glucans (YG) from Candida parapsilosis R20, Hortaea werneckii R23, Candida spencermartinsiae R28, Candida haemulonii R63, Candida oceani R89, Debaryomyces fabryi R100, Debaryomyces nepalensis R305 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii R340 were tested against WSSV challenge in Penaeus monodon post larvae (PL). Structural characterization of these marine yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan. PL were fed 0.2% glucan incorporated diet once in seven days for a period of 45 days and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The immunostimulatory activity of yeast glucans were assessed pre- and post-challenge WSSV by analysing the expression profile of six antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5 and 13 immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, caspase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, haemocyanin, peroxinectin, pmCathepsinC, prophenol oxidase (proPO), Rab-7, superoxide dismutase and transglutaminase. Expression of seven WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, thymidine kinase and VP28 were also analysed to detect the presence and intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals post-challenge. The study revealed that yeast glucans (YG) do possess immunostimulatory activity against WSSV and also supported higher survival (40-70 %) post-challenge WSSV. Among the various glucans tested, YG23 showed maximum survival (70.27%), followed by YG20 (66.66%), YG28 (60.97%), YG89 (58.53%), YG100 (54.05%), YG63 (48.64%), YG305 (45.7%) and YG340 (43.24%). PMID:25555812

  15. Gene flow among wild and domesticated almond species: insights from chloroplast and nuclear markers

    PubMed Central

    Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espíndola, Anahí; Joly, Hélène; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean. PMID:25568053

  16. Impact of distinct insect pollinators on gene flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vast majority of fruits and vegetables, together with some hay crops (alfalfa) and some oil-producing crops (canola) are pollinated by insects. However we have little information on how insect pollinators affect the movement of genes via pollen and even less on how distinct insect pollinators ma...

  17. Metagenomic-based study of the phylogenetic and functional gene diversity in Galápagos land and marine iguanas.

    PubMed

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Mao, Yuejian; Ortiz-Kofoed, Shannon; Shah, Rushabh; Cann, Isaac; Mackie, Roderick I

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a metagenome-based analysis of the fecal samples from the macrophytic algae-consuming marine iguana (MI; Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and terrestrial biomass-consuming land iguanas (LI; Conolophus spp.) was conducted. Phylogenetic affiliations of the fecal microbiome were more similar between both iguanas than to other mammalian herbivorous hosts. However, functional gene diversities in both MI and LI iguana hosts differed in relation to the diet, where the MI fecal microbiota had a functional diversity that clustered apart from the other terrestrial-biomass consuming reptilian and mammalian hosts. A further examination of the carbohydrate-degrading genes revealed that several of the prevalent glycosyl hydrolases (GH), glycosyl transferases (GT), carbohydrate binding modules (CBM), and carbohydrate esterases (CE) gene classes were conserved among all examined herbivorous hosts, reiterating the important roles these genes play in the breakdown and metabolism of herbivorous diets. Genes encoding some classes of carbohydrate-degrading families, including GH2, GH13, GT2, GT4, CBM50, CBM48, CE4, and CE11, as well as genes associated with sulfur metabolism and dehalogenation, were highly enriched or unique to the MI. In contrast, gene sequences that relate to archaeal methanogenesis were detected only in LI fecal microbiome, and genes coding for GH13, GH66, GT2, GT4, CBM50, CBM13, CE4, and CE8 carbohydrate active enzymes were highly abundant in the LI. Bacterial populations were enriched on various carbohydrates substrates (e.g., glucose, arabinose, xylose). The majority of the enriched bacterial populations belong to genera Clostridium spp. and Enterococcus spp. that likely accounted for the high prevalence of GH13 and GH2, as well as the GT families (e.g., GT2, GT4, GT28, GT35, and GT51) that were ubiquitously present in the fecal microbiota of all herbivorous hosts.

  18. Adaptive radiation by waves of gene transfer leads to fine-scale resource partitioning in marine microbes

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Arevalo, Philip; Datta, Manoshi S.; Yu, Xiaoqian; Corzett, Christopher H.; Henschel, Andreas; Preheim, Sarah P.; Timberlake, Sonia; Alm, Eric J.; Polz, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive radiations are important drivers of niche filling, since they rapidly adapt a single clade of organisms to ecological opportunities. Although thought to be common for animals and plants, adaptive radiations have remained difficult to document for microbes in the wild. Here we describe a recent adaptive radiation leading to fine-scale ecophysiological differentiation in the degradation of an algal glycan in a clade of closely related marine bacteria. Horizontal gene transfer is the primary driver in the diversification of the pathway leading to several ecophysiologically differentiated Vibrionaceae populations adapted to different physical forms of alginate. Pathway architecture is predictive of function and ecology, underscoring that horizontal gene transfer without extensive regulatory changes can rapidly assemble fully functional pathways in microbes. PMID:27653556

  19. Modeling environmental effects on the size-structured energy flow through marine ecosystems. Part 2: Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, Olivier; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Faugeras, Blaise; Ben Ari, Tamara; Marsac, Francis

    2007-09-01

    Numerical simulations using a physiologically-based model of marine ecosystem size spectrum are conducted to study the influence of primary production and temperature on energy flux through marine ecosystems. In stable environmental conditions, the model converges toward a stationary linear log-log size-spectrum. In very productive ecosystems, the model predicts that small size classes are depleted by predation, leading to a curved size-spectrum. It is shown that the absolute level of primary production does not affect the slope of the stationary size-spectrum but has a nonlinear effect on its intercept and hence on the total biomass of consumer organisms (the carrying capacity). Three domains are distinguished: at low primary production, total biomass is independent from production changes because loss processes dominate dissipative processes (biological work); at high production, ecosystem biomass is proportional to primary production because dissipation dominates losses; an intermediate transition domain characterizes mid-production ecosystems. Our results enlighten the paradox of the very high ecosystem biomass/primary production ratios which are observed in poor oceanic regions. Thus, maximal dissipation (least action and low ecosystem biomass/primary production ratios) is reached at high primary production levels when the ecosystem is efficient in transferring energy from small sizes to large sizes. Conversely, least dissipation (most action and high ecosystem biomass/primary production ratios) characterizes the simulated ecosystem at low primary production levels when it is not efficient in dissipating energy. Increasing temperature causes enhanced predation mortality and decreases the intercept of the stationary size spectrum, i.e., the total ecosystem biomass. Total biomass varies as the inverse of the Arrhenius coefficient in the loss domain. This approximation is no longer true in the dissipation domain where nonlinear dissipation processes dominate over

  20. The genomic landscape underlying phenotypic integrity in the face of gene flow in crows.

    PubMed

    Poelstra, J W; Vijay, N; Bossu, C M; Lantz, H; Ryll, B; Müller, I; Baglione, V; Unneberg, P; Wikelski, M; Grabherr, M G; Wolf, J B W

    2014-06-20

    The importance, extent, and mode of interspecific gene flow for the evolution of species has long been debated. Characterization of genomic differentiation in a classic example of hybridization between all-black carrion crows and gray-coated hooded crows identified genome-wide introgression extending far beyond the morphological hybrid zone. Gene expression divergence was concentrated in pigmentation genes expressed in gray versus black feather follicles. Only a small number of narrow genomic islands exhibited resistance to gene flow. One prominent genomic region (<2 megabases) harbored 81 of all 82 fixed differences (of 8.4 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms in total) linking genes involved in pigmentation and in visual perception-a genomic signal reflecting color-mediated prezygotic isolation. Thus, localized genomic selection can cause marked heterogeneity in introgression landscapes while maintaining phenotypic divergence. PMID:24948738

  1. The genomic landscape underlying phenotypic integrity in the face of gene flow in crows.

    PubMed

    Poelstra, J W; Vijay, N; Bossu, C M; Lantz, H; Ryll, B; Müller, I; Baglione, V; Unneberg, P; Wikelski, M; Grabherr, M G; Wolf, J B W

    2014-06-20

    The importance, extent, and mode of interspecific gene flow for the evolution of species has long been debated. Characterization of genomic differentiation in a classic example of hybridization between all-black carrion crows and gray-coated hooded crows identified genome-wide introgression extending far beyond the morphological hybrid zone. Gene expression divergence was concentrated in pigmentation genes expressed in gray versus black feather follicles. Only a small number of narrow genomic islands exhibited resistance to gene flow. One prominent genomic region (<2 megabases) harbored 81 of all 82 fixed differences (of 8.4 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms in total) linking genes involved in pigmentation and in visual perception-a genomic signal reflecting color-mediated prezygotic isolation. Thus, localized genomic selection can cause marked heterogeneity in introgression landscapes while maintaining phenotypic divergence.

  2. Evaluation of gemfibrozil effects on a marine fish (Sparus aurata) combining gene expression with conventional endocrine and biochemical endpoints.

    PubMed

    Teles, M; Fierro-Castro, C; Na-Phatthalung, P; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Soares, A M V M; Tort, L; Oliveira, M

    2016-11-15

    The information on the potential hazardous effects of gemfibrozil (GEM) on marine fish is extremely scarce. In the current study, molecular, endocrine and biochemical parameters were assessed in Sparus aurata after 96h waterborne exposure to a GEM concentration range. Hepatic mRNA levels of target genes known to be regulated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (pparα) in mammals, such as apolipoprotein AI (apoa1) and lipoprotein (lpl) were significantly increased, without a concomitant activation of the ppar pathways. GEM (15μgL(-1)) induced an upregulation in mRNA levels of interleukin 1β (il1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (tnfα) and caspase 3 (casp3), suggesting an activation of proinflammatory processes in S. aurata liver. However, mRNA levels of genes related with the antioxidant defence system and cell-tissue repair were unaltered under the tested experimental conditions. Higher levels of GEM induced a cortisol rise, an indication that it is recognized as a stressor by S. aurata. Cortisol levels and the mRNA levels of il1β, tnfα and casp3 may be suggested as potential biomarkers of GEM effects in marine fish. PMID:27474849

  3. Doomed pioneers: Gravity-flow deposition and bioturbation in marine oxygen-deficient environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föilmi, Karl B.; Grimm, Kurt A.

    1990-11-01

    Isolated horizons of Thalassinoides and Gyrolithes burrows appear in exclusive association with gravity-flow deposits within sequences of nonbioturbated hernipelagic sedimentary rocks of the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and the Oligocene-Miocene San Gregorio Formation of Baja California. These burrowed levels are not associated with other ichnogenera such as Zoophycos and Chondrites. We infer a causal relation between gravity flow deposition and the presence of Thalassinoides and Gyrolithes and suggest that these gravity flows entrained thalassinidean crustacea. Upon deposition in oxygen-deficient environments, the surviving borrowers reworked substantial quantities of aminated, commonly organic-rich sediments in an environment from which they were previously excluded. The persistence of or the ecologically rapid return to oxygen-depleted conditions limited the survival time and ecological complexity of the transported infaunal dwellers and rendered them doomed pioneers. Ecological and physiological data support this hypothesis: thalassinidean crustacea have the capability to endure turbulent transport and survive up to 5-7 days of anoxia without being severely limited in their biological activities. The accurate recognition of doomed pioneer trace-fossil assemblages as ephemeral ecological phenomena in otherwise laminated successions may contribute to a better understanding and interpretation of paleo-oxygen levels and basin history.

  4. Pollinator sharing and gene flow among closely related sympatric dioecious fig taxa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Cannon, Charles H; Chen, Jin

    2016-04-13

    Hybridization and insect pollination are widely believed to increase rates of plant diversification. The extreme diversity of figs (Ficus) and their obligate pollinators, fig wasps (Agaonidae), provides an opportunity to examine the possible role of pollinator-mediated hybridization in plant diversification. Increasing evidence suggests that pollinator sharing and hybridization occurs among fig taxa, despite relatively strict coevolution with the pollinating wasp. Using five sympatric dioecious fig taxa and their pollinators, we examine the degree of pollinator sharing and inter-taxa gene flow. We experimentally test pollinator preference for floral volatiles, the main host recognition signal, from different figs. All five fig taxa shared pollinators with other taxa, and gene flow occurred between fig taxa within and between sections. Floral volatiles of each taxon attracted more than one pollinator species. Floral volatiles were more similar between closely related figs, which experienced higher levels of pollinator sharing and inter-taxa gene flow. This study demonstrates that pollinator sharing and inter-taxa gene flow occurs among closely related sympatric dioecious fig taxa and that pollinators choose the floral volatiles of multiple fig taxa. The implications of pollinator sharing and inter-taxa gene flow on diversification, occurring even in this highly specialized obligate pollination system, require further study. PMID:27075252

  5. Forest corridors maintain historical gene flow in a tiger metapopulation in the highlands of central India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Dutta, Trishna; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wood, Thomas C; Panwar, Hemendra Singh; Seidensticker, John

    2013-09-22

    Understanding the patterns of gene flow of an endangered species metapopulation occupying a fragmented habitat is crucial for landscape-level conservation planning and devising effective conservation strategies. Tigers (Panthera tigris) are globally endangered and their populations are highly fragmented and exist in a few isolated metapopulations across their range. We used multi-locus genotypic data from 273 individual tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) from four tiger populations of the Satpura-Maikal landscape of central India to determine whether the corridors in this landscape are functional. This 45 000 km(2) landscape contains 17% of India's tiger population and 12% of its tiger habitat. We applied Bayesian and coalescent-based analyses to estimate contemporary and historical gene flow among these populations and to infer their evolutionary history. We found that the tiger metapopulation in central India has high rates of historical and contemporary gene flow. The tests for population history reveal that tigers populated central India about 10 000 years ago. Their population subdivision began about 1000 years ago and accelerated about 200 years ago owing to habitat fragmentation, leading to four spatially separated populations. These four populations have been in migration-drift equilibrium maintained by high gene flow. We found the highest rates of contemporary gene flow in populations that are connected by forest corridors. This information is highly relevant to conservation practitioners and policy makers, because deforestation, road widening and mining are imminent threats to these corridors.

  6. Spatiotemporal analysis of gene flow in Chesapeake Bay Diamondback Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin).

    PubMed

    Converse, Paul E; Kuchta, Shawn R; Roosenburg, Willem M; Henry, Paula F P; Haramis, G Michael; King, Tim L

    2015-12-01

    There is widespread concern regarding the impacts of anthropogenic activities on connectivity among populations of plants and animals, and understanding how contemporary and historical processes shape metapopulation dynamics is crucial for setting appropriate conservation targets. We used genetic data to identify population clusters and quantify gene flow over historical and contemporary time frames in the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin). This species has a long and complicated history with humans, including commercial overharvesting and subsequent translocation events during the early twentieth century. Today, terrapins face threats from habitat loss and mortality in fisheries bycatch. To evaluate population structure and gene flow among Diamondback Terrapin populations in the Chesapeake Bay region, we sampled 617 individuals from 15 localities and screened individuals at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Our goals were to demarcate metapopulation structure, quantify genetic diversity, estimate effective population sizes, and document temporal changes in gene flow. We found that terrapins in the Chesapeake Bay region harbour high levels of genetic diversity and form four populations. Effective population sizes were variable. Among most population comparisons, estimates of historical and contemporary terrapin gene flow were generally low (m ≈ 0.01). However, we detected a substantial increase in contemporary gene flow into Chesapeake Bay from populations outside the bay, as well as between two populations within Chesapeake Bay, possibly as a consequence of translocations during the early twentieth century. Our study shows that inferences across multiple time scales are needed to evaluate population connectivity, especially as recent changes may identify threats to population persistence.

  7. Identifying Loci Under Selection Against Gene Flow in Isolation-with-Migration Models

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Vitor C.; Carneiro, Miguel; Ferrand, Nuno; Hey, Jody

    2013-01-01

    When divergence occurs in the presence of gene flow, there can arise an interesting dynamic in which selection against gene flow, at sites associated with population-specific adaptations or genetic incompatibilities, can cause net gene flow to vary across the genome. Loci linked to sites under selection may experience reduced gene flow and may experience genetic bottlenecks by the action of nearby selective sweeps. Data from histories such as these may be poorly fitted by conventional neutral model approaches to demographic inference, which treat all loci as equally subject to forces of genetic drift and gene flow. To allow for demographic inference in the face of such histories, as well as the identification of loci affected by selection, we developed an isolation-with-migration model that explicitly provides for variation among genomic regions in migration rates and/or rates of genetic drift. The method allows for loci to fall into any of multiple groups, each characterized by a different set of parameters, thus relaxing the assumption that all loci share the same demography. By grouping loci, the method can be applied to data with multiple loci and still have tractable dimensionality and statistical power. We studied the performance of the method using simulated data, and we applied the method to study the divergence of two subspecies of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). PMID:23457232

  8. Is gene flow promoting the reversal of pleistocene divergence in the Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli)?

    PubMed

    Manthey, Joseph D; Klicka, John; Spellman, Garth M

    2012-01-01

    The Pleistocene glacial cycles left a genetic legacy on taxa throughout the world; however, the persistence of genetic lineages that diverged during these cycles is dependent upon levels of gene flow and introgression. The consequences of secondary contact among taxa may reveal new insights into the history of the Pleistocene's genetic legacy. Here, we use phylogeographic methods, using 20 nuclear loci from regional populations, to infer the consequences of secondary contact following divergence in the Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli). Analysis of nuclear data identified two geographically-structured genetic groups, largely concordant with results from a previous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) study. Additionally, the estimated multilocus divergence times indicate a Pleistocene divergence, and are highly concordant with mtDNA. The previous mtDNA study showed a paucity of sympatry between clades, while nuclear patterns of gene flow show highly varied patterns between populations. The observed pattern of gene flow, from coalescent-based analyses, indicates southern populations in both clades exhibit little gene flow within or between clades, while northern populations are experiencing higher gene flow within and between clades. If this pattern were to persist, it is possible the historical legacy of Pleistocene divergence may be preserved in the southern populations only, and the northern populations would become a genetically diverse hybrid species. PMID:23152877

  9. Forest corridors maintain historical gene flow in a tiger metapopulation in the highlands of central India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sandeep; Dutta, Trishna; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Wood, Thomas C.; Panwar, Hemendra Singh; Seidensticker, John

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the patterns of gene flow of an endangered species metapopulation occupying a fragmented habitat is crucial for landscape-level conservation planning and devising effective conservation strategies. Tigers (Panthera tigris) are globally endangered and their populations are highly fragmented and exist in a few isolated metapopulations across their range. We used multi-locus genotypic data from 273 individual tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) from four tiger populations of the Satpura–Maikal landscape of central India to determine whether the corridors in this landscape are functional. This 45 000 km2 landscape contains 17% of India's tiger population and 12% of its tiger habitat. We applied Bayesian and coalescent-based analyses to estimate contemporary and historical gene flow among these populations and to infer their evolutionary history. We found that the tiger metapopulation in central India has high rates of historical and contemporary gene flow. The tests for population history reveal that tigers populated central India about 10 000 years ago. Their population subdivision began about 1000 years ago and accelerated about 200 years ago owing to habitat fragmentation, leading to four spatially separated populations. These four populations have been in migration–drift equilibrium maintained by high gene flow. We found the highest rates of contemporary gene flow in populations that are connected by forest corridors. This information is highly relevant to conservation practitioners and policy makers, because deforestation, road widening and mining are imminent threats to these corridors. PMID:23902910

  10. Pollinator sharing and gene flow among closely related sympatric dioecious fig taxa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Cannon, Charles H; Chen, Jin

    2016-04-13

    Hybridization and insect pollination are widely believed to increase rates of plant diversification. The extreme diversity of figs (Ficus) and their obligate pollinators, fig wasps (Agaonidae), provides an opportunity to examine the possible role of pollinator-mediated hybridization in plant diversification. Increasing evidence suggests that pollinator sharing and hybridization occurs among fig taxa, despite relatively strict coevolution with the pollinating wasp. Using five sympatric dioecious fig taxa and their pollinators, we examine the degree of pollinator sharing and inter-taxa gene flow. We experimentally test pollinator preference for floral volatiles, the main host recognition signal, from different figs. All five fig taxa shared pollinators with other taxa, and gene flow occurred between fig taxa within and between sections. Floral volatiles of each taxon attracted more than one pollinator species. Floral volatiles were more similar between closely related figs, which experienced higher levels of pollinator sharing and inter-taxa gene flow. This study demonstrates that pollinator sharing and inter-taxa gene flow occurs among closely related sympatric dioecious fig taxa and that pollinators choose the floral volatiles of multiple fig taxa. The implications of pollinator sharing and inter-taxa gene flow on diversification, occurring even in this highly specialized obligate pollination system, require further study.

  11. Spatiotemporal analysis of gene flow in Chesapeake Bay Diamondback Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin).

    PubMed

    Converse, Paul E; Kuchta, Shawn R; Roosenburg, Willem M; Henry, Paula F P; Haramis, G Michael; King, Tim L

    2015-12-01

    There is widespread concern regarding the impacts of anthropogenic activities on connectivity among populations of plants and animals, and understanding how contemporary and historical processes shape metapopulation dynamics is crucial for setting appropriate conservation targets. We used genetic data to identify population clusters and quantify gene flow over historical and contemporary time frames in the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin). This species has a long and complicated history with humans, including commercial overharvesting and subsequent translocation events during the early twentieth century. Today, terrapins face threats from habitat loss and mortality in fisheries bycatch. To evaluate population structure and gene flow among Diamondback Terrapin populations in the Chesapeake Bay region, we sampled 617 individuals from 15 localities and screened individuals at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Our goals were to demarcate metapopulation structure, quantify genetic diversity, estimate effective population sizes, and document temporal changes in gene flow. We found that terrapins in the Chesapeake Bay region harbour high levels of genetic diversity and form four populations. Effective population sizes were variable. Among most population comparisons, estimates of historical and contemporary terrapin gene flow were generally low (m ≈ 0.01). However, we detected a substantial increase in contemporary gene flow into Chesapeake Bay from populations outside the bay, as well as between two populations within Chesapeake Bay, possibly as a consequence of translocations during the early twentieth century. Our study shows that inferences across multiple time scales are needed to evaluate population connectivity, especially as recent changes may identify threats to population persistence. PMID:26518618

  12. Is Gene Flow Promoting the Reversal of Pleistocene Divergence in the Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli)?

    PubMed Central

    Manthey, Joseph D.; Klicka, John; Spellman, Garth M.

    2012-01-01

    The Pleistocene glacial cycles left a genetic legacy on taxa throughout the world; however, the persistence of genetic lineages that diverged during these cycles is dependent upon levels of gene flow and introgression. The consequences of secondary contact among taxa may reveal new insights into the history of the Pleistocene’s genetic legacy. Here, we use phylogeographic methods, using 20 nuclear loci from regional populations, to infer the consequences of secondary contact following divergence in the Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli). Analysis of nuclear data identified two geographically-structured genetic groups, largely concordant with results from a previous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) study. Additionally, the estimated multilocus divergence times indicate a Pleistocene divergence, and are highly concordant with mtDNA. The previous mtDNA study showed a paucity of sympatry between clades, while nuclear patterns of gene flow show highly varied patterns between populations. The observed pattern of gene flow, from coalescent-based analyses, indicates southern populations in both clades exhibit little gene flow within or between clades, while northern populations are experiencing higher gene flow within and between clades. If this pattern were to persist, it is possible the historical legacy of Pleistocene divergence may be preserved in the southern populations only, and the northern populations would become a genetically diverse hybrid species. PMID:23152877

  13. Forest corridors maintain historical gene flow in a tiger metapopulation in the highlands of central India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Dutta, Trishna; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wood, Thomas C; Panwar, Hemendra Singh; Seidensticker, John

    2013-09-22

    Understanding the patterns of gene flow of an endangered species metapopulation occupying a fragmented habitat is crucial for landscape-level conservation planning and devising effective conservation strategies. Tigers (Panthera tigris) are globally endangered and their populations are highly fragmented and exist in a few isolated metapopulations across their range. We used multi-locus genotypic data from 273 individual tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) from four tiger populations of the Satpura-Maikal landscape of central India to determine whether the corridors in this landscape are functional. This 45 000 km(2) landscape contains 17% of India's tiger population and 12% of its tiger habitat. We applied Bayesian and coalescent-based analyses to estimate contemporary and historical gene flow among these populations and to infer their evolutionary history. We found that the tiger metapopulation in central India has high rates of historical and contemporary gene flow. The tests for population history reveal that tigers populated central India about 10 000 years ago. Their population subdivision began about 1000 years ago and accelerated about 200 years ago owing to habitat fragmentation, leading to four spatially separated populations. These four populations have been in migration-drift equilibrium maintained by high gene flow. We found the highest rates of contemporary gene flow in populations that are connected by forest corridors. This information is highly relevant to conservation practitioners and policy makers, because deforestation, road widening and mining are imminent threats to these corridors. PMID:23902910

  14. Divergence in the face of gene flow: the case of two newts (amphibia: salamandridae).

    PubMed

    Nadachowska, Krystyna; Babik, Wieslaw

    2009-04-01

    Understanding the process of divergence requires the quantitative characterization of patterns of gene flow between diverging taxa. New and powerful coalescent-based methods give insight into these processes in unprecedented details by enabling the reconstruction of the temporal distribution of past gene flow. Here, we use sequence variation at eight nuclear markers and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in multiple populations to study diversity, divergence, and gene flow between two subspecies of a salamander, the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris kosswigi and Lissotriton vulgaris vulgaris) in Turkey. The ranges of both subspecies encompass mainly the areas of this important glacial refugial area. Populations in refugia where species have been present for a long time and differentiated in situ should better preserve the record of past gene flow than young populations in postglacial expansion areas. Sequence diversity in both subspecies was substantial (nuclear pi(sil) = 0.69% and 1.31%). We detected long-term demographic stability in these refugial populations with large effective population sizes (N(e)) of the order of 1.5-3 x 10(5) individuals. Gene trees and the isolation with migration (IM) analysis complemented by tests of nested IM models showed that despite deep, pre-Pleistocene divergence of the studied newts, asymmetric introgression from vulgaris to kosswigi has occurred, with signatures of recent gene flow in mtDNA and an anonymous nuclear marker, and evidence for more ancient introgression in nuclear introns. The distribution of migration times raises the intriguing possibility that even the initial divergence may have occurred in the face of gene flow.

  15. Diversity of flavin-binding monooxygenase genes (almA) in marine bacteria capable of degradation long-chain alkanes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanpeng; Shao, Zongze

    2012-06-01

    Many bacteria have been reported as degraders of long-chain (LC) n-alkanes, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Flavin-binding monooxygenase (AlmA) was recently found to be involved in LC-alkane degradation in bacteria of the Acinetobacter and Alcanivorax genera. However, the diversity of this gene and the role it plays in other bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we surveyed the diversity of almA in marine bacteria and in bacteria found in oil-enrichment communities. To identify the presence of this gene, a pair of degenerate PCR primers were was designed based on conserved motifs of the almA gene sequences in public databases. Using this approach, we identified diverse almA genes in the hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and in bacterial communities from the surface seawater of the Xiamen coastal area, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean. As a result, almA was positively detected in 35 isolates belonging to four genera, and a total of 39 different almA sequences were obtained. Five isolates were confirmed to harbor two to three almA genes. From the Xiamen coastal area and the Atlantic Ocean oil-enrichment communities, a total of 60 different almA sequences were obtained. These sequences mainly formed two clusters in the phylogenetic tree, named Class I and Class II, and these shared 45-56% identity at the amino acid level. Class I contained 11 sequences from bacteria represented by the Salinisphaera and Parvibaculum genera. Class II was larger and more diverse, and it was composed of 88 sequences from Proteobacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and the enriched bacterial communities. These communities were represented by the Alcanivorax and Marinobacter genera, which are the two most popular genera hosting the almA gene. AlmA was also detected across a wide geographical range, as determined by the origin of the bacterial host. Our results demonstrate the diversity of almA and confirm its high rate of occurrence in hydrocarbon

  16. Cryptic Species? Patterns of Maternal and Paternal Gene Flow in Eight Neotropical Bats

    PubMed Central

    Clare, Elizabeth L.

    2011-01-01

    Levels of sequence divergence at mitochondrial loci are frequently used in phylogeographic analysis and species delimitation though single marker systems cannot assess bi-parental gene flow. In this investigation I compare the phylogeographic patterns revealed through the maternally inherited mitochondrial COI region and the paternally inherited 7th intron region of the Dby gene on the Y-chromosome in eight common Neotropical bat species. These species are diverse and include members of two families from the feeding guilds of sanguivores, nectarivores, frugivores, carnivores and insectivores. In each case, the currently recognized taxon is comprised of distinct, substantially divergent intraspecific mitochondrial lineages suggesting cryptic species complexes. In Chrotopterus auritus, and Saccopteryx bilineata I observed congruent patterns of divergence in both genetic regions suggesting a cessation of gene flow between intraspecific groups. This evidence supports the existence of cryptic species complexes which meet the criteria of the genetic species concept. In Glossophaga soricina two intraspecific groups with largely sympatric South American ranges show evidence for incomplete lineage sorting or frequent hybridization while a third group with a Central American distribution appears to diverge congruently at both loci suggesting speciation. Within Desmodus rotundus and Trachops cirrhosus the paternally inherited region was monomorphic and thus does not support or refute the potential for cryptic speciation. In Uroderma bilobatum, Micronycteris megalotis and Platyrrhinus helleri the gene regions show conflicting patterns of divergence and I cannot exclude ongoing gene flow between intraspecific groups. This analysis provides a comprehensive comparison across taxa and employs both maternally and paternally inherited gene regions to validate patterns of gene flow. I present evidence for previously unrecognized species meeting the criteria of the genetic species

  17. Effect of an Introduced Phytoene Synthase Gene Expression on Carotenoid Biosynthesis in the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Kadono, Takashi; Kira, Nozomu; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu; Ohama, Takeshi; Okada, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Akakabe, Mai; Tsuda, Masashi; Adachi, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids exert beneficial effects on human health through their excellent antioxidant activity. To increase carotenoid productivity in the marine Pennales Phaeodactylum tricornutum, we genetically engineered the phytoene synthase gene (psy) to improve expression because RNA-sequencing analysis has suggested that the expression level of psy is lower than other enzyme-encoding genes that are involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. We isolated psy from P. tricornutum, and this gene was fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene to detect psy expression. After transformation using the microparticle bombardment technique, we obtained several P. tricornutum transformants and confirmed psy expression in their plastids. We investigated the amounts of PSY mRNA and carotenoids, such as fucoxanthin and β-carotene, at different growth phases. The introduction of psy increased the fucoxanthin content of a transformants by approximately 1.45-fold relative to the levels in the wild-type diatom. However, some transformants failed to show a significant increase in the carotenoid content relative to that of the wild-type diatom. We also found that the amount of PSY mRNA at log phase might contribute to the increase in carotenoids in the transformants at stationary phase.

  18. Effect of an Introduced Phytoene Synthase Gene Expression on Carotenoid Biosynthesis in the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Kadono, Takashi; Kira, Nozomu; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu; Ohama, Takeshi; Okada, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Akakabe, Mai; Tsuda, Masashi; Adachi, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids exert beneficial effects on human health through their excellent antioxidant activity. To increase carotenoid productivity in the marine Pennales Phaeodactylum tricornutum, we genetically engineered the phytoene synthase gene (psy) to improve expression because RNA-sequencing analysis has suggested that the expression level of psy is lower than other enzyme-encoding genes that are involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. We isolated psy from P. tricornutum, and this gene was fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene to detect psy expression. After transformation using the microparticle bombardment technique, we obtained several P. tricornutum transformants and confirmed psy expression in their plastids. We investigated the amounts of PSY mRNA and carotenoids, such as fucoxanthin and β-carotene, at different growth phases. The introduction of psy increased the fucoxanthin content of a transformants by approximately 1.45-fold relative to the levels in the wild-type diatom. However, some transformants failed to show a significant increase in the carotenoid content relative to that of the wild-type diatom. We also found that the amount of PSY mRNA at log phase might contribute to the increase in carotenoids in the transformants at stationary phase. PMID:26308005

  19. A comparison of primer sets for detecting 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase genes of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Hong, Yiguo; Klotz, Martin Gunter; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2010-03-01

    Published polymerase chain reaction primer sets for detecting the genes encoding 16S rRNA gene and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) in anammox bacteria were compared by using the same coastal marine sediment samples. While four previously reported primer sets developed to detect the 16S rRNA gene showed varying specificities between 12% and 77%, an optimized primer combination resulted in up to 98% specificity, and the recovered anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences were >95% sequence identical to published sequences from anammox bacteria in the Candidatus "Scalindua" group. Furthermore, four primer sets used in detecting the hzo gene of anammox bacteria were highly specific (up to 92%) and efficient, and the newly designed primer set in this study amplified longer hzo gene segments suitable for phylogenetic analysis. The optimized primer set for the 16S rRNA gene and the newly designed primer set for the hzo gene were successfully applied to identify anammox bacteria from marine sediments of aquaculture zone, coastal wetland, and deep ocean where the three ecosystems form a gradient of anthropogenic impact. Results indicated a broad distribution of anammox bacteria with high niche-specific community structure within each marine ecosystem. PMID:20107988

  20. Gene flow among populations of two rare co-occurring fern species differing in ploidy level.

    PubMed

    Bucharová, Anna; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Differences in ploidy levels among different fern species have a vast influence on their mating system, their colonization ability and on the gene flow among populations. Differences in the colonization abilities of species with different ploidy levels are well known: tetraploids, in contrast to diploids, are able to undergo intra-gametophytic selfing. Because fertilization is a post-dispersal process in ferns, selfing results in better colonization abilities in tetraploids because of single spore colonization. Considerably less is known about the gene flow among populations of different ploidy levels. The present study examines two rare fern species that differ in ploidy. While it has already been confirmed that tetraploid species are better at colonizing, the present study focuses on the gene flow among existing populations. We analyzed the genetic structure of a set of populations in a 10×10 km study region using isoenzymes. Genetic variation in tetraploid species is distributed mainly among populations; the genetic distance between populations is correlated with the geographical distance, and larger populations host more genetic diversity than smaller populations. In the diploid species, most variability is partitioned within populations; the genetic distance is not related to geographic distance, and the genetic diversity of populations is not related to the population size. This suggests that in tetraploid species, which undergo selfing, gene flow is limited. In contrast, in the diploid species, which experience outcrossing, gene flow is extensive and the whole system behaves as one large population. Our results suggest that in ferns, the ability to colonize new habitats and the gene flow among existing populations are affected by the mating system.

  1. Quantifying the constraining influence of gene flow on adaptive divergence in the lake-stream threespine stickleback system.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jean-Sébastien; Gow, Jennifer L; Taylor, Eric B; Hendry, Andrew P

    2007-08-01

    The constraining effect of gene flow on adaptive divergence is often inferred but rarely quantified. We illustrate ways of doing so using stream populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) that experience different levels of gene flow from a parapatric lake population. In the Misty Lake watershed (British Columbia, Canada), the inlet stream population is morphologically divergent from the lake population, and presumably experiences little gene flow from the lake. The outlet stream population, however, shows an intermediate phenotype and may experience more gene flow from the lake. We first used microsatellite data to demonstrate that gene flow from the lake is low into the inlet but high into the outlet, and that gene flow from the lake remains relatively constant with distance along the outlet. We next combined gene flow data with morphological and habitat data to quantify the effect of gene flow on morphological divergence. In one approach, we assumed that inlet stickleback manifest well-adapted phenotypic trait values not constrained by gene flow. We then calculated the deviation between the observed and expected phenotypes for a given habitat in the outlet. In a second approach, we parameterized a quantitative genetic model of adaptive divergence. Both approaches suggest a large impact of gene flow, constraining adaptation by 80-86% in the outlet (i.e., only 14-20% of the expected morphological divergence in the absence of gene flow was observed). Such approaches may be useful in other taxa to estimate how important gene flow is in constraining adaptive divergence in nature. PMID:17683442

  2. Gene expression studies for the analysis of domoic acid production in the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries Hasle (Hasle) (Ps-n) is distinctive among the ecologically important marine diatoms because it produces the neurotoxin domoic acid. Although the biology of Ps-n has been investigated intensely, the characterization of the genes and biochemical pathways leading to domoic acid biosynthesis has been limited. To identify transcripts whose levels correlate with domoic acid production, we analyzed Ps-n under conditions of high and low domoic acid production by cDNA microarray technology and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) methods. Our goals included identifying and validating robust reference genes for Ps-n RNA expression analysis under these conditions. Results Through microarray analysis of exponential- and stationary-phase cultures with low and high domoic acid production, respectively, we identified candidate reference genes whose transcripts did not vary across conditions. We tested eleven potential reference genes for stability using RT-qPCR and GeNorm analyses. Our results indicated that transcripts encoding JmjC, dynein, and histone H3 proteins were the most suitable for normalization of expression data under conditions of silicon-limitation, in late-exponential through stationary phase. The microarray studies identified a number of genes that were up- and down-regulated under toxin-producing conditions. RT-qPCR analysis, using the validated controls, confirmed the up-regulation of transcripts predicted to encode a cycloisomerase, an SLC6 transporter, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, glutamate dehydrogenase, a small heat shock protein, and an aldo-keto reductase, as well as the down-regulation of a transcript encoding a fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a-c binding protein, under these conditions. Conclusion Our results provide a strong basis for further studies of RNA expression levels in Ps-n, which will contribute to our understanding of genes involved in the production and release of domoic acid, an important

  3. Flow cytometric applicability to evaluate UV inactivation of phytoplankton in marine water samples.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Ranveig Ottoey; Hess-Erga, Ole-Kristian; Larsen, Aud; Thuestad, Gunnar; Tobiesen, August; Hoell, Ingunn Alne

    2015-07-15

    Disinfection of microbes is of importance to prevent the spread of pathogens and non-indigenous species in the environment. Here we test the applicability of using flow cytometry (FCM) to evaluate inactivation of the phytoplankter Tetraselmis suecica after UV irradiation and labeling with the esterase substrate 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl ester (CFDA-AM). Non-irradiated and UV irradiated samples were analyzed with the plate count technique and FCM for 24 days. The numbers of colony forming units were used as a standard to develop a FCM protocol. Our protocol readily distinguishes live and dead cells, but challenges were encountered when determining whether UV damaged cells are dying or repairable. As damaged cells can represent a risk to aquatic organisms and/or humans, this was taken into account when developing the FCM protocol. In spite of the above mentioned challenges we argue that FCM represents an accurate and rapid method to analyze T. suecica samples.

  4. Comparing direct vs. indirect estimates of gene flow within a population of a scattered tree species.

    PubMed

    Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie; Klein, Etienne K

    2008-06-01

    The comparison between historical estimates of gene flow, using variance in allelic frequencies, and contemporary estimates of gene flow, using parentage assignment, is expected to provide insights into ecological and evolutionary processes at work within and among populations. Genetic variation at six microsatellite loci was used to quantify genetic structure in the insect-pollinated, animal-dispersed, low-density tree Sorbus torminalis L. Crantz, and to derive historical estimates of gene flow. The neighbourhood size and root-mean-squared dispersal distance inferred from seedling genotypes (N(b) = 70 individuals, sigma(e) = 417 m) were similar to those inferred from adult genotypes (N(b) = 114 individuals, sigma(e) = 472 m). We also used parentage analyses and a neighbourhood model approach after an evaluation of the statistical properties of this method on simulated data. From our data, we estimated even contributions of seed- and pollen-mediated dispersal to the genetic composition of established seedlings, with both fat-tailed pollen and seed dispersal kernels, and slightly higher mean distance of pollen dispersal (248 m) as compared to seed dispersal (135 m). The resulting contemporary estimate of gene dispersal distance (sigma(c) = 211 m) was approximately twofold smaller than the historical estimates. Besides different assumptions and statistical nuances of both approaches, this discrepancy is likely to reflect a recent restriction in the scale of gene flow which requires manager's attention in a context of increasing forest fragmentation.

  5. Local Adaptation in Marine Invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Eric; Kelly, Morgan W.

    2011-01-01

    Local adaptation in the sea was regarded historically as a rare phenomenon that was limited to a handful of species with exceptionally low dispersal potential. However, a growing body of experimental studies indicates that adaptive differentiation occurs in numerous marine invertebrates in response to selection imposed by strong gradients (and more complex mosaics) of abiotic and biotic conditions. Moreover, a surprisingly high proportion of the marine invertebrates known or suspected of exhibiting local adaptation are species with planktonic dispersal. Adaptive divergence among populations can occur over a range of spatial scales, including those that are fine-grained (i.e., meters to kilometers), reflecting a balance between scales of gene flow and selection. Addressing the causes and consequences of adaptive genetic differentiation among invertebrate populations promises to advance community ecology, climate change research, and the effective management of marine ecosystems.

  6. Gene Flow within and between Catchments in the Threatened Riparian Plant Myricaria germanica

    PubMed Central

    Werth, Silke; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    One of the major distinctions of riparian habitats is their linearity. In linear habitats, gene flow is predicted to follow a one-dimensional stepping stone model, characterized by bidirectional gene flow between neighboring populations. Here, we studied the genetic structure of Myricaria germanica, a threatened riparian shrub which is capable of both wind and water dispersal. Our data led us to reject the ‘one catchment – one gene pool’ hypothesis as we found support for two gene pools, rather than four as expected in a study area including four catchments. This result also implies that in the history of the studied populations, dispersal across catchments has occurred. Two contemporary catchment-crossing migration events were detected, albeit between spatially proximate catchments. Allelic richness and inbreeding coefficients differed substantially between gene pools. There was significant isolation by distance, and our data confirmed the one-dimensional stepping-stone model of gene flow. Contemporary migration was bidirectional within the studied catchments, implying that dispersal vectors other than water are important for M. germanica. PMID:24932520

  7. Field measurement of nitrate in marine and estuarine waters with a flow analysis system utilizing on-line zinc reduction.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Peter S; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Gentle, Brady S; McKelvie, Ian D

    2011-03-15

    A sensitive reagent-injection flow analysis method for the spectrophotometric determination of nitrate in marine, estuarine and fresh water samples is described. The method is based on the reduction of nitrate in a micro column containing zinc granules at pH 6.5. The nitrite formed is reacted with sulfanilamide and N-(1-naphthyl)ethylene diamine (Griess reagent), and the resulting azo compound is quantified spectrophotometrically at 520 nm. Water samples in the range of 3-700 μg L(-1) NO(3)(-)-N can be processed with a throughput of up to 40 samples per hour, a detection limit of 1.3 μg L(-1) and reproducibility of 1.2% RSD (50 μg L(-1) NO(3)(-)-N, n=10). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of nitrate in estuarine waters and the reliability was assessed by the analyses of certified reference materials and recovery experiments. The method is suitable for waters with a wide range of salinities, and was successfully used for more than 3200 underway nitrate measurements aboard SV Pelican1 in the "Two Bays" cruise in January 2010. PMID:21315904

  8. Evaluation of Tangential Flow Filtration for the Concentration and Separation of Bacteria and Viruses in Contrasting Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lanlan; Yang, Yunlan; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Tangential flow filtration (TFF), which has been widely adopted to concentrate a diverse array of microbes from water, is a promising method of microbial separation or removal. However, it is essential to select an optimal membrane suitable for the specific filtration application. This study evaluated two different scales of TFF systems for concentrating and separating microbes (including bacteria and viruses) from contrasting marine waters. Among bacteria-size membranes, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes showed higher bacterial recovery, but lower viral permeation efficiencies than polyethersulfone (PES) membranes, regardless of environments and scales of TFF. Estuary samples showed significantly higher percentages of bacterial retention than nearshore and ocean samples. For virus-size membranes, a higher viral recovery and lower sorption was observed for regenerated cellulose membrane than PES membranes in the small-scale TFF. Similar viral recoveries were observed between PES membranes in the large-scale TFF, with higher viral concentrations being observed in estuary samples than in nearshore samples. Deep ocean samples showed the lowest recovery of viruses, which was consistent with observations of bacterial recovery. Synthetically, PVDF may be more suitable for the concentration of bacterial cells, while PES would be a better choice for the collection of viruses. When compared with the PES membrane, regenerated cellulose is better for viral concentration, while PES is recommended to obtain bacteria- and virus-free seawater. PMID:26305356

  9. Ecological speciation in marine v. freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Puebla, O

    2009-10-01

    Absolute barriers to dispersal are not common in marine systems, and the prevalence of planktonic larvae in marine taxa provides potential for gene flow across large geographic distances. These observations raise the fundamental question in marine evolutionary biology as to whether geographic and oceanographic barriers alone can account for the high levels of species diversity observed in marine environments such as coral reefs, or whether marine speciation also operates in the presence of gene flow between diverging populations. In this respect, the ecological hypothesis of speciation, in which reproductive isolation results from divergent or disruptive natural selection, is of particular interest because it may operate in the presence of gene flow. Although important insights into the process of ecological speciation in aquatic environments have been provided by the study of freshwater fishes, comparatively little is known about the possibility of ecological speciation in marine teleosts. In this study, the evidence consistent with different aspects of the ecological hypothesis of speciation is evaluated in marine fishes. Molecular approaches have played a critical role in the development of speciation hypotheses in marine fishes, with a role of ecology suggested by the occurrence of sister clades separated by ecological factors, rapid cladogenesis or the persistence of genetically and ecologically differentiated species in the presence of gene flow. Yet, ecological speciation research in marine fishes is still largely at an exploratory stage. Cases where the major ingredients of ecological speciation, namely a source of natural divergent or disruptive selection, a mechanism of reproductive isolation and a link between the two have been explicitly documented are few. Even in these cases, specific predictions of the ecological hypothesis of speciation remain largely untested. Recent developments in the study of freshwater fishes illustrate the potential for

  10. Gene Cloning, Expression and Characterization of a Novel Xylanase from the Marine Bacterium, Glaciecola mesophila KMM241

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bing; Li, Ping-Yi; Yue, Yong-Sheng; Zhao, Hui-Lin; Dong, Sheng; Song, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Wei-Xin; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Marine xylanases are rather less studied compared to terrestrial xylanases. In this study, a new xylanase gene, xynB, was cloned from the marine bacterium, Glaciecola mesophila KMM241, and expressed in Escherichia coli. xynB encodes a multi-domain xylanase XynB of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 8. The recombinant XynB comprises an N-terminal domain (NTD) with unknown function and a catalytic domain, which is structurally novel among the characterized xylanases of GH family 8. XynB has the highest identity (38%) to rXyn8 among the characterized xylanases. The recombinant XynB showed maximal activity at pH 6–7 and 35 °C. It is thermolabile and salt-tolerant. XynB is an endo-xylanase that demands at least five sugar moieties for effective cleavage and to hydrolyze xylohexaose and xylopentaose into xylotetraose, xylotriose and xylobiose. NTD was expressed in Escherichia coli to analyze its function. The recombinant NTD exhibited a high binding ability to insoluble xylan and avicel and little binding ability to chitosan and chitin. Since the NTD shows no obvious homology to any known carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) sequence in public databases, XynB may contain a new type of CBM. PMID:23567318

  11. A structured population modeling framework for quantifying and predicting gene expression noise in flow cytometry data.

    PubMed

    Flores, Kevin B

    2013-07-01

    We formulated a structured population model with distributed parameters to identify mechanisms that contribute to gene expression noise in time-dependent flow cytometry data. The model was validated using cell population-level gene expression data from two experiments with synthetically engineered eukaryotic cells. Our model captures the qualitative noise features of both experiments and accurately fit the data from the first experiment. Our results suggest that cellular switching between high and low expression states and transcriptional re-initiation are important factors needed to accurately describe gene expression noise with a structured population model.

  12. Elevational speciation in action? Restricted gene flow associated with adaptive divergence across an altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Funk, W C; Murphy, M A; Hoke, K L; Muths, E; Amburgey, S M; Lemmon, E M; Lemmon, A R

    2016-02-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that divergent selection pressures across elevational gradients could cause adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation in the process of ecological speciation. Although there is substantial evidence for adaptive divergence across elevation, there is less evidence that this restricts gene flow. Previous work in the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata) has demonstrated adaptive divergence in morphological, life history and physiological traits across an elevational gradient from approximately 1500-3000 m in the Colorado Front Range, USA. We tested whether this adaptive divergence is associated with restricted gene flow across elevation - as would be expected if incipient speciation were occurring - and, if so, whether behavioural isolation contributes to reproductive isolation. Our analysis of 12 microsatellite loci in 797 frogs from 53 populations revealed restricted gene flow across elevation, even after controlling for geographic distance and topography. Calls also varied significantly across elevation in dominant frequency, pulse number and pulse duration, which was partly, but not entirely, due to variation in body size and temperature across elevation. However, call variation did not result in strong behavioural isolation: in phonotaxis experiments, low-elevation females tended to prefer an average low-elevation call over a high-elevation call, and vice versa for high-elevation females, but this trend was not statistically significant. In summary, our results show that adaptive divergence across elevation restricts gene flow in P. maculata, but the mechanisms for this potential incipient speciation remain open. PMID:26363130

  13. Gene flow matters in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a potential widespread biofuel feedstock.

    PubMed

    Kwit, Charles; Stewart, C Neal

    2012-01-01

    There currently exists a large push for the use, improvement, and expansion via landscape modification of dedicated biofuel crops (feedstocks) in the United States and in many parts of the world. Ecological concerns have been voiced because many biofuel feedstocks exhibit characteristics associated with invasiveness, and due to potential negative consequences of agronomic genes in native wild populations. Seed purity concerns for biofuel feedstock cultivars whose seeds would be harvested in agronomic fields also exist from the agribusiness sector. The common thread underlying these concerns, which have regulatory implications, is gene flow; thus detailed knowledge of gene flow in biofuel crop plants is important in the formulation of environmental risk management plans. Here, we synthesize the current state of knowledge of gene flow in an exemplary biofuel crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), which is native to eastern North America and is currently experiencing conventional and technological advances in biomass yields and ethanol production. Surprisingly little is known regarding aspects of switchgrass pollen flow and seed dispersal, and whether native populations of conspecific or congeneric relatives will readily cross with current agronomic switchgrass cultivars. We pose that filling these important gaps will be required to confront the sustainability challenges of widespread planting of biofuel feedstocks.

  14. Gene flow and pathogen transmission among bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a fragmented urban landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Justin S.; Ruell, Emily W.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alonso, Robert S.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization can result in the fragmentation of once contiguous natural landscapes into a patchy habitat interspersed within a growing urban matrix. Animals living in fragmented landscapes often have reduced movement among habitat patches because of avoidance of intervening human development, which potentially leads to both reduced gene flow and pathogen transmission between patches. Mammalian carnivores with large home ranges, such as bobcats (Lynx rufus), may be particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation. We performed genetic analyses on bobcats and their directly transmitted viral pathogen, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), to investigate the effects of urbanization on bobcat movement. We predicted that urban development, including major freeways, would limit bobcat movement and result in genetically structured host and pathogen populations. We analysed molecular markers from 106 bobcats and 19 FIV isolates from seropositive animals in urban southern California. Our findings indicate that reduced gene flow between two primary habitat patches has resulted in genetically distinct bobcat subpopulations separated by urban development including a major highway. However, the distribution of genetic diversity among FIV isolates determined through phylogenetic analyses indicates that pathogen genotypes are less spatially structured--exhibiting a more even distribution between habitat fragments. We conclude that the types of movement and contact sufficient for disease transmission occur with enough frequency to preclude structuring among the viral population, but that the bobcat population is structured owing to low levels of effective bobcat migration resulting in gene flow. We illustrate the utility in using multiple molecular markers that differentially detect movement and gene flow between subpopulations when assessing connectivity.

  15. Genetic structure and gene flow among Komodo dragon populations inferred by microsatellite loci analysis.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, C; Bruford, M W

    1999-12-01

    A general concern for the conservation of endangered species is the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, particularly when they become isolated and reduced in size. Estimates of gene flow and effective population size are therefore important for any conservation initiative directed to the long-term persistence of a species in its natural habitat. In the present study, 10 microsatellite loci were used to assess the level of genetic variability among populations of the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis. Effective population size was calculated and gene flow estimates were compared with palaeogeographic data in order to assess the degree of vulnerability of four island populations. Rinca and Flores, currently separated by an isthmus of about 200 m, retained a high level of genetic diversity and showed a high degree of genetic similarity, with gene flow values close to one migrant per generation. The island of Komodo showed by far the highest levels of genetic divergence, and its allelic distinctiveness was considered of great importance in the maintenance of genetic variability within the species. A lack of distinct alleles and low levels of gene flow and genetic variability were found for the small population of Gili Motang island, which was identified as vulnerable to stochastic threats. Our results are potentially important for both the short- and long-term management of the Komodo dragon, and are critical in view of future re-introduction or augmentation in areas where the species is now extinct or depleted.

  16. Elevational speciation in action? Restricted gene flow associated with adaptive divergence across an altitudinal gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, W. C.; Murphy, M.A.; Hoke, K. L.; Muths, Erin L.; Amburgey, Staci M.; Lemmon, Emily M.; Lemmon, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that divergent selection pressures across elevational gradients could cause adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation in the process of ecological speciation. Although there is substantial evidence for adaptive divergence across elevation, there is less evidence that this restricts gene flow. Previous work in the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata) has demonstrated adaptive divergence in morphological, life history and physiological traits across an elevational gradient from approximately 1500–3000 m in the Colorado Front Range, USA. We tested whether this adaptive divergence is associated with restricted gene flow across elevation – as would be expected if incipient speciation were occurring – and, if so, whether behavioural isolation contributes to reproductive isolation. Our analysis of 12 microsatellite loci in 797 frogs from 53 populations revealed restricted gene flow across elevation, even after controlling for geographic distance and topography. Calls also varied significantly across elevation in dominant frequency, pulse number and pulse duration, which was partly, but not entirely, due to variation in body size and temperature across elevation. However, call variation did not result in strong behavioural isolation: in phonotaxis experiments, low-elevation females tended to prefer an average low-elevation call over a high-elevation call, and vice versa for high-elevation females, but this trend was not statistically significant. In summary, our results show that adaptive divergence across elevation restricts gene flow in P. maculata, but the mechanisms for this potential incipient speciation remain open.

  17. Reproductive phenology of transgenic Brassica napus cultivars: Effect on intraspecific gene flow.

    PubMed

    Simard, Marie-Josée; Légère, Anne; Willenborg, Christian J

    2009-01-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow in space is well documented and isolation distances are recommended to ensure genetic purity of Brassica napus seed crops. Isolation in time could also contribute to gene flow management but has been little investigated. We assessed the effects of asynchronous and synchronous flowering on intraspecific B. napus gene flow by seeding adjacent plots of transgenic spring canola cultivars, either resistant to glyphosate or glufosinate, over a 0-4 week interval and measuring outcrossing rates and seed-set. Outcrossing rates, evaluated in the center of the first adjacent row, were reduced to the lowest level in plots flowering first when the seeding interval > 2 weeks. Increasing the time gap increased outcrossing rates in plots flowering second up to a seeding interval of two weeks. Flowers that opened during the last week of the flowering period produced fewer seed (< 10% of total seed production) and a smaller fraction of outcrossed seed (-25%). Observed time gap effects were likely caused by extraneous pollen load during the receptivity of productive seed-setting early flowers. Clearly, manipulation of B. napus flowering development through staggered planting dates can contribute to gene flow management. The approach will need to be validated by additional site-years and increased isolation distances. PMID:20028614

  18. Gene flow of Acanthaster planci (L.) in relation to ocean currents revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Nina; Nagai, Satoshi; Hamaguchi, Masami; Okaji, Ken; Gérard, Karin; Nadaoka, Kazuo

    2009-04-01

    Population outbreaks of the coral-eating starfish, Acanthaster planci, are hypothesized to spread to many localities in the Indo-Pacific Ocean through dispersal of planktonic larvae. To elucidate the gene flow of A. planci across the Indo-Pacific in relation to ocean currents and to test the larval dispersal hypothesis, the genetic structure among 23 samples over the Indo-Pacific was analysed using seven highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. The F-statistics and genetic admixture analysis detected genetically distinct groups in accordance with ocean current systems, that is, the Southeast African group (Kenya and Mayotte), the Northwestern Pacific group (the Philippines and Japan), Palau, the North Central Pacific group (Majuro and Pohnpei), the Great Barrier Reef, Fiji, and French Polynesia, with a large genetic break between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. A pattern of significant isolation by distance was observed among all samples (P = 0.001, r = 0.88, n = 253, Mantel test), indicating restricted gene flow among the samples in accordance with geographical distances. The data also indicated strong gene flow within the Southeast African, Northwestern Pacific, and Great Barrier Reef groups. These results suggest that the western boundary currents have strong influence on gene flow of this species and may trigger secondary outbreaks. PMID:19302361

  19. High gene flow on a continental scale in the polyandrous Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Clemens; Edwards, Scott V; Kosztolányi, András; Alrashidi, Monif; Burke, Terry; Herrmann, Philipp; Argüelles-Tico, Araceli; Amat, Juan A; Amezian, Mohamed; Rocha, Afonso; Hötker, Hermann; Ivanov, Anton; Chernicko, Joseph; Székely, Tamás

    2012-12-01

    Gene flow promotes genetic homogeneity of species in time and space. Gene flow can be modulated by sex-biased dispersal that links population genetics to mating systems. We investigated the phylogeography of the widely distributed Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus. This small shorebird has a large breeding range spanning from Western Europe to Japan and exhibits an unusually flexible mating system with high female breeding dispersal. We analysed genetic structure and gene flow using a 427-bp fragment of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region, 21 autosomal microsatellite markers and a Z microsatellite marker in 397 unrelated individuals from 21 locations. We found no structure or isolation-by-distance over the continental range. However, island populations had low genetic diversity and were moderately differentiated from mainland locations. Genetic differentiation based on autosomal markers was positively correlated with distance between mainland and each island. Comparisons of uniparentally and biparentally inherited markers were consistent with female-biased gene flow. Maternally inherited mtDNA was less structured, whereas the Z-chromosomal marker was more structured than autosomal microsatellites. Adult males were more related than females within genetic clusters. Taken together, our results suggest a prominent role for polyandrous females in maintaining genetic homogeneity across large geographic distances.

  20. Ecological barriers to gene flow between riparian and forest species of Ainsliaea (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Yuki; Nomura, Naofumi; Isagi, Yuji; Tobe, Hiroshi; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the role of habitat-associated adaptation in reducing gene flow resulting in population differentiation and speciation is a major issue in evolutionary biology. We demonstrate a significant role for habitat divergence in species isolation between two naturally hybridizing riparian and nonriparian plants, Ainsliaea faurieana and A. apiculata (Asteraceae), on Yakushima Island, Japan. By analyzing the fine-scale population structure at six sympatric sites, we found that variations in leaf shape, geography, light conditions, and genotype were strongly correlated across riverbank-forest transitions. No evidence of effective gene flow was found between the two species across the majority of the transition zones, although the NewHybrid clustering analysis confirmed interspecific hybridization. However, a relatively high level of gene flow was observed across one zone with a more diffuse ecotone and intermediate flooding and light conditions, possibly generated by human disturbances. These results suggest that the barriers to gene flow between the riparian and forest species are primarily ecological. Additional common garden experiments indicated that the two species are adaptively differentiated to contrasting flooding and light environments. Overall, our study suggests that adaptations to different habitats can lead to the formation of reproductive isolating barriers and the maintenance of distinct species boundaries.

  1. Intercontinental gene flow among western arctic populations of lesser snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shorey, R.I.; Scribner, K.T.; Kanefsky, J.; Samuel, M.D.; Libants, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial genetic structure of highly vagile species of birds is important in predicting their degree of population demographic and genetic independence during changing environmental conditions, and in assessing their abundance and distribution. In the western Arctic, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) provide an example useful for evaluating spatial population genetic structure and the relative contribution of male and female philopatry to breeding and wintering locales. We analyzed biparentally inherited microsatellite loci and maternally inherited mtDNA sequences from geese breeding at Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) to estimate gene flow among populations whose geographic overlap during breeding and winter differ. Significant differences in the frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes contrast with the homogeneity of allele frequencies for microsatellite loci. Coalescence simulations revealed high variability and asymmetry between males and females in rates and direction of gene flow between populations. Our results highlight the importance of wintering areas to demographic independence and spatial genetic structure of these populations. Male-mediated gene flow among the populations on northern Wrangel Island, southern Wrangel Island, and Banks Island has been substantial. A high rate of female-mediated gene flow from southern Wrangel Island to Banks Island suggests that population exchange can be achieved when populations winter in a common area. Conversely, when birds from different breeding populations do not share a common wintering area, the probability of population exchange is likely to be dramatically reduced. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  2. Geographic determinants of gene flow in two sister species of tropical Andean frogs.

    PubMed

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Cannatella, David C

    2014-01-01

    Complex interactions between topographic heterogeneity, climatic and environmental gradients, and thermal niche conservatism are commonly assumed to indicate the degree of biotic diversification in montane regions. Our aim was to investigate factors that disrupt gene flow between populations and to determine if there is evidence of downslope asymmetric migration in highland frogs with wide elevational ranges and thermal niches. We determined the role of putative impediments to gene flow (as measured by least-cost path (LCP) distances, topographic complexity, and elevational range) in promoting genetic divergence between populations of 2 tropical Andean frog sister species (Dendropsophus luddeckei, N = 114; Dendropsophus labialis, N = 74) using causal modeling and multiple matrix regression. Although the effect of geographic features was species specific, elevational range and LCP distances had the strongest effect on gene flow, with mean effect sizes (Mantel r and regression coefficients β), between 5 and 10 times greater than topographic complexity. Even though causal modeling and multiple matrix regression produced congruent results, the latter provided more information on the contribution of each geographic variable. We found moderate support for downslope migration. We conclude that the climatic heterogeneity of the landscape, the elevational distance between populations, and the inability to colonize suboptimal habitats due to thermal niche conservatism influence the magnitude of gene flow. Asymmetric migration, however, seems to be influenced by life history traits. PMID:24336965

  3. Genetic structure and gene flow among Komodo dragon populations inferred by microsatellite loci analysis.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, C; Bruford, M W

    1999-12-01

    A general concern for the conservation of endangered species is the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, particularly when they become isolated and reduced in size. Estimates of gene flow and effective population size are therefore important for any conservation initiative directed to the long-term persistence of a species in its natural habitat. In the present study, 10 microsatellite loci were used to assess the level of genetic variability among populations of the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis. Effective population size was calculated and gene flow estimates were compared with palaeogeographic data in order to assess the degree of vulnerability of four island populations. Rinca and Flores, currently separated by an isthmus of about 200 m, retained a high level of genetic diversity and showed a high degree of genetic similarity, with gene flow values close to one migrant per generation. The island of Komodo showed by far the highest levels of genetic divergence, and its allelic distinctiveness was considered of great importance in the maintenance of genetic variability within the species. A lack of distinct alleles and low levels of gene flow and genetic variability were found for the small population of Gili Motang island, which was identified as vulnerable to stochastic threats. Our results are potentially important for both the short- and long-term management of the Komodo dragon, and are critical in view of future re-introduction or augmentation in areas where the species is now extinct or depleted. PMID:10703549

  4. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  5. Gene flow and pathogen transmission among bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a fragmented urban landscape.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justin S; Ruell, Emily W; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alonso, Robert S; Troyer, Jennifer L; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue

    2012-04-01

    Urbanization can result in the fragmentation of once contiguous natural landscapes into a patchy habitat interspersed within a growing urban matrix. Animals living in fragmented landscapes often have reduced movement among habitat patches because of avoidance of intervening human development, which potentially leads to both reduced gene flow and pathogen transmission between patches. Mammalian carnivores with large home ranges, such as bobcats (Lynx rufus), may be particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation. We performed genetic analyses on bobcats and their directly transmitted viral pathogen, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), to investigate the effects of urbanization on bobcat movement. We predicted that urban development, including major freeways, would limit bobcat movement and result in genetically structured host and pathogen populations. We analysed molecular markers from 106 bobcats and 19 FIV isolates from seropositive animals in urban southern California. Our findings indicate that reduced gene flow between two primary habitat patches has resulted in genetically distinct bobcat subpopulations separated by urban development including a major highway. However, the distribution of genetic diversity among FIV isolates determined through phylogenetic analyses indicates that pathogen genotypes are less spatially structured-exhibiting a more even distribution between habitat fragments. We conclude that the types of movement and contact sufficient for disease transmission occur with enough frequency to preclude structuring among the viral population, but that the bobcat population is structured owing to low levels of effective bobcat migration resulting in gene flow. We illustrate the utility in using multiple molecular markers that differentially detect movement and gene flow between subpopulations when assessing connectivity.

  6. Speciation with gene flow in whiptail lizards from a Neotropical xeric biome.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Eliana F; Gehara, Marcelo; São-Pedro, Vinícius A; Chen, Xin; Myers, Edward A; Burbrink, Frank T; Mesquita, Daniel O; Garda, Adrian A; Colli, Guarino R; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Arias, Federico J; Zaher, Hussam; Santos, Rodrigo M L; Costa, Gabriel C

    2015-12-01

    Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversification of the Caatinga biota. The riverine barrier hypothesis (RBH) claims that the São Francisco River (SFR) is a major biogeographic barrier to gene flow. The Pleistocene climatic fluctuation hypothesis (PCH) states that gene flow, geographic genetic structure and demographic signatures on endemic Caatinga taxa were influenced by Quaternary climate fluctuation cycles. Herein, we analyse genetic diversity and structure, phylogeographic history, and diversification of a widespread Caatinga lizard (Cnemidophorus ocellifer) based on large geographical sampling for multiple loci to test the predictions derived from the RBH and PCH. We inferred two well-delimited lineages (Northeast and Southwest) that have diverged along the Cerrado-Caatinga border during the Mid-Late Miocene (6-14 Ma) despite the presence of gene flow. We reject both major hypotheses proposed to explain diversification in the Caatinga. Surprisingly, our results revealed a striking complex diversification pattern where the Northeast lineage originated as a founder effect from a few individuals located along the edge of the Southwest lineage that eventually expanded throughout the Caatinga. The Southwest lineage is more diverse, older and associated with the Cerrado-Caatinga boundaries. Finally, we suggest that C. ocellifer from the Caatinga is composed of two distinct species. Our data support speciation in the presence of gene flow and highlight the role of environmental gradients in the diversification process.

  7. Can gene flow have negative demographic consequences? Mixed evidence from stream threespine stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jean-Sébastien; Hendry, Andrew P.

    2009-01-01

    Dispersal and gene flow can have both positive and negative effects on population size, but little empirical support from nature exists for the negative effects. We test for such effects in a stream population of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) that is subject to high gene flow from a lake and is thus maladapted to stream conditions. In this system, maladaptation increases with distance along the stream, and this increase is associated with decreasing population densities until stickleback are no longer present (2.5 km from the lake). We conducted field experiments to inform whether this association might reflect a negative role for gene flow in constraining population size and therefore causing a local range limit. We specifically tested predictions deriving from theory: peripheral populations should show partial local adaptation, be under strong selection and not simply be maintained by dispersal. First, a transplant experiment suggested a weak home-site advantage in the peripheral population. Second, a mark–recapture study showed directional selection for a stream-adapted phenotype in 1 of 2 years. Third, another mark–recapture experiment showed that dispersal is limited to the point that positive demographic effects of dispersal are probably minimal. We conclude that, although gene flow does constrain morphological maladaptation in the outlet stream population, the evidence for its contribution to population size and range limits is mixed. We discuss the implications of our work for the study of factors influencing the evolution of species' ranges. PMID:19414468

  8. Stark sexual display divergence among jumping spider populations in the face of gene flow.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Gwylim S; Maddison, Wayne P

    2014-11-01

    Gene flow can inhibit evolutionary divergence by eroding genetic differences between populations. A current aim in speciation research is to identify conditions in which selection overcomes this process. We focused on a state of limited differentiation, asking whether selection enables divergence with gene flow in a set of Habronattus americanus jumping spider populations that exhibit three distinct male sexual display morphs. We found that each population is at high frequency or fixed for a single morph. These strong phenotypic differences contrast with low divergence at 210 AFLP markers, suggesting selection has driven or maintains morph divergence. Coinciding patterns of isolation by distance and 'isolation by phenotype' (i.e. increased genetic divergence among phenotypically contrasting populations) across the study area support several alternative demographic hypotheses for display divergence, each of which entails gene flow. Display-associated structure appears broadly distributed across the genome and the markers producing this pattern do not stand out from background levels of differentiation. Overall, the results suggest selection can promote stark sexual display divergence in the face of gene flow among closely related populations. PMID:25266277

  9. Landscape heterogeneity predicts gene flow in a widespread polymorphic bumble bee, Bombus bifarius (Hymentoptera: Apidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bombus bifarius is a widespread bumble bee that occurs in montane regions of western North America. This species has several major color polymorphisms, and shows evidence of genetic structuring among regional populations. We test whether this structure is evidence for discrete gene flow barriers tha...

  10. Asymmetric gene flow and constraints on adaptation caused by sex ratio distorters.

    PubMed

    Telschow, A; Engelstädter, J; Yamamura, N; Hammerstein, P; Hurst, G D D

    2006-05-01

    Asymmetric gene flow is generally believed to oppose natural selection and potentially impede adaptation. Whilst the cause of asymmetric gene flow has been seen largely in terms of variation in population density over space, asymmetric gene flow can also result from varying sex ratios across subpopulations with similar population sizes. We model the process of adaptation in a scenario in which two adjacent subpopulations have different sex ratios, associated with different levels of infection with maternally inherited endosymbionts that selectively kill male hosts. Two models are analyzed in detail. First, we consider one host locus with two alleles, each of which possesses a selective advantage in one of the subpopulations. We found that local adaptation can strongly be impeded in the subpopulation with the more female biased population sex ratio. Second, we analyze host alleles that provide resistance against the male-killing (MK) endosymbionts and show that asymmetric gene flow can prevent the spread of such alleles under certain conditions. These results might have important implications for the coevolution of MK bacteria and their hosts.

  11. Speciation with gene flow in whiptail lizards from a Neotropical xeric biome.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Eliana F; Gehara, Marcelo; São-Pedro, Vinícius A; Chen, Xin; Myers, Edward A; Burbrink, Frank T; Mesquita, Daniel O; Garda, Adrian A; Colli, Guarino R; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Arias, Federico J; Zaher, Hussam; Santos, Rodrigo M L; Costa, Gabriel C

    2015-12-01

    Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversification of the Caatinga biota. The riverine barrier hypothesis (RBH) claims that the São Francisco River (SFR) is a major biogeographic barrier to gene flow. The Pleistocene climatic fluctuation hypothesis (PCH) states that gene flow, geographic genetic structure and demographic signatures on endemic Caatinga taxa were influenced by Quaternary climate fluctuation cycles. Herein, we analyse genetic diversity and structure, phylogeographic history, and diversification of a widespread Caatinga lizard (Cnemidophorus ocellifer) based on large geographical sampling for multiple loci to test the predictions derived from the RBH and PCH. We inferred two well-delimited lineages (Northeast and Southwest) that have diverged along the Cerrado-Caatinga border during the Mid-Late Miocene (6-14 Ma) despite the presence of gene flow. We reject both major hypotheses proposed to explain diversification in the Caatinga. Surprisingly, our results revealed a striking complex diversification pattern where the Northeast lineage originated as a founder effect from a few individuals located along the edge of the Southwest lineage that eventually expanded throughout the Caatinga. The Southwest lineage is more diverse, older and associated with the Cerrado-Caatinga boundaries. Finally, we suggest that C. ocellifer from the Caatinga is composed of two distinct species. Our data support speciation in the presence of gene flow and highlight the role of environmental gradients in the diversification process. PMID:26502084

  12. Mating system and pollen gene flow in Mediterranean maritime pine.

    PubMed

    de-Lucas, A I; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; Hidalgo, E; González-Martínez, S C

    2008-04-01

    Mating systems define the mode of gene transmission across generations, helping to determine the amount and distribution of genetic variation within and among populations of plant species. A hierarchical analysis of Mediterranean maritime pine mating system (61 mother trees from 24 plots, clustered in three populations) was used to identify factors affecting mating patterns and to fit pollen dispersal kernels. Levels of ovule and seed abortion, multi- and single-locus outcrossing rates and correlated paternity were estimated from progeny arrays and correlated with ecological stand variables and biometric tree measures. Pollen dispersal kernels were fitted using TwoGener and KinDist indirect methods and simulations were carried out to identify relevant factors affecting correlated paternity. Maritime pine showed high outcrossing rates (t(m) and t(s) approximately 0.96) and relatively low levels of correlated paternity [an r(p) of 0.018 (Ritland's estimate) or 0.048 (Hardy's estimate)], although higher than in other anemophilous tree species. Mating system parameters had high variation at the single-tree level (99-100%) but no stand or population effect was detected. At the single-tree level, outcrossing rates were correlated with tree (diameter and height) and crown size. In addition, correlated paternity showed a significant negative correlation with tree height, height to crown base and height to the largest crown width, probably reflecting the importance of the trees' 'ecological neighborhoods'. Indirectly estimated pollen dispersal kernels were very leptokurtic (exponential-power distributions with beta<0.5), with mean dispersal distances from 78.4 to 174.4 m. Fitted dispersal kernels will be useful in building explicit simulation models that include dispersal functions, and which will contribute to current conservation and management programs for maritime pine. Nevertheless, the numerical simulations showed that restricted dispersal, male fertility and

  13. Local Evolution of Pyrethroid Resistance Offsets Gene Flow Among Aedes aegypti Collections in Yucatan State, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1–4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and evolution of resistance. Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow. PMID:25371186

  14. Multiplication of antenna genes as a major adaptation to low light in a marine prokaryote.

    PubMed

    Garczarek, L; Hess, W R; Holtzendorff, J; van der Staay, G W; Partensky, F

    2000-04-11

    Two ecotypes of the prokaryote Prochlorococcus adapted to distinct light niches in the ocean have been described recently. These ecotypes are characterized by their different (divinyl-) chlorophyll (Chl) a to Chl b ratios and 16S rRNA gene signatures, as well as by their significantly distinct irradiance optima for growth and photosynthesis [Moore, L. R., Rocap, G. & Chisholm, S. W. (1998) Nature (London) 393, 464-467]. However, the molecular basis of their physiological differences remained, so far, unexplained. In this paper, we show that the low-light-adapted Prochlorococcus strain SS120 possesses a gene family of seven transcribed genes encoding different Chl a/b-binding proteins (Pcbs). In contrast, Prochlorococcus sp. MED4, a high-light-adapted ecotype, possesses a single pcb gene. The presence of multiple antenna genes in another low-light ecotype (NATL2a), but not in another high-light ecotype (TAK9803-2), is demonstrated. Thus, the multiplication of pcb genes appears as a key factor in the capacity of deep Prochlorococcus populations to survive at extremely low photon fluxes. PMID:10725393

  15. Multiplication of antenna genes as a major adaptation to low light in a marine prokaryote.

    PubMed

    Garczarek, L; Hess, W R; Holtzendorff, J; van der Staay, G W; Partensky, F

    2000-04-11

    Two ecotypes of the prokaryote Prochlorococcus adapted to distinct light niches in the ocean have been described recently. These ecotypes are characterized by their different (divinyl-) chlorophyll (Chl) a to Chl b ratios and 16S rRNA gene signatures, as well as by their significantly distinct irradiance optima for growth and photosynthesis [Moore, L. R., Rocap, G. & Chisholm, S. W. (1998) Nature (London) 393, 464-467]. However, the molecular basis of their physiological differences remained, so far, unexplained. In this paper, we show that the low-light-adapted Prochlorococcus strain SS120 possesses a gene family of seven transcribed genes encoding different Chl a/b-binding proteins (Pcbs). In contrast, Prochlorococcus sp. MED4, a high-light-adapted ecotype, possesses a single pcb gene. The presence of multiple antenna genes in another low-light ecotype (NATL2a), but not in another high-light ecotype (TAK9803-2), is demonstrated. Thus, the multiplication of pcb genes appears as a key factor in the capacity of deep Prochlorococcus populations to survive at extremely low photon fluxes.

  16. Metagenomic analysis of nitrogen metabolism genes in the surface of marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Carolina; Schneider, Dominik; Thürmer, Andrea; Dellwig, Olaf; Lipka, Marko; Daniel, Rolf; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we analysed metagenomes along with biogeochemical profiles from Skagerrak (North Sea) and Bothnian Bay (Baltic Sea) sediments, to trace the prevailing nitrogen pathways. NO3- was present in the top 5 cm below the sediment-water interface at both sites. NH4+ increased with depth below 5 cm where it overlapped with the NO3- zone. Steady state modelling of NO3- and NH4+ porewater profiles indicates zones of net nitrogen species transformations. Protease, peptidase, urease and deaminase ammonification genes were detected in metagenomes. Genes involved in ammonia oxidation (amo, hao), nitrite oxidation (nxr), denitrification (nar, nir, nor) and dissimilatory NO3- reduction to NH4+ (nap, nfr and otr) were also present. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that the nitrifying group Nitrosopumilales and other groups involved in nitrification and denitrification (Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Nitrosococcus, and Nitrosonomas) appeared less abundant in Skagerrak sediments compared to Bothnian Bay sediments. Beggiatoa and Thiothrix 16S rRNA genes were also present suggesting chemolithoautotrophic NO3- reduction to NO2- or NH4+ as a possible pathway. Although anammox planctomycetes 16S rRNA genes were present in metagenomes, anammox protein-coding genes were not detected. Our results show the metabolic potential for ammonification, nitrification, NO3- reduction, and denitrification activities in Skagerrak and Bothnian Bay sediments.

  17. Gene flow between Zhuang and Han populations in the China-Vietnam borderland.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Pan, Shangling; Qin, Zhendong; Cai, Xiaoyun; Lu, Yan; Farina, Sara E; Liu, Chengwu; Peng, Junhua; Xu, Jieshun; Yin, Ruixing; Li, Shilin; Li, Jin; Li, Hui

    2010-11-01

    In epidemiological studies, it is easier to glean information from isolated populations with simple genetic backgrounds than from populations with relatively complex genetic backgrounds. Regarded as an isolated population, the Minz (Hei-Yi Zhuang) in Napo County (in the China-Vietnam borderland) has been the subject of numerous recent studies. To assess the genetic isolation of this population, we studied Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA from Minz and Han in Napo. Both populations exhibited southern Chinese genetic characteristics in both paternal and maternal lineages. Using NETWORK analyses, we found pronounced gene flow between these two populations only in maternal lineages. We also observed gene flow from other populations into the Minz gene pool. We thus concluded that the Minz is not a genetically isolated population and it is increasingly difficult to find isolated populations in mainland East Asia.

  18. Formation of liposome by microfluidic flow focusing and its application in gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, Rinbok; Oh, Yeonsu; Chae, Chanhee; Kim, Do Hyun

    2012-06-01

    We report the formation of liposomes in a simple procedure using a microfluidic hydrodynamic flow focusing method for the application in gene delivery. We fabricated microfluidic device using soft lithography and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molding technique. Lipid-containing stream was surrounded by aqueous stream and liposomes were formed at the lipid-water interface. Size distribution of liposomes and zeta potential of liposome dispersion were investigated under various flow rate ratio (FRR) and processing temperature. Size distributions of liposomes were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential was measured to quantify the colloidal stability. Prepared liposomes were used as a vehicle for gene delivery, and the successful expression of delivered gene was observed by fluorescent microscope.

  19. Landscape features affect gene flow of Scottish Highland red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Espona, S; Pérez-Barbería, F J; McLeod, J E; Jiggins, C D; Gordon, I J; Pemberton, J M

    2008-02-01

    Landscape features have been shown to strongly influence dispersal and, consequently, the genetic population structure of organisms. Studies quantifying the effect of landscape features on gene flow of large mammals with high dispersal capabilities are rare and have mainly been focused at large geographical scales. In this study, we assessed the influence of several natural and human-made landscape features on red deer gene flow in the Scottish Highlands by analysing 695 individuals for 21 microsatellite markers. Despite the relatively small scale of the study area (115 x 87 km), significant population structure was found using F-statistics (F(ST) = 0.019) and the program structure, with major differentiation found between populations sampled on either side of the main geographical barrier (the Great Glen). To assess the effect of landscape features on red deer population structure, the ArcMap GIS was used to create cost-distance matrices for moving between populations, using a range of cost values for each of the landscape features under consideration. Landscape features were shown to significantly affect red deer gene flow as they explained a greater proportion of the genetic variation than the geographical distance between populations. Sea lochs were found to be the most important red deer gene flow barriers in our study area, followed by mountain slopes, roads and forests. Inland lochs and rivers were identified as landscape features that might facilitate gene flow of red deer. Additionally, we explored the effect of choosing arbitrary cell cost values to construct least cost-distance matrices and described a method for improving the selection of cell cost values for a particular landscape feature.

  20. Patterns of Gene Flow between Crop and Wild Carrot, Daucus carota (Apiaceae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jennifer R; Ramsey, Adam J; Iorizzo, Massimo; Simon, Philipp W

    2016-01-01

    Studies of gene flow between crops and their wild relatives have implications for both management practices for cultivation and understanding the risk of transgene escape. These types of studies may also yield insight into population dynamics and the evolutionary consequences of gene flow for wild relatives of crop species. Moreover, the comparison of genetic markers with different modes of inheritance, or transmission, such as those of the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, can inform the relative risk of transgene escape via pollen versus seed. Here we investigate patterns of gene flow between crop and wild carrot, Daucus carota (Apiaceae) in two regions of the United States. We employed 15 nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one polymorphic chloroplast marker. Further, we utilized both conventional population genetic metrics along with Shannon diversity indices as the latter have been proposed to be more sensitive to allele frequency changes and differentiation. We found that populations in both regions that were proximal to crop fields showed lower levels of differentiation to the crops than populations that were located farther away. We also found that Shannon measures were more sensitive to differences in both genetic diversity and differentiation in our study. Finally, we found indirect evidence of paternal transmission of chloroplast DNA and accompanying lower than expected levels of chloroplast genetic structure amongst populations as might be expected if chloroplast DNA genes flow through both seed and pollen. Our findings of substantial gene flow for both nuclear and chloroplast markers demonstrate the efficiency of both pollen and seed to transfer genetic information amongst populations of carrot. PMID:27603516

  1. Patterns of Gene Flow between Crop and Wild Carrot, Daucus carota (Apiaceae) in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; Ramsey, Adam J.; Iorizzo, Massimo; Simon, Philipp W.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of gene flow between crops and their wild relatives have implications for both management practices for cultivation and understanding the risk of transgene escape. These types of studies may also yield insight into population dynamics and the evolutionary consequences of gene flow for wild relatives of crop species. Moreover, the comparison of genetic markers with different modes of inheritance, or transmission, such as those of the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, can inform the relative risk of transgene escape via pollen versus seed. Here we investigate patterns of gene flow between crop and wild carrot, Daucus carota (Apiaceae) in two regions of the United States. We employed 15 nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one polymorphic chloroplast marker. Further, we utilized both conventional population genetic metrics along with Shannon diversity indices as the latter have been proposed to be more sensitive to allele frequency changes and differentiation. We found that populations in both regions that were proximal to crop fields showed lower levels of differentiation to the crops than populations that were located farther away. We also found that Shannon measures were more sensitive to differences in both genetic diversity and differentiation in our study. Finally, we found indirect evidence of paternal transmission of chloroplast DNA and accompanying lower than expected levels of chloroplast genetic structure amongst populations as might be expected if chloroplast DNA genes flow through both seed and pollen. Our findings of substantial gene flow for both nuclear and chloroplast markers demonstrate the efficiency of both pollen and seed to transfer genetic information amongst populations of carrot. PMID:27603516

  2. Patterns of Gene Flow between Crop and Wild Carrot, Daucus carota (Apiaceae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jennifer R; Ramsey, Adam J; Iorizzo, Massimo; Simon, Philipp W

    2016-01-01

    Studies of gene flow between crops and their wild relatives have implications for both management practices for cultivation and understanding the risk of transgene escape. These types of studies may also yield insight into population dynamics and the evolutionary consequences of gene flow for wild relatives of crop species. Moreover, the comparison of genetic markers with different modes of inheritance, or transmission, such as those of the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, can inform the relative risk of transgene escape via pollen versus seed. Here we investigate patterns of gene flow between crop and wild carrot, Daucus carota (Apiaceae) in two regions of the United States. We employed 15 nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one polymorphic chloroplast marker. Further, we utilized both conventional population genetic metrics along with Shannon diversity indices as the latter have been proposed to be more sensitive to allele frequency changes and differentiation. We found that populations in both regions that were proximal to crop fields showed lower levels of differentiation to the crops than populations that were located farther away. We also found that Shannon measures were more sensitive to differences in both genetic diversity and differentiation in our study. Finally, we found indirect evidence of paternal transmission of chloroplast DNA and accompanying lower than expected levels of chloroplast genetic structure amongst populations as might be expected if chloroplast DNA genes flow through both seed and pollen. Our findings of substantial gene flow for both nuclear and chloroplast markers demonstrate the efficiency of both pollen and seed to transfer genetic information amongst populations of carrot.

  3. Impact of gene flow from cultivated beet on genetic diversity of wild sea beet populations

    PubMed

    Bartsch; Lehnen; Clegg; Pohl-Orf; Schuphan; Ellstrand

    1999-10-01

    Gene flow and introgression from cultivated plants may have important consequences for the conservation of wild plant populations. Cultivated beets (sugar beet, red beet and Swiss chard: Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) are of particular concern because they are cross-compatible with the wild taxon, sea beet (B.vs. ssp. maritima). Cultivated beet seed production areas are sometimes adjacent to sea beet populations; the numbers of flowering individuals in the former typically outnumber those in the populations of the latter. In such situations, gene flow from cultivated beets has the potential to alter the genetic composition of the nearby wild populations. In this study we measured isozyme allele frequencies of 11 polymorphic loci in 26 accessions of cultivated beet, in 20 sea beet accessions growing near a cultivated beet seed production region in northeastern Italy, and 19 wild beet accessions growing far from seed production areas. We found one allele that is specific to sugar beet, relative to other cultivated types, and a second that has a much higher frequency in Swiss chard and red beet than in sugar beet. Both alleles are typically rare in sea beet populations that are distant from seed production areas, but both are common in those that are near the Italian cultivated beet seed production region, supporting the contention that gene flow from the crop to the wild species can be substantial when both grow in proximity. Interestingly, the introgressed populations have higher genetic diversity than those that are isolated from the crop. The crop-to-wild gene flow rates are unknown, as are the fitness consequences of such alleles in the wild. Thus, we are unable to assess the long-term impact of such introgression. However, it is clear that gene flow from a crop to a wild taxon does not necessarily result in a decrease in the genetic diversity of the native plant.

  4. Impact of gene flow from cultivated beet on genetic diversity of wild sea beet populations

    PubMed

    Bartsch; Lehnen; Clegg; Pohl-Orf; Schuphan; Ellstrand

    1999-10-01

    Gene flow and introgression from cultivated plants may have important consequences for the conservation of wild plant populations. Cultivated beets (sugar beet, red beet and Swiss chard: Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) are of particular concern because they are cross-compatible with the wild taxon, sea beet (B.vs. ssp. maritima). Cultivated beet seed production areas are sometimes adjacent to sea beet populations; the numbers of flowering individuals in the former typically outnumber those in the populations of the latter. In such situations, gene flow from cultivated beets has the potential to alter the genetic composition of the nearby wild populations. In this study we measured isozyme allele frequencies of 11 polymorphic loci in 26 accessions of cultivated beet, in 20 sea beet accessions growing near a cultivated beet seed production region in northeastern Italy, and 19 wild beet accessions growing far from seed production areas. We found one allele that is specific to sugar beet, relative to other cultivated types, and a second that has a much higher frequency in Swiss chard and red beet than in sugar beet. Both alleles are typically rare in sea beet populations that are distant from seed production areas, but both are common in those that are near the Italian cultivated beet seed production region, supporting the contention that gene flow from the crop to the wild species can be substantial when both grow in proximity. Interestingly, the introgressed populations have higher genetic diversity than those that are isolated from the crop. The crop-to-wild gene flow rates are unknown, as are the fitness consequences of such alleles in the wild. Thus, we are unable to assess the long-term impact of such introgression. However, it is clear that gene flow from a crop to a wild taxon does not necessarily result in a decrease in the genetic diversity of the native plant. PMID:10583835

  5. Phenotypic Variation across Chromosomal Hybrid Zones of the Common Shrew (Sorex araneus) Indicates Reduced Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Polly, P. David; Polyakov, Andrei V.; Ilyashenko, Vadim B.; Onischenko, Sergei S.; White, Thomas A.; Shchipanov, Nikolay A.; Bulatova, Nina S.; Pavlova, Svetlana V.; Borodin, Pavel M.; Searle, Jeremy B.

    2013-01-01

    Sorex araneus, the Common shrew, is a species with more than 70 karyotypic races, many of which form parapatric hybrid zones, making it a model for studying chromosomal speciation. Hybrids between races have reduced fitness, but microsatellite markers have demonstrated considerable gene flow between them, calling into question whether the chromosomal barriers actually do contribute to genetic divergence. We studied phenotypic clines across two hybrid zones with especially complex heterozygotes. Hybrids between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk races produce chains of nine and three chromosomes at meiosis, and hybrids between the Moscow and Seliger races produce chains of eleven. Our goal was to determine whether phenotypes show evidence of reduced gene flow at hybrid zones. We used maximum likelihood to fit tanh cline models to geometric shape data and found that phenotypic clines in skulls and mandibles across these zones had similar centers and widths as chromosomal clines. The amount of phenotypic differentiation across the zones is greater than expected if it were dissipating due to unrestricted gene flow given the amount of time since contact, but it is less than expected to have accumulated from drift during allopatric separation in glacial refugia. Only if heritability is very low, Ne very high, and the time spent in allopatry very short, will the differences we observe be large enough to match the expectation of drift. Our results therefore suggest that phenotypic differentiation has been lost through gene flow since post-glacial secondary contact, but not as quickly as would be expected if there was free gene flow across the hybrid zones. The chromosomal tension zones are confirmed to be partial barriers that prevent differentiated races from becoming phenotypically homogenous. PMID:23874420

  6. Asymmetric hybridization and gene flow between Joshua trees (Agavaceae: Yucca) reflect differences in pollinator host specificity.

    PubMed

    Starr, Tyler N; Gadek, Katherine E; Yoder, Jeremy B; Flatz, Ramona; Smith, Christopher I

    2013-01-01

    The angiosperms are by far the largest group of terrestrial plants. Their spectacular diversity is often attributed to specialized pollination. Obligate pollination mutualisms where both a plant and its pollinator are dependent upon one another for reproduction are thought to be prone to rapid diversification through co-evolution and pollinator isolation. However, few studies have evaluated the degree to which pollinators actually mediate reproductive isolation in these systems. Here, we examine evidence for hybridization and gene flow between two subspecies of Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia brevifolia and Yucca brevifolia jaegeriana) pollinated by two sister species of yucca moth. Previous work indicated that the pollinators differ in host specificity, and DNA sequence data suggested asymmetric introgression between the tree subspecies. Through intensive sampling in a zone of sympatry, a large number of morphologically intermediate trees were identified. These included trees with floral characters typical of Y. b. jaegeriana, but vegetative features typical of Y. b. brevifolia. The opposite combination-Y. b. brevifolia flowers with Y. b. jaegeriana vegetative morphology-never occurred. Microsatellite genotyping revealed a high frequency of genetically admixed, hybrid trees. Coalescent-based estimates of migration indicated significant gene flow between the subspecies and that the direction of gene flow matches differences in pollinator host fidelity. The data suggest that pollinator behaviour determines the magnitude and direction of gene flow between the two subspecies, but that specialized pollination alone is not sufficient to maintain species boundaries. Natural selection may be required to maintain phenotypic differences in the face of ongoing gene flow.

  7. Influence of outlet geometry on the swirling flow in a simplified model of a large two-stroke marine diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, S.; Schnipper, T.; Meyer, K. E.; Walther, J. H.; Mayer, S.

    2011-11-01

    We present Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements of the effect of a dummy-valve on the in-cylinder swirling flow in a simplified scale model of a large two-stroke marine diesel engine cylinder using air at room temperature and pressure as the working fluid and Reynolds number 19500. The static model has stroke-to-bore ratio of 4, is rotationally symmetric and the in-cylinder swirling flow is enforced by angled ports at the inlet. We consider a case analogous to engine when the piston is at bottom-dead-center. In absence of an exhaust valve the overall axial velocity profile is wake-like and flow reversal is observed on the cylinder axis, close to the inlet. Downstream, the flow reversal disappears and instead a localized jet develops. The corresponding tangential velocity profiles show a concentrated vortex with decreasing width along the downstream direction. By placing a concentric dummy-valve at the cylinder outlet, the magnitude of reverse flow at the inlet increases, the strong swirl is diminished and the axial jet disappears. We compare these findings with previous measurements in vortex chambers and discuss the relevance of these results with respect to development of marine engines.

  8. Genetic structure in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica: disentangling past vicariance events from contemporary patterns of gene flow.

    PubMed

    Serra, I A; Innocenti, A M; Di Maida, G; Calvo, S; Migliaccio, M; Zambianchi, E; Pizzigalli, C; Arnaud-Haond, S; Duarte, C M; Serrao, E A; Procaccini, G

    2010-02-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a two-basin system, with the boundary zone restricted to the Strait of Sicily and the narrow Strait of Messina. Two main population groups are recognized in the Mediterranean endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica, corresponding to the Western and the Eastern basins. To address the nature of the East-West cleavage in P. oceanica, the main aims of this study were: (i) to define the genetic structure within the potential contact zone (i.e. the Strait of Sicily) and clarify the extent of gene flow between the two population groups, and (ii) to investigate the role of present water circulation patterns vs. past evolutionary events on the observed genetic pattern. To achieve these goals, we utilized SSR markers and we simulated, with respect to current regime, the possible present-day dispersal pattern of Posidonia floating fruits using 28-day numerical Lagrangian trajectories. The results obtained confirm the presence of the two main population groups, without any indices of reproductive isolation, with the break zone located at the level of the Southern tip of Calabria. The populations in the Strait of Sicily showed higher affinity with Western than with Eastern populations. This pattern of genetic structure probably reflects historical avenues of recolonization from relict glacial areas and past vicariance events, but seems to persist as a result of the low connectivity among populations via marine currents, as suggested by our dispersal simulation analysis.

  9. Functional gene-based discovery of phenazines from the actinobacteria associated with marine sponges in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Karuppiah, Valliappan; Li, Yingxin; Sun, Wei; Feng, Guofang; Li, Zhiyong

    2015-07-01

    Phenazines represent a large group of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds produced by the diverse group of bacteria including actinobacteria. In this study, a total of 197 actinobacterial strains were isolated from seven different marine sponge species in the South China Sea using five different culture media. Eighty-seven morphologically different actinobacterial strains were selected and grouped into 13 genera, including Actinoalloteichus, Kocuria, Micrococcus, Micromonospora, Mycobacterium, Nocardiopsis, Prauserella, Rhodococcus, Saccharopolyspora, Salinispora, Serinicoccus, and Streptomyces by the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene. Based on the screening of phzE genes, ten strains, including five Streptomyces, two Nocardiopsis, one Salinispora, one Micrococcus, and one Serinicoccus were found to be potential for phenazine production. The level of phzE gene expression was highly expressed in Nocardiopsis sp. 13-33-15, 13-12-13, and Serinicoccus sp. 13-12-4 on the fifth day of fermentation. Finally, 1,6-dihydroxy phenazine (1) from Nocardiopsis sp. 13-33-15 and 13-12-13, and 1,6-dimethoxy phenazine (2) from Nocardiopsis sp. 13-33-15 were isolated and identified successfully based on ESI-MS and NMR analysis. The compounds 1 and 2 showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus mycoides SJ14, Staphylococcus aureus SJ51, Escherichia coli SJ42, and Micrococcus luteus SJ47. This study suggests that the integrated approach of gene screening and chemical analysis is an effective strategy to find the target compounds and lays the basis for the production of phenazine from the sponge-associated actinobacteria.

  10. METHODS FOR DETERMINING EXPOSURE TO AND POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GENE FLOW FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS TO COMPATIBLE RELATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCIENCE QUESTIONS:

    -Does gene flow occur from genetically modified (GM) crop plants to compatible plants?

    -How can it be measured?

    -Are there ecological consequences of GM crop gene flow to plant communities?



    RESEARCH:

    The objectives ...

  11. Effects of gene flow on phenotype matching between two varieties of Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia; Agavaceae) and their pollinators.

    PubMed

    Yoder, J B; Smith, C I; Rowley, D J; Flatz, R; Godsoe, W; Drummond, C; Pellmyr, O

    2013-06-01

    In animal-pollinated plants, local adaptation to pollinator behaviour or morphology can restrict gene flow among plant populations; but gene flow may also prevent divergent adaptation. Here, we examine possible effects of gene flow on plant-pollinator trait matching in two varieties of Joshua tree (Agavaceae: Yucca brevifolia). The two varieties differ in strikingly in floral morphology, which matches differences in the morphology of their pollinators. However, this codivergence is not present at a smaller scale: within the two varieties of Joshua tree, variation in floral morphology between demes is not correlated with differences in moth morphology. We use population genetic data for Joshua tree and its pollinators to test the hypotheses that gene flow between Joshua tree populations is structured by pollinator specificity, and that gene flow within the divergent plant-pollinator associations 'swamps' fine-scale coadaptation. Our data show that Joshua tree populations are structured by pollinator association, but the two tree varieties are only weakly isolated - meaning that their phenotypic differences are maintained in the face of significant gene flow. Coalescent analysis of gene flow between the two Joshua tree types suggests that it may be shaped by asymmetric pollinator specificity, which has been observed in a narrow zone of sympatry. Finally, we find evidence suggesting that gene flow among Joshua tree sites may shape floral morphology within one plant-pollinator association, but not the other.

  12. Thaumarchaeotal Signature Gene Distribution in Sediments of the Northern South China Sea: an Indicator of the Metabolic Intersection of the Marine Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Cycles?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haixia; Yang, Jinying; Ge, Huangmin; Jiao, Nianzhi; Luan, Xiwu; Klotz, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    Thaumarchaeota are abundant and active in marine waters, where they contribute to aerobic ammonia oxidation and light-independent carbon fixation. The ecological function of thaumarchaeota in marine sediments, however, has rarely been investigated, even though marine sediments constitute the majority of the Earth's surface. Thaumarchaeota in the upper layer of sediments may contribute significantly to the reservoir of nitrogen oxides in ocean waters and thus to productivity, including the assimilation of carbon. We tested this hypothesis in the northern South China Sea (nSCS), a section of a large oligotrophic marginal sea with limited influx of nutrients, including nitrogen, by investigating the diversity, abundance, community structure, and spatial distribution of thaumarchaeotal signatures in surface sediments. Quantitative real-time PCR using primers designed to detect 16S rRNA and amoA genes in sediment community DNA revealed a significantly higher abundance of pertinent thaumarchaeotal than betaproteobacterial genes. This finding correlates with high levels of hcd genes, a signature of thaumarchaeotal autotrophic carbon fixation. Thaumarchaeol, a signature lipid biomarker for thaumarchaeota, constituted the majority of archaeal lipids in marine sediments. Sediment temperature and organic P and silt contents were identified as key environmental factors shaping the community structure and distribution of the monitored thaumarchaeotal amoA genes. When the pore water PO43− concentration was controlled for via partial-correlation analysis, thaumarchaeotal amoA gene abundance significantly correlated with the sediment pore water NO2− concentration, suggesting that the amoA-bearing thaumarchaeota contribute to nitrite production. Statistical analyses also suggest that thaumarchaeotal metabolism could serve as a pivotal intersection of the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles in marine sediments. PMID:23335759

  13. Thaumarchaeotal signature gene distribution in sediments of the northern South China Sea: an indicator of the metabolic intersection of the marine carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles?

    PubMed

    Dang, Hongyue; Zhou, Haixia; Yang, Jinying; Ge, Huangmin; Jiao, Nianzhi; Luan, Xiwu; Zhang, Chuanlun; Klotz, Martin G

    2013-04-01

    Thaumarchaeota are abundant and active in marine waters, where they contribute to aerobic ammonia oxidation and light-independent carbon fixation. The ecological function of thaumarchaeota in marine sediments, however, has rarely been investigated, even though marine sediments constitute the majority of the Earth's surface. Thaumarchaeota in the upper layer of sediments may contribute significantly to the reservoir of nitrogen oxides in ocean waters and thus to productivity, including the assimilation of carbon. We tested this hypothesis in the northern South China Sea (nSCS), a section of a large oligotrophic marginal sea with limited influx of nutrients, including nitrogen, by investigating the diversity, abundance, community structure, and spatial distribution of thaumarchaeotal signatures in surface sediments. Quantitative real-time PCR using primers designed to detect 16S rRNA and amoA genes in sediment community DNA revealed a significantly higher abundance of pertinent thaumarchaeotal than betaproteobacterial genes. This finding correlates with high levels of hcd genes, a signature of thaumarchaeotal autotrophic carbon fixation. Thaumarchaeol, a signature lipid biomarker for thaumarchaeota, constituted the majority of archaeal lipids in marine sediments. Sediment temperature and organic P and silt contents were identified as key environmental factors shaping the community structure and distribution of the monitored thaumarchaeotal amoA genes. When the pore water PO4(3-) concentration was controlled for via partial-correlation analysis, thaumarchaeotal amoA gene abundance significantly correlated with the sediment pore water NO2(-) concentration, suggesting that the amoA-bearing thaumarchaeota contribute to nitrite production. Statistical analyses also suggest that thaumarchaeotal metabolism could serve as a pivotal intersection of the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles in marine sediments.

  14. Evolution and Functional Diversification of Fructose Bisphosphate Aldolase Genes in Photosynthetic Marine Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew E.; Moustafa, Ahmed; Montsant, Anton; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G.; Bowler, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Diatoms and other chlorophyll-c containing, or chromalveolate, algae are among the most productive and diverse phytoplankton in the ocean. Evolutionarily, chlorophyll-c algae are linked through common, although not necessarily monophyletic, acquisition of plastid endosymbionts of red as well as most likely green algal origin. There is also strong evidence for a relatively high level of lineage-specific bacterial gene acquisition within chromalveolates. Therefore, analyses of gene content and derivation in chromalveolate taxa have indicated particularly diverse origins of their overall gene repertoire. As a single group of functionally related enzymes spanning two distinct gene families, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs) illustrate the influence on core biochemical pathways of specific evolutionary associations among diatoms and other chromalveolates with various plastid-bearing and bacterial endosymbionts. Protein localization and activity, gene expression, and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum contains five FBA genes with very little overall functional overlap. Three P. tricornutum FBAs, one class I and two class II, are plastid localized, and each appears to have a distinct evolutionary origin as well as function. Class I plastid FBA appears to have been acquired by chromalveolates from a red algal endosymbiont, whereas one copy of class II plastid FBA is likely to have originated from an ancient green algal endosymbiont. The other copy appears to be the result of a chromalveolate-specific gene duplication. Plastid FBA I and chromalveolate-specific class II plastid FBA are localized in the pyrenoid region of the chloroplast where they are associated with β-carbonic anhydrase, which is known to play a significant role in regulation of the diatom carbon concentrating mechanism. The two pyrenoid-associated FBAs are distinguished by contrasting gene expression profiles under nutrient limiting compared with

  15. Characterization of the polyubiquitin gene in the marine red alga Gracilaria verrucosa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y H; Ragan, M A

    1995-04-01

    We have cloned a nuclear gene (UBI6R) and corresponding cDNAs that encode polyubiquitin in the florideophycidean red alga Gracilaria verrucosa. The gene encodes a polyubiquitin composed of six tandem ubiquitin units, followed by a single glutamine residue. The deduced amino acid sequences are identical among all six units, and identical to the ubiquitin of the florideophyte Aglaothamnion neglectum. There is high sequence similarity among the red algal ubiquitins and those of animals, green plants, fungi and several protists. Only one polyubiquitin gene was found by Southern hybridization analysis of G. verrucosa nuclear DNA. The upstream region of the gene is rich in putative cis-acting transcription-regulatory elements, including a putative heat-responsive element. Poly(A) addition to UBI6R mRNA was observed in cDNAs at four different sites, implicating the sequences AATAAA and (or) AGTAAA as poly(A) addition signals. The polyubiquitin genes of red algae show features of concerted evolution, but appear to be subject to less sequence homogenization than those of animals.

  16. DISTRIBUTION AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE LUCIFERASE GENE WITHIN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES(1).

    PubMed

    Valiadi, Martha; Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez, M; Amorim, Ana

    2012-06-01

    Dinoflagellates are the most abundant protists that produce bioluminescence. Currently, there is an incomplete knowledge of the identity of bioluminescent species arising from inter- and intraspecific variability in bioluminescence properties. In this study, PCR primers were designed to amplify the dinoflagellate luciferase gene (lcf) from genetically distant bioluminescent species. One of the primer pairs was "universal," whereas others amplified longer gene sequences from subsets of taxa. The primers were used to study the distribution of lcf and assess bioluminescence potential in dinoflagellate strains representing a wide variety of taxa as well as multiple strains of selected species. Strains of normally bioluminescent species always contained lcf even when they were found not to produce light, thus demonstrating the utility of this methodology as a powerful tool for identifying bioluminescent species. Bioluminescence and lcf were confined to the Gonyaulacales, Noctilucales, and Peridiniales. Considerable variation was observed among genera, or even species within some genera, that contained this gene. Partial sequences of lcf were obtained for the genera Ceratocorys, Ceratium, Fragilidium, and Protoperidinium as well as from previously untested species or gene regions of Alexandrium and Gonyaulax. The sequences revealed high variation among gene copies that obscured the boundaries between species or even genera, some of which could be explained by the presence of two genetic variants within the same species of Alexandrium. Highly divergent sequences within Alexandrium and Ceratium show a more diverse composition of lcf than previously known.

  17. Improved parameterization of marine ice dynamics and flow instabilities for simulation of the Austfonna ice cap using a large-scale ice sheet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunse, T.; Greve, R.; Schuler, T.; Hagen, J. M.; Navarro, F.; Vasilenko, E.; Reijmer, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Austfonna ice cap covers an area of 8120 km2 and is by far the largest glacier on Svalbard. Almost 30% of the entire area is grounded below sea-level, while the figure is as large as 57% for the known surge-type basins in particular. Marine ice dynamics, as well as flow instabilities presumably control flow regime, form and evolution of Austfonna. These issues are our focus in numerical simulations of the ice cap. We employ the thermodynamic, large-scale ice sheet model SICOPOLIS (http://sicopolis.greveweb.net/) which is based on the shallow-ice approximation. We present improved parameterizations of (a) the marine extent and calving and (b) processes that may initiate flow instabilities such as switches from cold to temperate basal conditions, surface steepening and hence, increases in driving stress, enhanced sliding or deformation of unconsolidated marine sediments and diminishing ice thicknesses towards flotation thickness. Space-borne interferometric snapshots of Austfonna revealed a velocity structure of a slow moving polar ice cap (< 10m/a) interrupted by distinct fast flow units with velocities in excess of 100m/a. However, observations of flow variability are scarce. In spring 2008, we established a series of stakes along the centrelines of two fast-flowing units. Repeated DGPS and continuous GPS measurements of the stake positions give insight in the temporal flow variability of these units and provide constrains to the modeled surface velocity field. Austfonna’s thermal structure is described as polythermal. However, direct measurements of the temperature distribution is available only from one single borehole at the summit area. The vertical temperature profile shows that the bulk of the 567m thick ice column is cold, only underlain by a thin temperate basal layer of approximately 20m. To acquire a spatially extended picture of the thermal structure (and bed topography), we used low-frequency (20 MHz) GPR profiling across the ice cap and the

  18. The connectivity of Mytilus galloprovincialis in northern Morocco: A gene flow crossroads between continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouagajjou, Yassine; Presa, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous population genetic studies on the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis have shown the existence of two well differentiated sets of populations around Southern European coasts, one Atlantic and another Mediterranean. Those two population pools are kept apart by the Almería - Oran Oceanographic Front (AOOF), an oceanographic discontinuity acting either as a cause of such differentiation or simply as a means of maintaining two historically differentiated gene pools. The role of the Gibraltar Strait at shaping mussel larval flow entering the Alboran Sea has been much less addressed, especially regarding mussel swarms inhabiting the northern coast of Morocco. The present study applies seven microsatellite markers to describing the genetic status of northern Moroccan populations of M. galloprovincialis and their relationship with the two well-characterized mussel gene pools from southern Europe. We show that the Atlantic Iberia gene pool extending continuously from the Cantabrian Sea (NE Iberia) to the Alboran Sea (SE Iberia) up to the AOOF is well differentiated from the Atlantic Moroccan mussel. Either an oceanographic barrier or a limited larval dispersal or both, are required to explain this unexpected intercontinental differentiation regarding previous studies on this species. Populations from Atlantic Morocco conformed to a single gene pool (FST ± SD = 0.012 ± 0.007) as opposed to the reported latitudinal barrier to gene flow at Cape Ghir in western Morocco. Additionally, a significant restriction to gene flow was observed between Atlantic Morocco and Alboran Morocco (FST ± SD = 0.038 ± 0.010) in contrast to the reported mussel genetic continuity along the Iberian coast up to AOOF. Three major mussel gene pools appear to meet at this crossroads between continents and between seas, namely, a Mediterranean European subpopulation, an Atlantic Iberia subpopulation including the Alboran Sea, and an Atlantic Morocco subpopulation. Knowledge on

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Carbon Flow into Photosynthetic Products Functioning as Carbon Storage in the Marine Coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Iwane; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    The bloom-forming coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) is a dominant marine phytoplankton, cells of which are covered with calcareous plates (coccoliths). E. huxleyi produces unique lipids of C37-C40 long-chain ketones (alkenones) with two to four trans-unsaturated bonds, β-glucan (but not α-glucan) and acid polysaccharide (AP) associated with the morphogenesis of CaCO3 crystals in coccoliths. Despite such unique features, there is no detailed information on the patterns of carbon allocation into these compounds. Therefore, we performed quantitative estimation of carbon flow into various macromolecular products by conducting (14)C-radiotracer experiments using NaH(14)CO3 as a substrate. Photosynthetic (14)C incorporation into low molecular-mass compounds (LMC), extracellular AP, alkenones, and total lipids except alkenones was estimated to be 35, 13, 17, and 25 % of total (14)C fixation in logarithmic growth phase cells and 33, 19, 18, and 18 % in stationary growth phase cells, respectively. However, less than 1 % of (14)C was incorporated into β-glucan in both cells. (14)C-mannitol occupied ca. 5 % of total fixed (14)C as the most dominant LMC product. Levels of all (14)C compounds decreased in the dark. Therefore, alkenones and LMC (including mannitol), but not β-glucan, function in carbon/energy storage in E. huxleyi, irrespective of the growth phase. Compared with other algae, the low carbon flux into β-glucan is a unique feature of carbon metabolism in E. huxelyi.

  20. Gene Flow Among Different Teosinte Taxa and Into the Domesticated Maize Gene Pool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) was domesticated from one wild species ancestor, the Balsas teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) about 9000 years ago. Higher levels of gene diversity are found in teosinte taxa compared to maize following domestication and selection bottlenecks. Diversity in maize can b...

  1. A flexible quantitative methodology for the analysis of gene-flow between conventionally bred maize populations using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Robson, P R H; Kelly, R; Jensen, E F; Giddings, G D; Leitch, M; Davey, C; Gay, A P; Jenkins, G; Thomas, H; Donnison, I S

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies of gene-flow in agriculture have used a range of physical and biochemical markers, including transgenes. However, physical and biochemical markers are not available for all commercial varieties, and transgenes are difficult to use when trying to estimate gene flow in the field where the use of transgenes is often restricted. Here, we demonstrate the use of simple sequence repeat microsatellite markers (SSRs) to study gene flow in maize. Developing the first quantitative analysis of pooled SSR samples resulted in a high sampling efficiency which minimised the use of resources and greatly enhanced the possibility of hybrid detection. We were able to quantitatively distinguish hybrids in pools of ten samples from non-hybrid parental lines in all of the 24 pair-wise combinations of commercial varieties tested. The technique was used to determine gene flow in field studies, from which a simple model describing gene flow in maize was developed. PMID:21109994

  2. Crossing the divide: gene flow produces intergeneric hybrid in feral transgenic creeping bentgrass population.

    PubMed

    Zapiola, María L; Mallory-Smith, Carol A

    2012-10-01

    Gene flow is the most frequently expressed public concern related to the deregulation of transgenic events (Snow 2002; Ellstrand 2003). However, assessing the potential for transgene escape is complex because it depends on the opportunities for unintended gene flow, and establishment and persistence of the transgene in the environment (Warwick et al. 2008). Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), a turfgrass species widely used on golf courses, has been genetically engineered to be resistant to glyphosate, a nonselective herbicide. Outcrossing species, such as creeping bentgrass (CB), which have several compatible species, have greater chances for gene escape and spontaneous hybridization (i.e. natural, unassisted sexual reproduction between taxa in the field), which challenges transgene containment. Several authors have emphasized the need for evidence of spontaneous hybridization to infer the potential for gene flow (Armstrong et al. 2005). Here we report that a transgenic intergeneric hybrid has been produced as result of spontaneous hybridization of a feral-regulated transgenic pollen receptor (CB) and a nontransgenic pollen donor (rabbitfoot grass, RF, Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.). We identified an off-type transgenic seedling and confirmed it to be CB × RF intergeneric hybrid. This first report of a transgenic intergeneric hybrid produced in situ with a regulated transgenic event demonstrates the importance of considering all possible avenues for transgene spread at the landscape level before planting a regulated transgenic crop in the field. Spontaneous hybridization adds a level of complexity to transgene monitoring, containment, mitigation and remediation programmes.

  3. De Novo Assembly and Genome Analyses of the Marine-Derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis Strain LF580 Unravels Life-Style Traits and Anticancerous Scopularide Biosynthetic Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhishek; Henrissat, Bernard; Arvas, Mikko; Syed, Muhammad Fahad; Thieme, Nils; Benz, J. Philipp; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Record, Eric; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Kempken, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The marine-derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain LF580 produces scopularides A and B, which have anticancerous properties. We carried out genome sequencing using three next-generation DNA sequencing methods. De novo hybrid assembly yielded 621 scaffolds with a total size of 32.2 Mb and 16298 putative gene models. We identified a large non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (nrps1) and supporting pks2 gene in the same biosynthetic gene cluster. This cluster and the genes within the cluster are functionally active as confirmed by RNA-Seq. Characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes and major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-type transporters lead to postulate S. brevicaulis originated from a soil fungus, which came into contact with the marine sponge Tethya aurantium. This marine sponge seems to provide shelter to this fungus and micro-environment suitable for its survival in the ocean. This study also builds the platform for further investigations of the role of life-style and secondary metabolites from S. brevicaulis. PMID:26505484

  4. Functional and Structural Characterization of FAU Gene/Protein from Marine Sponge Suberites domuncula

    PubMed Central

    Perina, Dragutin; Korolija, Marina; Popović Hadžija, Marijana; Grbeša, Ivana; Belužić, Robert; Imešek, Mirna; Morrow, Christine; Marjanović, Melanija Posavec; Bakran-Petricioli, Tatjana; Mikoč, Andreja; Ćetković, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR-MuSV) ubiquitously expressed (FAU) gene is down-regulated in human prostate, breast and ovarian cancers. Moreover, its dysregulation is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Sponges (Porifera) are animals without tissues which branched off first from the common ancestor of all metazoans. A large majority of genes implicated in human cancers have their homologues in the sponge genome. Our study suggests that FAU gene from the sponge Suberites domuncula reflects characteristics of the FAU gene from the metazoan ancestor, which have changed only slightly during the course of animal evolution. We found pro-apoptotic activity of sponge FAU protein. The same as its human homologue, sponge FAU increases apoptosis in human HEK293T cells. This indicates that the biological functions of FAU, usually associated with “higher” metazoans, particularly in cancer etiology, possess a biochemical background established early in metazoan evolution. The ancestor of all animals possibly possessed FAU protein with the structure and function similar to evolutionarily more recent versions of the protein, even before the appearance of true tissues and the origin of tumors and metastasis. It provides an opportunity to use pre-bilaterian animals as a simpler model for studying complex interactions in human cancerogenesis. PMID:26198235

  5. [Gene expression regulation at the translational level: contribution of marine organisms].

    PubMed

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Morales, Julia; Cosson, Bertrand; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Bellé, Robert; Cormier, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Gene expression regulation is crucial for organism survival. Each step has to be regulated, from the gene to the protein. mRNA can be stored in the cell without any direct translation. This process is used by the cell to control protein synthesis rapidly at the right place, at the right time. Protein synthesis costs a lot of energy for the cell, so that a precise control of this process is required. Translation initiation represents an important step to regulate gene expression. Many factors that can bind mRNA and recruit different partners are involved in the inhibition or stimulation of protein synthesis. Oceans contain an important diversity of organisms that are used as important models to analyse gene expression at the translational level. These are useful to study translational control in different physiological processes for instance cell cycle (meiosis during meiotic maturation of starfish oocytes, mitosis following fertilization of sea urchin eggs) or to understand nervous system mechanisms (aplysia). All these studies will help finding novel actors involved in translational control and will thus be useful to discover new targets for therapeutic treatments against human diseases.

  6. High rates of gene flow by pollen and seed in oak populations across Europe.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Sophie; Chadœuf, Joël; Gugerli, Felix; Lascoux, Martin; Buiteveld, Joukje; Cottrell, Joan; Dounavi, Aikaterini; Fineschi, Silvia; Forrest, Laura L; Fogelqvist, Johan; Goicoechea, Pablo G; Jensen, Jan Svejgaard; Salvini, Daniela; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Kremer, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Gene flow is a key factor in the evolution of species, influencing effective population size, hybridisation and local adaptation. We analysed local gene flow in eight stands of white oak (mostly Quercus petraea and Q. robur, but also Q. pubescens and Q. faginea) distributed across Europe. Adult trees within a given area in each stand were exhaustively sampled (range [239, 754], mean 423), mapped, and acorns were collected ([17,147], 51) from several mother trees ([3], [47], 23). Seedlings ([65,387], 178) were harvested and geo-referenced in six of the eight stands. Genetic information was obtained from screening distinct molecular markers spread across the genome, genotyping each tree, acorn or seedling. All samples were thus genotyped at 5-8 nuclear microsatellite loci. Fathers/parents were assigned to acorns and seedlings using likelihood methods. Mating success of male and female parents, pollen and seed dispersal curves, and also hybridisation rates were estimated in each stand and compared on a continental scale. On average, the percentage of the wind-borne pollen from outside the stand was 60%, with large variation among stands (21-88%). Mean seed immigration into the stand was 40%, a high value for oaks that are generally considered to have limited seed dispersal. However, this estimate varied greatly among stands (20-66%). Gene flow was mostly intraspecific, with large variation, as some trees and stands showed particularly high rates of hybridisation. Our results show that mating success was unevenly distributed among trees. The high levels of gene flow suggest that geographically remote oak stands are unlikely to be genetically isolated, questioning the static definition of gene reserves and seed stands. PMID:24454802

  7. Gene-splitting technology: a novel approach for the containment of transgene flow in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-Jing; Jin, Xi; Dun, Bao-Qing; Kong, Ning; Jia, Shi-Rong; Tang, Qiao-Ling; Wang, Zhi-Xing

    2014-01-01

    The potential impact of transgene escape on the environment and food safety is a major concern to the scientists and public. This work aimed to assess the effect of intein-mediated gene splitting on containment of transgene flow. Two fusion genes, EPSPSn-In and Ic-EPSPSc, were constructed and integrated into N. tabacum, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. EPSPSn-In encodes the first 295 aa of the herbicide resistance gene 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) fused with the first 123 aa of the Ssp DnaE intein (In), whereas Ic-EPSPSc encodes the 36 C-terminal aa of the Ssp DnaE intein (Ic) fused to the rest of EPSPS C terminus peptide sequences. Both EPSPSn-In and Ic-EPSPSc constructs were introduced into the same N. tabacum genome by genetic crossing. Hybrids displayed resistance to the herbicide N-(phosphonomethyl)-glycine (glyphosate). Western blot analysis of protein extracts from hybrid plants identified full-length EPSPS. Furthermore, all hybrid seeds germinated and grew normally on glyphosate selective medium. The 6-8 leaf hybrid plants showed tolerance of 2000 ppm glyphosate in field spraying. These results indicated that functional EPSPS protein was reassembled in vivo by intein-mediated trans-splicing in 100% of plants. In order to evaluate the effect of the gene splitting technique for containment of transgene flow, backcrossing experiments were carried out between hybrids, in which the foreign genes EPSPSn-In and Ic-EPSPSc were inserted into different chromosomes, and non-transgenic plants NC89. Among the 2812 backcrossing progeny, about 25% (664 plantlets) displayed glyphosate resistance. These data indicated that transgene flow could be reduced by 75%. Overall, our findings provide a new and highly effective approach for biological containment of transgene flow. PMID:24915192

  8. High Rates of Gene Flow by Pollen and Seed in Oak Populations across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Sophie; Chadœuf, Joël; Gugerli, Felix; Lascoux, Martin; Buiteveld, Joukje; Cottrell, Joan; Dounavi, Aikaterini; Fineschi, Silvia; Forrest, Laura L.; Fogelqvist, Johan; Goicoechea, Pablo G.; Jensen, Jan Svejgaard; Salvini, Daniela; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; Kremer, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Gene flow is a key factor in the evolution of species, influencing effective population size, hybridisation and local adaptation. We analysed local gene flow in eight stands of white oak (mostly Quercus petraea and Q. robur, but also Q. pubescens and Q. faginea) distributed across Europe. Adult trees within a given area in each stand were exhaustively sampled (range [239, 754], mean 423), mapped, and acorns were collected ([17,147], 51) from several mother trees ([3], [47], 23). Seedlings ([65,387], 178) were harvested and geo-referenced in six of the eight stands. Genetic information was obtained from screening distinct molecular markers spread across the genome, genotyping each tree, acorn or seedling. All samples were thus genotyped at 5–8 nuclear microsatellite loci. Fathers/parents were assigned to acorns and seedlings using likelihood methods. Mating success of male and female parents, pollen and seed dispersal curves, and also hybridisation rates were estimated in each stand and compared on a continental scale. On average, the percentage of the wind-borne pollen from outside the stand was 60%, with large variation among stands (21–88%). Mean seed immigration into the stand was 40%, a high value for oaks that are generally considered to have limited seed dispersal. However, this estimate varied greatly among stands (20–66%). Gene flow was mostly intraspecific, with large variation, as some trees and stands showed particularly high rates of hybridisation. Our results show that mating success was unevenly distributed among trees. The high levels of gene flow suggest that geographically remote oak stands are unlikely to be genetically isolated, questioning the static definition of gene reserves and seed stands. PMID:24454802

  9. Gene-splitting technology: a novel approach for the containment of transgene flow in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-Jing; Jin, Xi; Dun, Bao-Qing; Kong, Ning; Jia, Shi-Rong; Tang, Qiao-Ling; Wang, Zhi-Xing

    2014-01-01

    The potential impact of transgene escape on the environment and food safety is a major concern to the scientists and public. This work aimed to assess the effect of intein-mediated gene splitting on containment of transgene flow. Two fusion genes, EPSPSn-In and Ic-EPSPSc, were constructed and integrated into N. tabacum, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. EPSPSn-In encodes the first 295 aa of the herbicide resistance gene 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) fused with the first 123 aa of the Ssp DnaE intein (In), whereas Ic-EPSPSc encodes the 36 C-terminal aa of the Ssp DnaE intein (Ic) fused to the rest of EPSPS C terminus peptide sequences. Both EPSPSn-In and Ic-EPSPSc constructs were introduced into the same N. tabacum genome by genetic crossing. Hybrids displayed resistance to the herbicide N-(phosphonomethyl)-glycine (glyphosate). Western blot analysis of protein extracts from hybrid plants identified full-length EPSPS. Furthermore, all hybrid seeds germinated and grew normally on glyphosate selective medium. The 6-8 leaf hybrid plants showed tolerance of 2000 ppm glyphosate in field spraying. These results indicated that functional EPSPS protein was reassembled in vivo by intein-mediated trans-splicing in 100% of plants. In order to evaluate the effect of the gene splitting technique for containment of transgene flow, backcrossing experiments were carried out between hybrids, in which the foreign genes EPSPSn-In and Ic-EPSPSc were inserted into different chromosomes, and non-transgenic plants NC89. Among the 2812 backcrossing progeny, about 25% (664 plantlets) displayed glyphosate resistance. These data indicated that transgene flow could be reduced by 75%. Overall, our findings provide a new and highly effective approach for biological containment of transgene flow.

  10. Global analysis of gene expression dynamics within the marine microbial community during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment in the southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfreundt, Ulrike; Spungin, Dina; Bonnet, Sophie; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2016-07-01

    Microbial gene expression was followed for 23 days within a mesocosm (M1) isolating 50 m3 of seawater and in the surrounding waters in the Nouméa lagoon, New Caledonia, in the southwest Pacific as part of the VAriability of vertical and tropHIc transfer of diazotroph derived N in the south wEst Pacific (VAHINE) experiment. The aim of VAHINE was to examine the fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) in a low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll ecosystem. On day 4 of the experiment, the mesocosm was fertilized with phosphate. In the lagoon, gene expression was dominated by the cyanobacterium Synechococcus, closely followed by Alphaproteobacteria. In contrast, drastic changes in the microbial community composition and transcriptional activity were triggered within the mesocosm within the first 4 days, with transcription bursts from different heterotrophic bacteria in rapid succession. The microbial composition and activity of the surrounding lagoon ecosystem appeared more stable, although following similar temporal trends as in M1. We detected significant gene expression from Chromerida in M1, as well as the Nouméa lagoon, suggesting these photoautotrophic alveolates were present in substantial numbers in the open water. Other groups contributing substantially to the metatranscriptome were affiliated with marine Euryarchaeota Candidatus Thalassoarchaea (inside and outside) and Myoviridae bacteriophages likely infecting Synechococcus, specifically inside M1. High transcript abundances for ammonium transporters and glutamine synthetase in many different taxa (e.g., Pelagibacteraceae, Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, and Rhodobacteraceae) was consistent with the known preference of most bacteria for this nitrogen source. In contrast, Alteromonadaceae highly expressed urease genes; Rhodobacteraceae and Prochlorococcus showed some urease expression, too. Nitrate reductase transcripts were detected on day 10 very prominently in Synechococcus and in Halomonadaceae. Alkaline

  11. Size-fraction partitioning of community gene transcription and nitrogen metabolism in a marine oxygen minimum zone.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Sangita; Bristow, Laura A; Larsen, Morten; Sarode, Neha; Thamdrup, Bo; Stewart, Frank J

    2015-12-01

    The genetic composition of marine microbial communities varies at the microscale between particle-associated (PA; >1.6 μm) and free-living (FL; 0.2-1.6 μm) niches. It remains unclear, however, how metabolic activities differ between PA and FL fractions. We combined rate measurements with metatranscriptomics to quantify PA and FL microbial activity in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific, focusing on dissimilatory processes of the nitrogen (N) cycle. Bacterial gene counts were 8- to 15-fold higher in the FL compared with the PA fraction. However, rates of all measured N cycle processes, excluding ammonia oxidation, declined significantly following particle (>1.6 μm) removal. Without particles, rates of nitrate reduction to nitrite (1.5-9.4nMNd(-1)) fell to zero and N2 production by denitrification (0.5-1.7nMNd(-1)) and anammox (0.3-1.9nMNd(-1)) declined by 53-85%. The proportional representation of major microbial taxa and N cycle gene transcripts in metatranscriptomes followed fraction-specific trends. Transcripts encoding nitrate reductase were uniform among PA and FL fractions, whereas anammox-associated transcripts were proportionately enriched up to 15-fold in the FL fraction. In contrast, transcripts encoding enzymes for N2O and N2 production by denitrification were enriched up to 28-fold in PA samples. These patterns suggest that the majority of N cycle activity, excluding N2O and N2 production by denitrification, is confined to a FL majority that is critically dependent on access to particles, likely as a source of organic carbon and inorganic N. Variable particle distributions may drive heterogeneity in N cycle activity and gene expression in OMZs.

  12. Adaptive genetic markers discriminate migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid continued gene flow

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kathleen G; Jacobson, Dave P; Kurth, Ryon; Dill, Allen J; Banks, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Neutral genetic markers are routinely used to define distinct units within species that warrant discrete management. Human-induced changes to gene flow however may reduce the power of such an approach. We tested the efficiency of adaptive versus neutral genetic markers in differentiating temporally divergent migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid high gene flow owing to artificial propagation and habitat alteration. We compared seven putative migration timing genes to ten microsatellite loci in delineating three migratory groups of Chinook in the Feather River, CA: offspring of fall-run hatchery broodstock that returned as adults to freshwater in fall (fall run), spring-run offspring that returned in spring (spring run), and fall-run offspring that returned in spring (FRS). We found evidence for significant differentiation between the fall and federally listed threatened spring groups based on divergence at three circadian clock genes (OtsClock1b, OmyFbxw11, and Omy1009UW), but not neutral markers. We thus demonstrate the importance of genetic marker choice in resolving complex life history types. These findings directly impact conservation management strategies and add to previous evidence from Pacific and Atlantic salmon indicating that circadian clock genes influence migration timing. PMID:24478800

  13. Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes: Deletion quantitation with bivariate flow karyotyping allows mapping of patient breakpoints

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, E.R.B.; Towbin, J.A. ); Engh, G. van den; Trask, B.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Bivariate flow karyotyping was used to estimate the deletion sizes for a series of patients with Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes. The deletion estimates were used to develop an approximate scale for the genomic map in Xp21. The bivariate flow karyotype results were compared with clinical and molecular genetic information on the extent of the patients' deletions, and these various types of data were consistent. The resulting map spans >15 Mb, from the telomeric interval between DXS41 (99-6) and DXS68 (1-4) to a position centromeric to the ornithine transcarbamylase locus. The deletion sizing was considered to be accurate to [plus minus]1 Mb. The map provides information on the relative localization of genes and markers within this region. For example, the map suggests that the adrenal hypoplasia congenita and glycerol kinase genes are physically close to each other, are within 1-2 Mb of the telomeric end of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene, and are nearer to the DMD locus than to the more distal marker DXS28 (C7). Information of this type is useful in developing genomic strategies for positional cloning in Xp21. These investigations demonstrate that the DNA from patients with Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes can be valuable reagents, not only for ordering loci and markers but also for providing an approximate scale to the map of the Xp21 region surrounding DMD. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Ocean acidification modulates expression of genes and physiological performance of a marine diatom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zhuang, S.; Wu, Y.; Ren, H.; Cheng, F.; Lin, X.; Wang, K.; Beardall, J.; Gao, K.

    2015-09-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) is known to affect various aspects of the physiological performance of diatoms, but there is little information on the underlining molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we show that in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum expression of the genes related to light harvesting, carbon acquisition and carboxylation, nitrite assimilation and ATP synthesis are modulated by OA. Growth and photosynthetic carbon fixation were enhanced by elevated CO2 (1000 μatm) under both constant indoor and fluctuating outdoor light regimes. The genetic expression of nitrite reductase (NiR) was up-regulated by OA regardless of light levels and/or regimes. The transcriptional expression of fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c protein (lhcf type (FCP)) and mitochondrial ATP synthase (mtATP synthase) genes were also enhanced by OA, but only under high light intensity. OA treatment decreased the expression of β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) along with down-regulation of CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). Additionally, the genes for these proteins (NiR, FCP, mtATP synthase, β-CA) showed diel expressions either under constant indoor light or fluctuating sunlight. Thus, OA enhanced photosynthetic and growth rates by stimulating nitrogen assimilation and indirectly by down-regulating the energy-costly inorganic carbon acquisition process.

  15. Research on strategy marine noise map based on i4ocean platform: Constructing flow and key approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Baoxiang; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Noise level in a marine environment has raised extensive concern in the scientific community. The research is carried out on i4Ocean platform following the process of ocean noise model integrating, noise data extracting, processing, visualizing, and interpreting, ocean noise map constructing and publishing. For the convenience of numerical computation, based on the characteristics of ocean noise field, a hybrid model related to spatial locations is suggested in the propagation model. The normal mode method K/I model is used for far field and ray method CANARY model is used for near field. Visualizing marine ambient noise data is critical to understanding and predicting marine noise for relevant decision making. Marine noise map can be constructed on virtual ocean scene. The systematic marine noise visualization framework includes preprocessing, coordinate transformation interpolation, and rendering. The simulation of ocean noise depends on realistic surface. Then the dynamic water simulation gird was improved with GPU fusion to achieve seamless combination with the visualization result of ocean noise. At the same time, the profile and spherical visualization include space, and time dimensionality were also provided for the vertical field characteristics of ocean ambient noise. Finally, marine noise map can be published with grid pre-processing and multistage cache technology to better serve the public.

  16. Pollen-mediated intraspecific gene flow from herbicide resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Hüsken, Alexandra; Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje

    2007-10-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) herbicide resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has increased over the past few years. The transfer of herbicide resistance genes via pollen (gene flow) from GM crops to non-GM crops is of relevance for the realisation of co-existence of different agricultural cultivation forms as well as for weed management. Therefore the likelihood of pollen-mediated gene flow has been investigated in numerous studies. Despite the difficulty to compare different experiments with varying levels of outcrossing, we performed a literature search for world-wide studies on cross-fertilisation in fully fertile oilseed rape. The occurrence and frequency of pollen-mediated intraspecific gene flow (outcrossing rate) can vary according to cultivar, experimental design, local topography and environmental conditions. The outcrossing rate from one field to another depends also on the size and arrangement of donor and recipient populations and on the ratio between donor and recipient plot size. The outcrossing levels specified in the presented studies are derived mostly from experiments where the recipient field is either surrounding the donor field (continuous design) or is located as a patch at different distances from the donor field (discontinuous design). Reports of gene flow in Brassica napus generally show that the amount of cross-fertilisation decreases as the distance from the pollen source increases. The evidence given in various studies reveals that the bulk of GM cross-fertilisation occurs within the first 10 m of the recipient field. The removal of the first 10 m of a non-transgenic field facing a GM crop might therefore be more efficient for reducing the total level of cross-fertilisation in a recipient sink population than to recommend separation distances. Future experiments should investigate cross-fertilisation with multiple adjacent donor fields at the landscape level under different spatial distributions of rapeseed cultivars

  17. Why marine islands are farther apart in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Brown, James H

    2014-06-01

    Species diversity of benthic marine organisms is highest in tropical archipelagoes. I hypothesize this is in large part a consequence of the temperature dependence of development times and dispersal distances of planktonic larvae. Metabolic theory predicts and empirical studies confirm that marine larvae develop faster and consequently have shorter durations in the plankton at higher temperatures. Metabolic theory can be extended to predict that species diversity of benthic marine organisms is highest in tropical archipelagoes, because warm temperatures limit dispersal and gene flow and isolated islands provide favorable conditions for speciation and coexistence. PMID:24823826

  18. Why marine islands are farther apart in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Brown, James H

    2014-06-01

    Species diversity of benthic marine organisms is highest in tropical archipelagoes. I hypothesize this is in large part a consequence of the temperature dependence of development times and dispersal distances of planktonic larvae. Metabolic theory predicts and empirical studies confirm that marine larvae develop faster and consequently have shorter durations in the plankton at higher temperatures. Metabolic theory can be extended to predict that species diversity of benthic marine organisms is highest in tropical archipelagoes, because warm temperatures limit dispersal and gene flow and isolated islands provide favorable conditions for speciation and coexistence.

  19. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management. PMID:23987810

  20. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management.

  1. Evidence for Gene Flow between Two Sympatric Mealybug Species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species – the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of ‘hybrid females’ among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. ‘hybrid females’ from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. PMID:24523894

  2. The population genomics of begomoviruses: global scale population structure and gene flow

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rapidly growing availability of diverse full genome sequences from across the world is increasing the feasibility of studying the large-scale population processes that underly observable pattern of virus diversity. In particular, characterizing the genetic structure of virus populations could potentially reveal much about how factors such as geographical distributions, host ranges and gene flow between populations combine to produce the discontinuous patterns of genetic diversity that we perceive as distinct virus species. Among the richest and most diverse full genome datasets that are available is that for the dicotyledonous plant infecting genus, Begomovirus, in the Family Geminiviridae. The begomoviruses all share the same whitefly vector, are highly recombinogenic and are distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions where they seriously threaten the food security of the world's poorest people. Results We focus here on using a model-based population genetic approach to identify the genetically distinct sub-populations within the global begomovirus meta-population. We demonstrate the existence of at least seven major sub-populations that can further be sub-divided into as many as thirty four significantly differentiated and genetically cohesive minor sub-populations. Using the population structure framework revealed in the present study, we further explored the extent of gene flow and recombination between genetic populations. Conclusions Although geographical barriers are apparently the most significant underlying cause of the seven major population sub-divisions, within the framework of these sub-divisions, we explore patterns of gene flow to reveal that both host range differences and genetic barriers to recombination have probably been major contributors to the minor population sub-divisions that we have identified. We believe that the global Begomovirus population structure revealed here could facilitate population genetics studies

  3. Evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects.

  4. Applying gene flow science to environmental policy needs: a boundary work perspective.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Caroline E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2016-08-01

    One application of gene flow science is the policy arena. In this article, we describe two examples in which the topic of gene flow has entered into the U.S. national environmental policymaking process: regulation of genetically engineered crops and clarification of the jurisdictional scope of the Clean Water Act. We summarize both current scientific understanding and the legal context within which gene flow science has relevance. We also discuss the process by which scientific knowledge has been synthesized and communicated to decision-makers in these two contexts utilizing the concept of 'boundary work'. Boundary organizations, the work they engage in to bridge the worlds of science, policy, and practice, and the boundary objects they produce to translate scientific knowledge existed in both examples. However, the specific activities and attributes of the objects produced varied based on the needs of the decision-makers. We close with suggestions for how scientists can contribute to or engage in boundary work with policymakers. PMID:27468309

  5. Climate change alters reproductive isolation and potential gene flow in an annual plant.

    PubMed

    Franks, Steven J; Weis, Arthur E

    2009-11-01

    Climate change will likely cause evolution due not only to selection but also to changes in reproductive isolation within and among populations. We examined the effects of a natural drought on the timing of flowering in two populations of Brassica rapa and the consequences for predicted reproductive isolation and potential gene flow. Seeds were collected before and after a 5-year drought in southern California from two populations varying in soil moisture. Lines derived from these seeds were raised in the greenhouse under wet and drought conditions. We found that the natural drought caused changes in reproductive timing and that the changes were greater for plants from the wet than from the dry site. This differential shift caused the populations to become more phenological similar, which should lead to less reproductive isolation and increased gene flow. We estimated a high level of assortative mating by flowering time, which potentially contributed to the rapid evolution of phenological traits following the drought. Estimates of assortative mating were higher for the wet site population, and assortative mating was reduced following the drought. This study shows that climate change can potentially alter gene flow and reproductive isolation within and among populations, strongly influencing evolution.

  6. Identification of landscape features influencing gene flow: How useful are habitat selection models?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Adams, Layne G.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dispersal patterns are influenced by landscape heterogeneity is critical for modeling species connectivity. Resource selection function (RSF) models are increasingly used in landscape genetics approaches. However, because the ecological factors that drive habitat selection may be different from those influencing dispersal and gene flow, it is important to consider explicit assumptions and spatial scales of measurement. We calculated pairwise genetic distance among 301 Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) in southcentral Alaska using an intensive noninvasive sampling effort and 15 microsatellite loci. We used multiple regression of distance matrices to assess the correlation of pairwise genetic distance and landscape resistance derived from an RSF, and combinations of landscape features hypothesized to influence dispersal. Dall's sheep gene flow was positively correlated with steep slopes, moderate peak normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), and open land cover. Whereas RSF covariates were significant in predicting genetic distance, the RSF model itself was not significantly correlated with Dall's sheep gene flow, suggesting that certain habitat features important during summer (rugged terrain, mid-range elevation) were not influential to effective dispersal. This work underscores that consideration of both habitat selection and landscape genetics models may be useful in developing management strategies to both meet the immediate survival of a species and allow for long-term genetic connectivity.

  7. Speciation has a spatial scale that depends on levels of gene flow.

    PubMed

    Kisel, Yael; Barraclough, Timothy G

    2010-03-01

    Area is generally assumed to affect speciation rates, but work on the spatial context of speciation has focused mostly on patterns of range overlap between emerging species rather than on questions of geographical scale. A variety of geographical theories of speciation predict that the probability of speciation occurring within a given region should (1) increase with the size of the region and (2) increase as the spatial extent of intraspecific gene flow becomes smaller. Using a survey of speciation events on isolated oceanic islands for a broad range of taxa, we find evidence for both predictions. The probability of in situ speciation scales with island area in bats, carnivorous mammals, birds, flowering plants, lizards, butterflies and moths, and snails. Ferns are an exception to these findings, but they exhibit high frequencies of polyploid and hybrid speciation, which are expected to be scale independent. Furthermore, the minimum island size for speciation correlates across groups with the strength of intraspecific gene flow, as is estimated from a meta-analysis of published population genetic studies. These results indicate a general geographical model of speciation rates that are dependent on both area and gene flow. The spatial scale of population divergence is an important but neglected determinant of broad-scale diversity patterns. PMID:20100106

  8. Genetic admixture in multidimensional environmental space: asymmetrical niche similarity promotes gene flow in armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus).

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Maria Clara; McCormack, John E; Eguiarte, Luis E; Medellín, Rodrigo A

    2011-09-01

    We unite genetic data with a robust test of niche divergence to test the hypothesis that patterns of gene flow between two lineages of the nine-banded armadillo are influenced by their climatic niches. We collected Geographical Information System (GIS) data on climate using locality information from 111 individuals from two lineages that had associated genetic material. We tested whether niches of these lineages were more conserved or divergent than the background environments of their geographic ranges and found evidence for niche conservatism on two axes and no evidence for divergence on any axis. To address the role of niche similarity in gene flow, we genotyped the 111 individuals at five microsatellite loci and tested whether admixed individuals tended to be located in parts of multidimensional environmental space (E-space) shared between the two lineages. We observed an asymmetrical pattern of overlap, in which the West lineage's E-space was almost completely included inside East lineage's E-space. Genetic admixture levels were significantly higher in the West lineage and, for both lineages, in shared portions of E-space. This suggests that niche similarity can facilitate gene flow among disjunct groups with moderate-to-good dispersal capabilities, contrasting with the prevailing view of niche conservatism as a diversifying force.

  9. Inferring landscape effects on gene flow: a new model selection framework.

    PubMed

    Shirk, A J; Wallin, D O; Cushman, S A; Rice, C G; Warheit, K I

    2010-09-01

    Populations in fragmented landscapes experience reduced gene flow, lose genetic diversity over time and ultimately face greater extinction risk. Improving connectivity in fragmented landscapes is now a major focus of conservation biology. Designing effective wildlife corridors for this purpose, however, requires an accurate understanding of how landscapes shape gene flow. The preponderance of landscape resistance models generated to date, however, is subjectively parameterized based on expert opinion or proxy measures of gene flow. While the relatively few studies that use genetic data are more rigorous, frameworks they employ frequently yield models only weakly related to the observed patterns of genetic isolation. Here, we describe a new framework that uses expert opinion as a starting point. By systematically varying each model parameter, we sought to either validate the assumptions of expert opinion, or identify a peak of support for a new model more highly related to genetic isolation. This approach also accounts for interactions between variables, allows for nonlinear responses and excludes variables that reduce model performance. We demonstrate its utility on a population of mountain goats inhabiting a fragmented landscape in the Cascade Range, Washington. PMID:20723066

  10. Land clearing reduces gene flow in the granite outcrop-dwelling lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus.

    PubMed

    Levy, Esther; Kennington, W Jason; Tomkins, Joseph L; Lebas, Natasha R

    2010-10-01

    An important question for the conservation of species dwelling in fragmented habitats is whether changes to the intervening landscape create a barrier to gene flow. Here, we make use of the spatial distribution of the granite outcrop-dwelling lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus, to compare inferred levels of gene flow between outcrops in a nature reserve with that between outcrops in the adjacent agricultural land. Genetic variation, relatedness and subdivision were compared within groups of individuals from different outcrops similar in size and distance apart at each site. In the agricultural land, we found significantly lower genetic variation within outcrops and greater genetic differentiation between outcrops than in the reserve. Further, the rate at which genetic divergence between outcrops increased over geographical distance was significantly greater in the agricultural land than in the reserve. We also found that individuals were more closely related within outcrops but more distantly related between outcrops in the cleared land. These effects occur over a small spatial scale with an average distance between outcrops of less than five kilometres. Thus, even though land clearing around the outcrops leaves outcrop size unchanged, it restricts gene flow, reducing genetic variation and increasing population structure, with potentially negative consequences for the long-term persistence of the lizards on these outcrops.

  11. Identification of landscape features influencing gene flow: How useful are habitat selection models?

    PubMed

    Roffler, Gretchen H; Schwartz, Michael K; Pilgrim, Kristy L; Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Adams, Layne G; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how dispersal patterns are influenced by landscape heterogeneity is critical for modeling species connectivity. Resource selection function (RSF) models are increasingly used in landscape genetics approaches. However, because the ecological factors that drive habitat selection may be different from those influencing dispersal and gene flow, it is important to consider explicit assumptions and spatial scales of measurement. We calculated pairwise genetic distance among 301 Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) in southcentral Alaska using an intensive noninvasive sampling effort and 15 microsatellite loci. We used multiple regression of distance matrices to assess the correlation of pairwise genetic distance and landscape resistance derived from an RSF, and combinations of landscape features hypothesized to influence dispersal. Dall's sheep gene flow was positively correlated with steep slopes, moderate peak normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), and open land cover. Whereas RSF covariates were significant in predicting genetic distance, the RSF model itself was not significantly correlated with Dall's sheep gene flow, suggesting that certain habitat features important during summer (rugged terrain, mid-range elevation) were not influential to effective dispersal. This work underscores that consideration of both habitat selection and landscape genetics models may be useful in developing management strategies to both meet the immediate survival of a species and allow for long-term genetic connectivity.

  12. A model of pollen-mediated gene flow for oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Walklate, P J; Hunt, J C R; Higson, H L; Sweet, J B

    2004-03-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has precipitated the need for risk assessment and regulation of pollen-mediated gene flow. In response to this need we present a mathematical model to predict the spatial distribution of outcrossing between progenitor populations of oilseed rape. The model combines the processes of pollen dispersal and pollination, resulting from wind and insect activity. It includes the effects of post-pollination reproductive processes by relating the number of progeny to both pollen deposition and competition at the stigma. Predictions compare well with a range of experimental results for different-sized GM source crops (i.e. 0.0064-0.8 ha) and non-GM target crops with different fertilities (i.e. self-fertile to 80% male-sterile). For these comparisons, we represent the variation caused by wind and insect exposure as a constrained set of random functions and limit the range of insect transport to typical plant-scale distances. In addition, the model is used to examine the relative sensitivity to the factors that determine gene flow. Target-crop fertility and source-crop size are shown to be more important than other factors, including background pollen and the natural range of insect activity. The concept of isolation distance to regulate gene flow is most effective for self-fertile target crops, but is ineffective for male-sterile target crops with low background pollen.

  13. Inferring landscape effects on gene flow: a new model selection framework.

    PubMed

    Shirk, A J; Wallin, D O; Cushman, S A; Rice, C G; Warheit, K I

    2010-09-01

    Populations in fragmented landscapes experience reduced gene flow, lose genetic diversity over time and ultimately face greater extinction risk. Improving connectivity in fragmented landscapes is now a major focus of conservation biology. Designing effective wildlife corridors for this purpose, however, requires an accurate understanding of how landscapes shape gene flow. The preponderance of landscape resistance models generated to date, however, is subjectively parameterized based on expert opinion or proxy measures of gene flow. While the relatively few studies that use genetic data are more rigorous, frameworks they employ frequently yield models only weakly related to the observed patterns of genetic isolation. Here, we describe a new framework that uses expert opinion as a starting point. By systematically varying each model parameter, we sought to either validate the assumptions of expert opinion, or identify a peak of support for a new model more highly related to genetic isolation. This approach also accounts for interactions between variables, allows for nonlinear responses and excludes variables that reduce model performance. We demonstrate its utility on a population of mountain goats inhabiting a fragmented landscape in the Cascade Range, Washington.

  14. Speciation has a spatial scale that depends on levels of gene flow.

    PubMed

    Kisel, Yael; Barraclough, Timothy G

    2010-03-01

    Area is generally assumed to affect speciation rates, but work on the spatial context of speciation has focused mostly on patterns of range overlap between emerging species rather than on questions of geographical scale. A variety of geographical theories of speciation predict that the probability of speciation occurring within a given region should (1) increase with the size of the region and (2) increase as the spatial extent of intraspecific gene flow becomes smaller. Using a survey of speciation events on isolated oceanic islands for a broad range of taxa, we find evidence for both predictions. The probability of in situ speciation scales with island area in bats, carnivorous mammals, birds, flowering plants, lizards, butterflies and moths, and snails. Ferns are an exception to these findings, but they exhibit high frequencies of polyploid and hybrid speciation, which are expected to be scale independent. Furthermore, the minimum island size for speciation correlates across groups with the strength of intraspecific gene flow, as is estimated from a meta-analysis of published population genetic studies. These results indicate a general geographical model of speciation rates that are dependent on both area and gene flow. The spatial scale of population divergence is an important but neglected determinant of broad-scale diversity patterns.

  15. Identification of landscape features influencing gene flow: How useful are habitat selection models?

    PubMed

    Roffler, Gretchen H; Schwartz, Michael K; Pilgrim, Kristy L; Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Adams, Layne G; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how dispersal patterns are influenced by landscape heterogeneity is critical for modeling species connectivity. Resource selection function (RSF) models are increasingly used in landscape genetics approaches. However, because the ecological factors that drive habitat selection may be different from those influencing dispersal and gene flow, it is important to consider explicit assumptions and spatial scales of measurement. We calculated pairwise genetic distance among 301 Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) in southcentral Alaska using an intensive noninvasive sampling effort and 15 microsatellite loci. We used multiple regression of distance matrices to assess the correlation of pairwise genetic distance and landscape resistance derived from an RSF, and combinations of landscape features hypothesized to influence dispersal. Dall's sheep gene flow was positively correlated with steep slopes, moderate peak normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), and open land cover. Whereas RSF covariates were significant in predicting genetic distance, the RSF model itself was not significantly correlated with Dall's sheep gene flow, suggesting that certain habitat features important during summer (rugged terrain, mid-range elevation) were not influential to effective dispersal. This work underscores that consideration of both habitat selection and landscape genetics models may be useful in developing management strategies to both meet the immediate survival of a species and allow for long-term genetic connectivity. PMID:27330556

  16. Spatial and temporal assessment of pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow from genetically engineered plum Prunus domestica.

    PubMed

    Scorza, Ralph; Kriss, Alissa B; Callahan, Ann M; Webb, Kevin; Demuth, Mark; Gottwald, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Pollen flow from a 0.46 ha plot of genetically engineered (GE) Prunus domestica located in West Virginia, USA was evaluated from 2000-2010. Sentinel plum trees were planted at distances ranging from 132 to 854 m from the center of the GE orchard. Plots of mixed plum varieties and seedlings were located at 384, 484 and 998 m from the GE plot. Bee hives (Apis mellifera) were dispersed between the GE plum plot and the pollen flow monitoring sites. Pollen-mediated gene flow from out of the GE plum plot to non-GE plums under the study conditions was low, only occurring at all in 4 of 11 years and then in only 0.31% of the 12,116 seeds analyzed. When it occurred, gene flow, calculated as the number of GUS positive embryos/total embryos sampled, ranged from 0.215% at 132 m from the center of the GE plum plot (28 m from the nearest GE plum tree) to 0.033-0.017% at longer distances (384-998 m). Based on the percentage of GUS positive seeds per individual sampled tree the range was 0.4% to 12%. Within the GE field plot, gene flow ranged from 4.9 to 39%. Gene flow was related to distance and environmental conditions. A single year sample from a sentinel plot 132 m from the center of the GE plot accounted for 65% of the total 11-year gene flow. Spatial modeling indicated that gene flow dramatically decreased at distances over 400 m from the GE plot. Air temperature and rainfall were, respectively, positively and negatively correlated with gene flow, reflecting the effects of weather conditions on insect pollinator activity. Seed-mediated gene flow was not detected. These results support the feasibility of coexistence of GE and non-GE plum orchards.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Assessment of Pollen- and Seed-Mediated Gene Flow from Genetically Engineered Plum Prunus domestica

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Ralph; Kriss, Alissa B.; Callahan, Ann M.; Webb, Kevin; Demuth, Mark; Gottwald, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Pollen flow from a 0.46 ha plot of genetically engineered (GE) Prunus domestica located in West Virginia, USA was evaluated from 2000–2010. Sentinel plum trees were planted at distances ranging from 132 to 854 m from the center of the GE orchard. Plots of mixed plum varieties and seedlings were located at 384, 484 and 998 m from the GE plot. Bee hives (Apis mellifera) were dispersed between the GE plum plot and the pollen flow monitoring sites. Pollen-mediated gene flow from out of the GE plum plot to non-GE plums under the study conditions was low, only occurring at all in 4 of 11 years and then in only 0.31% of the 12,116 seeds analyzed. When it occurred, gene flow, calculated as the number of GUS positive embryos/total embryos sampled, ranged from 0.215% at 132 m from the center of the GE plum plot (28 m from the nearest GE plum tree) to 0.033–0.017% at longer distances (384–998 m). Based on the percentage of GUS positive seeds per individual sampled tree the range was 0.4% to 12%. Within the GE field plot, gene flow ranged from 4.9 to 39%. Gene flow was related to distance and environmental conditions. A single year sample from a sentinel plot 132 m from the center of the GE plot accounted for 65% of the total 11-year gene flow. Spatial modeling indicated that gene flow dramatically decreased at distances over 400 m from the GE plot. Air temperature and rainfall were, respectively, positively and negatively correlated with gene flow, reflecting the effects of weather conditions on insect pollinator activity. Seed-mediated gene flow was not detected. These results support the feasibility of coexistence of GE and non-GE plum orchards. PMID:24098374

  18. Connecting the dots: linking nitrogen cycle gene expression to nitrogen fluxes in marine sediment mesocosms

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Jennifer L.; Babbin, Andrew R.; Kearns, Patrick J.; Ward, Bess B.

    2014-01-01

    Connecting molecular information directly to microbial transformation rates remains a challenge, despite the availability of molecular methods to investigate microbial biogeochemistry. By combining information on gene abundance and expression for key genes with quantitative modeling of nitrogen fluxes, we can begin to understand the scales on which genetic signals vary and how they relate to key functions. We used quantitative PCR of DNA and cDNA, along with biogeochemical modeling to assess how the abundance and expression of microbes responsible for two steps in the nitrogen cycle changed over time in estuarine sediment mesocosms. Sediments and water were collected from coastal Massachusetts and maintained in replicated 20 L mesocosms for 45 days. Concentrations of all major inorganic nitrogen species were measured daily and used to derive rates of nitrification and denitrification from a Monte Carlo-based non-negative least-squares analysis of finite difference equations. The mesocosms followed a classic regeneration sequence in which ammonium released from the decomposition of organic matter was subsequently oxidized to nitrite and then further to nitrate, some portion of which was ultimately denitrified. Normalized abundances of ammonia oxidizing archaeal ammonia monoxoygenase (amoA) transcripts closely tracked rates of ammonia oxidation throughout the experiment. No such relationship, however, was evident between denitrification rates and the normalized abundance of nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) transcripts. These findings underscore the complexity of directly linking the structure of the microbial community to rates of biogeochemical processes. PMID:25191309

  19. Detection of Gene Flow from Sexual to Asexual Lineages in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ping; Fail, Jozsef; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Thrips tabaci are known to have two sympatric but genetically isolated reproductive modes, arrhenotoky (sexual reproduction) and thelytoky (asexual reproduction). Herein, we report behavioral, ecological and genetic studies to determine whether there is gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci. We did not detect significant preference by arrhenotokous males to mate with females of a particular reproductive mode, nor did we detect significant behavioral differences between arrhenotokous males mated with arrhenotokous or thelytokous females in their pre-copulation, copulation duration and mating frequency. Productive gene transfer resulting from the mating between the two modes was experimentally confirmed. Gene transfer from arrhenotokous T. tabaci to thelytokous T. tabaci was further validated by confirmation of the passage of the arrhenotokous male-originated nuclear gene (histone H3 gene) allele to the F2 generation. These behavioral, ecological and genetic studies confirmed gene transfer from the sexual arrhenotokous mode to the asexual thelytokous mode of T. tabaci in the laboratory. These results demonstrate that asexual T. tabaci populations may acquire genetic variability from sexual populations, which could offset the long-term disadvantage of asexual reproduction. PMID:26375283

  20. Detection of Gene Flow from Sexual to Asexual Lineages in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ping; Fail, Jozsef; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Thrips tabaci are known to have two sympatric but genetically isolated reproductive modes, arrhenotoky (sexual reproduction) and thelytoky (asexual reproduction). Herein, we report behavioral, ecological and genetic studies to determine whether there is gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci. We did not detect significant preference by arrhenotokous males to mate with females of a particular reproductive mode, nor did we detect significant behavioral differences between arrhenotokous males mated with arrhenotokous or thelytokous females in their pre-copulation, copulation duration and mating frequency. Productive gene transfer resulting from the mating between the two modes was experimentally confirmed. Gene transfer from arrhenotokous T. tabaci to thelytokous T. tabaci was further validated by confirmation of the passage of the arrhenotokous male-originated nuclear gene (histone H3 gene) allele to the F2 generation. These behavioral, ecological and genetic studies confirmed gene transfer from the sexual arrhenotokous mode to the asexual thelytokous mode of T. tabaci in the laboratory. These results demonstrate that asexual T. tabaci populations may acquire genetic variability from sexual populations, which could offset the long-term disadvantage of asexual reproduction. PMID:26375283

  1. Detection of Gene Flow from Sexual to Asexual Lineages in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ping; Fail, Jozsef; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Thrips tabaci are known to have two sympatric but genetically isolated reproductive modes, arrhenotoky (sexual reproduction) and thelytoky (asexual reproduction). Herein, we report behavioral, ecological and genetic studies to determine whether there is gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci. We did not detect significant preference by arrhenotokous males to mate with females of a particular reproductive mode, nor did we detect significant behavioral differences between arrhenotokous males mated with arrhenotokous or thelytokous females in their pre-copulation, copulation duration and mating frequency. Productive gene transfer resulting from the mating between the two modes was experimentally confirmed. Gene transfer from arrhenotokous T. tabaci to thelytokous T. tabaci was further validated by confirmation of the passage of the arrhenotokous male-originated nuclear gene (histone H3 gene) allele to the F2 generation. These behavioral, ecological and genetic studies confirmed gene transfer from the sexual arrhenotokous mode to the asexual thelytokous mode of T. tabaci in the laboratory. These results demonstrate that asexual T. tabaci populations may acquire genetic variability from sexual populations, which could offset the long-term disadvantage of asexual reproduction.

  2. Asymmetrical Gene Flow in a Hybrid Zone of Hawaiian Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) Species with Contrasting Mating Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Lisa E.; Culley, Theresa M.; Weller, Stephen G.; Sakai, Ann K.; Kuenzi, Ashley; Roy, Tilottama; Wagner, Warren L.; Nepokroeff, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetrical gene flow, which has frequently been documented in naturally occurring hybrid zones, can result from various genetic and demographic factors. Understanding these factors is important for determining the ecological conditions that permitted hybridization and the evolutionary potential inherent in hybrids. Here, we characterized morphological, nuclear, and chloroplast variation in a putative hybrid zone between Schiedea menziesii and S. salicaria, endemic Hawaiian species with contrasting breeding systems. Schiedea menziesii is hermaphroditic with moderate selfing; S. salicaria is gynodioecious and wind-pollinated, with partially selfing hermaphrodites and largely outcrossed females. We tested three hypotheses: 1) putative hybrids were derived from natural crosses between S. menziesii and S. salicaria, 2) gene flow via pollen is unidirectional from S. salicaria to S. menziesii and 3) in the hybrid zone, traits associated with wind pollination would be favored as a result of pollen-swamping by S. salicaria. Schiedea menziesii and S. salicaria have distinct morphologies and chloroplast genomes but are less differentiated at the nuclear loci. Hybrids are most similar to S. menziesii at chloroplast loci, exhibit nuclear allele frequencies in common with both parental species, and resemble S. salicaria in pollen production and pollen size, traits important to wind pollination. Additionally, unlike S. menziesii, the hybrid zone contains many females, suggesting that the nuclear gene responsible for male sterility in S. salicaria has been transferred to hybrid plants. Continued selection of nuclear genes in the hybrid zone may result in a population that resembles S. salicaria, but retains chloroplast lineage(s) of S. menziesii. PMID:21949765

  3. The Tc1/mariner transposable element family shapes genetic variation and gene expression in the protist Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted parasite. Although the protist is presumed to reproduce asexually, 60% of its haploid genome contains transposable elements (TEs), known contributors to genome variability. The availability of a draft genome sequence and our collection of >200 global isolates of T. vaginalis facilitate the study and analysis of TE population dynamics and their contribution to genomic variability in this protist. Results We present here a pilot study of a subset of class II Tc1/mariner TEs that belong to the T. vaginalis Tvmar1 family. We report the genetic structure of 19 Tvmar1 loci, their ability to encode a full-length transposase protein, and their insertion frequencies in 94 global isolates from seven regions of the world. While most of the Tvmar1 elements studied exhibited low insertion frequencies, two of the 19 loci (locus 1 and locus 9) show high insertion frequencies of 1.00 and 0.96, respectively. The genetic structuring of the global populations identified by principal component analysis (PCA) of the Tvmar1 loci is in general agreement with published data based on genotyping, showing that Tvmar1 polymorphisms are a robust indicator of T. vaginalis genetic history. Analysis of expression of 22 genes flanking 13 Tvmar1 loci indicated significantly altered expression of six of the genes next to five Tvmar1 insertions, suggesting that the insertions have functional implications for T. vaginalis gene expression. Conclusions Our study is the first in T. vaginalis to describe Tvmar1 population dynamics and its contribution to genetic variability of the parasite. We show that a majority of our studied Tvmar1 insertion loci exist at very low frequencies in the global population, and insertions are variable between geographical isolates. In addition, we observe that low frequency insertion is related to reduced or abolished expression of flanking genes. While low insertion frequencies might be

  4. Dielectrophoresis based continuous-flow nano sorter: fast quality control of gene vaccines.

    PubMed

    Viefhues, Martina; Wegener, Sonja; Rischmüller, Anja; Schleef, Martin; Anselmetti, Dario

    2013-08-01

    We present a prototype nanofluidic device, developed for the continuous-flow dielectrophoretic (DEP) fractionation, purification, and quality control of sample suspensions for gene vaccine production. The device consists of a cross injector, two operation regions, and separate outlets where the analytes are collected. In each DEP operation region, an inhomogeneous electric field is generated at a channel spanning insulating ridge. The samples are driven by ac and dc voltages that generate a dielectrophoretic potential at the ridge as well as (linear) electrokinetics. Since the DEP potential differs at the two ridges, probes of three and more species can be iteratively fully fractionated. We demonstrate the fast and efficient separation of parental plasmid, miniplasmid, and minicircle DNA, where the latter is applicable as a gene vaccine. Since the present technique is virtually label-free, it offers a fast purification and in-process quality control with low consumption, in parallel, for the production of gene vaccines.

  5. Electrotransfer of the epinecidin-1 gene into skeletal muscle enhances the antibacterial and immunomodulatory functions of a marine fish, grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Lee, Lin-Han; Hui, Cho-Fat; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2013-11-01

    Electrotransfer of plasmid DNA into skeletal muscle is a common non-viral delivery system for the study of gene function and for gene therapy. However, the effects of epinecidin-1 (epi) on bacterial growth and immune system modulation following its electrotransfer into the muscle of grouper (Epinephelus coioides), a marine fish species, have not been addressed. In this study, pCMV-gfp-epi plasmid was electroporated into grouper muscle, and its effect on subsequent infection with Vibrio vulnificus was examined. Over-expression of epi efficiently reduced bacterial numbers at 24 and 48 h after infection, and augmented the expression of immune-related genes in muscle and liver, inducing a moderate innate immune response associated with pro-inflammatory infiltration. Furthermore, electroporation of pCMV-gfp-epi plasmid without V. vulnificus infection induced moderate expression of certain immune-related genes, particularly innate immune genes. These data suggest that electroporation-mediated gene transfer of epi into the muscle of grouper may hold potential as an antimicrobial therapy for pathogen infection in marine fish.

  6. Gender-specific modulation of immune system complement gene expression in marine medaka Oryzias melastigma following dietary exposure of BDE-47.

    PubMed

    Ye, Roy R; Lei, Elva N Y; Lam, Michael H W; Chan, Alice K Y; Bo, Jun; van de Merwe, Jason P; Fong, Amy C C; Yang, Michael M S; Lee, J S; Segner, Helmut E; Wong, Chris K C; Wu, Rudolf S S; Au, Doris W T

    2011-08-01

    BDE-47 is one of the most widely found congeners of PBDEs in marine environments. The potential immunomodulatory effects of BDE-47 on fish complement system were studied using the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma as a model fish. Three-month-old O. melastigma were subjected to short-term (5 days) and long-term (21 days) exposure to two concentrations of BDE-47 (low dose at 290 ± 172 ng/day; high dose at 580 ± 344 ng/day) via dietary uptake of BDE-47 encapsulated in Artemia nauplii. Body burdens of BDE-47 and other metabolic products were analyzed in the exposed and control fish. Only a small amount of debrominated product, BDE-28, was detected, while other metabolic products were all under detection limit. Transcriptional expression of six major complement system genes involved in complement activation: C1r/s (classical pathway), MBL-2 (lectin pathway), CFP (alternative pathway), F2 (coagulation pathway), C3 (the central component of complement system), and C9 (cell lysis) were quantified in the liver of marine medaka. Endogenous expression of all six complement system genes was found to be higher in males than in females (p < 0.05). Upon dietary exposure of marine medaka to BDE-47, expression of all six complement genes were downregulated in males at day 5 (or longer), whereas in females, MBl-2, CFP, and F2 mRNAs expression were upregulated, but C3 and C9 remained stable with exposure time and dose. A significant negative relationship was found between BDE-47 body burden and mRNA expression of C1r/s, CFP, and C3 in male fish (r = -0.8576 to -0.9447). The above findings on changes in complement gene expression patterns indicate the complement system may be compromised in male O. melastigma upon dietary exposure to BDE-47. Distinct gender difference in expression of six major complement system genes was evident in marine medaka under resting condition and dietary BDE-47 challenge. The immunomodulatory effects of BDE-47 on transcriptional

  7. Gender-specific modulation of immune system complement gene expression in marine medaka Oryzias melastigma following dietary exposure of BDE-47.

    PubMed

    Ye, Roy R; Lei, Elva N Y; Lam, Michael H W; Chan, Alice K Y; Bo, Jun; van de Merwe, Jason P; Fong, Amy C C; Yang, Michael M S; Lee, J S; Segner, Helmut E; Wong, Chris K C; Wu, Rudolf S S; Au, Doris W T

    2011-08-01

    BDE-47 is one of the most widely found congeners of PBDEs in marine environments. The potential immunomodulatory effects of BDE-47 on fish complement system were studied using the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma as a model fish. Three-month-old O. melastigma were subjected to short-term (5 days) and long-term (21 days) exposure to two concentrations of BDE-47 (low dose at 290 ± 172 ng/day; high dose at 580 ± 344 ng/day) via dietary uptake of BDE-47 encapsulated in Artemia nauplii. Body burdens of BDE-47 and other metabolic products were analyzed in the exposed and control fish. Only a small amount of debrominated product, BDE-28, was detected, while other metabolic products were all under detection limit. Transcriptional expression of six major complement system genes involved in complement activation: C1r/s (classical pathway), MBL-2 (lectin pathway), CFP (alternative pathway), F2 (coagulation pathway), C3 (the central component of complement system), and C9 (cell lysis) were quantified in the liver of marine medaka. Endogenous expression of all six complement system genes was found to be higher in males than in females (p < 0.05). Upon dietary exposure of marine medaka to BDE-47, expression of all six complement genes were downregulated in males at day 5 (or longer), whereas in females, MBl-2, CFP, and F2 mRNAs expression were upregulated, but C3 and C9 remained stable with exposure time and dose. A significant negative relationship was found between BDE-47 body burden and mRNA expression of C1r/s, CFP, and C3 in male fish (r = -0.8576 to -0.9447). The above findings on changes in complement gene expression patterns indicate the complement system may be compromised in male O. melastigma upon dietary exposure to BDE-47. Distinct gender difference in expression of six major complement system genes was evident in marine medaka under resting condition and dietary BDE-47 challenge. The immunomodulatory effects of BDE-47 on transcriptional

  8. Pollination between maize and teosinte: an important determinant of gene flow in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, Baltazar M; de Jesús Sánchez-Gonzalez, José; de la Cruz-Larios, Lino; Schoper, John B

    2005-02-01

    Gene flow between maize [Zea mays (L.)] and its wild relatives does occur, but at very low frequencies. Experiments were undertaken in Tapachula, Nayarit, Mexico to investigate gene flow between a hybrid maize, landraces of maize and teosinte (Z. mays ssp. mexicana, races Chalco and Central Plateau). Hybridization, flowering synchrony, pollen size and longevity, silk elongation rates, silk and trichome lengths and tassel diameter and morphology were measured. Hybrid and open-pollinated maize ears produced a mean of 8 and 11 seeds per ear, respectively, when hand-pollinated with teosinte pollen, which is approximately 1-2% of the ovules normally produced on a hybrid maize ear. Teosinte ears produced a mean of 0.2-0.3 seeds per ear when pollinated with maize pollen, which is more than one-fold fewer seeds than produced on a maize ear pollinated with teosinte pollen. The pollination rate on a per plant basis was similar in the context of a maize plant with 400-500 seeds and a teosinte plant with 30-40 inflorescences and 9-12 fruitcases per inflorescence. A number of other factors also influenced gene-flow direction: (1) between 90% and 95% of the fruitcases produced on teosinte that was fertilized by maize pollen were sterile; (2) teosinte collections were made in an area where incompatibility systems that limit fertilization are present; (3) silk longevity was much shorter for teosinte than for maize (approx. 4 days vs. approx. 11 days); (4) teosinte produced more pollen on a per plant basis than the landraces and commercial hybrid maize; (5) teosinte frequently produced lateral branches with silks close to a terminal tassel producing pollen. Collectively these factors tend to favor crossing in the direction of teosinte to maize. Our results support the hypothesis that gene flow and the subsequent introgression of maize genes into teosinte populations most probably results from crosses where teosinte first pollinates maize. The resultant hybrids then backcross with

  9. Performance of vertical up-flow constructed wetlands on swine wastewater containing tetracyclines and tet genes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu; Liu, Chaoxiang; Li, Ke; Su, Jianqiang; Zhu, Gefu; Liu, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) pollution in animal feeding farms received more public attention recently. Livestock wastewater contains large quantities of antibiotics and ARGs even after traditional lagoon treatment. In this study, the performance of vertical up-flow constructed wetlands (VUF-CWs) on swine wastewater containing tetracycline compounds (TCs) and tet genes was evaluated based on three aspects, TCs and tet genes removal efficiencies, residual TCs and tet genes in soils and plants, and the effect of TCs accumulation on nutrients removal and tet genes development. High removal efficiencies (69.0-99.9%) were achieved for oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) with or without OTC spiked in the influent additionally. TCs concentrations in surface soils increased at first two sampling periods and then decreased after plants were harvested. Satisfactory nutrients removal efficiencies were also obtained, but TN and NH4-N removal efficiencies were significantly negative correlated with total concentration of TCs (∑TCs) in the soils (p < 0.01). The absolute abundances of all the target genes (tetO, tetM, tetW, tetA, tetX and intI1) were greatly reduced with their log units ranging from 0.26 to 3.3. However, the relative abundances of tetO, tetM and tetX in some effluent samples were significantly higher than those in the influent (p < 0.05). The relative abundances of tet genes except for tetO were significantly correlated with ∑TCs in the soils (p < 0.05). In summary, the proposed VUF-CWs are effective alternative for the removal of TCs and tet genes. But it is of great importance to prevent large accumulation of TCs in the soils.

  10. Gene flow on ice: the role of sea ice and whaling in shaping Holarctic genetic diversity and population differentiation in bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus).

    PubMed

    Elizabeth Alter, S; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Postma, Lianne D; Whitridge, Peter; Gaines, Cork; Weber, Diana; Egan, Mary G; Lindsay, Melissa; Amato, George; Dueck, Larry; Brownell, Robert L; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads-Peter; Laidre, Kristin L; Caccone, Gisella; Hancock, Brittany L

    2012-11-01

    Sea ice is believed to be a major factor shaping gene flow for polar marine organisms, but it remains unclear to what extent it represents a true barrier to dispersal for arctic cetaceans. Bowhead whales are highly adapted to polar sea ice and were targeted by commercial whalers throughout Arctic and subarctic seas for at least four centuries, resulting in severe reductions in most areas. Both changing ice conditions and reductions due to whaling may have affected geographic distribution and genetic diversity throughout their range, but little is known about range-wide genetic structure or whether it differed in the past. This study represents the first examination of genetic diversity and differentiation across all five putative stocks, including Baffin Bay-Davis Strait, Hudson Bay-Foxe Basin, Bering-Beaufort-Chukchi, Okhotsk, and Spitsbergen. We also utilized ancient specimens from Prince Regent Inlet (PRI) in the Canadian Arctic and compared them with modern stocks. Results from analysis of molecular variance and demographic simulations are consistent with recent and high gene flow between Atlantic and Pacific stocks in the recent past. Significant genetic differences between ancient and modern populations suggest PRI harbored unique maternal lineages in the past that have been recently lost, possibly due to loss of habitat during the Little Ice Age and/or whaling. Unexpectedly, samples from this location show a closer genetic relationship with modern Pacific stocks than Atlantic, supporting high gene flow between the central Canadian Arctic and Beaufort Sea over the past millennium despite extremely heavy ice cover over much of this period.

  11. Gene flow on ice: the role of sea ice and whaling in shaping Holarctic genetic diversity and population differentiation in bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus).

    PubMed

    Elizabeth Alter, S; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Postma, Lianne D; Whitridge, Peter; Gaines, Cork; Weber, Diana; Egan, Mary G; Lindsay, Melissa; Amato, George; Dueck, Larry; Brownell, Robert L; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads-Peter; Laidre, Kristin L; Caccone, Gisella; Hancock, Brittany L

    2012-11-01

    Sea ice is believed to be a major factor shaping gene flow for polar marine organisms, but it remains unclear to what extent it represents a true barrier to dispersal for arctic cetaceans. Bowhead whales are highly adapted to polar sea ice and were targeted by commercial whalers throughout Arctic and subarctic seas for at least four centuries, resulting in severe reductions in most areas. Both changing ice conditions and reductions due to whaling may have affected geographic distribution and genetic diversity throughout their range, but little is known about range-wide genetic structure or whether it differed in the past. This study represents the first examination of genetic diversity and differentiation across all five putative stocks, including Baffin Bay-Davis Strait, Hudson Bay-Foxe Basin, Bering-Beaufort-Chukchi, Okhotsk, and Spitsbergen. We also utilized ancient specimens from Prince Regent Inlet (PRI) in the Canadian Arctic and compared them with modern stocks. Results from analysis of molecular variance and demographic simulations are consistent with recent and high gene flow between Atlantic and Pacific stocks in the recent past. Significant genetic differences between ancient and modern populations suggest PRI harbored unique maternal lineages in the past that have been recently lost, possibly due to loss of habitat during the Little Ice Age and/or whaling. Unexpectedly, samples from this location show a closer genetic relationship with modern Pacific stocks than Atlantic, supporting high gene flow between the central Canadian Arctic and Beaufort Sea over the past millennium despite extremely heavy ice cover over much of this period. PMID:23170222

  12. Gene flow on ice: the role of sea ice and whaling in shaping Holarctic genetic diversity and population differentiation in bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus)

    PubMed Central

    Elizabeth Alter, S; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Postma, Lianne D; Whitridge, Peter; Gaines, Cork; Weber, Diana; Egan, Mary G; Lindsay, Melissa; Amato, George; Dueck, Larry; Brownell, Robert L; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads-Peter; Laidre, Kristin L; Caccone, Gisella; Hancock, Brittany L

    2012-01-01

    Sea ice is believed to be a major factor shaping gene flow for polar marine organisms, but it remains unclear to what extent it represents a true barrier to dispersal for arctic cetaceans. Bowhead whales are highly adapted to polar sea ice and were targeted by commercial whalers throughout Arctic and subarctic seas for at least four centuries, resulting in severe reductions in most areas. Both changing ice conditions and reductions due to whaling may have affected geographic distribution and genetic diversity throughout their range, but little is known about range-wide genetic structure or whether it differed in the past. This study represents the first examination of genetic diversity and differentiation across all five putative stocks, including Baffin Bay-Davis Strait, Hudson Bay-Foxe Basin, Bering-Beaufort-Chukchi, Okhotsk, and Spitsbergen. We also utilized ancient specimens from Prince Regent Inlet (PRI) in the Canadian Arctic and compared them with modern stocks. Results from analysis of molecular variance and demographic simulations are consistent with recent and high gene flow between Atlantic and Pacific stocks in the recent past. Significant genetic differences between ancient and modern populations suggest PRI harbored unique maternal lineages in the past that have been recently lost, possibly due to loss of habitat during the Little Ice Age and/or whaling. Unexpectedly, samples from this location show a closer genetic relationship with modern Pacific stocks than Atlantic, supporting high gene flow between the central Canadian Arctic and Beaufort Sea over the past millennium despite extremely heavy ice cover over much of this period. PMID:23170222

  13. Gene Flow between Sympatric Life History Forms of Oncorhynchus mykiss Located above and below Migratory Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Van Doornik, Donald M.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Campbell, Lance A.

    2013-01-01

    Oncorhynchus mykiss have a diverse array of life history types, and understanding the relationship among types is important for management of the species. Patterns of gene flow between sympatric freshwater resident O. mykiss, commonly known as rainbow trout, and anadromous O. mykiss, commonly known as steelhead, populations are complex and poorly understood. In this study, we attempt to determine the occurrence and pathways of gene flow and the degree of genetic similarity between sympatric resident and anadromous O. mykiss in three river systems, and investigate whether resident O. mykiss are producing anadromous offspring in these rivers, two of which have complete barriers to upstream migration. We found that the population structure of the O. mykiss in these rivers appears to be influenced more by the presence of a barrier to upstream migration than by life history type. The sex ratio of resident O. mykiss located above a barrier, and smolts captured in screw traps was significantly skewed in favor of females, whereas the reverse was true below the barriers, suggesting that male resident O. mykiss readily migrate downstream over the barrier, and that precocious male maturation may be occurring in the anadromous populations. Through paternity analyses, we also provide direct confirmation that resident O. mykiss can produce offspring that become anadromous. Most (89%) of the resident O. mykiss that produced anadromous offspring were males. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that shows that gene flow does readily occur between sympatric resident and anadromous O. mykiss life history types, and indicates that resident O. mykiss populations may be a potential repository of genes for the anadromous life history type. PMID:24224023

  14. Human Muscle Gene Expression Following Resistance Exercise and Blood Flow Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Micah J.; Fujita, Satoshi; Takashi, Abe; Dreyer, Hans C.; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Blood flow restriction in combination with low-intensity resistance exercise (REFR) increases skeletal muscle size to a similar extent as compared to traditional high-intensity resistance exercise training. However, there are limited data describing the molecular adaptations that occur after REFR. PURPOSE To determine whether (hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha) HIF-1α and REDD1 mRNA is expressed differently in REFR compared to low-intensity resistance exercise with no blood flow restriction (CONTROL). Secondly, to determine if low-intensity resistance exercise is able to induce changes in mRNA expression of several anabolic and catabolic genes as typically seen with high-intensity resistance exercise. METHODS Six subjects were studied at baseline and 3h after a bout of leg resistance exercise (20% 1RM) in REFR and CONTROL subjects. Each subject participated in both groups with 3 weeks separating each visit. Muscle biopsy samples were analyzed for mRNA expression using qRT-PCR. RESULTS Our primary finding was that there were no differences between CONTROL and REFR for any of the selected genes at 3h post-exercise (P>0.05). However, low-intensity resistance exercise increased HIF-1α, p21, MyoD and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) mRNA expression and decreased REDD1 and Myostatin mRNA expression in both groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSION Low-intensity resistance exercise can alter skeletal muscle mRNA expression of several genes associated with muscle growth and remodeling such as REDD1, HIF-1α, MyoD, MuRF1, and Myostatin. Further, the results from REFR and CONTROL were similar indicating that the changes in early post-exercise gene expression were due to the low-intensity resistance exercise bout and not blood flow restriction. PMID:18317375

  15. Recent long-distance transgene flow into wild populations conforms to historical patterns of gene flow in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) at its centre of origin.

    PubMed

    Wegier, A; Piñeyro-Nelson, A; Alarcón, J; Gálvez-Mariscal, A; Alvarez-Buylla, E R; Piñero, D

    2011-10-01

    Over 95% of the currently cultivated cotton was domesticated from Gossypium hirsutum, which originated and diversified in Mexico. Demographic and genetic studies of this species at its centre of origin and diversification are lacking, although they are critical for cotton conservation and breeding. We investigated the actual and potential distribution of wild cotton populations, as well as the contribution of historical and recent gene flow in shaping cotton genetic diversity and structure. We evaluated historical gene flow using chloroplast microsatellites and recent gene flow through the assessment of transgene presence in wild cotton populations, exploiting the fact that genetically modified cotton has been planted in the North of Mexico since 1996. Assessment of geographic structure through Bayesian spatial analysis, BAPS and Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Production (GARP), suggests that G. hirsutum seems to conform to a metapopulation scheme, with eight distinct metapopulations. Despite evidence for long-distance gene flow, genetic variation among the metapopulations of G. hirsutum is high (He = 0.894 ± 0.01). We identified 46 different haplotypes, 78% of which are unique to a particular metapopulation, in contrast to a single haplotype detected in cotton cultivars. Recent gene flow was also detected (m = 66/270 = 0.24), with four out of eight metapopulations having transgenes. We discuss the implications of the data presented here with respect to the conservation and future breeding of cotton populations and genetic diversity at its centre of crop origin.

  16. Genetic structure and gene flow among European corn borer populations from the Great Plains to the Appalachians of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earlier population genetic spatial analysis of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), indicated no genetic differentiation even between locations separated by 720 km. This result suggests either high dispersal resulting in high gene flow, or that populations are not in...

  17. Rapid speciation with gene flow following the formation of Mt. Etna.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Owen G; Batstone, Thomas E; Hiscock, Simon J; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2013-01-01

    Environmental or geological changes can create new niches that drive ecological species divergence without the immediate cessation of gene flow. However, few such cases have been characterized. On a recently formed volcano, Mt. Etna, Senecio aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius inhabit contrasting environments of high and low altitude, respectively. They have very distinct phenotypes, despite hybridizing promiscuously, and thus may represent an important example of ecological speciation "in action," possibly as a response to the rapid geological changes that Mt. Etna has recently undergone. To elucidate the species' evolutionary history, and help establish the species as a study system for speciation genomics, we sequenced the transcriptomes of the two Etnean species, and the outgroup, S. vernalis, using Illumina sequencing. Despite the species' substantial phenotypic divergence, synonymous divergence between the high- and low-altitude species was low (dS = 0.016 ± 0.017 [SD]). A comparison of species divergence models with and without gene flow provided unequivocal support in favor of the former and demonstrated a recent time of species divergence (153,080 ya ± 11,470 [SE]) that coincides with the growth of Mt. Etna to the altitudes that separate the species today. Analysis of dN/dS revealed wide variation in selective constraint between genes, and evidence that highly expressed genes, more "multifunctional" genes, and those with more paralogs were under elevated purifying selection. Taken together, these results are consistent with a model of ecological speciation, potentially as a response to the emergence of a new, high-altitude niche as the volcano grew.

  18. Minimally-Invasive Gene Transfection by Chemical and Physical Interaction of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Toshiro

    2014-10-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma irradiated to the living-cell is investigated for medical applications such as gene transfection, which is expected to play an important role in molecular biology, gene therapy, and creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the conventional gene transfection using the plasma has some problems that the cell viability is low and the genes cannot be transferred into some specific lipid cells, which is attributed to the unknown mechanism of the gene transfection using the plasma. Therefore, the time-controlled atmospheric pressure plasma flow is generated and irradiated to the living-cell suspended solution for clarifying the transfection mechanism toward developing highly-efficient and minimally- invasive gene transfection system. In this experiment, fluorescent dye YOYO-1 is used as the simulated gene and LIVE/DEAD Stain is simultaneously used for cell viability assay. By the fluorescence image, the transfection efficiency is calculated as the ratio of the number of transferred and surviving cells to total cell count. It is clarified that the transfection efficiency is significantly increased by the short-time (<4 sec) and short-distance (<40 mm) plasma irradiation, and the high transfection efficiency of 53% is realized together with the high cell viability (>90%). This result indicates that the physical effects such as the electric field caused by the charged particles arriving at the surface of the cell membrane, and chemical effects associated with plasma-activated products in solution act synergistically to enhance the cell-membrane transport with low-damage. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 24108004.

  19. Combined analyses of kinship and FST suggest potential drivers of chaotic genetic patchiness in high gene-flow populations

    PubMed Central

    Iacchei, Matthew; Ben-Horin, Tal; Selkoe, Kimberly A; Bird, Christopher E; García-Rodríguez, Francisco J; Toonen, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    We combine kinship estimates with traditional F-statistics to explain contemporary drivers of population genetic differentiation despite high gene flow. We investigate range-wide population genetic structure of the California spiny (or red rock) lobster (Panulirus interruptus) and find slight, but significant global population differentiation in mtDNA (ΦST = 0.006, P = 0.001; Dest_Chao = 0.025) and seven nuclear microsatellites (FST = 0.004, P < 0.001; Dest_Chao = 0.03), despite the species’ 240- to 330-day pelagic larval duration. Significant population structure does not correlate with distance between sampling locations, and pairwise FST between adjacent sites often exceeds that among geographically distant locations. This result would typically be interpreted as unexplainable, chaotic genetic patchiness. However, kinship levels differ significantly among sites (pseudo-F16,988 = 1.39, P = 0.001), and ten of 17 sample sites have significantly greater numbers of kin than expected by chance (P < 0.05). Moreover, a higher proportion of kin within sites strongly correlates with greater genetic differentiation among sites (Dest_Chao, R2 = 0.66, P < 0.005). Sites with elevated mean kinship were geographically proximate to regions of high upwelling intensity (R2 = 0.41, P = 0.0009). These results indicate that P. interruptus does not maintain a single homogenous population, despite extreme dispersal potential. Instead, these lobsters appear to either have substantial localized recruitment or maintain planktonic larval cohesiveness whereby siblings more likely settle together than disperse across sites. More broadly, our results contribute to a growing number of studies showing that low FST and high family structure across populations can coexist, illuminating the foundations of cryptic genetic patterns and the nature of marine dispersal. PMID:23802550

  20. Both decrease in ACL1 gene expression and increase in ICL1 gene expression in marine-derived yeast Yarrowia lipolytica expressing INU1 gene enhance citric acid production from inulin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Madzak, Catherine; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2013-02-01

    In this study, some of the ATP-citrate lyase genes (ACL1) were deleted and the copy number of the iso-citrate lyase gene (ICL1) was increased in the marine-derived yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b displaying the recombinant inulinase. It was found that lipid content and iso-citric acid in the transformant 30 obtained were greatly reduced and citric acid production was greatly enhanced. It was also found that the ACL1 gene expression and ATP-citrate lyase activity in the transformant 30 were declined and the ICL1 gene expression and iso-citrate lyase activity were promoted. During the 2-l fermentation, 84.0 g/l of citric acid and 1.8 g/l of iso-citric acid in the fermented medium were attained from 10.0 % of inulin by the transformant 30 within 214 h. The results showed that only 0.36 % of the residual reducing sugar and 1.0 % of the residual total sugar were left in the fermented medium, suggesting that 89.6 % of the total sugar was used for citric acid production and cell growth by the transformant 30.

  1. Gene flow among populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, in Mali, West Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, C; Touré, Y T; Carnahan, J; Norris, D E; Dolo, G; Traoré, S F; Edillo, F E; Lanzaro, G C

    2001-01-01

    The population structure of the Anopheles gambiae complex is unusual, with several sibling species often occupying a single area and, in one of these species, An. gambiae sensu stricto, as many as three "chromosomal forms" occurring together. The chromosomal forms are thought to be intermediate between populations and species, distinguishable by patterns of chromosome gene arrangements. The extent of reproductive isolation among these forms has been debated. To better characterize this structure we measured effective population size, N(e), and migration rates, m, or their product by both direct and indirect means. Gene flow among villages within each chromosomal form was found to be large (N(e)m > 40), was intermediate between chromosomal forms (N(e)m approximately 3-30), and was low between species (N(e)m approximately 0.17-1.3). A recently developed means for distinguishing among certain of the forms using PCR indicated rates of gene flow consistent with those observed using the other genetic markers. PMID:11156993

  2. Ethiopian Mitochondrial DNA Heritage: Tracking Gene Flow Across and Around the Gate of Tears

    PubMed Central

    Kivisild, Toomas; Reidla, Maere; Metspalu, Ene; Rosa, Alexandra; Brehm, Antonio; Pennarun, Erwan; Parik, Jüri; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Usanga, Esien; Villems, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 10 miles separate the Horn of Africa from the Arabian Peninsula at Bab-el-Mandeb (the Gate of Tears). Both historic and archaeological evidence indicate tight cultural connections, over millennia, between these two regions. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of 270 Ethiopian and 115 Yemeni mitochondrial DNAs was performed in a worldwide context, to explore gene flow across the Red and Arabian Seas. Nine distinct subclades, including three newly defined ones, were found to characterize entirely the variation of Ethiopian and Yemeni L3 lineages. Both Ethiopians and Yemenis contain an almost-equal proportion of Eurasian-specific M and N and African-specific lineages and therefore cluster together in a multidimensional scaling plot between Near Eastern and sub-Saharan African populations. Phylogeographic identification of potential founder haplotypes revealed that approximately one-half of haplogroup L0–L5 lineages in Yemenis have close or matching counterparts in southeastern Africans, compared with a minor share in Ethiopians. Newly defined clade L6, the most frequent haplogroup in Yemenis, showed no close matches among 3,000 African samples. These results highlight the complexity of Ethiopian and Yemeni genetic heritage and are consistent with the introduction of maternal lineages into the South Arabian gene pool from different source populations of East Africa. A high proportion of Ethiopian lineages, significantly more abundant in the northeast of that country, trace their western Eurasian origin in haplogroup N through assorted gene flow at different times and involving different source populations. PMID:15457403

  3. Genetic architecture and genomic patterns of gene flow between hybridizing species of Picea.

    PubMed

    De La Torre, A; Ingvarsson, P K; Aitken, S N

    2015-08-01

    Hybrid zones provide an opportunity to study the effects of selection and gene flow in natural settings. We employed nuclear microsatellites (single sequence repeat (SSR)) and candidate gene single-nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs) to characterize the genetic architecture and patterns of interspecific gene flow in the Picea glauca × P. engelmannii hybrid zone across a broad latitudinal (40-60 degrees) and elevational (350-3500 m) range in western North America. Our results revealed a wide and complex hybrid zone with broad ancestry levels and low interspecific heterozygosity, shaped by asymmetric advanced-generation introgression, and low reproductive barriers between parental species. The clinal variation based on geographic variables, lack of concordance in clines among loci and the width of the hybrid zone points towards the maintenance of species integrity through environmental selection. Congruency between geographic and genomic clines suggests that loci with narrow clines are under strong selection, favoring either one parental species (directional selection) or their hybrids (overdominance) as a result of strong associations with climatic variables such as precipitation as snow and mean annual temperature. Cline movement due to past demographic events (evidenced by allelic richness and heterozygosity shifts from the average cline center) may explain the asymmetry in introgression and predominance of P. engelmannii found in this study. These results provide insights into the genetic architecture and fine-scale patterns of admixture, and identify loci that may be involved in reproductive barriers between the species. PMID:25806545

  4. Genetic differentiation and gene flow among populations of the alpine butterfly, Parnassius smintheus, vary with landscape connectivity.

    PubMed

    Keyghobadi, Nusha; Roland, Jens; Strobeck, Curtis

    2005-06-01

    Levels of gene flow among populations vary both inter- and intraspecifically, and understanding the ecological bases of variation in levels of gene flow represents an important link between the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations. The effects of habitat spatial structure on gene flow have received considerable attention; however, most studies have been conducted at a single spatial scale and without background data on how individual movement is affected by landscape features. We examined the influence of habitat connectivity on inferred levels of gene flow in a high-altitude, meadow-dwelling butterfly, Parnassius smintheus. For this species, we had background data on the effects of landscape structure on both individual movement and on small-scale population genetic differentiation. We compared genetic differentiation and patterns of isolation by distance, based on variation at seven microsatellite loci, among three regions representing two levels of connectivity of high-altitude, nonforested habitats. We found that reduced connectivity of habitats, resulting from more forest cover at high altitudes, was associated with greater genetic differentiation among populations (higher estimated FST), a breakdown of isolation by distance, and overall lower levels of inferred gene flow. These observed differences were consistent with expectations based on our knowledge of the movement behaviour of this species and on previous population genetic analyses conducted at the smaller spatial scale. Our results indicate that the role of gene flow may vary among groups of populations depending on the interplay between individual movement and the structure of the surrounding landscape.

  5. Landscape genetics as a tool for conservation planning: predicting the effects of landscape change on gene flow.

    PubMed

    van Strien, Maarten J; Keller, Daniela; Holderegger, Rolf; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Kienast, Felix; Bolliger, Janine

    2014-03-01

    For conservation managers, it is important to know whether landscape changes lead to increasing or decreasing gene flow. Although the discipline of landscape genetics assesses the influence of landscape elements on gene flow, no studies have yet used landscape-genetic models to predict gene flow resulting from landscape change. A species that has already been severely affected by landscape change is the large marsh grasshopper (Stethophyma grossum), which inhabits moist areas in fragmented agricultural landscapes in Switzerland. From transects drawn between all population pairs within maximum dispersal distance (< 3 km), we calculated several measures of landscape composition as well as some measures of habitat configuration. Additionally, a complete sampling of all populations in our study area allowed incorporating measures of population topology. These measures together with the landscape metrics formed the predictor variables in linear models with gene flow as response variable (F(ST) and mean pairwise assignment probability). With a modified leave-one-out cross-validation approach, we selected the model with the highest predictive accuracy. With this model, we predicted gene flow under several landscape-change scenarios, which simulated construction, rezoning or restoration projects, and the establishment of a new population. For some landscape-change scenarios, significant increase or decrease in gene flow was predicted, while for others little change was forecast. Furthermore, we found that the measures of population topology strongly increase model fit in landscape genetic analysis. This study demonstrates the use of predictive landscape-genetic models in conservation and landscape planning.

  6. The influence of gene flow and drift on genetic and phenotypic divergence in two species of Zosterops in Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, Sonya M.; Phillimore, Albert B.

    2010-01-01

    Colonization of an archipelago sets the stage for adaptive radiation. However, some archipelagos are home to spectacular radiations, while others have much lower levels of diversification. The amount of gene flow among allopatric populations is one factor proposed to contribute to this variation. In island colonizing birds, selection for reduced dispersal ability is predicted to produce changing patterns of regional population genetic structure as gene flow-dominated systems give way to drift-mediated divergence. If this transition is important in facilitating phenotypic divergence, levels of genetic and phenotypic divergence should be associated. We consider population genetic structure and phenotypic divergence among two co-distributed, congeneric (Genus: Zosterops) bird species inhabiting the Vanuatu archipelago. The more recent colonist, Z. lateralis, exhibits genetic patterns consistent with a strong influence of distance-mediated gene flow. However, complex patterns of asymmetrical gene flow indicate variation in dispersal ability or inclination among populations. The endemic species, Z. flavifrons, shows only a partial transition towards a drift-mediated system, despite a long evolutionary history on the archipelago. We find no strong evidence that gene flow constrains phenotypic divergence in either species, suggesting that levels of inter-island gene flow do not explain the absence of a radiation across this archipelago. PMID:20194170

  7. The influence of gene flow and drift on genetic and phenotypic divergence in two species of Zosterops in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Sonya M; Phillimore, Albert B

    2010-04-12

    Colonization of an archipelago sets the stage for adaptive radiation. However, some archipelagos are home to spectacular radiations, while others have much lower levels of diversification. The amount of gene flow among allopatric populations is one factor proposed to contribute to this variation. In island colonizing birds, selection for reduced dispersal ability is predicted to produce changing patterns of regional population genetic structure as gene flow-dominated systems give way to drift-mediated divergence. If this transition is important in facilitating phenotypic divergence, levels of genetic and phenotypic divergence should be associated. We consider population genetic structure and phenotypic divergence among two co-distributed, congeneric (Genus: Zosterops) bird species inhabiting the Vanuatu archipelago. The more recent colonist, Z. lateralis, exhibits genetic patterns consistent with a strong influence of distance-mediated gene flow. However, complex patterns of asymmetrical gene flow indicate variation in dispersal ability or inclination among populations. The endemic species, Z. flavifrons, shows only a partial transition towards a drift-mediated system, despite a long evolutionary history on the archipelago. We find no strong evidence that gene flow constrains phenotypic divergence in either species, suggesting that levels of inter-island gene flow do not explain the absence of a radiation across this archipelago.

  8. Deep sequencing-based transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus reveals insight into the immune-relevant genes in marine fish

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Systematic research on fish immunogenetics is indispensable in understanding the origin and evolution of immune systems. This has long been a challenging task because of the limited number of deep sequencing technologies and genome backgrounds of non-model fish available. The newly developed Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq and Digital gene expression (DGE) are high-throughput sequencing approaches and are powerful tools for genomic studies at the transcriptome level. This study reports the transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus using RNA-seq and DGE in an attempt to gain insights into the immunogenetics of marine fish. Results RNA-seq analysis generated 169,950 non-redundant consensus sequences, among which 48,987 functional transcripts with complete or various length encoding regions were identified. More than 52% of these transcripts are possibly involved in approximately 219 known metabolic or signalling pathways, while 2,673 transcripts were associated with immune-relevant genes. In addition, approximately 8% of the transcripts appeared to be fish-specific genes that have never been described before. DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile of Vibrio harveyi-challenged L. japonicus is considerably altered, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 1,224 strong infection-responsive transcripts. Results indicated an overall conservation of the components and transcriptome alterations underlying innate and adaptive immunity in fish and other vertebrate models. Analysis suggested the acquisition of numerous fish-specific immune system components during early vertebrate evolution. Conclusion This study provided a global survey of host defence gene activities against bacterial challenge in a non-model marine fish. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in marine fish immunity, and help improve current understanding of host-pathogen interactions and evolutionary history

  9. Contemporary human-altered landscapes and oceanic barriers reduce bumble bee gene flow.

    PubMed

    Jha, S

    2015-03-01

    Much of the world's terrestrial landscapes are being altered by humans in the form of agriculture, urbanization and pastoral systems, with major implications for biodiversity. Bumble bees are one of the most effective pollinators in both natural and cultivated landscapes, but are often the first to be extirpated in human-altered habitats. Yet, little is known about the role of natural and human-altered habitats in promoting or limiting bumble bee gene flow. In this study, I closely examine the genetic structure of the yellow-faced bumble bee, Bombus vosnesenskii, across the southwestern US coast and find strong evidence that natural oceanic barriers, as well as contemporary human-altered habitats, limit bee gene flow. Heterozygosity and allelic richness were lower in island populations, while private allelic richness was higher in island populations compared to mainland populations. Genetic differentiation, measured for three indices across the 1000 km study region, was significantly greater than the null expectation (F(ST) = 0.041, F'(ST) = 0.044 and D(est) = 0.155) and correlated with geographic distance. Furthermore, genetic differentiation patterns were most strongly correlated with contemporary (2011) not past (2006, 2001) resistance maps calibrated for high dispersal limitation over oceans, impervious habitat and croplands. Despite the incorporation of dramatic elevation gradients, the analyses reveal that oceans and contemporary human land use, not mountains, are the primary dispersal barriers for B. vosnesenskii gene flow. These findings reinforce the importance of maintaining corridors of suitable habitat across the distribution range of native pollinators to promote their persistence and safeguard their ability to provide essential pollination services.

  10. The success of assisted colonization and assisted gene flow depends on phenology.

    PubMed

    Wadgymar, Susana M; Cumming, Matthew N; Weis, Arthur E

    2015-10-01

    Global warming will jeopardize the persistence and genetic diversity of many species. Assisted colonization, or the movement of species beyond their current range boundary, is a conservation strategy proposed for species with limited dispersal abilities or adaptive potential. However, species that rely on photoperiodic and thermal cues for development may experience conflicting signals if transported across latitudes. Relocating multiple, distinct populations may remedy this quandary by expanding genetic variation and promoting evolutionary responses in the receiving habitat--a strategy known as assisted gene flow. To better inform these policies, we planted seeds from latitudinally distinct populations of the annual legume, Chamaecrista fasciculata, in a potential future colonization site north of its current range boundary. Plants were exposed to ambient or elevated temperatures via infrared heating. We monitored several life history traits and estimated patterns of natural selection to determine the adaptive value of plastic responses. To assess the feasibility of assisted gene flow between phenologically distinct populations, we counted flowers each day and estimated the degree of temporal isolation between populations. Increased temperatures advanced each successive phenological trait more than the last, resulting in a compressed life cycle for all but the southern-most population. Warming altered patterns of selection on flowering onset and vegetative biomass. Population performance was dependent on latitude of origin, with the northern-most population performing best under ambient conditions and the southern-most performing most poorly, even under elevated temperatures. Among-population differences in flowering phenology limited the potential for genetic exchange among the northern- and southern-most populations. All plastic responses to warming were neutral or adaptive; however, photoperiodic constraints will likely necessitate evolutionary responses for

  11. Dispersal and gene flow in the rare, parasitic Large Blue butterfly Maculinea arion.

    PubMed

    Ugelvig, L V; Andersen, A; Boomsma, J J; Nash, D R

    2012-07-01

    Dispersal is crucial for gene flow and often determines the long-term stability of meta-populations, particularly in rare species with specialized life cycles. Such species are often foci of conservation efforts because they suffer disproportionally from degradation and fragmentation of their habitat. However, detailed knowledge of effective gene flow through dispersal is often missing, so that conservation strategies have to be based on mark-recapture observations that are suspected to be poor predictors of long-distance dispersal. These constraints have been especially severe in the study of butterfly populations, where microsatellite markers have been difficult to develop. We used eight microsatellite markers to analyse genetic population structure of the Large Blue butterfly Maculinea arion in Sweden. During recent decades, this species has become an icon of insect conservation after massive decline throughout Europe and extinction in Britain followed by reintroduction of a seed population from the Swedish island of Öland. We find that populations are highly structured genetically, but that gene flow occurs over distances 15 times longer than the maximum distance recorded from mark-recapture studies, which can only be explained by maximum dispersal distances at least twice as large as previously accepted. However, we also find evidence that gaps between sites with suitable habitat exceeding ∼20km induce genetic erosion that can be detected from bottleneck analyses. Although further work is needed, our results suggest that M. arion can maintain fully functional metapopulations when they consist of optimal habitat patches that are no further apart than ∼10km.

  12. Circumpolar Genetic Structure and Recent Gene Flow of Polar Bears: A Reanalysis.

    PubMed

    Malenfant, René M; Davis, Corey S; Cullingham, Catherine I; Coltman, David W

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an extensive study of 2,748 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from across their circumpolar range was published in PLOS ONE, which used microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes to apparently show altered population structure and a dramatic change in directional gene flow towards the Canadian Archipelago-an area believed to be a future refugium for polar bears as their southernmost habitats decline under climate change. Although this study represents a major international collaborative effort and promised to be a baseline for future genetics work, methodological shortcomings and errors of interpretation undermine some of the study's main conclusions. Here, we present a reanalysis of this data in which we address some of these issues, including: (1) highly unbalanced sample sizes and large amounts of systematically missing data; (2) incorrect calculation of FST and of significance levels; (3) misleading estimates of recent gene flow resulting from non-convergence of the program BayesAss. In contrast to the original findings, in our reanalysis we find six genetic clusters of polar bears worldwide: the Hudson Bay Complex, the Western and Eastern Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the Western and Eastern Polar Basin, and-importantly-we reconfirm the presence of a unique and possibly endangered cluster of bears in Norwegian Bay near Canada's expected last sea-ice refugium. Although polar bears' abundance, distribution, and population structure will certainly be negatively affected by ongoing-and increasingly rapid-loss of Arctic sea ice, these genetic data provide no evidence of strong directional gene flow in response to recent climate change. PMID:26974333

  13. The success of assisted colonization and assisted gene flow depends on phenology.

    PubMed

    Wadgymar, Susana M; Cumming, Matthew N; Weis, Arthur E

    2015-10-01

    Global warming will jeopardize the persistence and genetic diversity of many species. Assisted colonization, or the movement of species beyond their current range boundary, is a conservation strategy proposed for species with limited dispersal abilities or adaptive potential. However, species that rely on photoperiodic and thermal cues for development may experience conflicting signals if transported across latitudes. Relocating multiple, distinct populations may remedy this quandary by expanding genetic variation and promoting evolutionary responses in the receiving habitat--a strategy known as assisted gene flow. To better inform these policies, we planted seeds from latitudinally distinct populations of the annual legume, Chamaecrista fasciculata, in a potential future colonization site north of its current range boundary. Plants were exposed to ambient or elevated temperatures via infrared heating. We monitored several life history traits and estimated patterns of natural selection to determine the adaptive value of plastic responses. To assess the feasibility of assisted gene flow between phenologically distinct populations, we counted flowers each day and estimated the degree of temporal isolation between populations. Increased temperatures advanced each successive phenological trait more than the last, resulting in a compressed life cycle for all but the southern-most population. Warming altered patterns of selection on flowering onset and vegetative biomass. Population performance was dependent on latitude of origin, with the northern-most population performing best under ambient conditions and the southern-most performing most poorly, even under elevated temperatures. Among-population differences in flowering phenology limited the potential for genetic exchange among the northern- and southern-most populations. All plastic responses to warming were neutral or adaptive; however, photoperiodic constraints will likely necessitate evolutionary responses for

  14. Circumpolar Genetic Structure and Recent Gene Flow of Polar Bears: A Reanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Malenfant, René M.; Davis, Corey S.; Cullingham, Catherine I.; Coltman, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an extensive study of 2,748 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from across their circumpolar range was published in PLOS ONE, which used microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes to apparently show altered population structure and a dramatic change in directional gene flow towards the Canadian Archipelago—an area believed to be a future refugium for polar bears as their southernmost habitats decline under climate change. Although this study represents a major international collaborative effort and promised to be a baseline for future genetics work, methodological shortcomings and errors of interpretation undermine some of the study’s main conclusions. Here, we present a reanalysis of this data in which we address some of these issues, including: (1) highly unbalanced sample sizes and large amounts of systematically missing data; (2) incorrect calculation of FST and of significance levels; (3) misleading estimates of recent gene flow resulting from non-convergence of the program BayesAss. In contrast to the original findings, in our reanalysis we find six genetic clusters of polar bears worldwide: the Hudson Bay Complex, the Western and Eastern Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the Western and Eastern Polar Basin, and—importantly—we reconfirm the presence of a unique and possibly endangered cluster of bears in Norwegian Bay near Canada’s expected last sea-ice refugium. Although polar bears’ abundance, distribution, and population structure will certainly be negatively affected by ongoing—and increasingly rapid—loss of Arctic sea ice, these genetic data provide no evidence of strong directional gene flow in response to recent climate change. PMID:26974333

  15. Circumpolar Genetic Structure and Recent Gene Flow of Polar Bears: A Reanalysis.

    PubMed

    Malenfant, René M; Davis, Corey S; Cullingham, Catherine I; Coltman, David W

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an extensive study of 2,748 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from across their circumpolar range was published in PLOS ONE, which used microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes to apparently show altered population structure and a dramatic change in directional gene flow towards the Canadian Archipelago-an area believed to be a future refugium for polar bears as their southernmost habitats decline under climate change. Although this study represents a major international collaborative effort and promised to be a baseline for future genetics work, methodological shortcomings and errors of interpretation undermine some of the study's main conclusions. Here, we present a reanalysis of this data in which we address some of these issues, including: (1) highly unbalanced sample sizes and large amounts of systematically missing data; (2) incorrect calculation of FST and of significance levels; (3) misleading estimates of recent gene flow resulting from non-convergence of the program BayesAss. In contrast to the original findings, in our reanalysis we find six genetic clusters of polar bears worldwide: the Hudson Bay Complex, the Western and Eastern Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the Western and Eastern Polar Basin, and-importantly-we reconfirm the presence of a unique and possibly endangered cluster of bears in Norwegian Bay near Canada's expected last sea-ice refugium. Although polar bears' abundance, distribution, and population structure will certainly be negatively affected by ongoing-and increasingly rapid-loss of Arctic sea ice, these genetic data provide no evidence of strong directional gene flow in response to recent climate change.

  16. Evolutionary dynamics of cycle length in pearl millet: the role of farmer's practices and gene flow.

    PubMed

    Lakis, Ghayas; Ousmane, Athman Maï; Sanoussi, Douka; Habibou, Abdoulaye; Badamassi, Mahamane; Lamy, Françoise; Jika, Naino; Sidikou, Ramatou; Adam, Toudou; Sarr, Aboubakry; Luxereau, Anne; Robert, Thierry

    2011-12-01

    In the Sahel of Africa, farmers often modify their cultivation practices to adapt to environmental changes. How these changes shape the agro-biodiversity is a question of primary interest for the conservation of plant genetic resources. We addressed this question in a case study on pearl millet in south western Niger where farmers used to cultivate landraces with different cycle length in order to cope with rain uncertainty. Early and late landraces were previously grown on distant fields. Nowadays, mostly because of human population pressure and soil impoverishment, it happens that the two types of landraces are grown on adjacent fields, opening the question whether gene flow between them may occur. This question was tackled through a comparative study among contrasting situations pertaining to the spatial distribution of early and late landraces. Observations of flowering periods showed that pollen flow between the two landraces is possible and has a preferential direction from early to late populations. PMID:22327603

  17. Use of Gene Expression Programming in regionalization of flow duration curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, Muhammad Z.; Shamseldin, Asaad Y.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a recently introduced artificial intelligence technique known as Gene Expression Programming (GEP) has been employed to perform symbolic regression for developing a parametric scheme of flow duration curve (FDC) regionalization, to relate selected FDC characteristics to catchment characteristics. Stream flow records of selected catchments located in the Auckland Region of New Zealand were used. FDCs of the selected catchments were normalised by dividing the ordinates by their median value. Input for the symbolic regression analysis using GEP was (a) selected characteristics of normalised FDCs; and (b) 26 catchment characteristics related to climate, morphology, soil properties and land cover properties obtained using the observed data and GIS analysis. Our study showed that application of this artificial intelligence technique expedites the selection of a set of the most relevant independent variables out of a large set, because these are automatically selected through the GEP process. Values of the FDC characteristics obtained from the developed relationships have high correlations with the observed values.

  18. Invertebrate eggs can fly: Evidence of waterfowl-mediated gene flow in aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Figuerola, J.; Green, A.J.; Michot, T.C.

    2005-01-01

    Waterfowl often have been assumed to disperse freshwater aquatic organisms between isolated wetlands, but no one has analyzed the impact of this transport on the population structure of aquatic organisms. For three cladocerans (Daphnia ambigua, Daphnia laevis, and Sida crystallina) and one bryozoan (Cristatella mucedo), we estimated the genetic distances between populations across North America using sequences of several mitochondrial DNA genes and genotypic frequencies at allozyme and microsatellite loci. Waterfowl movements across North America (estimated from band recovery data) explained a significant proportion of the gene flow occurring between populations across the continent for three of the four species, even after controlling for geographic distances between localities. The fourth species, S. crystallina, has propagules less likely to survive desiccation or ingestion by birds. Differences in the capacity to exploit bird-mediated transport are likely to have important consequences for the ecology of aquatic communities and the spread of invasive species.

  19. Evaluating the roles of directed breeding and gene flow in animal domestication

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Fiona B.; Dobney, Keith; Denham, Tim; Capriles, José M.

    2014-01-01

    For the last 150 y scholars have focused upon the roles of intentional breeding and genetic isolation as fundamental to understanding the process of animal domestication. This analysis of ethnoarchaeological, archaeological, and genetic data suggests that long-term gene flow between wild and domestic stocks was much more common than previously assumed, and that selective breeding of females was largely absent during the early phases of animal domestication. These findings challenge assumptions about severe genetic bottlenecks during domestication, expectations regarding monophyletic origins, and interpretations of multiple domestications. The findings also raise new questions regarding ways in which behavioral and phenotypic domestication traits were developed and maintained. PMID:24753599

  20. Measuring gene flow in the cultivation of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-Hong; Pan, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Teng-Long; Wang, Qing-Lian; Anderson, Todd A

    2005-09-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton NewCott 33B and transgenic tfd A cotton TFD were chosen to evaluate pollen dispersal frequency and distance of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Huanghe Valley Cotton-producing Zone, China. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of biosafety procedures used to reduce pollen movement. A field test plot of transgenic cotton (6 x 6 m) was planted in the middle of a nontransgenic field measuring 210 x 210 m. The results indicated that the pollen of Bt cotton or tfd A cotton could be dispersed into the environment. Out-crossing was highest within the central test plot where progeny from nontransgenic plants, immediately adjacent to transgenic plants, had resistant plant progeny at frequencies up to 10.48%. Dispersal frequency decreased significantly and exponentially as dispersal distance increased. The flow frequency and distance of tfd A and Bt genes were similar, but the pollen-mediated gene flow of tfd A cotton was higher and further to the transgenic block than that of Bt cotton (chi2 = 11.712, 1 degree of freedom, p < 0.001). For the tfd A gene, out-crossing ranged from 10.13% at 1 m to 0.04% at 50 m from the transgenic plants. For the Bt gene, out-crossing ranged from 8.16% at 1 m to 0.08% at 20 m from the transgenic plants. These data were fit to a power curve model: y = 10.1321x-1.4133 with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and y = 8.0031x-1.483 with a correlation coefficient of 0.998, respectively. In this experiment, the farthest distance of pollen dispersal from transgenic cotton was 50 m. These results indicate that a 60-m buffer zone would serve to limit dispersal of transgenic pollen from small-scale field tests. PMID:16118411

  1. Influence of gene flow on divergence dating - implications for the speciation history of Takydromus grass lizards.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Shu-Ping; Li, Shou-Hsien; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Lin, Si-Min

    2014-10-01

    Dating the time of divergence and understanding speciation processes are central to the study of the evolutionary history of organisms but are notoriously difficult. The difficulty is largely rooted in variations in the ancestral population size or in the genealogy variation across loci. To depict the speciation processes and divergence histories of three monophyletic Takydromus species endemic to Taiwan, we sequenced 20 nuclear loci and combined with one mitochondrial locus published in GenBank. They were analysed by a multispecies coalescent approach within a Bayesian framework. Divergence dating based on the gene tree approach showed high variation among loci, and the divergence was estimated at an earlier date than when derived by the species-tree approach. To test whether variations in the ancestral population size accounted for the majority of this variation, we conducted computer inferences using isolation-with-migration (IM) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) frameworks. The results revealed that gene flow during the early stage of speciation was strongly favoured over the isolation model, and the initiation of the speciation process was far earlier than the dates estimated by gene- and species-based divergence dating. Due to their limited dispersal ability, it is suggested that geographical isolation may have played a major role in the divergence of these Takydromus species. Nevertheless, this study reveals a more complex situation and demonstrates that gene flow during the speciation process cannot be overlooked and may have a great impact on divergence dating. By using multilocus data and incorporating Bayesian coalescence approaches, we provide a more biologically realistic framework for delineating the divergence history of Takydromus. PMID:25142551

  2. A solo luxI-type gene directs acylhomoserine lactone synthesis and contributes to motility control in the marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11.

    PubMed

    Zan, Jindong; Choi, Okhee; Meharena, Hiruy; Uhlson, Charis L; Churchill, Mair E A; Hill, Russell T; Fuqua, Clay

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges harbour abundant and diverse bacterial communities, providing an ideal environment for bacterial cell-density-dependent cell-cell signalling, termed quorum sensing. The marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11 produces mainly long chain acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) and has been developed as a quorum sensing model for roseobacterial sponge symbionts. Two pairs of luxR/I homologues were identified by genetic screening and were designated ssaRI and ssbRI (sponge-associated symbiont locus A or B, luxR/luxI homologue). In this study, we identified a third luxI-type gene, named sscI. The sscI gene does not have a cognate luxR homologue present at an adjacent locus and thus sscI is an AHL synthase solo. The sscI gene is required for production of long-chain hydroxylated AHLs, contributes to AHL pools and modestly influences flagellar motility in KLH11. A triple mutant for all luxI-type genes cannot produce AHLs, but still synthesizes para-coumaroyl-homoserine lactone.

  3. Ketide Synthase (KS) Domain Prediction and Analysis of Iterative Type II PKS Gene in Marine Sponge-Associated Actinobacteria Producing Biosurfactants and Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Selvin, Joseph; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Lipton, Anuj N.; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kiran, George S.

    2016-01-01

    The important biological macromolecules, such as lipopeptide and glycolipid biosurfactant producing marine actinobacteria were analyzed and their potential linkage between type II polyketide synthase (PKS) genes was explored. A unique feature of type II PKS genes is their high amino acid (AA) sequence homology and conserved gene organization. These enzymes mediate the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products with enormous structural complexity and chemical nature by combinatorial use of various domains. Therefore, deciphering the order of AA sequence encoded by PKS domains tailored the chemical structure of polyketide analogs still remains a great challenge. The present work deals with an in vitro and in silico analysis of PKS type II genes from five actinobacterial species to correlate KS domain architecture and structural features. Our present analysis reveals the unique protein domain organization of iterative type II PKS and KS domain of marine actinobacteria. The findings of this study would have implications in metabolic pathway reconstruction and design of semi-synthetic genomes to achieve rational design of novel natural products. PMID:26903957

  4. Polyketide genes in the marine sponge Plakortis simplex: a new group of mono-modular type I polyketide synthases from sponge symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Della Sala, Gerardo; Hochmuth, Thomas; Costantino, Valeria; Teta, Roberta; Gerwick, William; Gerwick, Lena; Piel, Jörn; Mangoni, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Summary Sponge symbionts are a largely unexplored source of new and unusual metabolic pathways. Insights into the distribution and function of metabolic genes of sponge symbionts are crucial to dissect and exploit their biotechnological potential. Screening of the metagenome of the marine sponge Plakortis simplex led to the discovery of the swf family, a new group of mono-modular type I polyketide synthase/fatty acid synthase (PKS/FAS) specifically associated with sponge symbionts. Two different examples of the swf cluster were present in the metagenome of P. simplex. A third example of the cluster is present in the previously sequenced genome of a poribacterium from the sponge Aplysina aerophoba but was formerly considered orthologous to the wcb/rkp cluster. The swf cluster was also found in six additional species of sponges. Therefore, the swf cluster represents the second group of mono-modular PKS, after the supA family, to be widespread in marine sponges. The putative swf operon consists of swfA (type I PKS/FAS), swfB (reductase and sulphotransferase domains) and swfC (radical S-adenosylmethionine, or radical SAM). Activation of the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain of the SwfA protein to its holo-form by co-expression with Svp is the first functional proof of swf type genes in marine sponges. However, the precise biosynthetic role of the swf clusters remains unknown. PMID:24249289

  5. The large-X effect in plants: increased species divergence and reduced gene flow on the Silene X-chromosome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-Sheng; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2016-06-01

    The disproportionately large involvement of the X-chromosome in the isolation of closely related species (the large-X effect) has been reported for many animals, where X-linked genes are mostly hemizygous in the heterogametic sex. The expression of deleterious recessive mutations is thought to drive the frequent involvement of the X-chromosome in hybrid sterility, as well as to reduce interspecific gene flow for X-linked genes. Here, we evaluate the role of the X-chromosome in the speciation of two closely related plant species - the white and red campions (Silene latifolia and S. dioica) - that hybridize widely across Europe. The two species evolved separate sexes and sex chromosomes relatively recently (~10(7)  years), and unlike most animal species, most X-linked genes have intact Y-linked homologs. We demonstrate that the X-linked genes show a very small and insignificant amount of interspecific gene flow, while gene flow involving autosomal loci is significant and sufficient to homogenize the gene pools of the two species. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the large-X effect in Silene and comprise the first report of this effect in plants. Nonhemizygosity of many X-linked genes in Silene males indicates that exposure of recessive mutations to selection may not be essential for the occurrence of the large-X effect. Several possible causes of the large-X effect in Silene are discussed.

  6. Transformation of dilative and contractive landslide debris into debris flows-An example from marin County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, R.W.; Ellen, S.D.; Algus, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The severe rainstorm of January 3, 4 and 5, 1982, in the San Francisco Bay area, California, produced numerous landslides, many of which transformed into damaging debris flows. The process of transformation was studied in detail at one site where only part of a landslide mobilized into several episodes of debris flow. The focus of our investigation was to learn whether the landslide debris dilated or contracted during the transformation from slide to flow. The landslide debris consisted of sandy colluvium that was separable into three soil horizons that occupied the axis of a small topographic swale. Failure involved the entire thickness of colluvium; however, over parts of the landslide, the soil A-horizon failed separately from the remainder of the colluvium. Undisturbed samples were taken for density measurements from outside the landslide, from the failure zone and overlying material from the part of the landslide that did not mobilize into debris flows, and from the debris-flow deposits. The soil A-horizon was contractive and mobilized to flows in a process analogous to liquefaction of loose, granular soils during earthquakes. The soil B- and C-horizons were dilative and underwent 2 to 5% volumetric expansion during landslide movement that permitted mobilization of debris-flow episodes. Several criteria can be used in the field to differentiate between contractive and dilative behavior including lag time between landsliding and mobilization of flow, episodic mobilization of flows, and partial or complete transformation of the landslide. ?? 1989.

  7. European Lampreys: New Insights on Postglacial Colonization, Gene Flow and Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Catarina Sofia; Almeida, Pedro Raposo; Mesquita, Natacha; Quintella, Bernardo Ruivo; Alves, Maria Judite

    2016-01-01

    Ice ages are known to be the most dominant palaeoclimatic feature occurring on Earth, producing severe climatic oscillations and consequently shaping the distribution and the population structure of several species. Lampreys constitute excellent models to study the colonization of freshwater systems, as they commonly appear in pairs of closely related species of anadromous versus freshwater resident adults, thus having the ability to colonize new habitats, through the anadromous species, and establish freshwater resident derivates. We used 10 microsatellite loci to investigate the spatial structure, patterns of gene flow and migration routes of Lampetra populations in Europe. We sampled 11 populations including the migratory L. fluviatilis and four resident species, L. planeri, L. alavariensis, L. auremensis and L. lusitanica, the last three endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. In this southern glacial refugium almost all sampled populations represent a distinct genetic cluster, showing high levels of allopatric differentiation, reflecting long periods of isolation. As result of their more recent common ancestor, populations from northern Europe are less divergent among them, they are represented by fewer genetic clusters, and there is evidence of strong recent gene flow among populations. These previously glaciated areas from northern Europe may have been colonized from lampreys expanding out of the Iberian refugia. The pair L. fluviatilis/L. planeri is apparently at different stages of speciation in different locations, showing evidences of high reproductive isolation in the southern refugium, and low differentiation in the north. PMID:26871930

  8. Pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic cotton under greenhouse conditions is dependent on different pollinators.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuo; Zhu, Jialin; Zhu, Weilong; Li, Zhen; Shelton, Anthony M; Luo, Junyu; Cui, Jinjie; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    With the large-scale release of genetically modified (GM) crops, there are ecological concerns on transgene movement from GM crops to non-GM counterparts and wild relatives. In this research, we conducted greenhouse experiments to measure pollen-mediated gene flow (PGF) in the absence and presence of pollinators (Bombus ignitus, Apis mellifera and Pieris rapae) in one GM cotton (resistant to the insect Helicoverpa armigera and the herbicide glyphosate) and two non-GM lines (Shiyuan321 and Hai7124) during 2012 and 2013. Our results revealed that: (1) PGF varied depending on the pollinator species, and was highest with B. ignitus (10.83%) and lowest with P. rapae (2.71%); (2) PGF with B. ignitus depended on the distance between GM and non-GM cottons; (3) total PGF to Shiyuan321 (8.61%) was higher than to Hai7124 (4.10%). To confirm gene flow, we tested hybrids carrying transgenes for their resistance to glyphosate and H. armigera, and most hybrids showed strong resistance to the herbicide and insect. Our research confirmed that PGF depended on pollinator species, distance between plants and the receptor plant. PMID:26525573

  9. Divergence maintained by climatic selection despite recurrent gene flow: a case study of Castanopsis carlesii (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Surget-Groba, Yann; Gao, Shaoxiong

    2016-09-01

    Local adaptation to different environments has the potential to maintain divergence between populations despite recurrent gene flow and is an important driver for generating biological diversity. In this study, we investigate the role of adaptation in the maintenance of two parapatric varieties of a forest tree. We used sequence variation of chloroplastic DNA and restriction site-associated DNA to investigate the genetic structure of two varieties of Castanopsis carlesii in subtropical China and relate it to climatic variation. We used niche reconstruction methods to investigate niche differentiation between the two varieties and to estimate the past distribution of this species. A deep divergence was observed between the two varieties, but evidence of introgression and genetic admixture was detected in two phenotypically and geographically intermediate populations. Niche reconstruction suggests that the distribution of the two varieties was disjunct during periods of global cooling and that the two varieties occupy significantly different niches. The genetic structure was mainly driven by environmental factors, and 13 outlier loci under divergent selection were correlated with climatic variation. These results suggest that the two varieties evolved in allopatry and came back into secondary contact after the last glacial maximum and that they are an evolutionary example of divergence maintained by climatic selection despite recurrent gene flow. PMID:27447352

  10. Genomewide introgressive hybridization patterns in wild Atlantic salmon influenced by inadvertent gene flow from hatchery releases.

    PubMed

    Ozerov, M Y; Gross, R; Bruneaux, M; Vähä, J-P; Burimski, O; Pukk, L; Vasemägi, A

    2016-03-01

    Many salmonid fish populations are threatened by genetic homogenization, primarily due to introgressive hybridization with hatchery-reared conspecifics. By applying genomewide analysis using two molecular marker types (1986 SNPs and 17 microsatellites), we assessed the genetic impacts of inadvertent gene flow via straying from hatchery releases on wild populations of Atlantic salmon in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, over 16 years (1996-2012). Both microsatellites and SNPs revealed congruent population genetic structuring, indicating that introgression changed the genetic make-up of wild populations by increasing genetic diversity and reducing genetic divergence. However, the degree of genetic introgression varied among studied populations, being higher in the eastern part and lower in the western part of Estonia, which most likely reflects the history of past stocking activities. Using kernel smoothing and permutation testing, we detected considerable heterogeneity in introgression patterns across the genome, with a large number of regions exhibiting nonrandom introgression widely dispersed across the genome. We also observed substantial variation in nonrandom introgression patterns within populations, as the majority of genomic regions showing elevated or reduced introgression were not consistently detected among temporal samples. This suggests that recombination, selection and stochastic processes may contribute to complex nonrandom introgression patterns. Our results suggest that (i) some genomic regions in Atlantic salmon are more vulnerable to introgressive hybridization, while others show greater resistance to unidirectional gene flow; and (ii) the hybridization of previously separated populations leads to complex and dynamic nonrandom introgression patterns that most likely have functional consequences for indigenous populations. PMID:26840557

  11. Effectiveness of managed gene flow in reducing genetic divergence associated with captive breeding.

    PubMed

    Waters, Charles D; Hard, Jeffrey J; Brieuc, Marine S O; Fast, David E; Warheit, Kenneth I; Waples, Robin S; Knudsen, Curtis M; Bosch, William J; Naish, Kerry A

    2015-12-01

    Captive breeding has the potential to rebuild depressed populations. However, associated genetic changes may decrease restoration success and negatively affect the adaptive potential of the entire population. Thus, approaches that minimize genetic risks should be tested in a comparative framework over multiple generations. Genetic diversity in two captive-reared lines of a species of conservation interest, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), was surveyed across three generations using genome-wide approaches. Genetic divergence from the source population was minimal in an integrated line, which implemented managed gene flow by using only naturally-born adults as captive broodstock, but significant in a segregated line, which bred only captive-origin individuals. Estimates of effective number of breeders revealed that the rapid divergence observed in the latter was largely attributable to genetic drift. Three independent tests for signatures of adaptive divergence also identified temporal change within the segregated line, possibly indicating domestication selection. The results empirically demonstrate that using managed gene flow for propagating a captive-reared population reduces genetic divergence over the short term compared to one that relies solely on captive-origin parents. These findings complement existing studies of captive breeding, which typically focus on a single management strategy and examine the fitness of one or two generations. PMID:26640521

  12. Diversification and gene flow in nascent lineages of island and mainland North American tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus).

    PubMed

    Chavez, Andreas S; Maher, Sean P; Arbogast, Brian S; Kenagy, G J

    2014-04-01

    Pleistocene climate cycles and glaciations had profound impacts on taxon diversification in the Boreal Forest Biome. Using population genetic analyses with multilocus data, we examined diversification, isolation, and hybridization in two sibling species of tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus douglasii and Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) with special attention to the geographically and genetically enigmatic population of T. hudsonicus on Vancouver Island, Canada. The two species differentiated only about 500,000 years ago, in the Late Pleistocene. The island population is phylogenetically nested within T. hudsonicus according to our nuclear analysis but within T. douglasii according to mitochondrial DNA. This conflict is more likely due to historical hybridization than to incomplete lineage sorting, and it appears that bidirectional gene flow occurred between the island population and both species on the mainland. This interpretation of our genetic analyses is consistent with our bioclimatic modeling, which demonstrates that both species were able to occupy this region throughout the Late Pleistocene. The divergence of the island population 40,000 years ago suggests that tree squirrels persisted in a refugium on Vancouver Island at the last glacial maximum, 20,000 years ago. Our observations demonstrate how Pleistocene climate change and habitat shifts have created incipient divergence in the presence of gene flow. Sequence data have been archived in GenBank—accession numbers: KF882736–KF885216.

  13. Long distance dispersal and vertical gene flow in the Caribbean brooding coral Porites astreoides.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Xaymara M; Baums, Iliana B; Smith, Tyler B; Jones, Ross J; Shearer, Tonya L; Baker, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    To date, most assessments of coral connectivity have emphasized long-distance horizontal dispersal of propagules from one shallow reef to another. The extent of vertical connectivity, however, remains largely understudied. Here, we used newly-developed and existing DNA microsatellite loci for the brooding coral Porites astreoides to assess patterns of horizontal and vertical connectivity in 590 colonies collected from three depth zones (≤10 m, 15-20 m and ≥25 m) at sites in Florida, Bermuda and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). We also tested whether maternal transmission of algal symbionts (Symbiodinium spp.) might limit effective vertical connectivity. Overall, shallow P. astreoides exhibited high gene flow between Florida and USVI, but limited gene flow between these locations and Bermuda. In contrast, there was significant genetic differentiation by depth in Florida (Upper Keys, Lower Keys and Dry Tortugas), but not in Bermuda or USVI, despite strong patterns of depth zonation in algal symbionts at two of these locations. Together, these findings suggest that P. astreoides is effective at dispersing both horizontally and vertically despite its brooding reproductive mode and maternal transmission of algal symbionts. In addition, these findings might help explain the ecological success reported for P. astreoides in the Caribbean in recent decades. PMID:26899614

  14. Expected genetic contributions and their impact on gene flow and genetic gain.

    PubMed Central

    Woolliams, J A; Bijma, P; Villanueva, B

    1999-01-01

    Long-term genetic contributions (r(i)) measure lasting gene flow from an individual i. By accounting for linkage disequilibrium generated by selection both within and between breeding groups (categories), assuming the infinitesimal model, a general formula was derived for the expected contribution of ancestor i in category q (mu(i)(q)), given its selective advantages (s(i)(q)). Results were applied to overlapping generations and to a variety of modes of inheritance and selection indices. Genetic gain was related to the covariance between r(i) and the Mendelian sampling deviation (a(i)), thereby linking gain to pedigree development. When s(i)(q) includes a(i), gain was related to E[mu(i)(q))a(i)], decomposing it into components attributable to within and between families, within each category, for each element of s(i)(q). The formula for mu(i)(q) was consistent with previous index theory for predicting gain in discrete generations. For overlapping generations, accurate predictions of gene flow were obtained among and within categories in contrast to previous theory that gave qualitative errors among categories and no predictions within. The generation interval was defined as the period for which mu(i)(q), summed over all ancestors born in that period, equaled 1. Predictive accuracy was supported by simulation results for gain and contributions with sib-indices, BLUP selection, and selection with imprinted variation. PMID:10511574

  15. Pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic cotton under greenhouse conditions is dependent on different pollinators.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuo; Zhu, Jialin; Zhu, Weilong; Li, Zhen; Shelton, Anthony M; Luo, Junyu; Cui, Jinjie; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    With the large-scale release of genetically modified (GM) crops, there are ecological concerns on transgene movement from GM crops to non-GM counterparts and wild relatives. In this research, we conducted greenhouse experiments to measure pollen-mediated gene flow (PGF) in the absence and presence of pollinators (Bombus ignitus, Apis mellifera and Pieris rapae) in one GM cotton (resistant to the insect Helicoverpa armigera and the herbicide glyphosate) and two non-GM lines (Shiyuan321 and Hai7124) during 2012 and 2013. Our results revealed that: (1) PGF varied depending on the pollinator species, and was highest with B. ignitus (10.83%) and lowest with P. rapae (2.71%); (2) PGF with B. ignitus depended on the distance between GM and non-GM cottons; (3) total PGF to Shiyuan321 (8.61%) was higher than to Hai7124 (4.10%). To confirm gene flow, we tested hybrids carrying transgenes for their resistance to glyphosate and H. armigera, and most hybrids showed strong resistance to the herbicide and insect. Our research confirmed that PGF depended on pollinator species, distance between plants and the receptor plant.

  16. Interactions between genetic drift, gene flow, and selection mosaics drive parasite local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Gandon, Sylvain; Nuismer, Scott L

    2009-02-01

    Interactions between gene flow, spatially variable selection, and genetic drift have long been a central focus of evolutionary research. In contrast, only recently has the potential importance of interactions between these factors for coevolutionary dynamics and the emergence of parasite local adaptation been realized. Here we study host-parasite coevolution in a metapopulation model when both the biotic and the abiotic components of the environment vary in space. We provide a general expression for parasite local adaptation that allows local adaptation to be partitioned into the contributions of spatial covariances between host and parasite genotype frequencies within and between habitats. This partitioning clarifies how relative rates of gene flow, spatially variable patterns of selection, and genetic drift interact to shape parasite local adaptation. Specifically, by using this expression in conjunction with coevolutionary models, we show that genetic drift can dramatically increase the level of parasite local adaptation under some models of specificity. We also show that the effect of migration on parasite local adaptation depends on the geographic mosaic of selection. We discuss how these predictions could be tested empirically or experimentally using microbial systems.

  17. How mechanisms of habitat preference evolve and promote divergence with gene flow.

    PubMed

    Berner, D; Thibert-Plante, X

    2015-09-01

    Habitat preference may promote adaptive divergence and speciation, yet the conditions under which this is likely are insufficiently explored. We use individual-based simulations to study the evolution and consequence of habitat preference during divergence with gene flow, considering four different underlying genetically based behavioural mechanisms: natal habitat imprinting, phenotype-dependent, competition-dependent and direct genetic habitat preference. We find that the evolution of habitat preference generally requires initially high dispersal, is facilitated by asymmetry in population sizes between habitats, and is hindered by an increasing number of underlying genetic loci. Moreover, the probability of habitat preference to emerge and promote divergence differs greatly among the underlying mechanisms. Natal habitat imprinting evolves most easily and can allow full divergence in parameter ranges where no divergence is possible in the absence of habitat preference. The reason is that imprinting represents a one-allele mechanism of assortative mating linking dispersal behaviour very effectively to local selection. At the other extreme, direct genetic habitat preference, a two-allele mechanism, evolves under restricted conditions only, and even then facilitates divergence weakly. Overall, our results indicate that habitat preference can be a strong reproductive barrier promoting divergence with gene flow, but that this is highly contingent on the underlying preference mechanism.

  18. The evolutionary history of Darwin's finches: speciation, gene flow, and introgression in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Farrington, Heather L; Lawson, Lucinda P; Clark, Courtney M; Petren, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Many classic examples of adaptive radiations take place within fragmented systems such as islands or mountains, but the roles of mosaic landscapes and variable gene flow in facilitating species diversification is poorly understood. Here we combine phylogenetic and landscape genetic approaches to understand diversification in Darwin's finches, a model adaptive radiation. We combined sequence data from 14 nuclear introns, mitochondrial markers, and microsatellite variation from 51 populations of all 15 recognized species. Phylogenetic species-trees recovered seven major finch clades: ground, tree, vegetarian, Cocos Island, grey and green warbler finches, and a distinct clade of sharp-beaked ground finches (Geospiza cf. difficilis) basal to all ground and tree finches. The ground and tree finch clades lack species-level phylogenetic structure. Interisland gene flow and interspecies introgression vary geographically in predictable ways. First, several species exhibit concordant patterns of population divergence across the channel separating the Galápagos platform islands from the separate volcanic province of northern islands. Second, peripheral islands have more admixed populations while central islands maintain more distinct species boundaries. This landscape perspective highlights a likely role for isolation of peripheral populations in initial divergence, and demonstrates that peripheral populations may maintain genetic diversity through outbreeding during the initial stages of speciation.

  19. Pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic cotton under greenhouse conditions is dependent on different pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shuo; Zhu, Jialin; Zhu, Weilong; Li, Zhen; Shelton, Anthony M.; Luo, Junyu; Cui, Jinjie; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    With the large-scale release of genetically modified (GM) crops, there are ecological concerns on transgene movement from GM crops to non-GM counterparts and wild relatives. In this research, we conducted greenhouse experiments to measure pollen-mediated gene flow (PGF) in the absence and presence of pollinators (Bombus ignitus, Apis mellifera and Pieris rapae) in one GM cotton (resistant to the insect Helicoverpa armigera and the herbicide glyphosate) and two non-GM lines (Shiyuan321 and Hai7124) during 2012 and 2013. Our results revealed that: (1) PGF varied depending on the pollinator species, and was highest with B. ignitus (10.83%) and lowest with P. rapae (2.71%); (2) PGF with B. ignitus depended on the distance between GM and non-GM cottons; (3) total PGF to Shiyuan321 (8.61%) was higher than to Hai7124 (4.10%). To confirm gene flow, we tested hybrids carrying transgenes for their resistance to glyphosate and H. armigera, and most hybrids showed strong resistance to the herbicide and insect. Our research confirmed that PGF depended on pollinator species, distance between plants and the receptor plant. PMID:26525573

  20. Genome-wide data substantiate Holocene gene flow from India to Australia.

    PubMed

    Pugach, Irina; Delfin, Frederick; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2013-01-29

    The Australian continent holds some of the earliest archaeological evidence for the expansion of modern humans out of Africa, with initial occupation at least 40,000 y ago. It is commonly assumed that Australia remained largely isolated following initial colonization, but the genetic history of Australians has not been explored in detail to address this issue. Here, we analyze large-scale genotyping data from aboriginal Australians, New Guineans, island Southeast Asians and Indians. We find an ancient association between Australia, New Guinea, and the Mamanwa (a Negrito group from the Philippines), with divergence times for these groups estimated at 36,000 y ago, and supporting the view that these populations represent the descendants of an early "southern route" migration out of Africa, whereas other populations in the region arrived later by a separate dispersal. We also detect a signal indicative of substantial gene flow between the Indian populations and Australia well before European contact, contrary to the prevailing view that there was no contact between Australia and the rest of the world. We estimate this gene flow to have occurred during the Holocene, 4,230 y ago. This is also approximately when changes in tool technology, food processing, and the dingo appear in the Australian archaeological record, suggesting that these may be related to the migration from India. PMID:23319617

  1. Patterns of population subdivision, gene flow and genetic variability in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Girman, D J; Vilà, C; Geffen, E; Creel, S; Mills, M G; McNutt, J W; Ginsberg, J; Kat, P W; Mamiya, K H; Wayne, R K

    2001-07-01

    African wild dogs are large, highly mobile carnivores that are known to disperse over considerable distances and are rare throughout much of their geographical range. Consequently, genetic variation within and differentiation between geographically separated populations is predicted to be minimal. We determined the genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences and microsatellite loci in seven populations of African wild dogs. Analysis of mtDNA nucleotide diversity suggests that, historically, wild dog populations have been small relative to other large carnivores. However, population declines due to recent habitat loss have not caused a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity. We found one historical and eight recent mtDNA genotypes in 280 individuals that defined two highly divergent clades. In contrast to a previous, more limited, mtDNA analysis, sequences from these clades are not geographically restricted to eastern or southern African populations. Rather, we found a large admixture zone spanning populations from Botswana, Zimbabwe and south-eastern Tanzania. Mitochondrial and microsatellite differentiation between populations was significant and unique mtDNA genotypes and alleles characterized the populations. However, gene flow estimates (Nm) based on microsatellite data were generally greater than one migrant per generation. In contrast, gene flow estimates based on the mtDNA control region were lower than expected given differences in the mode of inheritance of mitochondrial and nuclear markers which suggests a male bias in long-distance dispersal.

  2. Divergence maintained by climatic selection despite recurrent gene flow: a case study of Castanopsis carlesii (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Surget-Groba, Yann; Gao, Shaoxiong

    2016-09-01

    Local adaptation to different environments has the potential to maintain divergence between populations despite recurrent gene flow and is an important driver for generating biological diversity. In this study, we investigate the role of adaptation in the maintenance of two parapatric varieties of a forest tree. We used sequence variation of chloroplastic DNA and restriction site-associated DNA to investigate the genetic structure of two varieties of Castanopsis carlesii in subtropical China and relate it to climatic variation. We used niche reconstruction methods to investigate niche differentiation between the two varieties and to estimate the past distribution of this species. A deep divergence was observed between the two varieties, but evidence of introgression and genetic admixture was detected in two phenotypically and geographically intermediate populations. Niche reconstruction suggests that the distribution of the two varieties was disjunct during periods of global cooling and that the two varieties occupy significantly different niches. The genetic structure was mainly driven by environmental factors, and 13 outlier loci under divergent selection were correlated with climatic variation. These results suggest that the two varieties evolved in allopatry and came back into secondary contact after the last glacial maximum and that they are an evolutionary example of divergence maintained by climatic selection despite recurrent gene flow.

  3. Genomewide introgressive hybridization patterns in wild Atlantic salmon influenced by inadvertent gene flow from hatchery releases.

    PubMed

    Ozerov, M Y; Gross, R; Bruneaux, M; Vähä, J-P; Burimski, O; Pukk, L; Vasemägi, A

    2016-03-01

    Many salmonid fish populations are threatened by genetic homogenization, primarily due to introgressive hybridization with hatchery-reared conspecifics. By applying genomewide analysis using two molecular marker types (1986 SNPs and 17 microsatellites), we assessed the genetic impacts of inadvertent gene flow via straying from hatchery releases on wild populations of Atlantic salmon in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, over 16 years (1996-2012). Both microsatellites and SNPs revealed congruent population genetic structuring, indicating that introgression changed the genetic make-up of wild populations by increasing genetic diversity and reducing genetic divergence. However, the degree of genetic introgression varied among studied populations, being higher in the eastern part and lower in the western part of Estonia, which most likely reflects the history of past stocking activities. Using kernel smoothing and permutation testing, we detected considerable heterogeneity in introgression patterns across the genome, with a large number of regions exhibiting nonrandom introgression widely dispersed across the genome. We also observed substantial variation in nonrandom introgression patterns within populations, as the majority of genomic regions showing elevated or reduced introgression were not consistently detected among temporal samples. This suggests that recombination, selection and stochastic processes may contribute to complex nonrandom introgression patterns. Our results suggest that (i) some genomic regions in Atlantic salmon are more vulnerable to introgressive hybridization, while others show greater resistance to unidirectional gene flow; and (ii) the hybridization of previously separated populations leads to complex and dynamic nonrandom introgression patterns that most likely have functional consequences for indigenous populations.

  4. How mechanisms of habitat preference evolve and promote divergence with gene flow

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Habitat preference may promote adaptive divergence and speciation, yet the conditions under which this is likely are insufficiently explored. We use individual-based simulations to study the evolution and consequence of habitat preference during divergence with gene flow, considering four different underlying genetically-based behavioral mechanisms: natal habitat imprinting, phenotype-dependent, competition-dependent, and direct genetic habitat preference. We find that the evolution of habitat preference generally requires initially high dispersal, is facilitated by asymmetry in population sizes between habitats, and is hindered by an increasing number of underlying genetic loci. Moreover, the probability of habitat preference to emerge and promote divergence differs greatly among the underlying mechanisms. Natal habitat imprinting evolves most easily and can allow full divergence in parameter ranges where no divergence is possible in the absence of habitat preference. The reason is that imprinting represents a one-allele mechanism of assortative mating linking dispersal behavior very effectively to local selection. At the other extreme, direct genetic habitat preference, a two-allele mechanism, evolves under restricted conditions only, and even then facilitates divergence weakly. Overall, our results indicate that habitat preference can be a strong reproductive barrier promoting divergence with gene flow, but that this is highly contingent on the underlying preference mechanism. PMID:26119841

  5. Acoustic divergence with gene flow in a lekking hummingbird with complex songs.

    PubMed

    González, Clementina; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Hummingbirds have developed a remarkable diversity of learned vocalizations, from single-note songs to phonologically and syntactically complex songs. In this study we evaluated if geographic song variation of wedge-tailed sabrewings (Campylopterus curvipennis) is correlated with genetic divergence, and examined processes that explain best the origin of intraspecific song variation. We contrasted estimates of genetic differentiation, genetic structure, and gene flow across leks from microsatellite loci of wedge-tailed sabrewings with measures for acoustic signals involved in mating derived from recordings of males singing at leks throughout eastern Mexico. We found a strong acoustic structure across leks and geography, where lek members had an exclusive assemblage of syllable types, differed in spectral and temporal measurements of song, and song sharing decreased with geographic distance. However, neutral genetic and song divergence were not correlated, and measures of genetic differentiation and migration estimates indicated gene flow across leks. The persistence of acoustic structuring in wedge-tailed sabrewings may thus best be explained by stochastic processes across leks, in which intraspecific vocal variation is maintained in the absence of genetic differentiation by postdispersal learning and social conditions, and by geographical isolation due to the accumulation of small differences, producing most dramatic changes between populations further apart. PMID:25271429

  6. Effectiveness of managed gene flow in reducing genetic divergence associated with captive breeding

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Charles D; Hard, Jeffrey J; Brieuc, Marine S O; Fast, David E; Warheit, Kenneth I; Waples, Robin S; Knudsen, Curtis M; Bosch, William J; Naish, Kerry A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding has the potential to rebuild depressed populations. However, associated genetic changes may decrease restoration success and negatively affect the adaptive potential of the entire population. Thus, approaches that minimize genetic risks should be tested in a comparative framework over multiple generations. Genetic diversity in two captive-reared lines of a species of conservation interest, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), was surveyed across three generations using genome-wide approaches. Genetic divergence from the source population was minimal in an integrated line, which implemented managed gene flow by using only naturally-born adults as captive broodstock, but significant in a segregated line, which bred only captive-origin individuals. Estimates of effective number of breeders revealed that the rapid divergence observed in the latter was largely attributable to genetic drift. Three independent tests for signatures of adaptive divergence also identified temporal change within the segregated line, possibly indicating domestication selection. The results empirically demonstrate that using managed gene flow for propagating a captive-reared population reduces genetic divergence over the short term compared to one that relies solely on captive-origin parents. These findings complement existing studies of captive breeding, which typically focus on a single management strategy and examine the fitness of one or two generations. PMID:26640521

  7. What, if anything, are hybrids: enduring truths and challenges associated with population structure and gene flow.

    PubMed

    Gompert, Zachariah; Buerkle, C Alex

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization is a potent evolutionary process that can affect the origin, maintenance, and loss of biodiversity. Because of its ecological and evolutionary consequences, an understanding of hybridization is important for basic and applied sciences, including conservation biology and agriculture. Herein, we review and discuss ideas that are relevant to the recognition of hybrids and hybridization. We supplement this discussion with simulations. The ideas we present have a long history, particularly in botany, and clarifying them should have practical consequences for managing hybridization and gene flow in plants. One of our primary goals is to illustrate what we can and cannot infer about hybrids and hybridization from molecular data; in other words, we ask when genetic analyses commonly used to study hybridization might mislead us about the history or nature of gene flow and selection. We focus on patterns of variation when hybridization is recent and populations are polymorphic, which are particularly informative for applied issues, such as contemporary hybridization following recent ecological change. We show that hybridization is not a singular process, but instead a collection of related processes with variable outcomes and consequences. Thus, it will often be inappropriate to generalize about the threats or benefits of hybridization from individual studies, and at minimum, it will be important to avoid categorical thinking about what hybridization and hybrids are. We recommend potential sampling and analytical approaches that should help us confront these complexities of hybridization. PMID:27468308

  8. Long distance dispersal and vertical gene flow in the Caribbean brooding coral Porites astreoides

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Xaymara M.; Baums, Iliana B.; Smith, Tyler B.; Jones, Ross J.; Shearer, Tonya L.; Baker, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    To date, most assessments of coral connectivity have emphasized long-distance horizontal dispersal of propagules from one shallow reef to another. The extent of vertical connectivity, however, remains largely understudied. Here, we used newly-developed and existing DNA microsatellite loci for the brooding coral Porites astreoides to assess patterns of horizontal and vertical connectivity in 590 colonies collected from three depth zones (≤10 m, 15–20 m and ≥25 m) at sites in Florida, Bermuda and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). We also tested whether maternal transmission of algal symbionts (Symbiodinium spp.) might limit effective vertical connectivity. Overall, shallow P. astreoides exhibited high gene flow between Florida and USVI, but limited gene flow between these locations and Bermuda. In contrast, there was significant genetic differentiation by depth in Florida (Upper Keys, Lower Keys and Dry Tortugas), but not in Bermuda or USVI, despite strong patterns of depth zonation in algal symbionts at two of these locations. Together, these findings suggest that P. astreoides is effective at dispersing both horizontally and vertically despite its brooding reproductive mode and maternal transmission of algal symbionts. In addition, these findings might help explain the ecological success reported for P. astreoides in the Caribbean in recent decades. PMID:26899614

  9. Short-term variations in gene flow related to cyclic density fluctuations in the common vole.

    PubMed

    Gauffre, Bertrand; Berthier, Karine; Inchausti, Pablo; Chaval, Yannick; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Cosson, Jean-François

    2014-07-01

    In highly fluctuating populations with complex social systems, genetic patterns are likely to vary in space and time due to demographic and behavioural processes. Cyclic rodents are extreme examples of demographically instable populations that often exhibit strong social organization. In such populations, kin structure and spacing behaviour may vary with density fluctuations and impact both the composition and spatial structure of genetic diversity. In this study, we analysed the multiannual genetic structure of a cyclic rodent, Microtus arvalis, using a sample of 875 individuals trapped over three complete cycles (from 1999 to 2007) and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. We tested the predictions that genetic diversity and gene flow intensity vary with density fluctuations. We found evidences for both spatial scale-dependant variations in genetic diversity and higher gene flow during high density. Moreover, investigation of sex-specific relatedness patterns revealed that, although dispersal is biased toward males in this species, distances moved by both sexes were lengthened during high density. Altogether, these results suggest that an increase in migration with density allows to restore the local loss of genetic diversity occurring during low density. We then postulate that this change in migration results from local competition, which enhances female colonization of empty spaces and male dispersal among colonies.

  10. European Lampreys: New Insights on Postglacial Colonization, Gene Flow and Speciation.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Catarina Sofia; Almeida, Pedro Raposo; Mesquita, Natacha; Quintella, Bernardo Ruivo; Alves, Maria Judite

    2016-01-01

    Ice ages are known to be the most dominant palaeoclimatic feature occurring on Earth, producing severe climatic oscillations and consequently shaping the distribution and the population structure of several species. Lampreys constitute excellent models to study the colonization of freshwater systems, as they commonly appear in pairs of closely related species of anadromous versus freshwater resident adults, thus having the ability to colonize new habitats, through the anadromous species, and establish freshwater resident derivates. We used 10 microsatellite loci to investigate the spatial structure, patterns of gene flow and migration routes of Lampetra populations in Europe. We sampled 11 populations including the migratory L. fluviatilis and four resident species, L. planeri, L. alavariensis, L. auremensis and L. lusitanica, the last three endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. In this southern glacial refugium almost all sampled populations represent a distinct genetic cluster, showing high levels of allopatric differentiation, reflecting long periods of isolation. As result of their more recent common ancestor, populations from northern Europe are less divergent among them, they are represented by fewer genetic clusters, and there is evidence of strong recent gene flow among populations. These previously glaciated areas from northern Europe may have been colonized from lampreys expanding out of the Iberian refugia. The pair L. fluviatilis/L. planeri is apparently at different stages of speciation in different locations, showing evidences of high reproductive isolation in the southern refugium, and low differentiation in the north.

  11. What, if anything, are hybrids: enduring truths and challenges associated with population structure and gene flow.

    PubMed

    Gompert, Zachariah; Buerkle, C Alex

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization is a potent evolutionary process that can affect the origin, maintenance, and loss of biodiversity. Because of its ecological and evolutionary consequences, an understanding of hybridization is important for basic and applied sciences, including conservation biology and agriculture. Herein, we review and discuss ideas that are relevant to the recognition of hybrids and hybridization. We supplement this discussion with simulations. The ideas we present have a long history, particularly in botany, and clarifying them should have practical consequences for managing hybridization and gene flow in plants. One of our primary goals is to illustrate what we can and cannot infer about hybrids and hybridization from molecular data; in other words, we ask when genetic analyses commonly used to study hybridization might mislead us about the history or nature of gene flow and selection. We focus on patterns of variation when hybridization is recent and populations are polymorphic, which are particularly informative for applied issues, such as contemporary hybridization following recent ecological change. We show that hybridization is not a singular process, but instead a collection of related processes with variable outcomes and consequences. Thus, it will often be inappropriate to generalize about the threats or benefits of hybridization from individual studies, and at minimum, it will be important to avoid categorical thinking about what hybridization and hybrids are. We recommend potential sampling and analytical approaches that should help us confront these complexities of hybridization.

  12. Acoustic Divergence with Gene Flow in a Lekking Hummingbird with Complex Songs

    PubMed Central

    González, Clementina; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Hummingbirds have developed a remarkable diversity of learned vocalizations, from single-note songs to phonologically and syntactically complex songs. In this study we evaluated if geographic song variation of wedge-tailed sabrewings (Campylopterus curvipennis) is correlated with genetic divergence, and examined processes that explain best the origin of intraspecific song variation. We contrasted estimates of genetic differentiation, genetic structure, and gene flow across leks from microsatellite loci of wedge-tailed sabrewings with measures for acoustic signals involved in mating derived from recordings of males singing at leks throughout eastern Mexico. We found a strong acoustic structure across leks and geography, where lek members had an exclusive assemblage of syllable types, differed in spectral and temporal measurements of song, and song sharing decreased with geographic distance. However, neutral genetic and song divergence were not correlated, and measures of genetic differentiation and migration estimates indicated gene flow across leks. The persistence of acoustic structuring in wedge-tailed sabrewings may thus best be explained by stochastic processes across leks, in which intraspecific vocal variation is maintained in the absence of genetic differentiation by postdispersal learning and social conditions, and by geographical isolation due to the accumulation of small differences, producing most dramatic changes between populations further apart. PMID:25271429

  13. Genome-wide evidence for speciation with gene flow in Heliconius butterflies.

    PubMed

    Martin, Simon H; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Nadeau, Nicola J; Salazar, Camilo; Walters, James R; Simpson, Fraser; Blaxter, Mark; Manica, Andrea; Mallet, James; Jiggins, Chris D

    2013-11-01

    Most speciation events probably occur gradually, without complete and immediate reproductive iso